Newby, Rachel E; Thorpe, Deborah E; Kempster, Peter A; Alty, Jane E
Before 1911, when Hermann Oppenheim introduced the term dystonia, this movement disorder lacked a unifying descriptor. While words like epilepsy, apoplexy, and palsy have had their meanings since antiquity, references to dystonia are much harder to identify in historical documents. Torticollis is an exception, although there is difficulty distinguishing dystonic torticollis from congenital muscular torticollis. There are, nevertheless, possible representations of dystonia in literature and visual art from the pre-modern world. Eighteenth century systematic nosologists such as Linnaeus, de Sauvages, and Cullen had attempted to classify some spasmodic conditions, including torticollis. But only after Charcot's contributions to clinical neuroscience were the various forms of generalized and focal dystonia clearly delineated. They were categorized as névroses : Charcot's term for conditions without an identifiable neuroanatomical cause. For a time thereafter, psychoanalytic models of dystonia based on Freud's ideas about unconscious conflicts transduced into physical symptoms were ascendant, although there was always a dissenting "organic" school. With the rise of subspecialization in movement disorders during the 1970s, the pendulum swung strongly back toward organic causation. David Marsden's clinical and electrophysiological research on the adult-onset focal dystonias was particularly important in establishing a physical basis for these disorders. We are still in a period of "living history" of dystonia, with much yet to be understood about pathophysiology. Rigidly dualistic models have crumbled in the face of evidence of electrophysiological and psychopathological overlap between organic and functional dystonia. More flexible biopsychosocial frameworks may address the demand for new diagnostic and therapeutic rationales.
Alexandra X Crawford
Full Text Available This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD. Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by the 17 th and 18 th centuries, true scientific and surgical experimentation in this field did not begin until the 19 th century. Indeed, the success of contemporary corneal transplantation is largely the result of a culmination of pivotal ideas, experimentation, and perseverance by inspired individuals over the last 200 years. Franz Reisinger initiated experimental animal corneal transplantation in 1818, coining the term "keratoplasty". Subsequently, Wilhelmus Thorne created the term corneal transplant and 3 years later Samuel Bigger, 1837, reported successful corneal transplantation in a gazelle. The first recorded therapeutic corneal xenograft on a human was reported shortly thereafter in 1838-unsurprisingly this was unsuccessful. Further progress in corneal transplantation was significantly hindered by limited understanding of antiseptic principles, anesthesiology, surgical technique, and immunology. There ensued an extremely prolonged period of debate and experimentation upon the utility of animal compared to human tissue, and lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Indeed, the first successful human corneal transplant was not performed by Eduard Zirm until 1905. Since that first successful corneal transplant, innumerable ophthalmologists have contributed to the development and refinement of corneal transplantation aided by the development of surgical microscopes, refined suture materials, the development of eye banks, and the introduction of
Atherton, John C; Blaser, Martin J
Humans have been colonized by Helicobacter pylori for at least 50,000 years and probably throughout their evolution. H. pylori has adapted to humans, colonizing children and persisting throughout life. Most strains possess factors that subtly modulate the host environment, increasing the risk of peptic ulceration, gastric adenocarcinoma, and possibly other diseases. H. pylori genes encoding these and other factors rapidly evolve through mutation and recombination, changing the bacteria-host interaction. Although immune and physiologic responses to H. pylori also contribute to pathogenesis, humans have evolved in concert with the bacterium, and its recent absence throughout the life of many individuals has led to new human physiological changes. These may have contributed to recent increases in esophageal adenocarcinoma and, more speculatively, other modern diseases.
This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.
Power, Edward J.
This book traces the development of educational philosophy from ideas of the ancient Greeks to modern America. The volume notes the early collaboration efforts with other traditional disciplines in higher learning and the emergence of pedagogical knowledge at such institutions as Teachers College at Columbia University, the University of Chicago,…
Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)
Caesarean section has been recorded in history since ancient times in both Western and non-Western literature. Although the first use of the term in obstetrics was from the seventeenth century, its early history is obscured by mythology. The origin of the term caesarean is believed to be from the birth of Julius Caesar; however, this is unlikely considering his mother Aurelia Cotta lived for many years afterwards. In ancient times, it was performed only when the woman was dead or dying as an attempt to rescue the fetus. With few exceptions, this was the pattern until the era of anaesthesia in the nineteenth century. Developments in surgical technique from the later nineteenth century and through the twentieth century have refined the procedure, with resulting low morbidity and mortality. As a consequence, the objectives of caesarean section have evolved from rescuing the fetus or for cultural or religious reasons towards concerns for the safety of mother and child as well as considering the mother's preferences.
Jacob, Tony George
Safe clinical practice is based on a sound knowledge of the structure and function of the human body. Thus, knowledge of anatomy has been an essential tool in the practice of healthcare throughout the ages. The history of anatomy in India traces from the Paleolithic Age to the Indus Valley Civilization, the Vedic Times, the Islamic Dynasties, the modern Colonial Period, and finally to Independent India. The course of the study of anatomy, despite accompanying controversies and periods of latencies, has been fascinating. This review takes the reader through various periods of Indian medicine and the role of anatomy in the field of medical practice. It also provides a peek into the modern system of pedagogy in anatomical sciences in India. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.
Historians of thrombosis usually cover a period from mid-19th to late 20th century, thus highlighting the era of scientific progress. The present study, however, follows history farther back to its earlier stages which harbour crucial elements for understanding later epochs and the present-day state of the art. Relevant primary sources and secondary material as well as selected illustrations were identified and interpreted in their historical context. Early concepts drew upon the doctrine passed on by the Greeks that thrombosis originated form "metastases" formed by phlegm and black bile. Whereas scholars of the Middle Ages concerned themselves with haematoscopy as a "prototype" of diagnostic investigation, those of early modern times focused on mechanistic and morphological factors when formulating aetiological concepts of thrombosis and embolism. With Rudolf Virchow and his consolidated findings the modern age of positivist research began. During the following era of technological progress, new and scientifically tested treatments as well as prophylactic interventions replaced empirically based cures. The history of thrombosis is characterized by a multitude of different paradigms. Time will tell if innovative therapeutic strategies developed during the last two decades will lead to the next important paradigm change. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Borisov, A. V.; Korobov, D. S.; Simakova, A. N.; Zanina, O. G.; Bukhonov, A. V.; Demidov, V. V.
The results of the investigation into the history of soilscapes in the Kislovodsk Depression are discussed. It is shown that up to 60-70% of the area of slopes and interfluvial plateaus at the heights of 900-1500 m a.s.l. was terraced in the Late Bronze-Early Iron ages, during the Kobansk cultural stage (1200-600 BC). Under these conditions, a sharp change in the climate with a considerable increase in the annual precipitation in the middle of the first millennium BC resulted in the activation of erosion and the formation of a layer of colluvial sediments overlying the buried soil on the terraces. Thus, the middle of the first millennium BC can be considered the zero moment for the modern stage of soil formation in the region. Problems of the current state of the terrace complexes and the development of erosion on them are also discussed.
Turk, Laraine D.
"Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…
Tallarita, Tiziano; Gerbino, Maurizio; Gurrieri, Carmelina; Lanzino, Giuseppe
A relationship between decreased carotid arterial flow and apoplectic manifestations was already suspected by the ancient Greeks. Early attempts at carotid surgery, however, were limited to emergency arterial ligation in patients with neck trauma. Attempts to suture arterial stumps together to restore blood flow paved the way for Carrel's revolutionary idea of reconstructing the resected or injured arterial segment with an interposition vein graft. DeBakey and Eastcott were the first to perform carotid endarterectomy in North America and the United Kingdom, respectively. In 1959, DeBakey proposed a cooperative study to assess the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in the treatment and prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The study was officially designated the Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion and represented the first trial in the United States in which large numbers of patients were randomly allocated to surgical or nonsurgical therapy.
... including: * * * * * * * pestilence, public order and morality in pre-modern times the Enlightenment and its effects public health and centralization in Victorian Britain localization of health care in the United States population issues and family welfare the rise of the classic welfare state and its health care policies attitudes towards public health in...
Trimble, M; Reynolds, E H
In this paper we discuss the history of hysteria from the Babylonian and Assyrian texts through to the situation as it appears to us at the end of the 19th century. We note the shifting emphasis on causation, earlier ideas being linked to uterine theories, later speculations moving to the brain, and then the mind. We note the persistence of the condition referred to as hysteria over the millennia and the fascination that the condition has held for physicians, neurologists, and psychiatrists since the origins of known medical texts. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Demirci, Sevgin; Koban Baştanlar, Evren; Dağtaş, Nihan Dilşad; Pişkin, Evangelia; Engin, Atilla; Ozer, Füsun; Yüncü, Eren; Doğan, Sükrü Anıl; Togan, Inci
In the present study, to contribute to the understanding of the evolutionary history of sheep, the mitochondrial (mt) DNA polymorphisms occurring in modern Turkish native domestic (n = 628), modern wild (Ovis gmelinii anatolica) (n = 30) and ancient domestic sheep from Oylum Höyük in Kilis (n = 33) were examined comparatively with the accumulated data in the literature. The lengths (75 bp/76 bp) of the second and subsequent repeat units of the mtDNA control region (CR) sequences differentiated the five haplogroups (HPGs) observed in the domestic sheep into two genetic clusters as was already implied by other mtDNA markers: the first cluster being composed of HPGs A, B, D and the second cluster harboring HPGs C, E. To manifest genetic relatedness between wild Ovis gmelinii and domestic sheep haplogroups, their partial cytochrome B sequences were examined together on a median-joining network. The two parallel but wider aforementioned clusters were observed also on the network of Ovis gmelenii individuals, within which domestic haplogroups were embedded. The Ovis gmelinii wilds of the present day appeared to be distributed on two partially overlapping geographic areas parallel to the genetic clusters that they belong to (the first cluster being in the western part of the overall distribution). Thus, the analyses suggested that the domestic sheep may be the products of two maternally distinct ancestral Ovis gmelinii populations. Furthermore, Ovis gmelinii anatolica individuals exhibited a haplotype of HPG A (n = 22) and another haplotype (n = 8) from the second cluster which was not observed among the modern domestic sheep. HPG E, with the newly observed members (n = 11), showed signs of expansion. Studies of ancient and modern mtDNA suggest that HPG C frequency increased in the Southeast Anatolia from 6% to 22% some time after the beginning of the Hellenistic period, 500 years Before Common Era (BCE).
Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A.; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F.; Schmidt, Astrid M. Z.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske
DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334
Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter
Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.
Full Text Available The subject of the article are the accen tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.
The subject of the article are the accen tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.
For the first time, the achievements and hopes of the broad European accelerator community were brought together in a European Particle Accelerator Conference, held in Rome in June. Ranging from the vast machines at CERN to the small medical accelerators operating in thousands of hospitals, the programme underlined how modern civilization has benefited from the ability to handle charged particle beams
Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca
woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene...
Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...
Auseinandersetzungen mit Kommensalität im Rahmen archäologischer Untersuchungen scheinen sich im Wesentlichen um Fragen zu Festen und alltäglichen Essgewohnheiten zu drehen. Die Art der ihnen zur Verfügung stehenden Befunde lässt Archäologen/Archäologinnen und Althistoriker/Althistorikerinnen auf innovative und umsichtige Weise über diese Themen nachdenken. Wie kann sich nun die Historie mit dem Thema Nahrung und Essen in der Neuzeit in diese Diskussion einbringen? Die Geschichte des Res...
Wiley, Wayne Hamilton
This curriculum supplement on India consists of three modules that have been used with undergraduates in introductory world civilization courses. Module 1, "Ancient Period: Hinduism and the Caste System in India: Origin, Development, and Social Functions" discusses the religious doctrines of Hinduism, the caste system, and its structure.…
Kelso, Janet; Prüfer, Kay
Recent advances in sequencing technologies and molecular methods have facilitated the sequencing of DNA from ancient human remains which has, in turn, provided unprecedented insight into human history. Within the past 4 years the genomes of Neandertals and Denisovans, as well as the genomes of at least two early modern humans, have been sequenced. These sequences showed that there have been several episodes of admixture between modern and archaic groups; including admixture from Neandertals into modern human populations outside of Africa, and admixture from Denisovans into modern human populations in Oceania. Recent results indicate that some of these introgressed regions may have been advantageous for modern humans as they expanded into new regions outside of Africa. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
While drawing on a limited field of articles and chapters on courage, the editors of The Psychology of Courage: modern research on an ancient virtue have postulated a viable history of the evolution of courage in psychology and chosen a select set of articles which advocate the influence of some of the more modern approaches to psychological thought, while relying only slightly on the historical and alternative views of courage. An alternative view and application of courage presented here examines the impact of courage as a component of a dynamic system. This dynamic systems approach allows for courage to have an interactional impact on the individual regardless of cultural identity or label.
The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade
Christopher B Buck
Full Text Available Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae.
Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic
The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya).
Julia T Vilstrup
Full Text Available The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga. Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya.
Gribov, V. S.
Reviews two textbooks for seventh-grade students on modern history discussing the strengths and deficiencies of each: (1) "Modern History. Part I: A Textbook for the Seventh Grade of the Basic School" and (2) "Modern History, 1500-1800: A Textbook for the Seventh Grade of General Education Institutions." (CMK)
Full Text Available The intuitive sensing of a mental bond between ourselves and animals, especially those that live very close to us, our companion animals, has been there since early history. Some ancient Israelite views testify to an irresistible anthropomorphising of their domestic animals (Jn 3:5–9 as well as an acknowledgement of the socio-psychological support provided by them (2 Sm 12:1c–4d. Is there indeed a mental overlap between humans and animals to explain this intuitive experiencing of a bond between ourselves and them since ancient times? Modern neuroscience, through neuro-imaging, has shown that dogs (at least are able to reciprocate our thoughts and feelings, be it in a limited way. They seem to have some limited form of a ‘theory of mind’ previously ascribed to humans only. This explains why they have been humans’ ‘best friend’ for the past 12 000 years since they were domesticated from wolves. The intuitions of the ancients and the findings of modern science confirm that we and non-human animals all form intrinsically part of the fascinating web of life. This fact should sensitise us as moral agents to preserve this life.
Full Text Available The intuitive sensing of a mental bond between ourselves and animals, especially those that live very close to us, our companion animals, has been there since early history. Some ancient Israelite views testify to an irresistible anthropomorphising of their domestic animals (Jn 3:5–9 as well as an acknowledgement of the socio-psychological support provided by them (2 Sm 12:1c–4d. Is there indeed a mental overlap between humans and animals to explain this intuitive experiencing of a bond between ourselves and them since ancient times? Modern neuroscience, through neuro-imaging, has shown that dogs (at least are able to reciprocate our thoughts and feelings, be it in a limited way. They seem to have some limited form of a ‘theory of mind’ previously ascribed to humans only. This explains why they have been humans’ ‘best friend’ for the past 12 000 years since they were domesticated from wolves. The intuitions of the ancients and the findings of modern science confirm that we and non-human animals all form intrinsically part of the fascinating web of life. This fact should sensitise us as moral agents to preserve this life.
Liu, X; Hoede, C.
In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,
In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.
United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.
Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…
Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.
Harnik, Paul G; Lotze, Heike K; Anderson, Sean C; Finkel, Zoe V; Finnegan, Seth; Lindberg, David R; Liow, Lee Hsiang; Lockwood, Rowan; McClain, Craig R; McGuire, Jenny L; O'Dea, Aaron; Pandolfi, John M; Simpson, Carl; Tittensor, Derek P
In the coming century, life in the ocean will be confronted with a suite of environmental conditions that have no analog in human history. Thus, there is an urgent need to determine which marine species will adapt and which will go extinct. Here, we review the growing literature on marine extinctions and extinction risk in the fossil, historical, and modern records to compare the patterns, drivers, and biological correlates of marine extinctions at different times in the past. Characterized by markedly different environmental states, some past periods share common features with predicted future scenarios. We highlight how the different records can be integrated to better understand and predict the impact of current and projected future environmental changes on extinction risk in the ocean. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Sokolov, V A; Skvortsov, Yu R; Tarasenku, M Yu
The article dials with the history of medicine practiced by the first civilizations. The facts of discovery and analysis of ancient medical treatises by modern researchers are reported. Special emphasis is laid on the achievements of medical practitioners in Ancient Egypt and India that promoted the development of operative treatment including skin grafting.
Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.
The history of iron and Damascus steels is described through the eyes of ancient blacksmiths. For example, evidence is presented that questions why the Iron Age could not have begun at about the same time as the early Bronze Age (i.e. approximately 7000 B.C.). It is also clear that ancient blacksmiths had enough information from their forging work, together with their observation of color changes during heating and their estimate of hardness by scratch tests, to have determined some key parts of the present-day iron-carbon phase diagram. The blacksmiths' greatest artistic accomplishments were the Damascus and Japanese steel swords. The Damascus sword was famous not only for its exceptional cutting edge and toughness, but also for its beautiful surface markings. Damascus steels are ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) that contain from 1.0 to 2.1%. carbon. The modern metallurgical understanding of UHCSs has revealed that remarkable properties can be obtained in these hypereutectoid steels. The results achieved in UHCSs are attributed to the ability to place the carbon, in excess of the eutectoid composition, to do useful work that enhances the high temperature processing of carbon steels and that improves the low and intermediate temperature mechanical properties.
This book presents an history of the principal concepts of contemporary physics and their genesis from the great cleavages of the beginning of the century with some incursions in a more far-away past. The essential concepts are replaced in their creation context, especially relativity, quantum mechanics and particles physics. (A.B.)
Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.
Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.
Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Kurt, Levent; Khalfan, Amish
We show the first unified description of some of the oldest known geometries such as the Pappus’ theorem with more modern ones like Desargues' theorem, Monge's theorem and Ceva's theorem, through octonions, the highest normed division algebra in eight dimensions. We also show important applications in hadronic physics, giving a full description of the algebra of color applicable to quark physics, and comment on further applications. (paper)
Wiegand, Wayne; Richards, Pamela; Richards, Pamela; Wiegand, Wayne; Dalbello, Marija
Previous histories of libraries in the Western world-the last of which was published nearly 20 years ago-concentrate on libraries and librarians. This book takes a different approach. It focuses on the practice of librarianship, showing you how that practice has contributed to constructing the heritage of cultures. To do so, this groundbreaking collection of essays presents the history of modern librarianship in the context of recent developments of the library institution, professionalization of librarianship, and innovation through information technology. Organized by region, the book a
Anton, John P.
The author relates the ways in which a present day visitor to Greece will be reminded of ancient Greek history. The legendary hospitality, Greek statues, the landscape, Greek dances, gestures, and customs are some of the topics discussed. (Author/RM)
Griffin, R. Elizabeth
The demarcation between ``old'', ``historic'' and ``heritage'' is fuzzy. To a large degree it depends upon purpose and usefulness, and it will always be subjective. At what point does the intrinsic value of an historic item outpace the mystique associated just with its age? When, for instance, does an ``old'' car become a ``vintage'' car? When do archived astronomical records contribute something of quantitative value to science? When can they be extricated from the realms of the museum and placed in the context of modern research? Celestial objects vary. Some do so explosively, often irreversibly; many vary periodically over time-scales from a hour or less to a century or more. Furthermore, all celestial objects change as they evolve, mostly so slowly as to be practically imperceptible, but while the general time-scale of that evolution is millions of years there are a few stages (such as the collapse from AGB towards planetary nebula and white dwarf) which happen rather suddenly, and invaluable examples of ``before-after'' can be found in some plate stores. Astrophysics has a comprehensive need to investigate the nature and time-scales of all types of change, especially ones which only access to its ``heritage'' data can describe. Surely in this day and age we have enough tools, capacity and technologies to fulfil such a basic requirement? The frustrating answer is that we do have some of the necessary tools, and most of the technologies, but as a community we lack ``capacity'' if that means manpower and funds. The problem is a technical one of accessing the older data in useable formats; it was generated by the universal change in detector technology from photography to electronic device, an exciting development in efficiency and scope that heralded a new era of research capability and data management, archiving and sharing, but it left pre-digital photographic data right out of the picture. Developments of that nature should have made research more inclusive
Yang, Melinda A; Fu, Qiaomei
The genetic relationship of past modern humans to today's populations and each other was largely unknown until recently, when advances in ancient DNA sequencing allowed for unprecedented analysis of the genomes of these early people. These ancient genomes reveal new insights into human prehistory not always observed studying present-day populations, including greater details on the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow that characterized past human populations, particularly in early Eurasia, as well as increased insight on the relationship between archaic and modern humans. Here, we review genetic studies on ∼45000- to 7500-year-old individuals associated with mainly preagricultural cultures found in Eurasia, the Americas, and Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Нерубасская, А. А.
Today a critical necessity has appeared in the reconsideration of modern people lifestyle and society on the whole so as to raise strong and happy generation in a context of life quality increasing, creation of decent living conditions. The given article provides a systematic analysis of the development of the medical methods in the world nations‘ social systems, and a systematic investigation of the ―health‖ existential as a part of the development of the ancient medicine. Nowadays the deman...
Deretić Nataša Lj.
Full Text Available Corruption has always been regarded as a special form of enrichment, based on prohibited and unethical grounds. Hence 'political corruption' could be defined as the immorality of the powerful; as the use of political power for the purpose of getting rich without any legal basis. Immorality of the powerful is the root of all the abuses that occur in the society. Those who are at the top of the pyramid of power have been particularly prominent in acquiring as large a fortune as possible. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' has been known in all societies, from the oldest to modern ones. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, there was an established custom of reciprocity between deliberate gifts and requested services. This phenomenon could be observed with Pericles, who is, among other things, attributed the idea of compensation for participation in state affairs. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' is referred to in Cicero's Rome, where bribery as a form of wealth acquisition without legal basis was formally condemned, but also widespread. Even today we can see that there are powerful persons who persist in the violation or circumvention of rules which guide any structured society: their wealth originates from the enormous acquisition of material things, but also the acquisition of various privileges which they are not entitled to, such as titles, promotions, etc. They are the ones who have brought about the demise of the Latin sentence that the basis of any developed society is: 'To live an honest life, hurt no one, and grant everyone their due.'.
Were teachers, of the early modern era not longing for the present? Most colleges of that time did not offer a history course. Still, they did teach a lot about the past since the teaching consisted in the reading of the works of ancient writers. This is because ancient science and literature were considered much more advanced than the science and…
Tong, David C; Wilson, Andrew M; Layland, Jamie
From the dark history of being a poison and purgative, colchicine has risen to become one of the few irrefutable positives in the history of pharmacology in the management of myriad inflammatory conditions. Colchicine exerts its action through binding to tubulin, which in turn affects several cellular processes and pathways modulating the inflammatory response. Despite narrow therapeutic-toxicity window and the most common complaint of gastrointestinal upset, its list of medicinal use is expanding in recent years as we continue to unravel the mystery of this ancient remedy. In this review, we summarise the history of colchicine use, discuss its pharmacokinetics and mechanism of actions, and examine the most up-to-date evidence of colchicine in the treatment of various cardiac conditions with a focus on cardiovascular disease. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Reid, Janet Sue
A classical Greek elementary magnet school in a large urban school district has identified the need for a multicultural fine arts program reflecting the contributions of ancient cultures to modern man. The author and teachers (K-5) of this school developed a multicultural program using classical literature, visual and performing arts, history, and…
Sanders, D L; Kingsnorth, A N
This historical review explores the origins of incisional hernia surgery. Resources from each significant historical time period were reviewed, namely ancient times, the Greco-Roman period, the Middle Ages and the dawn of the surgeon anatomist, and the modern era. Although incisional hernias only started to be widely reported in the literature in the early twentieth century, an awareness of the risk of incisional hernia formation dates back to ancient times. Sometimes, it is important to look back at the history and evolution of a topic to continue making positive advances in that field.
The historical development of anatomical terminology from the ancient to the modern can be divided into five stages. The initial stage is represented by the oldest extant anatomical treatises by Galen of Pergamon in the Roman Empire. The anatomical descriptions by Galen utilized only a limited number of anatomical terms, which were essentially colloquial words in the Greek of this period. In the second stage, Vesalius in the early 16th century described the anatomical structures in his Fabrica with the help of detailed magnificent illustrations. He coined substantially no anatomical terms, but devised a system that distinguished anatomical structures with ordinal numbers. The third stage of development in the late 16th century was marked by innovation of a large number of specific anatomical terms especially for the muscles, vessels and nerves. The main figures at this stage were Sylvius in Paris and Bauhin in Basel. In the fourth stage between Bauhin and the international anatomical terminology, many anatomical textbooks were written mainly in Latin in the 17th century, and in modern languages in the 18th and 19th centuries. Anatomical terms for the same structure were differently expressed by different authors. The last stage began at the end of the 19th century, when the first international anatomical terminology in Latin was published as Nomina anatomica. The anatomical terminology was revised repeatedly until the current Terminologia anatomica both in Latin and English.
Orlando, Ludovic; Metcalf, Jessica L; Alberdi, Maria T; Telles-Antunes, Miguel; Bonjean, Dominique; Otte, Marcel; Martin, Fabiana; Eisenmann, Véra; Mashkour, Marjan; Morello, Flavia; Prado, Jose L; Salas-Gismondi, Rodolfo; Shockey, Bruce J; Wrinn, Patrick J; Vasil'ev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Cherry, Michael I; Hopwood, Blair; Male, Dean; Austin, Jeremy J; Hänni, Catherine; Cooper, Alan
The rich fossil record of the family Equidae (Mammalia: Perissodactyla) over the past 55 MY has made it an icon for the patterns and processes of macroevolution. Despite this, many aspects of equid phylogenetic relationships and taxonomy remain unresolved. Recent genetic analyses of extinct equids have revealed unexpected evolutionary patterns and a need for major revisions at the generic, subgeneric, and species levels. To investigate this issue we examine 35 ancient equid specimens from four geographic regions (South America, Europe, Southwest Asia, and South Africa), of which 22 delivered 87-688 bp of reproducible aDNA mitochondrial sequence. Phylogenetic analyses support a major revision of the recent evolutionary history of equids and reveal two new species, a South American hippidion and a descendant of a basal lineage potentially related to Middle Pleistocene equids. Sequences from specimens assigned to the giant extinct Cape zebra, Equus capensis, formed a separate clade within the modern plain zebra species, a phenotypicically plastic group that also included the extinct quagga. In addition, we revise the currently recognized extinction times for two hemione-related equid groups. However, it is apparent that the current dataset cannot solve all of the taxonomic and phylogenetic questions relevant to the evolution of Equus. In light of these findings, we propose a rapid DNA barcoding approach to evaluate the taxonomic status of the many Late Pleistocene fossil Equidae species that have been described from purely morphological analyses.
Yuda B. Tangkilisan
Full Text Available According to Hetty Palm (1958, there are no people like the Minahassan that experienced a tremendous change in the nineteenth century. The changes had a great impact on their way of life, including arts, as a result of Christianization. In the opinion of the zending (priests, their ancient arts did not suit the new faith. They abandoned their traditional arts and as the consequence, the next generation lost their historical ties with their ancestors in the field of arts. They adopted a new way of life of the Western (Dutch culture. Accordingly, when they become a part of the new state, they considered it important to revitalize the old traditions. However, they had problems as there are no relics from the past. Now they have two options: to cultivate the old or to invent a new tradition. This article discusses the problem and its development from a Public History perspective. The early finding shows that the Minahasans are aware that tradition can get along with the modernity in harmony as their cultural identity. It also deals with the challenge this had brought to traditional historical authority.
Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in the role and influence of the forms of business organization on the economy and society. Interpretations of the role of companies in the modern period, ranging from enthusiastic support (as the most important invention of capitalism, an explanation of the Western civilization’s expansion to moderate and often critical positions, where the company is seen as a solution, not necessarily optimal, to market imperfections. On the other hand, we often ponder upon the explanation of political, administrative and infrastructural success of ancient Rome: the state or the enterprise (the private initiative? Closer to our time, we rediscover with amazement that the "dark" Middle Ages are not at all dark and lacking in progress, at least in terms of capitalist organization and logic. The development of trade in the two poles of medieval Europe (the Mediterranean and the BaltoScandinavian area, of industry and trade in the North-Western quadrant (Flanders and neighbouring regions, was concurrent with the improvement of organizational forms of business, with the diversity and flexibility of entrepreneurial or even corporate frameworks. Of course, the study of historical sources (ancient or medieval cannot provide direct answers or solutions to the questions of modern society, because the challenges of today are rather different to those of the past. On the other hand, understanding history can help companies to build a more complete and a wiser enterprise functionality and role in the modern society, to reformulate the questions and to find new solutions. Our paper, with a clear juridical perspective on economic history, focuses on the organization of firms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe, tries to provide examples, useful interpretations and diverse solutions to the problems of contemporary society and economy.
Almathen, Faisal; Charruau, Pauline; Mohandesan, Elmira; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Pitt, Daniel; Abdussamad, Abdussamad M.; Uerpmann, Margarethe; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; De Cupere, Bea; Magee, Peter; Alnaqeeb, Majed A.; Salim, Bashir; Raziq, Abdul; Dessie, Tadelle; Abdelhadi, Omer M.; Banabazi, Mohammad H.; Al-Eknah, Marzook; Walzer, Chris; Faye, Bernard; Hofreiter, Michael; Peters, Joris; Hanotte, Olivier
Dromedaries have been fundamental to the development of human societies in arid landscapes and for long-distance trade across hostile hot terrains for 3,000 y. Today they continue to be an important livestock resource in marginal agro-ecological zones. However, the history of dromedary domestication and the influence of ancient trading networks on their genetic structure have remained elusive. We combined ancient DNA sequences of wild and early-domesticated dromedary samples from arid regions with nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial genotype information from 1,083 extant animals collected across the species’ range. We observe little phylogeographic signal in the modern population, indicative of extensive gene flow and virtually affecting all regions except East Africa, where dromedary populations have remained relatively isolated. In agreement with archaeological findings, we identify wild dromedaries from the southeast Arabian Peninsula among the founders of the domestic dromedary gene pool. Approximate Bayesian computations further support the “restocking from the wild” hypothesis, with an initial domestication followed by introgression from individuals from wild, now-extinct populations. Compared with other livestock, which show a long history of gene flow with their wild ancestors, we find a high initial diversity relative to the native distribution of the wild ancestor on the Arabian Peninsula and to the brief coexistence of early-domesticated and wild individuals. This study also demonstrates the potential to retrieve ancient DNA sequences from osseous remains excavated in hot and dry desert environments. PMID:27162355
Newman, W Christopher; Chivukula, Srinivas; Grandhi, Ramesh
Neurosurgical treatment of diseases dates back to prehistoric times and the trephination of skulls for various maladies. Throughout the evolution of trephination, surgery and religion have been intertwined to varying degrees, a relationship that has caused both stagnation and progress. From its mystical origins in prehistoric times to its scientific progress in ancient Egypt and its resurgence as a well-validated surgical technique in modern times, trephination has been a reflection of the cultural and religious times. Herein we present a brief history of trephination as it relates religion, culture, and the evolution of neurosurgery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mesopotamian history, and how it could be used to stress continuity with a more glorious past …'. Hundreds of years later, Neo-Babylonian king Nebuchadnezzar II also revived the ancient practice of installing a royal daughter as priestess. The king miraculously 'found' an earlier royal text providing him with the details of ...
Although Pliny the Elder based his history of ancient art on all the authors mentioned above, the writings of classical philologists and archeologists often imply that he might not have always used the art history literature mentioned as primary sources, but rather cited a great deal of information from the works of his predecessor, the famous Roman encyclopedist Marcus Terentius Varro (beginning of the 1st century BC.
Burish, Mark J; Kueh, Hao Yuan; Wang, Samuel S-H
Vertebrate brains vary tremendously in size, but differences in form are more subtle. To bring out functional contrasts that are independent of absolute size, we have normalized brain component sizes to whole brain volume. The set of such volume fractions is the cerebrotype of a species. Using this approach in mammals we previously identified specific associations between cerebrotype and behavioral specializations. Among primates, cerebrotypes are linked principally to enlargement of the cerebral cortex and are associated with increases in the complexity of social structure. Here we extend this analysis to include a second major vertebrate group, the birds. In birds the telencephalic volume fraction is strongly correlated with social complexity. This correlation accounts for almost half of the observed variation in telencephalic size, more than any other behavioral specialization examined, including the ability to learn song. A prominent exception to this pattern is owls, which are not social but still have very large forebrains. Interpolating the overall correlation for Archaeopteryx, an ancient bird, suggests that its social complexity was likely to have been on a par with modern domesticated chickens. Telencephalic volume fraction outperforms residuals-based measures of brain size at separating birds by social structure. Telencephalic volume fraction may be an anatomical substrate for social complexity, and perhaps cognitive ability, that can be generalized across a range of vertebrate brains, including dinosaurs. Copyright 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel
Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Songhua; Huang Zhongxiang; Han Song; Jia Xiuqin
Up to 43 glaze and body samples of ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain and other porcelain are chosen and contents of 36 elements for each sample are determined by NAA. The NAA data are then analysed by the fuzzy cluster method. The result shows that although the ancient Jun Porcelain samples span leaped 600 years and are from different kilns and their glaze colors are utterly different, they have a long-term, stable and mainly the same supply of raw material. The relation between ancient Jun Porcelain and ancient Ru Porcelain is also preliminarily analysed. It is found that only few modern Jun Porcelain samples are similar to ancient Jun Porcelain but the majority of them are different from ancient ones
During the Korean colonial days from 1910 to 1945, many Japanese pharmacists, druggists, apothecaries and pharmaceutical scientists worked in Korea. Although these fields belong to Japanese pharmaceutical history, there are very few papers about modern Korean pharmaceutical education written in Japanese. There is, however, a huge amount of general books written in Japanese which were published during Korean colonial days. These books are reprinted versions of originals, reprinted in Japan or Korea. It is possible to read these books at the Seoul National University Central Library, Medical Library, the History of Hospital Institute Library, the Central National Library in Seoul, the library in the Pusan Modern History Museum or the Pusan Municipal Library. While reading these books over four weeks in September 2008 in Seoul, information about modern Korean pharmaceutical education was obtained for this paper.
Raff, Jennifer A; Bolnick, Deborah A; Tackney, Justin; O'Rourke, Dennis H
Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses have proven to be important tools in understanding human population dispersals, settlement patterns, interactions between prehistoric populations, and the development of regional population histories. Here, we review the published results of sixty-three human populations from throughout the Americas and compare the levels of diversity and geographic patterns of variation in the ancient samples with contemporary genetic variation in the Americas in order to investigate the evolution of the Native American gene pool over time. Our analysis of mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies and prehistoric population genetic diversity presents a complex evolutionary picture. Although the broad genetic structure of American prehistoric populations appears to have been established relatively early, we nevertheless identify examples of genetic discontinuity over time in select regions. We discuss the implications this finding may have for our interpretation of the genetic evidence for the initial colonization of the Americas and its subsequent population history. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nadezhda V Vorobieva
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The extant roe deer (Capreolus Gray, 1821 includes two species: the European roe deer (C. capreolus and the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus that are distinguished by morphological and karyotypical differences. The Siberian roe deer occupies a vast area of Asia and is considerably less studied than the European roe deer. Modern systematics of the Siberian roe deer remain controversial with 4 morphological subspecies. Roe deer fossilized bones are quite abundant in Denisova cave (Altai Mountains, South Siberia, where dozens of both extant and extinct mammalian species from modern Holocene to Middle Pleistocene have been retrieved. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We analyzed a 629 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region from ancient bones of 10 Holocene and four Pleistocene Siberian roe deer from Denisova cave as well as 37 modern specimen belonging to populations from Altai, Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan, Yakutia, Novosibirsk region and the Russian Far East. Genealogical reconstructions indicated that most Holocene haplotypes were probably ancestral for modern roe deer populations of Western Siberia and Tian Shan. One of the Pleistocene haplotypes was possibly ancestral for modern Yakutian populations, and two extinct Pleistocene haplotypes were close to modern roe deer from Tian Shan and Yakutia. Most modern geographical populations (except for West Siberian Plains are heterogeneous and there is some tentative evidence for structure. However, we did not find any distinct phylogenetic signal characterizing particular subspecies in either modern or ancient samples. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from both ancient and modern samples of Siberian roe deer shed new light on understanding the evolutionary history of roe deer. Our data indicate that during the last 50,000 years multiple replacements of populations of the Siberian roe deer took place in the Altai Mountains correlating with climatic changes. The Siberian
Vorobieva, Nadezhda V.; Sherbakov, Dmitry Y.; Druzhkova, Anna S.; Stanyon, Roscoe; Tsybankov, Alexander A.; Vasil'ev, Sergey K.; Shunkov, Mikhail V.; Trifonov, Vladimir A.; Graphodatsky, Alexander S.
Background The extant roe deer (Capreolus Gray, 1821) includes two species: the European roe deer (C. capreolus) and the Siberian roe deer (C. pygargus) that are distinguished by morphological and karyotypical differences. The Siberian roe deer occupies a vast area of Asia and is considerably less studied than the European roe deer. Modern systematics of the Siberian roe deer remain controversial with 4 morphological subspecies. Roe deer fossilized bones are quite abundant in Denisova cave (Altai Mountains, South Siberia), where dozens of both extant and extinct mammalian species from modern Holocene to Middle Pleistocene have been retrieved. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed a 629 bp fragment of the mitochondrial control region from ancient bones of 10 Holocene and four Pleistocene Siberian roe deer from Denisova cave as well as 37 modern specimen belonging to populations from Altai, Tian Shan (Kyrgyzstan), Yakutia, Novosibirsk region and the Russian Far East. Genealogical reconstructions indicated that most Holocene haplotypes were probably ancestral for modern roe deer populations of Western Siberia and Tian Shan. One of the Pleistocene haplotypes was possibly ancestral for modern Yakutian populations, and two extinct Pleistocene haplotypes were close to modern roe deer from Tian Shan and Yakutia. Most modern geographical populations (except for West Siberian Plains) are heterogeneous and there is some tentative evidence for structure. However, we did not find any distinct phylogenetic signal characterizing particular subspecies in either modern or ancient samples. Conclusion/Significance Analysis of mitochondrial DNA from both ancient and modern samples of Siberian roe deer shed new light on understanding the evolutionary history of roe deer. Our data indicate that during the last 50,000 years multiple replacements of populations of the Siberian roe deer took place in the Altai Mountains correlating with climatic changes. The Siberian roe deer
Haimov-Kochman, Ronit; Sciaky-Tamir, Yael; Hurwitz, Arye
The treasured ancient papyri provide a glimpse into understanding of common concepts and practices in ancient Egypt. The Kahun gynecological papyrus and other texts unveil the traditions of reproduction, conception and delivery. This article addresses the rationale of beliefs and practices of that era. Frequently, the reason for common traditions exercised at the time is based on medical knowledge of female anatomy and physiology during pregnancy. Surprisingly some of the remedies commonly used in ancient Egypt were recently explored and found intriguing. This paper was aimed to look at the reflection of archaic practices and concepts of ancient Egypt by the modern mirror of evidence-based medicine.
This article deals with the history of medicine in the ancient Greece; from the cult of the God Asklepios, to the founder of the scientific rational medicine, Hippokrates. The humoral theory of Hippokrates is explained (the human body consists from four liquids) and his ideal of a physician's approach to a patient is emphasized. In the Hellenistic period the medical development continued in the Alexandria Medical School (Herofilos and Erasistratos). At first, not much attention was given to medicine and scientific health prevention in ancient Rome. Only 293 AD have physicians from Greece first been invited to Rome--e.g. Asklepiades. During the reign of C. lulius Caesar, foreigners, who engaged in medical practice, were granted Roman citizenship and thanks to a number of benefits the medical condition in Roman Empire blossomed. Medical clinics (iatreia), infirmaries (valetudinaria) and, under the influence of Christianity, hospitals were established. In the 2nd century AD ancient medicine reached its climax with physician Galenos, who created the entire system of medical science and became the most significant, but also last medical figure of ancient Rome.
Mario Alejandro Molano
Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, there has been increasing research on modernity, especially on different segments of the cultural field. Read in this context, the works of Walter Benjamin acquire great value. The article explores four of Benjamin’s themes: a some aspects of his concept of history; b the concept of experience, in order to show its historical-critical dimension regarding the rise of modern culture; c the affinities between the way he allegorical view is developed in German Baroque drama and the way in which Baudelaire deals with the issues of modernity; and d elements of some cultural forms of modern art that Benjamin is interested in.
Ovallath, Sujith; Deepa, P
The clinical syndrome of parkinsonism was identified in ancient India even before the period of Christ and was treated methodically. The earliest reference to bradykinesia dates to 600 bc. Evidences prove that as early as 300 bc, Charaka proposed a coherent picture of parkinsonism by describing tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and gait disturbances as its components. The scenario was further developed by Madhava, Vagbhata, and Dalhana all through history. The 15th-century classic "Bhasava rajyam" introduced the term kampavata, which may be regarded as an ayurvedic analogue of parkinsonism. The pathogenesis of kampavata centered on the concept of imbalance in the vata factor, which controls psychomotor activities. The essential element in therapy was the administration of powdered seed of Mucuna pruriens, or atmagupta, which as per reports, contains 4%-6% of levodopa. In addition to proving the existence and identification of parkinsonism in ancient India, the study points to the significance of ancient Indian Sanskrit works in medical history. Copyright © 2013 Movement Disorder Society.
Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to examine Baumgarten’s conception on the history of aesthetics and on his role in it. In the first part, I analyze the way in which Baumgarten’s aesthetic innovation has been perceived by two of his disciples, namely Georg Conrad Winckelmann and Georg Andreas Will. While the former puts the emphasis on the modernity of aesthetics, Will seems more inclined to attribute the birth of aesthetics to ancient philosophers. Despite this apparent disagreement, my thesis is that the basic positions of the two authors are very similar and find their rationale in Baumgarten’s peculiar treatment of the issue. Consequently, I set out to inquire into Baumgarten’s theory, in the attempt to better understand his reconstruction of the empirical history of aesthetics. My purpose is to see how this empirical history is framed within a more systematic history which establishes its guidelines and marks its turning points. Eventually, I take into account the possible implications of this position with regard to the question of the origin of aesthetics.
Ancient Times in Modern Physicsl. Modern science has followed many trends of early Greek natural philosophy by reconsidering the problems with which that philosophy had grappled in a first attempt to understand the surrounding world. Hence it may be well worth considering which of those early ideas have retained their ...
Full Text Available Discourse on global art or art history arguably dominates the field of art history today in terms of curriculum and research. This discourse cuts across time and space, impacting all art historical specializations, from prehistoric to contemporary, and from Africa to the Americas. Yet, the mainstream theoretical discourse on global art or art history focuses almost explicitly on contemporary and, to a lesser extent, modern art, operating from the premise that only these arts were created in an age of globalization and, thus, emphasize hybridity. This essay seeks to expand the mainstream theoretical discourse regarding global art to pre-modern examples, given that artistic exchange and hybridity dates as early as the prehistoric era all over the world and is not dependent on newer technologies. Indeed, one might argue that the study of pre-modern examples of global art could provide a powerful historical lens through which to analyze contemporary global art.
Harrison, Adrian Paul; Bartels, E.M.
Individualts in antiquity would have been exposed to both cheese and red wine and perhaps as many as 10-40% of the population would have suffered at some time in their life from a migraine headache. Furthermore, individuals in qntiquity would also have been exposed to their fair share of childhoo...... of the combined knowledge of the "Etruscan herbal" and its possible physiological effects, raises the issue of the importance of ancient treatments in today's society, particularly since we are still plagued by many of the same ailments as the ancient Etruscans....
Poursabahian, Joyce Paul
This article briefly discusses the challenges of teaching the 2,000 year-old classical dance form of Bharatanatyam to a student population that is alienated from its mythological framework. Bharatanatyam teachers today are responsible for passing on the technique, grammar, and artistic character of this ancient performing art to the current…
Di Matteo, B; Moran, C J; Tarabella, V; Viganò, A; Tomba, P; Marcacci, M; Verdonk, R
The science and surgery of the meniscus have evolved significantly over time. Surgeons and scientists always enjoy looking forward to novel therapies. However, as part of the ongoing effort at optimizing interventions and outcomes, it may also be useful to reflect on important milestones from the past. The aim of the present manuscript was to explore the history of meniscal surgery across the ages, from ancient times to the twenty-first century. Herein, some of the investigations of the pioneers in orthopaedics are described, to underline how their work has influenced the management of the injured meniscus in modern times. Level of evidence V.
Starina E. V.
Full Text Available the author of the article makes an attempt to follow the stages of puppet theater development in the context of history, and on the basis of personal work experience with children. Also, he tries to highlight its educational significance in the field of modern pre-school pedagogy. This work may be of pre-school educators interest, engaged in theatrical activities of children, teachers of additional education, as well as directors of theater studios.
Vorkapic, Camila Ferreira
Many yoga texts make reference to the importance of mental health and the use of specific techniques in the treatment of mental disorders. Different concepts utilized in modern psychology may not come with contemporary ideas, instead, they seem to share a common root with ancient wisdom. The goal of this perspective article is to correlate modern techniques used in psychology and psychiatry with yogic practices, in the treatment of mental disorders. The current article presented a dialogue between the yogic approach for the treatment of mental disorder and concepts used in modern psychology, such as meta-cognition, disidentification, deconditioning and interoceptive exposure. Contemplative research found out that modern interventions in psychology might not come from modern concepts after all, but share great similarity with ancient yogic knowledge, giving us the opportunity to integrate the psychological wisdom of both East and West.
G V Ozhiganova
Full Text Available The necessity of research on higher spiritual and self-regulative capacities in the context of ancient oriental system of knowledge is expressed. The historical and psychological methods of studying ancient knowledge are described. The methods of the history of psychology, proposed by the author, are used: such as the method of revealing scientific knowledge reserves, aimed at restoring and practical mastering the psychological heritage of ancient times, as well as the experimental method, involving the verification of psychological facts, phenomena and laws described in ancient texts, with the help of modern scientific research methods (observation, experiment, statistical data. Meditative practices and philosophical concepts of Buddhism are considered from the standpoint of modern psychology. The ancient Buddhist meditative practices “Contemplation of the mind”, linked to the concept of “mindfulness” is described. It is concluded that the concept of the mind is the key in the Buddhist system of knowledge. The understanding of the mind in the ancient Buddhist doctrine is compared with a modern interpretation of the concept of “mind” in psychological science, as well as its content is revealed due to psychological terms “higher self-regulative capacities” and “moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities”. It is revealed that in the Buddhist system of knowledge there can be seen close links between higher self-regulative capacities and moral-value aspect of spiritual capacities. The results of empirical studies of the ancient meditative practices and their positive impact on self-regulation of the modern people are submitted.
Valli, Veronica; Taccari, Annalisa; Di Nunzio, Mattia; Danesi, Francesca; Bordoni, Alessandra
Nowadays the higher nutritional value of whole grains compared to refined grains is recognized. In the last decade, there has been a renewed interest in the ancient wheat varieties for producing high-value food products with enhanced health benefits. This study compared two ancient grains, two heritage grains, and four modern grains grown in the same agronomic conditions considering not only their chemical characteristics, but also their biological effects. Whole grain flours were obtained and used to make bread. Bread was in vitro digested, the digesta were supplemented to HepG2 cells, and the biological effects of supplementation were evaluated. In addition, cells previously supplemented with the different digested bread types were then exposed to inflammatory agents to evidence possible protective effects of the pre-treatments. Despite the impossibility to discriminate bread made with different grains based on their chemical composition, results herein reported evidence that their supplementation to cultured cells exerts different effects, confirming the potential health benefits of ancient grains. This research represents an advancement for the evaluation of the apparent positive effects of ancient grains and the formulation of cereal-based products with added nutritional value. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harrison, Adrian; Bartels, Else Marie
potential. In reality, nothing has changed between the ancient and modern athletes. To be optimal, a sports diet should be nutritionally balanced, whilst accommodating the genetic and environmental requirements, the gender and age needs, the demands of the sports discipline, as well as addressing any...... of a modern Olympic athlete and contrast these with those of ancient Greek and Roman athletes. Our particular emphasis has been on the source of nutrients, historical dietary trends, and the search for the optimal sports diet, that is to say a diet that will ensure the attainment of an athlete’s full...
Ignacija J. Fridl
Full Text Available Like many contemporary researchers into the ancient history of philosophy and into encyclopedic Hellenistic works (Mejer, Schoefield, Runia, Maasfeld ..., the author observes that a great deal of research into ancient doxography and Diogenes Laertius has focused on evaluation. Her own paper, on the other hand, turns to the question: What can Laertius’ attention to philosophers’ biographies in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers tell us about the Ancient Greek view of the philosophical thought from the past? As noted by the author, the term ‘doxography’ itself, which bears the connotation of a less reliable source and is applied today to almost every ancient explanation of any philosophical doctrine, was established by Hermann Diels as late as the 19th century. Yet this view of earlier thought was in fact already developed by Aristotle. His treatise On the Soul defines the philosophical tenets of his precursors as ‘opinions’, which are then critically examined and rejected. This attitude to earlier philosophy informs all Aristotle’s writings and his methodology of philosophy in general, for his prima philosophia as a ‘science which considers the truth’ is founded precisely on the critique of earlier thought. He critically evaluates even the tenets of his teacher Plato, in order to surpass him with his own philosophy. Thus he lays the foundations of evolutionary historiography, which perceives history as a spiritual progress and has lasted through Hegel, Marx, and – with a negative historical connotation – Heidegger – to this day. Plato, by contrast, envisages, through the very form of the dialogue, the relation to earlier philosophy as a conversation, a constant interweaving and fertilisation of one’s own thought with the wisdom of one’s precursors. This perception is further reinforced by his doctrine of knowledge as a process of remembering, that is, of philosophy as a road to wisdom leading back
Lira, Jaime; Linderholm, Anna; Olaria, Carmen
Multiple geographical regions have been proposed for the domestication of Equus caballus. It has been suggested, based on zooarchaeological and genetic analyses that wild horses from the Iberian Peninsula were involved in the process, and the overrepresentation of mitochondrial D1 cluster in modern....... Neolithic and Bronze Age sequences grouped in other clusters, one of which (Lusitano group C) is exclusively represented by modern horses of Iberian origin. Moreover, Bronze Age Iberian sequences displayed the lowest nucleotide diversity values when compared with modern horses, ancient wild horses and other...... ancient domesticates using nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. We conclude that the excessive clustering of Bronze Age horses in the Lusitano group C, the observed nucleotide diversity and the local continuity from wild Neolithic Iberian to modern Iberian horses, could be explained by the use of local...
Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Elberling, Bo; Balstrøm, Thomas
. A comparison of the organic matter content in these mound cores and the plough layer in modern farmland offers an opportunity to compare the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in ancient and modern land use systems and to evaluate the long-term trends in carbon (C) sequestration in relation to modern farmland...... with varying inputs of manure and inorganic fertilizers. In the present paper we compare SOC stocks based on integrated horizon-specific densities and SOC contents in three 3300-year-old buried farmland soils, representing the land use system at that time, with results from soil surveys representing modern...... land use systems with low and high inputs of manure. Results show that, within the upper 0.28 m, which is the average depth of present day plough layers in Denmark, soils receiving manure from intensive pig or cattle production hold c. 60% more SOC than the ancient soils from the South Scandinavian...
Lei, C Z; Su, R; Bower, M A; Edwards, C J; Wang, X B; Weining, S; Liu, L; Xie, W M; Li, F; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, C M; Chen, H
To obtain more knowledge of the origin and genetic diversity of domestic horses in China, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence diversity from nine horse breeds in China in conjunction with ancient DNA data and evidence from archaeological and historical records. A 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequence from 182 modern samples revealed a total of 70 haplotypes with a high level of genetic diversity. Seven major mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) and 16 clusters were identified for the 182 Chinese modern horses. In the present study, nine 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequences of ancient remains of Bronze Age horse from the Chifeng region of Inner Mongolia in China (c. 4000-2000a bp) were used to explore the origin and diversity of Chinese modern horses and the phylogenetic relationship between ancient and modern horses. The nine ancient horses carried seven haplotypes with rich genetic diversity, which were clustered together with modern individuals among haplogroups A, E and F. Modern domestic horse and ancient horse data support the multiple origins of domestic horses in China. This study supports the argument that multiple successful events of horse domestication, including separate introductions of wild mares into the domestic herds, may have occurred in antiquity, and that China cannot be excluded from these events. Indeed, the association of Far Eastern mtDNA types to haplogroup F was highly significant using Fisher's exact test of independence (P = 0.00002), lending support for Chinese domestication of this haplogroup. High diversity and all seven mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) with 16 clusters also suggest that further work is necessary to shed more light on horse domestication in China.
Jankvist, Uffe Thomas
This article discusses the integration of history of modern applied mathematics in mathematics education as well as the possible teaching and learning benefits of introducing a newer history of mathematics over an old(er) one--something that seems to be done most often when integrating history. Three cases of the history of modern applied…
This conceptual paper represents an attempt to reflect on the notion of the "ancient Greek polis"--a subject of study and sometimes heated debate for many philosophers and historians worldwide--as a paradigm of a city that can offer some insight into modern states, in an era of globalisation and tense multiculturalism. By providing a…
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 8. Ideas of the Natural Philosophy of Ancient Times in Modern Physics. Classics Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 99-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/08/0099-0104 ...
Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 8. Ideas of the Natural Philosophy of Ancient Times in Modern Physics. Classics Volume 9 Issue 8 August 2004 pp 99-104. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/009/08/0099-0104 ...
Nguyen Quang Liem
Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.
Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio
a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which largely automates the in silico analyses behind whole-genome resequencing. Starting with next...
Histories of science in India are revisitations of the colonial question. Science is ideology to be unraveled and exposed--as modernity and progress making or violence and oppression making--depending on where you stand on the interpretive spectrum. It has been seen as ideologically driven practice, as a mode of knowledge production whose history is inseparable from the social and political uses to which it is tethered. In the colonial as well as the postcolonial context, science and technology have been seen as the "ideology of empire," "tools of empire," "tentacles of progress," and "reasons of state." Yet science and technology are practices and bodies of knowledge that inhabitants of the subcontinent have engaged with enthusiasm, that they have used to invent themselves in their global, national, and individual lives. We know remarkably little about the histories of these complex engagements. A departure from current historiographical preoccupations is called for to map and explain the lives, institutions, practices, and stories of science on the subcontinent as they connect with, and where they break away from, the world at large.
Riebsame, William E.
H. H. Lamb's latest book on the earth's changing climate is a carefully crafted work covering four areas: the physical basis of climate and climate change, the methods of climate reconstruction, the history of climate since the height of the last glaciation, and the impact of climate on human affairs. The book will be of particular interest to three groups. Atmospheric scientists interested in the long history of climate behavior (but perhaps overwhelmed by Lamb's all-encompassing work on the topic, Climate: Past, Present and Future, vol. II, Methuen, New York), will find Climate History and the Modern World to be a good titration of the fuller work. Scientists in other fields, including social scientists grappling with issues of climate-society interaction, will find the book a good entree into the field. Finally, Lamb himself suggests that the book will be useful to resource managers and other decision makers trying to avoid negative climate impacts. With this last audience in mind, no doubt, Lamb has chosen a style that eschews extensive footnoting and references (though sufficient citations are included to lead to further information). This works quite well and seems reasonable in view of his carefully documented previous writings.
The familiar image of Saturn and its rings has come to symbolise our idea of a planet but there is still much about Saturn and its system that we do not understand. The history of our beliefs and knowledge about it, one of the most distant planets visible to the naked eye, is described, from the early myths, such as the Indian village that…
Cirkovic, Milan M.
Recent intriguing discussion of heat death by Kutrovátz is critically examined. It is shown that there exists another way of answering the heat death puzzle, already present in the ancient philosophical tradition. This alternative route relies not only on the final duration of time (which has been re-discovered in modern times), but also on the notion of observational self-selection, which has received wide publicity in the last several decades under the title of the anthropic principle(s). We comment here on some further deficiencies of the account of Kutrovátz. Although the questions Kutrovátz raises are important and welcome, there are several errors in his treatment of cosmology which marr his account of the entire topic. In addition, the nascent discipline of physical eschatology holds promise of answering the basic explanatory task concerning the future evolution of the universe without appealing to metaphysics. This is a completely novel feature in the history of science, in contradistinction to the historical examples discussed by Kutrovátz.
Jordan, J M
Beginning the nineteenth-century and continuing down to the present, many authors writing on the history of geology and paleontology have attributed the theory that fossils were inorganic formations produced within the earth, rather than by the deposition of living organisms, to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Some have even gone so far as to claim this was the consensus view in the classical period up through the Middle Ages. In fact, such a notion was entirely foreign to ancient and medieval thought and only appeared within the manifold of 'Renaissance episteme,' the characteristics of which have often been projected backwards by some historians onto earlier periods. This paper endeavors to correct this error, explain the development of the Renaissance view, describe certain ancient precedents thereof, and trace the history of the misinterpretation in the literature.
Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng
Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods.
Aimed at both students and researchers in philosophy, mathematics and the history of science, this edited volume, authored by leading scholars, highlights foremost developments in both the philosophy and history of modern mathematics.
Conclusion: In this study it was observed that the genetic diversity among Mtb strains and, in particular between ancient and modern strains, reflects on several aspects of host-pathogen interaction. In particular, the modulation of specific cellular microRNAs upon MTBC infection suggests a potential role for these microRNAs in the outcome of infection and, to a major extent, to the different epidemiological success of Mtb strains.
Full Text Available The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death-cult in an attempt to clarify certain contemporary political phenomena in the Mediterranean and Balkan area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death-cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several fieldworks. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death-cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death-rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death-cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean and Balkan cultural meaning of emotion is central.
Full Text Available The origin and evolution of the ribosome is central to our understanding of the cellular world. Most hypotheses posit that the ribosome originated in the peptidyl transferase center of the large ribosomal subunit. However, these proposals do not link protein synthesis to RNA recognition and do not use a phylogenetic comparative framework to study ribosomal evolution. Here we infer evolution of the structural components of the ribosome. Phylogenetic methods widely used in morphometrics are applied directly to RNA structures of thousands of molecules and to a census of protein structures in hundreds of genomes. We find that components of the small subunit involved in ribosomal processivity evolved earlier than the catalytic peptidyl transferase center responsible for protein synthesis. Remarkably, subunit RNA and proteins coevolved, starting with interactions between the oldest proteins (S12 and S17 and the oldest substructure (the ribosomal ratchet in the small subunit and ending with the rise of a modern multi-subunit ribosome. Ancestral ribonucleoprotein components show similarities to in vitro evolved RNA replicase ribozymes and protein structures in extant replication machinery. Our study therefore provides important clues about the chicken-or-egg dilemma associated with the central dogma of molecular biology by showing that ribosomal history is driven by the gradual structural accretion of protein and RNA structures. Most importantly, results suggest that functionally important and conserved regions of the ribosome were recruited and could be relics of an ancient ribonucleoprotein world.
Artiklen diskuterer interaktionen mellem de tre store transformative kræfter i Kinas moderne historie: revolution, nationalisme og kapitalisme. Udgivelsesdato: Marts......Artiklen diskuterer interaktionen mellem de tre store transformative kræfter i Kinas moderne historie: revolution, nationalisme og kapitalisme. Udgivelsesdato: Marts...
Chandrakant I Jhala
Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.
Aleksandr G. Karayani
Full Text Available Background. Russian military psychology is actively analyzing the achievements gained over the years of its reform and with great interest turns to the military psychological experience of foreign armies. Acquaintance with this experience allows Russian military psychology to assess its place in the world military psychological science, to assess the dynamics and fidelity of the general direction of development. In this regard, it is quite interesting to get acquainted with the state, capabilities, and the most important guidelines for the development of the Chinese military psychology. Objective. The objective of this paper is to get acquainted with the invaluable experience of trial and error, ups and downs, stagnation and real breakthroughs, which can be learnt through getting acquainted with the history and modern functioning of the psychological structures of the Chinese army. Design. The paper considers the centuries-old history and a modern condition of military psychology in China. The methodological foundations of the Chinese military psychology are proved to be the philosophical ideas of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism. Theoretical sources Chinese military psychology is rooted in the writings of the great thinkers and generals of ancient China – Sun Tzu, Wu Tzu, Zhuge Liang. The two most vigorously developing areas of military psychology: the psychological selection of military personnel, theory and practice of psychological warfare. The historical analysis of traditions and technologies development for the period of four thousand years is given. The development of psychological selection in the army of China was affected by cooperation with the American psychologists during the Second World War. The overall state and program approach to perfect the system of selecting military men using the psychology methods is underlined. Historical development tendencies and the Chinese paradigm of the theory and practice of psychological war
This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient…
Schubert, Brian A.; Lowenstein, Tim K.; Timofeeff, Michael N.
Primary fluid inclusions in halite crystallized in Saline Valley, California, in 1980, 2004-2005, and 2007, contain rod- and coccoid-shaped microparticles the same size and morphology as archaea and bacteria living in modern brines. Primary fluid inclusions from a well-dated (0-100,000 years), 90 m long salt core from Badwater Basin, Death Valley, California, also contain microparticles, here interpreted as halophilic and halotolerant prokaryotes. Prokaryotes are distinguished from crystals on the basis of morphology, optical properties (birefringence), and uniformity of size. Electron micrographs of microparticles from filtered modern brine (Saline Valley), dissolved modern halite crystals (Saline Valley), and dissolved ancient halite crystals (Death Valley) support in situ microscopic observations that prokaryotes are present in fluid inclusions in ancient halite. In the Death Valley salt core, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions occur almost exclusively in halite precipitated in perennial saline lakes 10,000 to 35,000 years ago. This suggests that trapping and preservation of prokaryotes in fluid inclusions is influenced by the surface environment in which the halite originally precipitated. In all cases, prokaryotes in fluid inclusions in halite from the Death Valley salt core are miniaturized (indigenous to the halite and starvation survival may be the normal response of some prokaryotes to entrapment in fluid inclusions for millennia. These results reinforce the view that fluid inclusions in halite and possibly other evaporites are important repositories of microbial life and should be carefully examined in the search for ancient microorganisms on Earth, Mars, and elsewhere in the Solar System.
Zinniker, D.; Tipple, B.; Pagani, M.
Unique and abundant secondary metabolites found in waxes and resins of the Callitroid, Cupressoid, and Taxodioid clades of the Cupressaceae family can be identified and quantified in complex mixtures of sedimentary organic compounds. This unusual feature makes it possible to study relatively simple (taxon-specific) isotope systems back in time across the broad array of environments in which these conifers are found. Work on these systems can potentially provide both robust paleoenvironmental proxies (i.e. for source water δD and growing season relative humidity) and quantitative probes into the ecophysiology of these plants in modern and ancient environments. Our research focuses on three genera representing environmental end-members of Cupressaceae - Juniperus, Thuja, and Chamaecyparis - (1) across geographic and environmental gradients in the field, and (2) in specific Holocene and late Pleistocene environmental records. The latter research focuses on peat cores from New England and Oregon and fossil packrat middens from the southwestern United States. Modern transects highlight the sensitivity of Cupressaceae to climatic variables. These include both variables during growth (relative humidity, soil moisture, etc.) and variables affecting seasonal and diurnal growth rates (temperature, winter precipitation, insolation, microhabitat, etc.). Work on ancient records has demonstrated the sensitivity of these unique taxon-specific archives to both subtle and dramatic climate shifts during the Pleistocene and Holocene. This work will result in an improved understanding of climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotopic composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae - and by extension, other arborescent gymnosperms and C3 plants - providing a framework for understanding more complexly sourced organic inputs to sediments, coals, and petroleum prior to the advent of C4 plants. This research also has direct implications for stratigraphic stable isotope studies
Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.W.
We propose and test the theory of endogenous change based on historical reconstructions of two ancient civilizations, Indus and Hohokam, in two water scarce basins, the Indus basin in the Indian subcontinent and the Lower Colorado basin in Southwestern United States. The endogenous institutional
This book describes meteorological history of Korea for a century. It consists of eleven chapters, which deals with the ancient history of meteorologic services, the beginning of modem history of meteorologic services from 1894 to 1910, meteorologic services in Japanese colonial era, meteorologic services in the U. S Military Government in Korea from 1945 to 1948, transition period from 1948 to 1950, Korean war period from 1950 to 1953, foundation construction period from 1953 to 1960, growth period in 1970s'. period of development in 1980s' foundation construction period for advanced technologies of meteorologic services in 1990s' and leaping period of meteorologic services in 2000s'.
Historiedelen til grundbog til idræt på mellemniveau i gymnasiet og til idræt som tilvalgsfag på HF. Indeholder ud over metodeafsnit og afslutningsafsnit også hovedafsnittene: "Idræt og samfund ca. 1860-1920", "De moderne olympiske lege" og "Sportens århundrede"...
Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention. Medical psychology in the ancient world can only be correctly understood by relating it to psychological thought in other fields, such as ethics and rhetoric. The concept that ties these various domains together is character (êthos), which involves a view of human beings focused on clearly distinguishable psychological types that can be recognized on the basis of external signs. Psychological ideas based on humoral theory remained influential well into the early modern period. Yet, in 17th-century medicine and philosophy, humoral physiology and psychology started to lose ground to other theoretical perspectives on the mind and its relation to the body. This decline of humoralist medical psychology can be related to a broader reorientation of psychological thought in which the traditional concept of character lost its central position. Instead of the focus on types and stable character traits, a perspective emerged that was primarily concerned with individuality and transient passions.
Pande, S.; Ertsen, M.
We propose and test the theory of endogenous change based on historical reconstructions of two ancient civilizations, Indus and Hohokam, in two water scarce basins, the Indus basin in the Indian subcontinent and the Lower Colorado basin in Southwestern United States. The endogenous institutional change sees changes in institutions as a sequence of equilibria brought about by changes in "quasi-parameters" such as rainfall, population density, soil and land use induced water resource availability. In the historical reconstructions of ancient civilizations, institutions are proximated by the scale of cooperation be it in the form of the extent of trade, sophisticated irrigation network, a centrally planned state or a loosely held state with a common cultural identity. The "quasi-parameters" either change naturally or are changed by humans and the changes affect the stability of cooperative structures over time. However, human influenced changes in the quasi-parameters itself are conditioned on the scale of existing cooperative structures. We thus provide insights into the quantitative dimensions of water access by ancient populations and its co-evolution with the socioeconomic and sociopolitical organization of the human past. We however do not suggest that water manipulation was the single most significant factor in stimulating social development and complexity - clearly this has been shown as highly reductionist, even misleading. The paper cautiously contributes to proximate prediction of hydrological change by attempting to understand the complexity of coupled human-hydrological systems.
This paper examines the reception of the Stoic theory of the passions in the early modern period, highlighting various differences between the way notions such as (see symbol in text) (complete freedom from passions) and(see symbol in text) (pre-passions) were handled and interpreted by Continental and English authors. Both groups were concerned about the compatibility of Stoicism with Christianity, but came to opposing conclusions; and while the Continental scholars drew primarily on ancient philosophical texts, the English ones relied, in addition, on experience and observation, developing a natural history of the passions.
The relationship between life history, gender, and the discourse of modernization was examined from the perspective of a researcher with extensive experience performing evaluations about modernization within human services in Denmark. Three stories about site-based management in two human service institutionsa youth center and a boarding school…
is inspired by other studies of the emergence of new research areas done by sociologists and historians of science, and includes both cognitive and social aspects, macro trends and the role of individuals. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies and interviews with key researchers from...... were given modern formulations, but it took a long gestation period from the beginning of the 1970s to the end of the 1980s, before ecological economics took shape. During this gestation period the personal relationships between the actors were formed, and the meetings that were decisive for the formal...
Zwierlein, C.; de Graaf, B.A.
»Sicherheit und Verschwörung in der Neuzeit«. Security History is a new field in historical research. Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories have attracted since some years great attention, both in historical and in social research. A thorough study of those both opposed and mirroring key phenomena
Early modern natural history: Contributions from the Americas and India. Rajesh Kochhar. Perspectives Volume 37 Issue ... Keywords. India; medical botany; natural history; scientific botany; the Americas. Author Affiliations. Rajesh Kochhar1. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research, Mohali 140 306 Punjab, India ...
Nowak-Fabrykowski, Krystyna Teresa; Trzcinska, Eleonora
The purpose of this article is to analyze teaching of modern history in Poland and the teachers' role in the process of democratization. Forty-eight high school history teachers responded to a questionnaire investigating the curricula, textbooks, supplemental teaching materials and methods of teaching. The results demonstrate that since 1989 these…
This practicum was designed to incorporate the study of geography into a ninth grade world history class with the aim of improving student awareness of the influence of geography upon the historical development of ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. By means of a questionnaire and map tests it was determined that ninth grade world history…
Vazquez, D.; Gonzalez-Cano, A.; Diaz-Herrera, N.; Llombart, N.; Alda, J.
The history of optics is a very rich field of science and it is possible to find many simple and significant examples of the application and success of the experimental method and therefore is a very good tool to transmit to the student the way science proceeds and to introduce the right spirit of critical analysis, building and testing of models, etc. Optical phenomena are specially well suited for this because in fact optical observations and experiments have made science advance in a crucial way in many different periods of history, because they are in many cases quite visual, quite simple in concept and it is very easy to produce experimental setups in classrooms. Also, the intrinsic multidisciplinary character of Optics, which is a subject that has historically influenced in a notorious way fields as art, philosophy, religion and cultural and social studies in general, provide a very wide frame that permits to apply these examples to many different auditories. We present here some reflections about the role that history of optics can play in teaching and show some real examples of its application during the many years that we have been employing it in the context of the Optics School of the Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.
Sunderland, Mary E
Throughout the twentieth century calls to modernize natural history motivated a range of responses. It was unclear how research in natural history museums would participate in the significant technological and conceptual changes that were occurring in the life sciences. By the 1960s, the Museum of Vertebrate Zoology at the University of California, Berkeley, was among the few university-based natural history museums that were able to maintain their specimen collections and support active research. The MVZ therefore provides a window to the modernization of natural history. This paper concentrates on the directorial transitions that occurred at the MVZ between 1965 and 1971. During this period, the MVZ had four directors: Alden H. Miller (Director 1940-1965), an ornithologist; Aldo Starker Leopold (Acting Director 1965-1966), a conservationist and wildlife biologist; Oliver P. Pearson (Director 1966-1971), a physiologist and mammalogist; and David B. Wake (Director 1971-1998), a morphologist, developmental biologist, and herpetologist. The paper explores how a diversity of overlapping modernization strategies, including hiring new faculty, building infrastructure to study live animals, establishing new kinds of collections, and building modern laboratories combined to maintain collections at the MVZ's core. The paper examines the tensions between the different modernization strategies to inform an analysis of how and why some changes were institutionalized while others were short-lived. By exploring the modernization of collections-based research, this paper emphasizes the importance of collections in the transformation of the life sciences.
Gangidine, A.; Czaja, A. D.; Havig, J. R.
Positively identifying fossil microorganisms is often a challenge due to poor preservation. Thermal and geological alteration can lead to extreme distortion in ancient microbial fossils to the point that they may be morphologically unrecognizable, making it crucial to have a biosignature that can be used regardless of such conditions to help establish biogenicity. Through analysis of trace element sequestration by silicified microorganisms of various ages, a new biosignature may be developed with the potential to be robust and yield paleobiological information, even in the absence of morphological preservation. Biological materials preserved in modern silica-depositing hot springs from Yellowstone National Park have been shown to contain a higher concentration of certain trace elements relative to the surrounding non-biological material. BIO-SIMS analyses also have shown apparent co-localization of certain trace elements relative to recently silicified microbes (Figure 1). By measuring the abundances, ratios, and spatial distributions of major and trace elements (e.g., Si, C, N, Fe, Mn, Ga, As) in modern and ancient microorganisms, it will be possible to deduce what elements are preferentially concentrated by life, and if this signature is preserved in the rock record during and after the fossilization process. By evaluating trace element abundances and distributions in a suite of hot spring deposit samples of ages ranging from modern (Yellowstone National Park) to 3.5 Ga (Dresser Formation), this biosignature may be calibrated across all timescales. Such a biosignature would provide a strong tool for determining biogenicity by itself, or strengthen any argument for or against biogenicity when used in unison with other detection methods. As hydrothermal silica deposits are thought to be widespread on the Martian surface, the use of this trace element biosignature for the upcoming Mars 2020 mission would allow a robust analysis to aid in the determination of the
Briggs, Derek E G; Summons, Roger E
The discovery of traces of a blood meal in the abdomen of a 50-million-year-old mosquito reminds us of the insights that the chemistry of fossils can provide. Ancient DNA is the best known fossil molecule. It is less well known that new fossil targets and a growing database of ancient gene sequences are paralleled by discoveries on other classes of organic molecules. New analytical tools, such as the synchrotron, reveal traces of the original composition of arthropod cuticles that are more than 400 my old. Pigments such as melanin are readily fossilized, surviving virtually unaltered for ∼200 my. Other biomarkers provide evidence of microbial processes in ancient sediments, and have been used to reveal the presence of demosponges, for example, more than 635 mya, long before their spicules appear in the fossil record. Ancient biomolecules are a powerful complement to fossil remains in revealing the history of life. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.
Matthew F Barber
Full Text Available Lactoferrin is a multifunctional mammalian immunity protein that limits microbial growth through sequestration of nutrient iron. Additionally, lactoferrin possesses cationic protein domains that directly bind and inhibit diverse microbes. The implications for these dual functions on lactoferrin evolution and genetic conflicts with microbes remain unclear. Here we show that lactoferrin has been subject to recurrent episodes of positive selection during primate divergence predominately at antimicrobial peptide surfaces consistent with long-term antagonism by bacteria. An abundant lactoferrin polymorphism in human populations and Neanderthals also exhibits signatures of positive selection across primates, linking ancient host-microbe conflicts to modern human genetic variation. Rapidly evolving sites in lactoferrin further correspond to molecular interfaces with opportunistic bacterial pathogens causing meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Because microbes actively target lactoferrin to acquire iron, we propose that the emergence of antimicrobial activity provided a pivotal mechanism of adaptation sparking evolutionary conflicts via acquisition of new protein functions.
Staneart, Chuck; Baral, Wanda
This simulation allows students to learn about and participate in many of the aspects of ancient Roman life that have influenced present institutions and way of life. The phases of the unit include: (1) "Daily Life"; (2) "Forum of Roma"; (3) "Temple of Apollo"; (4) "Pax Romana"; (5) "History/Mystery:…
Páles, Emil; Mikulecký, Miroslav
DISCOVERY: A periodicity of 500 years has been discovered in the political history of ancient Egypt and documented by means of inferential statistics. Periods of chaos and waning of central power (some of them called "intermediate periods") recurred every 500 years. Input for the computation is the mean duration of ruling dynasties calculated per each half century. Fisher's periodogram analysis and Halberg's cosinor regression have been used. A highly significant (p ancient Egypt as well as China between 3000 and 500 B. C. culminated each 500 years synchronously. No local events, confined to Egypt or China alone, can serve as an explanation. The rhythm of "dark ages" seems to continue beyond Egyptian and ancient Chinese history into the modern era and seems to be world-wide. It is a surprising fact, that this periodicity has been known already to the priests of Babylon, who ascribed this to the maleficient influence of god Nergal. The same periodicity has been described by the Chinese philosopher Mencius in the 3rd century B.C. and attributed to the will of tian (heaven). Egyptians elevated their war god Seth every 500 years and European kings assumed masculine nicknames. This recurring cultural pattern of aggressiveness and strife resembles overall traits of male psyche or mid-life crisis. We suggest to look for an unknown cosmophysical factor impacting the neuroendocrine system of man by raising the levels of androgens periodically. EXPLANATION HYPOTHESES: Sun impacts global weather on Earth, but there is no known significant periodicity of 500 years in solar activity. The Wheeler weather cycle almost fits the cycle of Egyptian political history. But his cold-dry periods seem to lag behind the periods of social destabilization and hence can not cause them. An alternative view (based on idealistic rather than materialistic presuppositions) is, that periodic long-term shifts of archetypes take place within the collective unconscious of mankind independently of
Neill, D R; Fallon, P G
This special issue of Parasite Immunology charts the rapid advances made in our understanding of the myriad interactions between innate lymphoid cells and parasites and how these interactions have shaped our evolutionary history. Here, we provide an overview of the issue and highlight key findings from studies in mice and man. © 2017 The Authors. Parasite Immunology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Potter, S. L.; Chan, M. A.; McPherson, B. J.
The Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation contains extensive alkaline saline lacustrine deposits rich in diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxides that are well exposed on the Colorado Plateau of the southwestern USA. These early diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxide minerals are associated with preserved diatoms and other algal forms, identified via scanning electron microscope (SEM) in thin sections of representative samples. The minerals are also associated with macroscopic bioturbation features (e.g., charophytes, burrows and fossilized dinosaur bones). Algal forms with cellular elaboration are identified by HF dissolution of bioturbation structures and examination with SEM. Collectively, these features suggest biomediated textures are preserved in early diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxides, and can persist for tens of millions of years. Modern microbially precipitated iron (oxyhydr)oxides and ~100ka tufa terraces from a cold spring system along Ten Mile Graben in southern Utah, USA are compared with the Morrison examples to identify modern microbial fossils and document any differences and preservation changes during diagenesis over geologic time. Two distinct suites of elements (1. C, Fe, As and 2. C, S, Se) are associated with microbial fossils in both the modern and ancient tufas, as well as the ancient Morrison specimens. The occurrence of these distinctive trace element configurations in the iron (oxyhydr)oxide minerals suggest the suites could be potential markers for biosignatures. The presence of ferrihydrite in ~100ka fossil microbial mats suggests this thermodynamically unstable mineral may also be used as a biomarker. Diagnostic trace element suites and unusual mineral phases warrant further study for their potential as biomarkers. These terrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxide examples will: 1) document specific biomediated textures and what their origins might be (related to different processes or species), 2) show how they might persist or respond to
Zhou, Ling; Jin, Zhangdong; Wang, Chia-Hui; Li, Fuchun; Wang, Yujiao; Wang, Xulong; Zhang, Fei; Chen, Liumei; Du, Jinhua
There is ongoing debate over how the water level and composition of the water in Lake Qinghai changed in the past and might change in future. This study of the microchemistry of otoliths from ancient naked carp explores the chemistry of a relict lake isolated from Lake Qinghai during the Little Ice Age (LIA). A close correlation between the ages measured on fish bone and otoliths by AMS-14C, and by optically stimulated luminescence on overlying sediments, confirms a high water level in Lake Qinghai before 680-300 years ago. The contrasting compositions of the ancient otoliths relative to modern otoliths and waters indicate that the relict lake became enriched in 18O, Mg, Li, B and to a lesser extent Ba, but depleted in 13C, owing to strong evaporation, authigenic carbonates precipitation, (micro-)organism activity, and less fresh water input after it was isolated. If there were long-term fresh water input, however, a reverse trend might occur. The most important observation is that, because the waters have been supersaturated with respect to carbonates, authigenic carbonate precipitation would result in low but consistent Sr/Ca ratios in the lakes, as recorded by both the ancient and modern otoliths. The geochemical records of ancient versus modern biogenic carbonates provide insights into the long-term hydroclimatic evolution processes of an inland water body.
At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.
Ragulskaya, Mariya; Rudenchik, Evgeniy; Gromozova, Elena; Voychuk, Sergei; Kachur, Tatiana
The study of biotropic effects of modern space weather carries the information about the rhythms and features of adaptation of early biological systems to the outer space influence. The influence of cosmic rays, ultraviolet waves and geomagnetic field on early life has its signs in modern biosphere processes. These phenomena could be experimentally studied on present-day biological objects. Particularly inorganic polyphosphates, so-called "fossil molecules", attracts special attention as the most ancient molecules which arose in inanimate nature and have been accompanying biological objects at all stages of evolution. Polyphosphates-containing graves of yeast's cells of Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain Y-517, , from the Ukrainian Collection of Microorganisms was studied by daily measurements during 2000-2013 years. The IZMIRAN daily data base of physiological parameters dynamics during 2000-2013 years were analyzed simultaneously (25 people). The analysis showed significant simultaneous changes of the statistical parameters of the studied biological systems in 2004 -2006. The similarity of simultaneous changes of adaptation strategies of human organism and the cell structures of Saccharomyces cerevisiae during the 23-24 cycles of solar activity are discussed. This phenomenon could be due to a replacement of bio-effective parameters of space weather during the change from 23rd to 24th solar activity cycle and nonstandard geophysical peculiarities of the 24th solar activity cycle. It could be suggested that the observed similarity arose as the optimization of evolution selection of the living systems in expectation of probable prolonged period of low solar activity (4-6 cycles of solar activity).
Pablo IJALBA PÉREZ
Full Text Available Analysis of the characteristics of popular history. Origin and consolidation of the so-called «history from below», associated with British Marxism, and evaluation of its impact on the historiography of Antiquity. Assessment of the possibilities of a history from below applied to the history of ancient Rome.
Gabriel G Perron
Full Text Available Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes.
Perron, Gabriel G; Whyte, Lyle; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Goordial, Jacqueline; Hanage, William P; Dantas, Gautam; Desai, Michael M
Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes.
Perron, Gabriel G.; Whyte, Lyle; Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Goordial, Jacqueline; Hanage, William P.; Dantas, Gautam; Desai, Michael M.
Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes. PMID:25807523
Lee, Wai Man; Wong, Frances Kam Yuet; Mok, Esther S B
Problem-based learning (PBL) has been widely adopted as a strategy by nurse educators all over the world. Many studies have been carried out to examine its process and outcomes. There are few studies discussing the relevance of PBL to students with different cultural background. This study reports the experiences of Chinese students in Hong Kong using PBL and explores if their experiences were compatible with the educational philosophy documented in traditional Chinese literature. The phenomenological approach was used in the treatment of data. The informants were students enrolled in the post-registration nursing degree programme at a university in Hong Kong during 1997-1998. A total of 94 journals were included in the analysis. Seven main themes emerged from the phenomenological analysis. They were the integration of knowing and doing, critical reflection and debate, individuality of learning, self-motivated learning, critical inquiry and independent thinking, timeliness of instruction and cooperative learning. This study provides evidence to show that PBL is an approach that is compatible with the Chinese way of learning. The result of this study shows that aspects of the modern PBL process harken back to an ancient Chinese learning philosophy that underpins Chinese learning today.
Hardisty, D. S.; Horner, T. J.; Wankel, S. D.; Lu, Z.; Lyons, T.; Nielsen, S.
A detailed understanding of the spatiotemporal oxygenation of Earth's atmosphere-ocean system through the Precambrian has important implications for the environments capable of sustaining early eukaryotic life and the evolving oxidant budget of subducted sediments. Proxy records suggest an anoxic Fe-rich deep ocean through much of the Precambrian and atmospheric and surface-ocean oxygenation that started in earnest at the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event (GOE). The marine photic zone represented the initial site of oxygen production and accumulation via cyanobacteria, yet our understanding of surface-ocean oxygen contents and the extent and timing of oxygen propagation and exchange between the atmosphere and deeper ocean are limited. Here, we present an updated perspective of the constraints on atmospheric, surface-ocean, and deep-ocean oxygen contents starting at the GOE. Our research uses the iodine content of Proterozoic carbonates as a tracer of dissolved iodate in the shallow ocean, a redox-sensitive species quantitatively reduced in modern oxygen minimum zones. We supplement our understanding of the ancient record with novel experiments examining the rates of iodate production from oxygenated marine environments based on seawater incubations. Combining new data from iodine with published shallow marine (Ce anomaly, N isotopes) and atmospheric redox proxies, we provide an integrated view of the vertical redox structure of the atmosphere and ocean across the Proterozoic.
Wu, Sheng; Tian, Li
Having served as a symbolic fruit since ancient times, pomegranate ( Punica granatum ) has also gained considerable recognition as a functional food in the modern era. A large body of literature has linked pomegranate polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins (ATs) and hydrolyzable tannins (HTs), to the health-promoting activities of pomegranate juice and fruit extracts. However, it remains unclear as to how, and to what extent, the numerous phytochemicals in pomegranate may interact and exert cooperative activities in humans. In this review, we examine the structural and analytical information of the diverse phytochemicals that have been identified in different pomegranate tissues, to establish a knowledge base for characterization of metabolite profiles, discovery of novel phytochemicals, and investigation of phytochemical interactions in pomegranate. We also assess recent findings on the function and molecular mechanism of ATs as well as urolithins, the intestinal microbial derivatives of pomegranate HTs, on human nutrition and health. A better understanding of the structural diversity of pomegranate phytochemicals as well as their bioconversions and bioactivities in humans will facilitate the interrogation of their synergistic/antagonistic interactions and accelerate their applications in dietary-based cancer chemoprevention and treatment in the future.
This comprehensive history traces the development of mathematical ideas and the careers of the men responsible for them. Volume 1 looks at the discipline's origins in Babylon and Egypt, the creation of geometry and trigonometry by the Greeks, and the role of mathematics in the medieval and early modern periods. Volume 2 focuses on calculus, the rise of analysis in the 19th century, and the number theories of Dedekind and Dirichlet. The concluding volume covers the revival of projective geometry, the emergence of abstract algebra, the beginnings of topology, and the influence of Godel on recent
Günther, Torsten; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malmström, Helena; Ureña, Irene; Rodriguez-Varela, Ricardo; Sverrisdóttir, Óddny Osk; Daskalaki, Evangelia A.; Skoglund, Pontus; Naidoo, Thijessen; Svensson, Emma M.; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Carbonell, Eudald; Dunn, Michael; Storå, Jan; Iriarte, Eneko; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Carretero, José-Miguel; Götherström, Anders; Jakobsson, Mattias
The consequences of the Neolithic transition in Europe—one of the most important cultural changes in human prehistory—is a subject of great interest. However, its effect on prehistoric and modern-day people in Iberia, the westernmost frontier of the European continent, remains unresolved. We present, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide sequence data from eight human remains, dated to between 5,500 and 3,500 years before present, excavated in the El Portalón cave at Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. We show that these individuals emerged from the same ancestral gene pool as early farmers in other parts of Europe, suggesting that migration was the dominant mode of transferring farming practices throughout western Eurasia. In contrast to central and northern early European farmers, the Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals additionally mixed with local southwestern hunter–gatherers. The proportion of hunter–gatherer-related admixture into early farmers also increased over the course of two millennia. The Chalcolithic El Portalón individuals showed greatest genetic affinity to modern-day Basques, who have long been considered linguistic and genetic isolates linked to the Mesolithic whereas all other European early farmers show greater genetic similarity to modern-day Sardinians. These genetic links suggest that Basques and their language may be linked with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic. Furthermore, all modern-day Iberian groups except the Basques display distinct admixture with Caucasus/Central Asian and North African groups, possibly related to historical migration events. The El Portalón genomes uncover important pieces of the demographic history of Iberia and Europe and reveal how prehistoric groups relate to modern-day people. PMID:26351665
Full Text Available This paper attempts to critically discuss on how the Acehnese in history, while trying to embrace the modern world, have made every effort at preserving their traditions. As an ethnic group which has a glorious past, Aceh has strongly been connected to “identity”; and this is expressed in various means, including “social memory.” For this very reason, “traditions”, including those of the past, are explored and preserved. Yet, the challenges of modernity are also apparent. It is in this context that the Acehnese are trapped at the crossroad. On the one hand, they tend to preserve their traditions, yet, on the other, they need to embrace modern lives. The Acehnese seem to have encountered considerable obstacles on this issue, for they tend to focus more on historical “romanticism” (nostalgia rather than historical “awareness” (consciousness. Eventually, the “spirit” of the past cannot be brought into light.
This paper aims at analysing the relevance of the historical awqaf system for modern Islamic economies. The main argument focuses on the fact that the awqaf system has provided throughout Islamic history all the essential services at no cost to the state. Thus, a successful modernisation of the system implies a significant cut in government expenditure and all the associated benefits; including downsizing the state sector and a reduction and even an eventual elimination of riba. As far as the...
Olóriz Marín, J A; Prim Espada, M P; de Diego Sastre, J I
Epistaxis is one of the more frequent entities in the otolaryngological practice. The term is attributed to CULLEN (1785). Since them, multiple theories concerning etiology, clinical manifestacions, diagnosis and management have been reported in the medical literature. Nevertheless, an impressive improvement of awareness about these questions have emerged in the last half of past century. The objective of this work is to revise the history of epistaxis since the ancient times to the first half of the 20th century.
Reynolds, Edward H
The word hysteria originated in the Corpus Hippocraticum (c420 BCE) as a natural explanation for a variety of diseases in women linked in the Greco-Roman mind to an animate or inanimate womb, but which in the last five centuries has evolved to describe an elusive disorder of brain ± mind in men and women, currently referred to by neurologists as "functional neurological disorder". The Babylonians, Assyrians and Egyptians had no knowledge of brain or psychological function. Babylonian and Assyrian descriptions of disease and behaviour include only rare examples suggestive of modern hysteria. An earlier suggestion that the Greek concept of hysteria was transmitted from Egypt is not supported by recent evidence. The Greco-Roman civilisations had some knowledge of neuroanatomy, but little of nervous system function, conceived in terms of humors. The examples cited here suggestive of modern hysteria are relatively infrequent and fragmentary. The most plausible are attempts to separate the "sacred disease" from other causes of loss of consciousness. The great achievement of Greco-Roman medicine was in introducing natural causation, including causation linked to the womb, rather than gods or evil spirits. Nevertheless medicine, magic and religion have remained intertwined to varying degrees in all cultures up to the present time, despite the growth of modern scientific medicine. The study of hysteria in ancient civilisations adds interesting insight into the evolution of thinking about brain, psyche, mind and self. Babylonian and Egyptian medical and behavioural descriptions are based on observation. Greek and Roman accounts include some subjective aspects, probably linked to early attempts to understand identity, the psyche, intellectual and emotional functions. The great philosophical debate whether the latter resided in the head/brain (Plato) or the heart (Aristotle) has only been settled in the last few centuries, during which hysteria also became linked to
Severmann, S.; Johnson, C. M.; Beard, B. L.; Yevenes, M.; Huerta-Diaz, M. A.; Thamdrup, B.; Hoehler, T.; Welch, S.
Fe isotope fractionations can be related to the isotope variations in a modern microbial mat. The aim is to provide a framework for the interpretation of S and Fe isotope compositions in ancient sedimentary environments.
This paper explores the assimilation of the flightless dodo into early modern natural history. The dodo was first described by Dutch sailors landing on Mauritius in 1598, and became extinct in the 1680s or 1690s. Despite this brief period of encounter, the bird was a popular subject in natural-history works and a range of other genres. The dodo will be used here as a counterexample to the historical narratives of taxonomic crisis and abrupt shifts in natural history caused by exotic creatures coming to Europe. Though this bird had a bizarre form, early modern naturalists integrated the dodo and other flightless birds through several levels of conceptual categorization, including the geographical, morphological and symbolic. Naturalists such as Charles L'Ecluse produced a set of typical descriptive tropes that helped make up the European dodo. These long-lived images were used for a variety of symbolic purposes, demonstrated by the depiction of the Dutch East India enterprise in Willem Piso's 1658 publication. The case of the dodo shows that, far from there being a dramatic shift away from emblematics in the seventeenth century, the implicit symbolic roles attributed to exotic beasts by naturalists constructing them from scant information and specimens remained integral to natural history.
Zhao, Huafang; Wade, Julie
The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) examined academic performance of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students in U.S. History and Modern World History courses, as well as the course sequence in ESOL U.S. History and Modern World History. In MCPS, students who are not ESOL…
Alexus McLeod explores every aspect of the lesser-known history of astronomy in the Americas (Mesoamerica and North America), China and India, each through the frame of a particular astronomical phenomena. Part One considers the development of astronomy in the Americas as a response, in part, to the Supernova of 1054, which may have led to a cultural renaissance in astronomy. He then goes on to explore the contemporary understanding of supernovae, contrasting it with that of the ancient Americas. Part Two is framed through the appearances of great comets, which had major divinatory significance in early China. The author discusses the advancement of observational astronomy in China, its influence on politics and its role in the survival or failure of empires. Furthermore, the contemporary understanding of comets is also discussed for comparison. Part Three, on India, considers the magnificent observatories of the Rajput king Jai Singh II, and the question of their purpose. The origins of Indian ast...
The birth of science in ancient Greece had a historical impact that is still being felt today. Physicist Demetris Nicolaides examines the epochal shift in thinking that led pre-Socratic philosophers of the sixth and fifth centuries BCE to abandon the prevailing mythologies of the age and, for the first time, to analyze the natural world in terms of impersonal, rationally understood principles. He argues not only that their conceptual breakthroughs anticipated much of later science but that scientists of the twenty-first century are still grappling with the fundamental problems raised twenty-five hundred years ago. Looking at the vast sweep of human history, the author delves into the factors that led to the birth of science: urbanization, the role of religion, and in Greece a progressive intellectual curiosity that was unafraid to question tradition. Why did the first scientific approach to understanding the world take place in Greece? The author makes a convincing case that, aside from factors of geography...
The review article attempts to focus on the practice of human cadaveric dissection during its inception in ancient Greece in 3rd century BC, revival in medieval Italy at the beginning of 14th century and subsequent evolution in Europe and the United States of America over the centuries. The article highlights on the gradual change in attitude of religious authorities towards human dissection, the shift in the practice of human dissection being performed by barber surgeons to the anatomist himself dissecting the human body and the enactment of prominent legislations which proved to be crucial milestones during the course of the history of human cadaveric dissection. It particularly emphasizes on the different means of procuring human bodies which changed over the centuries in accordance with the increasing demand due to the rise in popularity of human dissection as a tool for teaching anatomy. Finally, it documents the rise of body donation programs as the source of human cadavers for anatomical dissection from the second half of the 20th century. Presently innovative measures are being introduced within the body donation programs by medical schools across the world to sensitize medical students such that they maintain a respectful, compassionate and empathetic attitude towards the human cadaver while dissecting the same. Human dissection is indispensable for a sound knowledge in anatomy which can ensure safe as well as efficient clinical practice and the human dissection lab could possibly be the ideal place to cultivate humanistic qualities among future physicians in the 21st century. PMID:26417475
Twentieth-century China has been caught between a desire to increase its wealth and power in line with other advanced nations, which, by implication, means copying their institutions, practices and values, whilst simultaneously seeking to preserve China's independence and historically formed identity. Over time, Chinese philosophers, writers, artists and politicians have all sought to reconcile these goals and this book shows how this search for a Chinese way penetrated even the most central, least contested area of modernity: science.Reviving Ancient Chinese Mathematics is a study of the life
Humoralism, the view that the human body is composed of a limited number of elementary fluids, is one of the most characteristic aspects of ancient medicine. The psychological dimension of humoral theory in the ancient world has thus far received a relatively small amount of scholarly attention.
A. Yu. Suslov
Full Text Available Introduction. As a discipline, History holds a specific place among disciplines of a humanitarian cycle of educational programs of higher education institutions regardless of university specialities. History plays an important role in the course of formation of a citizen and development of critical thinking of a personality as an element of a common culture. However, new federal standards require a drastic reduction of the classroom hours for studying a History course by students of non-humanitarian specialties, and, at the same time, enhancement of the contents of a discipline (its reorientation from History of Russia towards World History. Therefore, History programmes and courses demand up-to-date approaches, methods and didactic means to provide formation of holistic worldview of future experts.The aim of the article is to consider the features of innovative methods application in teaching history in high school taking into consideration modernization processes.Methodology and research methods. The research undertaken is based on activity and competence-based approaches. The methods of analysis and synthesis of the academic literature on the research topic were used; the methods of reflection and generalization of teaching activities of the Department of Humanitarian Disciplines of theKazanNationalResearchTechnologicalUniversity were applied as well.Results and scientific novelty. A modern view on historical education has been proposed as means of students’ systems thinking formation, designing the ideas about the world historical process among students, the mission ofRussia in this process, and evolution ofRussia as a part of the modern civilization. It is stated that History university course is designed not only to give the students strong subject knowledge, but also to create axiological orientations and abilities on the basis of the analysis of historical collisions, objective and subjective factors of society development. Moreover
Full Text Available Stimulated by wide-ranging theories on its cultural and economic significance, the history of early modern consumption in the Low Countries has received a remarkable amount of attention in historiography during the last three decades. During this period the growing body of empirical evidence, as well as shifting theoretical frameworks, have gradually altered our understanding of early modern patterns of consumption, their causes and consequences. The current article presents a review of the main tendencies in the field of early modern consumption history, and the challenges to this historiographical field these have presented. Based on these challenges, the article suggests new avenues for future research. Vroegmoderne consumptiegeschiedenis. Hedendaagse uitdagingen entoekomstperspectievenGestimuleerd door verstrekkende nieuwe theorieën over haar cultureleen economische betekenis, heeft de historiografie met betrekking totvroegmoderne consumptie in de Nederlanden op opmerkelijk veel aandacht mogen rekenen tijdens de voorbije drie decennia. Daarbij hebben zowel een groeiende beschikbaarheid van empirisch bronnenmateriaal, als verschuivende theoretische perspectieven, geleidelijk aan ons begrip van vroegmoderne consumptiepatronen, en hun oorzaken en gevolgen grondig veranderd. Het huidige artikel biedt een overzicht van de belangrijkste tendensen in het domein van de vroegmoderne consumptiegeschiedenis, gevolgd door nieuwe uitdagingen en toekomstperspectieven.
Gomes, Maya L.; Johnston, David T.
Euxinic conditions, which are defined by the presence of sulfide in the water column, were common in ancient oceans. However, it is not clear how the presence of sulfide in the water column affects the balance between rates of sulfide oxidation and sulfate reduction, which plays a major role in regulating the net redox state of the ocean-atmosphere system. Euxinia could lead to higher rates of sulfide oxidation because sulfide may diffuse more rapidly into the oxic zone in solution than in sediment. Alternatively, sulfide oxidation could be inhibited by low overall availability of suitable oxidants in euxinic settings. Here, we constrain rates of sulfide oxidation versus sulfate reduction in four euxinic water columns in coastal ponds by modeling the evolution of the concentration and sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions of sulfate from post-hurricane, well-oxygenated conditions to modern, euxinic conditions. The results of the one-dimensional, depth-dependent models of water column sulfate geochemistry indicate that the fraction of sulfate reduced that is subsequently reoxidized is low (0.11-0.42) in euxinic systems relative to the modern well-oxygenated ocean (0.75-0.90). This implies that sulfide reoxidation rates are low in euxinic systems because of oxidant limitation and physical transport. Low fractional sulfide reoxidation in euxinic systems has important implications for exploring how oxygen levels in the ocean and atmosphere have changed through Earth history. We use a marine sulfate isotope box model to explore how low reoxidation rates in euxinic systems affect marine sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope records. Model results indicate that marine sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope compositions increase during the expansion of euxinia with patterns that are distinct from other isotopic changes to the marine sulfate reservoir. Thus, marine sulfate sulfur and oxygen isotope box models can be applied to ancient isotope records in order to evaluate the
Avanzo, Salvatore; Barbera, Roberto; de Mattia, Francesco; Rocca, Giuseppe La; Sorrentino, Mariapaola; Vicinanza, Domenico
ASTRA (Ancient instruments Sound/Timbre Reconstruction Application) is a project coordinated at Conservatory of Music of Parma which aims to bring history to life. Ancient musical instruments can now be heard for the first time in hundreds of years, thanks to the successful synergy between art/humanities and science. The Epigonion, an instrument of the past, has been digitally recreated using gLite, an advanced middleware developed in the context of the EGEE project and research networks such as GÉANT2 in Europe and EUMEDCONNECT2 in the Mediterranean region. GÉANT2 and EUMEDCONNECT2, by connecting enormous and heterogeneous computing resources, provided the needed infrastructures to speed up the overall computation time and enable the computer-intensive modeling of musical sounds. This paper summarizes the most recent outcomes of the project underlining how the Grid aspect of the computation can support the Cultural Heritage community.
Full Text Available One of the problems in the field of English literature studies is that, with compartmentalization and specialization, it becomes introspective to the point where it devolves into the study of metafiction and metacriticism. At its heart, however, literature has to be about something: Thackeray claimed its subject is human nature, but human nature is based in the interface between human and nature. This paper explores some of the problems in the interface between human knowledge, institutions, and nature, and will offer an example of cross-disciplinary, historical study to illustrate a well-known but, to most modern readers, impenetrable medieval text, Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe. It ends with three recommendations: look to history, cross boundaries between academic fields, and use practical, as well as theoretical, teaching methods.
These are the narrative individual country histories of exchange rate arrangements, 1946-2001 that underpin "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation". The chronologies allow us to date dual or multiple exchange rate episodes, as well as to differentiate between pre-announced pegs, crawling pegs, and bands from their de facto counterparts. We think it is important to distinguish between say, de facto pegs or bands from announced pegs or bands, because their proper...
This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.
Shams El-Din, Osama
...-Israeli conflict of 1973. This monograph provides an overview of Egypt's military history, including strategies and tactics used in decisive campaigns, and characteristics of the ancient Egyptian military that could be...
Full Text Available Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.
The epidemiological concept of confounding has had a convoluted history. It was first expressed as an issue of group non-comparability, later as an uncontrolled fallacy, then as a controllable fallacy named confounding, and, more recently, as an issue of group non-comparability in the distribution of potential outcome types. This latest development synthesised the apparent disconnect between phases of the history of confounding. Group non-comparability is the essence of confounding, and the statistical fallacy its consequence. This essay discusses how confounding was perceived in the 18th and 19th centuries, reviews how the concept evolved across the 20th century and finally describes the modern definition of confounding.
Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe; Welch, John J.; Barnes, Ian; Fulton, Tara L.; Barnett, Ross; O’Connell, Tamsin C.; Coxon, Peter; Monaghan, Nigel; Valdiosera, Cristina E.; Lorenzen, Eline D.; Willerslev, Eske; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Rambaut, Andrew; Thomas, Mark G.; Bradley, Daniel G.; Shapiro, Beth
Summary Background Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among those species most susceptible to the rapidly changing arctic climate, and their survival is of global concern. Despite this, little is known about polar bear species history. Future conservation strategies would significantly benefit from an understanding of basic evolutionary information, such as the timing and conditions of their initial divergence from brown bears (U. arctos) or their response to previous environmental change. Results We used a spatially explicit phylogeographic model to estimate the dynamics of 242 brown bear and polar bear matrilines sampled throughout the last 120,000 years and across their present and past geographic ranges. Our results show that the present distribution of these matrilines was shaped by a combination of regional stability and rapid, long-distance dispersal from ice-age refugia. In addition, hybridization between polar bears and brown bears may have occurred multiple times throughout the Late Pleistocene. Conclusions The reconstructed matrilineal history of brown and polar bears has two striking features. First, it is punctuated by dramatic and discrete climate-driven dispersal events. Second, opportunistic mating between these two species as their ranges overlapped has left a strong genetic imprint. In particular, a likely genetic exchange with extinct Irish brown bears forms the origin of the modern polar bear matriline. This suggests that interspecific hybridization not only may be more common than previously considered but may be a mechanism by which species deal with marginal habitats during periods of environmental deterioration. PMID:21737280
This article presents an introduction to the history of Indian psychiatry. It suggests that this history can be divided into four main periods, 1795 to 1857, 1858 to 1914, 1914 to 1947 and 1947 to the present day. The focus of the piece is on the periods 1858-1914 and 1914-1947, as it traces the main trends and developments of the colonial era and argues that the foundations of modern psychiatry in India were laid down in the period of British rule. A brief consideration of the post-Independence period suggests that the patterns established in the years of British rule have continued to influence the psychiatric system of modern India. Research for these conclusions is based on extensive archival work in Indian mental health institutions and in Indian records offices, as well as work conducted at the National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh and at the India Office Library, the Wellcome Institute Library and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.
Roelants, Kim; Gower, David J; Wilkinson, Mark; Loader, Simon P; Biju, S D; Guillaume, Karen; Moriau, Linde; Bossuyt, Franky
The fossil record of modern amphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians) provides no evidence for major extinction or radiation episodes throughout most of the Mesozoic and early Tertiary. However, long-term gradual diversification is difficult to reconcile with the sensitivity of present-day amphibian faunas to rapid ecological changes and the incidence of similar environmental perturbations in the past that have been associated with high turnover rates in other land vertebrates. To provide a comprehensive overview of the history of amphibian diversification, we constructed a phylogenetic timetree based on a multigene data set of 3.75 kb for 171 species. Our analyses reveal several episodes of accelerated amphibian diversification, which do not fit models of gradual lineage accumulation. Global turning points in the phylogenetic and ecological diversification occurred after the end-Permian mass extinction and in the late Cretaceous. Fluctuations in amphibian diversification show strong temporal correlation with turnover rates in amniotes and the rise of angiosperm-dominated forests. Approximately 86% of modern frog species and >81% of salamander species descended from only five ancestral lineages that produced major radiations in the late Cretaceous and early Tertiary. This proportionally late accumulation of extant lineage diversity contrasts with the long evolutionary history of amphibians but is in line with the Tertiary increase in fossil abundance toward the present.
Nature, especially the marine environment, provides the most effective drugs used in human therapy. Among the metazoans, the marine sponges (phylum Porifera), which are sessile filter feeders, produce the most potent and highly selective bioactive secondary metabolites. These animals (or their associated symbiotic microorganisms) synthesize secondary metabolites whose activity and selectivity has developed during their long evolutionary history (evochemistry). The exploitation of these resources has become possible due to the progress in molecular and cell biology. BIOTECmarin, the German Center of Excellence follows this rationale. In the past, these animals have been successfully and extensively utilized to isolate bioactive compounds and biomaterials for human benefit. Pharmaceuticals prepared from marine animals, primarily sponges, have been applied since ancient times (Hippocrates, Aristotle and later Plinius). It has been reported that extracts and/or components from sponges can be used for the treatment of specific diseases. For a systematic and applied-oriented exploitation, the successful development of effective compounds largely depends on quality of the institutional infrastructure of marine stations and more so on the biodiversity. The Center for Marine Research in Rovinj (Croatia) fulfils these prerequisites. Founded in 1891, this institute has to its credit major discoveries related to exploitation of secondary metabolites/biomaterials from sponges for therapeutical application and to obtain biomaterials for general wellbeing. This is the first part of a review focusing on biomedical prospecting. Here, we have mainly described the historic background. The details of techniques, substances, approaches and outlooks will be discussed in the second part. PMID:15257328
Werner E. G. Müller
Full Text Available Nature, especially the marine environment, provides the most effective drugs used in human therapy. Among the metazoans, the marine sponges (phylum Porifera, which are sessile filter feeders, produce the most potent and highly selective bioactive secondary metabolites. These animals (or their associated symbiotic microorganisms synthesize secondary metabolites whose activity and selectivity has developed during their long evolutionary history (evochemistry. The exploitation of these resources has become possible due to the progress in molecular and cell biology. BIOTECmarin, the German Center of Excellence follows this rationale. In the past, these animals have been successfully and extensively utilized to isolate bioactive compounds and biomaterials for human benefit. Pharmaceuticals prepared from marine animals, primarily sponges, have been applied since ancient times (Hippocrates, Aristotle and later Plinius. It has been reported that extracts and/or components from sponges can be used for the treatment of specific diseases. For a systematic and applied-oriented exploitation, the successful development of effective compounds largely depends on quality of the institutional infrastructure of marine stations and more so on the biodiversity. The Center for Marine Research in Rovinj (Croatia fulfils these prerequisites. Founded in 1891, this institute has to its credit major discoveries related to exploitation of secondary metabolites/biomaterials from sponges for therapeutical application and to obtain biomaterials for general wellbeing.This is the first part of a review focusing on biomedical prospecting. Here, we have mainly described the historic background. The details of techniques, substances, approaches and outlooks will be discussed in the second part.
Leven, K H
Research in ancient medical history, Greek and Roman as well as Mesopotamian and Egyptian, is usually done by philologically trained scholars; the ability to read texts in their original language is fundamental (though not sufficient) for any substantial work. There is, however, in such works the notion that something may be missing in fully understanding medicine of a certain time and culture. Does a medical historian of ancient medicine need, in addition to his philological and historical skills, a medical education? And in what way is a 'medical approach' to ancient medicine useful? Is it possible to stand at the bedside of a Hippocratic patient as a clinician or reconstruct the 'pathocoenosis', as Mirko D. Grmek (+ 2000) coined it, of ancient Greece? The present paper outlines the problem of applying present medical knowledge to ancient sources and touches on the topic of primary perception of disease and illness. An important aspect is that disease entities change in their socio-cultural setting. Examples ranging from the supposed Lupus erythematodes of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon to cases in the Hippocratic Epidemiae and plague descriptions of Greek authors illustrate the problem of retrospective diagnosis.
Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J
The concept of "letting go" or relinquishing control has a long intellectual history, including the earliest Taoist writings, long-standing religious traditions, modern conceptualizations of religious coping, and current psychological control theory. This paper briefly traces the ancient roots of "letting go," with an emphasis on Stoic philosophers, and plants it firmly in current control theory and religious coping research, with a focus on its more modern conceptualization, that of secondary control. Presenting the theoretical perspective, which is grounded in religious conceptions of control of outcomes integrated with modern control theory in psychology, is the main goal of this paper. However, the theoretical integration is bolstered by some initial descriptive findings based on cancer patients and survivors. This integration of religious coping and psychological theory has important implications for testing the utility of personal control and God-referenced control as ways to cope with the uncertainties of a serious illness such as cancer. Finally, the theory and descriptive findings lay the groundwork for future empirical studies and the development of counseling interventions.
In this article, the author describes her book, "Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself," a new book designed to help kids learn the history of the ancient Maya civilization. "Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself" offers the reader an engaging exploration of the history and culture of the Maya through building and crafts projects…
At the beginning of the 19th century in 1816, Jean Antoine Brutus Menier founded the "Maison Centrale de Droguerie Menier". It supplied most of the pharmacies in France with drugs of animal, plant and mineral origin for the pharmaceutical preparations recommended at that time. The company provided training for many chemists and pharmacists, and as such, had a collection of pots containing over seven hundred drugs that is currently held at the head office of the Council of the College of Pharmacists in Paris. After having described the pot collection, set it against the 19th century background which experienced a real revolution within this profession, and after retracing its history, a study was then carried out in order to compare the former uses with the modern uses for each of the drugs. Thanks to this detailed, comparative analysis it is now possible to evaluate the relevance of the therapeutic range of drugs in the first half of the 19th century, before the significant rise in chemistry. The Germinal Law changed the pharmacist's profession, and with the birth of chemistry, the art of the pharmacy was revolutionised. However, the drugs, and particularly those of plant origin, have managed to keep a dominant position in today's pharmaceutical domain and in the French or European Pharmacopoeia.
Marco Romani Mistretta
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ‘history of medicine’ outlined by the author of the Hippocratic treatise On Ancient Medicine, in order to reflect on the relationship between medicine and narrative in Classical Greece. At the outset of the work, the author provides an account of the beginnings of his discipline, conceiving of medicine’s history as a continuum of research and findings that unravel the nature of the human body and the cause of diseases. As this paper shows, the physician-narrator assigns to his craft a crucial role in fostering the birth and progress of human civilization. The rhetorical goals of the historical account are, as I argue, attained through a subtle narrative strategy. In fact, the narrator locates the origins of medicine within a teleological framework, marked by strong emphasis on the heuristic method that characterizes the past, the present, and the future of medical knowledge at once.
Stucky de Quay, Gaia; Roberts, Gareth G.; Watson, Jonathan S.; Jackson, Christopher A.-L.
Ancient buried terrestrial landscapes contain records of vertical motions which can be used to probe histories of geodynamical processes. In the North Atlantic Ocean, sedimentary basins contain excellent evidence that the continental shelf experienced staged subaerial exposure. For example, now buried landscapes were uplifted, rapidly eroded, and drowned close to the Paleocene-Eocene boundary. We use commercial wells and three-dimensional seismic data to reconstruct a 57-55 Ma landscape now buried 1.5 km beneath the seabed in the Bressay area of the northern North Sea. Geochemical analyses of organic matter from core samples intersecting the erosional landscape indicate the presence of angiosperm (flowering plant) debris. Combined with the presence of coarse clastic material, mapped beach ridges, and dendritic drainage patterns, these observations indicate that this landscape was of terrestrial origin. Longitudinal profiles of ancient rivers were extracted and inverted for an uplift rate history. The best-fitting uplift rate history has three phases and total cumulative uplift of 350 m. Biostratigraphic data from surrounding marine stratigraphy indicate that this landscape formed within 1-1.5 Ma. This uplift history is similar to that of a slightly older buried landscape in the Faeroe-Shetland basin 400 km to the west. These records of vertical motion can explained by pulses of anomalously hot asthenosphere spreading out from the incipient Icelandic plume. Using simple isostatic calculations we estimate that the maximum thermal anomaly beneath Bressay was 50˚. Our observations suggest that a thermal anomaly departed the Icelandic plume as early as 58.5 Ma and had highest average temperatures at 55.6 Ma.
This book presents a collection of memoir papers on the development of modern and contemporary optics and optoelectronics in China from the 18th to 20th centuries. The papers were written by famous scientists in China, including members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, sharing their experience in different fields of optics and optoelectronics development. This is a unique book in understanding the natural science history of optics and optoelectronics. It gives you the general idea about how the western optical science spread to China in the 17th to 18th century; the cradle of the contemporary optics in China; Birth, development and application of lasers in China; high energy and high power lasers for laser antiballistic missile and laser nuclear fusion; development of Chinese optical communication and optical information storage; laser and infrared optics research for space science; development of Chinese optical instruments, etc.
Elman, Benjamin A
These essays collectively present new perspectives on the history of modem science in China since 1900. Fa-ti Fan describes how science under the Republic of China after 1911 exhibited a complex local and international character that straddled both imperialism and colonialism. Danian Hu focuses on the fate of relativity in the physics community in China after 1917. Zuoyue Wang hopes that a less nationalist political atmosphere in China will stimulate more transnational studies of modern science, which will in turn reveal the underlying commonalities in different national contexts. Sigrid Schmalzer compares the socialist and the capitalist contexts for science in China and reopens the sensitive question of the "mass line" during the Cultural Revolution. Grace Shen describes the tensions early Chinese scientists felt when choosing between foreign models for modem geology and their own professional identities in China. Taken together, these accounts present us with a comparative history of modern science in China that is both globally and locally informed.
EVSEEVA G. P.
Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.
Klemetti, E. W.; Lackey, J.; Starnes, J.; Wooden, J. L.
Volcanic rocks are an important marker for magmatism in the Earth's past and may be all that remains (or is exposed) to elucidate on magmagenesis in ancient terranes. Unlike plutonic rocks, which are likely aggregates of many pulses of magmatism over 104 to 106 year timescales, volcanic rocks are snapshots into specific moments in the development of a magmatic system, and in a larger sense, the tectonic setting in which the volcanoes reside. However, volcanic rocks from the rock record are commonly altered, preventing straightforward petrogenetic interpretation. In contrast, studies of refractory trace minerals such as zircon allow original petrogenesis to be recovered. In the south central Sierra Nevada batholith, Triassic to Cretaceous meta-rhyolites of the Mineral King roof pendant record snapshots of rhyolitic volcanism from key intervals of magmatism in the Sierra arc, however these rhyolites are highly altered and deformed, so little can be deduced about the original magmas or their tectonic settings. To resolve this, we recovered zircon from the four principle rhyolite units to date via SHRIMP-RG. Ages on rhyolites at Mineral King range from ˜196 Ma to 134 Ma, with three of the rhyolites being between 134 and 136 Ma. We also measured trace element composition (REE, Hf, Y and others) to explore the origins of the rhyolites. We can examine the processes at work in the development of these rhyolites along the western margin of North America during the Jurassic and Cretaceous by comparing them with modern volcanic arcs that produce abundant rhyolite eruptions, such as the Okataina Caldera Complex, New Zealand. Compared to zircon from the Okataina rhyolites, Mineral King rhyolites show a much more fractionation-dominated pattern of high Eu/Eu* (0.30-0.50) to low (source, unlike Okataina zircon that suggest abundance crystal recycling along with crystal fractionation. At a given Hf concentration, the Th/U of Mineral King rhyolites are lower than Okataina
Ho, M.; Zinniker, D.; Green Nylen, N.; Moldowan, J. M.; Denisevich, P.
Members of the Taxodiaceae/Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (TCT) complex of conifers originated sometime before the late Jurassic. Since that time the group has diverged to fill diverse ecological niches in desert, marsh, tundra, alpine, and coastal habitats and a variety of forest types. 175 species from 35 genera are now found across 6 continents. The aims of this research project are 1) to analyze and describe cuticular isoprenoid and acetogenic lipids from a diverse group of living members of the TCT complex and 2) to begin a search for these compounds and their diagenetic products in geological samples with known contributions from ancient TCT members. Hexane extracts of several hundred modern conifer specimens from more than 25 genera were studied in an attempt to find phylogenetic trends in the distribution and abundance of wax components. Diverse skeletal types of bicyclic, tricyclic, and tetracyclic diterpenes were found throughout the TCT complex. These compounds were found to have the highest absolute and relative abundance in several temperate rainforest and marsh endemics and the lowest relative abundance in desert adapted species. Large scale phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of individual diterpenes were not evident. Some species showed little intraspecific variation in diterpenes, while others showed considerable variability in diterpene products from one tree to another. The waxes of many members of the TCT complex are dominated by uniquely long-chain normal alkanes, with peak abundance at 33 and/or 35 carbons. This character is found within a phylogenetically distinct group of TCT -- including the genera Austrocedrus, Callitris, Calocedrus, Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Diselma, Fitzroya, Juniperus, Libocedrus, Platycladus, Taxodium, Tetraclinis, Thuja, and Thujopsis -- and is seen in plants from extremely different habitats. We postulate that this group within the TCT complex shares a conserved very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongase
Huang, Xia; Shen, Xi
The ancient academy in China demonstrated some unique educational values, such as the school-running idea of independence and autonomy and the governance by famous experts, the instruction idea of being free and open and focusing on academy and morality cultivation, and the management concept of mind-oriented administration and student autonomy.…
Osvaldo Pessoa Jr.
Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n1p117 As part of an ongoing study of causal models in the history of science, a counterfactual scenario in the history of modern astronomy is explored with the aid of computer simulations. After the definition of “linking advance”, a possible world involving technological antecedence is described, branching out in 1510, in which the telescope is invented 70 years before its actual construction, at the time in which Fracastoro actually built the first prototelescope. By using the principle of the closest possible world (PCP, we estimate that in this scenario the discovery of the elliptical orbit of Mars would by anticipated by only 28 years. The second part of the paper involves an estimate of the probability of the previous scenario, guided by the principle that the actual world is the mean (PAM and using computer simulations to create possible worlds in which the time spans between advances is varied according to a gamma distribution function. Taking into account the importance of the use of the diaphragm for the invention of the telescope, the probability that the telescope were built by 1538 for a branching time at 1510 is found to be smaller than 1%. The work shows that one of the important features of computational simulations in philosophy of science is to serve as a consistency check for the intuitions and speculations of the philosopher.
Aleksey V. Petrov
Full Text Available The article presents an overview of six printed books of a new ongoing scientific project, The Ancient Rus in Time, in Personalities, in Ideas anthology, on the basis of the current state of the features of the Russian history about the Russian Middle Ages. The authors try to show that in the modern history, which is characterized by multi-pronged approaches (based on both the traditions emerged more than one century and a half ago and those currently emerging, new forms of cooperation between research institutions and individual researchers are possible on the basis of independent publications underpinned by a private initiative. An example of the anthology, which is being published during the last three years and on which its publishers work in cooperation with individual researchers and scientific institutions (St. Petersburg Theological Academy, St. Petersburg State University and the Institute of Philosophy of the Russian Academy of Sciences, illustrates that coordination activity of the scientific community, at least in one discipline, may be based on a nonprofit private publishing project. The experience of the print edition and, more broadly, the experience of the comprehension of the national history are inseparable from national traditions and culture, understanding of which lies, perhaps, in a framework of historical knowledge. Translation of these experiences have the primary task of any science, primarily humanities, and the anthology is a new convenient platform for the dissemination of this experience, as exemplified by the content of the already published issues of the anthology.
This paper reports on a research study that investigated the extent to which the Queensland secondary school subject Modern History adopts characteristics of socially critical environmental education. The study found that while the Modern History syllabus gives ample opportunities for students to focus their inquiries on "environment",…
Paijmans, Johanna L A; Barnett, Ross; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Zepeda-Mendoza, M Lisandra; Reumer, Jelle W F; de Vos, John; Zazula, Grant; Nagel, Doris; Baryshnikov, Gennady F; Leonard, Jennifer A; Rohland, Nadin; Westbury, Michael V; Barlow, Axel; Hofreiter, Michael
Saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) are among the most widely recognized representatives of the now largely extinct Pleistocene megafauna. However, many aspects of their ecology, evolution, and extinction remain uncertain. Although ancient-DNA studies have led to huge advances in our knowledge of these aspects of many other megafauna species (e.g., mammoths and cave bears), relatively few ancient-DNA studies have focused on saber-toothed cats [1-3], and they have been restricted to short fragments of mitochondrial DNA. Here we investigate the evolutionary history of two lineages of saber-toothed cats (Smilodon and Homotherium) in relation to living carnivores and find that the Machairodontinae form a well-supported clade that is distinct from all living felids. We present partial mitochondrial genomes from one S. populator sample and three Homotherium sp. samples, including the only Late Pleistocene Homotherium sample from Eurasia . We confirm the identification of the unique Late Pleistocene European fossil through ancient-DNA analyses, thus strengthening the evidence that Homotherium occurred in Europe over 200,000 years later than previously believed. This in turn forces a re-evaluation of its demography and extinction dynamics. Within the Machairodontinae, we find a deep divergence between Smilodon and Homotherium (∼18 million years) but limited diversity between the American and European Homotherium specimens. The genetic data support the hypothesis that all Late Pleistocene (or post-Villafrancian) Homotherium should be considered a single species, H. latidens, which was previously proposed based on morphological data [5, 6]. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Pickrell, Joseph K; Reich, David
Genetic information contains a record of the history of our species, and technological advances have transformed our ability to access this record. Many studies have used genome-wide data from populations today to learn about the peopling of the globe and subsequent adaptation to local conditions. Implicit in this research is the assumption that the geographic locations of people today are informative about the geographic locations of their ancestors in the distant past. However, it is now clear that long-range migration, admixture, and population replacement subsequent to the initial out-of-Africa expansion have altered the genetic structure of most of the world's human populations. In light of this we argue that it is time to critically reevaluate current models of the peopling of the globe, as well as the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes. We specifically highlight the transformative potential of ancient DNA. By accessing the genetic make-up of populations living at archaeologically known times and places, ancient DNA makes it possible to directly track migrations and responses to natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Horn, Susanne; Prost, Stefan; Stiller, Mathias; Makowiecki, Daniel; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Benecke, Norbert; Pucher, Erich; Hufthammer, Anne K; Schouwenburg, Charles; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael
After centuries of human hunting, the Eurasian beaver Castor fiber had disappeared from most of its original range by the end of the 19th century. The surviving relict populations are characterized by both low genetic diversity and strong phylogeographical structure. However, it remains unclear whether these attributes are the result of a human-induced, late Holocene bottleneck or already existed prior to this reduction in range. To investigate genetic diversity in Eurasian beaver populations during the Holocene, we obtained mitochondrial control region DNA sequences from 48 ancient beaver samples and added 152 modern sequences from GenBank. Phylogeographical analyses of the data indicate a differentiation of European beaver populations into three mitochondrial clades. The two main clades occur in western and eastern Europe, respectively, with an early Holocene contact zone in eastern Europe near a present-day contact zone. A divergent and previously unknown clade of beavers from the Danube Basin survived until at least 6000 years ago, but went extinct during the transition to modern times. Finally, we identify a recent decline in effective population size of Eurasian beavers, with a stronger bottleneck signal in the western than in the eastern clade. Our results suggest that the low genetic diversity and the strong phylogeographical structure in recent beavers are artefacts of human hunting-associated population reductions. While beaver populations have been growing rapidly since the late 19th century, genetic diversity within modern beaver populations remains considerably reduced compared to what was present prior to the period of human hunting and habitat reduction.
Witt, Kelsey E; Judd, Kathleen; Kitchen, Andrew; Grier, Colin; Kohler, Timothy A; Ortman, Scott G; Kemp, Brian M; Malhi, Ripan S
As dogs have traveled with humans to every continent, they can potentially serve as an excellent proxy when studying human migration history. Past genetic studies into the origins of Native American dogs have used portions of the hypervariable region (HVR) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to indicate that prior to European contact the dogs of Native Americans originated in Eurasia. In this study, we summarize past DNA studies of both humans and dogs to discuss their population histories in the Americas. We then sequenced a portion of the mtDNA HVR of 42 pre-Columbian dogs from three sites located in Illinois, coastal British Columbia, and Colorado, and identify four novel dog mtDNA haplotypes. Next, we analyzed a dataset comprised of all available ancient dog sequences from the Americas to infer the pre-Columbian population history of dogs in the Americas. Interestingly, we found low levels of genetic diversity for some populations consistent with the possibility of deliberate breeding practices. Furthermore, we identified multiple putative founding haplotypes in addition to dog haplotypes that closely resemble those of wolves, suggesting admixture with North American wolves or perhaps a second domestication of canids in the Americas. Notably, initial effective population size estimates suggest at least 1000 female dogs likely existed in the Americas at the time of the first known canid burial, and that population size increased gradually over time before stabilizing roughly 1200 years before present. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Zhang, Xiaoning; Guo, Xin; Yu, Baoluo; Zhang, Na; Ma, Yuxia
In order to improve the clinical efficacy of the umbilicus fumigation method, the ancient literature with the heat control of umbilicus fumigation method involved is collected extensively and analyzed systematically, and the heat control, precautions and contraindications of this method are discussed. In association with the cases and the present clinical experience, the main factors to the heat control are introduced, such as preparation of doughnuts, filling quantity, size of moxa cone and numbers of moxa cones so that the clinical application of the umbilicus fumigation method can be promoted and enhanced.
Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a correlation between phylogenetic relationship and inflammatory response amongst a panel of clinical isolates representative of the global diversity of the human Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC. Measurement of cytokines from infected human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages revealed a wide variation in the response to different strains. The same pattern of high or low response to individual strains was observed for different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and was conserved across multiple human donors. Although each major phylogenetic lineage of MTBC included strains inducing a range of cytokine responses, we found that overall inflammatory phenotypes differed significantly across lineages. In particular, comparison of evolutionarily modern lineages demonstrated a significant skewing towards lower early inflammatory response. The differential response to ancient and modern lineages observed using GM-CSF derived macrophages was also observed in autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, but not in human unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We hypothesize that the reduced immune responses to modern lineages contribute to more rapid disease progression and transmission, which might be a selective advantage in the context of expanding human populations. In addition to the lineage effects, the large strain-to-strain variation in innate immune responses elicited by MTBC will need to be considered in tuberculosis vaccine development.
Appropriate dose guarantees Chinese herb's safety and effectiveness. There are adult dose criteria for Chinese herbs in decoction in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) at present. But Chinese herbs have been frequently used in much higher doses than the dose criteria. This study has been conducted to test the dependability of the dose criteria. Twenty Chinese herbs were selected as representatives and their adult doses in decoction in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang, a famous ancient literature, have been reviewed and compared with those in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition). The adult dose criteria for all these 20 Chinese herbs in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) haven't covered those in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang. Furthermore, maximal adult doses in the dose criteria are much lower than those in Bei Ji Qian Jin Yao Fang. The dose criteria in the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China (2010 Edition) are not comprehensive enough. Studying ancient literatures is an effective method to gain precious Chinese herbs' dose data and helps for new dose criteria's establishment in the future.
Abdou, Ehaab D.
Guided by critical discourse analysis, this study analyzes how ancient civilizations are constructed in high school history textbooks used in Quebec, Canada. The findings suggest that the narrative generally ignores 2-way intercultural exchanges. The narrative is also Eurocentric, silencing sub-Saharan Africa's contributions and nonmaterial…
Lazarakou, Elisabeth D.
The present study examines the ancient Greek history curriculum and the corresponding textbook as they are implemented in the fourth grade of primary school in an aim to determine whether and to what extent empathy is recognized as a fundamental tool for historical understanding. A close examination of the curriculum revealed that empathy is not…
Hu, Minhao; Wattchow, David; de Fontgalland, Dayan
The landscape of surgical anatomy education is progressively changing. Traditional methods, such as cadaveric dissection and didacticism are being increasingly phased out in undergraduate courses for multimodal approaches incorporating problem-based learning, radiology and computer-based simulations. Although effective at clinically contextualizing and integrating anatomical information, these approaches may be a poor substitute for fostering a grasp of foundational 'pure' anatomy. Dissection is ideal for this purpose and hence remains the cornerstone of anatomical education. However, novel methods and technological advancements continually give way to adjuncts such as cadaveric surgery, three-dimensional printing, virtual simulation and live surgical streaming, which have demonstrated significant efficacy alone or alongside dissection. Therefore, although divergent paradigms of 'new versus old' approaches have engulfed and divided the community, educators should seek to integrate the ancient and avant-garde to comprehensively satisfy all of the modern anatomy learner's educational needs. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Surgeons.
Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.
Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.
Patel, Sutchin R; Nakada, Stephen Y
Serendipity, innovative physicians, evolving techniques for renal access, and improvements in equipment and radiology led to the evolution of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). We searched urology texts and the literature for sources pertaining to the history and development of PCNL. In 1941, Rupel and Brown performed the first nephroscopy when a rigid cystoscope was passed into the kidney following open surgery. Willard Goodwin, in 1955, while trying to perform a renal arteriogram, placed a needle into the collecting system of a hydronephrotic kidney and performed the first antegrade nephrostogram. He left a tube to drain the kidney, thereby placing the first nephrostomy tube. By 1976, Fernström and Johansson were the first to describe a technique for extracting renal calculi through a percutaneous nephrostomy under radiological control. In 1978, Arthur Smith, would describe the first antegrade stent placement when he introduced a Gibbons stent through a percutaneous nephrostomy in a patient with a reimplanted ureter. Dr. Smith would coin the term "endourology" to describe closed, controlled manipulation of the genitourinary tract. His collaboration with Kurt Amplatz, an interventional radiologist and medical inventor, would lead to numerous innovations that would further advance PCNL. In the 1980s the process of renal access and tract dilation was improved upon and the use of a rigid cystoscope was replaced by offset nephroscopes with a large straight working channel. Radiographic innovations, including improvements in fluoroscopy would further aid in renal access. The development of various lithotripsy devices and the introduction of the holmium laser improved the efficiency of stone fragmentation and clearance. The increased clinical experience and utilization of PCNL would lead to the characterization of stone-free rates and complications for the procedure. Serendipity, innovations in renal access, optics, radiology, and improvements in lithotripsy all
Pimienta-Barrios, E. (Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico)); Nobel, P.S (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))
Pitayas from various species were an important edible fruit in semiarid lands of tropical and subtropical Mexico in ancient times. Recently, farmers have been cultivating plants selected from the wild, such as Stenocereus queretaroensis in the Sayula Basin of Jalisco. These cacti can flower and produce fruit before the onset of the summer rainy period. Their fruits have an attractively colored pulp (often dark red) with digestible seeds and without the nasty glochids found on cactus pears. The sugar content is 10 to 11%. The shelf life is only a few days, as the fruits tend to dehisce longitudinally. Pitayas bring a competitive price in local markets, resulting in a substantial financial return with relatively low inputs of water, fertilizer, and pesticides.
Dupont, C.; Caetano-Anolles, G.
The genomes of extant organisms are ultimately derived from ancient life, thus theoretically contain insight to ancient physiology, ecology, and environments. In particular, metalloenzymes may be particularly insightful. The fundamental chemistry of trace elements dictates the molecular speciation and reactivity both within cells and the environment at large. Using protein structure and comparative genomics, we elucidate several major influences this chemistry has had upon biology. All of life exhibits the same proteome size-dependent scaling for the number of metal-binding proteins within a proteome. This fundamental evolutionary constant shows that the selection of one element occurs at the exclusion of another, with the eschewal of Fe for Zn and Ca being a defining feature of eukaryotic pro- teomes. Early life lacked both the structures required to control intracellular metal concentrations and the metal-binding proteins that catalyze electron transport and redox transformations. The development of protein structures for metal homeostasis coincided with the emergence of metal-specific structures, which predomi- nantly bound metals abundant in the Archean ocean. Potentially, this promoted the diversification of emerging lineages of Archaea and Bacteria through the establishment of biogeochemical cycles. In contrast, structures binding Cu and Zn evolved much later, pro- viding further evidence that environmental availability influenced the selection of the elements. The late evolving Zn-binding proteins are fundamental to eukaryotic cellular biology, and Zn bioavailabil- ity may have been a limiting factor in eukaryotic evolution. The results presented here provide an evolutionary timeline based on genomic characteristics, and key hypotheses can be tested by alternative geochemical methods.
N.A. Aldabek; M.B. Assyl; D.B. Dauyen; A.E. Serikkaliyeva
The aim of this paper is to investigate a process of modernization of the People-s Republic of China. The theme of scientific research is interesting, first, because the Chinese model of development is recognized as successful and most dynamically developing. They are obliged by these successes of the modernization spent in the country. Economy modernization as the basic motive power of progress of the country is a priority direction of development in the Republic of Kazakhstan. So the exampl...
Teasdale, M D; van Doorn, N L; Fiddyment, S; Webb, C C; O'Connor, T; Hofreiter, M; Collins, M J; Bradley, D G
Parchment represents an invaluable cultural reservoir. Retrieving an additional layer of information from these abundant, dated livestock-skins via the use of ancient DNA (aDNA) sequencing has been mooted by a number of researchers. However, prior PCR-based work has indicated that this may be challenged by cross-individual and cross-species contamination, perhaps from the bulk parchment preparation process. Here we apply next generation sequencing to two parchments of seventeenth and eighteenth century northern English provenance. Following alignment to the published sheep, goat, cow and human genomes, it is clear that the only genome displaying substantial unique homology is sheep and this species identification is confirmed by collagen peptide mass spectrometry. Only 4% of sequence reads align preferentially to a different species indicating low contamination across species. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest an upper bound of contamination at 5%. Over 45% of reads aligned to the sheep genome, and even this limited sequencing exercise yield 9 and 7% of each sampled sheep genome post filtering, allowing the mapping of genetic affinity to modern British sheep breeds. We conclude that parchment represents an excellent substrate for genomic analyses of historical livestock.
Farrell, P R; Magida Farrell, L; Farrell, M K
The formal evaluation of scientific literature by invited referees (peer reviewers) is a relatively recent phenomenon and now is considered a cornerstone of modern science. However, its roots can be traced back to antiquity. As the speed and complexity of scientific information and publishing increases in the digital age, peer review must continue to evolve. To understand the future direction of peer review, we must understand its past. Here, we briefly explore the history of scientific peer review. This may help us predict and design appropriate peer review for the new era. This work was originally presented at the Pediatric Academic Societies Annual Meeting in Baltimore, Maryland in the Spring of 2016.
The PhD thesis Ancient Hunters, Modern Butchers presents a first detailed study of bone material found together with spectacularly preserved wooden spears at the Lower Palaeolithic site of Schöningen 13II-4, in Germany. Analysis of a large sample of bone remains from this site revealed data being
Sulfur isotopes have been widely used to trace the activity of sulfate reducing prokaryotes in modern and ancient geochemical settings and to estimate the role of this microbial metabolism in global sulfur cycling. Extensive pure culture data provide detailed insight into cellular mechanisms
This study comes in response to recent changes in UK policy, whereby Ancient Greek and Latin have been included alongside modern languages as part of the curriculum at Key Stage 2. It aims to understand how Ancient Greek is surviving and thriving in three different types of schools. After a short overview of the history of Greek teaching in the…
Нерубасская, А. А.
Modern generation has faced the global changing of the world which can not but influence human health and moreover - the health of bifurcational personality as they call it nowadays, i.e. personality that has chosen its path running in unsteady conditions and under decreasing stability. Civilizations changed, philosophy and science changed but health has always had its constants. This is what this article is about. In the works of our contemporaries we can find a lot of different techniques o...
Full Text Available Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation.
Gasc, Cyrielle; Peyretaillade, Eric; Peyret, Pierre
The recent expansion of next-generation sequencing has significantly improved biological research. Nevertheless, deep exploration of genomes or metagenomic samples remains difficult because of the sequencing depth and the associated costs required. Therefore, different partitioning strategies have been developed to sequence informative subsets of studied genomes. Among these strategies, hybridization capture has proven to be an innovative and efficient tool for targeting and enriching specific biomarkers in complex DNA mixtures. It has been successfully applied in numerous areas of biology, such as exome resequencing for the identification of mutations underlying Mendelian or complex diseases and cancers, and its usefulness has been demonstrated in the agronomic field through the linking of genetic variants to agricultural phenotypic traits of interest. Moreover, hybridization capture has provided access to underexplored, but relevant fractions of genomes through its ability to enrich defined targets and their flanking regions. Finally, on the basis of restricted genomic information, this method has also allowed the expansion of knowledge of nonreference species and ancient genomes and provided a better understanding of metagenomic samples. In this review, we present the major advances and discoveries permitted by hybridization capture and highlight the potency of this approach in all areas of biology. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Caruso, Valentina; Cummaudo, Marco; Maderna, Emanuela; Cappella, Annalisa; Caudullo, Giorgio; Scarpulla, Valentina; Cattaneo, Cristina
The present study aims to evaluate the preservation of the microstructure of skeletal remains collected from four different known burial sites (archaeological and contemporary). Histological analysis on undecalcified and decalcified thin sections was performed in order to assess which of the two techniques is more affected by taphonomic insults. A histological analysis was performed on both undecalcified and decalcified thin sections of 40 long bones and the degree of diagenetic change was evaluated using transmitted and polarized light microscopy according to the Oxford Histological Index (OHI). In order to test the optical behavior of bone tissue, thin sections were observed by polarized light microscopy and the intensity of birefringence was evaluated. The more ancient samples are generally characterized by a low OHI (0-1) with extensive microscopic focal destruction; recent samples exhibited a better preservation of bone micromorphology. When comparing undecalcified to decalcified thin sections, the latter showed an amelioration in the conservation of microscopic structure. As regards the birefringence, it was very low in all the undecalcified thin sections, whereas decalcification process seems to improve its visibility. The preservation of the bone microscopic structure appears to be influenced not only by age, but also by the burial context. Undecalcified bones appear to be more affected by taphonomical alterations, probably because of the thickness of the thin sections; on the contrary, decalcified thin sections proved to be able to tackle this issue allowing a better reading of the bone tissue. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Moers, M.E.C.; Larter, S.R. (The University, Newcastle upon Tyne (United Kingdom))
Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analyzed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterize various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass (Halodule uninervis), and mangrove (Avicennia marine) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr BP. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose, and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria (Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria (Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other [open quotes]minor[close quotes] saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms. 22 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.
Full Text Available Goethe’s rejection of Newton’s theory of colors is an interesting example of the vulnerability of the human mind—however brilliant it might be—to fanaticism. After an analysis of Goethe’s persistent fascination with magic and occultism, of his education, existential experiences, influences, and idiosyncrasies, the authors propose an original interpretation of his anti-Newtonian position. The relevance of Goethe’s Farbenlehre to physics and physiology, from the perspective of modern science, is discussed in detail.
Oleza, J. (Joan)
This book offers the reader for the first time in English some of Joan Oleza’s most representative essays on early modern Spanish theatre. Its pages go through the genre system that Lope de Vega puts into play and its evolution over time.They stop especially on one of the most innovative genres, the historical drama of private events. Or they go into the relativistic discourse that supports Lope de Vega’s theatre, such as Montaigne’s essays, as opposed to the theocentric and substantial thoug...
Goldin, Andrea P.; Pezzatti, Laura; Battro, Antonio M.; Sigman, Mariano
Two thousand four hundred years ago Socrates gave a remarkable lesson of geometry, perhaps the first detailed record of a pedagogical method in vivo in history [Plato. (2008). "Apologia de Socrates. Menon. Cratilo." Madrid: Alianza Editorial]. Socrates asked Meno's slave 50 questions requiring simple additions or multiplications. At the…
Our understanding of the history and development of Arabic is greatly challenged by the dearth of sources. Most scholars who have undertaken this task in the past have relied almost exclusively on data from the Arabic grammatical tradition. These sources claimed that Arabic originated as the language of the Bedouin of the central and southern…
Delile, Hugo; Keenan-Jones, Duncan; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud-Godet, Florent; Albarède, Francis
Heavy metals from urban runoff preserved in sedimentary deposits record long-term economic and industrial development via the expansion and contraction of a city's infrastructure. Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions measured in the sediments of the harbor of Ostia-Rome's first harbor-show that lead pipes used in the water supply networks of Rome and Ostia were the only source of radiogenic Pb, which, in geologically young central Italy, is the hallmark of urban pollution. High-resolution geochemical, isotopic, and 14 C analyses of a sedimentary core from Ostia harbor have allowed us to date the commissioning of Rome's lead pipe water distribution system to around the second century BC, considerably later than Rome's first aqueduct built in the late fourth century BC. Even more significantly, the isotopic record of Pb pollution proves to be an unparalleled proxy for tracking the urban development of ancient Rome over more than a millennium, providing a semiquantitative record of the water system's initial expansion, its later neglect, probably during the civil wars of the first century BC, and its peaking in extent during the relative stability of the early high Imperial period. This core record fills the gap in the system's history before the appearance of more detailed literary and inscriptional evidence from the late first century BC onward. It also preserves evidence of the changes in the dynamics of the Tiber River that accompanied the construction of Rome's artificial port, Portus , during the first and second centuries AD.
Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the 'native' South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America, but with an uncertain affinity to any particular placental lineage. Many authors have considered them descended from Laurasian 'condylarths', which also includes the probable ancestors of perissodactyls and artiodactyls, whereas others have placed them either closer to the uniquely South American xenarthrans (anteaters, armadillos and sloths) or the basal afrotherians (e.g. elephants and hyraxes). These hypotheses have been debated owing to conflicting morphological characteristics and the hitherto inability to retrieve molecular information. Of the 'native' South American mammals, only the toxodonts and litopterns persisted until the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene. Owing to known difficulties in retrieving ancient DNA (aDNA) from specimens from warm climates, this research presents a molecular phylogeny for both Macrauchenia patachonica (Litopterna) and Toxodon platensis (Notoungulata) recovered using proteomics-based (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) sequencing analyses of bone collagen. The results place both taxa in a clade that is monophyletic with the perissodactyls, which today are represented by horses, rhinoceroses and tapirs.
Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the ‘native’ South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America, but with an uncertain affinity to any particular placental lineage. Many authors have considered them descended from Laurasian ‘condylarths’, which also includes the probable ancestors of perissodactyls and artiodactyls, whereas others have placed them either closer to the uniquely South American xenarthrans (anteaters, armadillos and sloths) or the basal afrotherians (e.g. elephants and hyraxes). These hypotheses have been debated owing to conflicting morphological characteristics and the hitherto inability to retrieve molecular information. Of the ‘native’ South American mammals, only the toxodonts and litopterns persisted until the Late Pleistocene–Early Holocene. Owing to known difficulties in retrieving ancient DNA (aDNA) from specimens from warm climates, this research presents a molecular phylogeny for both Macrauchenia patachonica (Litopterna) and Toxodon platensis (Notoungulata) recovered using proteomics-based (liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry) sequencing analyses of bone collagen. The results place both taxa in a clade that is monophyletic with the perissodactyls, which today are represented by horses, rhinoceroses and tapirs. PMID:25833851
Kariminejad, Mohammad H; Khorshidian, Ardeshir
About 1700 years BC, the prophet Zoroaster declared equal right for women and men to choose their "own ways." There is much evidence that ancient Persians believed in the equal contribution of women and men toward producing a child, and all its hereditary characteristics.Even more surprising are the phrases in Vandidad book, which were gathered by Mobedans in the Mad dynasty about egg extraction (gametes) from animal reproductive organs (gonads) and their storage for future conception.Centuries later, Western philosopher beliefs in regard to reproduction were contrary to Persian knowledge. The Greek philosophers believed that man's water (semen) contains all human characteristics, and the female uterus is only responsible for nurturing and development of fetus. After detection of the ovum (de Graaf 2(nd) half 17 century) Malpigy proposed the preformation theory (ovist) which means there is a miniature human inside ovum, that grows after Semen has entered the uterus and grow into a well-developed fetus. This hypothesis was later delegated to spermatozoa. These contradictory and inappropriate beliefs were subject to discussions and dispute, until C.E. Wolf demonstrated that the embryo is a product of the fertilization of ovum by spermatozoa.800 years prior this the sage Ferdowsi "The Great Iranian Poet" explains nicely the equal participation of man and woman in the production of the fetus and transmission of characters.After the renaissance and especially in recent years, tremendous achievements have been made in unraveling biological secrets of reproduction. There was no work o n genetics in Iran until 1936, when a genetic course was added to the biology curriculum in related colleges and universities; Iranian Genetics Society was founded in 1966, initiating a steady movement in this field.Although there was an inevitable gap during the revolution and war in our country, now there is great effort by researchers to eliminate the gap and bring us into the mainstream
Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe
Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among those species most susceptible to the rapidly changing arctic climate, and their survival is of global concern. Despite this, little is known about polar bear species history. Future conservation strategies would significantly benefit from an understanding...... of basic evolutionary information, such as the timing and conditions of their initial divergence from brown bears (U. arctos) or their response to previous environmental change....
Nelson, C.H.; Pierce, D.E.; Leong, K.W.; Wang, F.F.H.
Reconnaissance sampling of surface and subsurface sediment to a maximum depth of 80 m below the sea floor shows that typical values of 0.03 p.p.m. and anomalies of 0.2-1.3 p.p.m. mercury have been present in northeastern Bering Sea since Early Pliocene time. Values are highest in modern beach (maximum 1.3 and mean 0.22 p.p.m. Hg) and nearshore subsurface gravels (maximum 0.6 and mean 0.06 p.p.m. Hg) along the highly mineralized Seward Peninsula and in clayey silt rich in organic matter (maximum 0.16 and mean 0.10 p.p.m. Hg) throughout the region. Although gold mining may be partly responsible for high mercury levels in the modern beach near Nome, Alaska (maximum 0.45 p.p.m.), equally high or greater concentrations of mercury occur in buried Pleistocene sediments immediately offshore (maximum 0.6 p.p.m.) and in modern unpolluted beach sediments at Bluff (maximum 1.3 p.p.m.); this suggests that the contamination effects of mining may be no greater than natural concentration processes in the Seward Peninsula region. The mercury content of offshore surface sediment, even adjacent to mercury-rich beaches, corresponds to that of unpolluted marine and fresh-water sediment elsewhere. The normal values that prevail offshore may be attributable to entrapment of mercury-bearing heavy minerals on beaches near sources and/or dilution effects of offshore sedimentation. The few minor anomalies offshore occur in glacial drift derived from mercury source regions of Chukotka (Siberia) and Seward Peninsula; Pleistocene shoreline processes have reworked the drift to concentrate the heavy metals. The distribution pattern of mercury indicates that particulate mercury-bearing minerals have not been widely dispersed from onland deposits in quantities sufficient to increase mercury levels above normal in offshore sediments of Bering Sea; however, it shows that natural sedimentary processes can concentrate this mercury in beaches of the coastal zone where there already is concern because of
Turgut, Okan; Manduz, Sinasi; Tandogan, Izzet
Avicenna deserves to be remembered for his contributions to the field of cardiovascular medicine. His masterpiece, the Canon of Medicine, has served as an essential medical encyclopedia for scholars in the Islamic territories and Europe for almost a millennium. The Canon, which is a general treatise on medicine, consists of five books. The eleventh section of the third book principally deals with various kinds of heart diseases, their causes, effects, and treatment. He has expressed that the heart is the noblest and the best of all the chief organs of the human body. Avicenna has tried to find out the causes of heart diseases and classify them in accordance with the different signs and symptoms. His legacy will continue to inspire his modern colleagues in investigating heart diseases. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Moreno Mayar, José Victor
multidimensional scaling (Appendix A). These and similar methods have been applied in a number of studies that have contributed to generating a more detailed description of human dispersals across the globe. It is now accepted that anatomically modern humans expanded out of Africa and colonized most of the Old...... and their time and routes of entrance. We sequenced the first highcoverage human genome (USR1) from Terminal Pleistocene Alaska; the most likely entryway into the New World (Chapter 3). The USR1 genome revealed a basal Native American population that likely diverged in Beringia from Native Americans, which later...... differentiated beyond the glacial ice sheets. Our findings support a single founding source population for all Native Americans. These include human remains that have been hypothesized to be members of a separate migration from the Old World, such as the Kennewick Man for which we confirmed his Native American...
Marcos Antônio Lopes
Full Text Available Ainda que se ocupe em apresentar questões relativas à definição da História como gênero literário e como campo disciplinar, o artigo se empenha em analisar concepções antigas e modernas acerca da História. Passando em revista idéias e gêneros de História surgidos ao longo dos séculos XVI, XVII e XVIII, a análise concentra-se na especulação das vias pelas quais a História transformou-se em agudo instrumento, ora de desconstrução, ora de legitimação de princípios do interesse do Estado régio em meio aos jogos do poder no Antigo Regime.This article intends to analyze old and modern opinions on History, although it presents issues concerning the definition of History as a literary genre as well as a discipline field. Reviewing ideas and History genres that emerged along the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, the analysis focuses on the speculation on ways through which History was transformed into a keen instrument, sometimes of deconstruction, sometimes of legitimating of principles of the sovereign State amid power games in the Ancient Regime.
An archaic Greek terracotta vase in the Art and History Museum at Geneva depicts a man deprived of his left arm and with two legs ending in a stump below the knees. Did he suffer from a traumatism (amputation), a mutilating disease or congenital malformation (hemimelia)? A survey of written and iconographic sources throws light on the methods and limits of ancient surgery, and on the chances of survival of abnormal children in archaic and classical Greece.
ter Schure, Leon
Twenty-first-century societies are no longer oriented towards the future, but increasingly to the present moment. Bergson and History shows how Henri Bergson’s philosophy of time and life can help us to restore the relevance of history in our presentistic society and culture. Bergson allows us to
Full Text Available Microbialites are sedimentary formations that are found throughout the geological record and are usually considered as one of the oldest traces of life on Earth. Although they have been known for more than a century and hold as an emblematic object in Earth Sciences, we yet do not understand in details how they form and how microbial processes impact their chemistry, structure and macroscopic morphology. Here, we show recent advances achieved owing to funding provided by the EPOV program on the formation of modern microbialites in the crater Lake Alchichica (Mexico. We first show that very diverse microbial communities populate these microbialites, including diverse microbial groups able to induce carbonate precipitation. We demonstrate that this microbial diversity can be preserved for several years in laboratory aquaria offering a nice opportunity for future studies to assess the relationships between biodiversity and microbialite formation. We then detail the textural modifications affecting cyanobacterial cells during the first steps of fossilization as captured in Alchichica microbialites. Finally, we report the discovery of a new deepbranching cyanobacterium species, Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora, able to form intracellular Ca-, Mg-, Sr- and Ba-rich carbonates and discuss the implications for the interpretation of the fossil record.
Full Text Available Knowledge of high resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup diversification within Iran provides important geographic context regarding the spread and compartmentalization of male lineages in the Middle East and southwestern Asia. At present, the Iranian population is characterized by an extraordinary mix of different ethnic groups speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic and Turkic languages. Despite these features, only few studies have investigated the multiethnic components of the Iranian gene pool. In this survey 938 Iranian male DNAs belonging to 15 ethnic groups from 14 Iranian provinces were analyzed for 84 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 10 STRs. The results show an autochthonous but non-homogeneous ancient background mainly composed by J2a sub-clades with different external contributions. The phylogeography of the main haplogroups allowed identifying post-glacial and Neolithic expansions toward western Eurasia but also recent movements towards the Iranian region from western Eurasia (R1b-L23, Central Asia (Q-M25, Asia Minor (J2a-M92 and southern Mesopotamia (J1-Page08. In spite of the presence of important geographic barriers (Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts which may have limited gene flow, AMOVA analysis revealed that language, in addition to geography, has played an important role in shaping the nowadays Iranian gene pool. Overall, this study provides a portrait of the Y-chromosomal variation in Iran, useful for depicting a more comprehensive history of the peoples of this area as well as for reconstructing ancient migration routes. In addition, our results evidence the important role of the Iranian plateau as source and recipient of gene flow between culturally and genetically distinct populations.
Havill, Nathan P; Shiyake, Shigehiko; Lamb Galloway, Ashley; Foottit, Robert G; Yu, Guoyue; Paradis, Annie; Elkinton, Joseph; Montgomery, Michael E; Sano, Masakazu; Caccone, Adalgisa
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of hemlock trees (Tsuga) in eastern North America. We used 14 microsatellites and mitochondrial COI sequences to assess its worldwide genetic structure and reconstruct its colonization history. The resulting information about its life cycle, biogeography and host specialization could help predict invasion by insect herbivores. We identified eight endemic lineages of hemlock adelgids in central China, western China, Ulleung Island (South Korea), western North America, and two each in Taiwan and Japan, with the Japanese lineages specializing on different Tsuga species. Adelgid life cycles varied at local and continental scales with different sexual, obligately asexual and facultatively asexual lineages. Adelgids in western North America exhibited very high microsatellite heterozygosity, which suggests ancient asexuality. The earliest lineages diverged in Asia during Pleistocene glacial periods, as estimated using approximate Bayesian computation. Colonization of western North America was estimated to have occurred prior to the last glacial period by adelgids directly ancestral to those in southern Japan, perhaps carried by birds. The modern invasion from southern Japan to eastern North America caused an extreme genetic bottleneck with just two closely related clones detected throughout the introduced range. Both colonization events to North America involved host shifts to unrelated hemlock species. These results suggest that genetic diversity, host specialization and host phylogeny are not predictive of adelgid invasion. Monitoring non-native sentinel host trees and focusing on invasion pathways might be more effective methods of preventing invasion than making predictions using species traits or evolutionary history. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
L S Astafeva
Full Text Available In article the history, a current state and prospects of development of the international educational exchanges is considered. Influence world processes of globalisation and internationalisation on educational processes of multinational high schools is shown.
Full Text Available An important contribution to the history of the Ancient Greek perfect is the study of Erika Mihevc-Gabrovec, The Disappearance of the Perfect in Late Greek (La disparition du parfait dans le grec de la basse époque. In terms of theory and content, her study continues the work of Pierre Chantraine, but somewhat diverges from her predecessor’s views on the issue of the merger between the aorist and the perfect, identifying examples of the use of the perfect even in an – according to Pierre Chantraine – relatively late period. Some years after the publication of Erika Mihevc-Gabrovec’s book, the question of when the aorist and the perfect may have merged was raised again, to be addressed by McKay in a number of articles. Today, the views on the subject are strongly divided. As argued by the author of this paper, one of the setbacks in examining the merger between the aorist and the perfect concerns the methodology, since researchers have tended to rely exclusively on their sense of language. A possible new approach is offered in the framework of the Slovenian theory of Natural Syntax, which has from the start paid considerable attention to English sentences of the I believe her to be intelligent type. The paper describes similar sentences in New Testament Greek, terming them “sentences of the λέγουσινἀνάστασινμὴεἶναι type”. In New Testament Greek, they display a tendency to use the present infinitive of stative verbs; relatively frequent is also the perfect infinitive (of non-stative verbs, while, as already noted in other studies, these sentences – at least in New Testament Greek – avoid the aorist infinitive. Such sentences thus bear witness to the fact that the aorist and the perfect were not fully interchangeable in New Testament Greek; the status of the aorist and perfect infinitives in sentences of the λέγουσινἀνάστασινμὴεἶναι type should also be taken into
Full Text Available Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running’s cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply
Zuschin, Martin; Stachowitsch, Michael; Stanton, Robert J.
Shell fragments are important components of many Recent and fossil marine benthic ecosystems and can provide crucial information on past and present environmental conditions. Interpreting such fragments requires integrated knowledge in various fields and the information potential is therefore rarely optimally utilized. This paper uses the definition of a fragment as being a piece of shell having less than 90% of its original form. It then outlines the potential characteristics, pathways, and fates that shells and their fragments can have. Fragmentation is a key factor shaping the shelly part of death assemblages, but it is difficult to interpret because it can be broadly caused by ecological, biostratinomic or diagenetic processes and also depends on shell strength. Strength, in turn, reflects multifunctionality during ontogeny and depends on a complex set of skeletal and taphonomic factors. Therefore, no particular shell parameter clearly determines strength, but thickness, microstructure type and degree of organic matrix have the strongest influence on pre- and post-mortality strength. Size measurements are usually less important for shell strength than thickness, although ecologically complex size refuges from predation do exist. Similarly, shell shape, sculptural features and specific aperture types (in gastropods) provide various defence strategies rather than increasing strength per se. Key ecological factors of fragmentation include predation due to crushing, peeling, along with mistaken predation, self-inflicted damage during predation and burrowing, and more physical aspects such as impacts by stones. Modern studies must consider damage by benthic commercial fisheries or dredging by scientific vessels. Key biostratinomic factors include transport-induced abrasion (littoral zone of surf-washed beaches), bioerosion and dissolution (mainly sublittoral environments). Diagenetically, fragmentation during compaction mainly occurs when shells are in direct
Bruno, Nicola; Bode, Carole; Bertamini, Marco
Previous analyses suggest that artists prefer poses showing the left side of the subject's face when composing a portrait, but showing the right side when composing their own self-portrait. There is also some evidence that artists may prefer compositions with key features on the right of the picture. Do these findings generalize to spontaneous, pseudo-artistic productions by individuals with no formal training in painting and art history? To investigate this issue, we tested a sample of 104 British schoolchildren and teenagers (mean age = 13.8 years; 80 females). We analysed posing biases in individual photographic self-portraits ("selfies") as well as of self-portraits including also the portrait of a friend ("wefies"). Our results document a bias for showing the left cheek in selfies, a bias for placing the selfie-taker on the right in wefies, and a bias for showing two left cheeks over two right cheeks, again in wefies. These biases are reminiscent of what has been reported for selfies in adult non-artists and for portraits and self-portraits by artists in the 16th-18th centuries. Thus, these results provide new evidence in support of a biological basis for side biases in portraits and self-portraits independently of training and expertise.
Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013
Roelants, Kim; Gower, David J.; Wilkinson, Mark; Loader, Simon P.; Biju, S. D.; Guillaume, Karen; Moriau, Linde; Bossuyt, Franky
The fossil record of modern amphibians (frogs, salamanders, and caecilians) provides no evidence for major extinction or radiation episodes throughout most of the Mesozoic and early Tertiary. However, long-term gradual diversification is difficult to reconcile with the sensitivity of present-day amphibian faunas to rapid ecological changes and the incidence of similar environmental perturbations in the past that have been associated with high turnover rates in other land vertebrates. To provi...
The aim of the paper is to connect the field of health management to other related academic discourses (critical management studies and critical development studies) that can contribute to a more interdisciplinary approach to understanding health organizations and management. The paper's design is theoretical critique that blends post-structural, critical management and critical development approaches into a focused discussion of modernity and its relevance to contemporary health management issues. Modernity proliferates through a variety of rhetorical tropes that go unnoticed or remain invisible. Through a brief analysis of historical definitions of management and development, the findings suggest that health management could also be critiqued as a cultural and social construction, enriching anthropological studies as well as informing practical critiques of health projects in the development sector. The conceptualisation of health-management as a cultural construct of modernity opens up the prospect for some rich empirical studies into what management practices support the scientific-rational claims on which it rests. The critique informs a re-appraisal of health management practices that are often taken for granted and ritualistic parts of organizational life. Such a re-evaluation could lead to the implementation of more nuanced and appropriate health practices. Connecting management and development discourses in this way has not been done before and its relevance to health management remains under-researched. This paper highlights the way these discourses can enrich the study of health organizations and create a truly interdisciplinary understanding of health.
Cai, Liyan; Wu, Jie; Ma, Tingting; Yang, Lijie
The acupoint selection was retrieved from the ancient and modern literature on the treatment of sub-healthy condition with acupuncture. The law of acupoint application was analyzed so as to provide a certain reference to the determination of acupoint prescription in clinical acupuncture. The ancient literature was retrieved from Chinese basic ancient literature database. The modern literature was retrieved from Cochrane Library, Medline, PubMed, Ovid evidence-based medicine database, Chinese biomedical literature database, China journal full-text database, VIP journal full-text database and Wanfang database. The database mining software was adopted to explore the law of acupoint application in treatment of sub-healthy conditions with ancient and modern acupuncture. The acupoint use frequency, compatibility association rule, law for meridian use and the use regularity of specific points were analyzed. In the ancient treatment for sub-healthy condition, the top five commonly used acupoints are Shenmen (HT 7), Zhaohai (KI 6), Taibai (SP 3), Daling (PC 7) and Taixi (KI 3). The most commonly combined points are Zhangmen (LR 13), Taibai (SP 3) and Zhaohai (KI 6). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, kidney meridian of foot-shaoyin and liver meridian of foot-jueyin. The most commonly used specific points are the five-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. In the modern treatment, the top five commonly used acupoints are Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Baihui (GV 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Guanyuan (CV 4). The most commonly supplemented points are Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, the conception vessel and the governor vessel. The most commonly used specific points are the back-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. After the systematic comprehension of the relevant ancient and modern
Yohany Peralta Pérez
Full Text Available The article presents the results of the analysis from the study of the theoretical research on the use of problematic methods in Teaching Learning Process of Modern H istory course in Rafael Maria de Mendive University of Pinar del Rio. An anal ysis o f the use of problematic methods in the Process of Teaching Modern History course from the definition of method taking into account the theoretical assumptions of scholars of the subject matter and the advantages and disadvantages provided by the use of these methods in the Teaching Learning Process of Modern History course.
is inspired by other studies of the emergence of new research areas done by sociologists and historians of science, and includes both cognitive and social aspects, macro trends and the role of individuals. The basis for the paper is a combination of literature studies and interviews with key researchers from...... were given modern formulations, but it took a long gestation period from the beginning of the 1970s to the end of the 1980s, before ecological economics took shape. This preliminary version of the paper does not include the formation of the personal relationships between the actors and the meetings...
History is the study of the past; some of the past is more recent than a glance over many schemes of work might lead us to think. Chris Culpin makes the case for ignoring the 20 year rule and tackling head on--and, crucially, "historically"--the big issues of the very recent past. He shows that critical historical study is precisely what…
Aliyu, Sakariyau Alabi
This work is a history of Islamic education in Ilorin from the colonial period to the first decade of the twenty-first century. It is a history of the adaptations of the ulama to the challenge of the modern period through three pedagogical schools Ilorin, namely: tolerant Adabiyyah School, the
A M Adediran
Full Text Available The article outlines the key stages in the development of modern theory of migration following the historical sequence and continuity of its basic conceptual constructs’ formation. Although the author refers to the twentieth century as a chronological framework of the text, the narrative begins from the works of E. Ravenstein published at the end of the XIX century, for they laid the foundation for future theoretical studies on migration issues. In particular, many well-known scientists still use concepts “laws of migration” and “attracting and push factors of migration” proposed by Ravenstein claiming their timeless validity or, on the contrary, criticizing them for the loss of relevance in the new social and cultural realities. The author considers as milestones of the modern theory of migration the works of the representatives of Chicago school of sociology that enriched the conceptual apparatus of the analysis of migration processes and the typology of driving causes of migration; the works of S. Stouffer, G. Zipf, E. Lee and W. Lewis, W. Zelinsky and D. Massey. Finally, the article summarizes the objective trends in today’s global development that force scientists to introduce new accents in the study of migration processes, although upon closer inspection it turns out that all “new” ideas had already been formulated in early migration studies and just got a new sound in another historical period.
Pickstone, John V
This essay explores ways to "write together" the awkwardly jointed histories of "science" and "me dicine"--but it also includes other "arts" (in the old sense) and technologies. It draws especially on the historiography of medicine, but I try to use terms that are applicable across all of science, technology, and medicine (STM). I stress the variety of knowledges and practices in play at any time and the ways in which the ensembles change. I focus on the various relations of "science" and "medicine," as they were understood for a succession of periods--from mainly agricultural societies, through industrial societies, to our biomedical present--trying to sketch a history that encompasses daily practices and understandings as well as major conceptual and technical innovations. The model is meant to facilitate inquiry across topics and across times, including those to come.
The relationship between Mapuche indigenous people and the Chilean state has been the focus of an increasing number of books within Chile and abroad, all of which probe how the Mapuche have responded to past and present government policies. These publications are written by Mapuche and non-Mapuche academics, trained in the disciplines of anthropology, history, literature and sociology and, unlike previous historiography, they focus on Mapuche actors’ political negotiations with the state. The...
Reinhart, Carmen; Rogoff, Kenneth
We develop a novel system of re-classifying historical exchange rate regimes. One difference between our study and previous classification efforts is that we employ an extensive data base on market-determined parallel exchange rates. Our 'natural' classification algorithm leads to a stark reassessment of the post-war history of exchange rate arrangements. When the official categorization is a form of peg, roughly half the time our classification reveals the true underlying monetary regime to ...
Plies, E.; Marianowski, K.; Ohnweiler, T.
Many references on historic and modern papers dealing with the Wien filter are given. Basic optic properties, advantages and disadvantages as well as applications are summarized. Then uncommon systems consisting of Wien filters with different azimuthal orientations, i.e. orthogonal deflection sections, are considered. The corresponding paraxial ray equation and the eight fundamental trajectories of such systems are introduced and the computation of the aberrations up to the third rank is briefly covered. As an example an electron monochromator with four Wien filters is discussed in detail. Finally, a novel mass separator with two Wien filters for a low-voltage focussed ion beam column with a liquid metal ion source is treated.
Plies, E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Marianowski, K.; Ohnweiler, T. [Institut fuer Angewandte Physik, Universitaet Tuebingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)
Many references on historic and modern papers dealing with the Wien filter are given. Basic optic properties, advantages and disadvantages as well as applications are summarized. Then uncommon systems consisting of Wien filters with different azimuthal orientations, i.e. orthogonal deflection sections, are considered. The corresponding paraxial ray equation and the eight fundamental trajectories of such systems are introduced and the computation of the aberrations up to the third rank is briefly covered. As an example an electron monochromator with four Wien filters is discussed in detail. Finally, a novel mass separator with two Wien filters for a low-voltage focussed ion beam column with a liquid metal ion source is treated.
In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…
van der Spek, R.J.; van Leeuwen, B.; van Zanden, J.L.
This exciting new volume examines the development of market performance from Antiquity until the dawn of the Industrial Revolution. Efficient market structures are agreed by most economists to serve as evidence of economic prosperity, and to be prerequisites for further economic growth. However,
Struck, Peter T
Ancient Greeks drew advice from oracles, dreams, entrails, the movements of birds, sneezes, and myriad other sources for divination. Classicists typically study such phenomena as examples of occult religion, or for their use as a social mechanism for managing dissent and forging consensus. Ancient philosophical accounts by contrast go a longer way toward considering them seriously, on their own terms. They take them as an invitation into developing speculative accounts of non-standard epistemological schemes. Plato is examined as a case study of a more general Greek philosophical tendency to treat divination as something akin to what we might call intuition.
Farmer, J. D.
Hydrothermal systems are regarded to be prime targets in the search for a fossil record on Mars because they provide 1) Localized environments for sustaining high rates of microbial productivity and 2) Co-existing high rates of mineralization (chemical precipitation) favorable for capturing and preserving microbial biosignatures. Hydrothermal environments may have been widespread on Mars early in the planet's history. Previous authors have described a number of potential hydrothermal sites on Mars which may be grouped into the following geologic associations: 1) Channels and chaos terranes associated with volcanic heat sources (e.g. Dao Vallis - Hadriaca Patera and chaos at the base of Apollonaris), 2) Channel networks and modified central uplifts associated with large impact craters, 3) Channels and alteration zones associated with rift fracture systems and dike swarms (e.g. Cerberus volcanic plains, Elysium), 4) Channel systems in periglacial environments related to potential subglacial volcanic heat sources 5) Mineral signatures (coarse-grained hematite) associated with ancient lacustrine basins and extensional geologic features (e.g. Terra Meridian basin, floor of Candor Chasma, central Aram chaos) and 6) modern seeps and runoff channels found on steep, northward facing slopes at high latitudes. In addition, some attribute a hydrothermal origin to the Fe-rich carbonates of Martian meteorite, ALH 84001. In this talk I will review examples of these and related hydrothermal environments that may have been present on Mars from the perspective of terrestrial analogs and what that implies about preservation potential for fossil biosignatures. I will also discuss possible ways to test hydrothermal hypotheses that could be implemented during the next decade of Mars exploration.
Full Text Available Within the actual debate on citizenship within democracy, admitting a crisis in educational matters is highly relevant (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Thus, if we want to understand why the ancient educational image is problematic and unsatisfying to the citizens of democratic governments, it is unavoidable, from the history of philosophy point of view, to quote the teaching of preeminent political theorists. Needless to say, the power of education in forming people’s character and opinions is widely recognized. Nonetheless, by looking at the history of the institution, it seems obvious that its purpose is not only to form habits but to circumscribe the knowledge of the persons in such a way as to make one set of opinions always inevitable (RUSSELL, 1961. Current paper reveals the theoretical presuppositions of the political and educational doctrines of two main figures of Ancient and Modern times, namely, Aristotle and Locke, respectively. Further considerations will ensue on whether the ancient image of virtue, or its antagonism and possible use in liberalism, has any power to represent the present conditions of equity and justice sought after in civil life within Latin American democracies.
Hein, Laura C; Scharer, Kathleen M
This paper discusses the progression of developments in psychiatric-mental health nursing from the 1960s to the present. The 1960s were a time of shortage of psychiatric APRNs, with legislation expanding the availability of mental health services. We find ourselves in a similar time with 7 million new health insurance enrollees, because of the Affordable Care Act (ACA). The expansion of health insurance coverage comes at a time when some colleges of nursing are closing master's programs in psychiatric-mental health, in lieu of the DNP mandate from the American Association of Colleges of Nursing. Is history repeating itself? Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available In this special issue of Cross-Currents, the contributing authors look at how business linked China and the world from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, and how Chinese and foreign companies interacted with one another, as well as with political power, long before today. Some authors concentrate on material connections, including shipping, banking, the building of railroads, the spread of the motion picture industry, international treaties, and the formation of knowledge, while others investigate the role of business culture and how entrepreneurship and networks of trust crossed borders. Both of these aspects are set against the backdrop of simultaneous Chinese state-building efforts that became evident in the state creation of a national market and the formation of political borders. All of the authors collected here draw on case studies of individual entrepreneurs or companies, just as they draw on the new historical and theoretical scholarship summarized above to fill out the picture of China’s economic development within global processes. As the contributions to this issue demonstrate, rethinking Chinese business history also forces us to rethink Chinese urban history more generally... The new pictures of business practice presented here entail a remapping of the spatial dynamics of such activities and thereby a new understanding of the making of urban China...
The Korean Journal of Medical History published in 1992 provides spaces for publication to medical historians who have been growing increasingly since the 1990s, thereby stimulating studies in the modern history of medicine in Korea. Through research published in the Korean Journal of Medical History and other journals, the course through which medicine in Korea in the modern times has been formed and the content of medicine that composed that course are elucidated. This article concludes that the various research tend to posit the view that the modern history of medicine in Korea evolves through a process of accommodation with Western medicine rather than being a complete transplantation of Western medicine, and describes medicine as it is viewed by consumers rather than the operators of medicine. How government power or colonial power utilized medicine in order to stabilize their rule is also a common theme. Now, it is come time to interrogate the viewpoints and analytical methods of medical history studies. Given that medicine is one area that drives changes in Korea in contemporary times, the outcomes obtained through this field can be sufficiently utilized when studying other areas. For instance, agony over the modernity of missionary medicine being studied recently provides meaningful implications in understanding the modernity of Korea. However, the importance of substantiation should not be overlooked as theories not supported by thorough documentary evidence are weak.
Although it is not certain when malaria began to appear in Korea, malaria is believed to have been an endemic disease from ancient times. It was Dr. H. N. Allen (1858-1932) who made the first description and diagnosis of malaria in terms of Western medicine. In his first year report (1885) of Korean Government Hospital he mentioned malaria as the most prevalent disease. Very effective anti-malarial drug quinine was imported and it made great contribution in treating malaria. After Japan had annexed Korea in 1910, policies for public health system were fundamentally revised. Japan assumed control of Korean medical institutions and built high-quality Western hospitals for the health care of Japanese residents. The infectious diseases which were under special surveillance were cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, typhus, scarlet fever, smallpox, and paratyphoid fever. Among chronic infectious diseases tuberculosis and leprosy were those under special control. Malaria, however, was not one of these specially controlled infectious diseases although it was widely spread throughout the peninsula. But serious studies on malaria were carried out by Japanese medical scientists. In particular, a Japanese parasitologist Kobayasi Harujiro(1884-1969) carried out extensive studies on human parasites, including malaria, in Korea. According to his study, most of the malaria in Korea turned out to be tertian fever. In spite of its high prevalence, malaria did not draw much attention from the colonial authorities and no serious measure was taken since tertian fever is a mild form of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and is not so much fatal as tropical malaria caused by P. falciparum. And tertian malaria was easily controlled by taking quinine. Although the majority of malaria in Korea was tertian fever, other types were not absent. Quartan fever was not rarely reported in 1930s. The attitude of colonial authorities toward malaria in Korea was contrasted with that in Taiwan. After
Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Barnett, Ross; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Zepeda-Mendoza, M. Lisandra; Reumer, Jelle W.F.; de Vos, John; Zazula, Grant; Nagel, Doris; Baryshnikov, Gennady F.; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Rohland, Nadin; Westbury, Michael V.; Barlow, Axel; Hofreiter, Michael
Saber-toothed cats (Machairodontinae) are among the most widely recognized representatives of the now largely extinct Pleistocene megafauna. However, many aspects of their ecology, evolution, and extinction remain uncertain. Although ancient-DNA studies have led to huge advances in our knowledge of
Hughes, J Donald
The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.
Edwards, M. E.; Alsos, I. G.; Sjögren, P.; Coissac, E.; Gielly, L.; Yoccoz, N.; Føreid, M. K.; Taberlet, P.
Knowledge of how climate change affected species distribution in the past may help us predict the effect of ongoing environmental changes. We explore how the use of modern (AFLP fingerprinting techniques) and ancient DNA (metabarcoding P6 loop of chloroplast DNA) help to reveal past distribution of vascular plant species, dispersal processes, and effect of species traits. Based on studies of modern DNA combined with species distribution models, we show the dispersal routes and barriers to dispersal throughout the circumarctic/circumboreal region, likely dispersal vectors, the cost of dispersal in term of loss of genetic diversity, and how these relates to species traits, dispersal distance, and size of colonized region. We also estimate the expected future distribution and loss of genetic diversity and show how this relates to life form and adaptations to dispersal. To gain more knowledge on time lags in past range change events, we rely on palaeorecords. Current data on past distribution are limited by the taxonomic and time resolution of macrofossil and pollen records. We show how this may be improved by studying ancient DNA of lake sediments. DNA of lake sediments recorded about half of the flora surrounding the lake. Compared to macrofossil, the taxonomic resolution is similar but the detection rate is considerable improved. By taking into account main determinants of founder effect, dispersal vectors, and dispersal lags, we may improve our ability to forecast effects of climate change, whereas more studies on ancient DNA may provide us with knowledge on distribution time lags.
Full Text Available Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, including genome sequence data from over 400 Sardinians and two ancient Thracians from Bulgaria, to investigate this result in greater detail and determine its implications for the genetic structure of Neolithic Europe. Using whole-genome sequencing data, we confirm that the Iceman is, indeed, most closely related to Sardinians. Furthermore, we show that this relationship extends to other individuals from cultural contexts associated with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic transition, in contrast to individuals from a hunter-gatherer context. We hypothesize that this genetic affinity of ancient samples from different parts of Europe with Sardinians represents a common genetic component that was geographically widespread across Europe during the Neolithic, likely related to migrations and population expansions associated with the spread of agriculture.
Full Text Available Reconstructing the conception of historical change inside Reinhart Koselleck’s reflection, the essay deals with the affirmation and crisis of modern temporal order. If modernization has been intended as overcoming and abandonment of tradition, it becomes involved in the discovery of a multiplicity of temporal layers, that the formulation «contemporaneity of the non-contemporaneous» is designated to describe. Consequently, the essay explores the possibility of a new Sattelzeit, able to motivate the acceleration of contemporary time or the new regimes of historicity that it reveals. The split between modernization and temporalization might point out the necessity to formulate a new conceptual history.
Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.
Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys...... to have been about 5000-6000 persons. This population estimate is compared with several coeval lowland Maya centers, and found to be reasonable for a medium-sized, Late Classic Maya center....
Olga V. Gzhibovskaya
Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography
Hendry, Katharine R.; Brzezinski, Mark A.
The growth of siliceous phytoplankton, mainly diatoms, in the Southern Ocean influences the preformed nutrient inventory in the ocean on a global scale. Silicic acid use by diatoms and deep circulation combine to trap dissolved Si in the Southern Ocean resulting in high levels of silica production and expansive diatom oozes in Southern Ocean sediments. The analysis of the silicon isotope composition of biogenic silica, or opal, and dissolved silicic acid provide insight into the operation of the global marine silicon cycle and the role played by the Southern Ocean in nutrient supply and carbon drawdown, both in the modern and in the past. Silicon isotope studies of diatoms have provided insight into the history of silica production in surface waters, while the analysis of spicules from deep sea sponges has defined both the spatial and the temporal variability of silicic acid concentrations in the water column; together these - and other - proxies reveal variations in the northward flow of Southern Ocean intermediate and mode waters and how changes in Southern Ocean productivity altered their preformed nutrient content. We present a new hypothesis - the "Silicic Acid Ventilation Hypothesis" (SAVH) - to explain the geographical variation of opal-based proxy records, in particular the contrasting patterns of opal burial change found in the low and high latitudes. By understanding the silicon isotope systematics of opal and silicic acid in the modern, we will be able to use opal-based proxies to reconstruct past changes in the Southern Ocean and so investigate its role in global carbon cycling and climate.
This is the chartbook of individual country exchange rate histories and their experience with parallel markets, 1946-2001 that accompanies "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation." We develop a novel system of reclassifying historical exchange rate regimes. One key difference between our study and previous classifications is that we employ monthly data on market-determined parallel exchange rates going back to 1946 for 153 countries. Our approach differs from the...
Scientia Militaria: South African Journal of Military Studies. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 43, No 2 (2015) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. A military history of modern ...
Posth, Nicole R.; Huelin, Sonia; Konhauser, Kurt O.
Cell-Fe(III) mineral aggregates produced by anoxygenic Fe(II)-oxidizing photoautotrophic microorganisms (photoferrotrophs) may be influential in the modern Fe cycle and were likely an integral part of ancient biogeochemical cycles on early Earth. While studies have focused on the environmental...... iron phase depended on the composition of the medium: goethite formed in cultures grown by oxidation of dissolved Fe(II) medium in the presence of low phosphate concentrations, while poorly ordered ferrihydrite (or Fe(III) phosphates) formed when amorphous Fe(II) minerals (Fe(II)-phosphates) and high...
Andersen, S. Ry
Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...
Full Text Available The study of history is becoming increasingly less interesting to students, despite the fact that the history teaching process has been continuously modernized during recent years. It is an observation which can be perceived even if we don`t make an elaborated research in the field. Some empirical data show us that students in secondary and High Schools are less interested in studying History than in studying Geography or other social sciences. The number of students who are determined to study History in universities has significantly dropped in recent years . Of course, there are multiple causes and the factors behind this change are numerous and varied. In this paper we handle only some changes in teaching History in High Schools, as they are designed in History Curricula and in History textbooks. Therefore during the first sequence of this paper we shall analyze the History Curricula for High School, 11th and 12th grades, regarding their finalities (competencies, some relevant contents and the recommended pedagogical approaches about the teaching methods and the auxiliary material. In the second part of the paper we propose some teaching activities through which students would practice the specific competencies from their Curriculum for History. We aim at presenting attractive teaching material and learning methods and applying the methodological recommendations from the High school Curricula for History, 11th and 12th grades.
This dissertation focuses on the systems and structures of formal and informal education in Ancient Greece under the leadership of Socrates, Plato and Aristotle and the systems and structures of education and discourse on social media, specifically on blogs and Twitter. Using historical documentary research methodology of primary and secondary…
Hukuda, S; Inoue, K; Nakai, M; Katayama, K
To investigate the historical origins of ligamentous ossifications of the spine in Japan. We studied skeletons of Jomonese of the period 5000-2300 years BP, of Japanese of the 17th-19th century Edo Period, and of Ainu of the 18th-20th century in Japan with special emphasis on spinal ligament ossifications as in the posterior longitudinal ligament. A comparison to our previous study on ancient Chinese skeletons was done. Cervical ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) was the only ossification that increased significantly in prevalence in people of the near-modern period in comparison to the Neolithic gathering-hunting people. Socioeconomic changes from a subsistence gathering-hunting economy to the near-modern livelihood depending on rice-eating and a diet high in vegetable protein are speculated to be responsible for the prevalence increase of cervical OPLL.
The History Manifesto invites historians to consider the social and political responsibilities attached to their profession. This general concern is equally meaningful for the field of history and for the history and philosophy of science and technology. The specific concerns that motivate Jo Guldi and David Armitage lead them to advocate the "longue durée" and to insist primarily on social inequality, climate change, and governance. The concern on which this response to The History Manifesto centers is historians' social.responsibility in the waging of wars and their ethical responsibility at least not to contribute to mounting tensions. For the historian Lucien Febvre, in the immediate aftermath of World War II, a history of science and culture practiced in a certain way had a specific part to play in this regard. Febvre's practice of long-term history differed from Fernand Braudel's approach to the longue durée, in the tradition of which Guldi and Armitage situate their manifesto. This essay suggests that a historical approach to long-term history, sensitive to the concern Febvre voiced, might be helpful. It argues that long-term histories of science and technology practiced in a certain way have contributed to shaping collectives that perceive themselves as communities. Critical analysis of our practices as historians could certainly help develop awareness in our field in this respect.
Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.
Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys....... An estimate of 200 persons for the resident elite population of the Epicenter of Pacbitun is offered. Initial settlement occurred in the Epicenter of the site during the Middle Preclassic period (900-300 B.C.), with a population rise through time until the final phase of the Late Classic period (A.D. 700......-900), when density reached 550 persons (Periphery Zone). The impact on settlement size and distribution of topography, soils, water resources, and intensive agriculture (hillside terracing) is addressed and found to be significant. At the time of florescence, the population of the 9 sq km site is estimated...
Pedersen, Mikkel Winther
The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... research on ancient and modern environmental DNA (Paper 1), secondly by setting up a comparative study (Paper 2) to investigate how an ancient plant DNA (mini)-barcode can reflect other traditional methods (e.g. pollen and macrofossils) for reconstructing floristic history. In prolongation of the results...... obtained in paper 2 we developed a holistic metagenomic method combined with shotgun sequencing of ancient DNA in lake sediment samples to reconstruct organismal assemblages in addition to the flora e.g. micro-, meso- and megafauna, fungi and microbial communities (Paper 3). Fundamental processes were...
The principles of laparoscopic and robotic surgery are fascinating. These have brought unprecedented transformation in the field of surgery. It is quite interesting to note the practice of the same core principles in the pages of history and mythology.
Lee, Byoung Hoon
This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su's novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital. Literary description here is important materials, that specific to reconstruct the appearance of the modern hospital at that time. Literary representations infuse life into the history record. In this regard, Love has special meaning in the history of Korean modern literature. Before anything else, doctor AN Bin's clinic as a first space of the novel vividly shows the reality of the Western style clinic and a general practitioner under the colonial period. The establishment of the hospital was based on 「Rules on private hospital」 declared by the Japanese Government General of Korea in 1919. According to this Rules, a private clinic's founder had to submit the documents to the director of police affairs, in which all the details were written. It included name of hospital, site location and size, floor plan of a nearby building, each size of patient's rooms, number of steps and emergency exit, bath, toilet, disinfecting room. AN Bin's clinic was a private hospital with the requirements in the rules. The descriptions of this clinic re-created real situation of private hospitals, specifically scale of hospital, interior space, conditions of patient's room at the time. The second modern hospital in the novel is Bukgando Catholic hospital. There is a lot more materials on medical activity and hospital of protestant churches than we thought. But we do not have a lot of information on catholic church's medical
Buj, Ivana; Ćaleta, Marko; Šanda, Radek; Geiger, Matthias F.; Freyhof, Jörg; Machordom, Annie; Vukić, Jasna
In order to better understand the complex geologic history of the Mediterranean area, we have analysed evolutionary history, phylogeographic structure and molecular diversity of freshwater fishes belonging to the genus Telestes. As primary freshwater fishes distributed largely in the Mediterranean basin, this genus represents a suitable model system for investigating the historical biogeography of freshwater drainage systems in southern Europe. In this investigation we have included samples representing all Telestes species and based our analyses on one mitochondrial and one nuclear gene. We have investigated phylogenetic structure inside the genus Telestes, estimated divergence times, reconstructed ancestral distribution ranges and described intraspecific molecular diversity. Diversification of Telestes started in the Early Miocene, when the ancestors of T. souffia, lineage comprising T. croaticus and T. fontinalis, and the one comprising T. pleurobipunctatus and T. beoticus got isolated. The remaining species are genetically more closely related and form a common cluster in the recovered phylogenetic trees. Complex geological history of southern Europe, including formation of continental bridges, fragmentation of landmass, closing of the sea corridor, local tectonic activities, led to complicated biogeographical pattern of this genus, caused by multiple colonization events and passovers between ancient rivers and water basins. Especially pronounced diversity of Telestes found in the Adriatic watershed in Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina is a consequence of a triple colonization of this area by different lineages, which led to an existence of genetically distinct species in neighboring areas. Significant intraspecific structuring is present in T. souffia, T. muticellus, T. croaticus and T. pleurobipunctatus. Besides in well-structured species, elevated levels of genetic polymorphism were found inside T. turskyi and T. ukliva, as a consequence of their old origin
Satlow, Michael L.
During my career, I have regularly taught a survey course on the history of Jews and Judaism in the Persian, Greek, and early Roman periods (ca. 520 BCE-70 CE). Student performance in the course has long concerned and puzzled me. By the end of the course students demonstrated familiarity with the narratives and concepts we covered, but most did…
Huang, Philip C C
Most social science theory and the currently powerful Chinese ideology of modernizationism assume that, with modern development, family-based peasant farm production will disappear, to be replaced by individuated industrial workers and the three-generation family by the nuclear family. The actual record of China’s economic history, however, shows the powerful persistence of the small family farm, as well as of the three-generation family down to this day, even as China’s GDP becomes the second largest in the world. China’s legal system, similarly, encompasses a vast informal sphere, in which familial principles operate more than individualist ones. And, in between the informal-familial and the formal-individualist, there is an enormous intermediate sphere in which the two tendencies are engaged in a continual tug of war. The economic behavior of the Chinese family unit reveals great contrasts with what is assumed by conventional economics. It has a different attitude toward labor from that of both the individual worker and the capitalist firm. It also has a different structural composition, and a different attitude toward investment, children’s education, and marriage. Proper attention to how Chinese modernity differs socially, economically, and legally from the modern West points to the need for a different kind of social science; it also lends social–economic substance to claims for a modern Chinese culture different from the modern West’s.
This article uses a study of pig production in Britain, c.1910-65, to rethink the history of modern agriculture and its implications for human-animal relationships. Drawing on literature written by and for pig producers and experts, it challenges existing portrayals of a unidirectional, post-Second World War shift from traditional small-scale mixed farming to large, specialized, intensive systems. Rather, 'factory-style' pig production was already established in Britain by the 1930s, and its fortunes waxed and waned over time in relation to different kinds of outdoor production, which was still prominent in the mid-1960s. In revealing that the progressive proponents of both indoor and outdoor methods regarded them as modern and efficient, but defined and pursued these values in quite different ways, the article argues for a more historically situated understanding of agricultural modernity. Analysis reveals that regardless of their preferred production system, leading experts and producers were keen to develop what they considered to be natural methods that reflected the pig's natural needs and desires. They perceived pigs as active, sentient individuals, and believed that working in harmony with their natures was essential, even if this was, ultimately, for commercial ends. Such views contradict received accounts of modern farming as a utilitarian enterprise, concerned only with dominating and manipulating nature. They are used to argue that a romantic, moral view of the pig did not simply pre-date or emerge in opposition to modern agriculture, but, rather, was integral to it.
Gordin, Michael; Kaiser, David
Modern science has changed every aspect of life in ways that cannot be compared to developments of previous eras. This four volume set presents key developments within modern physical science and the effects of these discoveries on modern global life. The first two volumes explore the history of the concept of relativity, the cultural roots of science, the concept of time and gravity before, during, and after Einstein's theory, and the cultural reception of relativity. Volume three explores the impact of modern science upon global politics and the creation of a new kind of war, and Volume four details the old and new efforts surrounding the elucidation of the quantum world, as well as the cultural impact of particle physics. The collection also presents the historical and cultural context that made these scientific innovations possible. The transformation of everyday concepts of time and space for the individual and for society, the conduct of warfare, and the modern sense of mastering nature are all issues d...
Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J; Thomas, Jessica A; Wadsley, Marc; Brace, Selina; Cappellini, Enrico; Turvey, Samuel T; Reguero, Marcelo; Gelfo, Javier N; Kramarz, Alejandro; Burger, Joachim; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashford, David A; Ashton, Peter D; Rowsell, Keri; Porter, Duncan M; Kessler, Benedikt; Fischer, Roman; Baessmann, Carsten; Kaspar, Stephanie; Olsen, Jesper V; Kiley, Patrick; Elliott, James A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Mullin, Victoria; Hofreiter, Michael; Willerslev, Eske; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Orlando, Ludovic; Barnes, Ian; MacPhee, Ross D E
No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as 'South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the 'strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the elephants and sirenians of superorder Afrotheria than with the euungulates (cattle, horses, and allies) of superorder Laurasiatheria. Morphology-based analyses have proved unconvincing because convergences are pervasive among unrelated ungulate-like placentals. Approaches using ancient DNA have also been unsuccessful, probably because of rapid DNA degradation in semitropical and temperate deposits. Here we apply proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia (Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen α1- and α2-chains, representing approximately 900 of 1,140 amino-acid residues for each subunit. A phylogeny is estimated from an alignment of these fossil sequences with collagen (I) gene transcripts from available mammalian genomes or mass spectrometrically derived sequence data obtained for this study. The resulting consensus tree agrees well with recent higher-level mammalian phylogenies. Toxodon and Macrauchenia form a monophyletic group whose sister taxon is not Afrotheria or any of its constituent clades as recently claimed, but instead crown Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses). These results are consistent with the origin of at least some South American native ungulates from 'condylarths', a paraphyletic assembly of archaic placentals. With ongoing
In this hugely ambitious and exciting book Peter Watson tells the history of ideas from prehistory to the present day, seeking a new way to tell the history of the world. The book begins over a million years ago with a discussion of how the earliest ideas might have originated. Looking at animal behaviour that appears to require some thought tool-making, territoriality, counting, language (or at least sounds), pairbonding Peter Watson moves on to the apeman and the development of simple ideas such as cooking, the earliest language, the emergence of family life. All the obvious areas will be tackled the Ancient Greeks, Christian theology, the ideas of Jesus, astrological thought, the soul, the self, beliefs about the heavens, the ideas of Islam, the Crusades, humanism, the Renaissance, Gutenberg and the book, the scientific revolution, the age of discovery, Shakespeare, the idea of Revolution, the Romantic imagination, Darwin, imperialism, modernism, Freud right up to the present day and the internet. (orig./GL) [German] Beginnt die Ideengeschichte der Menschheit, als die Fruehmenschen erstmals Feuer machen, vor ca. 1,8 Millionen Jahren? Oder schon mit dem ersten Faustkeil vor etwa 2,5 Millionen Jahren? Warum entwickelte sich vor 40 000 Jahren eine komplexe Sprache? Wie kamen das Minus- und das Plus-Zeichen in die Vorstellungswelt, und wie entstand das Bild vom Paradies? Peter Watson laedt ein zu einer Expedition durch die abenteuerliche Welt menschlicher Ideen. Vom ersten Feuer, dem ersten Werkzeug und den ersten Worten ueber die Geburt der Goetter, die ersten Gesetze und die Entwicklung grosser Zentren von Wissen und Weisheit bis hin zu den umwaelzenden Ideen der Moderne: das Groesste und das Kleinste, das Selbst-Bewusstsein des Individuums und die Entdeckung des Unbewussten. Dabei ordnet Watson die riesige Materialfuelle nach drei zentralen Ideen, die fuer ihn die Geschichte der Menschheit praegen: die Seele, mehr als die Idee von einem Gott, Europa, mehr als das
Arbøll, Troels Pank
This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...
Weisshaar, E; König, A; Diepgen, T L; Eckart, W U
Pruritus (itching) as a disease state and especially as a disease symptom has been object of medical and scientific descriptions and examinations in all epochs since the antiquity and in different cultural periods. Antiquity was dominated by observations and descriptions but during the course of medical history and particularly since the establishment of dermatology, more and more emphasis has been placed on classification and etiologic research.
Ghersi, Bruno M; Jia, Hongwei; Aiewsakun, Pakorn; Katzourakis, Aris; Mendoza, Patricia; Bausch, Daniel G; Kasper, Matthew R; Montgomery, Joel M; Switzer, William M
Although simian foamy viruses (SFV) are the only exogenous retroviruses to infect New World monkeys (NWMs), little is known about their evolutionary history and epidemiology. Previous reports show distinct SFVs among NWMs but were limited to small numbers of captive or wild monkeys from five (Cebus, Saimiri, Ateles, Alouatta, and Callithrix) of the 15 NWM genera. Other studies also used only PCR testing or serological assays with limited validation and may have missed infection in some species. We developed and validated new serological and PCR assays to determine the prevalence of SFV in blood specimens from a large number of captive NWMs in the US (n = 274) and in captive and wild-caught NWMs (n = 236) in Peruvian zoos, rescue centers, and illegal trade markets. Phylogenetic and co-speciation reconciliation analyses of new SFV polymerase (pol) and host mitochondrial cytochrome B sequences, were performed to infer SFV and host co-evolutionary histories. 124/274 (45.2 %) of NWMs captive in the US and 59/157 (37.5 %) of captive and wild-caught NWMs in Peru were SFV WB-positive representing 11 different genera (Alouatta, Aotus, Ateles, Cacajao, Callithrix, Cebus, Lagothrix, Leontopithecus, Pithecia, Saguinus and Saimiri). Seroprevalences were lower at rescue centers (10/53, 18.9 %) compared to zoos (46/97, 47.4 %) and illegal trade markets (3/7, 8/19, 42.9 %) in Peru. Analyses showed that the trees of NWM hosts and SFVs have remarkably similar topologies at the level of species and sub-populations suggestive of co-speciation. Phylogenetic reconciliation confirmed 12 co-speciation events (p history of SFV in NWMs at the species level. Additional studies are necessary to further explore the epidemiology and natural history of SFV infection of NWMs and to determine the zoonotic potential for persons exposed to infected monkeys in captivity and in the wild.
The purpose of this study is to understand the reality of imperial medicine by exploring the strategic attitude of the Japanese authority targeting the public who were not patients of Hansen's disease. For this purpose, this study examines the mass media data related to Hansen's disease published in Korea and Japan during the Japanese colonial rule. Research on Hansen's disease can be divided into medical, sociohistorical, social welfare, and human rights approach. There are medical studies and statistics on the dissemination of medical information about Hansen's disease and management measures, the history of the management of the disease, guarantee of the rights of the patients and the welfare environment, and studies on the autobiographical, literary writings and oral statements on the life and psychological conflicts of the patients. Among existing research, the topics of the study on Hansen's disease under the Japanese colonial rule include the history of the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium, investigation on the forced labor of the patients in the island, human rights violations against the patients, oral memoirs of the patients and doctors who practiced at that time. All of these studies are important achievements regarding the research on the patients. An important study of Hansen's disease in modern Japan is the work of Hujino Utaka, which introduces the isolation of and discrimination against the patients of Hansen's disease. Hujino Utaka's study examines the annihilation of people with infectious diseases in Japan and its colonies by the imperial government, which was the consequence of the imperial medical policies, and reports on the isolation of Hansen's disease patients during the war. Although these researches are important achievements in the study of Hansen's disease in modernity, their focus has mainly been on the history of isolation and exploitation in the Sorokdo Island Sanatorium and discrimination against the patients within the sanatorium, which
Michael J. Wood
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to prove that conflict in church music is nothing new. Even in the time of the early church fathers, dissenting views on what were acceptable and unacceptable practices in church music were present. The music of the 2nd century through the 14th century is examined. The method used to find specific conflicts in church music history involved reading early Christian literature on music. When possible, both sides of the conflicts included in the project are presented. However, oftentimes only one side of an argument can be found since there is not an abundant supply of early Christian writings on music. When this is the case, a brief attempt at reconstructing the opposing side is made. The most important resources for this research were James McKinnon’s Music in Early Christian Literature and Oliver Strunk’s Source Readings in Music History: Revised Edition. These were integral to this project as they provided primary sources translated into English.
Boisvert, Catherine Anne
The origin of salamanders and their interrelationships to the two other modern amphibian orders (frogs and caecilians) are problematic owing to an 80-100 million year gap in the fossil record between the Carboniferous to the Lower Jurassic. This is compounded by a scarcity of adult skeletal characters linking the early representatives of the modern orders to their stem-group in the Paleozoic. The use of ontogenetic characters can be of great use in the resolution of these questions. Growth series of all ten modern salamander families (a 120 cleared and stained larvae) were examined for pattern and timing of vertebral elements chondrification and ossification. The primitive pattern is that of the neural arches developing before the centra, while the reverse represents the derived condition. Both the primitive and derived conditions are observed within the family Hynobiidae, whereas only the derived condition is observed in all other salamanders. This provides support to the claims that Hynobiidae is both the most basal of modern families and potentially polyphyletic (with Ranodon and Hybobius forming the most basal clade and Salamandrella being a part of the most derived clade). This provides insight into a unique event in salamander evolutionary history and suggests that the developmental pattern switch occurred between the Triassic and the mid-Jurassic before the last major radiation. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes
Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Holt, R.M.; Powers, D.W.
At the Devil's Golf Course, Death Valley, CA, vadose zone and phreatic zone alteration of subaqueously accumulated halite produces characteristic textures and fabrics that are recognizable in ancient salt pan halite (Late Permian Salado Formation) exposed in a shaft at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Water table depth and duration control fabric type. The crystal size of surficial halite is reduced by hygroscopic alteration. Efflorescent crusts extend the capillary fringe to the surface along vertical permeability pathways. When the water table is shallow, planar dissolution in the vadose zone removes all or most halite from successive thin depositional sequences and progressively disrupts strata consisting of clay or sulfate into irregular strata, stringers, isolated blebs, and, ultimately, 'blebby' laminae. With a deeper water table, point dissolution occurs along vertically oriented permeability pathways (e.g., polygonal margins) producing characteristic textures. Vertical pits, pipes, and macropores form first. Then the surface becomes slightly hummocky as point solution pathways to the water table widen and coalesce. A complex terrain of spires, hummocks, and columns develops and exhibits characteristic pods and lenses of fine halite surrounded by and containing solution lags of insoluble material. Relief is reduced by solution, and lenses and pods of fine halite become smaller and less common. Ultimately, halite is entirely removed leaving only insoluble material. Halite cements grow in the phreatic zone. Halite passively fills voids in more mechanically competent halite. Displacive halite cements dilate fabrics within less competent bedded halite. These textures can be integrated into an idealized lithologic sequence for ancient salt pan halite
Kindervater, Katharine Hall
Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.
For some time a hightened interest in so-called "curiosity cabinets" of the 16th to 18th century has surfaced in the historical sciences as well as in exhibitions with popular appeal, the arts and literature. Johann Laurentius Bausch was among those who assembled such a collection of natural history objects and artefacts. His curiosity cabinet was closely connected to his far more famous library and in his last will Bausch attempted to safeguard the coherence of the two. Against this background the article accentuates some of the aspects of his work from a perspective of a history of collections. One focus will thereby be on the practice of collecting as seemingly contradictory, being characterised on the one hand by the preservation of ancient knowledge as well as by scientific research based on specific objects. Another focus will be on curiosity cabinets as important platforms of exchange and means of social advancement. For the Academia Naturae Curiosorum exhibition objects and their publication were an important device of achieving recognition and protection from the Emperor's Court.
Yadav, B S
This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th
Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata
Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA
Can imported technologies be socially constructed? Starting from this puzzling question, this essay reflects on the various methodologies with which one can narrate the stories of technology in modern Korea. A focus on technological innovations and how they have been shaped by their societal milieu forces one to leave out a large part of the technological experience, especially when the bulk of the technologies-in-use have been imported from abroad. This poses a serious problem for the history of technology in Korea, a nation that relied heavily on foreign technologies as it went through rapid economic growth in the latter twentieth century.
Reviewing recent, overlapping work by historians of medicine and health and of environmental history, this article proposes a further agenda upon which scholars in both fields may converge. Both environmental and medical historians can seek to understand the past two centuries of medical history in terms of a seesaw dialogue over the ways and means by which physicians and other health professionals did, and did not, consider the influence of place-airs and waters included-on disease. Modernizing and professionalizing as well as new styles of science nourished attendant aspirations for a clinical place neutrality, for a medicine in which patients' own places didn't matter to what doctors thought or did. The rise of place neutrality from the late nineteenth century onward also had close and enabling historical ties to the near-simultaneous formation of place-defined specialties-tropical medicine, bacteriological public health, and industrial medicine and hygiene.
If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones.
During 60 years of establishment of the new China, the research on the modern history of infectious diseases went through 4 stages, that is the stage of materials arrangement and difficult beginning, the stage of gradual development within the frame of the history of medicine, the stage of structured development and multiple visual angles, and the stage of complete development with multiple levels. Many achievements were obtained, such as the research group increasing gradually, a more logical knowledge structure of scholars, emergence of the aim of human solicitude, and wider research viewpoints. However, there were some weaknesses, such as the shortage of further research of achievements, the regional imbalance of research, simplex diseases, and little attention paid to the activities of missionaries.
Full Text Available The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.
Nasir, Arshan; Kim, Kyung Mo; Caetano-Anollés, Gustavo
The origins of diversified life remain mysterious despite considerable efforts devoted to untangling the roots of the universal tree of life. Here we reconstructed phylogenies that described the evolution of molecular functions and the evolution of species directly from a genomic census of gene ontology (GO) definitions. We sampled 249 free-living genomes spanning organisms in the three superkingdoms of life, Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya, and used the abundance of GO terms as molecular characters to produce rooted phylogenetic trees. Results revealed an early thermophilic origin of Archaea that was followed by genome reduction events in microbial superkingdoms. Eukaryal genomes displayed extraordinary functional diversity and were enriched with hundreds of novel molecular activities not detected in the akaryotic microbial cells. Remarkably, the majority of these novel functions appeared quite late in evolution, synchronized with the diversification of the eukaryal superkingdom. The distribution of GO terms in superkingdoms confirms that Archaea appears to be the simplest and most ancient form of cellular life, while Eukarya is the most diverse and recent.
Full Text Available The article gives an overview of the most important problems of modern meteoric astronomy and briefly describes ways and methods of their solutions. Particular attention is paid to the construction and arrangement of meteoric video cameras intended for registration of the meteoric phenomena as the main method of obtaining reliable and objective observational data on the basis of which the solution of the described tasks is possible.
Chan, Marjorie A.; McPherson, Brian J.
Abstract Iron (oxyhydr)oxide microbial mats in modern to ∼100 ka tufa terraces are present in a cold spring system along Ten Mile Graben, southeastern Utah, USA. Mats exhibit morphological, chemical, and textural biosignatures and show diagenetic changes that occur over millennial scales. The Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in the Four Corners region of the USA also exhibits comparable microbial fossils and iron (oxyhydr)oxide biosignatures in the lacustrine unit. Both the modern spring system and Brushy Basin Member represent alkaline, saline, groundwater-fed systems and preserve diatoms and other similar algal forms with cellular elaboration. Two distinct suites of elements (1. C, Fe, As and 2. C, S, Se, P) are associated with microbial fossils in modern and ancient iron (oxyhydr)oxides and may be potential markers for biosignatures. The presence of ferrihydrite in ∼100 ka fossil microbial mats and Jurassic rocks suggests that this thermodynamically unstable mineral may also be a potential biomarker. One of the most extensive sedimentary records on Mars is exposed in Gale Crater and consists of non-acidic clays and sulfates possibly of lacustrine origin. These terrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxide examples are a valuable analogue because of similar iron- and clay-rich host rock compositions and will help (1) understand diagenetic processes in a non-acidic, saline lacustrine environment such as the sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, (2) document specific biomediated textures, (3) demonstrate how biomediated textures might persist or respond to diagenesis over time, and (4) provide a ground truth library of textures to explore and compare in extraterrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxides, where future explorations hope to detect past evidence of life. Key Words: Biogeochemistry—Mars—Biosignatures—Diagenesis—Iron oxides. Astrobiology 14, 1–14. PMID:24380534
Potter-McIntyre, Sally L; Chan, Marjorie A; McPherson, Brian J
Iron (oxyhydr)oxide microbial mats in modern to ∼100 ka tufa terraces are present in a cold spring system along Ten Mile Graben, southeastern Utah, USA. Mats exhibit morphological, chemical, and textural biosignatures and show diagenetic changes that occur over millennial scales. The Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation in the Four Corners region of the USA also exhibits comparable microbial fossils and iron (oxyhydr)oxide biosignatures in the lacustrine unit. Both the modern spring system and Brushy Basin Member represent alkaline, saline, groundwater-fed systems and preserve diatoms and other similar algal forms with cellular elaboration. Two distinct suites of elements (1. C, Fe, As and 2. C, S, Se, P) are associated with microbial fossils in modern and ancient iron (oxyhydr)oxides and may be potential markers for biosignatures. The presence of ferrihydrite in ∼100 ka fossil microbial mats and Jurassic rocks suggests that this thermodynamically unstable mineral may also be a potential biomarker. One of the most extensive sedimentary records on Mars is exposed in Gale Crater and consists of non-acidic clays and sulfates possibly of lacustrine origin. These terrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxide examples are a valuable analogue because of similar iron- and clay-rich host rock compositions and will help (1) understand diagenetic processes in a non-acidic, saline lacustrine environment such as the sedimentary rocks in Gale Crater, (2) document specific biomediated textures, (3) demonstrate how biomediated textures might persist or respond to diagenesis over time, and (4) provide a ground truth library of textures to explore and compare in extraterrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxides, where future explorations hope to detect past evidence of life.
Constantinescu, Bogdan; Cristea-Stan, Daniela; Szőkefalvi-Nagy, Zoltán; Kovács, Imre; Harsányi, Ildikó; Kasztovszky, Zsolt
Combined external milli-beam Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and Prompt Gamma Activation Analysis (PGAA) analysis was applied to characterize the composition of paste and colorants from some fragments of Byzantine bracelets (10th-12th Centuries AD), late medieval (17th-18th Centuries AD) and modern Murano glass pieces. As fluxes, PGAA revealed the samples are soda-lime glass, except four samples - two medieval vessel white shards and two dark Byzantine fragments of bracelets - which have potash flux. Aluminium was detected in various proportions in all samples indicating different sources for the added sand. The presence of Magnesium is relevant only in one bracelet fragment suggesting the use of plant (wood?) ash and confirming that the Byzantine bracelet is manufactured from the mixture of both types of glass (natron and plant ash based). PGAA also indicated the presence of low quantities of Cadmium, high level of Arsenic and Lead (possibly lead arsenate) in one medieval sample and of ZnO in Murano glass, and of CoO traces (maximum 0.1%) in all blue-colored Byzantine, late medieval to modern Murano glass artefacts. PIXE confirmed the use of small quantities of CoO for blue color, indicated Manganese combined with Iron for dark glass, Copper for green, Lead, Tin and an Arsenic compound (orpiment?) for yellow and in the case of modern Murano glass Selenium and Cadmium to obtain a reddish color. Despite PIXE - PIGE combination is probably the best one for glass analysis, our external milli-PIXE - PGAA methods proved to be adequate complementary tools to determine many chemical elements from glass composition - Si, Na, K, Ca, Al, Mg, various metallic oxides.
Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Ghirotto, Silvia; Harvati, Katerina
In modern humans, the significant correlation between neutral genetic loci and cranial anatomy suggests that the cranium preserves a population history signature. However, there is disagreement on whether certain parts of the cranium preserve this signature to a greater degree than other parts. It is also unclear how different quantitative measures of phenotype affect the association of genetic variation and anatomy. Here, we revisit these matters by testing the correlation of genetic distances and various phenotypic distances for ten modern human populations. Geometric morphometric shape data from the crania of adult individuals (n = 224) are used to calculate phenotypic P ST , Procrustes, and Mahalanobis distances. We calculate their correlation to neutral genetic distances, F ST , derived from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). We subset the cranial data into landmark configurations that include the neurocranium, the face, and the temporal bone in order to evaluate whether these cranial regions are differentially correlated to neutral genetic variation. Our results show that P ST , Mahalanobis, and Procrustes distances are correlated with F ST distances to varying degrees. They indicate that overall cranial shape is significantly correlated with neutral genetic variation. Of the component parts examined, P ST distances for both the temporal bone and the face have a stronger association with F ST distances than the neurocranium. When controlling for population divergence time, only the whole cranium and the temporal bone have a statistically significant association with F ST distances. Our results confirm that the cranium, as a whole, and the temporal bone can be used to reconstruct modern human population history. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
This article surveys studies focusing on pre-modern Korean medicine, which are both written in English and analyzed primary sources up to 1876. Overall, the history of pre-modern Korean medicine is an unknown filed in Anglophone academia. Yung Sik Kim's, James Palais's, and Carter Ecart's problematization of the nationalist framework of Korean scholarship partially explains the marginality of the field. Addressing these criticisms, this review argues that pre-modern Korean medicine's uneasy task lies in both elaborating Korea's own experience of medicine, while simultaneously avoiding making the "Korean" category itself essential. Korean narratives of premodern medicine need to go beyond the mere territorilalization of Korean medicine against its Chinese, Japanese, or Western counterparts, thereby to tackle the field's own boundary of research objects. The existing scholarship in English responds to this challenge by primarily examining the way in which Korea has shared textual tradition with China. Sirhak scholars' innovation in medicine, visual representation of Tongŭi bogam, Korean management of epidemics in the eleventh century, and Korean indexing of local botanicals, engages not only native achievements, but also the process of modifying medicine across geographical and political boundaries. More to the point, the emerging native narratives, although written in Korean, are implicitly resonant with those currently present in Anglophone academia. Taking "tension," "intertextuality," and "local traits" as a lens, this article assesses a series of current research in Korea. Aiming to go beyond appeals for a "distinctively" Korean experience of medicine, the future study of Korean pre-modern medicine will further elucidate confluences of different flows, such as "Chinese and Korean," "universal and local," "center and periphery," and "native and foreign," which will eventually articulate a range of Korean techniques of creating a bricolage in medicine.
Shangguan, D Y
Influenced by the research on history of disease abroad, the research on the history of plague in modern China began in 1989. For the recent 25 years, the related researches on plague mainly took place in Guangzhou, Hong Kong, the Northeast and Shanxi, supplemented by other places, showing its clear regional characteristic, with diversified research views, methods and application of materials. As an important content of research on disease history, the research of history of plague in modern China revealed obvious defects, viz. mainly traditional and one-way or linear research, reflecting the research was still at the borderland. Of late years, some scholars began to break through the limitation of traditional historical concept and method, and try to apply the interdisciplinary view for widening the research scope. With the promotion of this academic concept, the research of plague history began " to regard history by a bottom-up approach" , and paid more attention to the living space.
Delile, Hugo; Keenan-Jones, Duncan; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Arnaud-Godet, Florent; Albarède, Francis
Heavy metals from urban runoff preserved in sedimentary deposits record long-term economic and industrial development via the expansion and contraction of a city’s infrastructure. Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions measured in the sediments of the harbor of Ostia—Rome’s first harbor—show that lead pipes used in the water supply networks of Rome and Ostia were the only source of radiogenic Pb, which, in geologically young central Italy, is the hallmark of urban pollution. High-resolution geochemical, isotopic, and 14C analyses of a sedimentary core from Ostia harbor have allowed us to date the commissioning of Rome’s lead pipe water distribution system to around the second century BC, considerably later than Rome’s first aqueduct built in the late fourth century BC. Even more significantly, the isotopic record of Pb pollution proves to be an unparalleled proxy for tracking the urban development of ancient Rome over more than a millennium, providing a semiquantitative record of the water system’s initial expansion, its later neglect, probably during the civil wars of the first century BC, and its peaking in extent during the relative stability of the early high Imperial period. This core record fills the gap in the system’s history before the appearance of more detailed literary and inscriptional evidence from the late first century BC onward. It also preserves evidence of the changes in the dynamics of the Tiber River that accompanied the construction of Rome’s artificial port, Portus, during the first and second centuries AD. PMID:28847928
Jacobs Nathan A.
Full Text Available The questions of whether God reveals himself; if so, how we can know a purported revelation is authentic; and how such revelations relate to the insights of reason are discussed by John Locke, Thomas Hobbes, René Descartes, G. W. Leibniz, and Immanuel Kant, to name a few. Yet, what these philosophers say with such consistency about revelation stands in stark contrast with the claims of the Christian East, which are equally consistent from the second century through the fourteenth century. In this essay, I will compare the modern discussion of special revelation from Thomas Hobbes through Johann Fichte with the Eastern Christian discussion from Irenaeus through Gregory Palamas. As we will see, there are noteworthy differences between the two trajectories, differences I will suggest merit careful consideration from philosophers of religion.
Meseguer, Andrea S; Lobo, Jorge M; Ree, Richard; Beerling, David J; Sanmartín, Isabel
integrative approach to historical biogeography-that combines sources of evidence as diverse as paleontology, ecology, and phylogenetics-could help us obtain more accurate reconstructions of ancient evolutionary history. It also reveals the confounding effect different rates of extinction across regions have in biogeography, sometimes leading to ancestral areas being erroneously inferred as recent colonization events. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Society of Systematic Biologists.
Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan
ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...
Mertz, D P
Comparative investigations centre on attitudes of demand and consumption in ethnic groups living in affluence, beginning with the first pre-Christian century in the Roman Empire on the one hand and in Western countries in the post-industrial age of hight-tech in times of far advanced globalization on the other. In this context medical, psycho-social and socio-economical aspects will be treated considering ideal and cultural breaks. Renowned Roman and Greek historians, physicians and philosophers are vouching as witnesses of the times for developments in the antique world with their literary works, in excerpts and verbatim. Obviously general moral decay is a side effect of any affluence. Even in the antiquitiy the "ideology of renewal" proclaimed by the Emperor Augustus died away mostly in emptiness just as do the appeals for improving one's state of health for surviving directed to all citizens in our time. With the rise of Rome as a world power general relative affluence was widespread to such an extent that diseases caused by affluence have occured as mass phenomena. The old Roman virtues of temperance and frugality turned into greed and addiction to pleasure. In this way the Roman people under the banner of affluence degenerated into a society of leisure time, consumption, fun and throwaway mentality. The decline of the Empire was predetermined. The promise of affluence which modern Europe is addicted to is demanding its price following the principle of causality. "How the pictures resemble each other!"
Theodossiou, E.; Mantarakis, P.; Dimitrijevic, M. S.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.
The notion of the infinite, with the modern meaning of the term, was first introduced by the Greek philosopher Anaximander (6th Century BC). Anaximander introduced the apeiron (the boundless) as the beginning of everything (the first principle). According to his theory, the apeiron is undefined and ever moving. It gives birth to the contradictory terms of warm and cold, and of moist and dry, and their perpetual strife. Man is able to comprehend the result of this eternal process from the vast plurality of things and the infinite number of Universes. The cosmological aspect in Anaximander's theory is beautiful; innumerable worlds are born from the apeiron and absorbed by it, once they are destroyed. Thus, the apeiron is related to the eternal, through out time, cosmological procedure. The cosmological problem of the vastness of the Universe or of the innumerability of Universes is an elementary philosophical problem, while the Theory of Big Bang bounded with the notion of time-space, is a starting point for understanding the models that describe our Universe.
Donald R Senger
Full Text Available The Nrf2 (NFE2L2 cell defense pathway protects against oxidative stress and disorders including cancer and neurodegeneration. Although activated modestly by oxidative stress alone, robust activation of the Nrf2 defense mechanism requires the additional presence of co-factors that facilitate electron exchange. Various molecules exhibit this co-factor function, including sulforaphane from cruciferous vegetables. However, natural co-factors that are potent and widely available from dietary sources have not been identified previously. The objectives of this study were to investigate support of the Nrf2 cell defense pathway by the alkyl catechols: 4-methylcatechol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-ethylcatechol. These small electrochemicals are naturally available from numerous sources but have not received attention. Findings reported here illustrate that these compounds are indeed potent co-factors for activation of the Nrf2 pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Each strongly supports expression of Nrf2 target genes in a variety of human cell types; and, in addition, 4-ethylcatechol is orally active in mice. Furthermore, findings reported here identify important and previously unrecognized sources of these compounds, arising from biotransformation of common plant compounds by lactobacilli that express phenolic acid decarboxylase. Thus, for example, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus collinoides, which are consumed from a diet rich in traditionally fermented foods and beverages, convert common phenolic acids found in fruits and vegetables to 4-vinylcatechol and/or 4-ethylcatechol. In addition, all of the alkyl catechols are found in wood smoke that was used widely for food preservation. Thus, the potentially numerous sources of alkyl catechols in traditional foods suggest that these co-factors were common in ancient diets. However, with radical changes in food preservation, alkyl catechols have been lost from modern foods. The
Full Text Available The article deals with with the possibility of researching and mapping female painters’ self-portraits with the key of queer interpretation and with the accent on women’s and queer writings. The research of female selfportraits from this perspective addresses the new approach to modern art history, and the possibilities of construction/conceptualization/readings/reflection of gender identity of the artist herself as author and observer of the painting. Theoretical analysis of self-portraits and individual works from the opus of Nadežda Petrović, Danica Jovanović, Milena Pavlović Barili, Nasta Rojc, Beta Vukanović and Natalija Cvetković was conducted.
Pedersen, Robert Douglas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)
Physical asset protection is the principal objective of many security and safeguard measures. One well-known means of asset protection is two-person control. This paper reviews literature regarding two-person control to gain insight into its origin, first demonstrated uses, and its presence in several modern industries. This literature review of two-person control is intended to benefit people and organizations with a desire to understand its origins and how the practice has evolved over time, as well as give some insight into the flexibility of this safeguarding technique. The literature review is focused in four main sections: (1) defining two-person control, (2) early history, (3) two-person control in modern industry, and (4) a theory on how two- person control entered modern industry. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author would like to thank Jarret Lafleur and Scott Paap of Sandia National Laboratories, California's Systems Analysis & Engineering organization for the opportunity to work on this project. Jarret Lafleur provided very constructive and helpful feedback through all stages of the work. Amanda Thompson of the Sandia California Technical Library maintained a great spirit and always had a quick document turnaround that very much helped out this project's completion. Additionally, yet perhaps most importantly, the author would like to thank his wife and daughter, along with the rest of his family, for continued support over the years. Sandia National Laboratories is a multimission laboratory managed and operated by National Technology and Engineering Solutions of Sandia, LLC., a wholly owned subsidiary of Honeywell International, Inc., for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under contract DE-NA0003525.
Research on the history of medicine in Korea in the form of modern scholarship began with the publication in 1930 of Yi Neunghwa's "A History of the Development of Medicine in Korea." The purpose of the present study lies in surveying studies on the history of medicine in Korea in the past 80 years since the publication of Yi's paper. In terms of periodization, research on the history of medicine in Korea is bifurcated by the publication of two comprehensive histories-i. e., Miki Sakae's A History of Medicine and Disease in Korea (1963) and Kim Du-jong's The Complete History of Medicine in Korea (1966). Indeed, all earlier studies converged in these two books. Because Miki and Kim both had majored in Western medicine and conducted research based on similar perspectives, data, and methods, the two works overlap considerably, and Kim's book, as the later of the two, unfortunately lost the initiative to the former to a considerable extent. As a result of these two scholars' research, it became possible to trace the overall flow of the history of medicine in Korea. Following the publication of works by Miki and Kim and with the advent of the 1980's, research on the history of medicine in premodern Korea was renovated with the emergence of no fewer than some dozen new doctoral degree holders in the field. In fact, these young scholars went beyond surveying trends in each era to expand the scope of specific discussions and topics per era, to delve into the actual contents, and to elucidate the function of medicine in society. The fruits of studies conducted in the past 80 years on the history of medicine in premodern Korea can be summarized as follows. 1) before the 5th century AD: the existence of a comprehensive medical practice in regions inhabited by those considered to be the ancestors of the Korean people; and information on medication including ginseng. 2) 5th-10th centuries: the existence of professional medical posts; the management of medicine by the royal
This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the fam...
Olson, Kenneth R; Gao, Yan; DeLeon, Eric R; Arif, Maaz; Arif, Faihaan; Arora, Nitin; Straub, Karl D
Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H 2 O 2 to O 2 and H 2 O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O 2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS) became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS). Here we examine catalase metabolism of H 2 S n , the sulfur analog of H 2 O 2 , hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H 2 S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H 2 S n ; SSP4) and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF). Catalase eliminated H 2 S n , but did not anaerobically generate H 2 S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H 2 S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P 50 of 20mmHg. H 2 O 2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H 2 S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az), H 2 O 2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H 2 S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H 2 O 2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H 2 S from dithiothreitol (DTT) in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H 2 S in the presence of O 2 . H 2 S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H 2 S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears
Kenneth R. Olson
Full Text Available Catalase is well-known as an antioxidant dismutating H2O2 to O2 and H2O. However, catalases evolved when metabolism was largely sulfur-based, long before O2 and reactive oxygen species (ROS became abundant, suggesting catalase metabolizes reactive sulfide species (RSS. Here we examine catalase metabolism of H2Sn, the sulfur analog of H2O2, hydrogen sulfide (H2S and other sulfur-bearing molecules using H2S-specific amperometric electrodes and fluorophores to measure polysulfides (H2Sn; SSP4 and ROS (dichlorofluorescein, DCF. Catalase eliminated H2Sn, but did not anaerobically generate H2S, the expected product of dismutation. Instead, catalase concentration- and oxygen-dependently metabolized H2S and in so doing acted as a sulfide oxidase with a P50 of 20 mmHg. H2O2 had little effect on catalase-mediated H2S metabolism but in the presence of the catalase inhibitor, sodium azide (Az, H2O2 rapidly and efficiently expedited H2S metabolism in both normoxia and hypoxia suggesting H2O2 is an effective electron acceptor in this reaction. Unexpectedly, catalase concentration-dependently generated H2S from dithiothreitol (DTT in both normoxia and hypoxia, concomitantly oxidizing H2S in the presence of O2. H2S production from DTT was inhibited by carbon monoxide and augmented by NADPH suggesting that catalase heme-iron is the catalytic site and that NADPH provides reducing equivalents. Catalase also generated H2S from garlic oil, diallyltrisulfide, thioredoxin and sulfur dioxide, but not from sulfite, metabisulfite, carbonyl sulfide, cysteine, cystine, glutathione or oxidized glutathione. Oxidase activity was also present in catalase from Aspergillus niger. These results show that catalase can act as either a sulfide oxidase or sulfur reductase and they suggest that these activities likely played a prominent role in sulfur metabolism during evolution and may continue do so in modern cells as well. This also appears to be the first observation of catalase
Full Text Available Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China′s mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE. Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung′s contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung, archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ′crystal-like belly′ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung′s contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng′s resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.
Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam
Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest. © 2015 MEDPRESS.
Shin, Young-Jeon; Park, Se-Hong
borderlands or frontiers of Joseon Korea, China, and Japan, where the history of the three nations met and intermingled with one another. He was a biochemist and researcher, practicing physician and medical professor of the era under Japanese Rule and the one following it. In modern Korean medicine, his life is viewed as a history of the borders, or a transnational legacy going beyond individual history of Korea, China, and Japan.
Neiburger, E J
Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.
The importance of water is presented from a myriad of aspects including its creation in cosmic history; its importance in the texts of ancient history; references within various religious writings; and significance with respect to modern science, art, music, transportation, archi...
Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan
Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available On 9 June 2017, scholars from a range of disciplines across the United Kingdom and Spain met at the University of Warwick to discuss the ways in which taking a global perspective can enrich research on early modern Iberia and colonial Spanish America. Coming at a time when Spanish exceptionalism is being increasingly challenged but the Americas are still being side-lined in the writing of global history, the presenters addressed gaps in current historiography and challenged Eurocentric narratives of early modern history which have predominated since the Enlightenment. The final roundtable called for definition in the language of movement in global history and concluded that we need to rethink global history as a project that began in the sixteenth century with conceptions of an Iberian or Catholic globe, an orbe hispano.
Hansen, V. L.; López, I.
A global map of ribbon tessera terrain rtt shows: rtt covers ~18% of Venus; distinct rtt suites "defined by tectonic fabric" cover millions of km2, and show crosscutting relations, forming the basis for a global-scale (relative) ancient timescale.
Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Moftah, Marie Z; Karim, Ahmed A
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, "women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions." According to Banduras' social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today's gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today's gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today's gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura's social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research.
Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Karim, Ahmed A.
A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, “women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions.” According to Banduras’ social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today’s gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura’s social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research. PMID:28105022
Inscribed on the face is a code, the translation of which has entertained and eluded humankind for many centuries. The practice of reading the face dates back as early as the paleobabylonian period in Mesopotamia. It wasn't until much later, however, that this ancient tradition was named.
Пронь, Тетяна Михайлівна
The publication represents the interdisciplinary research professionals of social science and literature of Poland, Ukraine, Slovakia, the United States and Canada in history, modernity, material and spiritual culture Lemko, Boyko and Transcarpathian Rusyns disclose at the IV International scientific conference (23-24 September 2011 , Slupsk, Poland) and in the new collective proceedings of the Institute of Political Science Zelenogorsk University and the Institute of History Pomeranian Acade...
Bocherens, Hervé; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Hobson, Keith A
Stable isotope analyses provide one of the few means to evaluate diet of extinct taxa. However, interpreting isotope data from bone collagen of extinct animals based on isotopic patterns in different tissues of modern animal proxies is precarious. For example, three corrections are needed before making comparisons of recent hair and ancient bone collagen: calibration of carbon-13 variations in atmospheric CO2, different isotopic discrimination between diet-hair keratin and diet-bone collagen, and time averaging of bone collagen versus short-term record in hair keratin. Recently, Robu et al. [Isotopic evidence for dietary flexibility among European Late Pleistocene cave bears (Ursus spelaeus). Can J Zool. 2013;91:227-234] published an article comparing extant carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotopic data of European cave bear bone collagen with those of Yellowstone Park grizzly bear hair in order to test the prevailing assumption of a largely vegetarian diet among cave bears. The authors concluded that cave bears were carnivores. This work is unfortunately unfounded as the authors failed to consider the necessary corrections listed above. When these corrections are applied to the Romanian cave bears, these individuals can be then interpreted without involving consumption of high trophic-level food, and environmental changes are probably the reason for the unusual isotopic composition of these cave bears in comparison with other European cave bears, rather than a change of diet. We caution researchers to pay careful attention to these factors when interpreting feeding ecology of extinct fauna using stable isotope techniques.
Swamy, Ashwin Balegar
This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.
Jiang, W.; Roy, D.M.
The history of cementitious materials goes back to ancient times. The Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone and later developed pozzolanic cement by grinding together lime and volcanic ash called open-quotes pozzolanclose quotes which was first found near Port Pozzuoli, Italy. The ancient Chinese used lime-pozzolanic mixes to build the Great Wall. The ancient Egyptians used calcined impure gypsum to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The extraordinary stability and durability of these materials has impressed us, when so much dramatically damaged infrastructure restored by using modern portland cement now requires rebuilding. Stability and durability of cementitious materials have attracted intensive research interest and contractors' concerns, as does immobilization of radioactive and hazardous industrial waste in cementitious materials. Nuclear waste pollution of the environment and an acceptable solution for waste management and disposal constitute among the most important public concerns. The analogy of ancient cementitious materials to modern Portland cement could give us some clues to study their stability and durability. This present study examines selected results of studies of ancient building materials from France, Italy, China, and Egypt, combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cement to evaluate the potential for stability and durability of such materials in nuclear waste forms
In the fall 2005 semester, the author designed a course in the history of America's modern wars hoping to encourage students to criticize and oppose the country's current aggressions in Afghanistan and Iraq. Surveys of student attitude change suggest that the course did promote criticism but did far less to facilitate student activism. The author…
'Number rules the universe.' The Pythagoras 'If you wish to forsee the future of mathematics our course is to study the history and present conditions of the science.' Henri Poincaré 'The primary source (Urqell) of all mathematics are integers.' Hermann Minkowski This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and k-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's and Pythagorean's main contributions to elementary number theory with the main contents of the Euclid Elements of the 13-volume masterpiece of mathematical work. This is followed by Euler's new discovery of the additive number theory based on partitions of numbers. Special attention is given to many examples, Euler's theorems on partitions of numbers with geometrical representations of Ferrers' graphs, Young's diagrams, Lagrange's four-square theorem and the celebrated Waring problem. Included are Euler's generating functions for the partitions of numbers, Euler's pentagonal number theorem, Gauss' triangular and square number theorems and the Jacobi triple product identity. Applications of the theory of partitions of numbers to different statistics such as the Bose- Einstein, Fermi- Dirac, Gentile, and Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics are briefly discussed. Special attention is given to pedagogical information through historical approach to number theory so that students and teachers at the school, college and university levels can become familiar with the basic concepts of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications, and can pursue advanced study and research in analytical and computational number theory.
Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N; Ponce, Fernando; Kahn, Ted R
Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).
Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, Washington, DC (United States); Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Ponce, Fernando [Ciudadanos por la Democracia, Quito (Ecuador); Kahn, Ted R, E-mail: email@example.com [Neotropical Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)
Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).
Full Text Available This paper traces a history of war-induced scarcity through the material and technological properties of household appliances and kitchens from 1914 to 1930. Investigating the Austrian settlement and allotment garden movement, it argues that the practices of users, self-help builders, and inhabitants who reacted to living with limited resources in the state of emergency found their way into the designs of modern homes, and into the works of canonical modern architecture, in particular the famous Frankfurt Kitchen. This paper thus investigates the design and production of the modern kitchen and its transformations, from Vienna to Frankfurt, moving from a cooperative vernacular building movement to one of the largest construction endeavors to standardize and prefabricate modern housing in Germany.
Zachlod, Michelle, Ed.
California State Standard 7.1 is delineated in the following manner: "Students analyze the causes and effects of the vast expansion and ultimate disintegration of the Roman Empire." One important legacy of ancient Rome is the foundation it set for the development of modern democracies. The Roman Stoics built upon the Greek Stoic model by…
Gimson, Alfred C.
Discusses changes in the pronunciation of colloquial Brltish English, reflecting changing social attitudes toward traditional Received Pronunciation. Finds that a study is needed to determine a new standard for the use of future foreign students of English. A pilot study is described. (IFS/WGA) i
Uysal, I.; Golding, S.; Esterle, J.; Feng, Y.; Zhao, J.
We investigated physico-chemical conditions during mineral authigenesis in CO2-rich ancient and recent hydrothermal environments in Eastern Australia (Gunnedah and Bowen Basins) and Turkey, respectively. We performed Rb-Sr and U-series dating of clay-carbonate associations and travertine veins respectively to evaluate the degassing and storage history of CO2. Intense carbonate veining and coal seam cleat mineralisation in the Gunnedah Basin took place as a result of heat and CO2 release associated with magmatism during the breakup of Gondwana in the Late Cretaceous. Widespread carbonate veining and cementation in the Bowen Basin occurred as products of basin-wide CO2 rich meteoric hydrothermal fluids during the Late Triassic extension. CO2 has largely been used for carbonate precipitation (calcite, siderite, ankerite and dawsonite) in eastern Australian basins; however, some high proportion of CO2 has been stored in coal seams as adsorbed molecules on coal. Significant CO2 degassing is common in geothermal fields in Turkey, as manifested by recent deposition of travertine pools and terraces as well as travertine vein networks in damage zones of active major fault systems. Trace element geochemistry indicates that transient ascent of CO2-bearing fluids during seismic strain cycles without significant interaction with basement and host rocks resulted in rapid precipitation of the vein travertine near the surface. Such veins and associated breccias formed by hydraulic fracturing in response to overpressure of CO2-rich fluids. Correlation of high-precision U-series ages with global/regional climate events indicates that late Quaternary climate variability may have controlled the geothermal water circulation that regulates CO2 accumulation and the generation of CO2 over-pressurised reservoirs and their behaviour during seismic events.
Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine
Traditionally, an abrupt and massive influx of siliciclastic sediments into an area of deposition has been attributed to tectonic uplift without consideration of the influence of climate or climatic change on rates of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. With few exceptions, fluvial sediment transport is minimal in both extremely arid climates and in perhumid (everwet) climates. Maximum sediment transport occurs in climates characterized by strongly seasonal rainfall, where the effect of vegetation on erosion is minimal. The Peru–Chile trench and Andes Mountain system (P–CT/AMS) of the eastern Pacific Ocean clearly illustrates the effects of climate on rates of weathering, erosion, transport, and deep-sea sedimentation. Terrigenous sediment is virtually absent in the arid belt north of lat. 30° S in the P–CT, but in the belt of seasonal rainfall south of lat. 30° S terrigenous sediment is abundant. Spatial variations in the amount and seasonality of annual precipitation are now generally accepted as the cause for this difference. The spatial variation in sediment supply to the P–CT appears to be an excellent modern analogue for the temporal variation in sediment supply to certain ancient systems, such as the Ouachita Trough in the southern United States. By comparison, during the Ordovician through the early Mississippian, sediment was deposited at very slow rates as the Ouachita Trough moved northward through the southern hemisphere dry belt (lat. 10° S to lat. 30° S). The deposystem approached the tropical humid zone during the Mississippian, coincident with increased coarse clastic sedimentation. By the Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan), the provenance area and the deposystem moved well into the tropical humid zone, and as much as 8,500 m of mineralogically mature (but texturally immature) quartz sand was introduced and deposited. This increase in clastic sediment deposition traditionally has been attributed solely to tectonic activity
Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Abella, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; Smith, Amos B; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste
Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a principal component of the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), is one of the most ancient known foods and has long been associated with health benefits. Many phenolic compounds extracted from Olea europea L. have attracted attention since their discovery. Among these phenolic constituents, oleocanthal has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic molecule for different diseases, showing relevant pharmacological properties in various pathogenic processes, including inflammation, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we discuss and summarize the most recent pharmacological evidence for the medical relevance of oleocanthal, focusing our attention on its anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic roles. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Argument In recent decades a large body of scholarship on the first half of twentieth-century China has successfully shown the ways in which history and historiography had been constructed at the time, as well as the links between history, national identity, education, and politics that was forged during this period. In this paper, I examine Qing intellectual history, in particular that of the mid or "High Qing." I discuss the development of the historiography of this field in the early twentieth century by drawing on the larger developments in historiography; by demonstrating how these developments had shaped Qing intellectual history for later times; by focusing on the historical actors' sense of the importance of "science," being "scientific," and "modernization"; and, by unraveling the intimate connections to older historiographical narratives going back all the way to the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
Abstract. Until recent, the lack of perception that dogged the early study of traitional art by members of Western culture seem to have reappeared in the study or (non study) of modern African art. Currently, modern African art is engaging the attention of western art historians' scholarly enquiry. However, there is a need.
Until recent, the lack of perception that dogged the early study of traitional art by members of Western culture seem to have reappeared in the study or (non study) of modern African art. Currently, modern African art is engaging the attention of western art historians' scholarly enquiry. However, there is a need for a well ...
McCorkle, William David
The contentious modern immigration debate in the United States is often void of historical context and thus filled with fallacious narratives. To confront this trend, social studies educators should place the issues of modern immigration within their proper historical framework. This paper looks at three primary themes educators can explore: the…
Full Text Available It has often been remarked that modern architecture in Britain began late and that its emergence largely depended on the contribution of a massive influx of European exiles seeking refuge from the political and racial persecution of totalitarian regimes. In the attempt to discard the tired narrative of Britain’s insular modernism as a mere echo of continental European achievements, an alternative historiography has recently directed attention to Britain’s own distinctive and original version of modern architecture in the 1930s. Through the examination of a small group of articles, books and pamphlets on English modern architecture written by English authors and published in the mid-1930s, this paper argues that the emergence of a distinctive version of architectural modernism in Britain was paralleled by the development of an equally original brand of architectural criticism and historiography.
Byoung Hoon LEE
Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate and analyze the description of the modern hospital as history record, which appeared in YI Kwang Su’s novel Love. This novel has mentioned in detail western style clinic, Bukgando Catholic hospital, tuberculosis sanitarium as its main space. Modern hospitals are depicted in the novel has a great significance in historical aspect as well as in literary aspect. The most data on modern hospital is laws, statistics and newspaper archives. These materials are a great help to understand the history and status of the modern hospital. Literary description here is important materials, that specific to reconstruct the appearance of the modern hospital at that time. Literary representations infuse life into the history record. In this regard, Love has special meaning in the history of Korean modern literature. Before anything else, doctor AN Bin’s clinic as a first space of the novel vividly shows the reality of the Western style clinic and a general practitioner under the colonial period. The establishment of the hospital was based on 「Rules on private hospital」 declared by the Japanese Government General of Korea in 1919. According to this Rules, a private clinic’s founder had to submit the documents to the director of police affairs, in which all the details were written. It included name of hospital, site location and size, floor plan of a nearby building, each size of patient’s rooms, number of steps and emergency exit, bath, toilet, disinfecting room. AN Bin’s clinic was a private hospital with the requirements in the rules. The descriptions of this clinic re-created real situation of private hospitals, specifically scale of hospital, interior space, conditions of patient’s room at the time. The second modern hospital in the novel is Bukgando Catholic hospital. There is a lot more materials on medical activity and hospital of protestant churches than we thought. But we do not have a lot of information on
Giribet, Gonzalo; Sharma, Prashant P.; Benavides, Ligia R.
in a hypothesis for all the cyphophthalmid genera, although the limited data available for some taxa represented only in the morphological partition negatively affects the phylogenetic reconstruction by decreasing nodal support in most clades. However, it resolves the position of many monotypic genera......We investigate the phylogeny, biogeography, time of origin and diversification, ancestral area reconstruction and large-scale distributional patterns of an ancient group of arachnids, the harvestman suborder Cyphophthalmi. Analysis of molecular and morphological data allow us to propose a new......; Boreophthalmi includes Stylocellidae and Sironidae, the latter family of questionable monophyly. The internal resolution of each family is discussed and traced back to its geological time origin, as well as to its original landmass, using methods for estimating divergence times and ancestral area reconstruction...
Freeman, Mark; Kirke, Alice
This review considers the periodical literature on the history of education published in 2016. It discusses general long-term trends in the field, but focuses mainly on the key areas of research in 2016 itself. The review is divided into several sections: ancient, medieval and early modern history; schooling and education policy; the history of…
and Healing in Zimbabwe.” Journal of Southern African Studies XVIII 3 (September 1992): 698-707. Redding, Sean. “Government Witchcraft : Taxation...1976. Khan, Iqtidar Alam. Gunpowder and Firearms: Warfare in Medieval India. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004. Kolff, Dirk H.A. Naukar...Conflict of 1941- 1945. New York: Oxford University Press, 1985. Tien Chen-ya. Chinese Military Theory: Ancient, Medieval , and Modern. Oakville
Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass
Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)
Full Text Available En la discusión actual sobre la ciudanía en democracia es central admitir una crisis en la educación (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Resulta inevitable, así, desde una perspectiva de la historia de la filosofía, citar lo enseñado por máximos teóricos políticos, si queremos comprender por qué la imagen educativa antigua resulta problemática y no del todo satisfactoria para los estados democráticos de hoy. Sin duda la educación ha sido responsable de la formación del carácter y de la opinión de las personas. Pero al observar la historia de la institución, parece claro que se propone no solo formar los hábitos de las personas, sino acotar sus conocimientos de tal modo que prevalezcan un conjunto de opiniones por sobre otras (RUSSELL, 1961. Nuestro propósito es develar los supuestos teóricos de las doctrinas políticas de dos figuras representativas de la antigüedad y modernidad: Aristóteles y Locke, respectivamente. Nuestro alcance ulterior será abrir la reflexión acerca de si la imagen antigua de la virtud, o su antagonismo o posible uso en el liberalismo tiene algún poder representacional para reflejar las condiciones actuales de equidad y justicia buscadas en la vida ciudadana en democracias estables de Latino América.Within the actual debate on citizenship within democracy, admitting a crisis in educational matters is highly relevant (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Thus, if we want to understand why the ancient educational image is problematic and unsatisfying to the citizens of democratic governments, it is unavoidable, from the history of philosophy point of view, to quote the teaching of preeminent political theorists. Needless to say, the power of education in forming people’s character and opinions is widely recognized. Nonetheless, by looking at the history of the institution, it seems obvious that its purpose is not only to form habits but to circumscribe the knowledge of the persons in such a way as to
Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484) and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50) and Gorilla (N = 47) skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.
Statham, Mark J; Murdoch, James; Janecka, Jan; Aubry, Keith B; Edwards, Ceiridwen J; Soulsbury, Carl D; Berry, Oliver; Wang, Zhenghuan; Harrison, David; Pearch, Malcolm; Tomsett, Louise; Chupasko, Judith; Sacks, Benjamin N
Widely distributed taxa provide an opportunity to compare biogeographic responses to climatic fluctuations on multiple continents and to investigate speciation. We conducted the most geographically and genomically comprehensive study to date of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes), the world's most widely distributed wild terrestrial carnivore. Analyses of 697 bp of mitochondrial sequence in ~1000 individuals suggested an ancient Middle Eastern origin for all extant red foxes and a 400 kya (SD = 139 kya) origin of the primary North American (Nearctic) clade. Demographic analyses indicated a major expansion in Eurasia during the last glaciation (~50 kya), coinciding with a previously described secondary transfer of a single matriline (Holarctic) to North America. In contrast, North American matrilines (including the transferred portion of Holarctic clade) exhibited no signatures of expansion until the end of the Pleistocene (~12 kya). Analyses of 11 autosomal loci from a subset of foxes supported the colonization time frame suggested by mtDNA (and the fossil record) but, in contrast, reflected no detectable secondary transfer, resulting in the most fundamental genomic division of red foxes at the Bering Strait. Endemic continental Y-chromosome clades further supported this pattern. Thus, intercontinental genomic exchange was overall very limited, consistent with long-term reproductive isolation since the initial colonization of North America. Based on continental divergence times in other carnivoran species pairs, our findings support a model of peripatric speciation and are consistent with the previous classification of the North American red fox as a distinct species, V. fulva. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…
Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom
The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were obtai...
Gadecki, Victoria L.
Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…
Number Theory for its own sake, as a great 'intellectual challenge, has a long history, particularly here in India. Already in the 7th century, Brahmagupta made impor- tant contributions to what is now known (incorrectly) as. Pell's equation.: Michael Atiyah (, p.913). In number theory, the grandest achievements of ancient.
Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.
Karatzanis, Alexander; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Vlastos, Ioannis; Velegrakis, George
The earliest reports on removal of the entire tonsil using a method of careful dissection came in the early 1900 s by American and British otorhinolaryngologists. These descriptions are credited as the first of the so-called modern tonsillectomy. In this report we present a technique of tonsillectomy conceived by Nikolaos Taptas, a Greek physician and citizen of the Ottoman Empire, which was introduced at the same period with the ones previously mentioned. Taptas practiced his technique in the very early 1900 s. He used his own instruments and reported excellent post-operative results with very few complications. He should therefore be considered among the pioneers of modern tonsillectomy.
Oakes, Peter C; Fisahn, Christian; Iwanaga, Joe; DiLorenzo, Daniel; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane
The history of the study of the autonomic nervous system is rich. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, scientists were beginning to more firmly grasp the reality of this part of the human nervous system. The evolution of our understanding of the autonomic nervous system has a rich history. Our current understanding is based on centuries of research and trial and error.
Abdou, Ehaab D.
Egyptian history textbooks are examined through the prism of historical thinking dimensions and skills, utilizing a critical discourse analysis. The analysis focuses on how the textbooks portray two historically significant events: the advent of Christianity (ca. 33 CE) and Islam (ca. 641 CE) to Egypt. It reveals that the historical narrative…
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2010), s. 223-238 ISSN 1756-1310 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80330511 Keywords : painting * furniture * applied arts * Czech Cubism * Modernism * Riga Artists´group Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/berg/aitj/2010/00000002/00000002/art00007
in emphasis after mass Muslim immigration began in the 1960s. In this sense, the protection of animal welfare as a legitimate concern of the state can be placed in a wider context of secular concerns for vulnerable groups that violently clashes with pre-modern notions of religious or cultural autonomy...
The purpose of this study is to create a short comic story about historical emergence of Planck's explanation of blackbody radiation and to investigate what students learn from it and what they think about the usage of comics in modern physics course. The participants are a small group of undergraduate students studying at department of science…
Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F.; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas
Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC–AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC–AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep. PMID:27732668
Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas
Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.
Kelley, David H
Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...
The Routledge History of Women in Europe since 1700 is a landmark publication that provides an over view of women's role and place in Western Europe, spanning three centuries. Drawing on new research and provoking valuable new insights, this comprehensive edited collection brings together renowned...... scholars and rising stars of the discipline to provide a ground-breaking and unique contribution to the historical study of women. Chapters include:European Women's History at the Crossroads, Writing Women in(to) European History, At Home in the Family, Female Sexuality, Learning to be good girls and women...
Ponti, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Tomasi, Aldo; Sammaria, Giuliano; Manfredini, Marco
There are several genetic diseases with a wide spectrum of congenital bone stigmata in association to cutaneous and visceral benign and malignant neoplasms. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also named nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant systemic disease with almost complete penetrance and high intra-familial phenotypic variability, caused by germline mutations of the gene PTCH1. The syndrome is characterized by unusual skeletal changes and high predisposition to the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts tumors and other visceral tumors. The Gorlin syndrome, clinically defined as distinct syndrome in 1963, existed during Dynastic Egyptian times, as revealed by a costellation of skeletal findings compatible with the syndrome in mummies dating back to 3000years ago and, most likely, in the ancient population of Pompeii. These paleogenetic and historical evidences, together with the clinical and biomolecular modern evidences, confirm the quite benign behavior of the syndrome and the critical value of the multiple and synchronous skeletal anomalies in the recognition of these rare and complex genetic disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Heike H. Zimmermann
Full Text Available Ecosystem boundaries, such as the Arctic-Boreal treeline, are strongly coupled with climate and were spatially highly dynamic during past glacial-interglacial cycles. Only a few studies cover vegetation changes since the last interglacial, as most of the former landscapes are inundated and difficult to access. Using pollen analysis and sedimentary ancient DNA (sedaDNA metabarcoding, we reveal vegetation changes on Bol’shoy Lyakhovsky Island since the last interglacial from permafrost sediments. Last interglacial samples depict high levels of floral diversity with the presence of trees (Larix, Picea, Populus and shrubs (Alnus, Betula, Ribes, Cornus, Saliceae on the currently treeless island. After the Last Glacial Maximum, Larix re-colonised the island but disappeared along with most shrub taxa. This was probably caused by Holocene sea-level rise, which led to increased oceanic conditions on the island. Additionally, we applied two newly developed larch-specific chloroplast markers to evaluate their potential for tracking past population dynamics from environmental samples. The novel markers were successfully re-sequenced and exhibited two variants of each marker in last interglacial samples. SedaDNA can track vegetation changes as well as genetic changes across geographic space through time and can improve our understanding of past processes that shape modern patterns.
Natale, Gianfranco; Bocci, Guido; Lenzi, Paola
This review deals with the origin of the term "angiogenesis", with an attention to John Hunter who is credited with this neologism. A part of the literature refers to a Hunter's work dating 1787, and the other part claims the first use of the term "angiogenesis" in the Hunter's masterpiece published in 1794. Since we were unable to find the term "angiogenesis" in Hunter's works, this review attempts to bring a new contribution to the historical research of this important concept, moving from ancient times to the first decades of the twentieth century, when "angiogenesis" begun to appear on titles of scientific articles. The development of the knowledge on the cardiocirculatory system and the principal steps of this fascinating subject were examined, with particular regard to microvascular bed and vessel sprouting, and to the intriguing observations on blood vessel neoformation that have been also made in the premicroscopic era. In Hunter's works, the concept of angiogenesis indeed emerges, but not the term "angiogenesis". The scientific language occurring during Hunter's time was still old-fashioned, and the term "angiogenesis" was not one of those he used, rather a much later neologism that sounds too modern to appear in that context. Would the first appearance of the term "angiogenesis" occur in late nineteenth century in studies dealing with embryogenesis and organ vascularization? The present study aims to explore the scientific literature and to open a debate to better define this matter.
Changizi Ashtiyani, Saeed; Shamsi, Mohsen; Cyrus, Ali; Bastani, Bahar; Tabatabayei, Seyed Mohammad
The history of kidney and urologic disorders dates back to the dawn of civilization. Throughout history of medicine, urine, the first bodily fluid to be examined, has continuously been studied as a means of understanding inner bodily function. The purpose of this review was to appraise the contributions of the ancient Iranian physician pioneers in the field of kidney and urological disorders, and to compare their beliefs and clinical methods with the modern medicine. We searched all available reliable electronic and published sources for the views of ancient Iranian physicians, Avicenna, Rhazes, Al-Akhawayni, and Jorjani, and compared them with recent medical literature. Our findings showed that ancient Iranian physicians described the symptoms, signs, and treatment of kidney and urological disorders; addressed bladder anatomy and physiology; and performed bladder catheterization and stone removal procedures in accordance with contemporary medicine. Ancient Iranian physicians pursued a comprehensive scientific methodology based on experiment, which is in compliance with the bases of modern medicine.
Chodorow, Nancy J
This essay considers the historical periodization and epistemology of psychoanalytic thinking about gender. Overlapping historically with feminism itself, psychoanalytic thinking about gender has two periods of efflorescence, the 1920s and 1930s, and the contemporary period beginning in the 1970s. Two divides have characterized our gender thinking, the modern-postmodern and the classical-relational. From the early theorizing of the 1920s and 1930s until around the early 1990s, most psychoanalytic thinking about gender should be considered modernist, as it draws on traditional views of scientific evidence and holds more universalistic and dichotomized conceptions of men and women. In the contemporary period, although postmodernism tends to be associated with relational psychoanalysts and modernist thinking with classical analysts, the divisions overlap. The author argues that considering any psychoanalytic theory as "premodern" is misleading: from its inception, psychoanalysis formed part of modernism.
Claramunt, Santiago; Cracraft, Joel
Determining the timing of diversification of modern birds has been difficult. We combined DNA sequences of clock-like genes for most avian families with 130 fossil birds to generate a new time tree for Neornithes and investigated their biogeographic and diversification dynamics. We found that the most recent common ancestor of modern birds inhabited South America around 95 million years ago, but it was not until the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition (66 million years ago) that Neornithes began to diversify rapidly around the world. Birds used two main dispersion routes: reaching the Old World through North America, and reaching Australia and Zealandia through Antarctica. Net diversification rates increased during periods of global cooling, suggesting that fragmentation of tropical biomes stimulated speciation. Thus, we found pervasive evidence that avian evolution has been influenced by plate tectonics and environmental change, two basic features of Earth's dynamics.
of Nordic modernism meant that passive solar architecture became the de-facto visual, aesthetic and functional expression of environmental design at that time. The article concludes by explor-ing the implications of the environmental paradigm for the architectural profession. By positing the architectural...... advantages of daylight and the studio typology, it is shown that overheating can be eliminated and primary energy consumption reduced with diametrically opposite design strategies....
Cláudia Costa Cabral
Full Text Available Santa Rosa, capital of the young province of La Pampa, was founded in 1892 at the end of the military campaigns that annihilated the indigenous people and ensured republican control over the Patagonia region. In 1955, the city held a design competition for the construction of its Civic Center. This was not a current infill operation intended to renew the core of the city, since it was not just a matter of raising a new facade along one of the four sides of the main square. The task implied designing, almost from scratch, a new part of city. Competitors were supposed to organize new buildings and public spaces within an area of nine hectares standing between the existing city and the surrounding pampas. Clorindo Testa won the competition by proposing that it be built as a piece of a modern city. Situated in the middle of Argentinean pampas, the Santa Rosa Civic Center has been less extensively discussed than other of Testa’s great contemporary works, such as the London Bank (1959 and the National Library (1962, both in Buenos Aires, even in the South American context. The Government Building, the Bus Station and the covered central space were built before 1963. Testa finished the Legislature Building in 1976, and even though in 2006 he was able to conclude the little Legislature Library, half of the Civic Center area still remains as open space. Nevertheless, as a living piece of the never-completed modern project installed in the far south, La Pampa’s case seems to pose relevant urban questions. This paper explores the case from two complementary perspectives. One focuses on the results of the first competition, recognizing an original contribution to the relationship between modernity, monument, and place. The second discusses the unfinished condition of the Civic Center as constitutive to modern tradition in the very modern sense of the city as a never-completed work.
Nima Ghasemzadeh; A. Maziar Zafari
Objective. This paper illustrates the evolution of our knowledge of the arterial pulse from ancient times to the present. Several techniques for arterial pulse evaluation throughout history are discussed. Methods. Using databases including Worldcat, Pubmed, and Emory University Libraries' Catalogue, the significance of the arterial pulse is discussed in three historical eras of medicine: ancient, medieval, and modern. Summary. Techniques used over time to analyze arterial pulse and its charac...
Potpara, Tatjana S; Lip, Gregory Y H
Ever since the original description of a 'peculiar pulse irregularity', atrial fibrillation (AF) has been studied extensively and has come a long journey from the recognition of its cardiac origins, to the modern concept of AF as a serious public health challenge with profound social and economic implications. This arrhythmia affects around 2% of adult population, and the most common underlying heart diseases accompanying AF in the modern era are hypertension, heart failure and coronary artery disease, as well as valvular heart diseases and numerous other cardiac as well as non-cardiac disorders which have been shown to predispose to AF. On occasions, AF occurs in young otherwise apparently healthy individuals (so called 'lone AF'). For a long time, 'lone' AF has been believed to bear a favourable prognosis as compared to AF with underlying structural heart disease, but increasing evidence suggests that 'lone' AF patients represent a rather heterogeneous cohort, with highly variable individual risk profiles due to the presence of various subclinical cardiovascular risk factors or genetically determined subtle alterations at the cellular or molecular level. For these reasons, the existence of truly 'lone' AF has recently been questioned. In this review article, we present a brief history of the recognition of the public health burden of AF. We discuss some of the misconceptions and breakthroughs on modern knowledge on AF, including the rise (and fall) of the 'lone' AF concept.
Mattioli, Denee J.; Drake, Frederick
Addresses the teaching methods of Michael Welch, a seventh grade teacher, who incorporates the humanities, such as drama and literature, into his history classroom in order to help students learn to question, think analytically, solve problems, and make decisions. Summarizes a particular unit on the Ice Age. (CMK)
Lindquist, David H.
History courses based on chronological narratives in textbooks often assume a linear format through which students accumulate substantial amounts of surface-level information, with the various pieces of that information being disconnected from each other and from larger historical contexts. In addition, such narratives are often dry and lifeless,…
Gao, Kaimin; Wang, Zhengrui
The classification of individual things marks the depth of one's recognition on the general character of things. The method for the classification of dermatosis reflects the developmental level of dermatology from one aspect. Since modern time, there appeared a condition of the coexistence of multiple knowledge of medical systems, including traditional Chinese, western, amalgamation of traditional Chinese and western, and integration of Chinese and western. In the external medical system in TCM, skin diseases were always categorized under external medicine without detailed descriptions on any concrete specific skin disease, instead, only the morphological injury of skin were classified. The works of amalgamation of traditional Chinese and western medicine roughly classified dermatosis basically on the basis of the characteristics of morphological damage of skin, thus lifted out of the infancy of TCM dermatology; while in the works of integrating Chinese and western medicine, the disease terminology of western medicine and its method of classification were directly applied, and the traditional Chinese disease titles and classification methods were discarded. Thus, the descriptions under each disease with western medical terms eventually established a model for the diagnosis and treatment of skin diseases based on the integration of differentiating disease names by western medicine and differentiating syndromes by TCM, hence opening a new approach of developing TCM dermatology by modern scientific methods, a major feature of Chinese dermatology.
Radiocarbon dating would not have been possible if 14 C had not had the 'wrong' half-life, a fact that delayed its discovery. Following the discovery of this 5730 year radionuclide in laboratory experiments by Ruben and Kamen, it became clear to Willard Libby that 14 C should exist in nature, and that it could serve as a quantitative means for dating artifacts and events marking the history of civilization. The search for natural radiocarbon was a metrological challenge; the level in the living biosphere [ca. 230 Bq/kg] lay far beyond the then current state of the measurement art. The metrological history of radiocarbon was traced from the initial breakthrough devised by Libby, to minor (evolutionary) and major (revolutionary) advances that brought 14 C measurement from a crude, bulk [8 g carbon] dating tool, to a refined probe for dating tiny amounts of precious artifacts, and for 'molecular dating' at the 10-100 μg level. The first metrological revolution resulted from a combination of a major improvement in the 14 C beta particle detection efficiency and consequent improvement in precision, and the new science of dendrochronology which extended the radiocarbon dating calibration curve to some 8000 years before present (BP). The fine structure of the calibration function revealed natural and anthropogenic variations in the 14 C content of living matter, contrary to one of the basic assumptions of radiocarbon dating. This 'failure' of radiocarbon dating, however, spawned new multidisciplinary areas of environmental and geoscience. The most notable of the anthropogenic variations was that induced by atmospheric nuclear testing. The 'bomb pulse' of the mid-1960s gave rise to a global atmospheric and marine tracer experiment, and its by-product was an additional, short-term 14 C 'decay curve' that has allowed the dating of late 20th Century artifacts to the nearest year or two. The second major advance came in 1977-78 when 'atom counting' of 14 C was developed
This book provides a detailed survey of the major advances made in the field of immunology in a period corresponding approximately to the last third of the twentieth century. In the first chapter, referred to as Pre-History, the Author, an experienced senior immunologist, briefly summarizes the preceding era often called "immunological revolution", in which the foundations of a new science, immunobiology, were laid down. The subsequent chapters (The History) then deal in detail with a number of topics within immunobiology, such as, the generation of antibody diversity, monoclonal antibodies, the major histocompatibility complex, antigen presentation, T cell biology, self tolerance, and autoimmunity. The fact that the Author contributed himself to most of these topics lends the text more depth and authenticity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
This article begins by exploring a counterfactual past which obviously never existed. It serves to highlight the enormous deficiencies in history books which all Spanish children must study in their years of mandatory school.This is exemplified in treatment of the Civil War. Those deficiencies are both conceptual and methodological. Their combined impact illustrates how Spanish teaching diverges from the experiences of many Western European countries. The possibility of change seems small. ...
Fernando HERNANDEZ SANCHEZ
This article begins by exploring a counterfactual past which obviously never existed. It serves to highlight the enormous deficiencies in history books which all Spanish children must study in their years of mandatory school.This is exemplified in treatment of the Civil War. Those deficiencies are both conceptual and methodological. Their combined impact illustrates how Spanish teaching diverges from the experiences of many Western European countries. The possibility of change seems small.
Barnett, Ross; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Shapiro, Beth; Ho, Simon Y W; Barnes, Ian; Sabin, Richard; Werdelin, Lars; Cuisin, Jacques; Larson, Greger
Understanding the demographic history of a population is critical to conservation and to our broader understanding of evolutionary processes. For many tropical large mammals, however, this aim is confounded by the absence of fossil material and by the misleading signal obtained from genetic data of recently fragmented and isolated populations. This is particularly true for the lion which as a consequence of millennia of human persecution, has large gaps in its natural distribution and several recently extinct populations. We sequenced mitochondrial DNA from museum-preserved individuals, including the extinct Barbary lion (Panthera leo leo) and Iranian lion (P. l. persica), as well as lions from West and Central Africa. We added these to a broader sample of lion sequences, resulting in a data set spanning the historical range of lions. Our Bayesian phylogeographical analyses provide evidence for highly supported, reciprocally monophyletic lion clades. Using a molecular clock, we estimated that recent lion lineages began to diverge in the Late Pleistocene. Expanding equatorial rainforest probably separated lions in South and East Africa from other populations. West African lions then expanded into Central Africa during periods of rainforest contraction. Lastly, we found evidence of two separate incursions into Asia from North Africa, first into India and later into the Middle East. We have identified deep, well-supported splits within the mitochondrial phylogeny of African lions, arguing for recognition of some regional populations as worthy of independent conservation. More morphological and nuclear DNA data are now needed to test these subdivisions.
Kokotas, Haris; Grigoriadou, Maria; Villamar, Manuela; Giannoulia-Karantana, Aglaia; del Castillo, Ignacio; Petersen, Michael B
One specific mutation of the GJB2 gene that encodes the connexin 26 protein, the 35delG mutation, has become a major interest among scientists who focus on the genetics of nonsyndromic hearing loss. The mutation accounts for the majority of GJB2 mutations detected in Caucasian populations and represents one of the most frequent disease mutations identified so far. The debate was so far between the arguments whether or not the 35delG mutation constitutes a mutational hot-spot or a founder effect; however, it was recently clarified that the latter seems the most likely. In an attempt to explore the origin and propagation of the 35delG mutation, several groups have reported the prevalence of the mutation and the carrier rates in different populations worldwide. It is now certain that the theory of a common founder prevails and that the highest carrier frequencies of the 35delG mutation are observed in southern European populations, giving rise to a discussion regarding the origin of the 35delG mutation. In this study, we discuss data previously published by our and other groups and also compare the haplotype distribution of the mutation in southern Europe, trying to understand the pathways of science and history and the conflict between them.
A long established category of study in the history of science is the ``history of physical sciences.'' It is a category that immediately begs the question of disciplinary boundaries for the problems and subjects addressed in historical inquiry. As a historian of the physical sciences, I often have puzzled over disciplinary boundaries and the means used to create or justify them. Scientists most often have been professionally identified with specific institutionalized fields since the late 19th century, but the questions they ask and the problems they solve are not neatly carved up by disciplinary perimeters. Like institutional departments or professorships, the Nobel Prizes in the 20th century often have delineated the scope of ``Physics'' or ``Chemistry'' (and ``Physiology or Medicine''), but the Prizes do not reflect disciplinary rigidity, despite some standard core subjects. In this paper I examine trends in Nobel Prize awards that indicate shifts in problem solving and in boundaries in twentieth century physics, tying those developments to changing themes in the history of physics and physical science in recent decades.
Bios Politikos’tan Homo Economicus’a: Karşılaştırmalı Bir Perspektifle Antik ve Modern Dönemde İnsan, Ekonomi ve Siyaset İlişkisi / From Bios Politikos to Homo Economicus: The Relationship Between Human, Economy and Politics in the Ancient and Modern Periods with a Comparative Perspective
Full Text Available Bu çalışmanın amacı, Antik ve modern düşünürlerin siyaseti nasıl tanımladıklarını ortaya koyarak, tanımlar arasındaki farkların nedenini tartışmaktır. Antik dönemde, insanın doğası gereği politik bir varlık olarak tanımlanması, siyasetin bütün insani etkinlikler içerisinde en yücesi olarak görülmesine neden olmuştur. Antik düşünürler için siyaset, müşterek meselelerin eşitlerin gözü önünde tartışıldığı ve eşitsizliği dışlayan bir çoğulluk alanı olarak kavramıştır. Antik düşünür Aristoteles siyasetin amacının “iyi yaşam” olduğunu ifade etmektedir. Buna karşın Machiavelli ile başlayan modern siyasal düşünce, siyaseti, güç, iktidar ve şiddet kavramlarıyla tanımlamıştır. Machiavelli ve ardılları için siyaset, fiziksel şiddetin meşru örgütlenmesi, güç, değer ve kaynakların otorite eliyle dağıtılması şeklinde tanımlanmıştır. Antik Yunanda kamusal-siyasal alandan dışlanan şiddet, modern dünyada politik toplumu tanımlayan merkezi kavramlardan birisi haline gelmiştir. Antik dönemde siyasal varlık (zoon politikon olarak tanımlanan insan, modern dönemde ekonomik varlık (homo economicus olarak tanımlanmıştır. Antikler için yaşanmaya değer yaşam siyasete adanmış yaşam iken (bios politikos, modernler için ekonomik etkinlikle ilişkili hale gelmiştir. Çalışma, Antik ve modernlerin siyasal tanımları arasındaki farkın insan ve insan yaşamının amacı konusundaki farklılıklardan kaynaklandığını savunmaktadır. / The purpose of this study is to present how ancient and modern thinkers describe politics and to discuss reasons for differences seen in these definitions. In the ancient period, the identification of human being as a political entity by nature caused politics to be seen as the most supreme of all human activities. For the ancient thinkers, politics is conceptualized as a pluralist area in which the common
Kim Kyung Mo
Full Text Available Abstract Background The entire evolutionary history of life can be studied using myriad sequences generated by genomic research. This includes the appearance of the first cells and of superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. However, the use of molecular sequence information for deep phylogenetic analyses is limited by mutational saturation, differential evolutionary rates, lack of sequence site independence, and other biological and technical constraints. In contrast, protein structures are evolutionary modules that are highly conserved and diverse enough to enable deep historical exploration. Results Here we build phylogenies that describe the evolution of proteins and proteomes. These phylogenetic trees are derived from a genomic census of protein domains defined at the fold family (FF level of structural classification. Phylogenomic trees of FF structures were reconstructed from genomic abundance levels of 2,397 FFs in 420 proteomes of free-living organisms. These trees defined timelines of domain appearance, with time spanning from the origin of proteins to the present. Timelines are divided into five different evolutionary phases according to patterns of sharing of FFs among superkingdoms: (1 a primordial protein world, (2 reductive evolution and the rise of Archaea, (3 the rise of Bacteria from the common ancestor of Bacteria and Eukarya and early development of the three superkingdoms, (4 the rise of Eukarya and widespread organismal diversification, and (5 eukaryal diversification. The relative ancestry of the FFs shows that reductive evolution by domain loss is dominant in the first three phases and is responsible for both the diversification of life from a universal cellular ancestor and the appearance of superkingdoms. On the other hand, domain gains are predominant in the last two phases and are responsible for organismal diversification, especially in Bacteria and Eukarya. Conclusions The evolution of functions that are
This article presents one of the earliest clinical photographs in the history of surgery in Iran. The picture was taken around 1919 (1297 of the Iranian solar calendar) in Tabriz, Iran. It shows the post-operative care of two amputees by the surgical team, the surgical instruments and the method of applied anesthesia. The patients were Iranian Gendarmerie soldiers who lost their limbs to frostbite. The surgeries were performed by Dr. Ali Roshdi in Gendarmerie Hospital in Tabriz. This photograph cleverly demonstrates the coconscious endeavor of the surgical team to treat and save lives of patients in about a century ago in Tabriz, Iran.
Egger, Matthias; Alessandri, Claudia; Wallner, Michael; Briza, Peter; Zennaro, Danila; Mari, Adriano; Ferreira, Fatima; Gadermaier, Gabriele
Background Hen's egg allergy ranks among the most frequent primary food allergies in children. We aimed to investigate sensitization profiles of egg allergic patients and compare in vitro IgE reactivities of eggs from ancient chicken breeds (Araucana and Maran) with those from conventional laying hen hybrids. Methodology Egg allergic children (n = 25) were subjected to skin prick test, double blind placebo controlled food challenge, and sensitization profiles to Gal d 1–5 were determined by allergen microarray. IgE binding and biological activity of eggs from different chicken breeds were investigated by immunoblot, ELISA, and mediator release assays. Principal Findings We found that Gal d 1 and Gal d 2 are generally major egg allergens, whereas Gal d 3–5 displayed high sensitization prevalence only in patients reacting to both, egg white and yolk. It seems that the onset of egg allergy is mediated by egg white allergens expanding to yolk sensitization in later stages of disease. Of note, egg white/yolk weight ratios were reduced in eggs from Auraucana and Maran chicken. As determined in IgE immunoblots and mass analysis, eggs from ancient chicken breeds did not differ in their protein composition. Similar IgE-binding was observed for all egg white preparations, while an elevated allergenicity was detected in egg yolk from Araucana chicken. Conclusion/Significance Our results on allergenicity and biological activity do not confirm the common assumption that aboriginal food might be less allergenic. Comprehensive diagnosis of egg allergy should distinguish between reactivity to hen's egg white and yolk fractions to avoid unnecessary dietary restrictions to improve life quality of the allergic child and its family. PMID:21552565
Ryan Dominic Crewe
Full Text Available Abstract This article reconsiders the place of colonial Latin America in global history by examining the Transpacific interactions, conflicts, and exchanges between Latin America and Asia in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Setting aside earlier imperial histories that present the Pacific as a 'Spanish Lake', I conceptualize a dynamic Hispano-Asian Pacific World that was forged by a myriad of actors in and around the Pacific basin. Instead of a Pacific dominated by far-off Spain, my research reveals a Transpacific world that in fact defied imperial efforts to claim, regulate, or convert it. I structure this study along three broad lines of inquiry: the economic ties that made the Asian-Latin American 'Rim', the consequences of human transits and cultural exchanges along new Transpacific conduits, and the barriers of distance and culture that limited both cosmopolitanism and imperialism. For societies in Latin America, this Hispano-Asian Pacific world provided them with greater autonomy than the Atlantic world. They shared, alongside diverse groups in this maritime world, a common story of circumvention, of freewheeling exchanges, and of checked powers, for no single shoreline, empire, or group predominated. Ultimately, by charting the currents of Hispano-Asian interactions in the Pacific world, I provide a riposte to theories in global historiography that have situated Latin America at the periphery of Western Europe.
Full Text Available U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS. The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249–79 Ma and Paleoproterozoic (2491–1691 Ma ages with subordinate Archean ages indicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the Neoproterozoic–Paleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.
Full Text Available This article describes the history and various milestones of rheumatology from ancient to modern times. The origin of rheumatology can be traced to ancient times. Diseases such as gout and osteoarthritis were prevalent in ancient people. Many ancient skeletons show signs of gout and osteoarthritis. The ancient book on Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita, gives a vivid description of many variants of arthritis. Charaka, an eminent Ayurvedic physician, described rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Charaka Samhitha as "Vishkantha," meaning painful joints. The word rheumatology has its origin in the word "rheuma," which means flowing, and is mentioned in Hippocratic corpus. Hippocrates made several observations about gout, popularly known as "aphorisms of gout." Many famous paintings in the medieval era depict joint diseases. Hand lesions resembling those of RA are found in paintings of the Flemish school. "The virgin with canon van der paele," a painting by Jan Van Eyck (1436, shows thickened arteries in the temple, suggestive of temporal arthritis. The famous portrait of Federigo de Montefeltre, thought to have been painted by Joos (Justus van Gent, shows arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger. Rheumatology developed as a well-recognized specialty of medicine in the 20th century. American Physicians Bernard Comroe and Joseph Lee Hollander coined the term rheumatologist in 1940. Rheumatology has rapidly advanced during the last 50 years due to improved diagnosis as a result of progress in immunology, molecular biology, genetics and imaging.
Aristotle (384-322 BCE) can be attributed with the earliest recorded comments regarding the manner in which humans walk. It was not until the renaissance that further progress was made through the experiments and theorising of Giovanni Borelli (1608-1679). Although several scientists wrote about walking through the enlightenment period it was the brothers Willhelm (1804-1891) and Eduard (1806-1871) Weber, working in Leipzig who made the next major contribution based on very simple measurements. Both Jules Etienne Marey (1830-1904), working in France, and Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904), working in America, made significant advances in measurement technology. These were developed further by Otto Fischer (1861-1917) in collaboration with Willhelm Braune (1831-1892). The major developments in the early twentieth century were in the development of force plates and the understanding of kinetics. The team headed by Verne Inman (1905-1980) and Howard Eberhart (1906-1993) made major advances in America shortly after the Second War. David Sutherland (1923-2006) and Jacquelin Perry pioneered clinical applications in America and Jurg Baumann (1926-2000) in Europe. It was not until the advent of modern computers that clinical gait analysis became widely available.
Alonso, Santos; Armour, John A. L.
We have sequenced a highly polymorphic subterminal noncoding region from human chromosome 16p13.3, flanking the 5′ end of the hypervariable minisatellite MS205, in 100 chromosomes sampled from different African and Euroasiatic populations. Coalescence analysis indicates that the time to the most recent common ancestor (approximately 1 million years) predates the appearance of anatomically modern human forms. The root of the network describing this variability lies in Africa. African populations show a greater level of diversity and deeper branches. Most Euroasiatic variability seems to have been generated after a recent out-of-Africa range expansion. A history of population growth is the most likely scenario for the Euroasiatic populations. This pattern of nuclear variability can be reconciled with inferences based on mitochondrial DNA. PMID:11158547
Gran, K.B.; Belmont, P.; Day, S.S.; Finnegan, N.; Jennings, C.; Lauer, J.W.; Wilcock, P.R.
The Minnesota River Valley was carved during catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz at the end of the late Pleistocene. The ensuing base-level drop on tributaries created knickpoints that excavated deep valleys as they migrated upstream. A sediment budget compiled in one of these tributaries, the Le Sueur River, shows that these deep valleys are now the primary source of sediment to the Minnesota River. To compare modern sediment loads with pre-European settlement erosion rates, we analyzed incision history using fluvial terrace ages to constrain a valley incision model. Results indicate that even thoughthe dominant sediment sources are derived from natural sources (bluffs, ravines, and streambanks), erosion rates have increased substantially, due in part to pervasive changes in watershed hydrology.
Forensic psychiatry and psychology were in their beginnings inseparably associated with the forensic medicine, constituting one of its related branches of knowledge. Progress and development of these disciplines, education and the practical application for the purposes of the law were a contribution of a several generations of forensic pathologists in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the major issues of common interest was opinionating on the sanity of offenders. However, the problem of criminal responsibility of the mentally ill perpetrators dates back to much earlier times and has its roots in the distant beginnings of human civilization. In this paper, the history and evolution of the insanity concept (as a circumstance excluding the guilt of the offender) were presented, from the oldest theories to ideas underlying modern codifications.
Jiang, Chenxue; Bian, Yali; Fan, Xinsheng
The allegation of "Glycyrrhiza antagonistic to Sargassum, Euphorbia Pekinensis, Kansui, and Genkwa", being one of the hypotheses of "18 antagonisms" in TCM pharmacology, is referring to the antagonistic action among the Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhiza and Radix Euphorbiae Kansui, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Flos Genkwa, and Sargassum when compounded together in a single recipe. By reviewing its history concerted with modern knowledge, it can be found that the theory of "seven emotions" was originated from Shennong's Classic of Materia Medica; while the Variorum of the Classic of Materia Medica firstly and definitely records that Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae is forbidden to be used with Radix Kansui, Flos Genkwa, Radix Euphorbiae Pekinensis, Sargassum together in a single formula. It was summarized into a Chinese poetic sentence as above-mentioned later. In the works of later ages, including Chinese Pharmacopoeia, A Great Dictionary of Chinese Materia Medica, and China's Herbology, etc., all enhance the understanding of the prohibited combination of Radix et Rhizoma Glycyrrhizae and its incompatible herbs. Nevertheless, there are discrepancies between the results of modern experimental and clinical studies on this problem, which, needless to say, should be resolved by further investigations.
The history of microbiology and parasitology in Egypt started with Bonaparte's campaign and the contemporary clinical reports from the physicians of the "Armee d'Orient" (1798-1903). Later, basic discoveries in parasitology and bacteriology have been the facts of German scientists such as Theodor Bilharz, Robert Koch and Arthur Looss. At the beginning of the First World War German physicians were evicted from Cairo and British parasitologists took over as Robert Leiper succeeded in clarifying the life cycle of schistosomiasis. Virology studies on poliomyelitis in Egypt started in 1942-1943 but British virologists were quickly supplanted by the Americans as the U.S. NAMRU-3 laboratory opened in Cairo in the 50s. Many basic contributions to the epidemiology of the viral diseases in the Nile valley have been established during the past forty years, concerning enteroviruses, mosquito and tick-borne arboviruses as well as hepatitis C virus.
Noemi de Haro García
Full Text Available In this article the newsreels made by Noticiarios y Documentales Cinematográficos (Cinematographic Newsreels and Documentaries, NO-DO, the official film production company created by Francoism, will be analyzed in order to shed light on the political, cultural and social role played by the presentation of art and art history to a wide public under Francoism. Special attention will be devoted to the role played by the imaginaries associated with the visual arts of the baroque and the Golden Age and to the ways in which they crossed paths with the construction of a national identity and the changes experimented by the dictatorship. This will show to what extent ‘banal art history’ can play a relevant role in ‘banal nationalism’ as defined by Michael Billig.
Introduction. In an earlier article  we had discussed some aspects of ancient Babylonian mathematics as deciphered froIn various clay tablets excavated from modern Iraq, viz. the Pythagoras theorem and also the sexagesimal num- ber system prevalent during the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. In this article, we study ...
Flament, Christophe; Marchetti, Patrick
Writing from the numismatist point of view, the authors open this paper by reviewing critically the use of scientific methods for the studies of ancient coins. They also report about an application of the PIXE method at low incident proton energy to one of the most celebrated and known coinage in the ancient history: the Athenian silver coins of the fifth century BC. The results of those analyses indicate that the metallic composition of several coins usually taken as ancient imitations of Athenian coins does not differ from that of the genuine ones. Those analyses confirm what the authors have inferred from numismatic sources: These coins are probably genuinely Athenian
Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen
The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequen...
Lamnid sharks (great whites and their relatives) are of great interest not only to the scientific community but the public as well. Scientists have spent a great deal of time trying to study and understand the life history of great whites and their relatives. Since great whites do not survive well in captivity tagging and recapture studies and captured sharks from fishermen have been the main source of study. Currently there is no way the accurately age Lamnid sharks. However, sharks deposit light and dark bands on their vertebral centra throughout their lives. It is known in most sharks that darker denser portions being deposited during slower growth times (e.g., winter) and lighter portions being deposited during more rapid growth (e.g., summer). The problem is that there are several factors in which the growth of these couplets can vary depending upon physical environment (including temperature and water depth), food availability, and stress. Therefore, it cannot be assumed that a band pair (one light and one dark band) reflects a single year. Once, the periodicity of a band pair is determined then ages can be estimated and growth rates can be calculated. Oxygen and carbon isotopes along the growth axis of ten lamnid shark vertebral centra (including great whites, shortfin makos, and longfin makos) where used to determine the periodicity of the band pairs and indications of changes in eating habits. Bomb carbon dating was determined on two of the specimens to calibrate the cyclicity of the oxygen isotopes. Dissolved rare earth elements (REE) in seawater increase with water depth and towards the pelagic area. One exception is cerium. Cerium can be oxidized to a highly insoluble form separating it from other REE and being preferentially scavenged by suspended matter and therefore cerium decreases with water depth. Bulk samples where analyzed for rare earth elements (REE) from each of the ten centra to determine if the seawater signal was recorded in the centra and
Full Text Available A detailed vibrational Raman-IR spectroscopic and diffractional analyses have been performed on basalts from two locations from Tenerife Island: (1 the Arenas Negras volcano which belongs to the historical eruption not showing visible alteration and (2 Pillow Lavas zone from Anaga Massif which shows a clearly fluid-rock interaction caused by submarine alteration. These places have been extensively studied due to its similarity with the surface of Mars. The analysis is based on the mineral detection of selected samples by a Micro-Raman study of the materials. The complementary techniques have confirmed the mineralogy detected by the Raman measurement. The results show a volcanic environment behavior with primary phases like olivine, pyroxene, and feldspar/plagioclase. Moreover, the presence of accessory minerals or secondary mineralization like phosphate, iron oxides, zeolite or carbonates shows the alteration processes on each outcrop. The variation in the crystallinity and amorphous phases is related to fluid-rock interaction caused by hydrothermal episodes and external weathering processes, which shows several analogies with the ancient volcanic activity from Mars.
Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?
Full Text Available Este artigo oferece um novo olhar sobre Weber como historiador. O fato de que a MWG reconstrói, de maneira bastante detalhada, o contexto histórico científico e intelectual torna mais evidente como os diferentes tópicos sobre os quais Weber trabalhou - a economia de mercado capitalista, as religiões do mundo ou o Estado moderno - foram abordados em última instância "do ponto de vista da história cultural". Diante desse quadro, meu artigo explora quatro aspectos principais: história econômica; ou mais precisamente o sentido cultural da ação econômica como ponto-chave para o pensamento histórico de Weber como um todo (I; a insistência de Weber na primazia de problemas analíticos e da escolha de perspectivas como pressupostos intelectuais do conhecimento histórico (II; a questão fundamental da história cultural em geral: como as ideias se atualizam em conflitos e constelações históricos e como a singularidade do desenvolvimento cultural europeu deve ser descrita em sua significação histórico-universal (III; a relevância da Primeira Guerra Mundial para os problemas e perspectivas de Weber: seu foco em uma teoria histórico-política do poder e da dominação e da gênese e estrutura do Estado moderno e da democracia (IV.This article takes a new look at Weber as a historian. The MWG's detailed reconstruction of the scientific and intellectual historical context provides a clear insight into how all the different topics on which Weber worked - the capitalist market economy, world religions, or the modern state - were ultimately treated "from the view-point of cultural history." In response the article examines four aspects: Economic history; or more precisely, the cultural meaning of economic action as a key to Weber's historical thinking as a whole (I; Weber's insistence on the primacy of analytical problems and of choices of perspectives as intellectual presuppositions of historical knowledge (II; the cardinal question of
Wit, de H.C.D.
For various reasons the space occupied by pre-Linnean Malaysian phytography in this concise history seems too large and out of proportion in comparison to the survey of post-Linnean work. Modern plant description, though based on, and derived from, ancient beginnings and traditions, maintains but
This book examines the history of western linguistics over a 2,000-year timespan, from its origins in ancient Greece up to the crucial moments of change in the Renaissance that lay the foundations of modern linguistics. The book explores how ideas about language over the centuries have changed to reflect changing modes of thinking. Twelve chapters…
Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still's lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20(th) century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18(th) century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19(th) century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders
Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still’s lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20th century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18th century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19th century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders, as
И. Г. Ребещенкова
Full Text Available The paper is dedicated to one of the oldest scientific and technical periodicals in Russia, scientific agent of the Saint-Petersburg Mining University – «Proceedings of the Mining Institute». In 2017 we shall celebrate the 110-th anniversary of the first issue of the magazine coming from the press. That event gains a particular meaning because of the growing role of periodicals in operative gaining, storing, translating and practically applying scientific information. Modern society is duly called the information society, in which intense and efficient use of one of its main resources – knowledge – is the chief factor of successful development of all the spheres of the society. «Proceedings of the Mining Institute» – is an exceptionally important fragment of that resource, shaped by all of its history. The paper considers the pre-history and historical stages of establishment of the «Proceedings of the Mining Institute». It stresses the high authority of the majority of participants of that process: starting from the initiators of its publication (professors of the Mining Institute and all the way to its current authors – outstanding scientists of Russia, the near and the far abroad, as well as the well-known political and economic leaders of the country. Reconstruction of the past of the «Proceedings of the Mining Institute» demonstrates that the magazine has rich and valuable history. Being itself a necessary expression of tribute and gratitude to the magazine forerunners, the re- construction is not the only principal purpose of this study, that purpose consisting in identification and substantiation of ways and means of upgrading the magazine, to support its competitive edge in the extremely complex information space, both global and domestic, saturated with information as never before.
Modern earthquake ground motion hazard mapping in California began following the 1971 San Fernando earthquake in the Los Angeles metropolitan area of southern California. Earthquake hazard assessment followed a traditional approach, later called Deterministic Seismic Hazard Analysis (DSHA) in order to distinguish it from the newer Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis (PSHA). In DSHA, seismic hazard in the event of the Maximum Credible Earthquake (MCE) magnitude from each of the known seismogenic faults within and near the state are assessed. The likely occurrence of the MCE has been assumed qualitatively by using late Quaternary and younger faults that are presumed to be seismogenic, but not when or within what time intervals MCE may occur. MCE is the largest or upper-bound potential earthquake in moment magnitude, and it supersedes and automatically considers all other possible earthquakes on that fault. That moment magnitude is used for estimating ground motions by applying it to empirical attenuation relationships, and for calculating ground motions as in neo-DSHA (Z uccolo et al., 2008). The first deterministic California earthquake hazard map was published in 1974 by the California Division of Mines and Geology (CDMG) which has been called the California Geological Survey (CGS) since 2002, using the best available fault information and ground motion attenuation relationships at that time. The California Department of Transportation (Caltrans) later assumed responsibility for printing the refined and updated peak acceleration contour maps which were heavily utilized by geologists, seismologists, and engineers for many years. Some engineers involved in the siting process of large important projects, for example, dams and nuclear power plants, continued to challenge the map(s). The second edition map was completed in 1985 incorporating more faults, improving MCE's estimation method, and using new ground motion attenuation relationships from the latest published
Nathan P. Havill; Shigehiko Shiyake; Ashley Lamb Galloway; Robert G. Foottit; Guoyue Yu; Annie Paradis; Joseph Elkinton; Michael E. Montgomery; Masakazu Sano; Adalgisa Caccone
Hemlock woolly adelgid, Adelges tsugae, is an invasive pest of hemlock trees (Tsuga) in eastern North America. We used 14 microsatellites and mitochondrial COI sequences to assess its worldwide genetic structure and reconstruct its colonization history. The resulting information about its life cycle, biogeography and host...
Full Text Available At present, various information and knowledge can be obtained easily and intensely. Social sciences are necessary for humanity as much as natural and technological sciences. Rapid developments and changes occur day by day on information and knowledge. Social sciences still continues to shed lights on past and present time. Past experiences directed/directs individuals as well as states.Almost a century ago, even before the Turkish Republic was proclaimed, Mustafa Kemal gathered necessary information and decided on his future republic’s formative ideas and perceptions. A new state had to have new modern institutions and open to new ideas whether originated of modern times or experienced of the previous ages. Mustafa Kemal read a number of books in social sciences which affected his perception and ideas. This article discusses on Mustafa Kemal’s selected books on ancient history which were reflected on his speeches and nation building processes Günümüzde çok çeşitli bilgiye hızlı ve yoğun bir şekilde ulaşılabilmektedir. Sosyal ve beşeri bilimlerin de fen ve diğer bilim alanları kadar önemli ve insan hayatı için vazgeçilmez olduğu bir gerçektir. Dünya şartları ve bilgi hızlı bir şekilde değişmektedir. Sosyal ve beşeri çalışmalar da insanlığa ışık tutmaya devam etmektedir. Geçmişte yaşanılan pek çok tecrübenin de kişi ve devletlere yön verdiği bilinen bir gerçektir.Aşağı-yukarı bir asra yakın bir süre önce, henüz Cumhuriyet ilan edilmeden, Mustafa Kemal’in zihninde yeni bir devletin temelini oluşturacak görüşler belirginleşmiş olmalıdır. Yeni bir devlet, yeni modern kurum ve oluşumları da beraberinde getirmeliydi. Mustafa Kemal’in, tarih ve sosyal bilimlerle ilgili seçtiği ve okuduğu kitapların, düşüncelerinin oluşmasında etkili olduğu konuşmalarında ve uygulamalarında görülebilmektedir.
Jock M. Agai
Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.
Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine
The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in early modern Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established
Smeerdijk, van D.G.; Spek, T.; Kooistra, M.J.
An interdisciplinary study on anthropogenic arable soils in the Dutch Province of Drenthe resulted in valuable information on reclamation history, soil formation and arable farming in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Times. This paper describes a genetic typology of Drenthe plaggen soils, based on
Chan, Y.; Lacey, E.; Ramakrishnan, U.; Pearson, O.; Hadly, E.
Understanding the response of animal populations to climatic change is essential for the future maintenance of biodiversity. One question that remains difficult to answer, and is particularly important to conservation, is how animals respond over time scales relevant to evolutionary change. Ancient DNA provides a unique opportunity to track animal response to Holocene climate change and to study species replacement patterns and genetic diversity over time. We used ancient DNA to compare response to climatic change in two species, C. sociabilis and C. haigi, over the last 8,000 years. Our study site, Cueva Traful, is a late-Holocene raptor roost in Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. A lack of genetic diversity in modern C. sociabilis populations is indicative of past bottleneck events and a previous ancient DNA study found that it had remained genetically identical for at least 1000 years in the face of climatic change and human disturbance. Since Cueva Traful goes back further in time, our first goal was to examine genetic diversity in order to place a longer term historical perspective on the modern bottleneck. The second goal was to compare changes in genetic diversity in C. sociabilis to C. haigi a closely related species that may respond differently to climatic change. The use of ancient DNA presents unique challenges due to low copy number, environmental damage to template, and high contamination risk. Despite these challenges, ancient DNA provides a unique perspective on evolutionary history.
Yeşim Doğan Alakoç
Full Text Available Before analysis of DNA from ancient remains was possible, anthropologists studied evolution and migration patterns using data obtained from population genetic studies on modern populations combined with data obtained from morphological evaluations of ancient remains. Currently, DNA analysis of ancient populations is making a valuable contribution to these efforts. Researchers that perform ancient DNA analysis prefer to study polymorphisms on the Y chromosome or mitochondrial DNA because the results are easier to statistically evaluate. To evaluate polymorphisms on diploid genomes, which are more informative, only mutations that have been extensively examined in modern populations should be chosen. The most extensively evaluated mutations are those related to prevalent inherited disorders. As such, beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, FVL mutation of globin and the factor V genes are good candidates for DNA studies in ancient populations. These mutations are common in Anatolia, host to many civilizations since the Paleolithic period. This history makes Anatolia a good place for conducting research that could enhance our understanding of human evolution and migration patterns.
Porretta, Daniele; Mastrantonio, Valentina; Bellini, Romeo; Somboon, Pradya; Urbanelli, Sandra
Background The tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus, is one of the 100 most invasive species in the world and a vector of human diseases. In the last 30 years, it has spread from its native range in East Asia to Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Although this modern invasion has been the focus of many studies, the history of the species’ native populations remains poorly understood. Here, we aimed to assess the role of Pleistocene climatic changes in shaping the current distribution of the species in its native range. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the phylogeography, historical demography, and species distribution of Ae. albopictus native populations at the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Individuals from 16 localities from East Asia were analyzed for sequence variation at two mitochondrial genes. No phylogeographic structure was observed across the study area. Demographic analyses showed a signature of population expansion that started roughly 70,000 years BP. The occurrence of a continuous and climatically suitable area comprising Southeast China, Indochinese Peninsula, and Sundaland during LGM was indicated by species distribution modelling. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest an evolutionary scenario in which, during the last glacial phase, Ae. albopictus did not experience a fragmentation phase but rather persisted in interconnected populations and experienced demographic growth. The wide ecological flexibility of the species probably played a crucial role in its response to glacial-induced environmental changes. Currently, there is little information on the impact of Pleistocene climatic changes on animal species in East Asia. Most of the studies focused on forest-associated species and suggested cycles of glacial fragmentation and post-glacial expansion. The case of Ae. albopictus, which exhibits a pattern not previously observed in the study area, adds an important piece to our understanding of the Pleistocene history of East Asian biota
Bubka Sergej Nazarovich
Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.
Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja
Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.
Shriner, Daniel; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Rotimi, Charles N
We investigated ancestry of 3,528 modern humans from 163 samples. We identified 19 ancestral components, with 94.4% of individuals showing mixed ancestry. After using whole genome sequences to correct for ascertainment biases in genome-wide genotype data, we dated the oldest divergence event to 140,000 years ago. We detected an Out-of-Africa migration 100,000-87,000 years ago, leading to peoples of the Americas, east and north Asia, and Oceania, followed by another migration 61,000-44,000 years ago, leading to peoples of the Caucasus, Europe, the Middle East, and south Asia. We dated eight divergence events to 33,000-20,000 years ago, coincident with the Last Glacial Maximum. We refined understanding of the ancestry of several ethno-linguistic groups, including African Americans, Ethiopians, the Kalash, Latin Americans, Mozabites, Pygmies, and Uygurs, as well as the CEU sample. Ubiquity of mixed ancestry emphasizes the importance of accounting for ancestry in history, forensics, and health.
Turner, John; Hayward, Rhodri; Angel, Katherine; Fulford, Bill; Hall, John; Millard, Chris; Thomson, Mathew
Writing the recent history of mental health services requires a conscious departure from the historiographical tropes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which have emphasised the experience of those identified (and legally defined) as lunatics and the social, cultural, political, medical and institutional context of their treatment. A historical narrative structured around rights (to health and liberty) is now complicated by the rise of new organising categories such as 'costs', 'risks', 'needs' and 'values'. This paper, drawing on insights from a series of witness seminars attended by historians, clinicians and policymakers, proposes a programme of research to place modern mental health services in England and Wales in a richer historical context. Historians should recognise the fragmentation of the concepts of mental illness and mental health need, acknowledge the relationship between critiques of psychiatry and developments in other intellectual spheres, place the experience of the service user in the context of wider socio-economic and political change, understand the impacts of the social perception of 'risk' and of moral panic on mental health policy, relate the politics of mental health policy and resources to the general determinants of institutional change in British central and local government, and explore the sociological and institutional complexity of the evolving mental health professions and their relationships with each other and with their clients. While this is no small challenge, it is perhaps the only way to avoid the perpetuation of 'single-issue mythologies' in describing and accounting for change.
Viviane Guzzo de Carli Poelking
Full Text Available Abundant evidence exists to support a role for lignin as an important element in biomass recalcitrance. However, several independent studies have also shown that factors apart from lignin are also relevant and overall, the relative importance of different recalcitrance traits remains in dispute. In this study we used two genetically distant sugarcane genotypes, and performed a correlational study with the variation in anatomical parameters, cell wall composition, and recalcitrance factors between these genotypes. In addition we also tracked alterations in these characteristics in internodes at different stages of development. Significant differences in the development of the culm between the genotypes were associated with clear differential distributions of lignin content and composition that were not correlated with saccharification and fermentation yield. Given the strong influence of the environment on lignin content and composition, we hypothesized that sampling within a single plant could allow us to more easily interpret recalcitrance and changes in lignin biosynthesis than analysing variations between different genotypes with extensive changes in plant morphology and culm anatomy. The syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio was higher in the oldest internode of the modern genotype, but S/G ratio was not correlated with enzymatic hydrolysis yield nor fermentation efficiency. Curiously we observed a strong positive correlation between ferulate ester level and cellulose conversion efficiency. Together, these data support the hypothesis that biomass enzymatic hydrolysis recalcitrance is governed by a quantitative heritage rather than a single trait.
Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K.; Kishikawa, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
To grasp the three-dimensional structure of ancient tomb during the archaeological prospecting of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb, various electrical resistivity methods were tried. For the survey, firstly, in order to clarify the electrical resistivity structure of rear circular part of ancient tomb, roughly, mapping was conducted by means of two-electrode method using a multi-channel measuring system. Then, the vertical prospecting was conducted densely with a mesh form having VES intervals of 2 m as a detailed survey by means of Schlumberger method. For the three-dimensional inverse analysis of apparent electrical resistivity data by the two-electrode method, a program with high calculation speed was developed by using algorithm where Jacobian with a homogeneous model is adopted for the Jacobian calculation. As a result of the analysis, an outline of underground 3-D resistivity structure was determined. The resistivity anomaly with high values obtained from the results of 2-D inverse analysis of VES curve by means of Schlumberger method agreed well with the central part of the ancient tomb, which was confirmed during the archaeological survey. 4 refs., 8 figs.
Mare antiquissimum. La réponse de G. B. Vico à la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes Mare Antiquissimum: G.B. Vico's answer to the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Mare Antiquissimum : la respuesta de G.B. Vico a la querella de los antiguos y los modernos
Full Text Available Au début du XVIIIe siècle, alors que la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes continue d'agiter les milieux intellectuels, la culture italienne est, depuis quelques années déjà, confrontée à la diffusion de la pensée cartésienne et port-royaliste. La nouvelle méthode Iogico-mathématique, qui constitue le nerf de ces courants de pensée, bat en brèche et rapidement l'ancienne tradition de démonstration et d'argumentation rhétoriques. Voulant contrer les attaques lancées à la rhétorique, sans toutefois prendre le parti des Anciens, Giambattista Vico écrit, en 1710, le De Antiquissima italorum sapientia ex linguae latinae originibus emenda, qui propose une troisième issue à la célèbre Querelle.In the beginning of the eighteenth century, when intellectual circles were still ablaze with the quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, Italian culture has been confronted with the spread of Cartesian and Port-Royal thought for some years. The new logico-mathematical method, which was at the core of these trends of thought, soon prevailed over the ancient tradition of demonstration and rhetorical argumentation. As he wished to counter attack and behalf of rhetorics without siding with the Ancients, Giambattista Vico wrote the De Antiquissima italorum sapientia ex linguae latinae originibus emenda en 1710, in order to put forward a third possible solution to the quarrel.A principios del siglo 18, mientras la Querella de los antiguos y los modernos sigue agitando a los medios intelectuales, la cultura italiana está enfrentándose, desde hace algunos años ya, a la difusión de los pensamientos cartesiano y des Port-Royal. El nuevo método lógico-matemático, que constituye la clave de dichas corrientes de pensamiento, bate en brecha, y ello rápidamente, la antigua tradición de demostración y argumentación retóricas. Para combatir los ataques que sufre la retórica, sin por ello tomar el partido de los antiguos, G.B. Vico escribe
More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led
Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael
The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...
18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.
Amundsen, D W
In this article, Prof. Darrel Amundsen critiques Judge Reinhardt's comments regarding "Historical Attitudes Toward Suicide" in his Compassion in Dying opinion. Amundsen demonstrates that the court's characterization of ancient Jewish and Christian practices is inaccurate and misleading because it fails to acknowledge the complexities of the moral issue of suicide. Amundsen discusses martyrdom, suicide in general, suicide by the ill, and euthanasia in ancient Judaism. In contrast to the court's commentary, Amundsen demonstrates that regard for human life is a central feature of Jewish ethical monotheism. Furthermore, the author challenges the court's conclusions about early Christianity, and explains why its treatment of the issue of suicide in early Christianity is misleading and inaccurate. Amundsen's discussion of early Christianity includes suicide, martyrdom, and especially the Augustinian teaching on suicide. He concludes that the court's treatment of the issue of suicide in early Christianity is so historically and conceptually muddled as to be fundamentally inaccurate.
Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.
Oesterdiekhoff, Georg W
Developmental psychology is not only a psychology of development from childhood to old age but a psychology of human development in world history. Eighty years of cross-cultural empirical research findings indicate that the adolescent stage of formal operations evolved late in history and is not a universal development of adult humans across cultures and history. Correspondingly, preoperational or concrete operational stages describe adult psychological stages in past or premodern cultures, as Jean Piaget and some of his followers have mentioned. Developmental psychology is likewise a historical or anthropological psychology capable of describing humans in premodern cultures. The article develops a general anthropological or psychological theory answering the many questions that arise from the correspondences between (modern) children and ancient adults. On this psychological basis, the new structural genetic theory program is capable of explaining, better than previous approaches, the history of humankind from prehistory through ancient to modern societies, the history of economy, society, culture, religion, philosophy, sciences, morals, and everyday life. The accomplishment of this task was once demanded of some classical founders of psychology, sociology, history, and ethnology but was largely avoided by the postwar generations of authors for political and ideological reasons.
This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples. Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...
Yang, Xing-Yue; Ma, Yu-Xiao; Tian, Si-Sheng; Gao, Shu-Zhong
To further explore the clinical effect of massage therapy on navel,the related ancient literatures were arranged and analyzed,and several methods in ancient clinical were introduced, including stroking navel, rubbing navel, pushing navel, tapping navel and puffing navel. In addition, the theoretical basis of massage therapy on navel were discussed. The results revealed ancient literatures offered abundant theoretical basis to modern clinical practice, and there were evidences of treating gastroenteric and gynecological diseases with this therapy. Comprehensively, through the study of ancient literatures and modern research, therapy of massage on navel is believed to be promising and will gain popularity in the future.
Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G
that there were many reasons to suicide someone in antiquity. Very important factor was to avoid captivity and the consequent overcrowding of indignity, especially for politicians and military leaders. Also intention in these circumstances was to avoid torture and the disgrace of rape. Strong grief is another reason, as in case of death of family members. The erotic disappointment had place in ancient suicides, which concerned both men and women, while there were also suicide for financial reasons. Especially for the elderly, the despair of the anility in conjunction with physical illness and cachexia, were important factors for these people to decide thee suicidal. Finally, the methods of suicide fitted their epoch, but bear resemblance to those of the modern time. Poisoning was very common to both men and women but equally popular in both sexes was also the hanging. It was not unusual to fall from a high in order to reach the death, while stabbing a sword in the body for self killing was widespread in men and soldiers.
History of forests and forestry in Volyn region from ancient times to the present day is investigated. The extent of human impact on forests is described. The modern problems of forests and forest resources in Volyn region are considered. The system of measures, aimed at ensuring rational use and reproduction of forests and improvement of environmental situation in the region's forests is justified
Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…
Wang, P.K.; Siscoe, G.L.
The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar acitivity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously. (orig.)
Mouatt, Julia Thidamarth Vilstrup; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias
the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific...
Vollrath, Fritz; Porter, David
Silks have a great potential as sustainable, ecologically benign commercial polymers. Here we discuss this fascinating bio-material by merging the biologist's with the polymer scientist's views i.e. combine insights into the characterisation and understanding of evolved structure, property and function in natural silk proteins with the broad scope of applied disciplines ranging from molecular modelling to rheology and mechanical testing. We conclude that silk cannot be defined simply by only ...
The art of medieval Islamic symmetry is well known throughout the world, albeit for a large part only from pictures. Recently, students from Leiden and Utrecht had the opportunity to see some extraordinary tilings through their own eyes on a study trip to Isfahan in Iran, under the guidance of Jan
Vandenberghe, J.; Woo, M.K.
Climate has been proposed conventionally as the primary factor that determines periglacial river activity (aggradation) and pattern (braided). This concept does not explain the rich diversity in river patterns and morphological processes in both the present and past periglacial environments: besides
Over the last twenty years, there has been a discernable increase in the number of scholars who have focused their research on metal production, working and use in antiquity, a field of study which has come to be known as archaeometallurgy. Materials scientists and conservators have worked primarily in the laboratory while archaeologists have conducted fieldwork geared to the study of metal technology in a cultural context with laboratory analysis as one portion of the interpretive program.
K M Sakthivel
Full Text Available Research on medicinal plants began to focus on discovery of natural products as potential active principles against various diseases. Medicinal plants are very interesting, have the ability to produce remarkable chemical structures with diverse biological activities. Biophytum sensitivum is used as traditional medicine to cure variety of diseases. During the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out to elucidate the chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal applications of B. sensitivum. Phytochemical analysis have shown that the plant parts are rich in various beneficial compounds which include amentoflavone, cupressuflavone, and isoorientin. Extracts and its bioactive compounds have been known to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, radioprotective, chemoprotective, antimetastatic, antiangiogenesis, wound-healing, immunomodulation, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective activity. The present review has been carried out to shed light on the diverse role of this plant in the management of various ailments facing us.
The story of the Nierendorf Gallery and the Nierendorf brothers exemplify the extremely important, however, often underestimated influence of modern art dealers on the development of single artists, whole art movements and thus of modern art history itself.
Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...
Napp, Judith; Daeschlein, Georg; Napp, Matthias; von Podewils, Sebastian; Gümbel, Denis; Spitzmueller, Romy; Fornaciari, Paolo; Hinz, Peter; Jünger, Michael
Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP) with its many bioactive properties has defined a new medical field: the plasma medicine. However, in the related form of high-frequency therapy, CAP was even used briefly a century ago. The aim of this study was to review historic CAP treatments and to obtain data regarding the antimicrobial efficacy of a historical high-frequency plasma device. First, historic literature regarding the history of CAP treatment was evaluated, because in the modern literature no data were available. Second, the susceptibility of 5 different bacterial wound isolates, cultured on agar, to a historic plasma source (violet wand [VW]) and two modern devices (atmospheric pressure plasma jet [APPJ] and Dielectric Barrier Discharge [DBD]) was analyzed . The obtained inhibition areas (IA) were compared. First, the most convenient popular historical electromedical treatments produced a so-called effluvia by using glass electrodes, related to today's CAP. Second, all three tested plasma sources showed complete eradication of all tested microbial strains in the treated area. The "historical" cold VW plasma showed antimicrobial effects similar to those of modern APPJ and DBD regarding the diameter of the IA. Some retrograde evidence may be deducted from this, especially for treatment of infectious diseases with historical plasma devices. The underlying technology may serve as model for construction of modern sucessive devices.
Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth
analyses of ancient DNA. We also investigated the sample size and temporal span of the ancient DNA sequences needed to estimate phylogenetic timescales reliably. Our results show that the range of sample ages plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the results but that accurate and precise......In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...... of the ancient samples, which can be estimated by radiocarbon dating the source material or by dating the layers in which the material was deposited. Both methods involve sources of uncertainty. The performance of Bayesian phylogenetic inference depends on the information content of the data set, which includes...
Spiridakis, John N.; Mantzanas, Theophilos
This article identifies print, non-print, and human sources and resources useful to elementary and secondary teachers of ancient Greek history. A rationale for teaching Greek history is also included. (Author/RM)
Beneš, J.; Čulíková, Věra; Kosňovská, J.; Frolík, Jan; Matiášek, Josef
Roč. 3, č. 1 (2012), s. 103-114 ISSN 1804-848X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Prague Castle * Early Modern Period * archaeobotany Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology http://www.iansa.eu/papers/IANSA-2012-01-benes.pdf
Day, Ronald E.
Presents European documentalist, critical modernist, and Autonomous Marxist influenced post-Fordist views regarding the management of knowledge in mid- and late-twentieth century Western modernity and postmodernity, and the complex theoretical and ideological debates, especially concerning issues of language and community. Discusses views of…
Sultan Ayoub Meo
Full Text Available Use of honey has a very long history. Honey has been used since ancient time due to its nutritional and therapeutic values. There had been varied ways of consumption honey including its use as a sweetener and flavoring agent. Honey is produced all over the world. The most important nutriment of honey is carbohydrates present in the form of monosaccharides, fructose and glucose. Honey plays an important role as an antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial agent and augments the adherence of skin grafts and wound healing process. The role of honey has been acknowledged in the scientific literature and there is convincing evidence in support of its antioxidant and antibacterial nature, cough prevention, fertility and wound healing properties. However, its use has been controversially discussed and has not been well accepted in the modern medicine. The aim of this review was explore and highlight the role of honey in modern medicine.
Óscar LAPEÑA MARCHENA
Full Text Available This paper analyzes a film that deals with an episode in the history of the Roman Empire practicaly ignored by the cinema: the military campaigns undertaken by the emperor Domitian in the province of Dacia.
Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing
Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)
This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…
Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Chunxiang; Si, Dayong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu
In order to study the genetic characteristics of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (LXC) population, a main bronze culture branch in northern China dated 4500-3500 years ago, two uniparentally inherited markers, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), were analyzed on 14 human remains excavated from the Dadianzi site. The 14 sequences, which contained 13 haplotypes, were assigned to 9 haplogroups, and Y-SNP typing of 5 male individuals assigned them to haplogroups N (M231) and O3 (M122). The results indicate that the LXC population mainly included people carrying haplogroups from northern Asia who had lived in this region since the Neolithic period, as well as genetic evidence of immigration from the Central Plain. Later in the Bronze Age, part of the population migrated to the south away from a cooler climate, which ultimately influenced the gene pool in the Central Plain. Thus, climate change is an important factor, which drove the population migration during the Bronze Age in northern China. Based on these results, the local genetic continuity did not seem to be affected by outward migration, although more data are needed especially from other ancient populations to determine the influence of return migration on genetic continuity.
Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio
In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). GC/MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic (dimethylsulfonio)propionate. High-valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality.
Frank, Patrick; Caruso, Francesco; Caponetti, Eugenio
In 2008 the rostrum from an ancient warship was recovered from the Mediterranean near Acqualadrone, Sicily. To establish its provenance and condition, samples of black and brown rostrum wood were examined using sulfur K-edge x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) and GC-MS. GC-MS of pyrolytic volatiles yielded only guaiacyl derivatives, indicating construction from pinewood. A derivatized extract of black wood yielded forms of abietic acid and sandaracopimaric acid consistent with pine pitch waterproofing. Numerical fits to the sulfur K-edge XAS spectra showed that about 65% of the endogenous sulfur consisted of thiols and disulfides. Elemental sulfur was about 2% and 7% in black and brown wood, respectively, while pyritic sulfur was about 12% and 6%. About 2% of the sulfur in both wood types was modeled as trimethylsulfonium, possibly reflecting biogenic dimethylsulfonio-propionate. High valent sulfur was exclusively represented by sulfate esters, consistent with bacterial sulfotransferase activity. Traces of chloride were detected, but no free sulfate ion. In summary, the rostrum was manufactured of pine wood and subsequently waterproofed with pine pitch. The subsequent 2300 years included battle, foundering, and marine burial followed by anoxia, bacterial colonization, sulfate reduction, and mobilization of transition metals, which produced pyrite and copious appended sulfur functionality. PMID:22545724
A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)
strikingly close to modern mathematics, repre- sent the various levels of intellectual attainment. There is now increasing awareness around the world that as one of the ancient cultures, India has contributed sub- stantially to the global scientific development in many spheres, and mathematics has been one of the recognized.
Klein, Wouter; Pieters, Toine
The history of the introduction of exotic therapeutic drugs in early modern Europe is usually rife with legend and obscurity and Peruvian bark is a case in point. The famous antimalarial drug entered the European medical market around 1640, yet it took decades before the bark was firmly established in pharmaceutical practice. This article argues that the history of Peruvian bark can only be understood as the interplay of its trajectories in science, commerce, and society. Modern research has mostly focused on the first of these, largely due to the abundance of medico-historical data. While appreciating these findings, this article proposes to integrate the medical trajectory in a richer narrative, by drawing particular attention to the acculturation of the bark in commerce and society. Although the evidence we have for these two trajectories is still sketchy and disproportionate, it can nevertheless help us to make sense of sources that have not yet been an obvious focus of research. Starting from an apparently isolated occurrence of the drug in a letter, this article focuses on Paris as the location where medical and public appreciation of the bark took shape, by exploring several contexts of knowledge circulation and medical practice there. These contexts provide a new window on the early circulation of knowledge of the bark, at a time when its eventual acceptance was by no means certain. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Star Maps captures the beauty and awe of the heavens through celestial prints and star atlases. It traces the history of celestial cartography and relates this history to the changing ideas of humanity's place in the universe. The text of this Second Edition is enriched with 263 photographs, 91 in color, showing images from actual antiquarian celestial books and atlases, each one with an explanation of its astronomical and cartographic features. This new edition of Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography includes: - over 50 new pages of text and 44 new images (16 in color) - completely new sections on celestial frontispieces, deep-sky objects, playing card maps, additional cartographers, and modern computerized star maps - updated figures and text about celestial globes, volvelles, telescopes, and planets and asteroids - revised and updated text and illustrations throughout. The book focuses on the development of celestial cartography from ancient to modern times and describes the relationships between ...
Eickhorst, William S.
This tongue-in-cheek article calls for the critical reexamination of the history of modern art. The author believes that modern art is neither an extension of the Renaissance aesthetic nor a collective by-product of artists possessed of creative genius. Creators of modern art were actually representational artists suffering from visual stuttering.…
Tully, Damien C.; Fares, Mario A.
Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes
Tully, Damien C; Fares, Mario A
Despite significant advances made in the understanding of its epidemiology, foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) is among the most unexpected agricultural devastating plagues. While the disease manifests itself as seven immunologically distinct strains their origin, population dynamics, migration patterns and divergence times remain unknown. Herein we have assembled a comprehensive data set of gene sequences representing the global diversity of the disease and inferred the time-scale and evolutionary history for FMDV. Serotype-specific rates of evolution and divergence times were estimated using a Bayesian coalescent framework. We report that an ancient precursor FMDV gave rise to two major diversification events spanning a relatively short interval of time. This radiation event is estimated to have taken place towards the end of the 17th and the beginning of the 18th century giving us the present circulating Euro-Asiatic and South African viral strains. Furthermore our results hint that Europe acted as a possible hub for the disease from where it successfully dispersed elsewhere via exploration and trading routes.
This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, "getting the pox" is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.
Full Text Available This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.
Gallego Llorente, M.
Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5×coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry.
Altabet, M. A.
According to current best estimates, the modern ocean's N cycle is in severe deficit. N isotope budgeting provides an independent geochemical constraint in this regard as well as the only means for past reconstruction. Overall, it is the relative proportion of N2 fixation consumed by water column denitrification that sets average oceanic δ15N under steady-state conditions. If an imbalance in oceanic N sources and sinks changes this proportion then a transient in average oceanic δ15N would occur. Using a simple model, changing water column denitrification ±30% or N2 fixation by ±15% produces detectable (>1‰) changes in average oceanic δ15N over one residence time period or more with corresponding changes in oceanic N inventory. Sediment δ15N records from sites thought to be sensitive to oceanic average δ15N all show no detectible change over the last 3 kyr or so implying a balanced marine N budget over the latest Holocene. A mismatch in time scales is the most likely meaningful interpretation of the apparent conflict with modern flux estimates. Decadal to centennial scale oscillations between net N deficit and net surplus may occur but on the N residence timescale of several thousand years, net balance is achieved in sum. However, sediment δ15N records from the literature covering the period since the last glacial maximum show excursions of up to several ‰ that are consistent with sustained N deficit during the deglaciation followed by readjustment and establishment of balance in the early Holocene. Since imbalance was sustained for one N residence time period or longer, excursions in ocean N inventory of 10 to 30% likely occurred. The climatic and oceanographic changes that occurred over this period evidently overcame, for a time, the capacity of ocean biogeochemistry to maintain N balance.
Full Text Available The reason for this research is the opinion of Civilists that Roman law did not make any contribution in the area of lend recording. It is true that during the Roman history registration was not a necessary condition of acquiring ownership, as was the case in the German system of land registers, neither did Roman law contain all the principles of modern land registers. Nevertheless, it cannot be claimed that the modern land registry system is completely original. Elements of modern land registries existed already in Roman times. These were: the cadastres, the public (censor's books and the requirement for written documents in transactions related to immovable property, especially in sales contract. It is not easy to reconstruct the elements of modern land registries in ancient Rome as available sources are in fragments; however there is sufficient basis to claim that modern land registries have their predecessor in Roman law.
Sugano, Yukiko; Honda, Katsuya
This paper examines how the Hippocratic corpus was passed on during the Enlightenment of modern Greece, introducing part of the latest Greek research on the history of medicine. Although classical studies at large had stagnated at the time under the rule of the Ottoman Empire, with the movement toward independence in the second half of the 18th century the Greeks raised their consciousness of the fact that they were the successors to their ancestral great achievements. From that time classical studies, including the history of medicine, had been activated. From some medical dissertations and books written by Greek doctors or researchers of those days, we will recognize that they made efforts to deepen the substance of modern Greek medicine, seeking the principles of medical practice from the ancient heritage.
Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Songhua
The 28 samples of glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelains are analyzed by neutron activation. The 36 element contents in each sample are determined. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) data are analyzed by fuzzy cluster. The trend cluster diagram is obtained. The result shows that the ancient Chinese Ru porcelains were most probably from the same raw material source though they were from different time, fired in different kilns and in different colors. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. The two modern Ru porcelains approximate to ancient Ru porcelains, one becomes estranged from ancient Ru porcelains. Jingdezhen porcelain is unconcerned with Ru porcelains
Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak
Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.
Marina G. Vaskina
Full Text Available The authors examine the industrialization process in Russia for more than a hundred years, the duration and quality parameters associated with its institutional features. The authors also focus on the relevance of the chosen theme because of the formation of new industrial policy institutions. The hypothesis of the study is based on identifying a set of basis factors of building effective institutions: system, decentralization mechanism, clustering, given a set of groups of interests of subjects of industrial policy implementation. Institutions of new industrial policy implementation in contemporary Russia are focused on achieving multifaceted tasks on a temporary basis, the level of implementation, the degree of relevance, therefore, the conclusion regarding the effective implementation of the strategy of economic development of modern Russia, which should include the following institutions: government programs, effective transparent public procurement, institutional design through the creation of specialized, diversified institutions of industrial-innovative development. Named structural elements must be systematically subordinated to the interests of macro-, meso- and micro levels of economic system. Special importance must have experience of building the institutional system of the new industrial policy, which gives effective results on the social-economic development.
In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.
Sargent, Marcia; Baral, Wanda
This simulation allows students to participate in the "ways" of ancient Chinese history and culture. The unit is organized into five major phases or "li's." Students may spend about one week on activities in each "li" which focuses on a major aspect of Chinese history, culture, or geography. In each "li"…
Bang, Peter Fibiger
Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...
Aucoin, Michael William; Wassersug, Richard Joel
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) via either surgical or chemical castration is the standard treatment for advanced prostate cancer (PCa). In North America, it is estimated that more than 40,000 men start ADT each year. The side effects of this treatment are extensive and include gynecomastia, erectile dysfunction, and reduced libido. These changes strongly challenge patients' self-identity and sexuality. The historical term for a man who has been castrated is 'eunuch', now a pejorative term implying overall social and sexual impotence. In this paper, we review key historical features of eunuch social performance and sexuality from a variety of cultures in order to assess the validity of contemporary stereotypes of the androgen-deprived male. Data were taken from secondary sources on the history of Byzantium, Roman Antiquity, Early Islamic societies, the Ottoman Empire, Chinese Dynasties, and the Italian Castrati period. This cross-cultural survey shows that castrated men consistently held powerful social positions that yielded great political influence. Many eunuchs were recognized for their loyalty, managerial style, wisdom, and pedagogical skills. Furthermore, rather than being consistently asexual and celibate, they were often sexually active. In certain cultures, they were objects of sexual desire for males, or females, or both. Collectively, the historical accounts suggest that, given the right cultural setting and individual motivation, androgen deprivation may actually enhance rather than hinder both social and sexual performance. We conclude that eunuch history contradicts the presumption that androgen deprivation necessarily leads to social and sexual impotence. The capabilities and accomplishments of eunuchs in the past gives patients on ADT grounds for viewing themselves in a positive light, where they are neither socially impotent nor sexually chaste.
Li Rongwu; Feng Songlin; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin
11 samples of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain from Qingliangsi kiln, 23 samples of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain from Jiaotanxia kiln and 4 samples of modern archaized Guan porcelain were obtained to determine the contents of elements in each of them by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the fuzzy cluster trend diagrams for the bodies' samples and the glazes samples respectively. The analysis shows that the raw material origins of the Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain bodies samples are very concentrated; those of the Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain bodies samples are a little dispersed; those of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are relatively concentrated; those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples are dispersed; and the origins of the raw material of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are obviously different from those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples. The bodies samples and glazes samples of Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain and those of Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain have some difference but can be compared with each other. (authors)
HISTORICAL SOURCES FOR THE ROL-PLAYING GAMES: AN EXPERIMENT ON THE DIDACTICAL TEACHING OF THE ANCIENT HISTORY FUENTES HISTÓRICAS DE LOS JUEGOS DE ROL: UN EXPERIMENTO PARA LA DIDÁCTICA DE LA HISTORIA ANTIGUA
Juan Ramón Carbó García
Full Text Available On this paper we intend to emphasize the importance of the historical sources for the conception and ambient of different rol-playing games; therefore, the usefulness of these for the didactical teaching of History too. Likewise, we collect the results of a didactic experiment on university level developed with a rol-playing game set in the Ancient Age and more precisely in the times of the Roman Empire.En este estudio pretendemos resaltar la importancia de las fuentes históricas para la concepción y ambientación de los distintos juegos de rol y por consiguiente, también la utilidad de éstos para la didáctica de la Historia. Asimismo, planteamos los resultados de un experimento didáctico en el nivel universitario desarrollado con un juego de rol ambientado en la Edad Antigua y más precisamente en época del Imperio Romano.
Gundara, Jagdish S.
This paper explores the implications that ancient Athens had for modern representative democracies and the links that can be made to the philosophical principles that form the essence of intercultural education. Such an exploration shows that modern democratic societies have ignored many key aspects of the important legacy left to us by these…
Jung, Dietrich; Sinclair, Kirstine
to modern subjectivity formation. In combining conceptual tools from these strands of social theory, we argue that the emergence of multiple modernities should be understood as a historical result of idiosyncratic social constructions combining global social imaginaries with religious and other cultural...... traditions. In the second part of the article we illustrate this argument with three short excursions into the history of Islamic reform in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way we interpret the modern history of Muslim societies as based on cultural conflicts between different forms of social order...
Multicide and other mass killings are sufficiently dramatic to excite great interest from clinicians, criminologists and behavioral scientists. This paper revisits the history of the mass murderer, an entity that has progressively distinguished itself from the serial killer. The functional difference between mass and serial homicide is quite obvious, particularly in setting, time, victim status and modus operandi. Classification of these acts requires a number of parameters. The causes of mass murders are multiple and complex: although they rarely seem to be related to psychotic mental pathologies, they are always an expression of suffering that manifests itself in a psychological crisis that is both homicidal and suicidal. Several research teams have studied the sociodemographic and etiopathogenic characteristics of mass murderers and, in particular, the perpetrators of school killings. In addition to prevalent personality traits, these actions often jointly include suicides and homicides, which are brought together in the same psychic crisis. In keeping with the theory of little identity support, previous crimes influenced some mass murderers. Suicides and mass-murders are likely to be imitated. The media appears to play a crucial role in preventing the occurrence of imitation or copycat tragedies. The WHO recommendation regarding how to transcribe suicide and by extension, homicide, in the media is necessary. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available With respect to the achievements of contemporary medicine, it is vital to remember the history and physicians who created structures and aimed at developing many branches of medicine. The history of the Dermatology Department in Gdansk – one of the oldest clinics in the Medical University of Gdansk – and biographies of its professors were recalled during many anniversaries and jubilees as a sign of respect to the founders and continuators of the School of Dermatology in Gdansk. Without their hard work and devotion, the progress in diagnosis and treatment of many dermatological diseases would not be seen. In the post-war period the Department of Dermatology in Gdansk was famous for its success in elimination of an epidemic of venereal diseases. The following years were difficult due to reorganization of the health service in Poland and opening of new diagnostic laboratories which are necessary for contemporary dermatology. Apart from its therapeutic function, the department conducts scientific research and medical training which results in many publications, international cooperation, organization of conferences and education of qualified medical staff. The forthcoming 70 th anniversary of the foundation of the Dermatology Department in Gdansk is an excellent opportunity to recall and to present profiles of the professors who were the heads of the department from the post-war period to modern times: Prof. Tadeusz Pawlas, Franciszek Miedzinski, Jerzy Kozakiewicz, Henryk Szarmach and Prof. Jadwiga Roszkiewicz.
Full Text Available The analysis of fine-scale spatial genetic structure (FSGS within populations can provide insights into eco-evolutionary processes. Restricted dispersal and locally occurring genetic drift are the primary causes for FSGS at equilibrium, as described in the isolation by distance (IBD model. Beyond IBD expectations, spatial, environmental or historical factors can affect FSGS. We examined FSGS in seven African and Neotropical populations of the late-successional rain forest tree Symphonia globulifera L. f. (Clusiaceae to discriminate the influence of drift-dispersal vs. landscape/ecological features and historical processes on FSGS. We used spatial principal component analysis and Bayesian clustering to assess spatial genetic heterogeneity at SSRs and examined its association with plastid DNA and habitat features. African populations (from Cameroon and São Tomé displayed a stronger FSGS than Neotropical populations at both marker types (mean Sp = 0.025 vs. Sp = 0.008 at SSRs and had a stronger spatial genetic heterogeneity. All three African populations occurred in pronounced altitudinal gradients, possibly restricting animal-mediated seed dispersal. Cyto-nuclear disequilibria in Cameroonian populations also suggested a legacy of biogeographic history to explain these genetic patterns. Conversely, Neotropical populations exhibited a weaker FSGS, which may reflect more efficient wide-ranging seed dispersal by Neotropical bats and other dispersers. The population from French Guiana displayed an association of plastid haplotypes with two morphotypes characterized by differential habitat preferences. Our results highlight the importance of the microenvironment for eco-evolutionary processes within persistent tropical tree populations.
Parsamian, Elma S.
The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.
Burgeoning world interest in cider and perry (pear cider, which is an alcoholic beverage) has created a strong demand for unique perry pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars. The history of perry dates to the ancient Romans. This beverage has been very popular through the centuries in Europe. The U.S. Department...
Kacar, Betul; Guy, Lionel; Smith, Eric; Baross, John
Two datasets, the geologic record and the genetic content of extant organisms, provide complementary insights into the history of how key molecular components have shaped or driven global environmental and macroevolutionary trends. Changes in global physico-chemical modes over time are thought to be a consistent feature of this relationship between Earth and life, as life is thought to have been optimizing protein functions for the entirety of its approximately 3.8 billion years of history on the Earth. Organismal survival depends on how well critical genetic and metabolic components can adapt to their environments, reflecting an ability to optimize efficiently to changing conditions. The geologic record provides an array of biologically independent indicators of macroscale atmospheric and oceanic composition, but provides little in the way of the exact behaviour of the molecular components that influenced the compositions of these reservoirs. By reconstructing sequences of proteins that might have been present in ancient organisms, we can downselect to a subset of possible sequences that may have been optimized to these ancient environmental conditions. How can one use modern life to reconstruct ancestral behaviours? Configurations of ancient sequences can be inferred from the diversity of extant sequences, and then resurrected in the laboratory to ascertain their biochemical attributes. One way to augment sequence-based, single-gene methods to obtain a richer and more reliable picture of the deep past, is to resurrect inferred ancestral protein sequences in living organisms, where their phenotypes can be exposed in a complex molecular-systems context, and then to link consequences of those phenotypes to biosignatures that were preserved in the independent historical repository of the geological record. As a first step beyond single-molecule reconstruction to the study of functional molecular systems, we present here the ancestral sequence reconstruction of the
T. O. Kutsaeva
Full Text Available The author of the article set the goal to analyse the published academic/ scientific, popular scientific publications and the published results of Ukrainian museums’ practical developments for 1990-2010s, which in total can be described as a museum andragogics or informal adult education by museum means. Initially, it was found that despite the growing interest in these kinds of museum activities, the available research body is not systematized. It was found that brief reviews of the problem’s historiography are present mostly in preambles of museology, pedagogy, museums history articles. They are often related to the topic indirectly. Attempts to study purposefully the subject are now rare, although their aim is to summarize the existing Ukrainian experience. It was determined that, although it is impossible now to determine the museum andragogics as a separate sphere of knowledge on the basis of a small number of published investigations of Ukrainian specialists. These investigations are reflecting the national museums and available foreign publications’ experience in this sphere (translated into Ukrainian or published in Russian. But the formation of the andragogics in Ukraine is actual and necessary on the way towards the integration into the global cultural space. Summarizing the material the conclusion was made that the museum andragogics and non-formal adult education in museums are promising areas of scientific knowledge. A contribution of the museum’s and other Ukrainian connected sectors professionals in the process by years 2012-13 is notable both at the level of the foreign experience’s study and the reflection in practice, research, scientific and popular publications. However, until now there was no such activity surge, as it happened in the spheres of museum marketing or sociology. Such forms of activity as «Workshop», «Summer school», public lecture are not known and used enough by domestic museums, and therefore by
Lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) response but similar glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glycaemic, and insulinaemic response to ancient wheat compared to modern wheat depends on processing
Bakhøj, S; Flint, A.; Holst, Jens Juul
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that bread made from the ancient wheat Einkorn (Triticum monococcum) reduces the insulin and glucose responses through modulation of the gastrointestinal responses of glucose-dependent insulinotrophic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) compared...... whole grain bread elicit a reduced gastrointestinal response of GIP compared to conventional yeast bread. No differences were found in the glycaemic, insulinaemic and GLP-1 responses. Processing of starchy foods such as wheat may be a powerful tool to modify the postprandial GIP response....
Hasan Sacit Keseroğlu
Full Text Available Science assumes its contemporary identity as a result of the stages of magic, religion and reason. The religious stage starts with the invention of writing and this stage leaves its place to reason with Thales in Ancient Greece. Knowledge eludes from religious beliefs. Ways to reach accurate, reliable and realistic knowledge are sought, along with the answer for what knowledge is. Therefore, beginning of the science is taken into consideration together with science and philosophy. The purpose of this study is to approach knowledge and science of the ancient age in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece in general terms and to determine the relationship between the knowledge produced in those places and libraries established. The hypothesis has been determined as “Egypt and Mesopotamia at the starting point of the history of science and science, and libraries in Ancient Greece have developed parallelly to each other.” The scope of the study has been limited to Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece; and Ancient Greece has been explained, with descriptive method, in the frame of the topics of Ionia, Athens, Hellenistic Period and Rome. Many archives and libraries have been established in the ancient age. The difference between an archive and a library has been mentioned first, and then, various libraries have been introduced such as Nineveh in Mesopotamia, Alexandria in Ancient Greece and many others in Egypt. It has been clearly distinguished that there had been a very tight relationship between knowledge production and library, especially with the Library of Alexandria.