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Sample records for ancient history modern

  1. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandra X Crawford; Patel, Dipika V.; Charles NJ McGhee

    2013-01-01

    This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD). Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by ...

  2. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra X Crawford

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD. Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by the 17 th and 18 th centuries, true scientific and surgical experimentation in this field did not begin until the 19 th century. Indeed, the success of contemporary corneal transplantation is largely the result of a culmination of pivotal ideas, experimentation, and perseverance by inspired individuals over the last 200 years. Franz Reisinger initiated experimental animal corneal transplantation in 1818, coining the term "keratoplasty". Subsequently, Wilhelmus Thorne created the term corneal transplant and 3 years later Samuel Bigger, 1837, reported successful corneal transplantation in a gazelle. The first recorded therapeutic corneal xenograft on a human was reported shortly thereafter in 1838-unsurprisingly this was unsuccessful. Further progress in corneal transplantation was significantly hindered by limited understanding of antiseptic principles, anesthesiology, surgical technique, and immunology. There ensued an extremely prolonged period of debate and experimentation upon the utility of animal compared to human tissue, and lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Indeed, the first successful human corneal transplant was not performed by Eduard Zirm until 1905. Since that first successful corneal transplant, innumerable ophthalmologists have contributed to the development and refinement of corneal transplantation aided by the development of surgical microscopes, refined suture materials, the development of eye banks, and the introduction of

  3. A brief history of corneal transplantation: From ancient to modern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Alexandra Z; Patel, Dipika V; McGhee, Charles Nj

    2013-09-01

    This review highlights many of the fundamental concepts and events in the development of corneal transplantation - from ancient times to modern. Tales of eye, limb, and even heart transplantation appear in ancient and medieval texts; however, in the scientific sense, the original concepts of corneal surgery date back to the Greek physician Galen (130-200 AD). Although proposals to provide improved corneal clarity by surgical interventions, including keratoprostheses, were better developed by the 17(th) and 18(th) centuries, true scientific and surgical experimentation in this field did not begin until the 19(th) century. Indeed, the success of contemporary corneal transplantation is largely the result of a culmination of pivotal ideas, experimentation, and perseverance by inspired individuals over the last 200 years. Franz Reisinger initiated experimental animal corneal transplantation in 1818, coining the term "keratoplasty". Subsequently, Wilhelmus Thorne created the term corneal transplant and 3 years later Samuel Bigger, 1837, reported successful corneal transplantation in a gazelle. The first recorded therapeutic corneal xenograft on a human was reported shortly thereafter in 1838-unsurprisingly this was unsuccessful. Further progress in corneal transplantation was significantly hindered by limited understanding of antiseptic principles, anesthesiology, surgical technique, and immunology. There ensued an extremely prolonged period of debate and experimentation upon the utility of animal compared to human tissue, and lamellar versus penetrating keratoplasty. Indeed, the first successful human corneal transplant was not performed by Eduard Zirm until 1905. Since that first successful corneal transplant, innumerable ophthalmologists have contributed to the development and refinement of corneal transplantation aided by the development of surgical microscopes, refined suture materials, the development of eye banks, and the introduction of corticosteroids. Recent

  4. Approaches to the History of Patients: From the Ancient World to Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This chapter looks from an early modernist's perspective at some of the major questions and methodological issues that writing the history of patients in the ancient world shares with similar work on Patientengeschichte in medieval and early modern Europe. It addresses, in particular, the problem of finding adequate sources that give access to the patients' experience of illness and medicine and highlights the potential as well as the limitations of using physicians' case histories for that purpose. It discusses the doctor-patient relationship as it emerges from these sources, and the impact of the patient's point of view on learned medical theory and practice. In conclusion, it pleads for a cautious and nuanced approach to the controversial issue of retrospective diagnosis, recommending that historians consistently ask in which contexts and in what way the application of modern diagnostic labels to pre-modern accounts of illness can truly contribute to a better historical understanding rather than distort it.

  5. Ancient agricultural terraces in the Kislovodsk Depression: History and modern state of the soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, A. V.; Korobov, D. S.; Simakova, A. N.; Zanina, O. G.; Bukhonov, A. V.; Demidov, V. V.

    2012-06-01

    The results of the investigation into the history of soilscapes in the Kislovodsk Depression are discussed. It is shown that up to 60-70% of the area of slopes and interfluvial plateaus at the heights of 900-1500 m a.s.l. was terraced in the Late Bronze-Early Iron ages, during the Kobansk cultural stage (1200-600 BC). Under these conditions, a sharp change in the climate with a considerable increase in the annual precipitation in the middle of the first millennium BC resulted in the activation of erosion and the formation of a layer of colluvial sediments overlying the buried soil on the terraces. Thus, the middle of the first millennium BC can be considered the zero moment for the modern stage of soil formation in the region. Problems of the current state of the terrace complexes and the development of erosion on them are also discussed.

  6. Connecting Ancient and Modern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2012-01-01

    Beijing has a history of over 1,000 years.There were once many renowned readitional Chinese opera theaters in the capital city.But now these vintage theaters are being swallowed up in the glitz of modernization and urbanization.Nevertheless,people can still make unexpected discoveries of traditional Chinese culture when wandering through Beijing's hutongs,or alleys.The Zheng Yi Ci Theater is one such surprise.It is a historical relic with over 300 years of history,poised to reinvigorate the traditional Chinese opera.Xinhuayaji International Cultural Communication Co.Ltd.produced the 2011Winter Drama Season at the Zheng Yi Ci Theater from November 23 to December 25,2011,reigniting the fame of the oldest theater in Beijing.The Zheng Yi Ci served as the venue for the 100th production of the Mei Lanfang Classics,a six-part production by the eponymous Peking Opera master.This year will mark the 300th anniversary of the theater's reconstruction.

  7. History of carotid surgery: from ancient greeks to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarita, Tiziano; Gerbino, Maurizio; Gurrieri, Carmelina; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    A relationship between decreased carotid arterial flow and apoplectic manifestations was already suspected by the ancient Greeks. Early attempts at carotid surgery, however, were limited to emergency arterial ligation in patients with neck trauma. Attempts to suture arterial stumps together to restore blood flow paved the way for Carrel's revolutionary idea of reconstructing the resected or injured arterial segment with an interposition vein graft. DeBakey and Eastcott were the first to perform carotid endarterectomy in North America and the United Kingdom, respectively. In 1959, DeBakey proposed a cooperative study to assess the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in the treatment and prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The study was officially designated the Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion and represented the first trial in the United States in which large numbers of patients were randomly allocated to surgical or nonsurgical therapy.

  8. Modern History of Tibet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Authored by Xu Guangzhi, this book is a subsidiary project of Research Into Traditional Culture and History (of the PRC Ministry of Education) conducted by China Tibetology Research Institute of Tibet University. The book combines modern history of Tibet with modern history of China as a whole. It tells the close ties between various members of the Chinese nation.

  9. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  10. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woo...

  11. Boyd and the Past: A Look at the Utility of Ancient History in the Development of Modern Theories of Warfare

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    own entropic destruction. 30John Boyd, “Patterns of Conflict,” 111. 31Frans P.B. Osinga, Science, Strategy and War: The Strategic Theory of John Boyd...or paradigm shifts.46 These paradigm shifts, a concept popularized by Thomas Kuhn, help explain how new theories propagate and spread.47 Boyd...rejected the idea of paradigm shifts when applied to history. Where Kuhn argued that the fluid, seamless view of history occurs because of new

  12. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far...

  13. Ancestry of modern Europeans: contributions of ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the peopling history of Europe is crucial to comprehend the origins of modern populations. Of course, the analysis of current genetic data offers several explanations about human migration patterns which occurred on this continent, but it fails to explain precisely the impact of each demographic event. In this context, direct access to the DNA of ancient specimens allows the overcoming of recent demographic phenomena, which probably highly modified the constitution of the current European gene pool. In recent years, several DNA studies have been successfully conducted from ancient human remains thanks to the improvement of molecular techniques. They have brought new fundamental information on the peopling of Europe and allowed us to refine our understanding of European prehistory. In this review, we will detail all the ancient DNA studies performed to date on ancient European DNA from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginning of the protohistoric period.

  14. Ancient Origins of a Modern Anthropic Cosmological Argument

    CERN Document Server

    Cirkovic, M M

    2003-01-01

    Ancient origins of a modern anthropic argument against cosmologies involving infinite series of past events are considered. It is shown that this argument - which in modern times has been put forward by distinguished cosmologists like Paul C. W. Davies and Frank J. Tipler - originates in pre-Socratic times and is implicitly present in the cyclical cosmology of Empedocles. There are traces of the same line of reasoning throughout the ancient history of ideas, and the case of a provocative statement of Thucydides is briefly analyzed. Moreover, the anthropic argument has been fully formulated in the epic of Lucretius, confirming it as the summit of ancient cosmology. This is not only of historical significance but presents an important topic for the philosophy of cosmology provided some of the contemporary inflationary models, particularly Linde's chaotic inflation, turn out to be correct.

  15. Instructional Complements for Undergraduate World History or Western Civilization Courses: Selected Topics in the Ancient, Medieval, and Modern History of India: A Curriculum Supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Wayne Hamilton

    This curriculum supplement on India consists of three modules that have been used with undergraduates in introductory world civilization courses. Module 1, "Ancient Period: Hinduism and the Caste System in India: Origin, Development, and Social Functions" discusses the religious doctrines of Hinduism, the caste system, and its structure.…

  16. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  17. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae.

  18. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  19. History Gets a Modern Twist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Learning about history has never been so trendy as new TV programs and contemporary textbooks make the past pleasurable The past is catching up with China and it’s now cool to learn history. Public demand for the who,why and when of events and people in ancient times is seeing a new craze in a country with 5,000 years worth of resources to delve into. While popular TV soaps about China’s

  20. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  1. History as Modernity. Introduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Schiera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction starts from the exhaustion of modernity, drawing the fundamental lines of its development inside Western historical experience. The end of the political nexus between theology and politics, the evanescence of nation-state sovereignty, the check of great historical interpretations reveal the necessity of new categories and new organizational models, able to make us answer to the violence that the ongoing processes are liberating. Schiera underlines in particular the relevance of the administrative apparatus because of its capacity to link the global government with global organization, human rights and the commons.

  2. Reconstructing Ancient History-- Historiographical Review of the Ancient History of Korea, 1950s-2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ancient history of Korea has been one of the most controversial and difficult phases to incorporate into an East Asian history survey class, not only because there are indeed quite a number of contested issues, but also because very few updated materials are available in English. This essay aims to provide a comprehensive and critical overview of research on the topic of Korean ancient history in the past six decades (mainly in South Korea, so that the ancient history of Korea can be understood first within the broader frame of East Asian history, and then in relation to the intellectual and ideological evolution which has significantly impacted historical interpretations in South Korea.

  3. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  4. Ancient Blacksmiths, The Iron Age, Damascus Steels, and Modern Metallurgy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherby, O.D.; Wadsworth, J.

    2000-09-11

    The history of iron and Damascus steels is described through the eyes of ancient blacksmiths. For example, evidence is presented that questions why the Iron Age could not have begun at about the same time as the early Bronze Age (i.e. approximately 7000 B.C.). It is also clear that ancient blacksmiths had enough information from their forging work, together with their observation of color changes during heating and their estimate of hardness by scratch tests, to have determined some key parts of the present-day iron-carbon phase diagram. The blacksmiths' greatest artistic accomplishments were the Damascus and Japanese steel swords. The Damascus sword was famous not only for its exceptional cutting edge and toughness, but also for its beautiful surface markings. Damascus steels are ultrahigh carbon steels (UHCSs) that contain from 1.0 to 2.1%. carbon. The modern metallurgical understanding of UHCSs has revealed that remarkable properties can be obtained in these hypereutectoid steels. The results achieved in UHCSs are attributed to the ability to place the carbon, in excess of the eutectoid composition, to do useful work that enhances the high temperature processing of carbon steels and that improves the low and intermediate temperature mechanical properties.

  5. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  6. Ancient and modern women in the "Woman's World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Isobel

    2009-01-01

    Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.

  7. A history of modern librarianship

    CERN Document Server

    Wiegand, Wayne; Richards, Pamela; Richards, Pamela; Wiegand, Wayne; Dalbello, Marija

    2015-01-01

    Previous histories of libraries in the Western world-the last of which was published nearly 20 years ago-concentrate on libraries and librarians. This book takes a different approach. It focuses on the practice of librarianship, showing you how that practice has contributed to constructing the heritage of cultures. To do so, this groundbreaking collection of essays presents the history of modern librarianship in the context of recent developments of the library institution, professionalization of librarianship, and innovation through information technology. Organized by region, the book a

  8. Effect of ancient population structure on the degree of polymorphism shared between modern human populations and ancient hominins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Anders; Manica, Andrea

    2012-08-28

    Recent comparisons between anatomically modern humans and ancient genomes of other hominins have raised the tantalizing, and hotly debated, possibility of hybridization. Although several tests of hybridization have been devised, they all rely on the degree to which different modern populations share genetic polymorphisms with the ancient genomes of other hominins. However, spatial population structure is expected to generate genetic patterns similar to those that might be attributed to hybridization. To investigate this problem, we take Neanderthals as a case study, and build a spatially explicit model of the shared history of anatomically modern humans and this hominin. We show that the excess polymorphism shared between Eurasians and Neanderthals is compatible with scenarios in which no hybridization occurred, and is strongly linked to the strength of population structure in ancient populations. Thus, we recommend caution in inferring admixture from geographic patterns of shared polymorphisms, and argue that future attempts to investigate ancient hybridization between humans and other hominins should explicitly account for population structure.

  9. Unifying Ancient and Modern Geometries Through Octonions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catto, Sultan; Gürcan, Yasemin; Khalfan, Amish; Kurt, Levent

    2016-01-01

    We show the first unified description of some of the oldest known geometries such as the Pappus’ theorem with more modern ones like Desargues' theorem, Monge's theorem and Ceva's theorem, through octonions, the highest normed division algebra in eight dimensions. We also show important applications in hadronic physics, giving a full description of the algebra of color applicable to quark physics, and comment on further applications.

  10. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias

    2013-01-01

    The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial...... the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific...

  11. Microstructures of ancient and modern cast silver–copper alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Northover, S.M., E-mail: s.m.northover@open.ac.uk [Materials Engineering, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Northover, J.P., E-mail: peter.northover@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Rd, Oxford OX1 3PH,UK (United Kingdom)

    2014-04-01

    The microstructures of modern cast Sterling silver and of cast silver objects about 2500 years old have been compared using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis (EDX) and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD). Microstructures of both ancient and modern alloys were typified by silver-rich dendrites with a few pools of eutectic and occasional cuprite particles with an oxidised rim on the outer surface. EBSD showed the dendrites to have a complex internal structure, often involving extensive twinning. There was copious intragranular precipitation within the dendrites, in the form of very fine copper-rich rods which TEM, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM and STEM suggest to be of a metastable face-centred-cubic (FCC) phase with a cube–cube orientation relationship to the silver-rich matrix but a higher silver content than the copper-rich β in the eutectic. Samples from ancient objects displayed a wider range of microstructures including a fine scale interpenetration of the adjoining grains not seen in the modern material. Although this study found no unambiguous evidence that this resulted from microstructural change produced over archaeological time, the copper supersaturation remaining after intragranular precipitation suggests that such changes, previously proposed for wrought and annealed material, may indeed occur in ancient silver castings. - Highlights: • Similar twinned structures and oxidised surfaces seen in ancient and modern cast silver • General precipitation of fine Cu-rich rods apparently formed by discontinuous precipitation is characteristic of as-cast silver. • The fine rods are cube-cube related to the matrix in contrast with the eutectic. • The silver-rich phase remains supersaturated with copper. • Possibly age-related grain boundary features seen in ancient cast silver.

  12. Ancient and modern secrets of Isfahan

    OpenAIRE

    Hogendijk, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The art of medieval Islamic symmetry is well known throughout the world, albeit for a large part only from pictures. Recently, students from Leiden and Utrecht had the opportunity to see some extraordinary tilings through their own eyes on a study trip to Isfahan in Iran, under the guidance of Jan Hogendijk. As a result of this trip, a lasting contact was formed between the students here and those in Iran. Jan Hogendijk is professor in the history of mathematics in Utrecht and Leiden, and is ...

  13. The Quarrel over Ancient and Modern Scepticism: Some Reflections on Descartes and His Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianni Paganini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Like every original and fruitful research programme, that of Richard Popkin has inspired other interpretations that ended up by appearing as rivals to the History of Skepticism. It is certainly not by chance that only after Popkin had rediscovered the importance played by the rebirth of skepticism, an intense debate rose about the differences, the values and the possible superiority of the moderns over the ancients concerning the extent of doubt: a kind of a querelle des anciens et des modernes in order to establish whether and how the former or the latter outdid each other in coherence and radicality. One could object that this dispute has already been articulated in our modern philosophical archetypes, going back at least to Hegel and his critic Kierkegaard: the first, as is well known, supported the ancients, claiming in his Lectures on the History of Philosophy that Greek skepticism had been much deeper and all- encompassing than Cartesian doubt, whereas the second, starting with Johannes Climacus’s pseudoepigraphic work, backed up the moderns, stressing the break between the era of modern and the astonishment or immediacy typical of the Greeks. De omnibus dubitandum est: by this Cartesian quote Kierkegaard characterized the modern age whose novelty could be summarized for him in three sentences: “1 Philosophy starts in doubt; 2 Doubt is required in order to practice philosophy: 3 Modern philosophy begins in doubt”.

  14. Compressional intracontinental orogens: Ancient and modern perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondo, Tom; Hand, Martin; Collins, William J.

    2014-03-01

    histories strongly reminiscent of typical collisional belts, suggesting that the deformational response of continental crust is remarkably similar in different tectonic settings.

  15. Are Historical Observations ``Ancient'' or ``Modern''?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, R. Elizabeth

    2016-10-01

    The demarcation between ``old'', ``historic'' and ``heritage'' is fuzzy. To a large degree it depends upon purpose and usefulness, and it will always be subjective. At what point does the intrinsic value of an historic item outpace the mystique associated just with its age? When, for instance, does an ``old'' car become a ``vintage'' car? When do archived astronomical records contribute something of quantitative value to science? When can they be extricated from the realms of the museum and placed in the context of modern research? Celestial objects vary. Some do so explosively, often irreversibly; many vary periodically over time-scales from a hour or less to a century or more. Furthermore, all celestial objects change as they evolve, mostly so slowly as to be practically imperceptible, but while the general time-scale of that evolution is millions of years there are a few stages (such as the collapse from AGB towards planetary nebula and white dwarf) which happen rather suddenly, and invaluable examples of ``before-after'' can be found in some plate stores. Astrophysics has a comprehensive need to investigate the nature and time-scales of all types of change, especially ones which only access to its ``heritage'' data can describe. Surely in this day and age we have enough tools, capacity and technologies to fulfil such a basic requirement? The frustrating answer is that we do have some of the necessary tools, and most of the technologies, but as a community we lack ``capacity'' if that means manpower and funds. The problem is a technical one of accessing the older data in useable formats; it was generated by the universal change in detector technology from photography to electronic device, an exciting development in efficiency and scope that heralded a new era of research capability and data management, archiving and sharing, but it left pre-digital photographic data right out of the picture. Developments of that nature should have made research more inclusive

  16. Contributions of ancient Indian physicians - Implications for modern times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda traces its origins to contributions of mythological and real physicians that lived millennia earlier. In many respects, Western medicine also had similar origins and beliefs, however, the introduction of anatomical dissection and progressive application of scientific evidence based practices have resulted in divergent paths taken by these systems. We examined the lives, careers, and contributions made by nine ancient Indian physicians. Ancient texts, translations of these texts, books, and biographical works were consulted to obtain relevant information, both for Indian traditional medicine as well as for Western medicine. Ayurveda has retained principles enunciated by these physicians, with minor conceptual advances over the centuries. Western medicine separated from ancient Indian medicine several hundred years ago, and remains the foundation of modern medicine. Modern medicine is evidence based, and randomized clinical trials (RCTs are the gold standard by which efficacy of treatment is evaluated. Ayurvedic medicine has not undergone such critical evaluation to any large extent. The few RCTs that have evaluated alternative medical treatment recently have shown that such therapy is no better than placebo; however, placebo treatment is 30% effective. We suggest that foreign domination, initially by Mughals, and later by the British, may have contributed, in part, to this inertia and protracted status quo.

  17. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  18. Science of the mind: ancient yoga texts and modern studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telles, Shirley; Singh, Nilkamal

    2013-03-01

    The practice of yoga is gaining in popularity with a wide range of practices. Recent research and descriptions from the ancient texts are often concurrent with regard to the effects of the practice, taking into account expected differences between modern scientific terms and those used in the original texts. Voluntarily regulated yoga breathing practices form a bridge between physical and mental changes. The voluntarily regulated yoga breathing has distinct effects on metabolism, the autonomic nervous system, higher brain functions, and mental state. The effects of meditation on the nervous system and mental state are even clearer.

  19. Modern freshwater microbialite analogues for ancient dendritic reef structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laval, B.; Cady, S. L.; Pollack, J. C.; McKay, C. P.; Bird, J. S.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Ford, D. C.; Bohm, H. R.

    2000-01-01

    Microbialites are organosedimentary structures that can be constructed by a variety of metabolically distinct taxa. Consequently, microbialite structures abound in the fossil record, although the exact nature of the biogeochemical processes that produced them is often unknown. One such class of ancient calcareous structures, Epiphyton and Girvanella, appear in great abundance during the Early Cambrian. Together with Archeocyathids, stromatolites and thrombolites, they formed major Cambrian reef belts. To a large extent, Middle to Late Cambrian reefs are similar to Precambrian reefs, with the exception that the latter, including terminal Proterozoic reefs, do not contain Epiphyton or Girvanella. Here we report the discovery in Pavilion Lake, British Columbia, Canada, of a distinctive assemblage of freshwater calcite microbialites, some of which display microstructures similar to the fabrics displayed by Epiphyton and Girvanella. The morphologies of the modern microbialites vary with depth, and dendritic microstructures of the deep water (> 30 m) mounds indicate that they may be modern analogues for the ancient calcareous structures. These microbialites thus provide an opportunity to study the biogeochemical interactions that produce fabrics similar to those of some enigmatic Early Cambrian reef structures.

  20. Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, S

    1999-10-01

    Ayurveda is the ancient (before 2500 b.c.) Indian system of health care and longevity. It involves a holistic view of man, his health, and illness. Ayurvedic treatment of a disease consists of salubrious use of drugs, diets, and certain practices. Medicinal preparations are invariably complex mixtures, based mostly on plant products. Around 1,250 plants are currently used in various Ayurvedic preparations. Many Indian medicinal plants have come under scientific scrutiny since the middle of the nineteenth century, although in a sporadic fashion. The first significant contribution from Ayurvedic materia medica came with the isolation of the hypertensive alkaloid from the sarpagandha plant (Rouwolfia serpentina), valued in Ayurveda for the treatment of hypertension, insomnia, and insanity. This was the first important ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants. With the gradual coming of age of chemistry and biology, disciplines central to the study of biologic activities of natural products, many Ayurvedic plants have been reinvestigated. Our work on Commiphora wightti gum-resin, valued in Ayurveda for correcting lipid disorders, has been described in some detail; based on these investigations, a modern antihyperlipoproteinemic drug is on the market in India and some other countries. There has also been concordance for a few other Ayurvedic crude drugs such as Asparagus racemosus, Cedrus deodara, and Psoralea corylifolia.

  1. Ancient Arts of Minahasa: A Public History Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuda B. Tangkilisan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available According to Hetty Palm (1958, there are no people like the Minahassan that experienced a tremendous change in the nineteenth century. The changes had a great impact on their way of life, including arts, as a result of Christianization. In the opinion of the zending (priests, their ancient arts did not suit the new faith. They abandoned their traditional arts and as the consequence, the next generation lost their historical ties with their ancestors in the field of arts. They adopted a new way of life of the Western (Dutch culture. Accordingly, when they become a part of the new state, they considered it important to revitalize the old traditions. However, they had problems as there are no relics from the past. Now they have two options: to cultivate the old or to invent a new tradition. This article discusses the problem and its development from a Public History perspective. The early finding shows that the Minahasans are aware that tradition can get along with the modernity in harmony as their cultural identity. It also deals with the challenge this had brought to traditional historical authority.

  2. From Mystics to Modern Times: A History of Craniotomy & Religion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, W Christopher; Chivukula, Srinivas; Grandhi, Ramesh

    2016-08-01

    Neurosurgical treatment of diseases dates back to prehistoric times and the trephination of skulls for various maladies. Throughout the evolution of trephination, surgery and religion have been intertwined to varying degrees, a relationship that has caused both stagnation and progress. From its mystical origins in prehistoric times to its scientific progress in ancient Egypt and its resurgence as a well-validated surgical technique in modern times, trephination has been a reflection of the cultural and religious times. Herein we present a brief history of trephination as it relates religion, culture, and the evolution of neurosurgery.

  3. An Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms: Modern, Quaternary and Ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakobsson, M.; Dowdeswell, J. A.; Canals, M.; Todd, B. J.; Dowdeswell, E. K.; Hogan, K. A.

    2014-12-01

    In the past two decades there have been several advances that make the production of an atlas of submarine glacial landforms timely. First is the development of high-resolution imaging technologies; multi-beam echo-sounding or swath bathymetry that allows the detailed mapping of the sea floor at water depths of tens to thousands of metres across continental margins, and 3-D seismic methods that enable the visualisation of palaeo-continental shelves in Quaternary sediments and ancient palaeo-glacial rocks (e.g. Late Ordovician of Northern Africa). A second technological development is that of ice-breaking or ice-strengthened ships that can penetrate deep into the ice-infested waters of the Arctic and Antarctic, to deploy the multibeam systems. A third component is that of relevance - through both the recognition that the polar regions, and especially the Arctic, are particularly sensitive parts of the global environmental system and that these high-latitude margins (both modern and ancient) are likely to contain significant hydrocarbon resources. An enhanced understanding of the sediments and landforms of these fjord-shelf-slope systems is, therefore, of increasing importance to both academics and industry. We are editing an Atlas of Submarine Glacial Landforms that presents a series of individual contributions that describe, discuss and illustrate features on the high-latitude, glacier-influenced sea floor. Contributions are organised in two ways: first, by position on a continental margin - from fjords, through continental shelves to the continental slope and rise; secondly, by scale - as individual landforms and assemblages of landforms. A final section provides discussion of integrated fjord-shelf-slope systems. Over 100 contributions by scientists from many countries contain descriptions and interpretation of swath-bathymetric data from both Arctic and Antarctic margins and use 3D seismic data to investigate ancient glacial landforms. The Atlas will be

  4. Yoga and mental health: A dialogue between ancient wisdom and modern psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Ferreira Vorkapic

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: Contemplative research found out that modern interventions in psychology might not come from modern concepts after all, but share great similarity with ancient yogic knowledge, giving us the opportunity to integrate the psychological wisdom of both East and West.

  5. The modern enterprise – successor of business organization forms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca Pacala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, researchers and practitioners are increasingly interested in the role and influence of the forms of business organization on the economy and society. Interpretations of the role of companies in the modern period, ranging from enthusiastic support (as the most important invention of capitalism, an explanation of the Western civilization’s expansion to moderate and often critical positions, where the company is seen as a solution, not necessarily optimal, to market imperfections. On the other hand, we often ponder upon the explanation of political, administrative and infrastructural success of ancient Rome: the state or the enterprise (the private initiative? Closer to our time, we rediscover with amazement that the "dark" Middle Ages are not at all dark and lacking in progress, at least in terms of capitalist organization and logic. The development of trade in the two poles of medieval Europe (the Mediterranean and the BaltoScandinavian area, of industry and trade in the North-Western quadrant (Flanders and neighbouring regions, was concurrent with the improvement of organizational forms of business, with the diversity and flexibility of entrepreneurial or even corporate frameworks. Of course, the study of historical sources (ancient or medieval cannot provide direct answers or solutions to the questions of modern society, because the challenges of today are rather different to those of the past. On the other hand, understanding history can help companies to build a more complete and a wiser enterprise functionality and role in the modern society, to reformulate the questions and to find new solutions. Our paper, with a clear juridical perspective on economic history, focuses on the organization of firms in ancient Rome and medieval Europe, tries to provide examples, useful interpretations and diverse solutions to the problems of contemporary society and economy.

  6. Pliny the Elder and his History of Ancient Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziella Melina

    2007-12-01

    Although Pliny the Elder based his history of ancient art on all the authors mentioned above, the writings of classical philologists and archeologists often imply that he might not have always used the art history literature mentioned as primary sources, but rather cited a great deal of information from the works of his predecessor, the famous Roman encyclopedist Marcus Terentius Varro (beginning of the 1st century BC.

  7. Ancient and modern DNA reveal dynamics of domestication and cross-continental dispersal of the dromedary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almathen, Faisal; Charruau, Pauline; Mohandesan, Elmira; Mwacharo, Joram M; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Pitt, Daniel; Abdussamad, Abdussamad M; Uerpmann, Margarethe; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; De Cupere, Bea; Magee, Peter; Alnaqeeb, Majed A; Salim, Bashir; Raziq, Abdul; Dessie, Tadelle; Abdelhadi, Omer M; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Al-Eknah, Marzook; Walzer, Chris; Faye, Bernard; Hofreiter, Michael; Peters, Joris; Hanotte, Olivier; Burger, Pamela A

    2016-06-14

    Dromedaries have been fundamental to the development of human societies in arid landscapes and for long-distance trade across hostile hot terrains for 3,000 y. Today they continue to be an important livestock resource in marginal agro-ecological zones. However, the history of dromedary domestication and the influence of ancient trading networks on their genetic structure have remained elusive. We combined ancient DNA sequences of wild and early-domesticated dromedary samples from arid regions with nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial genotype information from 1,083 extant animals collected across the species' range. We observe little phylogeographic signal in the modern population, indicative of extensive gene flow and virtually affecting all regions except East Africa, where dromedary populations have remained relatively isolated. In agreement with archaeological findings, we identify wild dromedaries from the southeast Arabian Peninsula among the founders of the domestic dromedary gene pool. Approximate Bayesian computations further support the "restocking from the wild" hypothesis, with an initial domestication followed by introgression from individuals from wild, now-extinct populations. Compared with other livestock, which show a long history of gene flow with their wild ancestors, we find a high initial diversity relative to the native distribution of the wild ancestor on the Arabian Peninsula and to the brief coexistence of early-domesticated and wild individuals. This study also demonstrates the potential to retrieve ancient DNA sequences from osseous remains excavated in hot and dry desert environments.

  8. From the History of Modern Interlinguistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Algirdas Jakutis

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Modern interlinguistics investigates the historical development of the common language from the ancient to contemporary times. Searching for a rational economic language even Aristotel can be considered as a founder of economic artificial language. Later many linguists also tried to create new artificial languages, using special systems of signs (mathematical, musical etc. symbols, Volapiuk and Esperanto being the most successful.In the middle of the 20 th century a new project of international language appeared – interlingua, created by International Association of Subsidiary Language.

  9. Comparing the Dimensions of Modern and Ancient Barrier Island Systems to Understand Controls on Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.; Stright, L.

    2015-12-01

    Commonly assumed to have low preservation potential, barrier islands are rarely interpreted in the rock record, and there is little consensus on the terminology and depositional models related to their interpretation. Prevalent on transgressive coastlines, the dimensions of modern barriers are used as analogs for the ancient; however, ancient examples are complicated by post-depositional processes, including thickening through amalgamation and removal by ravinement. Contrasting the dimensions of modern and ancient examples lends insight into the development and preservation of transgressive deposits, improving the ability to predict the size and distribution of barrier island sand bodies in the rock record as well as understanding the variables that control their architecture. Interpretation of barrier island deposits from the John Henry Member (Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Fm., Kaiparowits Plateau, southern Utah) motivated an investigation into both ancient and modern barrier islands. Traditional sequence stratigraphic models predict thin condensed deposition during transgression, not accounting for possible thick and laterally extensive accumulations of barrier island deposits. More recent models recognize the possible complexity and heterogeneity of transgressive deposits and the potential for barrier island accumulation. To better understand the relationship between modern and ancient barrier islands, the length (along strike), width (dip direction) and thickness (vertical) of >20 modern and >30 ancient barrier islands were compared. Ancient dimensions were gathered from the literature, while modern dimensions were aggregated from literature and a database of modern barrier islands currently being developed. Initial results suggest that ancient barrier island deposits record the motion of the shoreline during transgression. Ancient barriers are ~2-8 times wider and ~2-3 times thicker than modern islands. The dynamics of barrier island migration and sediment

  10. Walter Benjamin: History, Experience, and Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Alejandro Molano

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Since the end of the 20th century, there has been increasing research on modernity, especially on different segments of the cultural field. Read in this context, the works of Walter Benjamin acquire great value. The article explores four of Benjamin’s themes: a some aspects of his concept of history; b the concept of experience, in order to show its historical-critical dimension regarding the rise of modern culture; c the affinities between the way he allegorical view is developed in German Baroque drama and the way in which Baudelaire deals with the issues of modernity; and d elements of some cultural forms of modern art that Benjamin is interested in.

  11. Brain architecture and social complexity in modern and ancient birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burish, Mark J; Kueh, Hao Yuan; Wang, Samuel S-H

    2004-01-01

    Vertebrate brains vary tremendously in size, but differences in form are more subtle. To bring out functional contrasts that are independent of absolute size, we have normalized brain component sizes to whole brain volume. The set of such volume fractions is the cerebrotype of a species. Using this approach in mammals we previously identified specific associations between cerebrotype and behavioral specializations. Among primates, cerebrotypes are linked principally to enlargement of the cerebral cortex and are associated with increases in the complexity of social structure. Here we extend this analysis to include a second major vertebrate group, the birds. In birds the telencephalic volume fraction is strongly correlated with social complexity. This correlation accounts for almost half of the observed variation in telencephalic size, more than any other behavioral specialization examined, including the ability to learn song. A prominent exception to this pattern is owls, which are not social but still have very large forebrains. Interpolating the overall correlation for Archaeopteryx, an ancient bird, suggests that its social complexity was likely to have been on a par with modern domesticated chickens. Telencephalic volume fraction outperforms residuals-based measures of brain size at separating birds by social structure. Telencephalic volume fraction may be an anatomical substrate for social complexity, and perhaps cognitive ability, that can be generalized across a range of vertebrate brains, including dinosaurs.

  12. Ancient DNA perspectives on American colonization and population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Jennifer A; Bolnick, Deborah A; Tackney, Justin; O'Rourke, Dennis H

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses have proven to be important tools in understanding human population dispersals, settlement patterns, interactions between prehistoric populations, and the development of regional population histories. Here, we review the published results of sixty-three human populations from throughout the Americas and compare the levels of diversity and geographic patterns of variation in the ancient samples with contemporary genetic variation in the Americas in order to investigate the evolution of the Native American gene pool over time. Our analysis of mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies and prehistoric population genetic diversity presents a complex evolutionary picture. Although the broad genetic structure of American prehistoric populations appears to have been established relatively early, we nevertheless identify examples of genetic discontinuity over time in select regions. We discuss the implications this finding may have for our interpretation of the genetic evidence for the initial colonization of the Americas and its subsequent population history.

  13. Japan: The Modernization of an Ancient Culture. Series on Public Issues No. 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolken, Lawrence C.

    This booklet, one of a series of booklets intended to apply economic principles to major social and political issues of the day, traces the modernization of the ancient culture of Japan. Four major areas are covered: (1) "An Ancient Culture" covers the period from the first settling of Japan through the Heian period, the medieval ages, the Meiji…

  14. Wallerstein, World Systems Analysis, and Early Modern European History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuPlessis, Robert S.

    1988-01-01

    Surveys evaluations of Immanuel Wallerstein's "The Modern World-System" by specialists in early modern history and examines Wallerstein's influence on early modern historiography. Concludes by considering some attempts to synthesize world-systems analysis with other approaches. (LS)

  15. Ancient or modern? Alexander G. Baumgarten and the coming of age of aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nannini Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this essay is to examine Baumgarten’s conception on the history of aesthetics and on his role in it. In the first part, I analyze the way in which Baumgarten’s aesthetic innovation has been perceived by two of his disciples, namely Georg Conrad Winckelmann and Georg Andreas Will. While the former puts the emphasis on the modernity of aesthetics, Will seems more inclined to attribute the birth of aesthetics to ancient philosophers. Despite this apparent disagreement, my thesis is that the basic positions of the two authors are very similar and find their rationale in Baumgarten’s peculiar treatment of the issue. Consequently, I set out to inquire into Baumgarten’s theory, in the attempt to better understand his reconstruction of the empirical history of aesthetics. My purpose is to see how this empirical history is framed within a more systematic history which establishes its guidelines and marks its turning points. Eventually, I take into account the possible implications of this position with regard to the question of the origin of aesthetics.

  16. The Characteristics of the Theory of History in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qu Lindong

    2006-01-01

    Historical studies in ancient China have left us many bountiful legacies.One of them is the theory of(objective) history,whose major characteristics can be loosely divided into the following categories:(1)a wide variety of literary forms,including theoretical remarks affixed to historical narratives and even special chapters and books on historical criticism;(2)continuity of research at many levels of historiographic theory;(3)reasoning through facts(i.e.,basing theory on facts and offering arguments by following historical evidence);and(4)a wealth of masterpieces.

  17. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementi Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  18. A modern appraisal of ancient Etruscan herbal practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Bartels, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Individualts in antiquity would have been exposed to both cheese and red wine and perhaps as many as 10-40% of the population would have suffered at some time in their life from a migraine headache. Furthermore, individuals in qntiquity would also have been exposed to their fair share of childhoo...... of the combined knowledge of the "Etruscan herbal" and its possible physiological effects, raises the issue of the importance of ancient treatments in today's society, particularly since we are still plagued by many of the same ailments as the ancient Etruscans....

  19. Teaching an Ancient Performing Art in a Modern Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursabahian, Joyce Paul

    2012-01-01

    This article briefly discusses the challenges of teaching the 2,000 year-old classical dance form of Bharatanatyam to a student population that is alienated from its mythological framework. Bharatanatyam teachers today are responsible for passing on the technique, grammar, and artistic character of this ancient performing art to the current…

  20. Focus: science, history, and modern India. Introduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalkey, Jahnavi

    2013-06-01

    Histories of science in India are revisitations of the colonial question. Science is ideology to be unraveled and exposed--as modernity and progress making or violence and oppression making--depending on where you stand on the interpretive spectrum. It has been seen as ideologically driven practice, as a mode of knowledge production whose history is inseparable from the social and political uses to which it is tethered. In the colonial as well as the postcolonial context, science and technology have been seen as the "ideology of empire," "tools of empire," "tentacles of progress," and "reasons of state." Yet science and technology are practices and bodies of knowledge that inhabitants of the subcontinent have engaged with enthusiasm, that they have used to invent themselves in their global, national, and individual lives. We know remarkably little about the histories of these complex engagements. A departure from current historiographical preoccupations is called for to map and explain the lives, institutions, practices, and stories of science on the subcontinent as they connect with, and where they break away from, the world at large.

  1. Volatiles and Isotopes and the Exploration of Ancient and Modern Martian Habitability with the Curiosity Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mhaffy, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Mission was designed to pave the way for the study of life beyond Earth through a search for a habitable environment in a carefully selected landing site on Mars. Its ongoing exploration of Gale Crater with the Curiosity Rover has provided a rich data set that revealed such an environment in an ancient lakebed [1]. Volatile and isotope measurements of both the atmosphere and solids contribute to our growing understanding of both modern and ancient environments.

  2. Modern and ancient micrometeorites: Experimental and numerical studies

    OpenAIRE

    Briani, Giacomo

    2010-01-01

    Micrometeorites are sub-millimetric extraterrestrial samples, which dominate the flux of extraterrestrial matter entering the Earth atmosphere. Every micrometeorite is altered by the interaction with the atmosphere. However, they can be found embedded in larger meteorites, in which case they are called microxenoliths. Microxenoliths are ancient micrometeorites, and they allow the study of past epochs of the Solar System, not accessible by studying micrometeorites. New microxenoliths have been...

  3. Ancient-modern concordance in Ayurvedic plants: some examples.

    OpenAIRE

    Dev, S.

    1999-01-01

    Ayurveda is the ancient (before 2500 b.c.) Indian system of health care and longevity. It involves a holistic view of man, his health, and illness. Ayurvedic treatment of a disease consists of salubrious use of drugs, diets, and certain practices. Medicinal preparations are invariably complex mixtures, based mostly on plant products. Around 1,250 plants are currently used in various Ayurvedic preparations. Many Indian medicinal plants have come under scientific scrutiny since the middle of th...

  4. CO2-based Flows on Ancient and Modern Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, N.

    2002-12-01

    Outburst flood channels from the Hesperian and Amazonian Epochs of Mars have conventionally been interpreted as evidence for catastrophic release of groundwater and surface floods akin to jokulhlaups. The Channeled Scablands of Washington state, USA are a type example of this mechanism. However, on Mars there are problems with storage of the large volumes of water in the subsurface, and little evidence for surface impoundments. To explain the volume of erosion requires multiple floods from each source area, which leads to problems of recharge on a cryogenic planet. An alternative model for the floods has been developed in the last few years that explains the outbursts as the violent escape of pressurized liquid CO2, rather than liquid water. The CO2 is trapped underground beneath frozen icy regolith (permafrost) up to 1 km thick, which provides an effective topseal. When the outburst begins, explosive degassing generates a debris cloud akin to a volcanic pyroclastic flow, but at cryogenic temperature. The cloud flows downhill as a density flow, and could potentially erode the observed channels on Mars. Other terrestrial analogues include submarine density flows, which display considerable morphological similarities to Martian channels. There remain some significant problems with CO2-based flow models. To date, no numerical flow model has been offered to support the intuitive conceptual model, and the degree of erosion vs deposition does not match expectation from small-scale flows on Earth. Progress on a numerical flow model will be discussed briefly, as well as scaling relationships that may explain the degree of erosion seen in the channels of Mars. Acknowledging these shortcomings, we nonetheless suggest that the implications of a cold, dry, CO2-based flow model are so significant that the model deserves more attention from the geophysical and planetary science communities. If the model is sustainable, then the implications for the volatile history and thermal

  5. Harappans and Aryans: Old and New Perspectives of Ancient Indian History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manian, Padma

    1998-01-01

    Examines how nine world history texts treat the Harappan (Indus) civilization and the Aryans in ancient India. Analyzes the pioneering scholars of Indian studies, exploring the development of ideas about ancient Indian history. Discusses the ideas of recent scholars about the Aryan invasion theory, the Indus civilization, and the Vedas. (CMK)

  6. Sun-earth connection education through modern views of ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieman, J. R.

    The NASA Sun-Earth Connection Education Forum (SECEF) has the responsibility of using the latest science results from the study of solar physics, space physics, and aeronomy to inspire students in the classroom and to inform the public in general. SECEF works with NASA's Sun-Earth Connection spaceflight missions to accomplish this goal. Each year the missions and SECEF combine to promote their science through a major event designed to attract the attention of all. In late 2004 and 2005 the event will be the study of solar observatories created by ancient peoples and a comparison of their knowledge and culture to present understanding. Two solar observatory sites will be featured, Chaco Canyon in the U.S. and Chichen Itza in Mexico. There are many other places throughout the world that could also be featured as solar observatories and some of these may be described on the SECEF web site or used in future occurrences. Special emphasis is placed on events associated with the solstice and equinox dates. It is hoped that there will be happenings around the world on these days and SECEF will work with many museums, science centers, and other groups to help make this happen. Plans for the 2005 Ancient Observatories event and possible future events on the same subject will be described.

  7. Body,Outlook and Sports-On A History And Philosophy Of Sport And Physical Education:From Ancient Civilizations to the Modern World%身体、观念与体育--评罗伯特·麦基考夫的《体育哲学史》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭华; 刘春燕

    2014-01-01

    A History And Philosophy Of Sport And Physical Education:From Ancient Civilizations to the Modern World written by American professor Robert A .Mechikoff touches on the western sports thinking and explores into sports values ,aesthetic values and moral values at different times and for different cultures .It brings the audience into the world of Christian philosophy ,medival sports ,the Renaissance ,religion reform ,the Enlightenment and the moderniza-tion of sports .This informative book provides a better understanding of the American and the Western sports outlook for the audience and especially for the Chinese sports theory researchers .%对美国学者罗伯特·麦基考夫教授的《体育哲学史》一书作了简要的介绍和评论,认为该书是一部西方体育思想史,讨论不同时代和文化的体育价值观、审美观或道德观等,包括基督教哲学与中世纪体育,文艺复兴、宗教改革和启蒙运动时期的思想变革与体育的现代化,让我们可以对西方世界特别是美国人的体育观念有更为具体的了解,对中国体育理论研究者们具有重要的参考价值。

  8. Ancient gene flow from early modern humans into Eastern Neanderthals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhlwilm, Martin; Gronau, Ilan; Hubisz, Melissa J; de Filippo, Cesare; Prado-Martinez, Javier; Kircher, Martin; Fu, Qiaomei; Burbano, Hernán A; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Rudan, Pavao; Brajkovic, Dejana; Kucan, Željko; Gušic, Ivan; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Andrés, Aida M; Viola, Bence; Pääbo, Svante; Meyer, Matthias; Siepel, Adam; Castellano, Sergi

    2016-02-25

    It has been shown that Neanderthals contributed genetically to modern humans outside Africa 47,000-65,000 years ago. Here we analyse the genomes of a Neanderthal and a Denisovan from the Altai Mountains in Siberia together with the sequences of chromosome 21 of two Neanderthals from Spain and Croatia. We find that a population that diverged early from other modern humans in Africa contributed genetically to the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains roughly 100,000 years ago. By contrast, we do not detect such a genetic contribution in the Denisovan or the two European Neanderthals. We conclude that in addition to later interbreeding events, the ancestors of Neanderthals from the Altai Mountains and early modern humans met and interbred, possibly in the Near East, many thousands of years earlier than previously thought.

  9. Yoga and mental health: A dialogue between ancient wisdom and modern psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Camila Ferreira Vorkapic

    2016-01-01

    Background: Many yoga texts make reference to the importance of mental health and the use of specific techniques in the treatment of mental disorders. Different concepts utilized in modern psychology may not come with contemporary ideas, instead, they seem to share a common root with ancient wisdom. Aims: The goal of this perspective article is to correlate modern techniques used in psychology and psychiatry with yogic practices, in the treatment of mental disorders. Materials and Metho...

  10. Multiple maternal origins of native modern and ancient horse populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C Z; Su, R; Bower, M A; Edwards, C J; Wang, X B; Weining, S; Liu, L; Xie, W M; Li, F; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, C M; Chen, H

    2009-12-01

    To obtain more knowledge of the origin and genetic diversity of domestic horses in China, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence diversity from nine horse breeds in China in conjunction with ancient DNA data and evidence from archaeological and historical records. A 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequence from 182 modern samples revealed a total of 70 haplotypes with a high level of genetic diversity. Seven major mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) and 16 clusters were identified for the 182 Chinese modern horses. In the present study, nine 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequences of ancient remains of Bronze Age horse from the Chifeng region of Inner Mongolia in China (c. 4000-2000a bp) were used to explore the origin and diversity of Chinese modern horses and the phylogenetic relationship between ancient and modern horses. The nine ancient horses carried seven haplotypes with rich genetic diversity, which were clustered together with modern individuals among haplogroups A, E and F. Modern domestic horse and ancient horse data support the multiple origins of domestic horses in China. This study supports the argument that multiple successful events of horse domestication, including separate introductions of wild mares into the domestic herds, may have occurred in antiquity, and that China cannot be excluded from these events. Indeed, the association of Far Eastern mtDNA types to haplogroup F was highly significant using Fisher's exact test of independence (P = 0.00002), lending support for Chinese domestication of this haplogroup. High diversity and all seven mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) with 16 clusters also suggest that further work is necessary to shed more light on horse domestication in China.

  11. The Modern Intercultural Persona and "Civitas": Tracing the Path Back to the Ancient Greek Demoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Nektaria

    2011-01-01

    This conceptual paper represents an attempt to reflect on the notion of the "ancient Greek polis"--a subject of study and sometimes heated debate for many philosophers and historians worldwide--as a paradigm of a city that can offer some insight into modern states, in an era of globalisation and tense multiculturalism. By providing a synthesis of…

  12. Applications of Modern Analysis Techniques in Searching back Ancient Art Ceramic Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Quang Liem

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This report highlights the promising applications of modern analysis techniques such as Scanning Electron Microsopy, X-ray fluorescence, X-ray diffraction, Raman scattering spectroscopy, and thermal expansion measurement in searching back the ancient art ceramics technologies.

  13. Characterization of ancient and modern genomes by SNP detection and phylogenomic and metagenomic analysis using PALEOMIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schubert, Mikkel; Ermini, Luca; Der Sarkissian, Clio;

    2014-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use ...... allows for a series of potential applications in paleogenomics, comparative genomics and metagenomics. Applying the PALEOMIX pipeline to the three ancient and seven modern Phytophthora infestans genomes as described here takes 5 d using a 16-core server.......Next-generation sequencing technologies have revolutionized the field of paleogenomics, allowing the reconstruction of complete ancient genomes and their comparison with modern references. However, this requires the processing of vast amounts of data and involves a large number of steps that use...... a variety of computational tools. Here we present PALEOMIX (http://geogenetics.ku.dk/publications/paleomix), a flexible and user-friendly pipeline applicable to both modern and ancient genomes, which largely automates the in silico analyses behind whole-genome resequencing. Starting with next...

  14. Oxytricha as a modern analog of ancient genome evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Aaron David; Landweber, Laura F

    2012-08-01

    Several independent lines of evidence suggest that the modern genetic system was preceded by the 'RNA world' in which RNA genes encoded RNA catalysts. Current gaps in our conceptual framework of early genetic systems make it difficult to imagine how a stable RNA genome may have functioned and how the transition to a DNA genome could have taken place. Here we use the single-celled ciliate, Oxytricha, as an analog to some of the genetic and genomic traits that may have been present in organisms before and during the establishment of a DNA genome. Oxytricha and its close relatives have a unique genome architecture involving two differentiated nuclei, one of which encodes the genome on small, linear nanochromosomes. While its unique genomic characteristics are relatively modern, some physiological processes related to the genomes and nuclei of Oxytricha may exemplify primitive states of the developing genetic system.

  15. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lira, Jaime; Linderholm, Anna; Olaria, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Multiple geographical regions have been proposed for the domestication of Equus caballus. It has been suggested, based on zooarchaeological and genetic analyses that wild horses from the Iberian Peninsula were involved in the process, and the overrepresentation of mitochondrial D1 cluster in modern...... Iberian horses supports this suggestion. To test this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages, against previously published sequences. Only the medieval Iberian sequence appeared in the D1 group....... Neolithic and Bronze Age sequences grouped in other clusters, one of which (Lusitano group C) is exclusively represented by modern horses of Iberian origin. Moreover, Bronze Age Iberian sequences displayed the lowest nucleotide diversity values when compared with modern horses, ancient wild horses and other...

  16. Comparing the Ancient Star Formation Histories of the Magellanic Clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Weisz, Daniel R; Skillman, Evan D; Holtzman, Jon; Dalcanton, Julianne J; Cole, Andrew A; Neary, Kyle

    2013-01-01

    We present preliminary results from a new HST archival program aimed at tightly constraining the ancient (>4 Gyr ago) star formation histories (SFHs) of the field populations of the SMC and LMC. We demonstrate the quality of the archival data by constructing HST/WFPC2-based color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs; M_{F555W} ~ +8) for 7 spatially diverse fields in the SMC and 8 fields in the LMC. The HST-based CMDs are >2 magnitudes deeper than any from ground based observations, and are particularly superior in high surface brightness regions, e.g., the LMC bar, which contain a significant fraction of star formation and are crowding limited from ground based observations. To minimize systematic uncertainties, we derive the SFH of each field using an identical maximum likelihood CMD fitting technique. We then compute an approximate mass weighted average SFH for each galaxy. We find that both galaxies lack a dominant burst of early star formation, which suggests either a suppression or an under-fueling of early star for...

  17. Effect of Ancient Ceramic Art Value on Modern Ceramics%古陶瓷的艺术价值对现代陶瓷艺术的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹棠森; 孙万欣

    2016-01-01

    通过定性和定量分析古陶瓷艺术的价格以及古陶瓷艺术对现代陶瓷艺术的影响,说明古陶瓷艺术是真正的中国“制造”。%The effect of ancient ceramic value and art on modern ceramics is qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Results show in the history of ceramic art, only Chinese ancient ceramic art can be labeled as China made.

  18. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, Jaime; Linderholm, Anna; Olaria, Carmen; Brandström Durling, Mikael; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Ellegren, Hans; Willerslev, Eske; Lidén, Kerstin; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Götherström, Anders

    2010-01-01

    Multiple geographical regions have been proposed for the domestication of Equus caballus. It has been suggested, based on zooarchaeological and genetic analyses that wild horses from the Iberian Peninsula were involved in the process, and the overrepresentation of mitochondrial D1 cluster in modern Iberian horses supports this suggestion. To test this hypothesis, we analysed mitochondrial DNA from 22 ancient Iberian horse remains belonging to the Neolithic, the Bronze Age and the Middle Ages, against previously published sequences. Only the medieval Iberian sequence appeared in the D1 group. Neolithic and Bronze Age sequences grouped in other clusters, one of which (Lusitano group C) is exclusively represented by modern horses of Iberian origin. Moreover, Bronze Age Iberian sequences displayed the lowest nucleotide diversity values when compared with modern horses, ancient wild horses and other ancient domesticates using nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. We conclude that the excessive clustering of Bronze Age horses in the Lusitano group C, the observed nucleotide diversity and the local continuity from wild Neolithic Iberian to modern Iberian horses, could be explained by the use of local wild mares during an early Iberian domestication or restocking event, whereas the D1 group probably was introduced into Iberia in later historical times.

  19. [Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods.

  20. Kuiper Prize Lecture - Escape of atmospheres, ancient and modern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunten, D.M. (Arizona Univ., Tucson (USA))

    1990-05-01

    A development history is presented for theories concerning planetary atmosphere gas-escape phenomena, which although firmly grounded in the kinetics of gases achieved truly productive results only after spacecraft remote sensing data for both the earth atmosphere and the planets became widely available. The most significant initial advances, encompassing diffusion-limited flow, nonthermal escape mechanisms, bound nonthermal coronas, and mass fractionation during early blowoff, followed from sounding rocket studies of the earth upper atmosphere, Mariner 5 results on hydrogen near Venus, and the nitrogen isotopic composition discovered by Viking in Mars. Attention has more recently been given to the xenon isotopic patterns in various atmospheres, as well as to the puzzling behavior of the Io atmosphere and plasma torus. 126 refs.

  1. Modern tree species composition reflects ancient Maya "forest gardens" in northwest Belize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Nanci J

    2011-01-01

    Ecology and ethnobotany were integrated to assess the impact of ancient Maya tree-dominated home gardens (i.e., "forest gardens"), which contained a diversity of tree species used for daily household needs, on the modern tree species composition of a Mesoamerican forest. Researchers have argued that the ubiquity of these ancient gardens throughout Mesoamerica led to the dominance of species useful to Maya in the contemporary forest, but this pattern may be localized depending on ancient land use. The tested hypothesis was that species composition would be significantly different between areas of dense ancient residential structures (high density) and areas of little or no ancient settlement (low density). Sixty-three 400-m2 plots (31 high density and 32 low density) were censused around the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve in northwestern Belize. Species composition was significantly different, with higher abundances of commonly utilized "forest garden" species still persisting in high-density forest areas despite centuries of abandonment. Subsequent edaphic analyses only explained 5% of the species composition differences. This research provides data on the long-term impacts of Maya forests gardens for use in development of future conservation models. For Mesoamerican conservation programs to work, we must understand the complex ecological and social interactions within an ecosystem that developed in intimate association with humans.

  2. A comparison of soil organic carbon stock in ancient and modern land use systems in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Elberling, Bo; Balstrøm, Thomas;

    2009-01-01

    . A comparison of the organic matter content in these mound cores and the plough layer in modern farmland offers an opportunity to compare the soil organic carbon (SOC) stocks in ancient and modern land use systems and to evaluate the long-term trends in carbon (C) sequestration in relation to modern farmland......During the South Scandinavian Early Bronze Age about 3300 years ago, thousands of burial mounds were constructed of sods from fallow ground used for grazing in Denmark and northern Germany. In some of these mounds a wet, anaerobic core developed, preventing the decomposition of organic matter...... with varying inputs of manure and inorganic fertilizers. In the present paper we compare SOC stocks based on integrated horizon-specific densities and SOC contents in three 3300-year-old buried farmland soils, representing the land use system at that time, with results from soil surveys representing modern...

  3. Revaluation of Xihuang Pill on tumor treatment:from ancient literatures to modern studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Yang; Xiong-ZhiWu

    2016-01-01

    Xihuang Pill (XHP), an old prescription since the 18th century to treat various diseases, including breast cancer, is used widely for tumor therapy alone or in combination with chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. XHP is composed of Niu Huang (Calculus bovis), She Xiang (Moschus), Ru Xiang (Olibanum), and Mo Yao (Myrrha). XHP was recorded to have effects on treating breast cancer, intestinal cancer, lymphomas, ovarian cancer. Modern studies indicate that XHP can inhibit tumor cells proliferation, migration, angiogenesis and regulate tumor microenvironment. In this review, we firstly introduced the application of XHP on tumor therapy in ancient literatures. Then, the antitumor studies of XHP in both clinical and basic aspects were summarized and we also discussed the antitumor material basis and mechanisms of Calculus Bovis, Moschus, Olibanum and Myrrha. In addition, with the development of time, the dosage form of XHP, source and dose of herbs and processing methods of Olibanum and Myrrha have been changed and we also evaluated the advantage and disadvantage of these changes of XHP. Taken together, XHP has various antitumor active ingredients, which is multi-target. Moreover, beneficial technology improvement has been made in modern XHP compared to the ancient prescription. Here, we aimed to put forward a new method to revaluating XHP on its application from ancient literatures to modern studies and from pharmacy to medicine.

  4. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakant I Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hippocrates (460-375 B.C., an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfaced the need to reframe ethical perspective in modern medicine. Progress in aspects such as organ transplantation, stem cell technology, and genetic engineering has welcomed a new set of ethical dilemmas. These dilemmas have become intimately intertwined with the impact of commercialization, as seen by the interplay between legislation, health care, and pharmaceutical businesses. This paper seeks to dissect the principles of the original Hippocratic Oath and analyze the template in relation to the ethical dilemmas presented by contemporary medicine. Examination will provide a deeper understanding of the paradigm shift in modern medical ethics. Both the value of the Oath and the level of awareness of modern ethical dilemmas through the lens of American and Indian medical graduates will be assessed.

  5. Den moderne idræts historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Per

    2009-01-01

    Historiedelen til grundbog til idræt på mellemniveau i gymnasiet og til idræt som tilvalgsfag på HF. Indeholder ud over metodeafsnit og afslutningsafsnit også hovedafsnittene: "Idræt og samfund ca. 1860-1920", "De moderne olympiske lege" og "Sportens århundrede"...

  6. Security and Conspiracy in Modern History

    OpenAIRE

    Zwierlein, C.; de Graaf, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    »Sicherheit und Verschwörung in der Neuzeit«. Security History is a new field in historical research. Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories have attracted since some years great attention, both in historical and in social research. A thorough study of those both opposed and mirroring key phenomena and concepts does not exist. This contribution tries to outline a sketch of the development of their interwoven history, how (imagined) conspiracies challenged new means of security production and vi...

  7. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine.

  8. Female and Male Perspectives on the Neolithic Transition in Europe: Clues from Ancient and Modern Genetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasteiro, Rita; Chikhi, Lounès

    2013-01-01

    The arrival of agriculture into Europe during the Neolithic transition brought a significant shift in human lifestyle and subsistence. However, the conditions under which the spread of the new culture and technologies occurred are still debated. Similarly, the roles played by women and men during the Neolithic transition are not well understood, probably due to the fact that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y chromosome (NRY) data are usually studied independently rather than within the same statistical framework. Here, we applied an integrative approach, using different model-based inferential techniques, to analyse published datasets from contemporary and ancient European populations. By integrating mtDNA and NRY data into the same admixture approach, we show that both males and females underwent the same admixture history and both support the demic diffusion model of Ammerman and Cavalli-Sforza. Similarly, the patterns of genetic diversity found in extant and ancient populations demonstrate that both modern and ancient mtDNA support the demic diffusion model. They also show that population structure and differential growth between farmers and hunter-gatherers are necessary to explain both types of data. However, we also found some differences between male and female markers, suggesting that the female effective population size was larger than that of the males, probably due to different demographic histories. We argue that these differences are most probably related to the various shifts in cultural practices and lifestyles that followed the Neolithic Transition, such as sedentism, the shift from polygyny to monogamy or the increase of patrilocality. PMID:23613761

  9. Security and Conspiracy in Modern History

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwierlein, C.; de Graaf, B.A.

    2013-01-01

    »Sicherheit und Verschwörung in der Neuzeit«. Security History is a new field in historical research. Conspiracies and Conspiracy Theories have attracted since some years great attention, both in historical and in social research. A thorough study of those both opposed and mirroring key phenomena an

  10. THE ANNOUNCEMENT OF THE SECOND INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ANCIENT WORLD HISTORY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    1.Date:August 25-29,1997(Monday-Friday),fora duration of 5 days including a one-dayvisit to the Xianghai Bird Reserve2 Venue:Northeast Normal UniversityChangchun,Northeast of P.R.China3. Sponsorship:Northeast Normal University andThe Society of Ancient World History in China(SAWHC).4. Topics:The main topics are as follows:(1) The Origins and Rise of AncientCivilizations(2) The Nature and Characteristics ofAncient Civilizations(3) The Features and Aspects of VariousAncient Civilizations:a. Economy b. Social Conditionsc. Politics d. Religions e. Historiographyf. Science and Philosophy g. Literatureh. Archaeology and Art i. Family andWomen's Status(4) The Development and Connections ofAncient Civilizations

  11. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Balanovsky, Oleg; Brandt, Guido; Khartanovich, Valery; Buzhilova, Alexandra; Koshel, Sergey; Zaporozhchenko, Valery; Gronenborn, Detlef; Moiseyev, Vyacheslav; Kolpakov, Eugen; Shumkin, Vladimir; Alt, Kurt W; Balanovska, Elena; Cooper, Alan; Haak, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present). We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses) and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a), a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population movements across

  12. Ancient DNA reveals prehistoric gene-flow from siberia in the complex human population history of North East Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clio Der Sarkissian

    Full Text Available North East Europe harbors a high diversity of cultures and languages, suggesting a complex genetic history. Archaeological, anthropological, and genetic research has revealed a series of influences from Western and Eastern Eurasia in the past. While genetic data from modern-day populations is commonly used to make inferences about their origins and past migrations, ancient DNA provides a powerful test of such hypotheses by giving a snapshot of the past genetic diversity. In order to better understand the dynamics that have shaped the gene pool of North East Europeans, we generated and analyzed 34 mitochondrial genotypes from the skeletal remains of three archaeological sites in northwest Russia. These sites were dated to the Mesolithic and the Early Metal Age (7,500 and 3,500 uncalibrated years Before Present. We applied a suite of population genetic analyses (principal component analysis, genetic distance mapping, haplotype sharing analyses and compared past demographic models through coalescent simulations using Bayesian Serial SimCoal and Approximate Bayesian Computation. Comparisons of genetic data from ancient and modern-day populations revealed significant changes in the mitochondrial makeup of North East Europeans through time. Mesolithic foragers showed high frequencies and diversity of haplogroups U (U2e, U4, U5a, a pattern observed previously in European hunter-gatherers from Iberia to Scandinavia. In contrast, the presence of mitochondrial DNA haplogroups C, D, and Z in Early Metal Age individuals suggested discontinuity with Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and genetic influx from central/eastern Siberia. We identified remarkable genetic dissimilarities between prehistoric and modern-day North East Europeans/Saami, which suggests an important role of post-Mesolithic migrations from Western Europe and subsequent population replacement/extinctions. This work demonstrates how ancient DNA can improve our understanding of human population

  13. History of optics: a modern teaching tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez, D.; Gonzalez-Cano, A.; Diaz-Herrera, N.; Llombart, N.; Alda, J.

    2012-10-01

    The history of optics is a very rich field of science and it is possible to find many simple and significant examples of the application and success of the experimental method and therefore is a very good tool to transmit to the student the way science proceeds and to introduce the right spirit of critical analysis, building and testing of models, etc. Optical phenomena are specially well suited for this because in fact optical observations and experiments have made science advance in a crucial way in many different periods of history, because they are in many cases quite visual, quite simple in concept and it is very easy to produce experimental setups in classrooms. Also, the intrinsic multidisciplinary character of Optics, which is a subject that has historically influenced in a notorious way fields as art, philosophy, religion and cultural and social studies in general, provide a very wide frame that permits to apply these examples to many different auditories. We present here some reflections about the role that history of optics can play in teaching and show some real examples of its application during the many years that we have been employing it in the context of the Optics School of the Complutense University of Madrid, Spain.

  14. Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Yunbing; Lv, Peng; Andersson, Leif; Li, Ning

    2010-04-27

    The establishment of agricultural economies based upon domestic animals began independently in many parts of the world and led to both increases in human population size and the migration of people carrying domestic plants and animals. The precise circumstances of the earliest phases of these events remain mysterious given their antiquity and the fact that subsequent waves of migrants have often replaced the first. Through the use of more than 1,500 modern (including 151 previously uncharacterized specimens) and 18 ancient (representing six East Asian archeological sites) pig (Sus scrofa) DNA sequences sampled across East Asia, we provide evidence for the long-term genetic continuity between modern and ancient Chinese domestic pigs. Although the Chinese case for independent pig domestication is supported by both genetic and archaeological evidence, we discuss five additional (and possibly) independent domestications of indigenous wild boar populations: one in India, three in peninsular Southeast Asia, and one off the coast of Taiwan. Collectively, we refer to these instances as "cryptic domestication," given the current lack of corroborating archaeological evidence. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of numerous populations of genetically distinct and widespread wild boar populations that have not contributed maternal genetic material to modern domestic stocks. The overall findings provide the most complete picture yet of pig evolution and domestication in East Asia, and generate testable hypotheses regarding the development and spread of early farmers in the Far East.

  15. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of China: a caveat about inferences drawn from ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yong-Gang; Kong, Qing-Peng; Man, Xiao-Yong; Bandelt, Hans-Jürgen; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2003-02-01

    The decipherment of the meager information provided by short fragments of ancient mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is notoriously difficult but is regarded as a most promising way toward reconstructing the past from the genetic perspective. By haplogroup-specific hypervariable segment (HVS) motif search and matching or near-matching with available modern data sets, most of the ancient mtDNAs can be tentatively assigned to haplogroups, which are often subcontinent specific. Further typing for mtDNA haplogroup-diagnostic coding region polymorphisms, however, is indispensable for establishing the geographic/genetic affinities of ancient samples with less ambiguity. In the present study, we sequenced a fragment (approximately 982 bp) of the mtDNA control region in 76 Han individuals from Taian, Shandong, China, and we combined these data with previously reported samples from Zibo and Qingdao, Shandong. The reanalysis of two previously published ancient mtDNA population data sets from Linzi (same province) then indicates that the ancient populations had features in common with the modern populations from south China rather than any specific affinity to the European mtDNA pool. Our results highlight that ancient mtDNA data obtained under different sampling schemes and subject to potential contamination can easily create the impression of drastic spatiotemporal changes in the genetic structure of a regional population during the past few thousand years if inappropriate methods of data analysis are employed.

  16. Climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotope composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinniker, D.; Tipple, B.; Pagani, M.

    2007-12-01

    Unique and abundant secondary metabolites found in waxes and resins of the Callitroid, Cupressoid, and Taxodioid clades of the Cupressaceae family can be identified and quantified in complex mixtures of sedimentary organic compounds. This unusual feature makes it possible to study relatively simple (taxon-specific) isotope systems back in time across the broad array of environments in which these conifers are found. Work on these systems can potentially provide both robust paleoenvironmental proxies (i.e. for source water δD and growing season relative humidity) and quantitative probes into the ecophysiology of these plants in modern and ancient environments. Our research focuses on three genera representing environmental end-members of Cupressaceae - Juniperus, Thuja, and Chamaecyparis - (1) across geographic and environmental gradients in the field, and (2) in specific Holocene and late Pleistocene environmental records. The latter research focuses on peat cores from New England and Oregon and fossil packrat middens from the southwestern United States. Modern transects highlight the sensitivity of Cupressaceae to climatic variables. These include both variables during growth (relative humidity, soil moisture, etc.) and variables affecting seasonal and diurnal growth rates (temperature, winter precipitation, insolation, microhabitat, etc.). Work on ancient records has demonstrated the sensitivity of these unique taxon-specific archives to both subtle and dramatic climate shifts during the Pleistocene and Holocene. This work will result in an improved understanding of climatic and physiological controls on the stable isotopic composition of modern and ancient Cupressaceae - and by extension, other arborescent gymnosperms and C3 plants - providing a framework for understanding more complexly sourced organic inputs to sediments, coals, and petroleum prior to the advent of C4 plants. This research also has direct implications for stratigraphic stable isotope studies

  17. The evolution of human occlusion--ancient clinical tips for modern dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2002-01-01

    Man evolved in an environment in which the occlusion was worn down quickly, resulting in flattened occlusal and interproximal surfaces. This rapid wear reduced occlusal decay, traumatic occlusion, malaligned teeth, impactions, and temporomandibular disease (TMD). In the last 250 years, however, new food production techniques created an environment that was less dentally abrasive than earlier diets. Teeth were not worn down as programmed in our "evolutionary blue-print." This lack of wear resulted in increased caries, cusp fractures, bruxing, malocclusion, periodontal disease, and TMD. A practical re-creation of ancient dental wear patterns can help to reduce these modern dental diseases.

  18. Improving the Awareness of the Influence of Geography Upon Historical Events in Ancient Mesopotamia and in Ancient Egypt in Ninth Grade World History Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milton, Henry

    This practicum was designed to incorporate the study of geography into a ninth grade world history class with the aim of improving student awareness of the influence of geography upon the historical development of ancient Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt. By means of a questionnaire and map tests it was determined that ninth grade world history…

  19. World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework: Grade 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Ralph, Ed.; Brooks, Diane

    This document outlines ancient civilization teaching models for California sixth graders. It is another response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing the "History-Social Science Framework." Units include: (1) Early Humankind and the Development of Human Societies; (2) The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near East and…

  20. Ancient and Modern Architecture Emanate-The Vigor of New Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Audrey

    2008-01-01

    @@ Beijing,with a 3,000-year history, is the combination of Chinese traditional Culture and the modern fashion. The 2008 Beijing Olympic Games undertakes millions of people's passion and dreams. At the start of the preparing the grand pageant,three concepts were put forward, in which, culture-highlighted Olympics embodies the culture of great splendor of Beijing.

  1. Towards a Social History of Early Modern Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burke, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In Towards a Social History of Early Modern Dutch benadert Peter Burke de geschiedenis van de Nederlandse taal tussen 1500 en 1800 vanuit een sociaal-cultureel historisch perspectief. Burke onderzoekt de veranderde relatie tussen de streektaal en het Latijn; de inlijving (of invasie) van nieuwe woor

  2. A history of mathematics from Mesopotamia to modernity

    CERN Document Server

    Hodgkin, Luke

    2005-01-01

    A History of Mathematics: From Mesopotamia to Modernity covers the evolution of mathematics through time and across the major Eastern and Western civilizations. It begins in Babylon, then describes the trials and tribulations of the Greek mathematicians. The important, and often neglected, influence of both Chinese and Islamic mathematics is covered in detail, placing the description of early Western mathematics in a global context. The book concludes with modern mathematics,. covering recent developments such as the advent of the computer,. chaos theory, topology, mathematical physics, and the solution of Fermat''s Last Theorem. Containing more than 100 illustrations and figures, an extensive bibliography, and numerous exercises and solutions, this is an ideal teaching text. - ; A History of Mathematics: From Mesopotamia to Modernity covers the evolution of mathematics through time and across the major Eastern and Western civilizations. It begins in Babylon, then describes the trials and tribulations of the ...

  3. Mysteries of Antiquity: Lessons To Engage Middle School Students in Ancient/Medieval History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Max W.

    This instructional packet is intended to help classroom instructors introduce fascinating quandaries rarely featured in history textbooks about the ancient and medieval eras. Most of the 13 lesson plans require only 1 or 2 class periods to complete, permitting the teacher to enhance the presentation of a particular unit without fear of devoting…

  4. Francis Bacon's natural history and the Senecan natural histories of early modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalobeanu, Dana

    2012-01-01

    At various stages in his career, Francis Bacon claimed to have reformed and changed traditional natural history in such a way that his new "natural and experimental history" was unlike any of its ancient or humanist predecessors. Surprisingly, such claims have gone largely unquestioned in Baconian scholarship. Contextual readings of Bacon's natural history have compared it, so far, only with Plinian or humanist natural history. This paper investigates a different form of natural history, very popular among Bacon's contemporaries, but yet unexplored by contemporary students of Bacon's works. I have provisionally called this form of natural history'Senecan' natural history, partly because it took shape in the Neo-Stoic revival of the sixteenth-century, partly because it originates in a particular cosmographical reading of Seneca's Naturales quaestiones. I discuss in this paper two examples of Senecan natural history: the encyclopedic and cosmographical projects of Pierre de la Primaudaye (1546-1619) and Samuel Purchas (1577-1626). I highlight a number of similarities between these two projects and Francis Bacon's natural history, and argue that Senecan natural history forms an important aspect in the historical and philosophical background that needs to be taken into consideration if we want to understand the extent to which Bacon's project to reform natural history can be said to be new.

  5. The Teaching of Ancient History Current Nationalism in Andalusia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Almansa Fernández

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper, which is a new subject of study, shows the paradoxes that ESO students find themselves in some Spanish provinces (in the case of Andalusia. It is a comprehensive reading exercise which will demonstrate that history is written, and rewritten, with specific objectives; objectives marked by nationalist and even regionalist tones. It is not our intention, in any way, to undermine the authority of the ideas presented in the actual text books, whose general content is accepted.

  6. Ancient and Modern Laminated Composites - From the Great Pyramid of Gizeh to Y2K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Lesuer, D.R.

    2000-03-14

    Laminated metal composites have been cited in antiquity; for example, a steel laminate that may date as far back as 2750 B.C., was found in the Great Pyramid in Gizeh in 1837. A laminated shield containing bronze, tin, and gold layers, is described in detail by Homer. Well-known examples of steel laminates, such as an Adze blade, dating to 400 B.C. can be found in the literature. The Japanese sword is a laminated composite at several different levels and Merovingian blades were composed of laminated steels. Other examples are also available, including composites from China, Thailand, Indonesia, Germany, Britain, Belgium, France, and Persia. The concept of lamination to provide improved properties has also found expression in modern materials. Of particular interest is the development of laminates including high carbon and low carbon layers. These materials have unusual properties that are of engineering interest; they are similar to ancient welded Damascus steels. The manufacture of collectable knives, labeled ''welded Damascus'', has also been a focus of contemporary knifemakers. Additionally, in the Former Soviet Union, laminated composite designs have been used in engineering applications. Each of the above areas will be briefly reviewed, and some of the metallurgical principles will be described that underlie improvement in properties by lamination. Where appropriate, links are made between these property improvements and those that may have been present in ancient artifacts.

  7. Antimicrobial Functions of Lactoferrin Promote Genetic Conflicts in Ancient Primates and Modern Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Barber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin is a multifunctional mammalian immunity protein that limits microbial growth through sequestration of nutrient iron. Additionally, lactoferrin possesses cationic protein domains that directly bind and inhibit diverse microbes. The implications for these dual functions on lactoferrin evolution and genetic conflicts with microbes remain unclear. Here we show that lactoferrin has been subject to recurrent episodes of positive selection during primate divergence predominately at antimicrobial peptide surfaces consistent with long-term antagonism by bacteria. An abundant lactoferrin polymorphism in human populations and Neanderthals also exhibits signatures of positive selection across primates, linking ancient host-microbe conflicts to modern human genetic variation. Rapidly evolving sites in lactoferrin further correspond to molecular interfaces with opportunistic bacterial pathogens causing meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Because microbes actively target lactoferrin to acquire iron, we propose that the emergence of antimicrobial activity provided a pivotal mechanism of adaptation sparking evolutionary conflicts via acquisition of new protein functions.

  8. Antimicrobial Functions of Lactoferrin Promote Genetic Conflicts in Ancient Primates and Modern Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kronenberg, Zev; Yandell, Mark; Elde, Nels C.

    2016-01-01

    Lactoferrin is a multifunctional mammalian immunity protein that limits microbial growth through sequestration of nutrient iron. Additionally, lactoferrin possesses cationic protein domains that directly bind and inhibit diverse microbes. The implications for these dual functions on lactoferrin evolution and genetic conflicts with microbes remain unclear. Here we show that lactoferrin has been subject to recurrent episodes of positive selection during primate divergence predominately at antimicrobial peptide surfaces consistent with long-term antagonism by bacteria. An abundant lactoferrin polymorphism in human populations and Neanderthals also exhibits signatures of positive selection across primates, linking ancient host-microbe conflicts to modern human genetic variation. Rapidly evolving sites in lactoferrin further correspond to molecular interfaces with opportunistic bacterial pathogens causing meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Because microbes actively target lactoferrin to acquire iron, we propose that the emergence of antimicrobial activity provided a pivotal mechanism of adaptation sparking evolutionary conflicts via acquisition of new protein functions. PMID:27203426

  9. U.S. History and Modern World History Courses for English Speakers of Other Languages in Montgomery County Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Huafang; Wade, Julie

    2014-01-01

    The Office of Shared Accountability (OSA) in Montgomery County (Maryland) Public Schools (MCPS) examined academic performance of English for Speakers of Other Languages (ESOL) students in U.S. History and Modern World History courses, as well as the course sequence in ESOL U.S. History and Modern World History. In MCPS, students who are not ESOL…

  10. Textural and Mineralogical Characteristics of Microbial Fossils in Modern and Ancient Iron (oxyhydr)oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. L.; Chan, M. A.; McPherson, B. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Jurassic Brushy Basin Member of the Morrison Formation contains extensive alkaline saline lacustrine deposits rich in diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxides that are well exposed on the Colorado Plateau of the southwestern USA. These early diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxide minerals are associated with preserved diatoms and other algal forms, identified via scanning electron microscope (SEM) in thin sections of representative samples. The minerals are also associated with macroscopic bioturbation features (e.g., charophytes, burrows and fossilized dinosaur bones). Algal forms with cellular elaboration are identified by HF dissolution of bioturbation structures and examination with SEM. Collectively, these features suggest biomediated textures are preserved in early diagenetic iron (oxyhydr)oxides, and can persist for tens of millions of years. Modern microbially precipitated iron (oxyhydr)oxides and ~100ka tufa terraces from a cold spring system along Ten Mile Graben in southern Utah, USA are compared with the Morrison examples to identify modern microbial fossils and document any differences and preservation changes during diagenesis over geologic time. Two distinct suites of elements (1. C, Fe, As and 2. C, S, Se) are associated with microbial fossils in both the modern and ancient tufas, as well as the ancient Morrison specimens. The occurrence of these distinctive trace element configurations in the iron (oxyhydr)oxide minerals suggest the suites could be potential markers for biosignatures. The presence of ferrihydrite in ~100ka fossil microbial mats suggests this thermodynamically unstable mineral may also be used as a biomarker. Diagnostic trace element suites and unusual mineral phases warrant further study for their potential as biomarkers. These terrestrial iron (oxyhydr)oxide examples will: 1) document specific biomediated textures and what their origins might be (related to different processes or species), 2) show how they might persist or respond to

  11. Surgeons and surgery from ancient Persia (5,000 years of surgical history).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargaran, Arman; Fazelzadeh, Afsoon; Mohagheghzadeh, Abdolali

    2013-08-01

    The development of surgery is indebted to scientists and surgeons from various civilizations throughout history. The present study considers surgery in the ancient Persian civilization. It highlights aspects of the subject, such as findings of the first trephinated skulls in Iran; surgeons' social class (kareto baēšaza in the Avestan language-dating back 3,000 years); surgical operations such as cesarean section and procedures to treat breast cancer; and the use of anesthetic compounds and surgical practice in the military. It is hoped that this catalogue of historical evidence of surgical practice in ancient Persian civilization will contribute to the history of surgery, as an important field in medical science.

  12. Early Modern Consumption History: Current Challenges and Future Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Ryckbosch

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Stimulated by wide-ranging theories on its cultural and economic significance, the history of early modern consumption in the Low Countries has received a remarkable amount of attention in historiography during the last three decades. During this period the growing body of empirical evidence, as well as shifting theoretical frameworks, have gradually altered our understanding of early modern patterns of consumption, their causes and consequences. The current article presents a review of the main tendencies in the field of early modern consumption history, and the challenges to this historiographical field these have presented. Based on these challenges, the article suggests new avenues for future research. Vroegmoderne consumptiegeschiedenis. Hedendaagse uitdagingen entoekomstperspectievenGestimuleerd door verstrekkende nieuwe theorieën over haar cultureleen economische betekenis, heeft de historiografie met betrekking totvroegmoderne consumptie in de Nederlanden op opmerkelijk veel aandacht mogen rekenen tijdens de voorbije drie decennia. Daarbij hebben zowel een groeiende beschikbaarheid van empirisch bronnenmateriaal, als verschuivende theoretische perspectieven,  geleidelijk aan ons begrip van vroegmoderne consumptiepatronen, en hun oorzaken en gevolgen grondig veranderd. Het huidige artikel biedt een overzicht van de belangrijkste tendensen in het domein van de vroegmoderne consumptiegeschiedenis, gevolgd door nieuwe uitdagingen en toekomstperspectieven.

  13. Internal waves and modern and ancient hiatuses in pelagic caps of Pacific guyots and seamounts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Neil; Simmons, Harper; Lear, Carrie

    2013-04-01

    Locations of recent non-deposition and ancient hiatuses in the pelagic caps of guyots and seamounts are compared with paleotemperature and physiographic information to speculate on the character of internal tidal waves in the upper Pacific Ocean through the Cenozoic. Internal tidal waves are generated where the ocean barotropic tide passes over the Hawaiian and other major ridges in the Pacific basin. Drill core and geophysical evidence for sediment accumulation, non-deposition or erosion are used to classify broadly sites as either accumulating or eroding/non-depositing in the recent geological past. When these classified sites are compared against results of a numerical model of the internal tide field (Simmons, Ocean Mod. 2008), the sites accumulating particles over the past few million years are all found to lie away from beams of the modeled internal tide, while those that have not been accumulating are in areas of high internal wave energy. Given the correspondence to modern internal wave conditions, we examine whether internal tides can explain ancient hiatuses at the drill sites. For example, Late Cenozoic pelagic caps on guyots among the Marshall Islands contain two hiatuses of broadly similar age, but the dates of the first pelagic sediments deposited following each hiatus do not correlate between guyots, suggesting that they originate not from universal factors (e.g., water chemistry) but local, probably physical factors, such as internal tides. We investigate how changing boundary conditions such as ocean temperature and basin physiography may have affected the geometry and vigour of internal tides through the Cenozoic. Changes in the geometry of ridges underlying the Solomon, Bonin and Marianas Island chains caused by plate tectonics and subsidence may be responsible for sediment hiatuses at these far-field guyot sites.

  14. The Ancient Near Eastern Glyptic Collections of the Royal Museums of Art and History Reconsidered

    OpenAIRE

    Hameeuw, Hendrik; Boschloos, Vanessa; Devillers, Anne; Gubel, Eric; Cynthia, JeanCynthia; Van Goethem, Laurence; Van Overmeire, Sam; Overlaet, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    The Royal Museums of Art and History of Brussels (RMAH) boast a rich and world-renowned collection of glyptic material from the Ancient Near East. The collection consists of stamp and cylinder seals, seal impressions and sealings, originating from a broad range of cultures and dating from the beginning of their production down to the Roman period. They illustrate the entire historical development of a type of object that provides unique insights into the economic, cultural, enviromental and p...

  15. Mathematical thought from ancient to modern times, v.1-3

    CERN Document Server

    Kline, Morris

    1990-01-01

    This comprehensive history traces the development of mathematical ideas and the careers of the men responsible for them. Volume 1 looks at the discipline's origins in Babylon and Egypt, the creation of geometry and trigonometry by the Greeks, and the role of mathematics in the medieval and early modern periods. Volume 2 focuses on calculus, the rise of analysis in the 19th century, and the number theories of Dedekind and Dirichlet. The concluding volume covers the revival of projective geometry, the emergence of abstract algebra, the beginnings of topology, and the influence of Godel on recent

  16. History of the modern epidemiological concept of confounding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morabia, Alfredo

    2011-04-01

    The epidemiological concept of confounding has had a convoluted history. It was first expressed as an issue of group non-comparability, later as an uncontrolled fallacy, then as a controllable fallacy named confounding, and, more recently, as an issue of group non-comparability in the distribution of potential outcome types. This latest development synthesised the apparent disconnect between phases of the history of confounding. Group non-comparability is the essence of confounding, and the statistical fallacy its consequence. This essay discusses how confounding was perceived in the 18th and 19th centuries, reviews how the concept evolved across the 20th century and finally describes the modern definition of confounding.

  17. Genes, Genomes, and Assemblages of Modern Anoxygenic Photosynthetic Cyanobacteria as Proxies for Ancient Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grim, S. L.; Dick, G.

    2015-12-01

    Oxygenic photosynthetic (OP) cyanobacteria were responsible for the production of O2 during the Proterozoic. However, the extent and degree of oxygenation of the atmosphere and oceans varied for over 2 Ga after OP cyanobacteria first appeared in the geologic record. Cyanobacteria capable of anoxygenic photosynthesis (AP) may have altered the trajectory of oxygenation, yet the scope of their role in the Proterozoic is not well known. Modern cyanobacterial populations from Middle Island Sinkhole (MIS), Michigan and a handful of cultured cyanobacterial strains, are capable of OP and AP. With their metabolic versatility, these microbes may approximate ancient cyanobacterial assemblages that mediated Earth's oxygenation. To better characterize the taxonomic and genetic signatures of these modern AP/OP cyanobacteria, we sequenced 16S rRNA genes and conducted 'omics analyses on cultured strains, lab mesocosms, and MIS cyanobacterial mat samples collected over multiple years from May to September. Diversity in the MIS cyanobacterial mat is low, with one member of Oscillatoriales dominating at all times. However, Planktothrix members are more abundant in the cyanobacterial community in late summer and fall. The shift in cyanobacterial community composition may be linked to seasonally changing light intensity. In lab mesocosms of MIS microbial mat, we observed a shift in dominant cyanobacterial groups as well as the emergence of Chlorobium, bacteria that specialize in AP. These shifts in microbial community composition and metabolism are likely in response to changing environmental parameters such as the availability of light and sulfide. Further research is needed to understand the impacts of the changing photosynthetic community on oxygen production and the entire microbial consortium. Our study connects genes and genomes of AP cyanobacteria to their environment, and improves understanding of cyanobacterial metabolic strategies that may have shaped Earth's redox evolution.

  18. Functional characterization of bacteria isolated from ancient arctic soil exposes diverse resistance mechanisms to modern antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Gabriel G; Whyte, Lyle; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Goordial, Jacqueline; Hanage, William P; Dantas, Gautam; Desai, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes.

  19. Reviving ancient Chinese mathematics mathematics, history and politics in the work of Wu Wen-Tsun

    CERN Document Server

    Hudecek, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Twentieth-century China has been caught between a desire to increase its wealth and power in line with other advanced nations, which, by implication, means copying their institutions, practices and values, whilst simultaneously seeking to preserve China's independence and historically formed identity. Over time, Chinese philosophers, writers, artists and politicians have all sought to reconcile these goals and this book shows how this search for a Chinese way penetrated even the most central, least contested area of modernity: science.Reviving Ancient Chinese Mathematics is a study of the life

  20. The history of modern psychiatry in India, 1858-1947.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, J

    2001-12-01

    This article presents an introduction to the history of Indian psychiatry. It suggests that this history can be divided into four main periods, 1795 to 1857, 1858 to 1914, 1914 to 1947 and 1947 to the present day. The focus of the piece is on the periods 1858-1914 and 1914-1947, as it traces the main trends and developments of the colonial era and argues that the foundations of modern psychiatry in India were laid down in the period of British rule. A brief consideration of the post-Independence period suggests that the patterns established in the years of British rule have continued to influence the psychiatric system of modern India. Research for these conclusions is based on extensive archival work in Indian mental health institutions and in Indian records offices, as well as work conducted at the National Library of Scotland in Edinburgh and at the India Office Library, the Wellcome Institute Library and the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine.

  1. Fossil history and modern distribution of the genus Abies (Pinaceae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Xiaoguo; CAO Ming; ZHOU Zhekun

    2007-01-01

    The plants of the genus Abies are dominant and key species in the dark coniferous forest in the Northern Hemisphere.There are 52 species,one subspecies and 12 varieties in the genus Abies in the world.The history and modern distribution of Abies were discussed.The genus has three modern distribution centers:South Europe,North America and East Asia.These areas are also rich in fossil records.The vertical distribution regions of Abies are from sea level to an elevation of 4,700 m,concentrated in 1,000-2,000 m(15 species).In China,the genus distributes in 20 provinces,especially abundant in the Hengduan Mountains.Meanwhile,endemic and relic phenomena are obvious in this genus.There are seven relic species with both limited individuals and limited distributed regions.Based on the fossil records and the latest phylogenetic data,the following hypothesis was proposed:Abies originated from the middle and high altitudes of the Northern Hemisphere in the middle Cretaceous and it was dispersed southward in the Eocene due to global climate cooling down.The distribution of Abies was deeply influenced by geological events such as the uplift of Himalaya,the Alps,the Rocky Mountains,the occurrence of the Asian Monsoon as well as the Quaternary glaciers.Finally,the current distribution pattern appeared in the Quaternary.The genus Abies has a fossil history and modern distribution pattern similar to that of Cathaya and Pseudolarix.

  2. The ASTRA (Ancient instruments Sound/Timbre Reconstruction Application) Project brings history to life!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanzo, Salvatore; Barbera, Roberto; de Mattia, Francesco; Rocca, Giuseppe La; Sorrentino, Mariapaola; Vicinanza, Domenico

    ASTRA (Ancient instruments Sound/Timbre Reconstruction Application) is a project coordinated at Conservatory of Music of Parma which aims to bring history to life. Ancient musical instruments can now be heard for the first time in hundreds of years, thanks to the successful synergy between art/humanities and science. The Epigonion, an instrument of the past, has been digitally recreated using gLite, an advanced middleware developed in the context of the EGEE project and research networks such as GÉANT2 in Europe and EUMEDCONNECT2 in the Mediterranean region. GÉANT2 and EUMEDCONNECT2, by connecting enormous and heterogeneous computing resources, provided the needed infrastructures to speed up the overall computation time and enable the computer-intensive modeling of musical sounds. This paper summarizes the most recent outcomes of the project underlining how the Grid aspect of the computation can support the Cultural Heritage community.

  3. Scientific drilling projects in ancient lakes: Integrating geological and biological histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, Thomas; Wagner, Bernd; Van Bocxlaer, Bert; Albrecht, Christian; Ariztegui, Daniel; Delicado, Diana; Francke, Alexander; Harzhauser, Mathias; Hauffe, Torsten; Holtvoeth, Jens; Just, Janna; Leng, Melanie J.; Levkov, Zlatko; Penkman, Kirsty; Sadori, Laura; Skinner, Alister; Stelbrink, Björn; Vogel, Hendrik; Wesselingh, Frank; Wonik, Thomas

    2016-08-01

    Sedimentary sequences in ancient or long-lived lakes can reach several thousands of meters in thickness and often provide an unrivalled perspective of the lake's regional climatic, environmental, and biological history. Over the last few years, deep-drilling projects in ancient lakes became increasingly multi- and interdisciplinary, as, among others, seismological, sedimentological, biogeochemical, climatic, environmental, paleontological, and evolutionary information can be obtained from sediment cores. However, these multi- and interdisciplinary projects pose several challenges. The scientists involved typically approach problems from different scientific perspectives and backgrounds, and setting up the program requires clear communication and the alignment of interests. One of the most challenging tasks, besides the actual drilling operation, is to link diverse datasets with varying resolution, data quality, and age uncertainties to answer interdisciplinary questions synthetically and coherently. These problems are especially relevant when secondary data, i.e., datasets obtained independently of the drilling operation, are incorporated in analyses. Nonetheless, the inclusion of secondary information, such as isotopic data from fossils found in outcrops or genetic data from extant species, may help to achieve synthetic answers. Recent technological and methodological advances in paleolimnology are likely to increase the possibilities of integrating secondary information. Some of the new approaches have started to revolutionize scientific drilling in ancient lakes, but at the same time, they also add a new layer of complexity to the generation and analysis of sediment-core data. The enhanced opportunities presented by new scientific approaches to study the paleolimnological history of these lakes, therefore, come at the expense of higher logistic, communication, and analytical efforts. Here we review types of data that can be obtained in ancient lake drilling

  4. In the light of science our ancient quest for knowledge and the measure of modern physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nicolaides, Demetris

    2014-01-01

    The birth of science in ancient Greece had a historical impact that is still being felt today. Physicist Demetris Nicolaides examines the epochal shift in thinking that led pre-Socratic philosophers of the sixth and fifth centuries BCE to abandon the prevailing mythologies of the age and, for the first time, to analyze the natural world in terms of impersonal, rationally understood principles. He argues not only that their conceptual breakthroughs anticipated much of later science but that scientists of the twenty-first century are still grappling with the fundamental problems raised twenty-five hundred years ago. Looking at the vast sweep of human history, the author delves into the factors that led to the birth of science: urbanization, the role of religion, and in Greece a progressive intellectual curiosity that was unafraid to question tradition. Why did the first scientific approach to understanding the world take place in Greece? The author makes a convincing case that, aside from factors of geography...

  5. Astronomy in the ancient world early and modern views on celestial events

    CERN Document Server

    McLeod, Alexus

    2016-01-01

    Alexus McLeod explores every aspect of the lesser-known history of astronomy in the Americas (Mesoamerica and North America), China and India, each through the frame of a particular astronomical phenomena. Part One considers the development of astronomy in the Americas as a response, in part, to the Supernova of 1054, which may have led to a cultural renaissance in astronomy. He then goes on to explore the contemporary understanding of supernovae, contrasting it with that of the ancient Americas.  Part Two is framed through the appearances of great comets, which had major divinatory significance in early China. The author discusses the advancement of observational astronomy in China, its influence on politics and its role in the survival or failure of empires.  Furthermore, the contemporary understanding of comets is also discussed for comparison.  Part Three, on India, considers the magnificent observatories of the Rajput king Jai Singh II, and the question of their purpose. The origins of Indian ast...

  6. Traditional and Modern Biomedical Prospecting: Part I—the History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner E. G. Müller

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Nature, especially the marine environment, provides the most effective drugs used in human therapy. Among the metazoans, the marine sponges (phylum Porifera, which are sessile filter feeders, produce the most potent and highly selective bioactive secondary metabolites. These animals (or their associated symbiotic microorganisms synthesize secondary metabolites whose activity and selectivity has developed during their long evolutionary history (evochemistry. The exploitation of these resources has become possible due to the progress in molecular and cell biology. BIOTECmarin, the German Center of Excellence follows this rationale. In the past, these animals have been successfully and extensively utilized to isolate bioactive compounds and biomaterials for human benefit. Pharmaceuticals prepared from marine animals, primarily sponges, have been applied since ancient times (Hippocrates, Aristotle and later Plinius. It has been reported that extracts and/or components from sponges can be used for the treatment of specific diseases. For a systematic and applied-oriented exploitation, the successful development of effective compounds largely depends on quality of the institutional infrastructure of marine stations and more so on the biodiversity. The Center for Marine Research in Rovinj (Croatia fulfils these prerequisites. Founded in 1891, this institute has to its credit major discoveries related to exploitation of secondary metabolites/biomaterials from sponges for therapeutical application and to obtain biomaterials for general wellbeing.This is the first part of a review focusing on biomedical prospecting. Here, we have mainly described the historic background. The details of techniques, substances, approaches and outlooks will be discussed in the second part.

  7. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric

    2015-12-01

    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces.

  8. The performance of the ancient culture elements in the modern advertisement language%古文化元素在现代广告语中的体现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宝林; 陈楷元; 武冉斐; 何帅

    2015-01-01

    Today,a good advertisement can promote the product own taste,but also can promote the product visibility and sales, and excellent advertisement is derived from its creative. Many advertisements for new has added many ancient cultural elements, obtained very good result,this paper will be on the ancient cultural elements,ancient poetry,traditional famous idiom for elements with absorption for having heard it many times,the allusion embodied in the modern advertisement language situation do one overview.

  9. New directions in the history of modern science in China: global science and comparative history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Benjamin A

    2007-09-01

    These essays collectively present new perspectives on the history of modem science in China since 1900. Fa-ti Fan describes how science under the Republic of China after 1911 exhibited a complex local and international character that straddled both imperialism and colonialism. Danian Hu focuses on the fate of relativity in the physics community in China after 1917. Zuoyue Wang hopes that a less nationalist political atmosphere in China will stimulate more transnational studies of modern science, which will in turn reveal the underlying commonalities in different national contexts. Sigrid Schmalzer compares the socialist and the capitalist contexts for science in China and reopens the sensitive question of the "mass line" during the Cultural Revolution. Grace Shen describes the tensions early Chinese scientists felt when choosing between foreign models for modem geology and their own professional identities in China. Taken together, these accounts present us with a comparative history of modern science in China that is both globally and locally informed.

  10. Astronomical References in Chaucer: What Can Modern Students Learn from Studying Ancient Texts?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kennedy

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the problems in the field of English literature studies is that, with compartmentalization and specialization, it becomes introspective to the point where it devolves into the study of metafiction and metacriticism. At its heart, however, literature has to be about something: Thackeray claimed its subject is human nature, but human nature is based in the interface between human and nature. This paper explores some of the problems in the interface between human knowledge, institutions, and nature, and will offer an example of cross-disciplinary, historical study to illustrate a well-known but, to most modern readers, impenetrable medieval text, Chaucer’s Treatise on the Astrolabe. It ends with three recommendations: look to history, cross boundaries between academic fields, and use practical, as well as theoretical, teaching methods.

  11. History of modern optics ad optoelectronics development in China

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Shouyun

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a collection of memoir papers on the development of modern and contemporary optics and optoelectronics in China from the 18th to 20th centuries. The papers were written by famous scientists in China, including members of the Chinese Academy of Sciences and the Chinese Academy of Engineering, sharing their experience in different fields of optics and optoelectronics development. This is a unique book in understanding the natural science history of optics and optoelectronics. It gives you the general idea about how the western optical science spread to China in the 17th to 18th century; the cradle of the contemporary optics in China; Birth, development and application of lasers in China; high energy and high power lasers for laser antiballistic missile and laser nuclear fusion; development of Chinese optical communication and optical information storage; laser and infrared optics research for space science; development of Chinese optical instruments, etc.

  12. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND UKRAINE: HISTORY AND MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EVSEEVA G. P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Statement of the problem. Despite the attempts of historians to objectively present the events of the prehistory and history of the war, the opening of new archives and the desire to get rid of ideological stereotypes, are driving the need to once again explore the role of Ukraine in world war II to prevent its recurrence. On the other hand, the deep understanding of the history of the previous generations will provide an opportunity to properly understand the events of today. The analysis of the research. During the years of independence in the national historiography it was a new understanding of the conceptual foundations of the study of war. Over the past decade it was written a large number of scientific studies in which the main direction of new concepts there was an increased attention to the person, separate social groups and society as a whole in situations of conflict and crises. The article aims to analyze the role and place of Ukraine in the events of the Second world war; identify "Ukrainian dimension" of war and its implications for the modern generation, especially the youth. Conclusion. The effects of war for decades identified the complex and contradictory political, economic and social processes in Ukrainian society, affected the moral and psychological qualities of post-war generations. The memory of war – spiritual-historical heritage of our nation, which lays the foundations for self-sufficiency and identity and integrates it seamlessly into a civilizational flow. The modern level of researches of the events of world war II pays special attention to humanitarian problems of the war. For the youth of Ukraine it is important to join the European perception of the war as tragedy, to understand the responsibility for the memory of the past, because it's a chance for the future.

  13. Environmental Education is History: The Extent to Which Modern History Education Adopts Characteristics of Socially Critical Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Clayton

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on a research study that investigated the extent to which the Queensland secondary school subject Modern History adopts characteristics of socially critical environmental education. The study found that while the Modern History syllabus gives ample opportunities for students to focus their inquiries on "environment", Modern…

  14. Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself: New Book Designed to Help Kids Learn History of the Ancient Maya Civilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Rehwoldt, Sheri

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes her book, "Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself," a new book designed to help kids learn the history of the ancient Maya civilization. "Amazing Maya Inventions You Can Build Yourself" offers the reader an engaging exploration of the history and culture of the Maya through building and crafts projects…

  15. "At times these ancient facts seem to lie before me like a patient on a hospital bed'--retrospective diagnosis and ancient medical history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leven, K H

    2004-01-01

    Research in ancient medical history, Greek and Roman as well as Mesopotamian and Egyptian, is usually done by philologically trained scholars; the ability to read texts in their original language is fundamental (though not sufficient) for any substantial work. There is, however, in such works the notion that something may be missing in fully understanding medicine of a certain time and culture. Does a medical historian of ancient medicine need, in addition to his philological and historical skills, a medical education? And in what way is a 'medical approach' to ancient medicine useful? Is it possible to stand at the bedside of a Hippocratic patient as a clinician or reconstruct the 'pathocoenosis', as Mirko D. Grmek (+ 2000) coined it, of ancient Greece? The present paper outlines the problem of applying present medical knowledge to ancient sources and touches on the topic of primary perception of disease and illness. An important aspect is that disease entities change in their socio-cultural setting. Examples ranging from the supposed Lupus erythematodes of the Assyrian king Esarhaddon to cases in the Hippocratic Epidemiae and plague descriptions of Greek authors illustrate the problem of retrospective diagnosis.

  16. Narrative and Cultural History in the Hippocratic Treatise On Ancient Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Romani Mistretta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the ‘history of medicine’ outlined by the author of the Hippocratic treatise On Ancient Medicine, in order to reflect on the relationship between medicine and narrative in Classical Greece. At the outset of the work, the author provides an account of the beginnings of his discipline, conceiving of medicine’s history as a continuum of research and findings that unravel the nature of the human body and the cause of diseases. As this paper shows, the physician-narrator assigns to his craft a crucial role in fostering the birth and progress of human civilization. The rhetorical goals of the historical account are, as I argue, attained through a subtle narrative strategy. In fact, the narrator locates the origins of medicine within a teleological framework, marked by strong emphasis on the heuristic method that characterizes the past, the present, and the future of medical knowledge at once.

  17. Comparison of turbidite facies associations in modern passive-margin Mississippi fan with ancient active-margin fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, G.; Moiola, R. J.; McPherson, J. G.; O'Connell, S.

    1988-07-01

    Our comparison of the modern passive-margin Mississippi fan (DSDP Leg 96) with ancient active-margin fans (e.g. Eocene Hecho Group, Spain) reveals major differences in turbidite facies associations (Mutti and Ricci Lucchi scheme) and in seismic characteristics in the lower fan area. The lower (outer) Mississippi fan is composed of channel (Facies B and F) and non-channel facies (C? and D), whereas ancient fans are characterized by non-channelized, thickening-upward, depositional lobe facies (C and D). An absence of depositional lobes in the lower Mississippi fan is also suggested by a lack of convex-upward (mounded) seismic reflections with bidirectional downlap. Continuous seismic reflections of the lower Mississippi fan may represent "sheet sands", but not those of true depositional lobes with mounded character. Extensive channelization in modern passive-margin fans appears to be a product of the lateral shifting of a major sinuous distributary system, developed as a consequence of low gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively low sand/mud ratio. In contrast, channels in active-margin fans are short and of low sinuosity as a result of high gradients and the transport of sediment with a relatively high sand/mud ratio. The turbidite facies association scheme, which was developed exclusively from ancient active-margin fans, should be applied to mature passive-margin fans with qualifications because of the differences in spatial distribution of turbidite facies and their associations.

  18. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.

  19. Toward a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Joseph K; Reich, David

    2014-09-01

    Genetic information contains a record of the history of our species, and technological advances have transformed our ability to access this record. Many studies have used genome-wide data from populations today to learn about the peopling of the globe and subsequent adaptation to local conditions. Implicit in this research is the assumption that the geographic locations of people today are informative about the geographic locations of their ancestors in the distant past. However, it is now clear that long-range migration, admixture, and population replacement subsequent to the initial out-of-Africa expansion have altered the genetic structure of most of the world's human populations. In light of this we argue that it is time to critically reevaluate current models of the peopling of the globe, as well as the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes. We specifically highlight the transformative potential of ancient DNA. By accessing the genetic make-up of populations living at archaeologically known times and places, ancient DNA makes it possible to directly track migrations and responses to natural selection.

  20. Detection of the A189G mtDNA heteroplasmic mutation in relation to age in modern and ancient bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, Marie; Thèves, Catherine; Amory, Sylvain; Keyser, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Ludes, Bertrand; Telmon, Norbert

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the presence of the A189G age-related point mutation on DNA extracted from bone. For this, a peptide nucleic acid (PNA)/DNA sequencing method which can determine an age threshold for the appearance of the mutation was used. Initially, work was done in muscle tissue in order to evaluate the sensitivity of the technique and afterwards in bone samples from the same individuals. This method was also applied to ancient bones from six well-preserved skeletal remains. The mutation was invariably found in muscle, and at a rate of up to 20% in individuals over 60 years old. In modern bones, the mutation was detected in individuals aged 38 years old or more, at a rate of up to 1%, but its occurrence was not systematic (only four out of ten of the individuals over 50 years old carried the heteroplasmy). For ancient bones, the mutation was also found in the oldest individuals according to osteologic markers. The study of this type of age-related mutation and a more complete understanding of its manifestation has potentially useful applications. Combined with traditional age markers, it could improve identification accuracy in forensic cases or in anthropological studies of ancient populations.

  1. DNA analysis of ancient dogs of the Americas: identifying possible founding haplotypes and reconstructing population histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, Kelsey E; Judd, Kathleen; Kitchen, Andrew; Grier, Colin; Kohler, Timothy A; Ortman, Scott G; Kemp, Brian M; Malhi, Ripan S

    2015-02-01

    As dogs have traveled with humans to every continent, they can potentially serve as an excellent proxy when studying human migration history. Past genetic studies into the origins of Native American dogs have used portions of the hypervariable region (HVR) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) to indicate that prior to European contact the dogs of Native Americans originated in Eurasia. In this study, we summarize past DNA studies of both humans and dogs to discuss their population histories in the Americas. We then sequenced a portion of the mtDNA HVR of 42 pre-Columbian dogs from three sites located in Illinois, coastal British Columbia, and Colorado, and identify four novel dog mtDNA haplotypes. Next, we analyzed a dataset comprised of all available ancient dog sequences from the Americas to infer the pre-Columbian population history of dogs in the Americas. Interestingly, we found low levels of genetic diversity for some populations consistent with the possibility of deliberate breeding practices. Furthermore, we identified multiple putative founding haplotypes in addition to dog haplotypes that closely resemble those of wolves, suggesting admixture with North American wolves or perhaps a second domestication of canids in the Americas. Notably, initial effective population size estimates suggest at least 1000 female dogs likely existed in the Americas at the time of the first known canid burial, and that population size increased gradually over time before stabilizing roughly 1200 years before present.

  2. The molecular signatures of Taxodiaceae / Cupressaceae / Taxaceae (TCT) leaf waxes in modern and ancient samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, M.; Zinniker, D.; Green Nylen, N.; Moldowan, J. M.; Denisevich, P.

    2005-12-01

    Members of the Taxodiaceae/Cupressaceae/Taxaceae (TCT) complex of conifers originated sometime before the late Jurassic. Since that time the group has diverged to fill diverse ecological niches in desert, marsh, tundra, alpine, and coastal habitats and a variety of forest types. 175 species from 35 genera are now found across 6 continents. The aims of this research project are 1) to analyze and describe cuticular isoprenoid and acetogenic lipids from a diverse group of living members of the TCT complex and 2) to begin a search for these compounds and their diagenetic products in geological samples with known contributions from ancient TCT members. Hexane extracts of several hundred modern conifer specimens from more than 25 genera were studied in an attempt to find phylogenetic trends in the distribution and abundance of wax components. Diverse skeletal types of bicyclic, tricyclic, and tetracyclic diterpenes were found throughout the TCT complex. These compounds were found to have the highest absolute and relative abundance in several temperate rainforest and marsh endemics and the lowest relative abundance in desert adapted species. Large scale phylogenetic patterns in the distribution of individual diterpenes were not evident. Some species showed little intraspecific variation in diterpenes, while others showed considerable variability in diterpene products from one tree to another. The waxes of many members of the TCT complex are dominated by uniquely long-chain normal alkanes, with peak abundance at 33 and/or 35 carbons. This character is found within a phylogenetically distinct group of TCT -- including the genera Austrocedrus, Callitris, Calocedrus, Chamaecyparis, Cryptomeria, Cupressus, Diselma, Fitzroya, Juniperus, Libocedrus, Platycladus, Taxodium, Tetraclinis, Thuja, and Thujopsis -- and is seen in plants from extremely different habitats. We postulate that this group within the TCT complex shares a conserved very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) elongase

  3. Ancient Uses of Meteoritic Metals as Precedent for Modern In-Situ Asteroid Mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mardon, Austin A.; Fawcett, Brett; Krispin, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Given the strain on earth's supply of metal and the meteoritic content of meteorites, a prudent course would be to pursue in-situ asteroid mining of meteors for metal. There is a precedent for this going back to ancient Egypt; humans have always used the meteoritic content of meteorites to fashion everything from weapons to cosmetics.

  4. The Enlightenments of Educational Ideas of Ancient Academy on Modern Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xia; Shen, Xi

    2013-01-01

    The ancient academy in China demonstrated some unique educational values, such as the school-running idea of independence and autonomy and the governance by famous experts, the instruction idea of being free and open and focusing on academy and morality cultivation, and the management concept of mind-oriented administration and student autonomy.…

  5. A Comparative Study of The Regular Pattern of Syndrome and Treatment of Lung-intestine Related Diseases in Ancient and Modern Medical Cases Based on Data Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fang-Fang Mo; Le-Peng Wang; Si-Hua Gao

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the similarities and differences of the applications of “the lung and large intestine being interior-exteriorly related”between the ancient and modern clinical practices, and to reveal the theory meaning. Method: Based on the ancient and modern medical cases database, 245 ancient medical records and 373 modern medical records were studied with the general statistical description and analysis of association rules, and the results were compared to summarize the similarities and differences of the regular pattern of syndrome and treatment on lung-large intestine related diseases in ancient and modern medical records. Results: In modern medical cases, intestinal diseases appeared with the main symptom of constipation due to deficiency of lung qi and qi stagnation of large intestine were always treated by purgation together with replenishing and restoring lung qi. In ancient medical cases, large intestine heat was always caused by lung heat and a variety of diarrhea symptoms appeared. They were always treated by clearing heat and moistening lungs. In addition, the symptom of bound stool caused by qi stagnation of large intestine due to lung qi stagnation was always treated by lowering lung qi to regulate and smooth large intestine qi. And Armeniae Amarum Semen was used by both as a core medicinal herb. Conclusion: Ascending-descending of qi movement is the core of the lung and large intestine relationship. In other words, the lung and the large intestine communicate through qi.

  6. Adult Education History: Why Rake Up the Past? Mansbridge Memorial Lecture (16th, Leeds, England, June 13, 1996).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fieldhouse, Roger

    Study of the history of adult education is worthwhile, despite perceived problems of studying history---ancient, modern, and postmodern. The ancient problems of historiography can best be summed up in the word "antiquarianism." Characteristics of modernity are as follows: the notion that history is progress, metanarratives, nationalist histories,…

  7. Study on History of Modern Urban Planning of Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As the earliest city opening its port in China,the modern urbanization of Guangzhou is a self-determination course under the influence of foreign urban planning theory.This paper introduces briefly the course and content of Guangzhou modern urban planning and analyzes the characters and influences.

  8. The ancient blue oak woodlands of California: longevity and hydroclimatic history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahle, D.W.; Griffin, R.D.; Meko, D.M.; Therrell, M.D.; Edmondson, J.R.; Cleaveland, M.K.; Burnette, D.J.; Abatzoglou, J.T.; Redmond, K.T.; Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient blue oak trees are still widespread across the foothills of the Coast Ranges, Cascades, and Sierra Nevada in California. The most extensive tracts of intact old-growth blue oak woodland appear to survive on rugged and remote terrain in the south Coast Ranges and on the foothills west and southwest of Mt. Lassen. In our sampling of old-growth stands, most blue oak appear to have recruited to the canopy in the mid- to late-19th century. The oldest living blue oak tree sampled was over 459-years old and several dead blue oak logs had over 500 annual rings. Precipitation sensitive tree-ring chronologies up to 700-years long have been developed from old blue oak trees and logs. Annual ring-width chronologies of blue oak are strongly correlated with cool season precipitation totals, streamflow in the major rivers of California, and the estuarine water quality of San Francisco Bay. A new network of 36 blue oak chronologies records spatial anomalies in growth that arise from latitudinal changes in the mean storm track and location of landfalling atmospheric rivers. These long, climate-sensitive blue oak chronologies have been used to reconstruct hydroclimatic history in California and will help to better understand and manage water resources. The environmental history embedded in blue oak growth chronologies may help justify efforts to conserve these authentic old-growth native woodlands.

  9. Incorporation of Trace Elements in Ancient and Modern Human Bone: An X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Cruz-Jimenez, G.; Price, T. D.

    2001-12-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) affords the opportunity to probe the atomic environment of trace elements in human bone. We are using XAS to investigate the mode(s) of incorporation of Sr, Zn, Pb, and Ba in both modern and ancient (and thus possibly altered) human and animal bone. Because burial and diagenesis may add trace elements to bone, we performed XAS analysis on samples of pristine contemporary and ancient, buried human and animal bone. We assume that deposition of these elements during burial occurs by processes distinct from those in vivo, and this will be reflected in their atomic environments. Archaeologists measure strontium in human and animal bone as a guide to diet. Carnivores show lower Sr/Ca ratios than their herbivore prey due to discrimination against Sr relative to Ca up the food chain. In an initial sample suite no difference was observed between modern and buried bone. Analysis of additional buried samples, using a more sensitive detector, revealed significant differences in the distance to the second and third neighbors of the Sr in some of the buried samples. Distances to the first neighbor, oxygen, were similar in all samples. Zinc is also used in paleo-diet studies. Initial x-ray absorption spectroscopy of a limited suite of bones did not reveal any differences between modern and buried samples. This may reflect the limited number of samples examined or the low levels of Zn in typical aqueous solutions in soils. Signals from barium and lead were too low to record useful XAS spectra. Additional samples will be studied for Zn, Ba, and Pb. We conducted our XAS experiments on beam lines 4-1 and 4-3 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. Data were collected in the fluorescence mode, using a Lytle detector and appropriate filter, and a solid state, 13-element Ge-detector.

  10. Determination of the cosmological rate of change of G and the tidal accelerations of earth and moon from ancient and modern astronomical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, P. M.

    1976-01-01

    The theory and numerical analysis of ancient astronomical observations (1374 to 1715) are combined with modern data in a simultaneous solution for: the tidal acceleration of the lunar longitude; the observed apparent acceleration of the earth's rotation; the true nontidal geophysical part of this acceleration; and the rate of change in the gravitational constant. Provided are three independent determinations of a rate of change of G consistent with the Hubble Constant and a near zero nontidal rotational acceleration of the earth. The tidal accelerations are shown to have remained constant during the historical period within uncertainties. Ancient and modern solar system data, and extragalactic observations provided a completely consistent astronomical and cosmological scheme.

  11. Paging through history: parchment as a reservoir of ancient DNA for next generation sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teasdale, M D; van Doorn, N L; Fiddyment, S; Webb, C C; O'Connor, T; Hofreiter, M; Collins, M J; Bradley, D G

    2015-01-19

    Parchment represents an invaluable cultural reservoir. Retrieving an additional layer of information from these abundant, dated livestock-skins via the use of ancient DNA (aDNA) sequencing has been mooted by a number of researchers. However, prior PCR-based work has indicated that this may be challenged by cross-individual and cross-species contamination, perhaps from the bulk parchment preparation process. Here we apply next generation sequencing to two parchments of seventeenth and eighteenth century northern English provenance. Following alignment to the published sheep, goat, cow and human genomes, it is clear that the only genome displaying substantial unique homology is sheep and this species identification is confirmed by collagen peptide mass spectrometry. Only 4% of sequence reads align preferentially to a different species indicating low contamination across species. Moreover, mitochondrial DNA sequences suggest an upper bound of contamination at 5%. Over 45% of reads aligned to the sheep genome, and even this limited sequencing exercise yield 9 and 7% of each sampled sheep genome post filtering, allowing the mapping of genetic affinity to modern British sheep breeds. We conclude that parchment represents an excellent substrate for genomic analyses of historical livestock.

  12. 古本今本《竹书纪年》的天象记载和纪年%A Study on the Celestial Phenomena and Chronology Recorded in the Ancient Text and the Modern Text of the Bamboo Annals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张健; 张培瑜

    2012-01-01

    The Bamboo Annals is the history book unearthed by West Jin Dynasty in the tomb of Wei King of the third century BC, It recorded a lot of chronology and historical facts of the Xia Shang Zhou period, but the Bamboo Annals gradually lost during 12 or 13 century. Today there are two sorts of the Bamboo Annals we can read, one is the Ancient Text of the Bamboo Annals compiled by the modern scholars, the other is an entire book called the Modern Text of the Bamboo Annals. The latter was probably found by Yuan or Ming Dynasty. The Modern Text of the Bamboo Annals is different from the Ancient Text on the writing and contents, more of celestial phenomena are recorded to the Modern Text of the Bamboo Annals than to the Ancient Text. It is discussed in this paper that the celestial phenomena and chronology are recorded in the Bamboo Annals, the results show that these celestial phenomena of the Modern Text of the Bamboo Annals are not original records unearthed by West Jin Dynasty in the tomb of Wei King of the third century BC, but were supplemented by the scholars of Song and Yuan Dynasties.%对《竹书纪年》记载的天象和纪年进行了初步的分析研究,结果表明,今本《竹书纪年》中新增的天象如日食等,并非汲冢出土佚书的原有内容,而为宋元以后学者所加.

  13. Human macrophage responses to clinical isolates from the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex discriminate between ancient and modern lineages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Portevin

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine whether there is a correlation between phylogenetic relationship and inflammatory response amongst a panel of clinical isolates representative of the global diversity of the human Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex (MTBC. Measurement of cytokines from infected human peripheral blood monocyte-derived macrophages revealed a wide variation in the response to different strains. The same pattern of high or low response to individual strains was observed for different pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and was conserved across multiple human donors. Although each major phylogenetic lineage of MTBC included strains inducing a range of cytokine responses, we found that overall inflammatory phenotypes differed significantly across lineages. In particular, comparison of evolutionarily modern lineages demonstrated a significant skewing towards lower early inflammatory response. The differential response to ancient and modern lineages observed using GM-CSF derived macrophages was also observed in autologous monocyte-derived dendritic cells and murine bone marrow-derived macrophages, but not in human unfractionated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We hypothesize that the reduced immune responses to modern lineages contribute to more rapid disease progression and transmission, which might be a selective advantage in the context of expanding human populations. In addition to the lineage effects, the large strain-to-strain variation in innate immune responses elicited by MTBC will need to be considered in tuberculosis vaccine development.

  14. Bergson and History : Transforming the Modern Regime of Historicity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ter Schure, Leon

    2017-01-01

    Twenty-first-century societies are no longer oriented towards the future, but increasingly to the present moment. Bergson and History shows how Henri Bergson’s philosophy of time and life can help us to restore the relevance of history in our presentistic society and culture. Bergson allows us to tr

  15. Ancient collagen reveals evolutionary history of the endemic South American 'ungulates'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Michael

    2015-05-07

    Since the late eighteenth century, fossils of bizarre extinct creatures have been described from the Americas, revealing a previously unimagined chapter in the history of mammals. The most bizarre of these are the 'native' South American ungulates thought to represent a group of mammals that evolved in relative isolation on South America, but with an uncertain affinity to any particular placental lineage. Many authors have considered them descended from Laurasian 'condylarths', which also includes the probable ancestors of perissodactyls and artiodactyls, whereas others have placed them either closer to the uniquely South American xenarthrans (anteaters, armadillos and sloths) or the basal afrotherians (e.g. elephants and hyraxes). These hypotheses have been debated owing to conflicting morphological characteristics and the hitherto inability to retrieve molecular information. Of the 'native' South American mammals, only the toxodonts and litopterns persisted until the Late Pleistocene-Early Holocene. Owing to known difficulties in retrieving ancient DNA (aDNA) from specimens from warm climates, this research presents a molecular phylogeny for both Macrauchenia patachonica (Litopterna) and Toxodon platensis (Notoungulata) recovered using proteomics-based (liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry) sequencing analyses of bone collagen. The results place both taxa in a clade that is monophyletic with the perissodactyls, which today are represented by horses, rhinoceroses and tapirs.

  16. The evolution of the zodiac in the context of ancient oriental history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurshtein, Alex A.

    The dates for the second (ca. 2700 B.C. to within 250 years) and the third ecliptical quartets (ca. 1200 B.C. to within 400 years) evaluated earlier are considered in the context of ancient Egyptian history. The origin of the second quartet coincides with the Great Pyramids and the initiation of the Egyptian solar, or so-called "civil" calendar, the first of such a type in the world. The third quartet is concurrent with the solar conversion of Amenhotep IV (Akhenaton) and takes place at the finale of the great Sothic period of 1461 years after the initiation of the solar calendar. It is argued that the Great Pyramids seem to be monuments to the Sun-god built in honor of the Egyptians having reached an understanding of the Sun's track upon the starry background, Akhenaton's conversion being in a direct connection with the original Pyramids' ideology. This paper is the third part of a single investigation. The first two parts "On the Origin of the Zodiacal Constellations" and "Prehistory of Zodiac Dating: Three Strata of Upper Paleolithic Constellations" were published in Vistas in Astronomy in 1993 and 1995.

  17. Population Genomic Analysis of Ancient and Modern Genomes Yields New Insights into the Genetic Ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the Genetic Structure of Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Martin Sikora; Carpenter, Meredith L.; Andres Moreno-Estrada; Henn, Brenna M.; Underhill, Peter A.; Federico Sánchez-Quinto; Ilenia Zara; Maristella Pitzalis; Carlo Sidore; Fabio Busonero; Andrea Maschio; Andrea Angius; Chris Jones; Javier Mendoza-Revilla; Georgi Nekhrizov

    2014-01-01

    Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, incl...

  18. Pitaya (Stenocereus spp. , cactaceae): An ancient and modern fruit crop of Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimienta-Barrios, E. (Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico)); Nobel, P.S (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    Pitayas from various species were an important edible fruit in semiarid lands of tropical and subtropical Mexico in ancient times. Recently, farmers have been cultivating plants selected from the wild, such as Stenocereus queretaroensis in the Sayula Basin of Jalisco. These cacti can flower and produce fruit before the onset of the summer rainy period. Their fruits have an attractively colored pulp (often dark red) with digestible seeds and without the nasty glochids found on cactus pears. The sugar content is 10 to 11%. The shelf life is only a few days, as the fruits tend to dehisce longitudinally. Pitayas bring a competitive price in local markets, resulting in a substantial financial return with relatively low inputs of water, fertilizer, and pesticides.

  19. Test Slightly on Silk Ancient Roads Dances Horse and Ma Wu Activity Inquisition and the Modern Remains%丝绸古道上的舞马与马舞活动的现代遗存考略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张新辉; 赵凤霞; 朱梅新

    2012-01-01

    This text with history angle of view ancient to silk way creation and evolution of the horse and Ma3 Wu3 activity of the ancient generation athletics cultural phenomenon dance carried on to delineate to test to say with Chien slightly and objectively recovered to dance a horse and Ma3 Wu3's activity of basic outline and modern loose to save of dynamic state circulate track, make ancient athletics in Western Regions and Central plains the region communicate of historical fact and history view can body now, and pay attention to the reality existence that it spreads up to now.%本文以历史视角对丝绸古道上古代体育文化现象舞马和马舞活动的产生和演进进行勾勒和简略考述,客观地复原了舞马和马舞活动的基本轮廓与现代遗存的动态运行轨迹,使西域古代体育与中原地区交流的史实与史观得以体现,并注重其流传至今的现实存在。

  20. Three news on Guangdong Ancient Boat History%读三则广东古船信息有感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何卫国

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, there are three important news about the Guangdong ancient boat history reported by the news media, including the broken porcelain waste in the Huangpu Old Port, and the sinking of the wooden sailing "Jinhuaxing" and the Guangzhou ancient shipwrecks. These facts are the evidence of glory shipping history of Guangdong and bustling of the Guangzhou Port.%黄埔古港破瓷废弃物、金华兴号木帆船沉没和广州发现古沉船等是近年新闻媒体报道广东船舶史的三则重要信息,通过对其的解读,感受到这些史实佐证了作为航运大省的广东以及繁华港市的广州昔日辉煌的一角。

  1. [Sculptor of The Cripple of the Geneva Museum of Art and History. An ancient Greek portrayal of hemimelia?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasen, V

    1997-01-01

    An archaic Greek terracotta vase in the Art and History Museum at Geneva depicts a man deprived of his left arm and with two legs ending in a stump below the knees. Did he suffer from a traumatism (amputation), a mutilating disease or congenital malformation (hemimelia)? A survey of written and iconographic sources throws light on the methods and limits of ancient surgery, and on the chances of survival of abnormal children in archaic and classical Greece.

  2. Docosahexaenoic Acid (DHA: An Ancient Nutrient for the Modern Human Brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanne Bradbury

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA, the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation.

  3. Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine.

  4. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA): an ancient nutrient for the modern human brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Joanne

    2011-05-01

    Modern humans have evolved with a staple source of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in the diet. An important turning point in human evolution was the discovery of high-quality, easily digested nutrients from coastal seafood and inland freshwater sources. Multi-generational exploitation of seafood by shore-based dwellers coincided with the rapid expansion of grey matter in the cerebral cortex, which characterizes the modern human brain. The DHA molecule has unique structural properties that appear to provide optimal conditions for a wide range of cell membrane functions. This has particular implications for grey matter, which is membrane-rich tissue. An important metabolic role for DHA has recently been identified as the precursor for resolvins and protectins. The rudimentary source of DHA is marine algae; therefore it is found concentrated in fish and marine oils. Unlike the photosynthetic cells in algae and higher plants, mammalian cells lack the specific enzymes required for the de novo synthesis of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), the precursor for all omega-3 fatty acid syntheses. Endogenous synthesis of DHA from ALA in humans is much lower and more limited than previously assumed. The excessive consumption of omega-6 fatty acids in the modern Western diet further displaces DHA from membrane phospholipids. An emerging body of research is exploring a unique role for DHA in neurodevelopment and the prevention of neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. DHA is increasingly being added back into the food supply as fish oil or algal oil supplementation.

  5. Modernization and gender regimes, life histories of the wives of Turkish political leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yelsali Parmaksiz, Pinar Melis

    2009-01-01

    This work is a close look at the life histories of the top Turkish political leaders with the aim of analyzing changes in gender role and gender identity and tensions between the two in the history of Turkish modernization vis-à-vis with contemporaneous debates on gender. The main objective is to si

  6. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, M. E. C.; Larter, S. R.

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analysed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterise various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass ( Halodule uninervis), and mangrove ( Avicennia marina) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr Bp. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria ( Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria ( Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other "minor" saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms.

  7. From Ancient Greece to Modern Education: Universality and Lack of Generalization of the Socratic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Andrea P.; Pezzatti, Laura; Battro, Antonio M.; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Two thousand four hundred years ago Socrates gave a remarkable lesson of geometry, perhaps the first detailed record of a pedagogical method in vivo in history [Plato. (2008). "Apologia de Socrates. Menon. Cratilo." Madrid: Alianza Editorial]. Socrates asked Meno's slave 50 questions requiring simple additions or multiplications. At the end of the…

  8. From Ancient Greece to Modern Education: Universality and Lack of Generalization of the Socratic Dialogue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldin, Andrea P.; Pezzatti, Laura; Battro, Antonio M.; Sigman, Mariano

    2011-01-01

    Two thousand four hundred years ago Socrates gave a remarkable lesson of geometry, perhaps the first detailed record of a pedagogical method in vivo in history [Plato. (2008). "Apologia de Socrates. Menon. Cratilo." Madrid: Alianza Editorial]. Socrates asked Meno's slave 50 questions requiring simple additions or multiplications. At the…

  9. Goethe’s theory of colors between the ancient philosophy, middle ages occultism and modern science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Barsan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Goethe’s rejection of Newton’s theory of colors is an interesting example of the vulnerability of the human mind—however brilliant it might be—to fanaticism. After an analysis of Goethe’s persistent fascination with magic and occultism, of his education, existential experiences, influences, and idiosyncrasies, the authors propose an original interpretation of his anti-Newtonian position. The relevance of Goethe’s Farbenlehre to physics and physiology, from the perspective of modern science, is discussed in detail.

  10. Hathayoga in history and practice : Classical hathayoga in modern Varanasi

    OpenAIRE

    Poulsen, Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: The study investigates the field of haṭha yoga as it is described in the medieval Haṭhayogapradīpikā, a work on yoga composed in Sanskrit from the Nāth tradition. The study have then compared these practices, practitioners and the attitudes towards them, with interviews conducted in modern Varanasi, India. The focus in the assignment is the connection between haṭha yoga and tantric practices since tantra has been crucial in the forming of the early haṭha yoga and classical haṭha yo...

  11. Oxygen and sulfur isotopes in sulfate in modern euxinic systems with implications for evaluating the extent of euxinia in ancient oceans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, M. L.; Johnston, D. T.

    2015-12-01

    Variability in the fraction of biogenic sulfide that is reoxidized back to sulfate has played a role in regulating redox budgets and oxygen levels in the ocean-atmosphere system throughout Earth history. In the modern, well-oxygenated ocean, 75-90% of sulfide produced by microbial sulfate reduction is reoxidized back to sulfate. At present, the areal extent of seafloor overlain by euxinic (i.e., anoxic and sulfidic) water is very low (ancient oceans. In theory, the presence of sulfide in the water column could induce higher reoxidation rates, as the delivery of oxidants is less transport limited in solution than when the chemocline is in sediments. In order to better understand these sorts of systematics and place isotopic constraints on this cycling, we present sulfur and oxygen isotope geochemistry in four modern euxinic systems. To interpret these data, we further develop a one-dimensional, depth-dependent geochemical model to estimate sulfide reoxidation rates in euxinic systems and evaluate model results in the context of geochemical and isotopic information. From these results, we determine that the percent of sulfide that is reoxidized back to sulfate is quite low (~11-42%). Given the proximity to overlying, fully oxygenated waters, this suggests that vertical exchange is significantly muted. This is in some sense surprising, but also consistent with the observation that sulfide is indeed allowed to accumulate in the bottom waters. We explore how water column density stratification and lateral transport influence reoxidation rates in these coastal ponds. We further pursue how these results can be extrapolated to the global ocean of times past.

  12. Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Baruchello

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Michele Renee Salzman, Marvina A. Sweeney & William Adler (eds., The Cambridge History of Religions in the Ancient World (2 vols. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2013

  13. Fe stable isotope fractionation in modern and ancient hydrothermal Fe-Si deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeller, K.; Schoenberg, R.; Thorseth, I. H.; Øvreås, L.; Pedersen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Modern iron-silica deposits of small yellow to rust coloured mounds and chimney-like structures were found in a low-temperature venting area distal to a white smoker type hydrothermal vent site at the south-western part of the Mohns Ridge, North Atlantic. Individual stratified mm to cm thick laminated layers within these structures are largely composed of branching, twisted filaments resembling encrusted stalks of Fe-oxidising bacteria. DNA analyses have confirmed the presence of both Fe-oxidising (Mariprofundus ferrooxidans and other ζ-Proteobacteria) and Fe-reducing bacteria (Shewanellaceae). Similar morphologic features, such as several mm thick red hematite-rich laminae and micron-scale filamentous structures concentrated in discrete laminae, have also been found in Early Ordovician volcanogenic massive sulphide (VMS) hosted jasper deposits in the Løkken-Høydal area, Norway [1]. These filamentous structures are believed to be formed by Fe-oxidising bacteria similar to Mariprofundus ferrooxidans [2]. Here, we compare the Fe isotope composition of these two different types of Fe-Si deposits with the aim to gain further information about deposition mechanisms and the role of microorganisms in Fe redox cycling of deep-sea hydrothermal systems. Fe isotope compositions of the modern biogenic Fe-Si deposit vary between -2.09 and -0.66 ‰ in δ56Fe values, a range that is comparable to late Archaean to early Proterozoic banded iron formations. The ~490 Ma old Løkken jaspers show a similar variation, but with significantly higher δ56Fe values ranging from -0.39 to +0.89 ‰. The Fe isotopic composition of the Løkken jaspers clearly correlates with morphological features with the lowest δ56Fe values in layered and the highest ones in brecciform jaspers. Our data demonstrate that variations in Fe isotope compositions of the modern Fe-Si deposit cannot be explained by a single process, but rather reflect the full complexity of Fe redox cycling within deep

  14. Tracking modern human population history from linguistic and cranial phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Centeno, Hugo; Harvati, Katerina; Jäger, Gerhard

    2016-11-11

    Languages and genes arguably follow parallel evolutionary trajectories, descending from a common source and subsequently differentiating. However, although common ancestry is established within language families, it remains controversial whether language preserves a deep historical signal. To address this question, we evaluate the association between linguistic and geographic distances across 265 language families, as well as between linguistic, geographic, and cranial distances among eleven populations from Africa, Asia, and Australia. We take advantage of differential population history signals reflected by human cranial anatomy, where temporal bone shape reliably tracks deep population history and neutral genetic changes, while facial shape is more strongly associated with recent environmental effects. We show that linguistic distances are strongly geographically patterned, even within widely dispersed groups. However, they are correlated predominantly with facial, rather than temporal bone, morphology, suggesting that variation in vocabulary likely tracks relatively recent events and possibly population contact.

  15. Sketching together the modern histories of science, technology, and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickstone, John V

    2011-03-01

    This essay explores ways to "write together" the awkwardly jointed histories of "science" and "me dicine"--but it also includes other "arts" (in the old sense) and technologies. It draws especially on the historiography of medicine, but I try to use terms that are applicable across all of science, technology, and medicine (STM). I stress the variety of knowledges and practices in play at any time and the ways in which the ensembles change. I focus on the various relations of "science" and "medicine," as they were understood for a succession of periods--from mainly agricultural societies, through industrial societies, to our biomedical present--trying to sketch a history that encompasses daily practices and understandings as well as major conceptual and technical innovations. The model is meant to facilitate inquiry across topics and across times, including those to come.

  16. Science of breeding and heredity from ancient Persia to modern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kariminejad, Mohammad H; Khorshidian, Ardeshir

    2012-01-01

    About 1700 years BC, the prophet Zoroaster declared equal right for women and men to choose their "own ways." There is much evidence that ancient Persians believed in the equal contribution of women and men toward producing a child, and all its hereditary characteristics.Even more surprising are the phrases in Vandidad book, which were gathered by Mobedans in the Mad dynasty about egg extraction (gametes) from animal reproductive organs (gonads) and their storage for future conception.Centuries later, Western philosopher beliefs in regard to reproduction were contrary to Persian knowledge. The Greek philosophers believed that man's water (semen) contains all human characteristics, and the female uterus is only responsible for nurturing and development of fetus. After detection of the ovum (de Graaf 2(nd) half 17 century) Malpigy proposed the preformation theory (ovist) which means there is a miniature human inside ovum, that grows after Semen has entered the uterus and grow into a well-developed fetus. This hypothesis was later delegated to spermatozoa. These contradictory and inappropriate beliefs were subject to discussions and dispute, until C.E. Wolf demonstrated that the embryo is a product of the fertilization of ovum by spermatozoa.800 years prior this the sage Ferdowsi "The Great Iranian Poet" explains nicely the equal participation of man and woman in the production of the fetus and transmission of characters.After the renaissance and especially in recent years, tremendous achievements have been made in unraveling biological secrets of reproduction. There was no work o n genetics in Iran until 1936, when a genetic course was added to the biology curriculum in related colleges and universities; Iranian Genetics Society was founded in 1966, initiating a steady movement in this field.Although there was an inevitable gap during the revolution and war in our country, now there is great effort by researchers to eliminate the gap and bring us into the mainstream

  17. Dog Sacrifice in Ancient and Modern Greece: From the Sacrifice Ritual to Dog Torture (kynomartyrion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manolis G. Sergis

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article presents and discusses the custom of kynomartyrion (dogtorture which took place in the Greek lands until the 1980s. In many areas it stopped in the 1930s because of its cruelty. The author begins his discussion with the presentation of some elements that are related to the dog. More specifically, the dog is an animal that entered the humanized environment long ago and belongs to the creatures whose nature is twofold because it is part of thehuman and the non-human worlds and it has been treated as twofold by at least the Indo-Europeans. It is also maintained that the liminal Hellenistic period was decisive for the formation of folk worship because of the religious syncretism and the invasion of demons that dominated in the Eastern Mediterranean. The author points out its remarkable similarities to ancient Greek and Roman (and Indo-European fertile, cathartic and other sacrificial practices. Due to industrialization of agriculture and rationalization of the magical way of thought of the “traditional” peasant, performance of the custom was transformed into a folkloric, spectacular one with intensely violent and sadistic behaviour on the part of humans in the places where it still took place after 1960. The writer argues that violence was always an inherent characteristic of the custom. Nonetheless, the archaic, and later folk thinking ritualized the performance and attributed to it a different facet, devoid of any sacred elements, during the 20th century where its inherent violence was manifested in its raw essence.

  18. Ancient hybridization and an Irish origin for the modern polar bear matriline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edwards, Ceiridwen J.; Suchard, Marc A.; Lemey, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) are among those species most susceptible to the rapidly changing arctic climate, and their survival is of global concern. Despite this, little is known about polar bear species history. Future conservation strategies would significantly benefit from an understanding...... of basic evolutionary information, such as the timing and conditions of their initial divergence from brown bears (U. arctos) or their response to previous environmental change....

  19. Esoteric Knowledge in Antiquity (TOPOI – Dahlem Seminar for the History of Ancient Sciences Vol. II)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Esoteric Knowledge remains a central problem of ancient science, since much of the scholarly heritage of ancient schooling was only meant for a small circle of adherents, rather than for the general public. For this reason, knowledge was restricted within schools or within professions, only accessible to those with a personal connection to experts and savants. The expression ‘esoteric’ is used today rather indiscriminately. Within the category of ‘esoteric knowledge’ one understands a variety...

  20. 论大学世界古代史课程中有关中国史内容的教学——以《世界史·古代史编》为中心%On the Teaching of Contents about Chinese History in College World Ancient History Course --Taking the Ancient History Part of World History as the Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爽

    2012-01-01

    《]世界史.古代史编》是按照世界古代史的时间断限,以全球史观的视野,来选择对世界历史和世界文明发展产生重要影响的中国史内容。对于《古代史编》中编写的中国史内容教授要详略得当,充分利用现有研究成果,才能使学生深刻认识中国在世界历史中的位置和作用,从而使学生具备全球史观。%From the view of global history and according to the time boundary of world ancient history, Ancient History Part of World History selects teaching contents about Chinese history which have important influences on world history and the development of world civilization. In the teaching of contents about Chinese history in An- cient History Part of World History, teachers should make full use of existing research results with proper details and summaries, in order to make college students deeply understand the position and action of China in world his- tory, thus to improve the students' global view of history.

  1. Introduction to "Rethinking Business History in Modern China"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-hsin Yeh

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this special issue of Cross-Currents, the contributing authors look at how business linked China and the world from the mid-nineteenth to the mid-twentieth century, and how Chinese and foreign companies interacted with one another, as well as with political power, long before today. Some authors concentrate on material connections, including shipping, banking, the building of railroads, the spread of the motion picture industry, international treaties, and the formation of knowledge, while others investigate the role of business culture and how entrepreneurship and networks of trust crossed borders. Both of these aspects are set against the backdrop of simultaneous Chinese state-building efforts that became evident in the state creation of a national market and the formation of political borders. All of the authors collected here draw on case studies of individual entrepreneurs or companies, just as they draw on the new historical and theoretical scholarship summarized above to fill out the picture of China’s economic development within global processes. As the contributions to this issue demonstrate, rethinking Chinese business history also forces us to rethink Chinese urban history more generally... The new pictures of business practice presented here entail a remapping of the spatial dynamics of such activities and thereby a new understanding of the making of urban China...

  2. Ancient migratory events in the Middle East: new clues from the Y-chromosome variation of modern Iranians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Grugni

    Full Text Available Knowledge of high resolution Y-chromosome haplogroup diversification within Iran provides important geographic context regarding the spread and compartmentalization of male lineages in the Middle East and southwestern Asia. At present, the Iranian population is characterized by an extraordinary mix of different ethnic groups speaking a variety of Indo-Iranian, Semitic and Turkic languages. Despite these features, only few studies have investigated the multiethnic components of the Iranian gene pool. In this survey 938 Iranian male DNAs belonging to 15 ethnic groups from 14 Iranian provinces were analyzed for 84 Y-chromosome biallelic markers and 10 STRs. The results show an autochthonous but non-homogeneous ancient background mainly composed by J2a sub-clades with different external contributions. The phylogeography of the main haplogroups allowed identifying post-glacial and Neolithic expansions toward western Eurasia but also recent movements towards the Iranian region from western Eurasia (R1b-L23, Central Asia (Q-M25, Asia Minor (J2a-M92 and southern Mesopotamia (J1-Page08. In spite of the presence of important geographic barriers (Zagros and Alborz mountain ranges, and the Dasht-e Kavir and Dash-e Lut deserts which may have limited gene flow, AMOVA analysis revealed that language, in addition to geography, has played an important role in shaping the nowadays Iranian gene pool. Overall, this study provides a portrait of the Y-chromosomal variation in Iran, useful for depicting a more comprehensive history of the peoples of this area as well as for reconstructing ancient migration routes. In addition, our results evidence the important role of the Iranian plateau as source and recipient of gene flow between culturally and genetically distinct populations.

  3. Geomicrobiological study of modern microbialites from Mexico: towards a better understanding of the ancient fossil record

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benzerara K.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Microbialites are sedimentary formations that are found throughout the geological record and are usually considered as one of the oldest traces of life on Earth. Although they have been known for more than a century and hold as an emblematic object in Earth Sciences, we yet do not understand in details how they form and how microbial processes impact their chemistry, structure and macroscopic morphology. Here, we show recent advances achieved owing to funding provided by the EPOV program on the formation of modern microbialites in the crater Lake Alchichica (Mexico. We first show that very diverse microbial communities populate these microbialites, including diverse microbial groups able to induce carbonate precipitation. We demonstrate that this microbial diversity can be preserved for several years in laboratory aquaria offering a nice opportunity for future studies to assess the relationships between biodiversity and microbialite formation. We then detail the textural modifications affecting cyanobacterial cells during the first steps of fossilization as captured in Alchichica microbialites. Finally, we report the discovery of a new deepbranching cyanobacterium species, Candidatus Gloeomargarita lithophora, able to form intracellular Ca-, Mg-, Sr- and Ba-rich carbonates and discuss the implications for the interpretation of the fossil record.

  4. [A history of malaria in modern Korea 1876-1945].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, Insok

    2011-06-30

    Although it is not certain when malaria began to appear in Korea, malaria is believed to have been an endemic disease from ancient times. It was Dr. H. N. Allen (1858-1932) who made the first description and diagnosis of malaria in terms of Western medicine. In his first year report (1885) of Korean Government Hospital he mentioned malaria as the most prevalent disease. Very effective anti-malarial drug quinine was imported and it made great contribution in treating malaria. After Japan had annexed Korea in 1910, policies for public health system were fundamentally revised. Japan assumed control of Korean medical institutions and built high-quality Western hospitals for the health care of Japanese residents. The infectious diseases which were under special surveillance were cholera, typhoid fever, dysentery, typhus, scarlet fever, smallpox, and paratyphoid fever. Among chronic infectious diseases tuberculosis and leprosy were those under special control. Malaria, however, was not one of these specially controlled infectious diseases although it was widely spread throughout the peninsula. But serious studies on malaria were carried out by Japanese medical scientists. In particular, a Japanese parasitologist Kobayasi Harujiro(1884-1969) carried out extensive studies on human parasites, including malaria, in Korea. According to his study, most of the malaria in Korea turned out to be tertian fever. In spite of its high prevalence, malaria did not draw much attention from the colonial authorities and no serious measure was taken since tertian fever is a mild form of malaria caused by Plasmodium vivax and is not so much fatal as tropical malaria caused by P. falciparum. And tertian malaria was easily controlled by taking quinine. Although the majority of malaria in Korea was tertian fever, other types were not absent. Quartan fever was not rarely reported in 1930s. The attitude of colonial authorities toward malaria in Korea was contrasted with that in Taiwan. After

  5. Ancient Ethics and Modern Moral Philosophy%古代伦理学和现代道德哲学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任俊

    2014-01-01

    伦理问题和道德问题是实践哲学的两个基本问题。其中,伦理问题关注的是“人应当如何生活”,而道德问题关注的是“人应当如何与他人共同生活”。从这个区分可以发现:实践哲学在古代表现为伦理学,在现代表现为道德哲学。伦理学和道德哲学在问题意识和理论形态上都有很大不同。根据罗尔斯和拉莫的观点,实践哲学从伦理问题转向道德问题具有深刻的历史背景。%Ethics and morality are fundamental issues in practical philosophy .Ethics is concerned with how one should live , while morality is about how people should live together with others .If this distinction makes sense , we may come to the conclusion that practical philosophy should be called ethics in ancient time , and moral philosophy in modern time .Ethics and moral philosophy is very different in question zone and theo-retical structure .According to Rawls and Larmore , it is against an important historical background that the moral turn from ethical problem in practical philosophy .

  6. Insect leaf-chewing damage tracks herbivore richness in modern and ancient forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mónica R Carvalho

    Full Text Available The fossil record demonstrates that past climate changes and extinctions significantly affected the diversity of insect leaf-feeding damage, implying that the richness of damage types reflects that of the unsampled damage makers, and that the two are correlated through time. However, this relationship has not been quantified for living leaf-chewing insects, whose richness and mouthpart convergence have obscured their value for understanding past and present herbivore diversity. We hypothesized that the correlation of leaf-chewing damage types (DTs and damage maker richness is directly observable in living forests. Using canopy access cranes at two lowland tropical rainforest sites in Panamá to survey 24 host-plant species, we found significant correlations between the numbers of leaf chewing insect species collected and the numbers of DTs observed to be made by the same species in feeding experiments, strongly supporting our hypothesis. Damage type richness was largely driven by insect species that make multiple DTs. Also, the rank-order abundances of DTs recorded at the Panamá sites and across a set of latest Cretaceous to middle Eocene fossil floras were highly correlated, indicating remarkable consistency of feeding-mode distributions through time. Most fossil and modern host-plant pairs displayed high similarity indices for their leaf-chewing DTs, but informative differences and trends in fossil damage composition became apparent when endophytic damage was included. Our results greatly expand the potential of insect-mediated leaf damage for interpreting insect herbivore richness and compositional heterogeneity from fossil floras and, equally promisingly, in living forests.

  7. Uniqueness of human running coordination: The integration of modern and ancient evolutionary innovations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John eKiely

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Running is a pervasive activity across human cultures and a cornerstone of contemporary health, fitness and sporting activities. Yet for the overwhelming predominance of human existence running was an essential prerequisite for survival. A means to hunt, and a means to escape when hunted. In a very real sense humans have evolved to run. Yet curiously, perhaps due to running’s cultural ubiquity and the natural ease with which we learn to run, we rarely consider the uniqueness of human bipedal running within the animal kingdom. Our unique upright, single stance, bouncing running gait imposes a unique set of coordinative difficulties. Challenges demanding we precariously balance our fragile brains in the very position where they are most vulnerable to falling injury while simultaneously retaining stability, steering direction of travel, and powering the upcoming stride: all within the abbreviated time-frames afforded by short, violent ground contacts separated by long flight times. These running coordination challenges are solved through the tightly-integrated blending of primitive evolutionary legacies, conserved from reptilian and vertebrate lineages, and comparatively modern, more exclusively human, innovations. The integrated unification of these top-down and bottom-up control processes bestows humans with an agile control system, enabling us to readily modulate speeds, change direction, negotiate varied terrains and to instantaneously adapt to changing surface conditions. The seamless integration of these evolutionary processes is facilitated by pervasive, neural and biological, activity-dependent adaptive plasticity. Over time, and with progressive exposure, this adaptive plasticity shapes neural and biological structures to best cope with regularly imposed movement challenges. This pervasive plasticity enables the gradual construction of a robust system of distributed coordinated control, comprised of processes that are so deeply

  8. [Characteristics of acupoint application for the sub-healthy condition treated with ancient and modern acupuncture based on data mining exploration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Liyan; Wu, Jie; Ma, Tingting; Yang, Lijie

    2015-10-01

    The acupoint selection was retrieved from the ancient and modern literature on the treatment of sub-healthy condition with acupuncture. The law of acupoint application was analyzed so as to provide a certain reference to the determination of acupoint prescription in clinical acupuncture. The ancient literature was retrieved from Chinese basic ancient literature database. The modern literature was retrieved from Cochrane Library, Medline, PubMed, Ovid evidence-based medicine database, Chinese biomedical literature database, China journal full-text database, VIP journal full-text database and Wanfang database. The database mining software was adopted to explore the law of acupoint application in treatment of sub-healthy conditions with ancient and modern acupuncture. The acupoint use frequency, compatibility association rule, law for meridian use and the use regularity of specific points were analyzed. In the ancient treatment for sub-healthy condition, the top five commonly used acupoints are Shenmen (HT 7), Zhaohai (KI 6), Taibai (SP 3), Daling (PC 7) and Taixi (KI 3). The most commonly combined points are Zhangmen (LR 13), Taibai (SP 3) and Zhaohai (KI 6). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, kidney meridian of foot-shaoyin and liver meridian of foot-jueyin. The most commonly used specific points are the five-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. In the modern treatment, the top five commonly used acupoints are Zusanli (ST 36), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Baihui (GV 20), Shenshu (BL 23) and Guanyuan (CV 4). The most commonly supplemented points are Hegu (LI 4) and Taichong (LR 3). The most commonly used meridians are the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang, the conception vessel and the governor vessel. The most commonly used specific points are the back-shu points. The most commonly used acupoints are located in the lower limbs. After the systematic comprehension of the relevant ancient and modern

  9. On the Division of Modern and Ancient Political Ethics%论现代和古代政治伦理的分野

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴木才

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between modern and ancient political ethics is that of inheriting, developing and criticizing and denying as well. The understanding of the division between ancient and modern political ethics is indispensable to the comprehension and construction of modern political ethics. The division between ancient and modern political ethics mainly lies in the difference between"politics rules everything"and"politics is an individual area","power"and"right"and the integration of politics into other areas and the separation of the two. The economical foundation of the modern political ethics is market-economy."Taking politics as an individual area"is essential requirement of the modern political ethics.%现代政治伦理与古代政治伦理,既是一种继承和发展的关系,又是一种批判和否定的关系。对现代政治伦理的理解和建构,离不开对古代政治伦理和现代政治伦理的区分。古代政治伦理和现代政治伦理的分野,主要表现在“政治统领一切”与“政治就是政治”、“权力”与“权利”、政治与各领域的融合与分离。现代政治伦理的经济基础是市场经济,“把政治当作政治”是现代政治伦理的基本要求。

  10. BETWEEN MODERN TRABZON AND ANCIENT TREBIZOND: THE RESURRECTION OF THE HISTORICAL AUTHOR IN MACAULAY’S THE TOWERS OF TREBIZOND

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Ostensibly being a semi-autobiographical travel account, The Towers of Trebizond presents a character who resurrects from the ashes of the ancient city. The novel uses autobiography to provide seriousness to the satiric comedy of the travellers and employs the ancient city in order to revive the sense of fantasy and colourful imagination. The author compares the innocent woman to the ancient Trebizond while her present state is compared to the decayed contemporary Trabzon. So, this paper argu...

  11. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  12. Survey, Settlement, and Population History at the Ancient Maya Site of Pacbitun, Belize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Healy, Paul F.; Helmke, Christophe G.B.; Awe, Jaime J.

    2007-01-01

    Survey and excavations of mounds on the outskirts of the site of Pacbitun in western Belize provide insights to the ancient Maya settlement pattern at this medium-sized regional center. This research employed two methods: analysis of structural remains from four separate 1000 m transect surveys...... to have been about 5000-6000 persons. This population estimate is compared with several coeval lowland Maya centers, and found to be reasonable for a medium-sized, Late Classic Maya center....

  13. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  14. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  15. Population genomic analysis of ancient and modern genomes yields new insights into the genetic ancestry of the Tyrolean Iceman and the genetic structure of Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Sikora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Genome sequencing of the 5,300-year-old mummy of the Tyrolean Iceman, found in 1991 on a glacier near the border of Italy and Austria, has yielded new insights into his origin and relationship to modern European populations. A key finding of that study was an apparent recent common ancestry with individuals from Sardinia, based largely on the Y chromosome haplogroup and common autosomal SNP variation. Here, we compiled and analyzed genomic datasets from both modern and ancient Europeans, including genome sequence data from over 400 Sardinians and two ancient Thracians from Bulgaria, to investigate this result in greater detail and determine its implications for the genetic structure of Neolithic Europe. Using whole-genome sequencing data, we confirm that the Iceman is, indeed, most closely related to Sardinians. Furthermore, we show that this relationship extends to other individuals from cultural contexts associated with the spread of agriculture during the Neolithic transition, in contrast to individuals from a hunter-gatherer context. We hypothesize that this genetic affinity of ancient samples from different parts of Europe with Sardinians represents a common genetic component that was geographically widespread across Europe during the Neolithic, likely related to migrations and population expansions associated with the spread of agriculture.

  16. Use DNA to learn from the past: how modern and ancient DNA studies may help reveal the past and predict the future distribution of species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, M. E.; Alsos, I. G.; Sjögren, P.; Coissac, E.; Gielly, L.; Yoccoz, N.; Føreid, M. K.; Taberlet, P.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of how climate change affected species distribution in the past may help us predict the effect of ongoing environmental changes. We explore how the use of modern (AFLP fingerprinting techniques) and ancient DNA (metabarcoding P6 loop of chloroplast DNA) help to reveal past distribution of vascular plant species, dispersal processes, and effect of species traits. Based on studies of modern DNA combined with species distribution models, we show the dispersal routes and barriers to dispersal throughout the circumarctic/circumboreal region, likely dispersal vectors, the cost of dispersal in term of loss of genetic diversity, and how these relates to species traits, dispersal distance, and size of colonized region. We also estimate the expected future distribution and loss of genetic diversity and show how this relates to life form and adaptations to dispersal. To gain more knowledge on time lags in past range change events, we rely on palaeorecords. Current data on past distribution are limited by the taxonomic and time resolution of macrofossil and pollen records. We show how this may be improved by studying ancient DNA of lake sediments. DNA of lake sediments recorded about half of the flora surrounding the lake. Compared to macrofossil, the taxonomic resolution is similar but the detection rate is considerable improved. By taking into account main determinants of founder effect, dispersal vectors, and dispersal lags, we may improve our ability to forecast effects of climate change, whereas more studies on ancient DNA may provide us with knowledge on distribution time lags.

  17. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  18. Inferences of Recent and Ancient Human Population History Using Genetic and Non-Genetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitchen, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    I have adopted complementary approaches to inferring human demographic history utilizing human and non-human genetic data as well as cultural data. These complementary approaches form an interdisciplinary perspective that allows one to make inferences of human history at varying timescales, from the events that occurred tens of thousands of years…

  19. Reading The History Manifesto as a Historian of Mathematics in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemla, Karine

    2016-06-01

    The History Manifesto invites historians to consider the social and political responsibilities attached to their profession. This general concern is equally meaningful for the field of history and for the history and philosophy of science and technology. The specific concerns that motivate Jo Guldi and David Armitage lead them to advocate the "longue durée" and to insist primarily on social inequality, climate change, and governance. The concern on which this response to The History Manifesto centers is historians' social.responsibility in the waging of wars and their ethical responsibility at least not to contribute to mounting tensions. For the historian Lucien Febvre, in the immediate aftermath of World War II, a history of science and culture practiced in a certain way had a specific part to play in this regard. Febvre's practice of long-term history differed from Fernand Braudel's approach to the longue durée, in the tradition of which Guldi and Armitage situate their manifesto. This essay suggests that a historical approach to long-term history, sensitive to the concern Febvre voiced, might be helpful. It argues that long-term histories of science and technology practiced in a certain way have contributed to shaping collectives that perceive themselves as communities. Critical analysis of our practices as historians could certainly help develop awareness in our field in this respect.

  20. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  1. Transmissible [corrected] dog cancer genome reveals the origin and history of an ancient cell lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murchison, Elizabeth P; Wedge, David C; Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Fu, Beiyuan; Martincorena, Inigo; Ning, Zemin; Tubio, Jose M C; Werner, Emma I; Allen, Jan; De Nardi, Andrigo Barboza; Donelan, Edward M; Marino, Gabriele; Fassati, Ariberto; Campbell, Peter J; Yang, Fengtang; Burt, Austin; Weiss, Robin A; Stratton, Michael R

    2014-01-24

    Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is the oldest known somatic cell lineage. It is a transmissible cancer that propagates naturally in dogs. We sequenced the genomes of two CTVT tumors and found that CTVT has acquired 1.9 million somatic substitution mutations and bears evidence of exposure to ultraviolet light. CTVT is remarkably stable and lacks subclonal heterogeneity despite thousands of rearrangements, copy-number changes, and retrotransposon insertions. More than 10,000 genes carry nonsynonymous variants, and 646 genes have been lost. CTVT first arose in a dog with low genomic heterozygosity that may have lived about 11,000 years ago. The cancer spawned by this individual dispersed across continents about 500 years ago. Our results provide a genetic identikit of an ancient dog and demonstrate the robustness of mammalian somatic cells to survive for millennia despite a massive mutation burden.

  2. Rethinking the history of modern agriculture: British pig production, c.1910-65.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Abigail

    2012-01-01

    This article uses a study of pig production in Britain, c.1910-65, to rethink the history of modern agriculture and its implications for human-animal relationships. Drawing on literature written by and for pig producers and experts, it challenges existing portrayals of a unidirectional, post-Second World War shift from traditional small-scale mixed farming to large, specialized, intensive systems. Rather, 'factory-style' pig production was already established in Britain by the 1930s, and its fortunes waxed and waned over time in relation to different kinds of outdoor production, which was still prominent in the mid-1960s. In revealing that the progressive proponents of both indoor and outdoor methods regarded them as modern and efficient, but defined and pursued these values in quite different ways, the article argues for a more historically situated understanding of agricultural modernity. Analysis reveals that regardless of their preferred production system, leading experts and producers were keen to develop what they considered to be natural methods that reflected the pig's natural needs and desires. They perceived pigs as active, sentient individuals, and believed that working in harmony with their natures was essential, even if this was, ultimately, for commercial ends. Such views contradict received accounts of modern farming as a utilitarian enterprise, concerned only with dominating and manipulating nature. They are used to argue that a romantic, moral view of the pig did not simply pre-date or emerge in opposition to modern agriculture, but, rather, was integral to it.

  3. Science and society the history of modern physical science in the twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Gordin, Michael; Kaiser, David

    2001-01-01

    Modern science has changed every aspect of life in ways that cannot be compared to developments of previous eras. This four volume set presents key developments within modern physical science and the effects of these discoveries on modern global life. The first two volumes explore the history of the concept of relativity, the cultural roots of science, the concept of time and gravity before, during, and after Einstein's theory, and the cultural reception of relativity. Volume three explores the impact of modern science upon global politics and the creation of a new kind of war, and Volume four details the old and new efforts surrounding the elucidation of the quantum world, as well as the cultural impact of particle physics. The collection also presents the historical and cultural context that made these scientific innovations possible. The transformation of everyday concepts of time and space for the individual and for society, the conduct of warfare, and the modern sense of mastering nature are all issues d...

  4. Formations of European Modernity. Cosmopolitanism, Eurocentrism and the Uses of History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Pasture

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available InFormations of European Modernity, Gerard Delanty, one of the foremost social theoreticians of Europe, offers a historical-sociological assessment of the idea of Europe as the development of modernity from a cosmopolitan perspective. With this book, based upon a broad and impressive discussion of sociological and historical literature, Delanty somewhat comes back from his earlier constructivist approach in favour of a theory that emphasizes the originality of Europe and assesses European history as the development of modernity, interpreted in a classical neo-Weberian sense. This approach sits uneasily with his ambition to present a cosmopolitan view on Europe, which emphasizes the interactions of Europe with the rest of the world, all the more so as he largely ignores the postcolonial critiques of Eurocentric narratives as well as modernization theories. While Delanty is still quite successful in his assessment of historical diversities in Europe, Formations of European Modernity ">nevertheless disappoints. While the focus on global interactions is highly commendable, the lack of critical assessment and contextualization leads to a neglect of the fact that Europe often despised the (contribution of the other. Hence his presentation of cosmopolitan Europe is flawed, and remains if not Eurocentric at least overly Europhile.

  5. Ideas. A History: From Fire to Freud. 2. ed.; Ideen. Eine Kulturgeschichte von der Entdeckung des Feuers bis zur Moderne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, P.

    2005-07-01

    In this hugely ambitious and exciting book Peter Watson tells the history of ideas from prehistory to the present day, seeking a new way to tell the history of the world. The book begins over a million years ago with a discussion of how the earliest ideas might have originated. Looking at animal behaviour that appears to require some thought tool-making, territoriality, counting, language (or at least sounds), pairbonding Peter Watson moves on to the apeman and the development of simple ideas such as cooking, the earliest language, the emergence of family life. All the obvious areas will be tackled the Ancient Greeks, Christian theology, the ideas of Jesus, astrological thought, the soul, the self, beliefs about the heavens, the ideas of Islam, the Crusades, humanism, the Renaissance, Gutenberg and the book, the scientific revolution, the age of discovery, Shakespeare, the idea of Revolution, the Romantic imagination, Darwin, imperialism, modernism, Freud right up to the present day and the internet. (orig./GL) [German] Beginnt die Ideengeschichte der Menschheit, als die Fruehmenschen erstmals Feuer machen, vor ca. 1,8 Millionen Jahren? Oder schon mit dem ersten Faustkeil vor etwa 2,5 Millionen Jahren? Warum entwickelte sich vor 40 000 Jahren eine komplexe Sprache? Wie kamen das Minus- und das Plus-Zeichen in die Vorstellungswelt, und wie entstand das Bild vom Paradies? Peter Watson laedt ein zu einer Expedition durch die abenteuerliche Welt menschlicher Ideen. Vom ersten Feuer, dem ersten Werkzeug und den ersten Worten ueber die Geburt der Goetter, die ersten Gesetze und die Entwicklung grosser Zentren von Wissen und Weisheit bis hin zu den umwaelzenden Ideen der Moderne: das Groesste und das Kleinste, das Selbst-Bewusstsein des Individuums und die Entdeckung des Unbewussten. Dabei ordnet Watson die riesige Materialfuelle nach drei zentralen Ideen, die fuer ihn die Geschichte der Menschheit praegen: die Seele, mehr als die Idee von einem Gott, Europa, mehr als das

  6. 中国古代艺徒制对构建现代学徒制的启示%Revelation on Chinese Ancient Apprenticeship to the Establishment of Modern Apprentice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀丽

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of Chinese modern apprenticeship not only learns from foreign experiences, but also learns from the history and development of itself. There were many useful experiences of Chinese ancient apprentice-ship. Ancient apprentice is an all -around talents training mode that combines skills operation and moral attain-ment. The features like “career practice”,“words and deeds”,“ability assessment”,“moral concept”which express in the process of feudal government marco-control makes a great influence and revelation on the es-tablishment of modern apprenticeship with China characteristics.%建立中国现代学徒制不仅要借鉴外国的经验,更多的是要从其自身的历史与嬗变中寻找能够借鉴的东西。中国古代艺徒制中就有许多值得借鉴之处。艺徒制作为集技能操作和德育素养于一体的全方位人才培养方式。其在官府宏观控制地实施过程中体现出来的“职业实践”、“言传身教”、“能力考评”、“德育观念”等特点至今有深刻的教育意义,对建立中国特色的现代学徒制有着重要的启示。

  7. Modern and ancient red fox (Vulpes vulpes in Europe show an unusual lack of geographical and temporal structuring, and differing responses within the carnivores to historical climatic change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Jessica A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite phylogeographical patterns being well characterised in a large number of species, and generalised patterns emerging, the carnivores do not all appear to show consistent trends. While some species tend to fit with standard theoretical phylogeographic expectations (e.g. bears, others show little obvious modern phylogeographic structure (e.g. wolves. In this study we briefly review these studies, and present a new phylogeographical study of the red fox (Vulpes vulpes throughout Europe, using a combination of ancient DNA sequences obtained from museum specimens, and modern sequences collated from GenBank. We used cytochrome b (250 bp and the mitochondrial control region (268 bp to elucidate both current and historical phylogeographical patterning. Results We found evidence for slight isolation by distance in modern populations, as well as differentiation associated with time, both of which can likely be attributed to random genetic drift. Despite high sequence diversity (11.2% cytochrome b, 16.4% control region, no evidence for spatial structure (from Bayesian trees is found either in modern samples or ancient samples for either gene, and Bayesian skyline plots suggested little change in the effective population size over the past 40,000 years. Conclusions It is probable that the high dispersal ability and adaptability of the red fox has contributed to the lack of observable differentiation, which appears to have remained consistent over tens of thousands of years. Generalised patterns of how animals are thought to have responded to historical climatic change are not necessarily valid for all species, and so understanding the differences between species will be critical for predicting how species will be affected by future climatic change.

  8. Moving Histories. The Jews and Modernity in Alexandria 1881-1919

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dario Miccoli

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay will investigate the history of Alexandria from 1881 to 1919, proposing a re-definition of modernity vis-à-vis the city’s Jews. In the first part I will introduce a case of blood libel that occurred in 1881, the Fornaraki affair, and the consequences it had for the making of an urban (Jewish bourgeoisie and the spreading of a modern social imaginary in-between Egypt and Europe. I will then consider the École des filles founded in Alexandria in 1900 by the Alliance Israélite Universelle, exploring how French secularism, bourgeois femininity, and Jewish religiosity coalesced in this school – as exemplified by the history surrounding the 1901 initiation des jeunes filles. Lastly, I will look at World War One and the philanthropic activities and public commemorations this event engendered in Alexandria, especially following the arrival of Jewish refugees from Palestine in 1914. Focusing upon these historical narrations, I will attempt to interpret modernity as a dynamic blending of tensions and exchanges in-between Jews and non-Jews, Egypt and Europe, local knowledge and foreign ideas.

  9. Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindervater, Katharine Hall

    Interdisciplinary both in scope and method, my dissertation, Lethal Surveillance: Drones and the Geo-History of Modern War, examines the history of drone technology from the start of the 20th century to the present in order to understand the significance of the increasing centrality of drones to current American military engagements and security practices more generally. Much of the scholarship on drones and many other contemporary military technologies tends to view the technology as radically new, missing both the historical development of these objects as well as the perspectives and rationalities that are embedded in their use. For this research, I focused on three main periods of drone research and development: the early years of World War I and II in the UK, the Cold War, and the 1990s. In studying this history of the drone, I found that two key trends emerge as significant: the increasing importance of information to warfare under the rubric of intelligence, reconnaissance and surveillance; and a shift toward more dynamic, speedier, and individualized targeting practices. I argue that the widespread use of drones today thus represents the culmination of attempts in war to effectively link these two trends, creating a practice I call lethal surveillance -- with the armed Predator effectively closing the loop between identifying and killing targets. The concept of lethal surveillance, which in my dissertation I place squarely within the histories of modern scientific thinking and Western liberal governance, allows us to see how techniques of Western state power and knowledge production are merging with practices of killing and control in new ways, causing significant changes to both the operations of the state and to practices of war. Framing the drone through the lens of lethal surveillance, therefore, allows us to see the longer histories the drone is embedded in as well as other security practices it is connected to.

  10. Lin Zhichun's Contributions to the Study of Ancient World History in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan; Shaoxiang

    2015-01-01

    Lin Zhichun (林志纯, 1910-2007, henceforthreferred to as Lin, but popularly known by hispen name of Ri Zhi), was a famous historian ofancient world history in China. Born in Fujian,he was enrolled in The Great China Universityin 1939 as a junior college student, and becamean undergraduate in 1941. Lin probably knewwhat he would do after graduation and learntEnglish, Russian and Latin in the university.1But the turmoil in China in the next 10 years(Japanese invasion of China since 1937 and thenthe Liberation War) made his life rather hard andhe had to move between Shanghai, Beijing and Shenyang successively in order tosupport himself. However, he tried to carry out his researches on Chinese history andpublished some articles since 1934.

  11. Ancient proteins resolve the evolutionary history of Darwin's South American ungulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Frido; Collins, Matthew J; Thomas, Jessica A; Wadsley, Marc; Brace, Selina; Cappellini, Enrico; Turvey, Samuel T; Reguero, Marcelo; Gelfo, Javier N; Kramarz, Alejandro; Burger, Joachim; Thomas-Oates, Jane; Ashford, David A; Ashton, Peter D; Rowsell, Keri; Porter, Duncan M; Kessler, Benedikt; Fischer, Roman; Baessmann, Carsten; Kaspar, Stephanie; Olsen, Jesper V; Kiley, Patrick; Elliott, James A; Kelstrup, Christian D; Mullin, Victoria; Hofreiter, Michael; Willerslev, Eske; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Orlando, Ludovic; Barnes, Ian; MacPhee, Ross D E

    2015-06-04

    No large group of recently extinct placental mammals remains as evolutionarily cryptic as the approximately 280 genera grouped as 'South American native ungulates'. To Charles Darwin, who first collected their remains, they included perhaps the 'strangest animal[s] ever discovered'. Today, much like 180 years ago, it is no clearer whether they had one origin or several, arose before or after the Cretaceous/Palaeogene transition 66.2 million years ago, or are more likely to belong with the elephants and sirenians of superorder Afrotheria than with the euungulates (cattle, horses, and allies) of superorder Laurasiatheria. Morphology-based analyses have proved unconvincing because convergences are pervasive among unrelated ungulate-like placentals. Approaches using ancient DNA have also been unsuccessful, probably because of rapid DNA degradation in semitropical and temperate deposits. Here we apply proteomic analysis to screen bone samples of the Late Quaternary South American native ungulate taxa Toxodon (Notoungulata) and Macrauchenia (Litopterna) for phylogenetically informative protein sequences. For each ungulate, we obtain approximately 90% direct sequence coverage of type I collagen α1- and α2-chains, representing approximately 900 of 1,140 amino-acid residues for each subunit. A phylogeny is estimated from an alignment of these fossil sequences with collagen (I) gene transcripts from available mammalian genomes or mass spectrometrically derived sequence data obtained for this study. The resulting consensus tree agrees well with recent higher-level mammalian phylogenies. Toxodon and Macrauchenia form a monophyletic group whose sister taxon is not Afrotheria or any of its constituent clades as recently claimed, but instead crown Perissodactyla (horses, tapirs, and rhinoceroses). These results are consistent with the origin of at least some South American native ungulates from 'condylarths', a paraphyletic assembly of archaic placentals. With ongoing

  12. Did an epidemic of tularemia in Ancient Egypt affect the course of world history?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevisanato, Siro I

    2004-01-01

    The dynamics of the spreading, and the identity of a virulent epidemic, similar to bubonic plague or typhus, which hit Ancient Egypt in the middle of the Bronze Age, are hereby presented. Documented in medical papyri as well as archaeological findings, and re-echoed in biblical texts, a plague entered Egypt's main harbor, Avaris, around 1715 BC. As a result, the country was severely weakened at a time when it was already facing serious sociopolitical issues: crumbling central government, immigration, foreign influence, and the rise in power of the army and of warlords. The Hebrews, one of the ethnic groups within the Avaris area, appeared immune amidst the devastation of the plague. This immunity was key to identify the etiological agent of the epidemic: Francisella tularensis, the Gram-negative bacterium passed by ticks, and that causes tularemia. The disease manifests itself as either an ulceroglandular or a typhoid syndrome, accounting for its similarity with bubonic plague and typhus. Cellular immunity provides the main defense against F. tularensis, and is achieved through continuous contact with avirulent strains of the bacterium. Urban dwellers of Avaris, who had a limited contact to animals, would have been defenseless against the virulent strains, unlike the Hebrews, who lived off sheep and other animals. Attempting to consolidate Egypt's central government in the aftermath of the tularemia epidemic, led among others to the internment of the Hebrews in labor camps. The repressive measures against the Hebrews left traces in the subsequent archaeological layer (stratum F) at Avaris. As a corollary, the enslavement would set the stage for the exodus of the Hebrew community from Egypt at a later time.

  13. [About Itching and scabies. Pruritus in medical history--from ancient world to the French revolution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisshaar, E; König, A; Diepgen, T L; Eckart, W U

    2008-12-01

    Pruritus (itching) as a disease state and especially as a disease symptom has been object of medical and scientific descriptions and examinations in all epochs since the antiquity and in different cultural periods. Antiquity was dominated by observations and descriptions but during the course of medical history and particularly since the establishment of dermatology, more and more emphasis has been placed on classification and etiologic research.

  14. The Impacts of The Ancient Library on the Propagation of Modern Editing and Publishing Industry%藏书楼对近代编辑出版业的传播影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏秀萍

    2014-01-01

    藏书楼作为典藏古代文献的特定场所,传承了博大精深的中国古代传统文化,对促进近代编辑出版业的快速发展发挥了积极的作用。明清藏书楼及其刊刻出版历史是最为活跃、最具个性的时期。此期形成众多著名出版中心及刻书业集散地,刻书内容包罗万象,精校精刻久负盛名;影刻技术使影印本成为重要版本类型,且活字、套版及版画印刷术都有长足进步,呈现出版技术多元化状态,对近代出版技术的发展做出巨大贡献;明清重视文化成果的典藏整理、编纂及出版,编辑出版业进入创作旺盛期,刊刻出版了量多质优的文化成果,可谓我国手工业印刷之集大成,对典籍保护与传播起到不可估量的作用。中国藏书楼为近代出版业的发展传播奠定了坚实基础,成为对中国出版之一大贡献。%The Ancient Library as site-specific collection of ancient literature is an ancient herit-age of the profound Chinese traditional culture.It promoted to the rapid development of modern editing and publishing industry and had played a positive impact.The Ancient Library and its inscribed pub-lish history in Ming and Qing Dynasties is the most active period and the most personalized period. This many well - known publishing center of the formation and distribution center for the book in-dustry carved, engraved book diverse content includes and prestigious, accurately examined and carved;Shadow lithography to make a photocopy of an important version of the type,and The Mova-ble Type,The Taoban and The Printmaking Typography has considerable progress,diversified pub-lishing technology presents the state of the modern publishing made great contributions to the devel-opment of publishing technology;Ming and Qing Dynasties emphasis on cultural achievements finish-ing collection,compilation and publishing,editing and publishing industry come into the creation of strong

  15. The Application of Concrete in Human History and Development in the Modern World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳; 韩超

    2012-01-01

    Looking at the five-thousand-year history of mankind,humans developed a series of technology of building environment,i.e.civil engineering. If we say the development of civil engineering is an epitome of the glorious civilisation,the discovery and enhance of material proclaim the developing civil engineering.People have found many sorts of traditional materials (soil,timber,masonry) and modern materials (concrete,glass,fibre,polymer).Among these,concrete as composite material played the greatest role in engineering over the last two hundred years.

  16. La Historia antigua en la Biblioteca de Focio. – Ancient History in the Bibliotheca of Photius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Luis Posadas Sánchez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the references to historical books present in the Bibliotheca of Photius, twice a Patriarch of Constantinople, and a prolific writer of the 9th Century. In our study, we shall see the historiographic interests of Photius, mainly the lineal writing with not too many facts in them and a descriptive narrative. We shall know that in his age, books already unknown for us were at disposal, at least in Constantinople. Photius is an author to be known and read for both, historians and people interested in writing of History.

  17. [Beyond the asylum -An other view on the history of psychiatry in the modern age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, Aude

    2015-07-01

    If one thinks medicine, madness and the past, one image immediately pops into mind: that of the mental asylum. Following the famous work by Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilization: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, many historians have thus considered that the medicalization of insanity in the modern age had mostly led to a "great confinement" and a greater segregation of all individuals deemed mentally unfit during the "asylum era': However, new research demonstrates that this classic narrative of the psychiatric past needs to be revised. It discloses that, ever since the 191h century, a whole other medical culture existed as a challenge to asylums, a culture that advocated the integration of the mad and fought to disassociate psychiatry from the dominant model of confinement all throughout the occidental world. This article aims at presenting the results of these historical works that depict another aspect of the psychiatric history, exploring "boarding out" practices, instead of asylum ones.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen compounds and emission of greenhouse gases in ancient and modern soils of the Arkaim Reserve in the Steppe Trans-Ural Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inubushi, K.; Prikhodko, V. E.; Nagano, Kh.; Manakhov, D. V.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and nitrogen compounds and the emission of CO2, CH4, and N2O were studied in the ancient buried and modern background soils developed from different parent materials in the Arkaim Reserve of Chelyabinsk oblast. The studies were performed after an 18-year-long period of absence of anthropogenic loads on the local ecosystems. Element contents in the humus horizons of the chernozems of the former plowland and pastures and of the forest soil reach 28-45.6 g/kg for Corg, 2.5-4.5 g/kg for Ntot, 140-423 mg/kg for labile carbon (Cl), 32-73 mg/kg for labile nitrogen (Nl), 350-952 mg/kg for carbon of microbial biomass (Cmic), and 38-85 mg/kg for nitrogen of microbial biomass (Nmic). The contents of different forms of C and N depend on the soil type and texture and on the type of land use, including that before reservation of the territory. The emission of greenhouse gases was examined in this area for the first time. The production of CO2 by the soil buried about 4000 years ago is an order of magnitude lower than that by the modern soil. The emission and sink of N2O are small in both modern and ancient soils. The behavior of methane is clearly different in the automorphic and hydromorphic soils: the former serve as methane sinks, whereas the latter act as methane sources. The rate of the CO2 emission from the soils is controlled by many factors, including the soil type, texture, degree of hydromorphism, composition of parent materials, and type of land use.

  19. Ancient Worship Wars: An Investigation of Conflict in Church Music History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Wood

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to prove that conflict in church music is nothing new. Even in the time of the early church fathers, dissenting views on what were acceptable and unacceptable practices in church music were present. The music of the 2nd century through the 14th century is examined. The method used to find specific conflicts in church music history involved reading early Christian literature on music. When possible, both sides of the conflicts included in the project are presented. However, oftentimes only one side of an argument can be found since there is not an abundant supply of early Christian writings on music. When this is the case, a brief attempt at reconstructing the opposing side is made. The most important resources for this research were James McKinnon’s Music in Early Christian Literature and Oliver Strunk’s Source Readings in Music History: Revised Edition. These were integral to this project as they provided primary sources translated into English.

  20. TheSurveyofChineseAncientBureaucracy--AComparison of the Chinese Ancient and Modern Bureaucracy%中国古代官僚制审视--兼与现代官僚制的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽

    2013-01-01

      马克斯·韦伯提出的理性官僚制理论适应并促进了资本主义的工业文明,在很长的历史时期,官僚制组织成为西方社会的基本组织形态。中国在秦朝时期就建立了中央集权制的封建国家,其行政组织体系具有自己独特的组织规则和运作过程,具备现代官僚制组织的某些特征。但是,中国传统官僚制度是建立在以家长制形式组织起来的家族制度基础之上的,与马克斯·韦伯所倡导的现代理性官僚制存在着根本的区别。对二者的差异进行分析和比较,有助于加深对现代官僚制的理解,从而为现阶段我国行政管理体制改革提供借鉴和启示。%The theory of rational bureaucracy proposed by Max., Weber adapted to and promoted the capitalist industrial civilization. The structure of bureaucracy became the main organization form in western society for a long time. China had established feu-dal state of central authority in the Qin Dynasty whose administrative organization system had its special rules and operating process, which had some characteristics of modern bu-reaucracy. But there is some fundamental distinction between Chinese ancient bureaucra-cy based on the family system in paternalism and rational bureaucracy proposed by Max. Weber. The analysis and comparison of Chinese ancient bureaucracy and modern bureau-cracy contribute to deepening the understanding of the modern bureaucracy. All these will afford lessons and enlightenment for our Chinese administrative reform at present.

  1. An ancient Mediterranean melting pot: investigating the uniparental genetic structure and population history of sicily and southern Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarno, Stefania; Boattini, Alessio; Carta, Marilisa; Ferri, Gianmarco; Alù, Milena; Yao, Daniele Yang; Ciani, Graziella; Pettener, Davide; Luiselli, Donata

    2014-01-01

    Due to their strategic geographic location between three different continents, Sicily and Southern Italy have long represented a major Mediterranean crossroad where different peoples and cultures came together over time. However, its multi-layered history of migration pathways and cultural exchanges, has made the reconstruction of its genetic history and population structure extremely controversial and widely debated. To address this debate, we surveyed the genetic variability of 326 accurately selected individuals from 8 different provinces of Sicily and Southern Italy, through a comprehensive evaluation of both Y-chromosome and mtDNA genomes. The main goal was to investigate the structuring of maternal and paternal genetic pools within Sicily and Southern Italy, and to examine their degrees of interaction with other Mediterranean populations. Our findings show high levels of within-population variability, coupled with the lack of significant genetic sub-structures both within Sicily, as well as between Sicily and Southern Italy. When Sicilian and Southern Italian populations were contextualized within the Euro-Mediterranean genetic space, we observed different historical dynamics for maternal and paternal inheritances. Y-chromosome results highlight a significant genetic differentiation between the North-Western and South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, the Italian Peninsula occupying an intermediate position therein. In particular, Sicily and Southern Italy reveal a shared paternal genetic background with the Balkan Peninsula and the time estimates of main Y-chromosome lineages signal paternal genetic traces of Neolithic and post-Neolithic migration events. On the contrary, despite showing some correspondence with its paternal counterpart, mtDNA reveals a substantially homogeneous genetic landscape, which may reflect older population events or different demographic dynamics between males and females. Overall, both uniparental genetic structures and TMRCA

  2. [From influence to confluence : positioning the history of pre-modern Korean medicine in East Asia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Soyoung

    2010-12-31

    This article surveys studies focusing on pre-modern Korean medicine, which are both written in English and analyzed primary sources up to 1876. Overall, the history of pre-modern Korean medicine is an unknown filed in Anglophone academia. Yung Sik Kim's, James Palais's, and Carter Ecart's problematization of the nationalist framework of Korean scholarship partially explains the marginality of the field. Addressing these criticisms, this review argues that pre-modern Korean medicine's uneasy task lies in both elaborating Korea's own experience of medicine, while simultaneously avoiding making the "Korean" category itself essential. Korean narratives of premodern medicine need to go beyond the mere territorilalization of Korean medicine against its Chinese, Japanese, or Western counterparts, thereby to tackle the field's own boundary of research objects. The existing scholarship in English responds to this challenge by primarily examining the way in which Korea has shared textual tradition with China. Sirhak scholars' innovation in medicine, visual representation of Tongŭi bogam, Korean management of epidemics in the eleventh century, and Korean indexing of local botanicals, engages not only native achievements, but also the process of modifying medicine across geographical and political boundaries. More to the point, the emerging native narratives, although written in Korean, are implicitly resonant with those currently present in Anglophone academia. Taking "tension," "intertextuality," and "local traits" as a lens, this article assesses a series of current research in Korea. Aiming to go beyond appeals for a "distinctively" Korean experience of medicine, the future study of Korean pre-modern medicine will further elucidate confluences of different flows, such as "Chinese and Korean," "universal and local," "center and periphery," and "native and foreign," which will eventually articulate a range of Korean techniques of creating a bricolage in medicine.

  3. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  4. Commentary on Lexicology of Modern and Middle Ancient Chinese%《中古近代汉语词汇学》解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家栋; 王中强

    2015-01-01

    《中古近代汉语词汇学》是一部对中古近代汉语词汇做出全面评述的通论性著作. 该书内容详实,引征语料丰富,全面概述了中古和近代汉语词汇的研究情况,揭示词汇构成方式和词义考释方法,并介绍语料类型和鉴别语料的方法.该书不仅汇集释义,而且阐发新词新义,并补充辨析其它学者的论述.该书重视白话语料,对佛经和敦煌文献有专门介绍.%Lexicology of Modern and Middle Ancient Chinese is a work about the well-rounded summary of the study on the middle and modern ancient Chinese in recent years. The works has a detailed content analysis,abundance of linguistic data and examples,and a brief account of the research situation of them. It offers a theoretical discussion of the way that the word was formed and the methods that the word meaning was interpretted,furthermore,an introduction to the types of language sources and the methods of identifying them. The works not only collects the interpretation of words and expressions,but also illustrates new words and new meanings with supplementing and discriminating predecessors'discussions. The book pays great attention to the vernacular Chinese, special Buddhist scriptures and Dunhuang manuscripts. Certainly,there are a few shortcomings in the work.

  5. Historical Y. pestis Genomes Reveal the European Black Death as the Source of Ancient and Modern Plague Pandemics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spyrou, Maria A; Tukhbatova, Rezeda I; Feldman, Michal; Drath, Joanna; Kacki, Sacha; Beltrán de Heredia, Julia; Arnold, Susanne; Sitdikov, Airat G; Castex, Dominique; Wahl, Joachim; Gazimzyanov, Ilgizar R; Nurgaliev, Danis K; Herbig, Alexander; Bos, Kirsten I; Krause, Johannes

    2016-06-08

    Ancient DNA analysis has revealed an involvement of the bacterial pathogen Yersinia pestis in several historical pandemics, including the second plague pandemic (Europe, mid-14(th) century Black Death until the mid-18(th) century AD). Here we present reconstructed Y. pestis genomes from plague victims of the Black Death and two subsequent historical outbreaks spanning Europe and its vicinity, namely Barcelona, Spain (1300-1420 cal AD), Bolgar City, Russia (1362-1400 AD), and Ellwangen, Germany (1485-1627 cal AD). Our results provide support for (1) a single entry of Y. pestis in Europe during the Black Death, (2) a wave of plague that traveled toward Asia to later become the source population for contemporary worldwide epidemics, and (3) the presence of an historical European plague focus involved in post-Black Death outbreaks that is now likely extinct.

  6. Problems on World Ancient History Teaching and Research in Colleges%高校世界古代史教学和研究的几个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘黎

    2013-01-01

    世界古代史是世界历史的重要组成部分,阐述的是前资本主义人类文明发展的全过程,囊括种族、地域、时间等多重内容,是高校历史学本科的主干科目之一。目前,国内多数高校世界古代史教学中存在着忽视“中国古代史”的讲授、缺乏阐释各地区之间历史发展的横向联系,单向教学,历史分期观念相对滞后,文明多样性发展的呈现不足,世界历史是一个联系的整体,各地区之间是相互联系的。%World Ancient History, as an important part of World History, discusses the whole process of the pre-capitalist civilization de-velopment, including multiple contents of races, regions and time, which is one of the main subjects of history in colleges. At present, there are the phenomena that the teaching of World Ancient History in most of domestic colleges has neglected the lecturing of Chinese Ancient History and the interpretation of lateral ties between different regions is lack, the unidirectional teaching, the lagging concept and the insufficient diversity of civilization development. The history of the world is a whole thing, in which each area is interrelated.

  7. Incorporation of whole, ancient grains into a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce the burden of chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixit, Anjali A; Azar, Kristen Mj; Gardner, Christopher D; Palaniappan, Latha P

    2011-08-01

    Refined carbohydrates, such as white rice and white flour, are the mainstay of the modern Asian Indian diet, and may contribute to the rising incidence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population. Prior to the 1950s, whole grains such as amaranth, barley, brown rice, millet, and sorghum were more commonly used in Asian Indian cooking. These grains and other non-Indian grains such as couscous, quinoa, and spelt are nutritionally advantageous and may be culturally acceptable carbohydrate substitutes for Asian Indians. This review focuses on practical recommendations for culturally sensitive carbohydrate modification in a modern Asian Indian diet to reduce type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in this population.

  8. WATER AND THE HISTORY OF MAN

    Science.gov (United States)

    The importance of water is presented from a myriad of aspects including its creation in cosmic history; its importance in the texts of ancient history; references within various religious writings; and significance with respect to modern science, art, music, transportation, archi...

  9. [A brief history of resuscitation - the influence of previous experience on modern techniques and methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucmin, Tomasz; Płowaś-Goral, Małgorzata; Nogalski, Adam

    2015-02-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is relatively novel branch of medical science, however first descriptions of mouth-to-mouth ventilation are to be found in the Bible and literature is full of descriptions of different resuscitation methods - from flagellation and ventilation with bellows through hanging the victims upside down and compressing the chest in order to stimulate ventilation to rectal fumigation with tobacco smoke. The modern history of CPR starts with Kouwenhoven et al. who in 1960 published a paper regarding heart massage through chest compressions. Shortly after that in 1961Peter Safar presented a paradigm promoting opening the airway, performing rescue breaths and chest compressions. First CPR guidelines were published in 1966. Since that time guidelines were modified and improved numerously by two leading world expert organizations ERC (European Resuscitation Council) and AHA (American Heart Association) and published in a new version every 5 years. Currently 2010 guidelines should be obliged. In this paper authors made an attempt to present history of development of resuscitation techniques and methods and assess the influence of previous lifesaving methods on nowadays technologies, equipment and guidelines which allow to help those women and men whose life is in danger due to sudden cardiac arrest.

  10. Western esotericism and the history of European science and medicine in the early modern period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jole Shackelford

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The history of science and the history of medicine were, from their beginnings as subjects in the Enlightenment and post-Enlightenment periods, hostile to esoteric ideas and practices and generally excluded them from the scope of academic study. Esoteric belief systems by definition prioritize inner knowledge, knowledge that is not attainable or transferable by the standard practices of public pedagogy, but rather is acquired by direct apprehension or by internal illumination. I call these ‘belief systems’, because people who defend esoteric knowledge do so within a worldview, a physics and metaphysics that explains and makes sense of their hopes and experiences. Such belief systems can therefore be compared with other worldviews—cosmologies in the most general sense of the term—and points of tangency, or even zones of interpenetration, can be examined. It is just such points of confrontation and zones of commonality between the occult and manifest sciences which are of particular interest to historians of science, because it is here that the disciplinary boundaries of modern science are being negotiated.

  11. Naito Konan's Misjudgement of Ancient Chinese History Note%内藤湖南对中国古代史注的误断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘治立

    2012-01-01

    Japanese scholars Naito Konan in its Chinese history in a book on ancient Chinese history note put forward many views, but many knowledge such as history note in the catalog work position, Liu Zhiji's history view, history of note in the history of injection, injection history since the relationship between the origin and history of the end of his note issues and history note the actual develop- ment inconsistent, it is necessary to clarify.%日本学者内藤湖南在其《中国史学史》一书中对中国古代史注提出了许多见解,但是许多认识如史注在目录著作中的地位、刘知几的史注观、史注与史评的关系、史书自注的肇始及史书他注的终结等问题与史注发展的实际不一致,很有必要予以澄清。

  12. Battling for History: The Impact of War upon Modern South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Nasson

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available I should like to start this talk with two disclaimers. The first is that I am acutely aware of standing in the shadow of last year's highly distinguished Turner lecturer, Professor Jeffrey Grey. Professor Grey's presence with us on this gracious occasion is a telling reminder of his professional stature as a military historian, and of my own lesser scholarly pedigree in the field. That is, being by background and inclination more of a Heinz Foods kind of historian, guilty of 57 varieties from oral history to cultural history, with a dash of war thrown in as light seasoning. The second disclaimer is the alleged topic for this brief lecture. If ever there was a case for chewing off more than one can bite, 'the impact of war upon modern South Africa' must be it. Ideally, one would need to be an A.J.P. Taylor or a John Keegan to really be able to pull this off. It must be said that I had initially considered addressing the question of the impact of the Anglo-Boer or South African War upon South African history. That would have made for some easily acceptable, straightforward verdicts. Just as A.J.P. Taylor thought memorably that the Second World War was wonderful, so we can all agree on simplicity of understanding. Boiled down to its essence, what is there to be said about the Anglo-Boer clash? In the long run, South Africa's Great War of 1899- 1902 was as crucial to the historical formation of modern South Africa as were the decisive Civil Wars of England, the United States of America, and Spain to the construction of those societies. And again, in the long run, cultivated memories of that war have fed successive nationalist illusions: firstly, the partisan fires of a resentful Afrikaner nationalism, more recently a post-apartheid South African narrative of shared white and black suffering under the heel of British imperialism. Going beyond this case study to the sweeping question of war and South Africa may risk substituting presumption for

  13. Greek-Romanian Symbiotic Patterns in the Early Modern Period: History,Mentalities, Institutions - I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Panou

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The patriarchal decree validating the establishment of the Wallachian archdiocese in 1359; a series of documents pertaining to the early history of the Koutloumousiou monastery on Mount Athos; the surviving redactions of Patriarch Niphon II's lost vita; the proceedings of the interrogation of a Greek priest arrested by the Polish authorities on charges of conspiracy and espionage; and an emphatically digressive section in Matthew of Myra's verse chronicle known as History of Wallachia. This article, of which the first part is presently published, offers a discussion of these textual materials - which span four crucial centuries of Balkan history and represent an intriguing variety of discursive practices and traditions. It aims to contribute to a deeper understanding of the intricate mechanisms that generated a climate of toleration, mobility and inter-ethnic contact in the Ottoman Balkans, enabling a symbiotic relationship between Greeks and Romanians, which found its vital space in the semi-autonomous and strategically located Danubian principalities, and endured throughout the early modern period despite having been severely undermined by opposing tendencies and conflicting interests. The two sections at hand focus on the Bishop of Myra's pivotal text, as well as on written records related to the early, and yet formative, contacts between the nascent Romanian states and the late Byzantine Empire; in the two remaining sections, which will appear in the next volume of The Historical Review, this endeavour will be brought to a conclusion by means of a (necessarily selective presentation of evidence dating from the period after the fall of Constantinople and up to the beginning of the seventeenth century.

  14. Using multiple markers to elucidate the ancient, historical and modern relationships among North American Arctic dog breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S K; Darwent, C M; Wictum, E J; Sacks, B N

    2015-12-01

    Throughout most of the Americas, post-colonial dogs largely erased the genetic signatures of pre-historical dogs. However, the North American Arctic harbors dogs that are potentially descended from pre-historical ancestors, as well as those affected by post-colonial translocations and admixtures. In particular, Inuit dogs from Canada and Greenland are thought to descend from dogs associated with Thule peoples, who relied on them for transportation ca. 1000 years ago. Whether Thule dogs reflected an earlier colonization by Paleoeskimo dogs ca. 4500 years ago is unknown. During the Alaskan Gold Rush, additional sled dogs, possibly of post-colonial derivation, the Alaskan Husky, Malamute and Siberian Husky, were used in the Arctic. The genealogical relationships among and origins of these breeds are unknown. Here we use autosomal, paternal and maternal DNA markers to (1) test the hypothesis that Inuit dogs have retained their indigenous ancestry, (2) characterize their relationship to one another and to other Arctic breeds, and (3) estimate the age of North American indigenous matrilines and patrilines. On the basis of the agreement of all three markers we determined that Inuit dogs have maintained their indigenous nature, and that they likely derive from Thule dogs. In addition, we provide support for previous research that the Inuit dogs from Canada and Greenland dog should not be distinguished as two breeds. The Alaskan Husky displayed evidence of European introgression, in contrast to the Malamute and Siberian Husky, which appear to have maintained most of their ancient Siberian ancestry.

  15. Causes for negative carbon isotope anomalies in Mesozoic marine sediments: Constraints from modern and ancient anoxic settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breugel, Y.

    2006-01-01

    Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) were short periods in Earth history (˜0.5-1 Ma) characterized by atypically high burial rates of organic carbon in marine sediments worldwide. OAEs reflect increased marine primary production and/or enhanced organic matter preservation under anoxic water column condition

  16. Causes for negative carbon isotope anomalies in Mesozoic marine sediments : Constraints from modern and ancient anoxic settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, Y. van

    2006-01-01

    Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) were short periods in Earth history (˜0.5-1 Ma) characterized by atypically high burial rates of organic carbon in marine sediments worldwide. OAEs reflect increased marine primary production and/or enhanced organic matter preservation under anoxic water column condition

  17. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Nair

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China′s mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE. Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′, we relive Emperor Shen-Nung′s contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the ′Shen Nung Benchau Jing′ (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung, archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a ′crystal-like belly′ to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung′s contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng′s resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  18. The history of ginseng in the management of erectile dysfunction in ancient China (3500-2600 BCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Rajesh; Sellaturay, Senthy; Sriprasad, Seshadri

    2012-01-01

    Emperor Shen-Nung was the second of China's mythical emperors (3500-2600 BCE). Widely considered the father of Chinese medicine, he catalogued over 365 species of medicinal plants which he personally tasted. Through his treatise 'Shen Nung Benchau Jing', we relive Emperor Shen-Nung's contribution to urology with reference to his management of erectile dysfunction. Time-related sources in medical and historical literature were reviewed, including the 'Shen Nung Benchau Jing' (The medicine book of Emperor Shen-Nung), archives and manuscripts at the Wellcome History of Medicine Collection, the Royal Society of Medicine, London, The Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences, and The Museum of Medical History, Shanghai, China. Chinese traditional herbal medicine began approximately 5000 years ago. Agricultural clan leader, Emperor Shen-Nung, was said to have a 'crystal-like belly' to watch the reactions in his own stomach of the herbs he collected. Ginseng was among of Shen Nung's contributions to herbal medicine. He experienced a warm and sexually pleasurable feeling after chewing the root. He advocated this as a treatment for erectile dysfunction and used it to stimulate sexual appetite. The reputation of ginseng as an aphrodisiac is based on the doctrine of signatures, since the adult root has a phallic shape. Shen-Nung believed that ginseng's resemblance to the human form is proof of its rejuvenative and aphrodisiac properties. It was believed that the closer the similarity to the human figure, the more potent the root. The use of ginseng for erectile dysfunction by Emperor Shen-Nung was unique for its time. It continues to hold parallels as a modern-day herbal aphrodisiac 5000 years on.

  19. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  20. Historical Thinking and Ancient Literature History Teaching%史学思维与古代文学史教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    扈耕田

    2014-01-01

    The history of Chinese literature belongs to the historical category, and the historical teaching should nat-urally follow the guideline of historical thinking. In teaching practice, the historical thinking should be implemen-ted, and the teaching should be carried out by way of explaining the text with a historical consideration, focusing on comparison, combing context, showing the reality and analyzing the background, etc. The historical thinking can not only expand students’ horizons and increase their interest in learning, but also can deepen the understanding of concept of literature, especially some of the new literary concepts so as to help form systematic knowledge and de-velop the students’ awareness of innovation and preliminary research capabilities. Therefore, while we emphasize the close reading of ancient Chinese literature in teaching and the literature regression, we should not ignore the cultivation of historical thinking.%中国古代文学史属于史学的范畴,史学思维自然是其教学应当遵循的原则。在具体的教学中,要贯彻史学思维,应当从以篇带史、注重比较、梳理脉络、真实展现、背景解析等方面着手。而史学思维不仅可以扩大学生的眼界,增加学生的学习兴趣,而且可以加深对文学理论特别是当今一些新的文学观念的理解,有助于知识的系统化,亦有助于培养学生的创新意识与初步的研究能力。因此,在强调古代文学教学中文本细读、回归文学的同时,不能忽视史学思维的培养。

  1. Ni biogeochemical cycle through geological time: insights from Ni isotope variations in modern and ancient marine metallifereous deposits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, B.; Rouxel, O.; Ponzevera, E.; Sorensen, J. V.; Toner, B.; Bekker, A.

    2011-12-01

    .g., rivers, atmosphere, and hydrothermal fluids) or sinks such as organic matter-rich sediments and Fe-Mn oxyhydroxides. Those results combined with our measurements of Ni isotope compositions of Fe-Mn crusts and IF indicate that recent and ancient seawaters were enriched in heavy Ni isotopes consistent with our initial results of Ni isotope composition of deep seawater.

  2. A brief history of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2016-04-01

    'Number rules the universe.' The Pythagoras 'If you wish to forsee the future of mathematics our course is to study the history and present conditions of the science.' Henri Poincaré 'The primary source (Urqell) of all mathematics are integers.' Hermann Minkowski This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and k-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's and Pythagorean's main contributions to elementary number theory with the main contents of the Euclid Elements of the 13-volume masterpiece of mathematical work. This is followed by Euler's new discovery of the additive number theory based on partitions of numbers. Special attention is given to many examples, Euler's theorems on partitions of numbers with geometrical representations of Ferrers' graphs, Young's diagrams, Lagrange's four-square theorem and the celebrated Waring problem. Included are Euler's generating functions for the partitions of numbers, Euler's pentagonal number theorem, Gauss' triangular and square number theorems and the Jacobi triple product identity. Applications of the theory of partitions of numbers to different statistics such as the Bose- Einstein, Fermi- Dirac, Gentile, and Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics are briefly discussed. Special attention is given to pedagogical information through historical approach to number theory so that students and teachers at the school, college and university levels can become familiar with the basic concepts of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications, and can pursue advanced study and research in analytical and computational number theory.

  3. Ecuador's YasunI Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finer, Matt [Save America' s Forests, Washington, DC (United States); Vijay, Varsha; Jenkins, Clinton N [Duke University, Durham, NC (United States); Ponce, Fernando [Ciudadanos por la Democracia, Quito (Ecuador); Kahn, Ted R, E-mail: matt@saveamericasforests.or [Neotropical Conservation Foundation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2009-07-15

    Ecuador's YasunI Man and the Biosphere Reserve-located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator-is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The YasunI Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting YasunI more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the YasunI region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, YasunI National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative YasunI-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  4. Ecuador's Yasuní Biosphere Reserve: a brief modern history and conservation challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Vijay, Varsha; Ponce, Fernando; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Kahn, Ted R.

    2009-07-01

    Ecuador's Yasuní Man and the Biosphere Reserve—located at the intersection of the Amazon, the Andes mountains, and the equator—is home to extraordinary biodiversity and a recently contacted Amazonian indigenous group known as the Waorani (or Huaorani). Relatives of the Waorani, the Tagaeri and Taromenane, still live in voluntary isolation deep in the reserve, with no peaceful contact with the outside world. The Yasuní Biosphere Reserve also sits atop large reserves of crude oil, Ecuador's chief export, and contains an abundance of valuable timber species. This volatile combination has led to intense conflicts, and subsequently, increased international interest and concern. To make the issues confronting Yasuní more accessible to a growing audience of interested parties, we synthesized information on the biological, social, and political issues of the region, providing a concise overview of its modern history and conservation challenges. We constructed a chronology of key events in the Yasuní region over the past century and a series of maps designed to guide readers to a better understanding of the area's complicated array of overlapping designations. Main topics of analysis and discussion include: the Waorani and their ancestors living in voluntary isolation, Yasuní National Park, illegal logging, missionary impacts, oil-development-related impacts and conflicts, and the Ecuadorian government's innovative Yasuní-ITT Initiative (ITT: Ishpingo-Tiputini-Tambococha).

  5. “入声非声”说献疑%Discussion of the Entering Tone is Not a Type of Tone in Ancient and Modern Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小雷

    2015-01-01

    “入声”是中古韵书以及到现代方言研究中的一个重要概念。关于入声的性质,主要有“入声为声”和“入声非声”两种观点。夏中易在前人基础上对入声的性质做了较全面的研究,认为入声的内涵是指塞音韵尾,入声韵的声调是平上去调位的变体。但结合音位学“区别特征”的理论,发现夏先生的音位归纳存在一些问题。中古汉语音节可以分为舒声调系和促声调系,入声作为促声调系和平上去形成的舒声调系相并立。%Entering tone is an important concept in ancient and modern Chinese dialect,which has always been taken as a type of tone Some scholars argue that entering tone is not a type of tone, only a glottal stop.XiaZhongyi emphasized that more.However, some others thought that the entering tone is an independent tone category, which co-exists as the “Cu-tone System” and the“Shu-tone System” in modern Chinese.

  6. Activation of the Nrf2 Cell Defense Pathway by Ancient Foods: Disease Prevention by Important Molecules and Microbes Lost from the Modern Western Diet.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donald R Senger

    Full Text Available The Nrf2 (NFE2L2 cell defense pathway protects against oxidative stress and disorders including cancer and neurodegeneration. Although activated modestly by oxidative stress alone, robust activation of the Nrf2 defense mechanism requires the additional presence of co-factors that facilitate electron exchange. Various molecules exhibit this co-factor function, including sulforaphane from cruciferous vegetables. However, natural co-factors that are potent and widely available from dietary sources have not been identified previously. The objectives of this study were to investigate support of the Nrf2 cell defense pathway by the alkyl catechols: 4-methylcatechol, 4-vinylcatechol, and 4-ethylcatechol. These small electrochemicals are naturally available from numerous sources but have not received attention. Findings reported here illustrate that these compounds are indeed potent co-factors for activation of the Nrf2 pathway both in vitro and in vivo. Each strongly supports expression of Nrf2 target genes in a variety of human cell types; and, in addition, 4-ethylcatechol is orally active in mice. Furthermore, findings reported here identify important and previously unrecognized sources of these compounds, arising from biotransformation of common plant compounds by lactobacilli that express phenolic acid decarboxylase. Thus, for example, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus collinoides, which are consumed from a diet rich in traditionally fermented foods and beverages, convert common phenolic acids found in fruits and vegetables to 4-vinylcatechol and/or 4-ethylcatechol. In addition, all of the alkyl catechols are found in wood smoke that was used widely for food preservation. Thus, the potentially numerous sources of alkyl catechols in traditional foods suggest that these co-factors were common in ancient diets. However, with radical changes in food preservation, alkyl catechols have been lost from modern foods. The

  7. [Living in abundance in the ancient and modern worlds from a medical and cultural-historical point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertz, D P

    2014-06-01

    Comparative investigations centre on attitudes of demand and consumption in ethnic groups living in affluence, beginning with the first pre-Christian century in the Roman Empire on the one hand and in Western countries in the post-industrial age of hight-tech in times of far advanced globalization on the other. In this context medical, psycho-social and socio-economical aspects will be treated considering ideal and cultural breaks. Renowned Roman and Greek historians, physicians and philosophers are vouching as witnesses of the times for developments in the antique world with their literary works, in excerpts and verbatim. Obviously general moral decay is a side effect of any affluence. Even in the antiquitiy the "ideology of renewal" proclaimed by the Emperor Augustus died away mostly in emptiness just as do the appeals for improving one's state of health for surviving directed to all citizens in our time. With the rise of Rome as a world power general relative affluence was widespread to such an extent that diseases caused by affluence have occured as mass phenomena. The old Roman virtues of temperance and frugality turned into greed and addiction to pleasure. In this way the Roman people under the banner of affluence degenerated into a society of leisure time, consumption, fun and throwaway mentality. The decline of the Empire was predetermined. The promise of affluence which modern Europe is addicted to is demanding its price following the principle of causality. "How the pictures resemble each other!"

  8. [Trends in research on the history of medicine in Korea before the modern era].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dongwon

    2010-06-30

    Research on the history of medicine in Korea in the form of modern scholarship began with the publication in 1930 of Yi Neunghwa's "A History of the Development of Medicine in Korea." The purpose of the present study lies in surveying studies on the history of medicine in Korea in the past 80 years since the publication of Yi's paper. In terms of periodization, research on the history of medicine in Korea is bifurcated by the publication of two comprehensive histories-i. e., Miki Sakae's A History of Medicine and Disease in Korea (1963) and Kim Du-jong's The Complete History of Medicine in Korea (1966). Indeed, all earlier studies converged in these two books. Because Miki and Kim both had majored in Western medicine and conducted research based on similar perspectives, data, and methods, the two works overlap considerably, and Kim's book, as the later of the two, unfortunately lost the initiative to the former to a considerable extent. As a result of these two scholars' research, it became possible to trace the overall flow of the history of medicine in Korea. Following the publication of works by Miki and Kim and with the advent of the 1980's, research on the history of medicine in premodern Korea was renovated with the emergence of no fewer than some dozen new doctoral degree holders in the field. In fact, these young scholars went beyond surveying trends in each era to expand the scope of specific discussions and topics per era, to delve into the actual contents, and to elucidate the function of medicine in society. The fruits of studies conducted in the past 80 years on the history of medicine in premodern Korea can be summarized as follows. 1) before the 5th century AD: the existence of a comprehensive medical practice in regions inhabited by those considered to be the ancestors of the Korean people; and information on medication including ginseng. 2) 5th-10th centuries: the existence of professional medical posts; the management of medicine by the royal

  9. The Research into Pressing Points of Ancient and Modern Times%点按法应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢巧瑜; 廖军; 黄萍萍; 郑春水; 张乐; 郑佳璇

    2016-01-01

    Pressing points is one of the most common basic manipulation,and widely used in treating all kinds of diseases in clinical practice.It has very good functions of warming meridians and expelling cold and stopping cold,unblocking and activating meridians,clearing away heat and calming mind and astringing.It has small contact area,good penetration,and is widely applicable to all parts of the body,so it is often clinically used to treat all kinds of diseases,mainly especially in bone and soft tissue injury,especially old injury in muscles or deep bone or pain points of obstinate arthralgia.The modern medical research into pressing points focuses on biomechanics of the technique,including researching and producing biomechanics of the technique determination instrument,achieving mutual penetration between subjects;Biomechanics indexes of the technique:direction and size and continued time;In terms of working mechanism,mainly into analgesic mechanism aspects involving neurological,circulatory,immunology of modern medicine.However,the working mechanism of pressing points has not been fully revealed yet,the technique standards including mechanical quantitative standard needs further exploring.What's more,besides strengthening both the experimental and clinical studies,thinking and reform of technique teaching should not be ignored in order to promote construction and development of massage subject,and better serve the cause of human health.%点按法是临床上最常用的基础手法之一,被广泛应用于临床各种疾病.点按法具有较好的温经散寒止痛、开通闭塞活络、清热安神收敛功效.点按法接触面积小,有较好的深透性,可广泛应用于全身各个部位,因此常用于治疗临床各科病证.其中以骨伤科和软组织损伤方面居多,特别是对肌肉或骨缝深处的旧伤或顽痹之痛点,有明显“以痛止痛”的作用.现代医学对点按法实验研究大多围绕手法的生物力学进行研究,主要包

  10. "Sour gas" hydrothermal jarosite: Ancient to modern acid-sulfate mineralization in the southern Rio Grande Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lueth, V.W.; Rye, R.O.; Peters, L.

    2005-01-01

    As many as 29 mining districts along the Rio Grande Rift in southern New Mexico contain Rio Grande Rift-type (RGR) deposits consisting of fluorite-barite??sulfide-jarosite, and additional RGR deposits occur to the south in the Basin and Range province near Chihuahua, Mexico. Jarosite occurs in many of these deposits as a late-stage hydrothermal mineral coprecipitated with fluorite, or in veinlets that crosscut barite. In these deposits, many of which are limestone-hosted, jarosite is followed by natrojarosite and is nested within silicified or argillized wallrock and a sequence of fluorite-barite??sulfide and late hematite-gypsum. These deposits range in age from ???10 to 0.4 Ma on the basis of 40Ar/39Ar dating of jarosite. There is a crude north-south distribution of ages, with older deposits concentrated toward the south. Recent deposits also occur in the south, but are confined to the central axis of the rift and are associated with modern geothermal systems. The duration of hydrothermal jarosite mineralization in one of the deposits was approximately 1.0 my. Most ??18OSO4-OH values indicate that jarosite precipitated between 80 and 240 ??C, which is consistent with the range of filling temperatures of fluid inclusions in late fluorite throughout the rift, and in jarosite (180 ??C) from Pen??a Blanca, Chihuahua, Mexico. These temperatures, along with mineral occurrence, require that the jarosite have had a hydrothermal origin in a shallow steam-heated environment wherein the low pH necessary for the precipitation of jarosite was achieved by the oxidation of H2S derived from deeper hydrothermal fluids. The jarosite also has high trace-element contents (notably As and F), and the jarosite parental fluids have calculated isotopic signatures similar to those of modern geothermal waters along the southern rift; isotopic values range from those typical of meteoric water to those of deep brine that has been shown to form from the dissolution of Permian evaporite by

  11. Iron isotopes in ancient and modern komatiites: Evidence in support of an oxidised mantle from Archean to present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, K. E. J.; Williams, H. M.; Kerr, A. C.; Puchtel, I. S.

    2012-03-01

    The mantle of the modern Earth is relatively oxidised compared to the initially reducing conditions inferred for core formation. The timing of the oxidation of the mantle is not conclusively resolved but has important implications for the timing of the development of the hydrosphere and atmosphere. In order to examine the timing of this oxidation event, we present iron isotope data from three exceptionally well preserved komatiite localities, Belingwe (2.7 Ga), Vetreny (2.4 Ga) and Gorgona (0.089 Ga). Measurements of Fe isotope compositions of whole-rock samples are complemented by the analysis of olivine, spinel and pyroxene separates. Bulk-rock and olivine Fe isotope compositions (δ57Fe) define clear linear correlations with indicators of magmatic differentiation (Mg#, Cr#). The mean Fe isotope compositions of the 2.7-2.4 Ga and 0.089 Ga samples are statistically distinct and this difference can be explained by greater extent of partial melting represented by the older samples and higher mantle ambient temperatures in the Archean and early Proterozoic relative to the present day. Significantly, samples of all ages define continuous positive linear correlations between bulk rock δ57Fe and V/Sc and δ57Fe and V, and between V/Sc and V with TiO2, providing evidence for the incompatible behaviour of V (relative to Sc) and of isotopically heavy Fe. Partial melting models calculated using partition coefficients for V at oxygen fugacities (fO2s) of 0 and + 1 relative to the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer (FMQ) best match the data arrays, which are defined by all samples, from late Archean to Tertiary. These data, therefore, provide evidence for komatiite generation under moderately oxidising conditions since the late Archean, and argue against a change in mantle fO2 concomitant with atmospheric oxygenation at ~ 2.4 Ga.

  12. Ancient versus modern mineral dust transported to high-altitude alpine glaciers evidences saharan sources and atmospheric circulation changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Thevenon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mineral dust aerosols collected during the years 2008/09 at the high-altitude research station Jungfraujoch (46°33' N, 7°59' E; 3580 m a.s.l. were compared to windblown mineral dust deposited at the Colle Gnifetti glacier (45°55' N, 7°52' E, 4455 m a.s.l. over the last millennium. Insoluble dust has been characterized in terms of mineralogy, Sr and Nd isotopic ratios, and trace element composition. Results demonstrate that the Saharan origin of the airborne dust did not change significantly throughout the past. Backward trajectories analysis of modern analogs furthermore confirms that major dust sources are situated in the north-central to north-western part of the Saharan desert. By contrast, less radiogenic Sr isotopic compositions are associated with lower abundances of crustal elements during low rates of dust deposition, suggesting intercontinental transport of background dust rather than activation of a secondary source. Saharan dust mobilization and meridional advection of air masses were relatively reduced during the second part of the Little Ice Age (ca. 1690–1870, except within the greatest Saharan dust event deposited around 1780–1790. Higher dust deposition with larger mean grain size and Saharan fingerprint began ca. 20 years after the industrial revolution of 1850, suggesting that increased mineral dust transport over the Alps during the last century was primarily due to drier winters in North Africa and stronger spring/summer North Atlantic southwesterlies, rather than to direct anthropogenic sources. Meanwhile, increasing carbonaceous particle emissions from fossil fuels combustion combined to higher lead enrichment factor during the last century, point to concomitant anthropogenic sources of particulate pollutants reaching high-altitude European glaciers.

  13. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today's Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A; Moftah, Marie Z; Karim, Ahmed A

    2016-01-01

    A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, "women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions." According to Banduras' social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today's gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today's gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today's gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura's social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research.

  14. How Knowledge of Ancient Egyptian Women Can Influence Today’s Gender Role: Does History Matter in Gender Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Radwa; Moustafa, Ahmed A.; Moftah, Marie Z.; Karim, Ahmed A.

    2017-01-01

    A gender role is a set of societal norms dictating what types of behaviors are considered desirable or appropriate for a person based on their sex. However, socially constructed gender roles can lead to equal rights between genders but also to severe disadvantages and discrimination with a remarkable variety between different countries. Based on social indicators and gender statistics, “women in the Arab region are on average more disadvantaged economically, politically, and socially than women in other regions.” According to Banduras’ social learning theory, we argue that profound knowledge of the historical contributions of Ancient Egyptian female pioneers in science, arts, and even in ruling Egypt as Pharaohs can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and Middle Eastern countries. Therefore, this article provides an elaborate review of the gender role of women in Ancient Egypt, outlining their prominence, influence, and admiration in ancient societies, and discusses the possible psychological impact of this knowledge on today’s gender role. We suggest that future empirical research should investigate how enhancing the knowledge of women from Ancient Egypt can improve today’s gender role in Egypt and the Middle East. Bandura’s social learning theory is outlined as a possible framework for future research. PMID:28105022

  15. Face facts: a history of physiognomy from ancient Mesopotamia to the end of the 19th century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkinson, J

    1997-01-01

    Inscribed on the face is a code, the translation of which has entertained and eluded humankind for many centuries. The practice of reading the face dates back as early as the paleobabylonian period in Mesopotamia. It wasn't until much later, however, that this ancient tradition was named.

  16. Evolutionary and biogeographical history of an ancient and global group of arachnids (Arachnida: Opiliones: Cyphophthalmi) with a new taxonomic arrangement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giribet, Gonzalo; Sharma, Prashant P.; Benavides, Ligia R.

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the phylogeny, biogeography, time of origin and diversification, ancestral area reconstruction and large-scale distributional patterns of an ancient group of arachnids, the harvestman suborder Cyphophthalmi. Analysis of molecular and morphological data allow us to propose a new cla...

  17. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  18. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  19. 望山与表尺--古今瞄准具名称对比%“Wangshan” and “Rear Sight”-Comparing Analysis between Ancient and Modern Sight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨涤非

    2014-01-01

    “Wangshan” is one of the components of the ancient sight. lt served a same purpose to the rear sight of modern rifles and machine guns. As a result of paraphrase, “biaochi”( rear sight ) is more accurate and connotational than word-for-word translation. Paraphrase always has the advantages of the translation of the foreign terminology through contrast on ancient terminology and modern terminology.%望山是古代瞄准具的一个组成部分,相当于现代步、机枪上的表尺,两者的功用基本相同。将英文的rear sight意译为表尺比直译为后瞄准具要准确并更具内涵。

  20. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  1. A Study on Several Issues Concerning the Modern History of Urban Planning in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang; Song; Zhang; Qingfei

    2015-01-01

    Since its modernization, China’s New Deal of the late Qing Dynasty have brought about municipal administrative reforms in such aspects as town autonomy. This article reviews the modernization and westernization process of China’s modern urban administrative system, based on which it explores the municipal administrative system’s reform and changes in urban form, the construction of laws and regulations concerning antiquities preservation, as well as modern urban plans in relation to city wall demolition in traditional Chinese cities. Finally, the article refl ects on a series of historical facts, including the publication of the Encyclopedia of Municipal Administration through which the introduction of Western planning theories was refl ected, as well as on the modern municipal planning practices carried out by Sun Ke and other historical fi gures, thus illustrating the practical signifi cance of historical research on China’s modern urban planning.

  2. 我国古代散文研究的两种研究之对比--读两种散文史中欧阳修散文论所想到的%Comparisons of Two Types of Researches on Ancient Prose in China--Impressions from Ou Yangxiu’s Prose in Two Books of Prose History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董鹏; 赵雪琪

    2013-01-01

    陈平原的《中国散文小说史》和顾彬的《中国文学史•中国古典散文》都设有欧阳修散文论的章节。两家所言实际上反映出古代散文研究的两种普遍存在的突出倾向,即一是从研究现代散文的经验出发来研究古代散文;一是从西方美文的观念出发来研究中国古代散文。前者看重古代散文中和现代散文面目相似的作品;后者径直以所谓边缘性、附带性、分散性、私秘性作为中国古代散文的特性。这些似乎都有悖于从古代散文创作实际、批评实际出发研究古代散文的基本原则,因而,所得结论未必尽能深中肯綮。%There are chapters of Ou Yangxiu's prose theory in CHEN Ping-yuan’s Chinese prose fiction History and Gu Bin’s Chinese Literature History.Chinese Classical Prose. These two books reflect two tendencies in ancient prose studies in China. One is that studying ancient prose from the experiences of studying modern prose and another is that studying ancient prose from the aspect of studying western prose. The former value the similarities in the ancient prose and modern prose. The latter labels the ancient prose in China with features of marginalization, adherence, dispersion and secrecy. Both of the two tendencies seem to be against the basic principles of studying Chinese ancient prose from the aspect of creation and criticism of reality. Therefore, the conclusion they have reached may not quite to the point.

  3. Pitfalls in comparing modern hair and fossil bone collagen C and N isotopic data to reconstruct ancient diets: a case study with cave bears (Ursus spelaeus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocherens, Hervé; Grandal-d'Anglade, Aurora; Hobson, Keith A

    2014-01-01

    Stable isotope analyses provide one of the few means to evaluate diet of extinct taxa. However, interpreting isotope data from bone collagen of extinct animals based on isotopic patterns in different tissues of modern animal proxies is precarious. For example, three corrections are needed before making comparisons of recent hair and ancient bone collagen: calibration of carbon-13 variations in atmospheric CO2, different isotopic discrimination between diet-hair keratin and diet-bone collagen, and time averaging of bone collagen versus short-term record in hair keratin. Recently, Robu et al. [Isotopic evidence for dietary flexibility among European Late Pleistocene cave bears (Ursus spelaeus). Can J Zool. 2013;91:227-234] published an article comparing extant carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) stable isotopic data of European cave bear bone collagen with those of Yellowstone Park grizzly bear hair in order to test the prevailing assumption of a largely vegetarian diet among cave bears. The authors concluded that cave bears were carnivores. This work is unfortunately unfounded as the authors failed to consider the necessary corrections listed above. When these corrections are applied to the Romanian cave bears, these individuals can be then interpreted without involving consumption of high trophic-level food, and environmental changes are probably the reason for the unusual isotopic composition of these cave bears in comparison with other European cave bears, rather than a change of diet. We caution researchers to pay careful attention to these factors when interpreting feeding ecology of extinct fauna using stable isotope techniques.

  4. Between history, criticism, and wit: texts and images of English modern architecture (1933-36

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Rosso

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available It has often been remarked that modern architecture in Britain began late and that its emergence largely depended on the contribution of a massive influx of European exiles seeking refuge from the political and racial persecution of totalitarian regimes. In the attempt to discard the tired narrative of Britain’s insular modernism as a mere echo of continental European achievements, an alternative historiography has recently directed attention to Britain’s own distinctive and original version of modern architecture in the 1930s. Through the examination of a small group of articles, books and pamphlets on English modern architecture written by English authors and published in the mid-1930s, this paper argues that the emergence of a distinctive version of architectural modernism in Britain was paralleled by the development of an equally original brand of architectural criticism and historiography.

  5. A Military History of Modern Egypt from the Ottoman Conquest to the Ramadan War

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-01

    2 face of the country from the pyramids of Upper Egypt to the rock tombs in the Valley of the Kings, to the Old Kingdom temples of Luxor and Karnak...Princeton University Press, 1976. Yadin, Yigael. The Art of Warfare in Biblical Lands in the Light of Archaeological Study, 2 vols. London and New York...de Borchgrave in Newsweek magazine (March 1973): 34-35. Lawrence, A. W. “Ancient Egyptian Fortifications.” Journal of Egyptian Archaeology 51, (1965

  6. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  7. A "Great Roads" Approach to Teaching Modern World History and Latin American Regional Survey Courses: A Veracruz to Mexico City Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, James Seay, Jr.; Sullivan-Gonzalez, Douglass

    2002-01-01

    Outlines an innovative way of teaching "World History Since 1500" at Samford University (Birmingham, Alabama) called the "great roads" approach, centered upon important roads in a country's history. Presents the "Veracruz to Mexico City corridor" case study used to teach a Latin American modern history course. (CMK)

  8. New drugs from ancient natural foods. Oleocanthal, the natural occurring spicy compound of olive oil: a brief history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; Abella, Vanessa; Lopez, Veronica; Pino, Jesús; Lago, Francisca; Smith, Amos B; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste

    2015-04-01

    Extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO), a principal component of the Mediterranean diet (Med diet), is one of the most ancient known foods and has long been associated with health benefits. Many phenolic compounds extracted from Olea europea L. have attracted attention since their discovery. Among these phenolic constituents, oleocanthal has recently emerged as a potential therapeutic molecule for different diseases, showing relevant pharmacological properties in various pathogenic processes, including inflammation, cancers and neurodegenerative diseases. Here, we discuss and summarize the most recent pharmacological evidence for the medical relevance of oleocanthal, focusing our attention on its anti-inflammatory and chemotherapeutic roles.

  9. Ancient advice for modern mariners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, David A.

    Some unusual preparations may be advised for persons anticipating voyages in sailing research vessels. For example, cooking facilities on sailing ships tend to be of modest means, and a scientist embarking on such a vessel may wonder whether he should bring his own essential provisions. Casting about for ideas, I happened on some relevant advice from Benjamin Franklin, who was seldom reluctant to sermonize on matters at hand. In spite of his numerous Atlantic crossings, Franklin was humble about offering advice to mariners, who he realized were generally suspicious of landlubbers.

  10. The "Social Frameworks" of Teaching High School History: Teaching as Part of the Modernization of Québec Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis LeVasseur

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The teaching of academic subjects does not constitute an enclave within society; nor can it be reduced to the initial training teachers receive, training which is, in Quebec, primarily psychoeducational, disciplinary, didactic, curricular and practical. Teachers do use justifications for their teaching that proceed fromthe disciplinary, didactic, curricular and even professional logics that predominate in their initial training, as well as "extra-professional" justifications that refer more broadly to a changing society and culture, to a vast movement modernizing Western societies with which the empowerment of the subject can be associated. History teachers get professional training that prepares them to teach. However, their teaching is, perhaps even more fundamentally, shaped bysocial frameworks that are external to that training, suggesting that how history is taught is heavily influenced by extra-academic social and cultural structures. Based on remarks from history teachers, we will see that how they justify what they teach relates directly to these structures.

  11. The influence of life history and sexual dimorphism on entheseal changes in modern humans and African great apes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Milella

    Full Text Available Entheseal changes have been widely studied with regard to their correlation to biomechanical stress and their usefulness for biocultural reconstructions. However, anthropological and medical studies have demonstrated the marked influence of both age and sex on the development of these features. Studies of entheseal changes are mostly aimed in testing functional hypotheses and are mostly focused on modern humans, with few data available for non-human primates. The lack of comparative studies on the effect of age and sex on entheseal changes represent a gap in our understanding of the evolutionary basis of both development and degeneration of the human musculoskeletal system. The aim of the present work is to compare age trajectories and patterns of sexual dimorphism in entheseal changes between modern humans and African great apes. To this end we analyzed 23 postcranial entheses in a human contemporary identified skeletal collection (N = 484 and compared the results with those obtained from the analysis of Pan (N = 50 and Gorilla (N = 47 skeletal specimens. Results highlight taxon-specific age trajectories possibly linked to differences in life history schedules and phyletic relationships. Robusticity trajectories separate Pan and modern humans from Gorilla, whereas enthesopathic patterns are unique in modern humans and possibly linked to their extended potential lifespan. Comparisons between sexes evidence a decreasing dimorphism in robusticity from Gorilla, to modern humans to Pan, which is likely linked to the role played by size, lifespan and physical activity on robusticity development. The present study confirms previous hypotheses on the possible relevance of EC in the study of life history, pointing moreover to their usefulness in evolutionary studies.

  12. Women and Science:Modern Times Bring Better Opportunities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    MODERN science was developed from religious theology but theology excluded women. So only men populated the world of science in ancient times. Perhaps there lived some women inventors in history. But in the Dark Ages they might have been sentenced to death. Even great scientists such as Galileo and Copernicus didn’t escape the

  13. 基于本体的中风病康复古今术语库构建方法研究%Method of Constructing Ancient and Modern Terminology Database of Stroke Rehabilitation Based on Ontology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林晓华; 林丹红; 陶静

    2012-01-01

    目的 尝试解决中医药领域存在的古今概念差异、词义模糊、同义词、一词多义的问题,为利用古籍知识提供便利,进一步为中风病康复学科发展提供术语支撑.方法 以中风病康复为切入点,收集中风病康复古今的概念、术语、词串等,确定领域的关键概念,解析概念并分析领域中存在的语义关系,将分散的中风病康复知识有序组织起来,采用本体技术探索中风病康复术语库的构建方法.结果 通过收集中风病康复古今的概念、术语、词串等,应用本体构建工具尝试性建立小型古今术语库并可以对术语库进行查询与图形化显示.结论 本体作为形式化的知识表示体系,是构建领域知识的有效方法,有利于中风病康复领域古今概念的沟通,对中医药领域隐性知识的挖掘、发现与利用具有重要的意义.%Objective To resolve the problem of this field including differences between ancient and modern concept, fuzzy meaning, synonyms, polysemy, then can use the knowledge in ancient book better and provide terminology support for development of stroke rehabilitation. Methods Explore on the method of constructing ancient and modern terminology database of stroke rehabilitation based on ontology, through collecting concepts, terminologys, strings in domin of stroke rehabilitation, defining the core concepts and analyzing the relationshop between concepts, then using software of ontology to construct the terminology database of stroke rehabilitation. Results Through collecting concepts, terminologys, strings in domin of stroke rehabilitation, we try to constructe a small ancient and modern terminology database of stroke rehabilitation with the technology of ontology, then query and graphical display this database. Conclusion Ontology is an effective way to construct field knowledge and communicate the ancient and modern concept of rehabilitation of stroke.

  14. Historia de la virtud que buscamos: del aristotelismo a la modernidad = History of the virtue we seek: from aristotelism to modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannina Burlando

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available En la discusión actual sobre la ciudanía en democracia es central admitir una crisis en la educación (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Resulta inevitable, así, desde una perspectiva de la historia de la filosofía, citar lo enseñado por máximos teóricos políticos, si queremos comprender por qué la imagen educativa antigua resulta problemática y no del todo satisfactoria para los estados democráticos de hoy. Sin duda la educación ha sido responsable de la formación del carácter y de la opinión de las personas. Pero al observar la historia de la institución, parece claro que se propone no solo formar los hábitos de las personas, sino acotar sus conocimientos de tal modo que prevalezcan un conjunto de opiniones por sobre otras (RUSSELL, 1961. Nuestro propósito es develar los supuestos teóricos de las doctrinas políticas de dos figuras representativas de la antigüedad y modernidad: Aristóteles y Locke, respectivamente. Nuestro alcance ulterior será abrir la reflexión acerca de si la imagen antigua de la virtud, o su antagonismo o posible uso en el liberalismo tiene algún poder representacional para reflejar las condiciones actuales de equidad y justicia buscadas en la vida ciudadana en democracias estables de Latino América.Within the actual debate on citizenship within democracy, admitting a crisis in educational matters is highly relevant (NUSSBAUM, 2010; BERKOWITZ, 2001. Thus, if we want to understand why the ancient educational image is problematic and unsatisfying to the citizens of democratic governments, it is unavoidable, from the history of philosophy point of view, to quote the teaching of preeminent political theorists. Needless to say, the power of education in forming people’s character and opinions is widely recognized. Nonetheless, by looking at the history of the institution, it seems obvious that its purpose is not only to form habits but to circumscribe the knowledge of the persons in such a way as to

  15. General---a Basic Method of Teaching in Chinese Ancient History%通--古代史教学的一个基本方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文武

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient history is an important part of Chinese brief history courses in Children Teachers’ School. The key of accomplishing teaching,task of Chinese ancient history is to build a sense of connection about thousands of years’ history among students,to hold the relationships between transverse and longitudinal, concrete features of each dynasty and their connections , the most important part is to emphasize one word“general”.In history textbooks, it only monotonously talk about politics, economic,cultures and class struggle severally. And there are no summaries on general properties and historical status of each dynasty, the connections among each dynasty , period, system and culture are still ambiguous.“General Theory”should be taught at the beginning of each dynasty,try to guide students to establish the sense of“general”by applying exams.%中国古代史是幼儿师范学校中国通史课程的重要组成部分。要完成古代史教学任务,关键在于培养学生对几千年历史的贯通联系感,把握好横向与纵向、各代具体特点与前后联系之间的关系,其最主要的还是要突出一个“通”字。历史教科书中每个朝代都是千篇一律的单层面的政治、经济、文化、阶级斗争的分别叙述,不见各代综合特点和历史地位的概述,各朝代之间、各时代之间、各种制度、各种文化之间的联系却仍然不清。在每个朝代开始前都要先讲“通论”,用考试这根指挥棒引导学生树立“通”的观念。

  16. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  17. Influence of climate on deep-water clastic sedimentation: application of a modern model, Peru-Chile Trough, to an ancient system, Ouachita Trough

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgar, N. Terence; Cecil, C. Blaine

    2003-01-01

    Traditionally, an abrupt and massive influx of siliciclastic sediments into an area of deposition has been attributed to tectonic uplift without consideration of the influence of climate or climatic change on rates of weathering, erosion, transportation, and deposition. With few exceptions, fluvial sediment transport is minimal in both extremely arid climates and in perhumid (everwet) climates. Maximum sediment transport occurs in climates characterized by strongly seasonal rainfall, where the effect of vegetation on erosion is minimal. The Peru–Chile trench and Andes Mountain system (P–CT/AMS) of the eastern Pacific Ocean clearly illustrates the effects of climate on rates of weathering, erosion, transport, and deep-sea sedimentation. Terrigenous sediment is virtually absent in the arid belt north of lat. 30° S in the P–CT, but in the belt of seasonal rainfall south of lat. 30° S terrigenous sediment is abundant. Spatial variations in the amount and seasonality of annual precipitation are now generally accepted as the cause for this difference. The spatial variation in sediment supply to the P–CT appears to be an excellent modern analogue for the temporal variation in sediment supply to certain ancient systems, such as the Ouachita Trough in the southern United States. By comparison, during the Ordovician through the early Mississippian, sediment was deposited at very slow rates as the Ouachita Trough moved northward through the southern hemisphere dry belt (lat. 10° S to lat. 30° S). The deposystem approached the tropical humid zone during the Mississippian, coincident with increased coarse clastic sedimentation. By the Middle Pennsylvanian (Atokan), the provenance area and the deposystem moved well into the tropical humid zone, and as much as 8,500 m of mineralogically mature (but texturally immature) quartz sand was introduced and deposited. This increase in clastic sediment deposition traditionally has been attributed solely to tectonic activity

  18. Formalization and Interaction: Toward a Comprehensive History of Technology-Related Knowledge in Early Modern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popplow, Marcus

    2015-12-01

    Recent critical approaches to what has conventionally been described as "scientific" and "technical" knowledge in early modern Europe have provided a wealth of new insights. So far, the various analytical concepts suggested by these studies have not yet been comprehensively discussed. The present essay argues that such comprehensive approaches might prove of special value for long-term and cross-cultural reflections on technology-related knowledge. As heuristic tools, the notions of "formalization" and "interaction" are proposed as part of alternative narratives to those highlighting the emergence of "science" as the most relevant development for technology-related knowledge in early modern Europe.

  19. Two Questions in "Studies in the Ancient History of Japan" of Hiroshi Ikeuchi%关于《日本上古史研究--日鲜关系与日本书纪》中存在的两个问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈俊达

    2014-01-01

    As a famous historian and Oriental history scholar in modern Japan, Ikeuchi Hiroshi made great achievements in his life, especially in the fields of Manchu history and Korean history. He is the pioneer who studied Japanese history and Oriental history through new methods of historical research in Europe and America. His ideas of ' doubt ' and ' distinguishment ' towards historical materials in "Studies in the Ancient History of Japan" provided guides for historical research. However, there were some questions in the book as well, because of the times ' and personal limitations. For example, both "Nihon Shoki" and the national power of Japan in fourth century lacked enough textual research on annals.%日本近代著名的历史学家、东洋史学家池内宏在《日本上古史研究---日鲜关系与日本书纪》中体现出的对史料的质疑与辨伪的思想,对史学研究具有重要的指导作用。但由于时代及个人局限,书中同样存在一些问题。如对《日本书纪》中纪年考辨不足,对四世纪日本国力考辨不足等。

  20. A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTRODUCTION OF MODERN SCIENCE TO PORTUGAL DURING THE 18th CENTURY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA CASTELÃO-LAWLESS

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The focus of this article is on the role played by members of the Society of Jesus, the Order of the Oratorians, and the Jewish community in the introduction of Modern science in Portugal during the 18th century. The record of their publications prove, contrary to common stereotypes on the permanent conflict between science and religion, that they all embraced Modern, anti-Aristotelian, natural philosophy fairly equally and unreservedly. The rhetoric they used in manuscript Dedications to prospective patrons also show that they were actively engaged in shifting Modern science from a context of private consumption to one of public circulation. I acknowledgethat the dissemination of Modern science in Portugal during the 1700’s was slow and protracted. This phenomenon, however, was not, as typically argued, caused by scientific conservatism on the part of the religious Orders, or the ill will of patrons of the sciences, but by the political motives of enlightened despots João V, José I and his Prime-Minister the Marquis of Pombal.

  1. [Knowledge of the "Gräfenberg zone" and female ejaculation in ancient Indian sexual science. A medical history contribution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, R

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Indian texts in sexology (kamaśastra) from the 11th century onwards prove that their authors knew about the area later termed the "Gräfenberg zone" in Europe, as well as about the female ejaculation connected with the stimulation of this area. The Gräfenberg zone is a sexually arousable zone in the front part of the vagina, stimulation of which can lead to the discharge of liquid from the urethra, a phenomenon which is described as female ejaculation. The german gynaecologist Ernst Gräfenberg, who worked in America, described this zone, situated beneath the clitoris, for the first time (at least in this century) in Western medicine in an article published in 1950. (There are, however, evidences, that the 17th-century anatomist Regnier de Graaf had knowledge about the mentioned erogenous zone as well as female ejaculation.) Since the 1980s the so-called Gräfenberg zone, popularly termed "G-spot", and female ejaculation have been controversially discussed medically as well as in popular science, first in the United States, then in Europe; both phenomena have meanwhile been accepted as facts in medical manuals and reference books (e.g. the "Pschyrembel"). Whereas the oldest and most well-known sexological-erotological work of Ancient India, the Kamasutra, dating probably from the third century A.D., apparently did not know the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, texts such as the Pañcasayaka (11th century), Jayamangala (Yaśodhara's commentary on the Kamasutra from the 13th century), the Ratirahasya (13th century), as well as the late kamaśastra-works Smaradipika and Anangaranga (16th century?) demonstrably describe both, the Gräfenberg zone and female ejaculation, in great detail. The female ejaculation is described already in the 7th century in a non-kamaśastra-text, in a work of the poet Amaru called the Amaruśataka.

  2. Archive and museum: the medieval and early modern section of the historical archive of the civic museums of ancient art in Bologna, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giancarlo Benevolo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A museum’s historical archive contains the documents relating to past administration and conservation, providing an understanding of both the museum’s history and its various collections. In many cases, the archive is composed of heterogeneous writings, whose variety makes them invaluable also for the study of the cultural atmosphere in which the institution was born and operated. This is especially true in the case of the “musei civici”, Italy’s municipal museums. This article not only calls attention once again to the relationship between archive and museum but also discusses the reorganization of the Archivio storico dei Musei Civici d’Arte Antica di Bologna, which include the documentation relating to the Medieval and Early Modern Section of Bologna’s former Museo Civico (founded 1881. The archive is the result of many documentary separations and reunions; this article describes aspects and problems addressed during the rediscovery of the original documentary arrangement.

  3. A Monograph on An Ancient History in Southeast Asia with Chinese Characteristics---Review on Ancient History of Southeast Asia%一部具有中国特色的东南亚古史专著--评梁志明等主编的《东南亚古代史》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余定邦

    2013-01-01

    A History of Ancient Southeast Asia, edited by Liang Zhim-ing, has some academic value features, which include emphasis on aca-demic review of the Southeast Asia history; more detailed describe of the region prehistoric culture; emphasis ancient social and cultural develop-ment in Southeast Asia from early 1 century to 16 century;response to the argues of ancient history in Southeast Asia and put forward his own aca-demic insights;paying more attention to the research materials in original languages.comprehensive discussion about the ancient politics, economy culture in this region;the relationship between Southeast Asia and India. The downside of this book in some aspects of historical studies in South-east Asia is relatively simple.%梁志明等主编的《东南亚古代史》具有一些有学术价值的特点是:重视介绍东南亚古代史研究的学术史;较详尽地论述了该地区的史前文化;重视对公元初至16世纪初东南亚古国社会文化发展的研究;回应了东南亚古史研究中的不少热点问题并提出自己的学术见解;用中外史料互相补充,全面论述东南亚古代史和东南亚古国的政治、经济和历史文化情况以及它们之间、它们与中印两大文明古国的关系。《东南亚古代史》的不足之处是对东南亚古代史研究方面某些争议问题如:蒲甘阿奴律陀王到中国迎取佛牙、素可泰兰甘亨王入访中国、中国古籍中的暹国是否就是素可泰、“十三世纪危机”、东南亚古国土地所有制等作出回应时,论述过于简单,没有明确提出自己的考证结论。

  4. Identifying the Practice of Tattooing in Ancient Egypt and Nubia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey J. Tassie

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Tattooing was practised by many ancient societies, including the ancient Egyptians and Nubians. Egypt, for example, boasts iconographic and physical evidence for tattooing for a period spanning at least 4000 years – the longest known history of tattooing in the world. The second oldest physical evidence for tattooing worldwide was recovered from Middle Kingdom contexts in Egypt and C-Group contexts in Nubia (the Hanslabjoch ice man being the oldest. It has been suggested that tattooing was also practised in the Predynastic period as evidenced by figurines with geometric designs, however, no physical evidence for tattooing has yet been found for this early period. Strangely there is almost no mention of tattooing in ancient Egyptian written records. Historical and ethnographic records indicate that tattooing was also practised much more recently in the Coptic, Islamic and modern eras. Unlike many past societies, tattooing in Egypt appears to have been a custom practised almost exclusively on women. Tattooing tools have not yet been positively identified from ancient Egypt. Ethnographic sources suggest that bundles of metal rods were used in Egypt’s more recent history. This paper discusses physical and iconographic evidence for tattooing in ancient Egypt and investigates whether five copper rods found at Kafr Hassan Dawood, a Predynastic to Early Dynastic site in the East Delta, could be physical evidence for tattooing during this early period.

  5. A new time tree reveals Earth history's imprint on the evolution of modern birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claramunt, Santiago; Cracraft, Joel

    2015-12-01

    Determining the timing of diversification of modern birds has been difficult. We combined DNA sequences of clock-like genes for most avian families with 130 fossil birds to generate a new time tree for Neornithes and investigated their biogeographic and diversification dynamics. We found that the most recent common ancestor of modern birds inhabited South America around 95 million years ago, but it was not until the Cretaceous-Paleogene transition (66 million years ago) that Neornithes began to diversify rapidly around the world. Birds used two main dispersion routes: reaching the Old World through North America, and reaching Australia and Zealandia through Antarctica. Net diversification rates increased during periods of global cooling, suggesting that fragmentation of tropical biomes stimulated speciation. Thus, we found pervasive evidence that avian evolution has been influenced by plate tectonics and environmental change, two basic features of Earth's dynamics.

  6. From Modern to Global State. History and Transformation of a Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Ricciardi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The experience of the post-colonial State underlines the transformations of the modern State. In fact, some features of the post-colonial State which were regarded as being overcome or at least inconsistent with the constitutional, democratic and rational form of the State, are now emerging also in those States that never made experience of colonization, or have been colonizers. The essay analyses the transformations of the modern State aiming to articulate the concept of Global State. In this case, the question of origins does not represent a principle of legitimation, as it was with the doctrine of social contract. Rather, the symbolic and historical discontinuity defines a cut between the origin and the functioning of the State, corresponding to a transformation of the legitimating sources of the State itself. Within the global State, sovereignty is not anymore a monopoly, but a widespread practice enacted by several social structures.

  7. A Study on History of Early Modern City Planning of Qingdao (1891-1949)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Once a traditional fishing village, Qingdao was developed into a city by the Qing Government to serve the need for coastal defense. The process was later accelerated due to the introduction of city planning by German colonizers. The city’s planning and urban construction was changed many times in early modern times, dominated by different administrative bodies and proceeding independently from other cities. After 58 years of planning and construction from 1891 to 1949, Qingdao has developed into a large city with integral style and seaport features. Based on an abundance of historical materials, this paper discusses the three major historical stages and seven development phases of Qingdao’s urban planning in the early modern times, as well as the planning content and characteristics of each stage.

  8. A Brief Journey into the History of the Arterial Pulse

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This paper illustrates the evolution of our knowledge of the arterial pulse from ancient times to the present. Several techniques for arterial pulse evaluation throughout history are discussed. Methods. Using databases including Worldcat, Pubmed, and Emory University Libraries' Catalogue, the significance of the arterial pulse is discussed in three historical eras of medicine: ancient, medieval, and modern. Summary. Techniques used over time to analyze arterial pulse and its charac...

  9. 中国近代灾荒史理论探析%A Discussion on the Theory of Chinese Modern Famine History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙语圣; 徐元德

    2011-01-01

    Chinese modern famine history is a dynastic history in Chinese famine history. As an organic system of research, Chinese modern famine history is composed of subsystems, each with its own component elements, as disaster, famine, causes, famine social problems, famine treatment etc. which construct the discipline system of Chinese modern famine history. Chinese modern famine history is closely related with catastrophology, sociology,economic history, political and military history and diplomatic history. Further study on Chinese modern famine history and famine history education is of important reference meaning for disaster prevention and reduction.%中国近代灾荒史是中国灾荒史的断代史.中国近代灾荒史作为一个研究的有机系统,是由灾害、灾荒、灾因、灾荒社会问题、灾荒救治等子系统组成,各系统又有自己的组成要素,这些架构了中国近代灾荒史的学科体系.中国近代灾荒史与灾害学、社会学、经济史、政治军事史、外交史之间有密切的关系,深入研究中国近代灾荒史,加强灾荒史教育,对今天防灾减灾工作具有重要的借鉴意义.

  10. The natural history of the Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society from a modern perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Requena-Carrion, Jesus; Leder, Ron S

    2009-01-01

    The history of the IEEE EMBS runs hand in hand with the history of Biomedical Engineering both as a scientific discipline and as a profession. The conferences and publications led by IEEE EMBS, amongst other activities were a mirror of the evolution of Biomedical Engineering over the years and they equally contributed to shape Biomedical Engineering as we view it today. The IEEE EMBS provides a testimony of how a broad and diverse scientific community that comes from many diverse areas such as medicine, engineering, physics and chemistry and shares common purposes and interests can successfully work under the same designation of biomedical engineers. This account is a review of the history of Biomedical Engineering and the development of the IEEE EMBS since the inception of its predecessors, the AIEE Committee on Electrical Techniques in Medicine and Biology and the IRE Professional Group in Medical Electronics.

  11. Teaching Career Education in Social Studies, Grades 10-12. World Culture, Ancient and Medieval History, Modern History. Resource Manual No. 314.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strain, Mary Pat; Berninger, Roger

    Activities and teaching strategies proposed in this resource manual are intended to help social studies teachers at the high school level in adapting the career education philosophy to the classroom. The manual consists of two parts. Part 1 identifies goals and objectives of career education and various social studies subjects (world culture,…

  12. Routledge History of Women in Modern Europe, 1700 to the present

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    scholars and rising stars of the discipline to provide a ground-breaking and unique contribution to the historical study of women. Chapters include:European Women's History at the Crossroads, Writing Women in(to) European History, At Home in the Family, Female Sexuality, Learning to be good girls and women......, Women Workers, Working women, Women Religious and religious women, Women as citizens, Women in War and Peace, Home and Away, popular culture and Leisure, Mistresses of creation, women as producers and consumers of culture....

  13. The Images of Our Time: Using Iconic Photographs in Developing a Modern American History Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindquist, David H.

    2012-01-01

    History courses based on chronological narratives in textbooks often assume a linear format through which students accumulate substantial amounts of surface-level information, with the various pieces of that information being disconnected from each other and from larger historical contexts. In addition, such narratives are often dry and lifeless,…

  14. A Brief History of Partitions of Numbers, Partition Functions and Their Modern Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2016-01-01

    This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and "k"-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's…

  15. Skeletal stigmata as keys to access to the composite and ancient Gorlin-Goltz syndrome history: The Egypt, Pompeii and Herculaneum lessons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; Pellacani, Giovanni; Tomasi, Aldo; Sammaria, Giuliano; Manfredini, Marco

    2016-09-10

    There are several genetic diseases with a wide spectrum of congenital bone stigmata in association to cutaneous and visceral benign and malignant neoplasms. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also named nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant systemic disease with almost complete penetrance and high intra-familial phenotypic variability, caused by germline mutations of the gene PTCH1. The syndrome is characterized by unusual skeletal changes and high predisposition to the development of multiple basal cell carcinomas, odontogenic keratocysts tumors and other visceral tumors. The Gorlin syndrome, clinically defined as distinct syndrome in 1963, existed during Dynastic Egyptian times, as revealed by a costellation of skeletal findings compatible with the syndrome in mummies dating back to 3000years ago and, most likely, in the ancient population of Pompeii. These paleogenetic and historical evidences, together with the clinical and biomolecular modern evidences, confirm the quite benign behavior of the syndrome and the critical value of the multiple and synchronous skeletal anomalies in the recognition of these rare and complex genetic disease.

  16. Three Thousand Years of Continuity in the Maternal Lineages of Ancient Sheep (Ovis aries) in Estonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rannamäe, Eve; Lõugas, Lembi; Speller, Camilla F; Valk, Heiki; Maldre, Liina; Wilczyński, Jarosław; Mikhailov, Aleksandr; Saarma, Urmas

    2016-01-01

    Although sheep (Ovis aries) have been one of the most exploited domestic animals in Estonia since the Late Bronze Age, relatively little is known about their genetic history. Here, we explore temporal changes in Estonian sheep populations and their mitochondrial genetic diversity over the last 3000 years. We target a 558 base pair fragment of the mitochondrial hypervariable region in 115 ancient sheep from 71 sites in Estonia (c. 1200 BC-AD 1900s), 19 ancient samples from Latvia, Russia, Poland and Greece (6800 BC-AD 1700), as well as 44 samples of modern Kihnu native sheep breed. Our analyses revealed: (1) 49 mitochondrial haplotypes, associated with sheep haplogroups A and B; (2) high haplotype diversity in Estonian ancient sheep; (3) continuity in mtDNA haplotypes through time; (4) possible population expansion during the first centuries of the Middle Ages (associated with the establishment of the new power regime related to 13th century crusades); (5) significant difference in genetic diversity between ancient populations and modern native sheep, in agreement with the beginning of large-scale breeding in the 19th century and population decline in local sheep. Overall, our results suggest that in spite of the observed fluctuations in ancient sheep populations, and changes in the natural and historical conditions, the utilisation of local sheep has been constant in the territory of Estonia, displaying matrilineal continuity from the Middle Bronze Age through the Modern Period, and into modern native sheep.

  17. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  18. Research on Application Methods of Carving Decorations for Huizhou Ancient Folk Houses in Modern Dress Design%徽州古民居雕饰艺术在现代服饰设计中应用方法探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁金龙; 张竞琼; 高山

    2012-01-01

    The artistic expression of Huizhou ancient folk house carving decorations is both ideological and cultural, both practical and decorative and both simply and elegant. Through its aesthetic ideology, decorative patterns, modeling decoration and other forms of artistic expression, this paper analyzes application methods of carving decorations for Huizhou ancient folk houses in modern dress design with examples including imitation method, deconstruction and reconstruction method, the grafting method and limit method. These methods are effective ways to design and develop modern clothing and apparel products of "Huizhou" style.%徽州古民居雕饰艺术表现为思想与文化相结合、实用与装饰相结合以及朴素简洁与清丽淡雅相结合的特征。通过其关学思想、图案装饰、造型装饰、工艺装饰等艺术表现形式,结合设计实例,分析得出徽州古民居雕饰艺术在现代服饰设计中应用方法,包括模仿法、解构重构法、嫁接法和极限法,是设计和开发具有“徽派”风格特点的现代服饰及服饰产品的有效方法和途径。

  19. Why, indeed, in America? Theory, History, and the Origins of Modern Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    ROMER, Paul M.

    1996-01-01

    When they are used together, economic history and new growth theory give a more complete picture of technological change than either can give on its own. An empirical strategy for studying growth that does not use historical evidence is likely to degenerate into sterile model testing exercises. Historical analysis that uses the wrong kind of theory or no theory may not emphasize the lessons about technology that generalize. The complementarity between these fields is illustrated by an analysi...

  20. Banal art history. Baroque, modernization and official cinematography in Franco’s Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Noemi de Haro García

    2016-01-01

    In this article the newsreels made by Noticiarios y Documentales Cinematográficos (Cinematographic Newsreels and Documentaries, NO-DO), the official film production company created by Francoism, will be analyzed in order to shed light on the political, cultural and social role played by the presentation of art and art history to a wide public under Francoism. Special attention will be devoted to the role played by the imaginaries associated with the visual arts of the baroque and the Golden A...

  1. Modernity and changing the 21th century: the history discipline in teaching elementary school II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Gonçalves da Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This partial analysis presented to the qualifying examination is part of the thesis for Master in Education, which is in progress, and is named Teaching practices of History in sixth grade: current challenges. Its purpose is to understand how teachers of History of the sixth grade of Elementary School II, in public schools, in the city of Pouso Alegre – Minas Gerais incorporate the basic contents of the Common Basic Curriculum – CBC. This is the curricular proposal of Minas Gerais State that establishes the methods to be used in the teaching of History and the subjects related to the 6th grade. It is understood as the normative that provides the essential contents to be taught as well as the goals. The hypothesis of this study is that, according to the current context of the 21st Century, dipped in a capitalist worldview, these proposals show a kind of curriculum not experienced in the classroom. For this analysis we´ll use that show the desire of homogeneousness the differences both in cultural and educational levels that, according to Bauman (2001, 2007, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2013, Veiga-Neto (2005, 2008 Veiga-Neto and Saraiva (2009 dismantled at the end of the past century because of the appearance and the changing of values.

  2. [The experiments with laboratory animals from a bioethical point of view--history, modern time, perspectives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopaladze, R A

    2004-01-01

    The origin of laboratory animal science was called forth by violent development of experimental biology and medicine in the XIX century on the one hand, and on the other hand by the necessity to have standard healthy animals for experiments with strictly definite biological characteristics. With this aim in view management technology and animal use in experiments have been constantly improved. "Laboratory animal" notion has been formed by the end of the XIX century. At the beginning of laboratory animal science development ethical problems were not as urgent as they are now. It is established that the three Rs bioethical conception of W.M.S. Russel and R.L. Burch (1959) has influence on modern state and perspectives of the development of animal experimental methods. It is shown that the existence of laboratory animal protection laws and the reflection in them of compulsory ethical review of scientific project and statistics of used laboratory animals is absolutely necessary.

  3. A POLITICAL CRITICISM REFLECTING FROM THE HISTORY TO MODERN LEVEL: “SHADE OF DONKEY”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özcan BAYRAK

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Lived during 120’s a.d., Lucianus has a leading personality with his notions and his criticism for social order. Presenting works through this doctrine, he is a philosopher that shapes and affects not only his era but also the other eras after him. One of the people who experience this interaction is Haldun Taner. Leading the society with his works such as theatre plays, stories and other kinds of works in Turkish literature, he is both a philosopher that makes the flaws in the modern level clear and a thought-provoking at the same time. In this work we try to analyse the theatre play of Haldun Taner, “Shade of Donkey”, which he brings out from the point of a story of Lucianus from Samsat socially and to probe it in terms of techniques for expression and structure.

  4. The Sacred Groves of the Balts: Lost History and Modern Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vykintas Vaitkevičius

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the sacred groves of the Balts in Lithuania andpresents the linguistic background, the historical documents from the 12th–18th century, the key folklore motifs of the topic, as well as selected examples of groves. The article also discusses possible relationships between pre-Christian religious traditions connected with the sacred groves and the ones which have survived into the 21st century. Despite the fact that the sacred groves of past ages have mostly disappeared on the landscape, this tradition has not significantly changed. Various religious activities which were carried out in sacred groves, at smaller groups of trees, and beneath separate trees enable us to learn, even if insignificantly, about the phenomenon. Interdisciplinary approach to sacred groves should be preferred in modern research.

  5. History of rheumatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrikant Deshpande

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the history and various milestones of rheumatology from ancient to modern times. The origin of rheumatology can be traced to ancient times. Diseases such as gout and osteoarthritis were prevalent in ancient people. Many ancient skeletons show signs of gout and osteoarthritis. The ancient book on Indian Medicine, Charaka Samhita, gives a vivid description of many variants of arthritis. Charaka, an eminent Ayurvedic physician, described rheumatoid arthritis (RA in Charaka Samhitha as "Vishkantha," meaning painful joints. The word rheumatology has its origin in the word "rheuma," which means flowing, and is mentioned in Hippocratic corpus. Hippocrates made several observations about gout, popularly known as "aphorisms of gout." Many famous paintings in the medieval era depict joint diseases. Hand lesions resembling those of RA are found in paintings of the Flemish school. "The virgin with canon van der paele," a painting by Jan Van Eyck (1436, shows thickened arteries in the temple, suggestive of temporal arthritis. The famous portrait of Federigo de Montefeltre, thought to have been painted by Joos (Justus van Gent, shows arthritis of the proximal interphalangeal joint of the left index finger. Rheumatology developed as a well-recognized specialty of medicine in the 20th century. American Physicians Bernard Comroe and Joseph Lee Hollander coined the term rheumatologist in 1940. Rheumatology has rapidly advanced during the last 50 years due to improved diagnosis as a result of progress in immunology, molecular biology, genetics and imaging.

  6. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  7. Microbial Paleontology, Mineralogy and Geochemistry of Modern and Ancient Thermal Spring Deposits and Their Recognition on the Early Earth and Mars"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, Jack D.

    2004-01-01

    The vision of this project was to improve our understanding of the processes by which microbiological information is captured and preserved in rapidly mineralizing sedimentary environments. Specifically, the research focused on the ways in which microbial mats and biofilms influence the sedimentology, geochemistry and paleontology of modem hydrothermal spring deposits in Yellowstone national Park and their ancient analogs. Toward that goal, we sought to understand how the preservation of fossil biosignatures is affected by 1) taphonomy- the natural degradation processes that affect an organism from the time of its death, until its discovery as a fossil and 2) diagenesis- longer-term, post-depositional processes, including cementation and matrix recrystallization, which collectively affect the mineral matrix that contains fossil biosignature information. Early objectives of this project included the development of observational frameworks (facies models) and methods (highly-integrated, interdisciplinary approaches) that could be used to explore for hydrothermal deposits in ancient terranes on Earth, and eventually on Mars.

  8. [Common paths of psychiatry and forensic medicine--history and evolution of insanity defense concept from antiquity to modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolechała, Filip

    2009-01-01

    Forensic psychiatry and psychology were in their beginnings inseparably associated with the forensic medicine, constituting one of its related branches of knowledge. Progress and development of these disciplines, education and the practical application for the purposes of the law were a contribution of a several generations of forensic pathologists in the 19th and 20th centuries. One of the major issues of common interest was opinionating on the sanity of offenders. However, the problem of criminal responsibility of the mentally ill perpetrators dates back to much earlier times and has its roots in the distant beginnings of human civilization. In this paper, the history and evolution of the insanity concept (as a circumstance excluding the guilt of the offender) were presented, from the oldest theories to ideas underlying modern codifications.

  9. Landscape evolution in south-central Minnesota and the role of geomorphic history on modern erosional processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, K.B.; Belmont, P.; Day, S.S.; Finnegan, N.; Jennings, C.; Lauer, J.W.; Wilcock, P.R.

    2011-01-01

    The Minnesota River Valley was carved during catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz at the end of the late Pleistocene. The ensuing base-level drop on tributaries created knickpoints that excavated deep valleys as they migrated upstream. A sediment budget compiled in one of these tributaries, the Le Sueur River, shows that these deep valleys are now the primary source of sediment to the Minnesota River. To compare modern sediment loads with pre-European settlement erosion rates, we analyzed incision history using fluvial terrace ages to constrain a valley incision model. Results indicate that even thoughthe dominant sediment sources are derived from natural sources (bluffs, ravines, and streambanks), erosion rates have increased substantially, due in part to pervasive changes in watershed hydrology.

  10. MODERN BEAMS FOR ANCIENT MUMMIES COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY OF THE HOLOCENE MUMMIFIED REMAINS FROM WADI TAKARKORI (ACACUS, SOUTH-WESTERN LIBYA; MIDDLE PASTORAL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Vincenzo, Fabio; Carbone, Iacopo; Ottini, Laura; Profico, Antonio; Ricci, Francesca; Tafuri, Mary Anne; Fornaciari, Gino; Manzi, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    The Middle Pastoral human remains from Wadi Takarkori in the Libyan Acacus mountains (Fezzan) are exceptionally preserved partial mummies ranging between 6100 and 5000 uncal years BP; this small sample represents the most ancient of its kind ever found. In this report, we present a survey of the skeletal anatomy of these mummifed corpses, based on high resolution CT-scan data, including a preliminary phenetic interpretation of their cranial morphology.

  11. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  12. The Phenomen on of the Initial′s Palatalization of the Ancient Jian(见系) in the Modern Chinese Dialects%现代汉语方言中的“见系声母腭化现象”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of the initials′palatalization of the ancient Jian (见系) refers to the fact that the ancient Jian which was not palatalized and pronounced as [k] group with thebroad vowels in modern Putonghua ,is palatalized ,pronounced as [t¢] group or [t∫] group ,with the front -open vowels in the modern Chinese dialects .In the modern Chinese dialects ,the initials′palatalization of Hui Dialect remains relatively complete ,with that of Xiang Dialect ,Wu Dialect ,and Gan Dialect being secondary ,and that of the Hakka Dialect ,Jin Group and Mandarin is very rare .The palatalized phonemes mentioned in the previous dialects belong to the colloquial layer which were evolved from [k] group with the front -openVowels .%  “见系声母腭化现象”指中古见系字在今普通话中未腭化读[k]组拼洪音的,在现代汉语方言中腭化读[t礰]组拼细音或[t礏]组的现象。现代汉语方言中,徽语的腭化现象保存比较完整,湘语吴语赣语次之,客家话晋语官话极少。腭化音在上述方言中属于白读层,由曾经存在过的[k]组拼细音演变而来。

  13. Historical DNA reveals the demographic history of Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in medieval and early modern Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ólafsdóttir, Guðbjörg Ásta; Westfall, Kristen M; Edvardsson, Ragnar; Pálsson, Snæbjörn

    2014-02-22

    Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) vertebrae from archaeological sites were used to study the history of the Icelandic Atlantic cod population in the time period of 1500-1990. Specifically, we used coalescence modelling to estimate population size and fluctuations from the sequence diversity at the cytochrome b (cytb) and Pantophysin I (PanI) loci. The models are consistent with an expanding population during the warm medieval period, large historical effective population size (NE), a marked bottleneck event at 1400-1500 and a decrease in NE in early modern times. The model results are corroborated by the reduction of haplotype and nucleotide variation over time and pairwise population distance as a significant portion of nucleotide variation partitioned across the 1550 time mark. The mean age of the historical fished stock is high in medieval times with a truncation in age in early modern times. The population size crash coincides with a period of known cooling in the North Atlantic, and we conclude that the collapse may be related to climate or climate-induced ecosystem change.

  14. The history of gait analysis before the advent of modern computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Richard

    2007-09-01

    Aristotle (384-322 BCE) can be attributed with the earliest recorded comments regarding the manner in which humans walk. It was not until the renaissance that further progress was made through the experiments and theorising of Giovanni Borelli (1608-1679). Although several scientists wrote about walking through the enlightenment period it was the brothers Willhelm (1804-1891) and Eduard (1806-1871) Weber, working in Leipzig who made the next major contribution based on very simple measurements. Both Jules Etienne Marey (1830-1904), working in France, and Eadweard Muybridge (1830-1904), working in America, made significant advances in measurement technology. These were developed further by Otto Fischer (1861-1917) in collaboration with Willhelm Braune (1831-1892). The major developments in the early twentieth century were in the development of force plates and the understanding of kinetics. The team headed by Verne Inman (1905-1980) and Howard Eberhart (1906-1993) made major advances in America shortly after the Second War. David Sutherland (1923-2006) and Jacquelin Perry pioneered clinical applications in America and Jurg Baumann (1926-2000) in Europe. It was not until the advent of modern computers that clinical gait analysis became widely available.

  15. Banal art history. Baroque, modernization and official cinematography in Franco’s Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noemi de Haro García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article the newsreels made by Noticiarios y Documentales Cinematográficos (Cinematographic Newsreels and Documentaries, NO-DO, the official film production company created by Francoism, will be analyzed in order to shed light on the political, cultural and social role played by the presentation of art and art history to a wide public under Francoism. Special attention will be devoted to the role played by the imaginaries associated with the visual arts of the baroque and the Golden Age and to the ways in which they crossed paths with the construction of a national identity and the changes experimented by the dictatorship. This will show to what extent ‘banal art history’ can play a relevant role in ‘banal nationalism’ as defined by Michael Billig.

  16. Application of Ancient DNA Methods to the Study of the Transatlantic Slave Trade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval Velasco, Marcela

    these limitations. Rigorous laboratory procedures, optimized capture enrichment methods coupled to high-throughput sequencing platforms, and expanding modern reference datasets have enabled the generation of complete ancient genomes from numerous extinct and extant species, including humans and hominins...... suboptimal conditions. However, experimental and analytical methods have been developed to overcome these limitations. Rigorous laboratory procedures, optimized capture enrichment methods coupled to high-throughput sequencing platforms, and expanding modern reference datasets have enabled the generation...... of complete ancient genomes from numerous extinct and extant species, including humans and hominins. In addition, the field has gradually opened the opportunity to study human populations through history. In this thesis I have applied, tested and investigated the performance of different ancient DNA...

  17. Geologic investigation of layered mound of Henry Crater, Mars: Implications for history of ancient hydrological activities in the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Samarpita; Sinha, Rishitosh Kumar; Banerjee, Debabrata; Vijayan, S.

    2016-07-01

    Craters around the Schiaparelli Basin (sim460 km diameter; 2.71^circS 16.77^circE) on Mars are distributed in a unique combination that includes infilled craters with mound on their floors. The mounds have preserved intriguing layers in stratigraphy that has exposed pristine sets of geomorphic and geochemical signatures bearing strong implications towards understanding geological history of Mars. With a view to avail the maximum scientific benefit from this unique geological assemblage on Mars, we have carried out remote analysis of stratigraphy of layers exposed over Henry crater's (sim150 km diameter; 10.79^circN 23.45^circE) mound (rising sim2km from floor) to infer the origin and episodes of geological events occurred in the region. Henry crater is situated approximately 500 km northeast of Schiaparelli Basin. Using crater counting technique the age of the topmost surface of the crater mound is found to be sim3.64 Ga since the exposure of this strata post complete infilling. The stratigraphy of consistent and conformable layers in the crater interior acts as a proxy of the long-lived event of sediment deposition in a rather quiescent condition. Distinct layering can be traced across the crater from the mound to the crater wall across the floor. Evidence for differential erosion of deposited materials, wherein local geological setup developed in the different parts of the crater interior is preserved. Using MRO HiRISE & CTX images, distinct spatial distribution of morphological features distributed in stratigraphy is observed that reveals the dominant geological agents behind their formation, viz. temporal hydrological and eolian processes. The morphological features were aided with an understanding of the composition of the exposed sedimentary succession. MRO CRISM based mineralogical investigation reveals diagnostic signature of the hydrated sulfate mineral Kieserite. Based on the thermodynamic properties of Kieserite and apparent lack of desiccation cracks in

  18. Pitfalls in the analysis of ancient human mtDNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The retrieval of DNA from ancient human specimens is not always successful owing to DNA deterioration and contamination although it is vital to provide new insights into the genetic structure of ancient people and to reconstruct the past history. Normally, only short DNA fragments can be retrieved from the ancient specimens. How to identify the authenticity of DNA obtained and to uncover the information it contained are difficult. We employed the ancient mtDNAs reported from Central Asia (including Xinjiang, China) as an example to discern potentially extraneous DNA contamination based on the updated mtDNA phylogeny derived from mtDNA control region, coding region, as well as complete sequence information. Our results demonstrated that many mtDNAs reported are more or less problematic. Starting from a reliable mtDNA phylogeney and combining the available modern data into analysis, one can ascertain the authenticity of the ancient DNA, distinguish the potential errors in a data set, and efficiently decipher the meager information it harbored. The reappraisal of the mtDNAs with the age of more than 2000 years from Central Asia gave support to the suggestion of extensively (pre)historical gene admixture in this region.

  19. Max Weber e a história cultural da modernidade Max Weber and the cultural history of modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangolf Hübinger

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artigo oferece um novo olhar sobre Weber como historiador. O fato de que a MWG reconstrói, de maneira bastante detalhada, o contexto histórico científico e intelectual torna mais evidente como os diferentes tópicos sobre os quais Weber trabalhou - a economia de mercado capitalista, as religiões do mundo ou o Estado moderno - foram abordados em última instância "do ponto de vista da história cultural". Diante desse quadro, meu artigo explora quatro aspectos principais: história econômica; ou mais precisamente o sentido cultural da ação econômica como ponto-chave para o pensamento histórico de Weber como um todo (I; a insistência de Weber na primazia de problemas analíticos e da escolha de perspectivas como pressupostos intelectuais do conhecimento histórico (II; a questão fundamental da história cultural em geral: como as ideias se atualizam em conflitos e constelações históricos e como a singularidade do desenvolvimento cultural europeu deve ser descrita em sua significação histórico-universal (III; a relevância da Primeira Guerra Mundial para os problemas e perspectivas de Weber: seu foco em uma teoria histórico-política do poder e da dominação e da gênese e estrutura do Estado moderno e da democracia (IV.This article takes a new look at Weber as a historian. The MWG's detailed reconstruction of the scientific and intellectual historical context provides a clear insight into how all the different topics on which Weber worked - the capitalist market economy, world religions, or the modern state - were ultimately treated "from the view-point of cultural history." In response the article examines four aspects: Economic history; or more precisely, the cultural meaning of economic action as a key to Weber's historical thinking as a whole (I; Weber's insistence on the primacy of analytical problems and of choices of perspectives as intellectual presuppositions of historical knowledge (II; the cardinal question of

  20. STATISTICAL METHODS IN HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov A. I.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We have given a critical analysis of statistical models and methods for processing text information in historical records to establish the times when there were certain events, ie, to build science-based chronology. There are three main kinds of sources of knowledge of ancient history: ancient texts, the remains of material culture and traditions. The specific date of the extracted by archaeologists objects in most cases can not be found. The group of Academician A.T. Fomenko has developed and applied new statistical methods for analysis of historical texts (Chronicle, based on the intensive use of computer technology. Two major scientific results were: the majority of historical records that we know now, are duplicated (in particular, chronicles, describing the so-called "Ancient Rome" and "Middle Ages", talking about the same events; the known historical chronicles tell us about real events, separated from the present time for not more than 1000 years. It was found that chronicles describing the history of "ancient times" and "Middle Ages" and the chronicle of Chinese history and the history of various European countries do not talk about different, but about the same events. We have the attempt of a new dating of historical events and restoring the true history of human society based on new data. From the standpoint of statistical methods of historical records and images of their fragments – they are special cases of non-numeric objects of nature. Therefore, developed by the group of A.T. Fomenko computer-statistical methods are the part of non-numerical statistics. We have considered some methods of statistical analysis of chronicles applied by the group of A.T. Fomenko: correlation method of maximums; dynasties method; the method of attenuation frequency; questionnaire method codes. New chronology allows us to understand much of the battle of ideas in modern science and mass consciousness. It becomes clear the root cause of cautious

  1. Who says this is a modern disorder? The early history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Badía, Jose; Martinez-Raga, Jose

    2015-12-22

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex, heterogeneous and multifactorial neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by persistent symptoms of inattention, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Although the first clinical description of a constellation of symptoms highly resembling to what currently could be diagnosed as ADHD is generally attributed to George F Still in 1902, there are scattered but significant published historical medical, scientific and non-scientific reports, much prior to Still's lectures, of what is currently conceptualized as ADHD. The present report aimed at exploring the early history of ADHD, prior to the 20(th) century in the medical literature and in other historical sources, to provide clinicians, researchers and other professionals with a better understanding of the roots and current conceptualization of this disorder. It is possible to find clues and highly suggestive descriptions of individuals presenting symptoms resembling what is currently defined as ADHD in the literature, in paintings or in the Bible. However, the earliest medical reports of individuals with abnormal degrees of inattention, distractibility and overactivity date from the last quarter of the 18(th) century, included in two of the first textbooks specifically on the subject of mental diseases, published by the German Melchior Adam Weikard and the Scottish Sir Alexander Crichton. During the 19(th) century some eminent physicians from Germany, France or Great Britain, such as Charles West, Thomas C Albutt, Thomas S Clouston, William W, Ireland, John Haslam, Heinrich Neumann, or Désiré-Magloire Bourneville, among others provided clinical depictions of patients that most likely presently would be diagnosed as having ADHD. Whilst some of the children described by Still and his predecessors may have suffered from a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders, many of these patients showed clear symptoms of ADHD and may present with comorbid disorders

  2. Insights into Ancient Human Populations and their Environment through Stable Isotope Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macko, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    Fundamental to the understanding of human history is the ability to make interpretations based on artifacts and other remains which are used to gather information about an ancient population. Sequestered in the organic matrices of these remains can be information concerning incidence of disease, population interactions, genetic defects and diet. Stable isotopes have long been used to interpret diet and trophic interactions in modern ecosystems. We suggest that the isotope compositions of a commonly overlooked material, human hair, is an ideal tool to be used in gleaning information, especially on human diets, about ancient civilizations. Hair can be well-preserved and is amenable to routine measurements of 13C, 15N and 34S isotope analyses and distinguishing sources of nutrition. We have isotopically characterized hair from both modern and ancient individuals. There is a wide diversity in isotope values owing, at least partially, to the levels of seafood, corn-fed animals and other grains in diet. Using these isotope tracers, new information regarding historical figures (George Washington, 1799 AD) to perhaps the most ancient of mummies, the Chinchorro of Chile (more than 7000 BP) as well as the Moche of Peru (1500 BP) and the best preserved mummy, the Neolithic Ice Man of the Oetztaler Alps (5200 BP), have been deciphered. It appears that the often-overlooked hair in archaeological sites represents a significant approach for understanding ancient human communities and their environments, as well as new perspectives on our use of our own modern nutritional sources.

  3. Morality and Reason in the Ethics of Ancient China and the West:Their Modern Challenges%中西伦理学“道德理性”及其现代挑战

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞懿娴

    2016-01-01

    综观中西传统伦理思想的发展,二者思想在先秦和古希腊时期最为接近,同样强调“道德”和“理性”具有客观永恒之价值与标准。迨西方文明发展进入现代,其传统伦理思想即受到批判和质疑。因此,不仅是中国在追求现代化和西化的过程中传统伦理思想式微,西方文明本身的伦理生态也遭到严重破坏。%T racing back the development of the traditional ethical thought of the East and the West , one may find that the Pre‐Qin Period Chinese and the ancient Greeks shared almost the same view s on morality and reason ,and they were convinced that moral reason is of eternal value and importance . The decay of these classical ideas has resulted in the breakdown of moral ecology in modern civiliza‐tion ,thus it is our hope that the retrieval of these ancient ideas might be considered a remedy for it .

  4. The Modernization Concept as an Integrative Framework for the Methodology of Studying Topical Issues in Russian History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri N. Smirnov

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to a number of methodological and concrete historical questions raised in the monograph by Boris Mironov, “The Russian Empire: From Tradition to Modernity.” The monograph is based on the modernization concept. The variety of methods and techniques borrowed by the author from different scientific disciplines and schools, but which demonstrate their usefulness, provide a reason to call his approach “integrative.” Smirnov shares Mironov’s perspective on the possibility of determining the laws of Russia’s historical path, and on the positive prospects for Russia’s movement upon it. Particular attention is paid to how Mironov examines and interprets the course of Russian colonization, its influence on the internal processes in society in general, and on the fate of specific regions and the ethnic groups. In Mironov’s opinion, the inclusion of new lands in Russia has had generally beneficial effects for the country as a whole and for the people who inhabit it. Smirnov engages in a thought experiment in order to assess in how far Mironov’s conclusions are applicable to the southeast of Russia. The results prove the validity of the conclusions and their applicability to research of other colonized territories. The reviewer recognizes as valid the opinion that the economic reserves of serfdom had not been exhausted by the middle of the 19th century. The liberation of the peasants was caused by many factors, among which moral and cultural reasons were not in the last place. The imperial “Enlightened” bureaucracy became the leader of peasant and other reforms. The article expressed disagreement that the strengthening of the position of the nobility and their power over the peasants in the 18th century was determined by the decisive role of the guard in palace coups. Mironov’s book will stimulate new research and discussions on topical issues of Russian history.

  5. NEW RESEARCH OF NEOGRAPHY: TOPICAL PROBLEMS OF THE ARCHIVAL ORIENTAL STUDIES (by the example of modern source study of the regional history of Kalmykia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vladimirovna Yanova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article highlights the present situation in archaeography, new approaches in the study of the problem, describes the archaeography in southern Russia, shows a model of the main directions in the development of source studies in the modern times. The importance of in-depth study of the phenomenon of history of human memory, in addition to its academic value, has obvious practical significance, by virtue of the fact that namely retrospectively colored intentions have the most powerful impact on realization of the determining social memory not only in modern historiography, but also in future.The modern historiographic situation in science is not stochastic; historians begin to call the social project of science of the modern epoch as the next “world theory” or the “next myth”.The modern stage of the development of cognition is characterized by the process of purifying the object or subject of studies from mythologization of event statements of the history of Motherland and rethinking the history of development of national languages of ethnic minorities in Russia.

  6. Study on Soil Nutrients and Quantity of Microbial Community of Ancient Tea Arboretums and Modern Tea Gardens%古茶园和现代茶园土壤养分与微生物数量的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀青; 李永梅; 谢瑾; 吕才有; 杨广容

    2015-01-01

    A study was made to reveal soil fertility characteristics of ancient tea arboretums and their effects on the community of soil microbes so as to provide useful information for soil management in mod‐ern tea gardens .In some modern tea gardens and ancient tea arboretums of the Jingmai Mountains ,the Bu‐lang Mountains and the Nannuo Mountains in Yunnan Province , soil pH , cation exchange capacity (CEC) ,soil organic matter (SOM ) and the contents of nitrogen ,phosphorus and potassium of the surface soil (0 - 20 cm) were determined ,with the forest soils as the control .Tea garden soil pH was shown to range from 4.30 to 4.75 ,and soil pH of tea gardens in the Nannuo Mountains and of modern tea gardens in the Jingmai Mountains was significantly higher than that of forest soils ;and in the Bulang Mountains , soil pH of ancient tea arboretums was significantly higher than that of modern tea gardens .The CEC of tea garden soil was significantly lower than that of forest soils .The SOM ,total nitrogen (T N ) ,total phos‐phorus (T P) ,alkali‐hydrolyzale nitrogen and available phosphorus (Olsen‐P) contents of ancient tea arbo‐retums were significantly higher than those of modern tea gardens of the three mountains ,No consistent effects were detected of the age of tea planting on soil pH ,CEC and nutrient contents .The numbers of tea garden soil bacteria ,fungi and actinomycetes were higher than the forest soil ,and the total amounts of tea garden soil microorganisms appeared in the order of modern tea gardens > ancient tea arboretums ,but the correlation was not significant between the quantities of the three types of soil microbes and nutrient con‐tents of tea garden soil .Tea planting and the increase in tea garden age did not increase soil acidification , and tea garden soil acidification may be closely related to the level of soil potassium nutrition .Compared with modern terrace tea gardens ,ancient tea arboretums have better microclimate environment ,a

  7. Dialogue Between the History and Present:Thinking about How to Teach Chinese Ancient Literature%历史与现代的对话——中国古代文学教学断想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2012-01-01

    Chinese ancient literature has both diachronic and synchronic.It is necessary to think about from two aspects in teaching the ancient literature:on the one hand,the literature should be returned to the historical environment and the original ancient culture in order to interpret its true meaning as much as possible.On the other hand,from the perspective of humanistic care and spirit,we should look for meeting point between the ancient civilization and modern life,helping us build ideal personality.The previous aspect is basis and the latter aspect is goal.If we have cognized of the significance of ancient literature,our national spirit can be carried forward.%古代文学既具有历时性,又具有共时性,因此必须从这两个层面去构建其教学:一方面把文学还原在历史的场境中去解读,尽可能还原古代文学以本来面目,解读其真情真意。另一方面从人文关怀的角度,从中寻找古代文明与现代人生的契合点,力求为当代大学生的人格构建提供可资借鉴的东西。前一个层面是基础,后一个层面是目的,在认知古代文学的基础上,架通历史与现代的桥梁,让历史与现代对话,以古鉴今,弘扬民族精神。

  8. 古今档案保护技术及其利弊分析%Pevention Skills and Analysis of Merits and Demerits of Ancient and Modern Files

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严锐

    2012-01-01

    本文探究了我国各时期具有不同代表性的档案虫霉防治技术,就档案保护技术的利弊进行了分析,认为我国古代档案虫霉防治技术在当时科技条件下处于世界领先水平,具有代表性;许多虫霉防治技术的经验是利多于弊的,且有许多经验值得我们借鉴.许多方法和原则蕴含着当今档案虫霉防治技术的发展方向。%Prevention and cure skills of insect and mould of various times files are researched in dynasty order ,and their merits and demerits of various prevention and cure skills are analyzed. The result of research shows that the prevention and cure skills of insect and mould of ancient files are forward among the nations and have representation under science and technology condi- tions at that time. the excellent experiences of prevention and cure skills of insect and mould of ancient files are superior to their abuses, and we can draw lessons from their majority experiences, and many methods and principles imply direction of new-type prevention and cure skills of file insect and mould at present and in the future.

  9. 论中国古代医者群体及其变迁——以《古今图书集成·医部全录》为中心%On the Ancient Medical Goups and Their Changes -With the Medical Records of Collection of Ancient and Modern Books as Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王美美

    2012-01-01

    Collection of Ancient and Modern Books is a medical book which records the ancient physicians such as witch doctors, Confucian physicians, hereditary doctors, good -natured doctors, highly skilled doctors, saint doctors, hour doctors, doctors of good lucks, fine doctors, filial doctors, hermit doctors, quacks and female doctors. This paper mainly discusses witch doctors, Confucian doctors, hereditary doctors, female doctors, god -natured doctors, skilled doctors, saint doctors, hour doctors and quacks.%《古今图书集成·医部全录》是一部医学类书籍,其所录古代医者有巫医、儒医、世医、良医、名医、大医、时医、巧医、孝医、隐医、庸医、女医。择其巫医、儒医、世医、女医、良医、名医、大医、时医、庸医等而论。

  10. The History of Mental Health Services in Modern England: Practitioner Memories and the Direction of Future Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, John; Hayward, Rhodri; Angel, Katherine; Fulford, Bill; Hall, John; Millard, Chris; Thomson, Mathew

    2015-10-01

    Writing the recent history of mental health services requires a conscious departure from the historiographical tropes of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries which have emphasised the experience of those identified (and legally defined) as lunatics and the social, cultural, political, medical and institutional context of their treatment. A historical narrative structured around rights (to health and liberty) is now complicated by the rise of new organising categories such as 'costs', 'risks', 'needs' and 'values'. This paper, drawing on insights from a series of witness seminars attended by historians, clinicians and policymakers, proposes a programme of research to place modern mental health services in England and Wales in a richer historical context. Historians should recognise the fragmentation of the concepts of mental illness and mental health need, acknowledge the relationship between critiques of psychiatry and developments in other intellectual spheres, place the experience of the service user in the context of wider socio-economic and political change, understand the impacts of the social perception of 'risk' and of moral panic on mental health policy, relate the politics of mental health policy and resources to the general determinants of institutional change in British central and local government, and explore the sociological and institutional complexity of the evolving mental health professions and their relationships with each other and with their clients. While this is no small challenge, it is perhaps the only way to avoid the perpetuation of 'single-issue mythologies' in describing and accounting for change.

  11. Transformation of the Concept "Crusade" in the Socio-political Context of World History of Modern and Contemporary age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey L. Dudarev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The Crusades are among the most significant events of the European and world history. Crusades made the indelible impression on the contemporaries and the generations to come, which is evidenced by the fact that such concepts as "crusade", "knight-crusader", etc. entered into many European languages. However, it is notable that in the XIX – early XXI centuries these concepts lose their original meaning. Whenever the phrase "crusade" occurs in the literature of modern and contemporary period of time, it sounds in various political, historical and cultural context. The article examines some interpretations of the term applied to a number of events in the XIX – early XXI century through the example of several authors’ texts (the war in the Caucasus in the XIX c., the Spanish Civil War, World War II, the political events in the Middle East in the late XX – early XXI century. The author concludes that the term "crusade" in the scientific, literary and political vocabulary of the last two centuries is a kind of coding for the action aimed at the protection of (real or imaginary values.

  12. Study on the structures and illumination characteristics of Chinese ancient oil lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Qingxuan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese ancient firelight lighting had a long history in which developed technologies were applied. The paper concerns itself with a study of Chinese ancient firelight lighting lamps, including the structures and illuminating characteristics of ancient oil lamps.

  13. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  14. Ancient human microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  15. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  16. Borrowing Ancient Thought to Build Contemporary Strategy: Reflections on Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power%借鉴古代思想 研究崛起战略——读《古代中国思想与当代中国实力》之感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丽

    2011-01-01

    阎学通教授英文新著Ancient Chinese Thought,Modern Chinese Power通过研究中国先秦诸子与先秦典籍中蕴含的国家间政治思想,丰富和发展了当代国际关系理论,并以此为当前中国的和平崛起提供理论支持,推动了中国古代国家间政治思想向世界的传播。笔者首先从国家崛起的战略新模式与中国的和平发展道路、国际关系中的政治实力论、道德与国际安全论这三个部分阐述了中国古代国家间政治思想的新启迪。其次,对关涉"传统主义学派"与"中国学派"之争、分析层次、国际规范这三个有争议的问题进行辩证分析,认为无论是"传统主义学派"还是"中国学派",都是中国学者对当今国际关系理论的学术思考、学术探索与学术贡献的宏观与综合体现;从理论维度上看,都是个性与共性、特殊性与普遍性的统一;从实践维度上看,都是国际社会理论的多样性与统一性的集中表现;尽管他们的表现形式或说法不一,但本质是相似、甚至是一致的;他们推动与繁荣了中国的国际关系理论研究,在世界舞台上展现了中国学者的风采。最后,做出中国古代国家间政治思想的研究将会向体系化方向演进的判断。%Yan Xuetong's new book Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power borrows from pre-Qin thinkers and Pre-Qin classics on the political relations between states to enrich and develop contemporary international relations theory, and on the basis of this provides support for China's peaceful rise. This has functioned to promote the spread of ancient Chinese political thinking on relations between states internationally. The author would first like to offer strong support for Yan's application of ancient Chinese political thinking to China's new strategy for its rise and its peaceful economic development; to the theory of realism in international relations, and to theories of ethics

  17. The history of African trypanosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steverding Dietmar

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The prehistory of African trypanosomiasis indicates that the disease may have been an important selective factor in the evolution of hominids. Ancient history and medieval history reveal that African trypanosomiasis affected the lives of people living in sub-Saharan African at all times. Modern history of African trypanosomiasis revolves around the identification of the causative agents and the mode of transmission of the infection, and the development of drugs for treatment and methods for control of the disease. From the recent history of sleeping sickness we can learn that the disease can be controlled but probably not be eradicated. Current history of human African trypanosomiasis has shown that the production of anti-sleeping sickness drugs is not always guaranteed, and therefore, new, better and cheaper drugs are urgently required.

  18. Raman-IR vibrational and XRD characterization of ancient and modern mineralogy from volcanic eruption in Tenerife Island: Implication for Mars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.A. Lalla

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available A detailed vibrational Raman-IR spectroscopic and diffractional analyses have been performed on basalts from two locations from Tenerife Island: (1 the Arenas Negras volcano which belongs to the historical eruption not showing visible alteration and (2 Pillow Lavas zone from Anaga Massif which shows a clearly fluid-rock interaction caused by submarine alteration. These places have been extensively studied due to its similarity with the surface of Mars. The analysis is based on the mineral detection of selected samples by a Micro-Raman study of the materials. The complementary techniques have confirmed the mineralogy detected by the Raman measurement. The results show a volcanic environment behavior with primary phases like olivine, pyroxene, and feldspar/plagioclase. Moreover, the presence of accessory minerals or secondary mineralization like phosphate, iron oxides, zeolite or carbonates shows the alteration processes on each outcrop. The variation in the crystallinity and amorphous phases is related to fluid-rock interaction caused by hydrothermal episodes and external weathering processes, which shows several analogies with the ancient volcanic activity from Mars.

  19. The Star of Bethlehem and the Magi : Interdisciplinary Perspectives from Experts on the Ancient Near East, the Greco-Roman World, and Modern Astronomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kooten, George; Barthel, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This book is the fruit of the first ever interdisciplinary international scientific conference on the biblical story of the Magi and the Star of Bethlehem. The conference, held in 2014 at the University of Groningen, was attended by world-leading specialists in astronomy, the history of science, the

  20. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  1. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  2. Modernity: Are Modern Times Different?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Hunt

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available “Modernity” has recently been the subject of considerable discussion among historians. This article reviews some of the debates and argues that modernity is a problematic concept because it implies a complete rupture with “traditional” ways of life. Studies of key terms are undertaken with the aid of Google Ngrams. These show that “modernity,” “modern times,” and “traditional” —in English and other languages— have a history of their own. A brief analysis of the shift from a self oriented toward equilibrium to a self oriented toward stimulation demonstrates that modernity is not necessary to historical analysis.

  3. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  4. The importance of studying inherited hematological disorders in ancient Anatolian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Doğan Alakoç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Before analysis of DNA from ancient remains was possible, anthropologists studied evolution and migration patterns using data obtained from population genetic studies on modern populations combined with data obtained from morphological evaluations of ancient remains. Currently, DNA analysis of ancient populations is making a valuable contribution to these efforts. Researchers that perform ancient DNA analysis prefer to study polymorphisms on the Y chromosome or mitochondrial DNA because the results are easier to statistically evaluate. To evaluate polymorphisms on diploid genomes, which are more informative, only mutations that have been extensively examined in modern populations should be chosen. The most extensively evaluated mutations are those related to prevalent inherited disorders. As such, beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, FVL mutation of globin and the factor V genes are good candidates for DNA studies in ancient populations. These mutations are common in Anatolia, host to many civilizations since the Paleolithic period. This history makes Anatolia a good place for conducting research that could enhance our understanding of human evolution and migration patterns.

  5. Ancient DNA, climatic change, and loss of genetic diversity in an endemic Patagonian mammal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Y.; Lacey, E.; Ramakrishnan, U.; Pearson, O.; Hadly, E.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding the response of animal populations to climatic change is essential for the future maintenance of biodiversity. One question that remains difficult to answer, and is particularly important to conservation, is how animals respond over time scales relevant to evolutionary change. Ancient DNA provides a unique opportunity to track animal response to Holocene climate change and to study species replacement patterns and genetic diversity over time. We used ancient DNA to compare response to climatic change in two species, C. sociabilis and C. haigi, over the last 8,000 years. Our study site, Cueva Traful, is a late-Holocene raptor roost in Parque Nacional Nahuel Huapi, Argentina. A lack of genetic diversity in modern C. sociabilis populations is indicative of past bottleneck events and a previous ancient DNA study found that it had remained genetically identical for at least 1000 years in the face of climatic change and human disturbance. Since Cueva Traful goes back further in time, our first goal was to examine genetic diversity in order to place a longer term historical perspective on the modern bottleneck. The second goal was to compare changes in genetic diversity in C. sociabilis to C. haigi a closely related species that may respond differently to climatic change. The use of ancient DNA presents unique challenges due to low copy number, environmental damage to template, and high contamination risk. Despite these challenges, ancient DNA provides a unique perspective on evolutionary history.

  6. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  7. Calcified Pulmonary Nodules Identified in a 350-Year-Old-Joseon Mummy: the First Report on Ancient Pulmonary Tuberculosis from Archaeologically Obtained Pre-modern Korean Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    We found calcified pulmonary nodules in a middle-aged female mummy discovered from 350-yr-old Joseon tomb of Korea. In the CT scan, we found six radiopaque nodules in right lung, through the levels of thoracic vertebrae 1 to 6. We also found presumptive pleural adhesions in right thoracic cavity of CT images. We re-confirmed radiological findings by our post-factum dissection on the same mummy. By the differential diagnosis, we speculate that the radiopaque calcification nodules and associated pleural adhesion could have been caused by tuberculosis. This is the first-ever report on the pulmonary tuberculosis identified in archaeologically obtained, pre-modern Korean samples. PMID:26770051

  8. Dual energy computed tomography for quantification of tissue urate deposits in tophaceous gout: help from modern physics in the management of an ancient disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacani, A Kirstin; McCollough, Cynthia H; Glazebrook, Katrina N; Bond, Jeffrey R; Michet, Clement J; Milks, Jeffrey; Manek, Nisha J

    2012-01-01

    Gout has been recognized for centuries but is also a modern day scourge. It is the most common type of inflammatory arthritis in men and appears to be increasing in both incidence and prevalence (Arromdee et al. in J Rheumatol 29(11):2403-2406, 2002). Despite these facts, few advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of gout for over 50 years. Difficult cases of gout challenge available therapeutic options. It is only recently that the Food and Drug Administration has approved febuxostat as a treatment option for patients intolerant of allopurinol. We describe a difficult case of tophaceous gout notable for several reasons: utilization of rasburicase as uricolytic treatment to dramatically reduce tissue urate burden; treatment of gout flares with interleukin-1β inhibition; and quantification of tissue urate with novel dual energy computed tomography technology before and after uricolytic therapy.

  9. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  10. Archaeological prospecting using electrical resistivity method. Case history of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb; Denki tansaho ni yoru iseki tansa. Kaibukiyama kofun no chosarei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mizunaga, H.; Ushijima, K.; Kishikawa, H. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1997-05-27

    To grasp the three-dimensional structure of ancient tomb during the archaeological prospecting of Kaibukiyama ancient tomb, various electrical resistivity methods were tried. For the survey, firstly, in order to clarify the electrical resistivity structure of rear circular part of ancient tomb, roughly, mapping was conducted by means of two-electrode method using a multi-channel measuring system. Then, the vertical prospecting was conducted densely with a mesh form having VES intervals of 2 m as a detailed survey by means of Schlumberger method. For the three-dimensional inverse analysis of apparent electrical resistivity data by the two-electrode method, a program with high calculation speed was developed by using algorithm where Jacobian with a homogeneous model is adopted for the Jacobian calculation. As a result of the analysis, an outline of underground 3-D resistivity structure was determined. The resistivity anomaly with high values obtained from the results of 2-D inverse analysis of VES curve by means of Schlumberger method agreed well with the central part of the ancient tomb, which was confirmed during the archaeological survey. 4 refs., 8 figs.

  11. On Correlation between Ancient Greek Atomism and Modern Science%试析近代科学中蕴涵的古希腊原子论思想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正

    2012-01-01

    希腊思想史往往被近代科学忽视或者仅承认科学产生的时代背景,却否认古希腊思想尤其是原子论思想对近代科学产生的作用。西方近代的科学传统与原子论思想在本质上是一致的,它不仅体现在近代物理、化学等自然科学发展历程上,更体现在近代科学研究方法重视因果决定论和逻辑推演等方面。%Modem science tends to neglect history of Greek thoughts, or just recognizes the background of science and denies the functions of the latter to the appearance of the former. We think that there is sim- ilarity between the tradition of western modem science and history atomism in terms of the understanding of natural composition.

  12. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  13. Syndrome-treatment and Prescription-drugs of Diarrhea Based on Ancient and Modern Medical Records%基于古今医案数据分析的泄泻病证治规律研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜德友; 李阳光; 张琳

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes the etiology, pathogenesis syndrome type and content of drug laws about diarrhea. By using SAS statistical softroare to analyze the frequency, factor, cluster of the cases and making use of literature studies and modern mothod of combining staciscical analysis. It is the first time to summarize comprerensively the cases of diarrhea disease in ancient and modern medicine and enter them into the database. Authors analyze the differential treatments of diarrhea disease deeply and understand the treatment principle of diarrhea in a whole, hoping for providinga scientific method in clinics and research and offering more effective ideas of prevention and treatment abont diarrhea disease.%首次将泄泻病的古今医案进行全面总结、归纳后输入数据库,利用SAS统计软件对其进行频数、因子、聚类等统计分析,运用文献学研究与现代统计学分析相结合的方法,分析泄泻病因病机、证候类型及用药规律内涵,对泄泻病的辨证施治进行深入的剖析,从整体上认识泄泻病的证治规律,期望为泄泻病的临床和科研提供科学方法,为泄泻病的有效防治提供更多借鉴和新的思路.

  14. Chemical variation from biolipids to sedimentary organic matter in modern oceans and its implication to the geobiological evaluation of ancient hydrocarbon source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Hongmei; MA Xiangru; LIU Deng; YANG Xiaofen; LI Jihong

    2007-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of organic matter in modern marine Water columns greatly favors the geobiologcal evaluation of hydrocarbon source rocks.Biolipids could make great contribution to petroleum hydrocarbons due to their comparable chemical components and the slightly refractory characteristics of biolipids during the microbial/thermal degradation.A variety of environmental factors such as temperature.CO2 and salinity could affect the biochemical contents in microorganisms.As a result,microorganisms living in a changing environmental condition might have a difierent contribution to the petroleum formation.Organic carbon flux is shown to bear a positive correlation with the primary productivity only within a certain range of biomass volumes in a specific biohabitat.Furthermore,organic matter is degraded much quickly in a water column with oxic conditions.Therefore,the anoxic condition,along with the enhanced biological productivity,would be one of the significant factors in the formation of high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks.The formation of biofilms and microbial mats favors the preservation of sedimentary organic matter by decreasing the degradation rate of organic matter.Identification of biofilms and microbial mats in sedimentary rocks will thus greatly help to understand the depositional processes of organic matter finally preserved in hydrocarbon source rocks.

  15. Ancient hunters and their modern representatives: William Sollas's (1849-1936) Anthropology from disappointed bridge to trunkless tree and the instrumentalisation of racial conflict.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Marianne

    2005-01-01

    During the first decades of the 20th century, many anthropologists who had previously adhered to a linear view of human evolution, from an ape via Pithecanthropus erectus (today Homo erectus) and Neanderthal to modern humans, began to change their outlook. A shift towards a branching model of human evolution began to take hold. Among the scientific factors motivating this trend was the insight that mammalian evolution in general was best represented by a branching tree, rather than by a straight line, and that several new fossil hominids were discovered that differed significantly in their morphology but seemed to date from about the same period. The ideological and practical implications of imperialism and WWI have also been identified as formative of the new evolutionary scenarios in which racial conflict played a crucial role. The paper will illustrate this general shift in anthropological theory for one particular scientist, William Sollas (1849-1936). Sollas achieved a synthesis of human morphological and cultural evolution in what I will refer to as an imperialist model. In this theoretical framework, migration, conflict, and replacement became the main mechanisms for progress spurred by 'nature's tyrant,' natural selection.

  16. Analysis of a Modern Hybrid and an Ancient Sugarcane Implicates a Complex Interplay of Factors in Affecting Recalcitrance to Cellulosic Ethanol Production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Guzzo de Carli Poelking

    Full Text Available Abundant evidence exists to support a role for lignin as an important element in biomass recalcitrance. However, several independent studies have also shown that factors apart from lignin are also relevant and overall, the relative importance of different recalcitrance traits remains in dispute. In this study we used two genetically distant sugarcane genotypes, and performed a correlational study with the variation in anatomical parameters, cell wall composition, and recalcitrance factors between these genotypes. In addition we also tracked alterations in these characteristics in internodes at different stages of development. Significant differences in the development of the culm between the genotypes were associated with clear differential distributions of lignin content and composition that were not correlated with saccharification and fermentation yield. Given the strong influence of the environment on lignin content and composition, we hypothesized that sampling within a single plant could allow us to more easily interpret recalcitrance and changes in lignin biosynthesis than analysing variations between different genotypes with extensive changes in plant morphology and culm anatomy. The syringyl/guaiacyl (S/G ratio was higher in the oldest internode of the modern genotype, but S/G ratio was not correlated with enzymatic hydrolysis yield nor fermentation efficiency. Curiously we observed a strong positive correlation between ferulate ester level and cellulose conversion efficiency. Together, these data support the hypothesis that biomass enzymatic hydrolysis recalcitrance is governed by a quantitative heritage rather than a single trait.

  17. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  18. 中国近现代工程史开端的“二十年延误”--对洋务运动之前三场战争的回顾和分析%The Lost Twenty Years in the Early History of Chinese Modern Engineering---Review and Analysis of the Three Wars before the Westernization Movement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伯聪

    2014-01-01

    With the rise of engineering philosophy ,researchers give concern to engineering history .In view of general history ,the first Opium War marks the beginning of modern history in China .However ,the Chinese history of modern engineering actually starts with Westernization Movement ,which means a twenty‐year delay in Chinese modern engineering history .Before the West‐ernization Movement ,modern China witnessed the following three wars :the two Opium Wars and the rebellion of Taiping Heav‐enly Kingdom .As far as the military industry and military equipment are concerned ,the two Opium Wars reflect the battles be‐tween western modern military industry system and China’s ancient military industry system ,while the war of Taiping Heavenly Kingdom involves China’s transformation from ancient military industry system to the modern one .The root causes of the twenty‐year delay for the beginning of the modern engineering history are the rigid feudal ideology and system .%工程哲学兴起之后,工程史研究也开始兴起。虽然从通史角度看鸦片战争是中国近现代史的开端,但中国近现代工程史却应以洋务运动为正式开端,这就出现了“二十年延误”。在洋务运动之前,中国近代史上爆发了三场战争———两次鸦片战争和太平天国战争。从军工产业和军事装备特征方面看,两次鸦片战争是西方近代军工体系和军事装备体系与中国古代军工体系和军事装备体系的战争,而太平天国战争则涉及中国军工体系和军事装备体系“从古代形态向近现代形态的转型”问题。造成中国工程近代化开端“二十年延误”的根本原因是僵化的封建意识形态和封建制度及其运行机制的阻碍和抗拒。在中国近现代史上,这“二十年延误”的后果严重,教训沉痛。

  19. The Support of Ancient Sci-tech Thought to Modern Sci-tech Innovation%中国古代科技思想对现代科技创新的支持

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程建鹏

    2015-01-01

    The sci-tech innovation can’t be separated from the accumulation of the former generation, and the sci-tech thought and concept possesses the guiding function for the development of science and technology. Some advanced concepts in ancient science and technology, which can provide nutrients for the development of modern science and technology, have important significance for speeding up the construction of sci-tech innovation system and promoting the independent innovation ability of core technologies.%科技创新离不开前代的积累,科技思想和理念对科技发展具有指导作用,古代科技的一些先进理念能为现代科技的发展提供养料,对加快构建技术创新体系,提升核心技术自主创新能力有重要意义。

  20. 柳诒徵与近代中国传记史学%Liu Yizheng and modern biographical history of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴忠良

    2013-01-01

    Biographical historical theory wasn't well developed in modern China , while biographical history was thriving .Liu Yizheng made great achievements in Chinese cultural history as well as in biographical history .He produced many biographies of other famous people and also autobiography of himself .The characteristics of his bi-ographies of attaching importance to enlightenment , academic values and facts manifested the special aspect of mod-ern biographical history of China .%传记史学理论在中国近代虽然不甚发达,但传记史学却颇为兴盛。柳诒徵不仅在中国文化史、史学理论等方面成就显著,在传记史学方面也颇有建树,他传、自传多有行世,而其传记的注重教化、学术性、真实性等特点,也昭示了中国近代传记史学的特有面向。

  1. Rich Cultural Heritage amid Modernization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian

    2004-01-01

    @@ The Indian civilization has thus far experienced three phases of ancient, medieval and modern stages and is now entering steadily the real modern stage in the true sense of the term. After further advances in another five to ten decades, the Indian civilization will surely appear in a new vigorous look of prosperity and strength, boasting both traditional splendor and modern wonders.

  2. Modern heating system for an ancient building. East Westfalen's most famous semi-timbered building now has a wall heating system; Modern heizen ist keine Todsuende. Das beruehmteste Fachwerkhaus Ostwestfalens hat ein Wandheizsystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2000-07-01

    The building was constructed at Herford in 1521 and is currently under reconstruction. The builder-owner decided to install a modern wall-mounted heating system. [German] Das Haus wurde im Jahre 1521 in Herford erbaut und der Bauherr hiess Hinrick Aldach, genannt 'Remensnider'. Soviel steht fest, denn das ist an dem Gebaeude selbst verewigt. Wer dieser Mensch war, welcher sozialen Schicht er angehoerte, welchen Beruf er ausuebte, all das bleibt unbeantwortet. Auch ueber die Geschichte des Hauses weiss man relativ wenig, obwohl der Bau zu den kuenstlerisch reichsten unter den spaetgotischen Fachwerkhaeusern Westfalens gezaehlt wird. Zurzeit wird das Gebaeude saniert. Frank Liedke, der Bauherr, entschied sich bei der Heizungstechnik fuer ein Wandheizsystem. (orig.)

  3. Mare antiquissimum. La réponse de G. B. Vico à la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes Mare Antiquissimum: G.B. Vico's answer to the Quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns Mare Antiquissimum : la respuesta de G.B. Vico a la querella de los antiguos y los modernos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Luglio

    1997-05-01

    Full Text Available Au début du XVIIIe siècle, alors que la Querelle des Anciens et des Modernes continue d'agiter les milieux intellectuels, la culture italienne est, depuis quelques années déjà, confrontée à la diffusion de la pensée cartésienne et port-royaliste. La nouvelle méthode Iogico-mathématique, qui constitue le nerf de ces courants de pensée, bat en brèche et rapidement l'ancienne tradition de démonstration et d'argumentation rhétoriques. Voulant contrer les attaques lancées à la rhétorique, sans toutefois prendre le parti des Anciens, Giambattista Vico écrit, en 1710, le De Antiquissima italorum sapientia ex linguae latinae originibus emenda, qui propose une troisième issue à la célèbre Querelle.In the beginning of the eighteenth century, when intellectual circles were still ablaze with the quarrel of the Ancients and the Moderns, Italian culture has been confronted with the spread of Cartesian and Port-Royal thought for some years. The new logico-mathematical method, which was at the core of these trends of thought, soon prevailed over the ancient tradition of demonstration and rhetorical argumentation. As he wished to counter attack and behalf of rhetorics without siding with the Ancients, Giambattista Vico wrote the De Antiquissima italorum sapientia ex linguae latinae originibus emenda en 1710, in order to put forward a third possible solution to the quarrel.A principios del siglo 18, mientras la Querella de los antiguos y los modernos sigue agitando a los medios intelectuales, la cultura italiana está enfrentándose, desde hace algunos años ya, a la difusión de los pensamientos cartesiano y des Port-Royal. El nuevo método lógico-matemático, que constituye la clave de dichas corrientes de pensamiento, bate en brecha, y ello rápidamente, la antigua tradición de demostración y argumentación retóricas. Para combatir los ataques que sufre la retórica, sin por ello tomar el partido de los antiguos, G.B. Vico escribe

  4. Time as An Important Soil-Forming Factor Influencing Modern and Ancient Magnetic Susceptibility Enhancement Along the Delaware River Valley, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stinchcomb, G. E.; Peppe, D. J.; Driese, S. G.

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility is an increasingly popular low-cost method for rapidly assessing paleoclimate and paleoenvironmental impact on buried soils. The goal of this study is to determine the primary influence(s) on soil magnetic susceptibility along floodplain, terrace and upland soils in the middle Delaware River Valley, USA, using environmental magnetic, pedologic, and stratigraphic techniques. Two-hundred thirty samples were collected from age-constrained sandy, quartz-rich, floodplain, terrace, and upland soils (Entisols, Inceptisols). A Kruskal-Wallis (K-W) and post-hoc Tukey-Kramer (T-K) (α=0.05) multiple comparisons analysis on 176 mass-specific low-field susceptibility (Xlf) assays show that A and B horizons are magnetically enhanced compared to C and E horizons (p<0.0001). Results of descriptive soil micromorphology show that A and B horizons contain anywhere from 10-50% more amorphous organic matter and clay films along pores than do C and E horizons. Enhanced Xlf values also correlate positively (R^2=0.63) with the soil molecular weathering ratio of Alumina/Bases, suggesting that increased weathering likely results in the formation of pedogenic magnetic minerals and enhanced magnetic susceptibility signal. Additional K-W and T-K testing show that Xlf results, when grouped by floodplain-terrace designation (i.e., chronofunction) are significantly different (p<0.0001). The older T3 terrace and upland Xlf values (0.34±0.14 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) are greater than the younger T2 terrace (0.18±0.06 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) values, which are greater than modern floodplain (0.09±0.01 10^-6 m^3 kg^-1) Xlf values. These data suggest that longer intervals of soil formation enhance the Χlf value. This hypothesis is further supported when 159 Xlf values are plotted vs. age for the entire Holocene. A locally-weighted regression smoothing curve (LOESS) shows two distinct intervals of magnetic enhancement during previously established dry intervals, the early and late

  5. 战国作者的托名传播%On Authors of the Warring States Period Who Disseminate Their Own Works on the Pretext of the Ancient and Modern Celebrities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桐生

    2012-01-01

    The so-called "on the pretext of the name of others" means that authors disseminated their own works on the pretext of the ancient and modem celebrities. The practice was based on the authors' signatures. From Shang and Zhou Dynasties to Spring and Autumn Period, because the authors had no consciousness of signing their names on their works there were no problems in signa- ture. The awakening of authors' signature began in the Warring States Period, because works could bring tremendous spirit honors and material rewards to authors, and it is necessary to distinguish be- tween school, those who wants to make themselves more famous also disseminated their own works on the pretext of the ancient and modem celebrities. The practice of the so - called "on the pretext of the name of others" could be roughly divided into four categories :first ,on the pretext of the name of the real people;second, on the pretext of the name of historical figures;third, on the pretext of the name of the legendary figures ; fourth, the works of the disciples and followers were signed by others. Authors' disseminating their works on the pretext of the name of others made great achievements in the Warring States Period, and many works were handed down with the help of ancient and modem celebrity effect. Some of them have significant academic value. This practice affects the later ages, and obscures certain links of history of Chinese literature, causing a lot of problems in distinguishing authenticity of ancient works.%所谓托名,是指作者假托古今名流传播自己的作品。托名现象的产生以作品署名为前提。从商周到春秋时期,由于作者的署名意识没有觉醒,因此不存在署名问题。作者署名意识的觉醒始于战国,由于作品可以给作者带来巨大的精神荣誉和物质奖赏,同时也是出于区分学派的需要,战国作者开始在自己的作品上署名。有些作者考虑到自己声名不够,为了使自己

  6. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  7. Using ancient DNA to study the origins and dispersal of ancestral Polynesian chickens across the Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Vicki A; Lebrasseur, Ophélie; Austin, Jeremy J; Hunt, Terry L; Burney, David A; Denham, Tim; Rawlence, Nicolas J; Wood, Jamie R; Gongora, Jaime; Girdland Flink, Linus; Linderholm, Anna; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger; Cooper, Alan

    2014-04-01

    The human colonization of Remote Oceania remains one of the great feats of exploration in history, proceeding east from Asia across the vast expanse of the Pacific Ocean. Human commensal and domesticated species were widely transported as part of this diaspora, possibly as far as South America. We sequenced mitochondrial control region DNA from 122 modern and 22 ancient chicken specimens from Polynesia and Island Southeast Asia and used these together with Bayesian modeling methods to examine the human dispersal of chickens across this area. We show that specific techniques are essential to remove contaminating modern DNA from experiments, which appear to have impacted previous studies of Pacific chickens. In contrast to previous reports, we find that all ancient specimens and a high proportion of the modern chickens possess a group of unique, closely related haplotypes found only in the Pacific. This group of haplotypes appears to represent the authentic founding mitochondrial DNA chicken lineages transported across the Pacific, and allows the early dispersal of chickens across Micronesia and Polynesia to be modeled. Importantly, chickens carrying this genetic signature persist on several Pacific islands at high frequencies, suggesting that the original Polynesian chicken lineages may still survive. No early South American chicken samples have been detected with the diagnostic Polynesian mtDNA haplotypes, arguing against reports that chickens provide evidence of Polynesian contact with pre-European South America. Two modern specimens from the Philippines carry haplotypes similar to the ancient Pacific samples, providing clues about a potential homeland for the Polynesian chicken.

  8. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  9. On the history of plasma treatment and comparison of microbiostatic efficacy of a historical high-frequency plasma device with two modern devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Napp, Judith

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP with its many bioactive properties has defined a new medical field: the plasma medicine. However, in the related form of high-frequency therapy, CAP was even used briefly a century ago. The aim of this study was to review historic CAP treatments and to obtain data regarding the antimicrobial efficacy of a historical high-frequency plasma device.Methods: First, historic literature regarding the history of CAP treatment was evaluated, because in the modern literature no data were available. Second, the susceptibility of 5 different bacterial wound isolates, cultured on agar, to a historic plasma source (violet wand [VW] and two modern devices (atmospheric pressure plasma jet [APPJ] and Dielectric Barrier Discharge [DBD] was analyzed . The obtained inhibition areas (IA were compared.Results: First, the most convenient popular historical electromedical treatments produced a so-called effluvia by using glass electrodes, related to today’s CAP. Second, all three tested plasma sources showed complete eradication of all tested microbial strains in the treated area. The “historical” cold VW plasma showed antimicrobial effects similar to those of modern APPJ and DBD regarding the diameter of the IA.Conclusion: Some retrograde evidence may be deducted from this, especially for treatment of infectious diseases with historical plasma devices. The underlying technology may serve as model for construction of modern sucessive devices.

  10. 浅谈《世界古代史(下)》课程的教学%On the Teaching of the Ancient World History(vol.2) Course

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪增相

    2013-01-01

      The Ancient World History (vol.2 ) is one of the compulsory Professional foundation courses for the history students in college,and an important part of the curriculum system of the General History of World. In order to do well in the teaching of this course,the teacher must to do from three aspects as follows : first, arrange the teaching content in the height of the general history; second, select the teaching methods Focusing on students;third, optimize the teaching means using multimedia technology.%  《世界古代史(下)》是大学历史专业学生必修的专业基础课程之一,是《世界通史》大课程的一个重要组成部分。要搞好这门课程的教学,教师需要做到:第一,要能够从通史的高度统筹教学内容;第二,要能够以学生为中心选择教学方法;第三,要能够用多媒体技术优化教学手段。

  11. Molecular analysis of ancient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains.

  12. On Rise and Fall of the Ancient Olympic Games%古代奥林匹克运动会的盛衰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐志刚

    2011-01-01

    采用文献资料研究方法,对古代奥运会的神话与传说、古代奥运会的盛况、古代奥林匹克运动会的衰落、古代奥林匹克运动的特色进行了分析研究。以期以史为鉴,发展具有现代特色的新体育。%With the documentary study,this paper analyzes and researches the myth and legend of the ancient Olympic Games,the pomp of the ancient Olympic Games,the decline of the ancient Olympic Games and the ancient Olympic sports characteristics.Taking history as a mirror,new sports with modern characteristics should be developed.

  13. 抗生素耐药基因古老起源与现代进化及其警示%Ancient origin and modern evolution of antibiotic resistome and their implications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李显志

    2013-01-01

    细菌抗生素耐药性系全球关注的医学及社会问题.新近对古老细菌DNA与现代病原菌的研究揭示了抗生素耐药基因的古老起源、多样性及快速的现代进化,并促使了耐药基因组(resistome)的问世.耐药基因决定簇及其与进化有关的基因可移动元件如质粒、插入顺序、转座子和整合子等远存在于人类抗生素时代之前.在过去短短的70年抗生素时代期间,人类大量应用各类抗生素等行为明显地造成了对细菌的选择性压力,加之细菌基因本身的自突变性和水平基因转移能力等多种因素促使了耐药基因的进化及新型耐药特征的出现.人类重要病原菌如ESKAPE病原菌(肠球菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、肺炎克雷伯菌、鲍曼不动杆菌、铜绿假单胞菌和肠道杆菌属)所呈现的高度多重耐药性或泛耐药性便充分展示了耐药基因起源、进化和传播的复杂性,并严重地威胁着感染性疾病的治疗.所有这些均警示人类需要同时采取多种有效措施控制各类抗生素尤其是人类极为重要抗生素的使用.任何环境下的抗生素滥用当止!%Antibiotic resistance in bacteria has emerged as both medical and social problems worldwide. Research advances on ancient bacterial DNA and modern pathogens have indicated the ancient origin, diversity and rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance genes or resistome. Resistance determinants and those mobile genetic elements related to gene evolution such as plasmids, insertion sequences, transposons and integrons have existed far before the modern antibiotic era. During the short period of the past 70 years of the antibiotic era, the significant use of antibiotics has created selection pressures on bacteria. Moreover, bacteria themselves possess spontaneous mutations as well as horizontal gene transfer. These factors have led to the rapid evolution of resistance genes and the emergence of new resistance features. There

  14. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  15. The First Attested Extraction of Ancient DNA in Legumes (Fabaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikić, Aleksandar M

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae) are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analyzing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350-1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl(-1) of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK, and rbcL) among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighboring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide.

  16. Totality and Representation: A History of Knowledge Management through European Documentation, Critical Modernity, and Post-Fordism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Ronald E.

    2001-01-01

    Presents European documentalist, critical modernist, and Autonomous Marxist influenced post-Fordist views regarding the management of knowledge in mid- and late-twentieth century Western modernity and postmodernity, and the complex theoretical and ideological debates, especially concerning issues of language and community. Discusses views of…

  17. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  18. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  19. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  20. Star Maps History, Artistry, and Cartography

    CERN Document Server

    Kanas, Nick

    2012-01-01

    Star Maps captures the beauty and awe of the heavens through celestial prints and star atlases. It traces the history of celestial cartography and relates this history to the changing ideas of humanity's place in the universe. The text of this Second Edition is enriched with 263 photographs, 91 in color, showing images from actual antiquarian celestial books and atlases, each one with an explanation of its astronomical and cartographic features. This new edition of Star Maps: History, Artistry, and Cartography includes: - over 50 new pages of text and 44 new images (16 in color) - completely new sections on celestial frontispieces, deep-sky objects, playing card maps, additional cartographers, and modern computerized star maps - updated figures and text about celestial globes, volvelles, telescopes, and planets and asteroids - revised and updated text and illustrations throughout. The book focuses on the development of celestial cartography from ancient to modern times and describes the relationships between ...

  1. Genealogies of Modern Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Søren

    2008-01-01

    Does modern technology differ from ancient technology and does it have a unique essence? This twofold question opens one of Martin Heidegger's most influential philosophical inquiries, The Question Concerning Technology. The answer Heidegger offers has inspired various critiques and appraisals from...... a vast number of contemporary scholars of technology.1 Heidegger's answer is traditionally thought to suggest a great difference between ancient and modern technology. However, by re-examining Heidegger's text, it is possible to discover previously ignored or misunderstood lines of thoughts that affirm...... a multi-stable interpretation of the origin of modern technology. In what follows, we shall see how The Question Concerning Technology in fact supports three different genealogies of modern technology...

  2. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    that there were many reasons to suicide someone in antiquity. Very important factor was to avoid captivity and the consequent overcrowding of indignity, especially for politicians and military leaders. Also intention in these circumstances was to avoid torture and the disgrace of rape. Strong grief is another reason, as in case of death of family members. The erotic disappointment had place in ancient suicides, which concerned both men and women, while there were also suicide for financial reasons. Especially for the elderly, the despair of the anility in conjunction with physical illness and cachexia, were important factors for these people to decide thee suicidal. Finally, the methods of suicide fitted their epoch, but bear resemblance to those of the modern time. Poisoning was very common to both men and women but equally popular in both sexes was also the hanging. It was not unusual to fall from a high in order to reach the death, while stabbing a sword in the body for self killing was widespread in men and soldiers.

  3. 方剂学简史及历代方论十大名著之刍议%On Prescription Brief History and Ten Famous Books of Discourse on Prescriptions in Ancient Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱燕; 李顺保

    2013-01-01

    The history of prescription was illustrated by taking the meridians of "medical prescription","discourse on prescriptions"and"serial prescriptions"as the axes, meanwhile, ten famous books about discourse on prescriptions in ancient dynasties were analyzed;which was well arranged, more clear and detailed than chronicles of prescription holding time as the parallel.%以“医方”“方论”“类方”三条经线为轴,探讨和阐释方剂学发展史,同时对历代医家方论十大名著进行剖析和诠释;较之以时代为纬线的方剂学编年史式阐述更加凸显层次分明、说理清晰及条分缕析之特点。

  4. Biophytum sensitivum : Ancient medicine, modern targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Sakthivel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on medicinal plants began to focus on discovery of natural products as potential active principles against various diseases. Medicinal plants are very interesting, have the ability to produce remarkable chemical structures with diverse biological activities. Biophytum sensitivum is used as traditional medicine to cure variety of diseases. During the last few decades, extensive research has been carried out to elucidate the chemistry, biological activities, and medicinal applications of B. sensitivum. Phytochemical analysis have shown that the plant parts are rich in various beneficial compounds which include amentoflavone, cupressuflavone, and isoorientin. Extracts and its bioactive compounds have been known to possess antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antitumor, radioprotective, chemoprotective, antimetastatic, antiangiogenesis, wound-healing, immunomodulation, anti-diabetic, and cardioprotective activity. The present review has been carried out to shed light on the diverse role of this plant in the management of various ailments facing us.

  5. Modern Anxiety of the Artof Ancient Guqin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaiLiangyu

    2002-01-01

    China’s cultural heritage is deep and rich. If there is any kind of art that could represent the great wisdom and the oldest culture of China and is still alive, it must be without doubt the art of Guqin. When an American spaceship was launched in August 1977, it carried sounds representing more than ten human cultures. The well-known Guqin piece, "Flowing Water," was included to represent Asian music.The original name of Guqin was Qin. It is a

  6. Book Review on "Ancient Herbs, Modern Medicine"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Yu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ever since Chinese medicine came onto the health care scene, it has had an uneasy and at times contentious relationship with mainstream Western biomedicine. For the first two twenty years or so there was nothing of the significance to speak of in the way of. collaboration or integration between the two medical systems. Western medical literature often cast uninformed criticism on Chinese medicine, and in return, Chinese medical doctors or scholars would usually disparage Western biomedicine. However, the ice has begun to melt in the past 10 years. Dialogues between the two systems took place at multiple levels: the United States federal government established the Office for Complementary and Alternative Medicine within the National Health Institute, which was later on expanded into a national center to provide funding and coordinate research on subjects such as Chinese medicine;some universities and medical schools started to teach or conduct clinical research on Chinese medicine; several major medical centers enlisted acupuncturists and even herbalists as medical staff. But the real driving force of the change is grass-root acceptance of Chinese medicine by patients, and the burgeoning interaction and collaboration between practicing Chinese and Western doctors.

  7. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wide range of conditions, from arthritis and low back pain to infertility. Scientific evidence suggests it may be helpful for some conditions, but not for others. Research on Acupuncture Over the past 10 years, NCCAM has supported ...

  8. Manned Spaceflight Ancient Dream, Modern Attempt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China was first in the world to invent rockets, and the first "astronaut" was also Chinese. In the late 14th century a man named Wanhu had himself tied to a special chair, the back of which was fitted with 47 prototype rockets, while he

  9. Ancient and modern secrets of Isfahan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogendijk, J.P.

    2008-01-01

    The art of medieval Islamic symmetry is well known throughout the world, albeit for a large part only from pictures. Recently, students from Leiden and Utrecht had the opportunity to see some extraordinary tilings through their own eyes on a study trip to Isfahan in Iran, under the guidance of Jan H

  10. A modern reincarnation of ancient slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostoker, William

    1989-04-01

    Over the last twenty years, there has been a discernable increase in the number of scholars who have focused their research on metal production, working and use in antiquity, a field of study which has come to be known as archaeometallurgy. Materials scientists and conservators have worked primarily in the laboratory while archaeologists have conducted fieldwork geared to the study of metal technology in a cultural context with laboratory analysis as one portion of the interpretive program.

  11. 中国第一部近代宪法-《鄂州约法》%The First Constitution in History of Modern China: E Zhou Provisional Constitution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费春

    2001-01-01

    《鄂州临时约法》是民国时期湖北军政府制定的中国历史上第一个资产阶级近代民权宪法草案,它的人民立宪思想、民主立宪程序和突出的人权法案内容,为中国近代立宪主义树立了一个样板,在中国宪政史上居于开创性的历史地位。%"E Zhou Provisional constitution of the Republic of China" which was drawn by the Hubei Military Government of the Republic of China, is the first draft of modern constitution in the history of China. Its democratic ideology and procedure of constitutionalism, and its outstanding contents on human rights, had stood a magnificent model for the model of the modern constitutionalism in China. It holds an initiative position in the history of Chinese constitutional government.

  12. Jin Quan Museum Gives New Life to Ancient Coins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJing

    2003-01-01

    The saying goes that ""ancient coins are living history"". The rusty ancient coins that appeared in China's 5,000 years of history, such as seashells, Bu Bi (spade-shaped money), Dao Bi (knife-shaped money), Banliang coins from Qin Dynasty and Wuzhu coins from Han Dynasty, are all the reflections of the China's splendid traditions in politics,

  13. Arrière-garde Perspectives on the History of Modern Literature : The Case of the Netherlands (1880-1940)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rymenants, Koen; Sintobin, Tom; Verstraeten, Pieter; Houppermans, Sjef; Liebregts, Peter; Baetens, Jan

    2013-01-01

    The history of Dutch literature between 1880 and 1940 has traditionally been described as a series of literary movements or generations in quick succession. Each generation is associated with a new, innovative literary programme that challenges and eventually replaces older aesthetic principles, onl

  14. Analysis of Chinese Ancient and Modern Thought on Income Distribution:Inspiration on the Contemporary Distribution Reform%中国古代及近代收入分配思想评析--兼论对当代分配改革的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩进

    2014-01-01

    China ancient and modern thinkers have put forward a view of fair income distribution , but has not formed the system theory .The ancient thinkers on the maintenance of the feudal ruling class standpoint think in-come allocation problem , and not from the change status , giving people the power angle to solve the issue of unfair distribution of income;the modern thinker only from the western thought and experience to solve .Their views and then reality and characteristics of Chinese society is not consistent .But in these thinkers ,“benevolence”,“not to compete with the people”,“people”,“reduced to”,“from the people , but also from the people”,“regulation of capital” in the income distribution of attention to people's livelihood , Guan Zhao vulnerable groups thought es-sence , is to construct the the socialist harmonious society and building a well -off society in an all -round way . The eighteen Party's proposed “the important concept of income distribution fair”, the practice of the history of the fair distribution of income and China thought of economic and social development together , get rid of the limitations of the old times , meaning the new era , to promote the China distribution field of fair .%中国古代和近代的思想家都提出过关于收入分配公平的观点,但未形成系统的理论。古代的思想家是站在维护封建统治阶级的立场上来思考收入分配问题的,并没有从改变民众地位,赋予民众权力的角度来解决收入分配不公平的问题;近代的思想家仅从西方的思想和经验来寻求问题的解决的。他们的见解与当时中国社会的现实与特点并不相符。但在这些思想家的观点中,“仁政”、“不与民争利”、“恤民”、“减少分利者”、“取之于民、还之于民”、“节制资本”等在收入分配上重视民生、关照弱势群体的思想精华,都值得为构建社会主义和谐社

  15. Shiwan Modern Pottery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Shiwan, Guangdong Province, is the native home of the ancient Chinese pottery culture. The soft, fine and smooth pottery clay found in Shiwan is highly suited for sculpting various figures, animals and utensils. Shiwan has now introduced modern pottery techniques, with local craftsmen combining calligraphy, painting,

  16. Multiple modernities, modern subjectivities and social order

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Dietrich; Sinclair, Kirstine

    2015-01-01

    to modern subjectivity formation. In combining conceptual tools from these strands of social theory, we argue that the emergence of multiple modernities should be understood as a historical result of idiosyncratic social constructions combining global social imaginaries with religious and other cultural......Taking its point of departure in the conceptual debate about modernities in the plural, this article presents a heuristic framework based on an interpretative approach to modernity. The article draws on theories of multiple modernities, successive modernities and poststructuralist approaches...... traditions. In the second part of the article we illustrate this argument with three short excursions into the history of Islamic reform in the 19th and 20th centuries. In this way we interpret the modern history of Muslim societies as based on cultural conflicts between different forms of social order...

  17. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  18. A Natural History of Hygiene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerie A Curtis

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In unpacking the Pandora’s box of hygiene, the author looks into its ancient evolutionary history and its more recent human history. Within the box, she finds animal behaviour, dirt, disgust and many diseases, as well as illumination concerning how hygiene can be improved. It is suggested that hygiene is the set of behaviours that animals, including humans, use to avoid harmful agents. The author argues that hygiene has an ancient evolutionary history, and that most animals exhibit such behaviours because they are adaptive. In humans, responses to most infectious threats are accompanied by sensations of disgust. In historical times, religions, social codes and the sciences have all provided rationales for hygiene behaviour. However, the author argues that disgust and hygiene behaviour came first, and that the rationales came later. The implications for the modern-day practice of hygiene are profound. The natural history of hygiene needs to be better understood if we are to promote safe hygiene and, hence, win our evolutionary war against the agents of infectious disease.

  19. Construction of Yan Fu's view on social history and the turning of modern history%严复社会史观的构建与近代史学转向

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王天根

    2007-01-01

    The construction ofYan Fu's view on social history has combined the indigenization of Western historiography and the modernization of traditional Chinese historiography, which reflects the characteristic of a change towards modern historiography. The academic sources of Yan's view on social history include some Western thoughts such as Herbert Spencer's social Darwinist theory, Edward Jenks' patriarchal clan system theory, John Seeley's political historiography, etc.; and also many indigenous sources such as Yang Zhu's self benefit, Mozi's selfless love, Buddhist views on mood, etc.%严复对社会史观的建构颇有"西方史学本土化"、"中国传统史学近代化"这一近代史学转向的特征.严复社会史观的理论源头在于:斯宾塞社会进化论、甄克斯宗法制度论、西莱政治史学等西方学术思想,以及本土学术资源中杨朱之自利、墨子之兼爱及佛教的"心境之说"等思想.

  20. The systematic position of the Cladrastis Rafin. genus: history of research, synonyms, place in modern phylogenetic systems

    OpenAIRE

    Porokhniava Olga L.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research was to find out generic phylogeny, systematic position and synonyms of the Cladrastis Rafin. genus. The history of the study of legumes taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships have been considered. It was found that the systematic studies of the position of the Leguminosae Juss. (Fabaceae Lindl.) family were carried out by scientists on the basis of comparative morphology, anatomy, biochemistry, embryology and molecular data. Leguminosae belongs to the Fabales order an...

  1. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  2. ‘Getting’ the Pox: Reflections by an Historian on How to Write the History of Early Modern Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Stein

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects upon the recent return to linear history writing in medical history. It takes as its starting point a critique of the current return to constructivist ideas, suggesting the use of other methodological choices and interpretations to the surviving archival and textural sources of the sixteenth century pox. My investigation analyses the diagnostic act as an effort to bring together a study of medical semiotics. Medical semiotics considers how signs speak through the physical body, coached within a particular epistemology. There are no hidden meanings behind the visible sign or symptom - it is tranparent to the calculative and authoritative gaze and language of the doctor. It concerns how diseases came into being, the relationships they have constituted, the power they have secured and the actual knowledge/power they have eclipsed or are eclipsing. From such a perspective, “getting the pox” is not a bad thing. A methodological turn to medical semiotics reminds us that the history of disease should be an inquiry both into the grounds of our current knowledge and beliefs about disease and how they inspire our writing, as well as the analytical categories that establish their inevitability.

  3. Genetic characteristics and migration history of a bronze culture population in the West Liao-River valley revealed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongjie; Zhao, Xin; Zhao, Yongbin; Li, Chunxiang; Si, Dayong; Zhou, Hui; Cui, Yinqiu

    2011-12-01

    In order to study the genetic characteristics of the Lower Xiajiadian culture (LXC) population, a main bronze culture branch in northern China dated 4500-3500 years ago, two uniparentally inherited markers, mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome single-nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNPs), were analyzed on 14 human remains excavated from the Dadianzi site. The 14 sequences, which contained 13 haplotypes, were assigned to 9 haplogroups, and Y-SNP typing of 5 male individuals assigned them to haplogroups N (M231) and O3 (M122). The results indicate that the LXC population mainly included people carrying haplogroups from northern Asia who had lived in this region since the Neolithic period, as well as genetic evidence of immigration from the Central Plain. Later in the Bronze Age, part of the population migrated to the south away from a cooler climate, which ultimately influenced the gene pool in the Central Plain. Thus, climate change is an important factor, which drove the population migration during the Bronze Age in northern China. Based on these results, the local genetic continuity did not seem to be affected by outward migration, although more data are needed especially from other ancient populations to determine the influence of return migration on genetic continuity.

  4. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  5. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-06

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  6. The Influence of Modernity on Kurdish Architectural Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salahaddin Y. Baper

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study discussed the concept of identity and the role of modernity in shifting towards globalization. The literature study covered definitions of the key words which are modernity, identity and architecture. The definition included description and issues related to the key words, which became a crucial study in identifying factors which influence the concept of change and continuity in architectural identity. Approach: This study adapted a procedure of two measuring scale Syntax analysis and Semantic analysis. The study identified checklist factors which will be used as a measurable factor for the syntax analysis and prepared a proper standardized questionnaire for (Semantic analysis. The aim was to do qualitative analysis to the influence of modernity to the architectural identity throughout the history of architecture. It illustrated the level of modern influence by western and international style that bore with its unprecedented modern concepts in comparison to the accustomed norm of the traditional architecture of the region. Results: This analysis was to evaluate negative impacts on the modern architecture in relation to the local culture, religion and environment. The case study was selected areas influenced by the development of modern buildings in Erbil city, one of the ancient cities in Iraq. Conclusion: The research contribution was to measure the level of modern influence that has damaged the traditional building identity in Erbil City.

  7. gargammel: a sequence simulator for ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gabriel; Hanghøj, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-29

    Ancient DNA has emerged as a remarkable tool to infer the history of extinct species and past populations. However, many of its characteristics, such as extensive fragmentation, damage and contamination, can influence downstream analyses. To help investigators measure how these could impact their analyses in silico, we have developed gargammel, a package that simulates ancient DNA fragments given a set of known reference genomes. Our package simulates the entire molecular process from post-mortem DNA fragmentation and DNA damage to experimental sequencing errors, and reproduces most common bias observed in ancient DNA datasets.

  8. Crustal growth history of the Korean Peninsula:Constraints from detrital zircon ages in modern river sediments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Taejin Choi; Yong Il Lee; Yuji Orihashi

    2016-01-01

    U-Pb analyses were carried out on detrital zircon grains from major river-mouth sediments draining South Korea to infer provenance characteristics and the crustal growth history of the southern Korean Peninsula, using a laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer (LA-ICP-MS). The Korean Peninsula is located in the East Asian continental margin and mainly comprises three Precambrian massifs and two metamorphic belts in between them. We obtained 515 concordant to slightly discordant zircon ages ranging from ca. 3566 to ca. 48 Ma. Regardless of river-mouth location, predominance of Mesozoic (249e79 Ma) and Paleoproterozoic (2491e1691 Ma) ages with subordinate Archean ages in-dicates that the zircon ages reflect present exposures of plutonic/metamorphic rocks in the drainage basins of the South Korean rivers and the crustal growth of the southern Korean Peninsula was focused in these two periods. Comparison of detrital zircon-age data between the North and South Korean river sediments reveals that the Paleoproterozoic zircon age distributions of both regions are nearly identical, while the NeoproterozoicePaleozoic ages exist and the Mesozoic ages are dominant in southern Korean Peninsula. This result suggests that Precambrian terrains in Korea record the similar pre-Mesozoic magmatic history and that the influence of Mesozoic magmatism was mainly focused in South Korea.

  9. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well....... To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...

  10. ["Lingue di seripi", "serpents' tongues" and "glossopetrae". Highlights from the history of popular "cult" medicine in early modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freller, T

    1997-01-01

    In the 16th, 17th and 18th century "Glossopetrae", popularly known as "Lingue di Serpi", found on the Mediterranean island of Malta, were extensively used for medical purposes as antidotes. These fossil teeth, including specimens of the "Carcharodon Megalodon" (an extinct variant of the great white shark), were ground to powder or used as amulet pendants and "credence" and exported to pharmacies and shops in various cities of Europe. In antiquity, authors like Plinius or Solinus, excluding any religious connotations, had regarded "Glossopetrae" as objects "fallen from heaven on dark moonless nights". However, from the beginning of the 16th century the miraculous antidotic power of the specimens found at Malta was very strongly connected with the Pauline cult there. This cult owed ist origin to the excerpt of the shipwreck of the Apostle of the Gentiles on this island, as recorded in the New Testament. As in so many cases found in medieval and early modern medicine and pharmacy, the renown, collection, distribution and use of the antidote "Glossopetrae" or "Lingue di Serpi" was never limited to its real chemical and pharmaceutical properties. In the period of enlightenment and secular thinking mythic medicine as "Glossopetrae" had lost ist "magical" power. Consequently, with beginning of the late 18th century also the Maltese "Glossopetrae" featured in literature merely as exotic objects of curiosity or symbols of an age bound to medical superstition.

  11. 大理近代数学教育史研究%Research on Modern Mathematics Education History in Dali

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李佳梅

    2014-01-01

    通过对大理近代数学教育史料收集整理,得出初等数学教育和高等数学教育的发展演变特点。初等数学教育历经学堂数学教育兴起到学校数学教育发展的演变过程;高等数学教育起步较晚,但华中大学在大理喜洲办学推动了大理高等数学教育的发展。了解上述演变特点,对当今数学教育改革具有借鉴价值。%By collecting and sorting the historical materials of modern mathematics education in Dali, we obtain the development and evolution characteristics in elementary mathematics education and higher mathematics education. The elementary mathematics education goes through an evolution process from emerges of old and private school mathematics education to development of school mathematics education. Higher mathematics education started late in Dali, but Central China University promoted the development of Dali higher mathematics education at Xizhou. Therefore, understanding the evolution characteristics is reference value to mathematics education reform nowadays.

  12. 古与今的对话——浅谈中国古民居的室内审美心理对现代室内装饰的影响%Dialog between Ancient and Modern Times: Brief Discussion of the Influence of Interior Aesthetic Mentality for the Chinese Ancient Dwellings on Modern Interior Decoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鲲

    2011-01-01

    随着文化历史的积淀,在日常生活中人们必然碰到具有中国古典文化元素在室内设计中的反映,于是就会产生兴奋.这些记忆痕迹就会由着兴奋而产生重组,再一次界定欣赏对象的边界、形态,从而获得愉悦的快感这就是一种稳定的视觉造型的记忆,将有赖于业已存在的痕迹结构.这也是人在环境中的直觉与感受.这种感受主要是靠视觉的体验获得.人们在一定的行为环境中用视觉来发掘事物,经过大脑的感知从而产生审美心理.%People get excited when meeting Chinese classical elements reflected in interior design as they already hove some accumulation of Chinese culture and history in daily life. This memory frace will be reorganized with excitement and redefine the boundary and form of the objects being watched, thus comes out a sense of euphoria. This is a stable memory of visual modeling based on the existent structure It's also the intuition and perception of a person in a certain environment. The perception is obtained mainly by visual experiences People seek new things through vision in a certain behavior environment and then bring in aesthetic mentality via perception of the brain.

  13. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases.

  14. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  15. Ancient Ethiopian genome reveals extensive Eurasian admixture in Eastern Africa

    KAUST Repository

    Gallego Llorente, M.

    2015-10-09

    Characterizing genetic diversity in Africa is a crucial step for most analyses reconstructing the evolutionary history of anatomically modern humans. However, historic migrations from Eurasia into Africa have affected many contemporary populations, confounding inferences. Here, we present a 12.5×coverage ancient genome of an Ethiopian male ("Mota") who lived approximately 4500 years ago. We use this genome to demonstrate that the Eurasian backflow into Africa came from a population closely related to Early Neolithic farmers, who had colonized Europe 4000 years earlier. The extent of this backflow was much greater than previously reported, reaching all the way to Central, West, and Southern Africa, affecting even populations such as Yoruba and Mbuti, previously thought to be relatively unadmixed, who harbor 6 to 7% Eurasian ancestry.

  16. The mass murderer history: modern classifications, sociodemographic and psychopathological characteristics, suicidal dimensions, and media contagion of mass murders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auxemery, Yann

    2015-01-01

    Multicide and other mass killings are sufficiently dramatic to excite great interest from clinicians, criminologists and behavioral scientists. This paper revisits the history of the mass murderer, an entity that has progressively distinguished itself from the serial killer. The functional difference between mass and serial homicide is quite obvious, particularly in setting, time, victim status and modus operandi. Classification of these acts requires a number of parameters. The causes of mass murders are multiple and complex: although they rarely seem to be related to psychotic mental pathologies, they are always an expression of suffering that manifests itself in a psychological crisis that is both homicidal and suicidal. Several research teams have studied the sociodemographic and etiopathogenic characteristics of mass murderers and, in particular, the perpetrators of school killings. In addition to prevalent personality traits, these actions often jointly include suicides and homicides, which are brought together in the same psychic crisis. In keeping with the theory of little identity support, previous crimes influenced some mass murderers. Suicides and mass-murders are likely to be imitated. The media appears to play a crucial role in preventing the occurrence of imitation or copycat tragedies. The WHO recommendation regarding how to transcribe suicide and by extension, homicide, in the media is necessary.

  17. "Chi-Fang-Qi": Is it the aureole of an ancient supernova?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fuyuan; JIANG Shiyang

    2005-01-01

    An annotation for the statement about JingXing (Great Star) in the most famous Chinese ancient historical book Shi Ji (Historical Records) authored by Sima Qian reads as follows: "There was a red aureole ("Chi-Fang-Qi") which connected with a deep-color aureole ("Qing-Fang-Qi"). Two yellow stars were in the red aureole,one yellow star was in the deep-color aureole". The author of the annotation was Meng Kang, an officer as well as a scholar of the Wei State in the Three Kingdoms period. The same records are to be found in two other Chinese historical books compiled by the authors of later ages in Tang Dynasty --Jin History and Sui History. The scene illustrated by the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi" is very similar to the pictures of SN1987A taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Let it be noted that although the ancient authors were often with serious wrong understandings of some astronomical phenomena such as supernovae, their depictions about natural phenomena they witnessed were mostly objective, and it was unlikely that they fictionally made the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi". We infer that the ancient observers might have ever watched a very bright supernova with an aureole structure in its remnant and then left such a record. Meng Kang perhaps was the first to give the record about "Chi-Fang-Qi", and he might have lived in the period from about AD 180 to AD250, very near to AD 185, so, here the supernova the ancient people watched was most likely the one in the year of AD 185. This supposition is consistent with the distance parameter of the most possible remnant of SN185 derived by some modern measurements. If the correlation between the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi" and the supernova remnant can be further proven true, it would be an important verification of the modern theory about stellarevolution.

  18. Studies on Traditional Pharmaceutical Processing for Chuanxiong Rhizoma in Medical History and Modern Research%川芎炮制历史沿革及现代研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢仲德; 易东阳; 方应权; 郭建生

    2012-01-01

    Through the research of documents, to ascertain the modern research methods and historical changes of preparation method of Chuanxiong Rhizoma. This paper was ' based on abstract of Chinese herbal processing for dynasties' and reviewed 123 books on the herbal medicines from the Southern Qi Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzed 8 books of ' Chinese Pharmacopoeia* after the founding of new China, ' National Chinese Herbal processing Procedures' 1998 Edtion, 17 books of local processing Procedures. To analyze the ancient and present literature which was related to A carmichalii processing and evidence based liteature. There are varities of varities of traditional processing method of Aconiti Lateralis radix praeparata. It had a long story, all past dynasties processing methods of past dynasties have washing, to the earth, to miao hu; cutting, filing, grinding; enduring, fried, forging, baking, steam, wine fried, wine washing, wine brewed, vinegar boiled, vinegar fried, rice water dipping, rice water fried, tongbian dipping, salt roastting, total 29 methods. The wine fried method since the Song Dynasty till now. The main application of modern sheng products, wine fried also have. Analysis of Chuanxiong Rhizoma modern research in processing condition. Chuanxiong Rhizoma processing standardization, standardization of research awaits further elucidation of.%通过查阅文献资料,弄清川芎炮制历史沿革及现代研究方法.以《历代中药炮制资料辑要》一书为线索,查阅南齐至清朝时期本草原著123部,并查阅建国后《中国药典》8部、《全国中药炮制规范》1988年版和地方中药饮片炮制规范17部,对古今文献中所收载的与川芎炮制有关的内容加以归纳、总结和文献循证.川芎炮制历史悠久,历代的炮制方法有洗、去土、去苗芦;切、剉、研;熬、炒、煅、焙、蒸、酒炒、酒洗、酒炙、酒煮、醋煮、醋炒、米泔浸、米泔炒

  19. 从本源共同体到现代市民社会--论马克思的市民社会产生史%From Original Community to Modern Civil Society ---On the History of Appearance about Civil Society

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈飞

    2015-01-01

    在《1857-1858年经济学手稿》中,马克思为了澄清市民社会产生的社会历史条件,回到人类历史的第一个阶段,详细考察了本源共同体的三种形式:亚细亚共同体、古典古代共同体、日耳曼共同体。在这三种形式中,马克思认为,只有日耳曼共同体才蕴含着向市民社会过渡的可能性,其他两种共同体如果没有外力作用不可能自动进入现代市民社会。在本源共同体瓦解和现代市民社会产生的过程中,货币和资本起到了推动历史的“主动轮”作用,离开货币和资本我们无法真正理解现代市民社会的产生。%In Economic Manuscript of 1857-1858,Marx returned to the first stage of human history in or-der to clarify the social and historical conditions appearance about civil society,studying Asian community, Ancient community,German community in detail.In this three kinds of forms,Marx thought,only the Ger-man community contained the possibility changing into civil society,the other two communities could not enter the modern civil society without external force.Currency and capital played a promoting role in history as“driving wheel”in the process of the original community breakdown and modern civil society breakthrough.

  20. Peridotite xenoliths from the Polynesian Austral and Samoa hotspots: Implications for the destruction of ancient 187Os and 142Nd isotopic domains and the preservation of Hadean 129Xe in the modern convecting mantle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, M. G.; Shirey, S. B.; Hauri, E. H.; Kurz, M. D.; Rizo, H.

    2016-07-01

    The Re-Os systematics in 13 peridotite xenoliths hosted in young (<0.39 myr) rejuvenated lavas from the Samoan island of Savai'i and 8 peridotite xenoliths from 6 to 10 myr old lavas from the Austral island of Tubuai have been examined to evaluate the history of the oceanic mantle in this region. Modal mineralogy, trace element compositions and 187Os/188Os ratios suggest that these peridotites are not cognate or residual to mantle plumes but rather samples of Pacific oceanic lithosphere created at the ridge. Savai'i and Tubuai islands lie along a flow line in the Pacific plate, and provide two snapshots (separated by over 40 Ma in time) of Pacific mantle that originated in the same region of the East Pacific rise. Tubuai xenoliths exhibit 187Os/188Os from 0.1163 to 0.1304, and Savai'i (Samoa) xenoliths span a smaller range from 0.1173 to 0.1284. The 187Os/188Os ratios measured in Tubuai xenoliths are lower than (and show no overlap with) basalts from Tubuai. The 187Os/188Os of the Savai'i xenoliths overlap the isotopic compositions of lavas from the island of Savai'i, but also extend to lower 187Os/188Os than the lavas. 3He/4He measurements of a subset of the xenoliths range from 2.5 to 6.4 Ra for Tubuai and 10.8 to 12.4 Ra for Savai'i. Like abyssal peridotites and xenoliths from oceanic hotspots that sample the convecting mantle, Os isotopes from the Savai'i and Tubuai xenolith suites are relatively unradiogenic, but do not preserve a record of depleted early-formed (Hadean and Archean) mantle domains expected from earlier cycles of ridge-related depletion, continent extraction, or subcontinental lithospheric mantle erosion. The lack of preservation of early-formed, geochemically-depleted Os-isotopic and 142Nd/144Nd domains in the modern convecting mantle contrasts with the preservation of early-formed (early-Hadean) 129Xe/130Xe isotopic heterogeneities in the convecting mantle. This can be explained if the initial isotopic signatures in Re-Os and Sm-Nd systems

  1. The history of memory arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, B M

    1990-02-01

    Ancient humans, lacking devices to store large amounts of information, invented and developed a system of mnemonics which evolved and passed to modern times. The mnemonics, collectively known as the Ancient Art of Memory, were discovered in 447 BC by a Greek poet, Simonides, and were adequately described by Cicero, Quintilian, and Pliny. These arts fell into neglect after Alaric sacked Rome in 410 AD, but were subsequently revived in 1323 by Saint Thomas Aquinas, who transferred them from a division of rhetoric to ethics and used them to recall Catholic doctrine and versions of biblical history. In 1540 Saint Ignatius Loyola used mnemonic images to affirm the faith with his newly formed Society of Jesus and tried to convert the Ming dynasty in China by teaching these memory skills to Chinese nobles. Today, the ancient memory arts have applications in pilot training, gambling, mentalism and telepathy demonstrations, and may have a role in the rehabilitation of brain-damaged patients. Objective testing confirms that with the use of these memory skills, recall is increased, at least 10-fold, and the memory deficits of proactive and retroactive inhibition do not exist.

  2. 汉语白话史及其研究意义--兼评徐时仪《汉语白话史(第二版)》%The History of the Written Form of Modern Chinese and the Significance of the Research-A Comment on the book The History of the Written Form of Modern Chinese (the 2nd Edition) by Xu Shiyi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾昭聪

    2015-01-01

    the corpuses of Chinese language need to be distinguished into the classical and the modern in the study of Chinese language history, because the modern Chinese provides authentic materials for the study of Chinese language history. The significance of the study of modern Chinese language history is mainly beneficial to the study of classification of Chinese language history, and to the descripti on and research on the historical development of Chinese pronunciation, vocabulary and grammar. There are three characteristics in the book The History of the Written Form of Modern Chinese (the 2nd Edition) by Xu Shiyi: Exhaustively share linguistic data, neaten the development of modern Chinese language history, and combine the comprehensive historical investigations and case analyses. The study of modern Chinese language history has great significance to the study of Chinese language history, and the book The History of the Written Form of Modern Chinese (the 2nd Edition) by Xu Shiyi make an important contribution in the field.%汉语史研究的语料需要区分文言与白话,白话为汉语史研究提供了真实可信的材料。汉语白话史的研究意义主要表现在有利于对汉语史进行分类与分阶段研究,以及对汉语语音、词汇、语法等的历史发展做更准确的描写与研究。徐时仪《汉语白话史(第二版)》有三个特点:穷尽性占有语料,对汉语白话的发展历史作了系统的清理;高瞻远瞩,对汉语白话的发展作了理论上的探讨与阐释;宏观与微观相结合,全面的历史考察与细致的个案分析相结合。汉语白话史的研究对于汉语史的研究具有很强的学术意义,《汉语白话史(第二版)》对此做出了重要贡献。

  3. HISTORICAL SOURCES FOR THE ROL-PLAYING GAMES: AN EXPERIMENT ON THE DIDACTICAL TEACHING OF THE ANCIENT HISTORY FUENTES HISTÓRICAS DE LOS JUEGOS DE ROL: UN EXPERIMENTO PARA LA DIDÁCTICA DE LA HISTORIA ANTIGUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Ramón Carbó García

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available On this paper we intend to emphasize the importance of the historical sources for the conception and ambient of different rol-playing games; therefore, the usefulness of these for the didactical teaching of History too. Likewise, we collect the results of a didactic experiment on university level developed with a rol-playing game set in the Ancient Age and more precisely in the times of the Roman Empire.En este estudio pretendemos resaltar la importancia de las fuentes históricas para la concepción y ambientación de los distintos juegos de rol y por consiguiente, también la utilidad de éstos para la didáctica de la Historia. Asimismo, planteamos los resultados de un experimento didáctico en el nivel universitario desarrollado con un juego de rol ambientado en la Edad Antigua y más precisamente en época del Imperio Romano.

  4. 我国古代教育环境论之现代借鉴--基于思想政治教育的视角%The Modern Reference of Ancient Education Environment Theory in China:From the Perspective of Ideological and Political Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王基辰

    2013-01-01

      思想政治教育环境是构成思想政治教育过程的重要要素之一,是思想政治教育系统的外部条件。我国古代教育环境是现代思想政治教育环境论的重要的理论来源。本文从继承和发挥传统节日的思想政治教育作用和重视集体学习情境的学习两方面来论述我国古代教育环境论之现代借鉴。%The environment of ideological and political education is one of the important factors in the process of ideological and political education, and the external condition of ideological and political education system. The educational environment in an-cient China is an important theoretical source of modern ideolog-ical and political education environment theory. This paper dis-cusses the modern reference of ancient education environment theory in China from the inheritance of traditional festival and the focus on collective learning situation.

  5. The Significance of A History of Ancient Southeast Asia%从“源头”认识东南亚之“利器”:《东南亚古代史》评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明亮

    2015-01-01

    The article aims to discuss the importance of A History of Ancient Southeast Asia. The book,published by Peking University Press in 2013 ,has been finished by Professor Liang Zhiming from Peking University and his group including scholars whose major are about the history of states in Southeast Asia. Though there has been some great works about the history of Southeast Asia around the world,the book has been the only one by Chinese schol-ars to cover the history of Southeast Asia before 16th century. As the importance of Southeast Asia for China is in-creasing,it is necessary for Chinese to know more details about Southeast Asia,including the past of Southeast Asia which has been examined by the book. It will be helpful for anyone who has been interested in the relations between China and the states in Southeast Asia,to understand the nature,development of Southeast Asia.%《东南亚古代史》一书是北京大学梁志明教授带领的优势团队多年合作的结晶。该书详尽地论述了东南亚殖民时代之前的发展历程,全书资料丰富,脉络清晰,架构完整。该书是中国学者在发挥中国古籍资料优势的基础上,结合国外关于东南亚历史研究的新成果而完成的。东南亚对于中国的重要性日益上升,中国从政府到民间也越来越重视东南亚,这就需要更加全面地认识东南亚———当然包括东南亚的过去,而《东南亚古代史》一书就是关于东南亚过去的论著,恰好有助于各界更为全面地认识东南亚。

  6. Research on history of medicine in China in the last five years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jian-ping

    2004-03-01

    Since 1999, progress has been made, to varying degrees, in numerous areas of medical history research in China including history of TCM, history of western medicine, history of integrated Chinese and western medicine, history of traditional medicine of Chinese minorities, history of medicine of foreign countries, history of medical exchanges between China and other countries, and history of comparative medical history. Among others, the number of articles on history of diseases, history of specific medical disciplines, modern medical history, medical biographies, medical works, contemporary medical history, and history of medical culture has increased dramatically. In the field of history of diseases, the papers deal with diseases in gynecology and obstetrics, plague, lanhousha (scarlet fever), and nephritis; articles in the field of specific disciplines deal with history of acu-moxibustion, history of prescription-forms, and history of gynecology, endoscopic surgery, and evidence-based medicine. There are even distinguished papers appeared in these aspects. In the aspect of modern medical history, there are papers dealing with the developement of TCM, the introduction of western medicine into China, with some specific researches in these fields. Medical biographies include Tan Yun-xian, Quan Shao-qing, Du Chong-ming etc. Papers on medical works deal with the ancient unearthed literature lost yet spread and extant abroad, medical classics, canons on material medica, cold-pathogenic diseases, and formularies. While papers on history of medical culture discuss basically the influence of Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and I-discipline on Chinese medicine. During these five years, 300 original articles have been published in The Chinese journal of Medical History, with another 200 papers published in other Chinese journals. Forty monographs have been published and important ones are A General History of Chinese Medicine, Modern history of TCM, The Historical

  7. [Physiology and cybernetics: the history of mutual penetration of ideas, modern state and perspectives. To a 60-th anniversary of a writing the book "Cybernetics"by N. Wiener].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I

    2007-01-01

    Description of the history of cybernetics origin and physiology influence on it is given. Role of Russian and foreign physiologists in becoming and development of cybernetics and contribution of cybernetic theorists (N. Wiener and A.A. Lyapunov) to physiology are shown. Becoming and a modern state of various sections of cybernetic physiology and perspective of connection of cybernetics with integrative physiology are considered.

  8. "Brought under the law of the land" : the history, demography and geography of crossculturalism in early modern Izmir, and the Köprülü Project of 1678

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olnon, Merlijn

    2014-01-01

    The port-city of Izmir (old Smyrna) plays a crucial role in modern world history. From the 1570s, that city became subjected to European mercantile interests and quickly developed into the main conductor of an irreversible European takeover of the Ottoman economy – the structural basis of a centurie

  9. On the Theory and Method about the Research of the Modern Famine History Guangxi Province- The Breakthrough of Homogenization about the Research of the Chinese Modern Famine History in the Bigdata Age%广西近代灾荒史研究的理论与方法刍议--大数据时代中国近代灾荒史研究突破“同质化”倾向的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛辉

    2016-01-01

    近代广西是近代中国时代变迁和社会转型的一个历史缩影。广西近代灾荒史研究既有助于更丰富地认识中国近代灾荒的历史图景,也是拓展广西近代史研究领域的必然要求。广西近代灾荒史研究应以“整体史”为目标和取向,在“区域史”的观照下转化学术视角,从“数据挖掘”角度吸取和运用跨学科方法,加大专题数据库建设与整合,加强和推进区域比较研究,从而揭示和把握中国近代灾荒史的“整体史”特征,克服同质化倾向。%Modern Guangxi is not only a historic miniature of the changing times and social transformation,but also had a profound im-pact on the development process of Chinese modern history and the necessity to enlarge the research field of the modern history in Guan-gxi province.With the integral history as the target and orientation and the establishment and integration of data with special subject from the perspective of data mining,the research of regional comparison is strengthened and pushed forward to show the features of inte-gral history of Chinese modern famine history to overcome the tendency of homogenization,and the method of interdiscipline with data mining are absorbed and used for the research of the modern famine history in Guangxi province.

  10. 新世纪小说史研究的新气象--刘勇强先生《中国古代小说史叙论》述评%New Atmosphere of Novel History Research in New Century-A Review of Mr.LIU Yong-qiang’s Narrative Comments on Chinese Ancient Novel History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章琦

    2015-01-01

    上世纪初,小说史著作开始登上学术舞台,在不同历史时期里表现出各自的特色。本世纪初,刘勇强先生的《中国古代小说史叙论》在结构、内质及学术问题的处理等方面均有独到之处,体现了新世纪小说史研究的新气象。%In the early years of the last century,the works of novel history began to appear in the academic circle.And they have different features in different times.At the beginning of this century,Mr.LIU Yong-qiang’s Narrative Comments on Chinese Ancient Novel History has its unique features in either its structure,content or tackling of some academic issues. This shows the new atmosphere of the novel history study in new century.

  11. History of ultrahigh carbon steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wadsworth, J.; Sherby, O.D.

    1997-06-20

    The history and development of ultrahigh carbon steels (i.e., steels containing between 1 and 2.l percent C and now known as UHCS) are described. The early use of steel compositions containing carbon contents above the eutectoid level is found in ancient weapons from around the world. For example, both Damascus and Japanese sword steels are hypereutectoid steels. Their manufacture and processing is of interest in understanding the role of carbon content in the development of modern steels. Although sporadic examples of UHCS compositions are found in steels examined in the early part of this century, it was not until the mid-1970s that the modern study began. This study had its origin in the development of superplastic behavior in steels and the recognition that increasing the carbon content was of importance in developing that property. The compositions that were optimal for superplasticity involved the development of steels that contained higher carbon contents than conventional modern steels. It was discovered, however, that the room temperature properties of these compositions were of interest in their own right. Following this discovery, a period of intense work began on understanding their manufacture, processing, and properties for both superplastic forming and room temperature applications. The development of superplastic cast irons and iron carbides, as well as those of laminated composites containing UHCS, was an important part of this history.

  12. A brief history of plastic surgery in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantar-Hormozi, Abdoljalil

    2013-03-01

     Although the exact time of performing plastic surgery is not addressed in the medical and historical literature, it can be supposed that these surgical procedures have a long and fascinating history.  Recent excavations provided many documents regarding the application of medical instruments, surgical and even reconstructive procedures during the pre-historic and ancient periods. Actually, there is no historical definite time-zone separating general and cosmetic operations in the pre-modern time; however, historically there have been many surgeons who tried to perform reconstructive procedures during their usual medical practice. This article presents a brief look at the history of plastic surgery form the ancient to the contemporary era, with a special focus on Iran.

  13. Pectus excavatum in mummies from ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Pectus excavatum is one of the common congenital anomalies, yet there seems to be a suspicious absence of any cases or descriptions of this deformity from antiquity. This could represent a real change in disease prevalence but is more likely just due to an inadequate reporting in medico-historical literature. The current study reviews reports of computed tomography (CT) scans of 217 ancient Egyptian mummies, revealing 3 presumed cases of this deformity. Therefore, pectus excavatum was in fact present already in ancient times, with prevalence roughly similar to the modern one.

  14. The Topos of the Ephemeral in the Ancient Greek Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana PETCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragment of the human condition, the ephemeral which lives within us. Trying to see how much the ephemeral ‘topos’ can be transfered to the performance level, particularly in the staging of the ancient tragedy. An intrusion in the history of this cause gives us the possibility to review in raccourcis its multiple semnifications. The second part of the article draws Hecuba’s portrait into a double mirror, the story of the Troy queen represents the myth of unstable happiness of the ancient world. Ambivalent picture of the character-ephemeris is built between the text of Euripides and modern perfomances on the stages of English, American, Australian and Romanian theatres.We also analyzed a few texts less approached from the directorial point of view, one the one hand in order to nuance the ephemerality topos and, on the other hand, in order to let them out of their shadow corner. The Aeschylian writings, The Seven against Thebes, The Persians and Euripides’ two tragedies Phoenician Women and The Suppliants have been our fundament to discovering new valences of the perishable and to showing the way that this motif can take from reading to scenic practice.

  15. 《现代汉语: 历史与社会语言学》述评%A review of Modern Chinese: Its History and Sociolinguistics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    P. Chen; 李晋霞; 刘云

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chen Ping(陈平)《现代汉语: 历史与社会语言学》(Modern Chinese: Its History and Sociolinguistics)1999年由剑桥大学出版社出版.该书主要是供国外的汉语教师和学生使用的.可能是基于这样一个写作目的,作者以还原现代汉语的发展史为目标,在历史和社会的大背景下,从现代汉语口语、现代汉语书面语、现代汉语书写系统三个方面出发,对自19世纪末至1990年代的现代汉语的产生、发展过程进行了翔实、全面的考察,对外国人系统了解现代汉语和汉语的现代化过程极有帮助.

  16. The pre-history of urban scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortman, Scott G; Cabaniss, Andrew H F; Sturm, Jennie O; Bettencourt, Luís M A

    2014-01-01

    Cities are increasingly the fundamental socio-economic units of human societies worldwide, but we still lack a unified characterization of urbanization that captures the social processes realized by cities across time and space. This is especially important for understanding the role of cities in the history of human civilization and for determining whether studies of ancient cities are relevant for contemporary science and policy. As a step in this direction, we develop a theory of settlement scaling in archaeology, deriving the relationship between population and settled area from a consideration of the interplay between social and infrastructural networks. We then test these models on settlement data from the Pre-Hispanic Basin of Mexico to show that this ancient settlement system displays spatial scaling properties analogous to those observed in modern cities. Our data derive from over 1,500 settlements occupied over two millennia and spanning four major cultural periods characterized by different levels of agricultural productivity, political centralization and market development. We show that, in agreement with theory, total settlement area increases with population size, on average, according to a scale invariant relation with an exponent in the range [Formula: see text]. As a consequence, we are able to infer aggregate socio-economic properties of ancient societies from archaeological measures of settlement organization. Our findings, from an urban settlement system that evolved independently from its old-world counterparts, suggest that principles of settlement organization are very general and may apply to the entire range of human history.

  17. The Study of Women in Ancient Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovich, M. James

    1982-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

  18. The first attested extraction of ancient DNA in legumes (Fabaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandar M. Mikić

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ancient DNA (aDNA is any DNA extracted from ancient specimens, important for diverse evolutionary researches. The major obstacles in aDNA studies are mutations, contamination and fragmentation. Its studies may be crucial for crop history if integrated with human aDNA research and historical linguistics, both general and relating to agriculture. Legumes (Fabaceae are one of the richest end economically most important plant families, not only from Neolithic onwards, since they were used as food by Neanderthals and Paleolithic modern man. The idea of extracting and analysing legume aDNA was considered beneficial for both basic science and applied research, with an emphasis on genetic resources and plant breeding. The first reported successful and attested extraction of the legume aDNA was done from the sample of charred seeds of pea (Pisum sativum and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia from Hissar, southeast Serbia, dated to 1,350 - 1,000 Before Christ. A modified version of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB method and the commercial kit for DNA extraction QIAGEN DNAesy yielded several ng μl-1 of aDNA of both species and, after the whole genome amplification and with a fragment of nuclear ribosomal DNA gene 26S rDNA, resulted in the detection of the aDNA among the PCR products. A comparative analysis of four informative chloroplast DNA regions (trnSG, trnK, matK and rbcL among the modern wild and cultivated pea taxa demonstrated not only that the extracted aDNA was genuine, on the basis of mutation rate, but also that the ancient Hissar pea was most likely an early domesticated crop, related to the modern wild pea of a neighbouring region. It is anticipated that this premier extraction of legume aDNA may provide taxonomists with the answers to diverse questions, such as leaf development in legumes, as well as with novel data on the single steps in domesticating legume crops worldwide.

  19. Political history of modern Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MA. Islam Islami

    2016-07-01

    Gamal Abdel Nasser was the one who established the Republic of Egypt and ended the monarchy rule in Egypt following the Egyptian revolution in 1952. Egypt was ruled autocratically by three presidents over the following six decades, by Nasser from 1954 until his death in 1970, by Anwar Sadat from 1971 until his assassination 1981, and by Hosni Mubarak from 1981 until his resignation in the face of the 2011 Egyptian revolution.

  20. To explain the world the discovery of modern science

    CERN Document Server

    Weinberg, Steven

    2015-01-01

    A masterful commentary on the history of science from the Greeks to modern times, by Nobel Prize-winning physicist Steven Weinberg—a thought-provoking and important book by one of the most distinguished scientists and intellectuals of our time. In this rich, irreverent, and compelling history, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Steven Weinberg takes us across centuries from ancient Miletus to medieval Baghdad and Oxford, from Plato’s Academy and the Museum of Alexandria to the cathedral school of Chartres and the Royal Society of London. He shows that the scientists of ancient and medieval times not only did not understand what we understand about the world—they did not understand what there is to understand, or how to understand it. Yet over the centuries, through the struggle to solve such mysteries as the curious backward movement of the planets and the rise and fall of the tides, the modern discipline of science eventually emerged. Along the way, Weinberg examines historic clashes and collaborations betw...

  1. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  2. Ancient Astrology as a Common Root for Science and Pseudo-Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enn Kasak

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The early history of astrology is closely interrelated with the history of astronomy. Both may be studied separately, but the result may prove one-sided and one may fail to notice things of great consequence. The history of ancient astronomy must be treated jointly with the history of astrology, whose contribution to the history of science has often been underestimated. This situation has begun to change only recently. The number of academic publications suggests that in addition to ancient philosophy, mathematics and astronomy, more and more attention is being paid to ancient astrology, which has played an important role in the history of human thought.

  3. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  4. Ancient DNA analysis of the oldest canid species from the Siberian Arctic and genetic contribution to the domestic dog.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther J Lee

    Full Text Available Modern Arctic Siberia provides a wealth of resources for archaeological, geological, and paleontological research to investigate the population dynamics of faunal communities from the Pleistocene, particularly as the faunal material coming from permafrost has proven suitable for genetic studies. In order to examine the history of the Canid species in the Siberian Arctic, we carried out genetic analysis of fourteen canid remains from various sites, including the well-documented Upper Paleolithic Yana RHS and Early Holocene Zhokhov Island sites. Estimated age of samples range from as recent as 1,700 years before present (YBP to at least 360,000 YBP for the remains of the extinct wolf, Canis cf. variabilis. In order to examine the genetic affinities of ancient Siberian canids species to the domestic dog and modern wolves, we obtained mitochondrial DNA control region sequences and compared them to published ancient and modern canid sequences. The older canid specimens illustrate affinities with pre-domestic dog/wolf lineages while others appear in the major phylogenetic clades of domestic dogs. Our results suggest a European origin of domestic dog may not be conclusive and illustrates an emerging complexity of genetic contribution of regional wolf breeds to the modern Canis gene pool.

  5. 蒙学对语文教育的启示%On the Ancient Old-style Private School Education’s Enlightenment to the Modern Chinese Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琳

    2015-01-01

    The ancient old-style private school education dates far back and has a profound historical accumula-tion. It provides valuable teaching experiences and rich literature resources for contemporary Chinese education. It sheds lights on areas such as basic learning method,classical Chinese reading ability and composition writing. What’s more,it helps enrich the learner’s necessary knowledge reserve,provide them with good language training and improve their ancient Chinese literacy.%蒙学源远流长,有着深厚的历史积淀,能为当代语文教育提供宝贵的教学经验和丰富的文献资源。尤其在学习的基本方法、文言文阅读能力、作文写作等方面有着重要的启示意义,可以为受教育者补充必要的知识储备,进行良好的语言训练,并提高其国学素养。

  6. Contesting Conceptual Boundaries: Byzantine Literature and Its History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis A. Agapitos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the problems of writing a history of Byzantine literature in the context of postmodern anxieties about canonization, authority and narrative histories of literature. An essential difficulty for such a project is the fact that Byzantine literature has been viewed as a continuation of or appendix to Ancient Greek literature, while, on the other, it has been divided into 'learned' and 'vernacular', the latter category having been defined as Modern Greek since the middle of the nineteenth century. The paper offers two sets of criteria for establishing new concepts of periodization and taxonomy. A series of examples are indicatively adduced in order to explain the scientific and ideological impasse in which Byzantine Studies have found themselves at the end of the previous century, while delineating a proposal for a different approach to content and structure of a wider synthesis. Writing a ‘new’ history of Byzantine literature is an experiment in proposing a radical paradigm shift by means of which this particular literary production in Medieval Greek can be studied within the broader context of Medieval European literatures as an integrated entity rather than as a separate and peripheral phase in the histories of Ancient or Modern Greek literature.

  7. 后现代思潮下历史研究“碎片化”倾向探析%The Fragmentation Tendency of History Research Under the Influence of Post-modernism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪

    2014-01-01

    随着后现代史学的发展,传统历史学“宏大叙事”方式受到了冲击和挑战,史学研究“微观化”渐成大势,却导致断裂历史的“碎片化”现象滋长,引起学界争议不断。文章通过探索后现代史学思潮影响下“宏大叙事”危机和面临的挑战,分析后现代史学“微观化”研究视角的发生发展,梳理史学“碎片化”现象和方家论争,希冀运用后现代史学合理科学的研究方法,避免由于割裂历史导致难以对历史进行重建和复原,推动史学研究与时俱进。%With the development of post-modern historiography, the Mata-narrative as a traditional way to express history was faced with great challenges. It is a trend that history research goes in a microcosmic way, but the result is that the fragmentation phenomenon expands rapidly which causes big controversy. This passage attempts to explore the crisis of Mata-narrative under the influence of post-modern historiography, and analyze the microcosmic perspective of history research and the fragmentation phenomenon and academic debate in the present academia. In order to use the reasonable methods of post-modern historiography in history research and avoid taking difficult in history reconstruction, so the history research can be promoted with the develop-ment of times.

  8. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  9. 初期“社会型”新文学史叙述形态论%Discussion on Mode of Initial“Social Pattern” of Modern Literary History Narration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡希东; 涂芸竹

    2016-01-01

    The narration of “social pattern” literary history is an important form in initial modern literary history narration.The external factors such as times, society are often used to interpret modern literary histo-ry, while“annalistic style” narrative mode of literary history is often used in literary history narration.The narrative“social pattern” literary history narration has a strong ideological nature compare with the mode of“literary genre pattern”literary history narration.Therefore, it is easy to cause the loss of literary independ-ence and aesthetics, and the narration of literary history will lose its objectivity, reality, and become insular at last.%“社会型”文学史叙述是初期新文学史叙述的重要形态,它在文学史叙述中多用时代、社会等外在因素阐释新文学的历史,文学史叙述形态多采用“编年体”文学史叙述模式;相对于“文体型”文学史叙述而言,“社会型”文学史叙述带有强烈的意识形态性,这易造成文学独立性、审美性的丧失,使文学史叙述失去客观、真实而走上偏狭之路。

  10. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2005-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  11. Ideological and Cultural Background Analysis of Modern Chinese Art History in the First Half of the 20th Century%20世纪上半叶中国美术史学思想文化背景探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹贵

    2014-01-01

    20世纪上半叶,是中国社会向现代化转型的关键时期。在风起云涌的变革大潮中,中国的哲学、历史、文学等都步入了现代化的征程。与此相伴,中国的美术史学研究也在此种背景下实现了由传统形态向现代形态的转型。探讨20世纪上半叶中国现代美术史学产生和发展的思想文化背景,主要包括三个方面的内容:一是西学东渐与中国近代史学的牵引,二是新式美术教育与出版机构的推进,三是近代美术考古学的促进。%The ifrst half of the twentieth century is the critical period of China's social modernization. During the surging tide of change, Chinese philosophy, history, literature, etc. are embarked on a journey of modernization. Meanwhile, art history studies in China have also achieved the transition from traditional forms to modern forms in this context. Analysis of the generation and development of Chinese modern art history’s ideological and cultural background in the ifrst half of the twentieth century mainly consists of three parts:driven by eastward spread of western culture and the modern history of China;advanced by new art education and publishing company;promoted by recent art archaeology.

  12. Design of a High Speed Multiplier (Ancient Vedic Mathematics Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sridevi, Anirudh Palakurthi, Akhila Sadhula, Hafsa Mahreen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an area efficient multiplier architecture is presented. The architecture is based on Ancient algorithms of the Vedas, propounded in the Vedic Mathematics scripture of Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja. The multiplication algorithm used here is called Nikhilam Navatascaramam Dasatah. The multiplier based on the ancient technique is compared with the modern multiplier to highlight the speed and power superiority of the Vedic Multipliers.

  13. Design of a High Speed Multiplier (Ancient Vedic Mathematics Approach)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an area efficient multiplier architecture is presented. The architecture is based on Ancient algorithms of the Vedas, propounded in the Vedic Mathematics scripture of Sri Bharati Krishna Tirthaji Maharaja. The multiplication algorithm used here is called Nikhilam Navatascaramam Dasatah. The multiplier based on the ancient technique is compared with the modern multiplier to highlight the speed and power superiority of the Vedic Multipliers.

  14. Traditional mortar represented by sticky rice lime mortar——One of the great inventions in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The development of traditional lime-based bond in ancient times was reviewed in this paper.It was proved by a lot of historical data that the application of organic materials in inorganic mortar was a sharp-cut characteristic during the developing process of construction gelled materials in ancient China.The important role sticky rice mortar ever played and the historical significance were revealed.Due to the excellent performance,such as high adhesive strength,good toughness,water-proof and so on,traditional mortar represented by sticky rice mortar should be one of the greatest technological contributions of the day in the world.Modern technology was employed in the study of the sticky rice lime mortar and the researching results of our laboratory and some researchers,including the compo-sition and the mechanism of solidification,were also presented.It was found that the sticky rice acted as a matrix of bio-mineralization which affected the microstructure of the calcium carbonate crystal and there was cooperation between sticky rice and calcite produced during the solidifying of the sticky rice mortar,which maybe lead to the excellent performance of the mortar.Because of excellent performance and importance in science,sticky rice mortar can be regarded as one of the greatest inventions in construction history of China.Relative research of sticky mortar will be of importance for the exploring of ancient momentous invention and the repairing of ancient construction.

  15. Traditional mortar represented by sticky rice lime mortar——One of the great inventions in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG FuWei; ZHANG BingJian; PAN ChangChu; ZENG YuYao

    2009-01-01

    The development of traditional lime-based bond in ancient times was reviewed in this paper. It was proved by a lot of historical data that the application of organic materials in inorganic mortar was a sharp-cut characteristic during the developing process of construction gelled materials in ancient China. The important role sticky rice mortar ever played and the historical significance were revealed. Due to the excellent performance, such as high adhesive strength, good toughness, water-proof and so on, traditional mortar represented by sticky rice mortar should be one of the greatest technological contributions of the day in the world. Modern technology was employed in the study of the sticky rice lime mortar and the researching results of our laboratory and some researchers, including the compo-sition and the mechanism of solidification, were also presented. It was found that the sticky rice acted as a matrix of bio-mineralization which affected the microstructure of the calcium carbonate crystal and there was cooperation between sticky rice and calcite produced during the solidifying of the sticky rice mortar, which maybe lead to the excellent performance of the mortar. Because of excellent performance and importance in science, sticky rice mortar can be regarded as one of the greatest inventions in construction history of China. Relative research of sticky mortar will be of importance for the exploring of ancient momentous invention and the repairing of ancient construction.

  16. 从古代文学作品看传统体育的历史与精神——《体育古文》前言%The History and Spirits of Traditional Sports Embodied in Traditional Literature Works -preface to Ancient Chinese Literature Works on Sports and Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵逵夫

    2012-01-01

    Many works in ancient Chinese literature (from Pre-Qin to the modern times), ranging in genre from pomes, Ci, Qu, Fu, prose, and novels, made descriptions of the sports and games people engaged in. The types of sports and games mentioned include ball games and Jirang, the game of throwing stuffs into the pot and horsing racing, archery, fencing, Jiao Di, sumo, Martial art, swimming, racing, long-jump, tug of war, skiing, fishing, the I-go, shuttlecock kicking and flying kite. These literature works not only showed vivid pictures of sports activities in different periods, thoughts, emotions and the spiritual states of the participants and the audiences, but also embodied the cultural connotations and the basic spirits of Chinese traditional sports. From these works, professionals in the sports field and sports enthusiasts can get to know the history of Chinese traditional sports and gain better understanding of the cultural connotations of the Chinese traditional sports.%中国古代文学中反映体育活动的作品很多,诗、词、曲、赋、散文、小说各种体裁的都有,时间从先秦至近代,关于体育活动的类型涉及各种球类及击壤、投壶及赛马、射箭、击剑、角抵、相扑、武术、游泳、赛跑、跳远、拔河、滑雪、钓鱼、围棋及妇女儿童的踢毽子、放风筝等。它们不仅生动地反映了古代各个时期一些体育活动进行的场面,参加活动者及观看者的思想情绪、精神状态,而且也反映出中国传统体育的文化内涵和基本精神。从事体育专业工作的人们和体育爱好者可以从中看到一部生动具象的中国古代体育史,同时对中国传统体育的文化内涵有更深的体会。

  17. Interdisciplinary investigation on ancient Ephedra twigs from Gumugou Cemetery (3800 B.P.) in Xinjiang region, northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Mingsi; Yang, Yimin; Wang, Binghua; Wang, Changsui

    2013-07-01

    In the dry northern temperate regions of the northern hemisphere, the genus Ephedra comprises a series of native shrub species with a cumulative application history reaching back well over 2,000 years for the treatment of asthma, cold, fever, as well as many respiratory system diseases, especially in China. There are ethnological and philological evidences of Ephedra worship and utilization in many Eurasia Steppe cultures. However, no scientifically verifiable, ancient physical proof has yet been provided for any species in this genus. This study reports the palaeobotanical finding of Ephedra twigs discovered from burials of the Gumugou archaeological site, and ancient community graveyard, dated around 3800 BP, in Lop Nor region of northwestern China. The macro-remains were first examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and then by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for traits of residual biomarkers under the reference of modern Ephedra samples. The GC-MS result of chemical analysis presents the existence of Ephedra-featured compounds, several of which, including benzaldehyde, tetramethyl-pyrazine, and phenmetrazine, are found in the chromatograph of both the ancient and modern sample. These results confirm that the discovered plant remains are Ephedra twigs. Although there is no direct archaeological evidence for the indication of medicinal use of this Ephedra, the unified burial deposit in which the Ephedra was discovered is a strong indication of the religious and medicinal awareness of the human inhabitants of Gumugou towards this plant.

  18. Childhood and Citizenship: A Conversation across Modernity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Joseph

    2006-01-01

    This paper analyses the problematic nature of citizenship as a modern achievement faced with the challenge of vindicating ancient ideals in what is increasingly considered to be a "postmodern" world. It offers a parallel analysis of childhood as a characteristically modern construct whose reality in children's life-worlds is threatened by social…

  19. Brief history of the clinical diagnosis of malaria: from Hippocrates to Osler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheston B. Cunha

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Since antiquity, malaria had a major impact on world history but this brief historical overview focuses on clinical features of malaria from Hippocrates to Osler. In antiquity, physicians tried to differentiate malaria from other acute fevers. The classic descriptions of malaria by Hippocrates in ancient Greece and Celsus in ancient Rome are excerpted here from the original Greek and Latin. Their clear clinical descriptions prove malaria was recognized in antiquity. In the modern era, it remains difficult to clinically differentiate malaria from typhoid fever. Since physicians used the term ‘typho-malaria’ to describe acute undifferentiated fevers a testimony to their lack of clinical acumen. Osler, the great clinician, by careful observation in clinical features and fever patterns was able to clearly differentiate malaria from typhoid fever as did the ancients.

  20. Governance,Communication and Mood Projection---On the Dialectical Relationship Between Literary Works and History in Chinese Ancient Literature Teaching%统摄沟通观照--古代文学教学中“文”与“史”关系的辩证思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓苇

    2016-01-01

    The in-class teaching of ancient Chinese literature has gradually shifted its focus back on lit-erary works analysis,which doesn't mean literary history will be rejected or abolished. The essence of litera-ture education draws the concentration of ancient literature teaching on literary works comprehension and appreciation,while literary history and its methodological significance on teaching and learning should never be underestimated in works-centered teaching activities. In the macroscopic aspect,teaching literature with literary history construction may help students systematically take in literary knowledge. In microscopic as-pect,studying writers and their works under the complex history background may help deepen students' com-prehension and extend their reflection. Only by balancing and integrating literary works and history in ancient literature teaching activity may allow students to grasp the essence and beauty of Chinese ancient literature.%如今高校的中国古代文学教学逐渐向讲授文学作品回归,但并不意味着对文学史的摒弃以至于取消。文学教育的性质,决定了古代文学课程的教学理当立足于文学作品的阅读与理解,但以文学作品为中心的教学活动,亦不可看轻文学史对于文学作品的教与学所具有的方法论上的价值意义。从宏观层面上,教学内容需要有文学史的统摄,便于学生将所学知识条理化、系统化;从微观层面上,将作家作品放在文学纵横交错的历史坐标轴上加以考察,有助于学生理解的深化与融会,延伸与拓展其思考。既重“文”亦不忽视“史”,唯有二者的交相融合,才能使学生真正把握住中国古代文学的思想精髓与艺术特质。

  1. Modernity and History of Chinese Business Fiction%现代性与中国商界小说的叙事沿革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹

    2011-01-01

    在中国文学发展史上,商界小说的身影几乎闪现在每一个历史时期,其价值取向、思维观念和审美特性也随着时代的变迁而发生着深刻的嬗变。近二十年来,商界小说创作更是中国社会现代转型中的一种精神呈现,一种积极的现代性的追求。它一方面坚守与民族文化传统的知识谱系、精神原则的意义关联和有机转换,另一方面又以“断裂”的形式为存在表征,充分展示其理性的反思和批判精神,这在作品中主要表现为对传统的商业伦理及其价值取向的叛逆、对经济理性的大力张扬以及对个体主义文化的反思与重塑。%In the history of Chinese literature, business fiction appeared in almost each single historical period. However, its orientation of values, its mode of thinking, and its aesthetic characteristics have changed greatly with time. In the past 20 years, business fiction has reflected China's drive to a modern society. While it sticks to the traditional cultural values, it also shows its existence in form of “ruptures” to represent rational self-examination and a critical spirit. In these works of fiction we notice a betrayal of the traditional commercial ethics and values, an emphasis on economic rationalism, and a reflection and re-building of an individualistic culture.

  2. Ancient Marital Rites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Clearly defined rites governing speech and actions dominated both the social and domestic activities of ancient Chinese people. Rites not only dominated the lives of men, but were also prominent in the lives of women.

  3. Lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) response but similar glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glycaemic, and insulinaemic response to ancient wheat compared to modern wheat depends on processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhøj, S; Flint, A.; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2003-01-01

    with honey-salt added, leavening crushed whole grain, and conventional leavening with yeast added. Bread made from modern wheat was prepared by conventional leavening with yeast added. SUBJECTS: A total of 11 healthy young men. RESULTS: The postprandial GIP response was significantly (P... by the Einkorn breads processed with honey-salt leavening and by using crushed whole grain bread compared to the yeast leavened bread made from modern wheat or from Einkorn. No significant differences were found in the responses of GLP-1, insulin or glucose. CONCLUSION: Einkorn honey-salt leavened and Einkorn...... whole grain bread elicit a reduced gastrointestinal response of GIP compared to conventional yeast bread. No differences were found in the glycaemic, insulinaemic and GLP-1 responses. Processing of starchy foods such as wheat may be a powerful tool to modify the postprandial GIP response....

  4. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  5. 中国古代“体操”发展研究%Study on the Development of Chinese Ancient"Gymnastics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺新成

    2016-01-01

    Using the methods of literature data, survey interviews and other methods, the origin of ancient Chinese gymnastics, development and evolution, form and content are summarized, collation, analysis, to carry forward the an-cient Chinese gymnastics culture accumulation. The results showed that:Ancient Chinese gymnastics form early in the spring and autumn and the Warring States period has appeared;Ancient Chinese Gymnastics in different histori-cal periods of the development and evolution of ancient Chinese gymnastics;rich contents, various forms of. Sugges-tions:further excavation, consolidation of ancient Chinese gymnastics connotation, characteristic, make full use of the resources of gymnastics, carry forward Chinese ancient culture to modern gymnastics, provide the basis for the study.%采用文献资料、调查访谈等方法,对中国古代体操的起源、发展与演变、内容与形式进行了归纳、整理、分析,旨在弘扬中国古代体操文化的积淀。结果表明:中国古代体操的雏形早在春秋战国时期就已经出现了;中国古代体操在不同历史时期的发展与演变;中国古代体操的内容丰富、形式多样。建议:进一步挖掘、整理中国古代体操的内涵、特征,充分利用体操的资源,弘扬中国古代文化,为现代体操研究提供依据。

  6. 2000 Year-old ancient equids: an ancient-DNA lesson from pompeii remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena

    2004-11-15

    Ancient DNA extracted from 2000 year-old equine bones was examined in order to amplify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. A specific equine satellite-type sequence representing 3.7%-11% of the entire equine genome, proved to be a suitable target to address the question of the presence of aDNA in ancient bones. The PCR strategy designed to investigate this specific target also allowed us to calculate the molecular weight of amplifiable DNA fragments. Sequencing of a 370 bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial control region allowed the comparison of ancient DNA sequences with those of modern horses to assess their genetic relationship. The 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene was also examined to unravel the post-mortem base modification feature and to test the status of Pompeian equids taxon on the basis of a Mae III restriction site polymorphism.

  7. Taming the unknown a history of algebra from antiquity to the early twentieth century

    CERN Document Server

    Katz, Victor J

    2014-01-01

    What is algebra? For some, it is an abstract language of x's and y's. For mathematics majors and professional mathematicians, it is a world of axiomatically defined constructs like groups, rings, and fields. Taming the Unknown considers how these two seemingly different types of algebra evolved and how they relate. Victor Katz and Karen Parshall explore the history of algebra, from its roots in the ancient civilizations of Egypt, Mesopotamia, Greece, China, and India, through its development in the medieval Islamic world and medieval and early modern Europe, to its modern form in the early twentieth century. Defining algebra originally as a collection of techniques for determining unknowns, the authors trace the development of these techniques from geometric beginnings in ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia and classical Greece. They show how similar problems were tackled in Alexandrian Greece, in China, and in India, then look at how medieval Islamic scholars shifted to an algorithmic stage, which was further dev...

  8. Buddhist Activism and Chinese Modernity

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The history of modern Chinese Buddhism has begun to attract attention in recent years. Some scholars have done inspiring research as they unravel the integration of Buddhism into the highly secularized process of Chinese modernity by drawing on the repository of knowledge on modern China. While this special issue joins this exciting endeavor, it also uses Buddhism as a window to reflect on scholarship on Chinese modernity. Conceptually, this special issue presses scholars in the field of mode...

  9. A Brief Journey into the History of the Arterial Pulse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Ghasemzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This paper illustrates the evolution of our knowledge of the arterial pulse from ancient times to the present. Several techniques for arterial pulse evaluation throughout history are discussed. Methods. Using databases including Worldcat, Pubmed, and Emory University Libraries' Catalogue, the significance of the arterial pulse is discussed in three historical eras of medicine: ancient, medieval, and modern. Summary. Techniques used over time to analyze arterial pulse and its characteristics have advanced from simple evaluation by touch to complex methodologies such as ultrasonography and plethysmography. Today's understanding of the various characteristics of the arterial pulse relies on our ancestors' observations and experiments. The pursuit of science continues to lead to major advancements in our knowledge of the arterial pulse and its application in diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease.

  10. A brief journey into the history of the arterial pulse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasemzadeh, Nima; Zafari, A Maziar

    2011-01-01

    Objective. This paper illustrates the evolution of our knowledge of the arterial pulse from ancient times to the present. Several techniques for arterial pulse evaluation throughout history are discussed. Methods. Using databases including Worldcat, Pubmed, and Emory University Libraries' Catalogue, the significance of the arterial pulse is discussed in three historical eras of medicine: ancient, medieval, and modern. Summary. Techniques used over time to analyze arterial pulse and its characteristics have advanced from simple evaluation by touch to complex methodologies such as ultrasonography and plethysmography. Today's understanding of the various characteristics of the arterial pulse relies on our ancestors' observations and experiments. The pursuit of science continues to lead to major advancements in our knowledge of the arterial pulse and its application in diagnosis of atherosclerotic disease.

  11. A discussion on the reasons of differences between property and flavor of Chinese Materia Medica of ancient and modern times%古今中药性味不统一的原因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效霞; 王振国

    2009-01-01

    The property and flavor (four properties of cold, hot, warm, cool and five flavors of spicy, sweet, bitter, sour, salty)which marked the function and efficacy of Chinese Materia Medica had dif-ferent records in TCM ancient literature, even being completely opposite. By analyzing the reason, it mainly involves such aspects as different properties of soil and water, different harvesting seasons, incorrect nomen-clature not corresponding to reality, different angles, double properties and flavors, former mistakes and lat-ter corrections, different processing methods etc.%标示中药性能功效的性味(寒热温凉四气和辛甘苦酸咸五味),在中医文献中的记载并不一致,甚至截然相反.分析其原因,主要有水土质异、采收季节不同、名实讹误、角度不同、性味双重、前错后改、炮制方法等几个方面.

  12. Importance on Keeping Health and Enlightenment on Modern Life of Qigong in Ancient Book Literatures%古籍文献中气功对养生的重要性及对现代生活的启迪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王岳川; 郭静科(通讯作者)

    2013-01-01

    This paper summarizes the substance of Qigong and health preserving in some ancient book literatures, states the shortage of diet therapy, according the practice experience of qigong, and discusses the importance of Qigong on health preserving, in order to help more people to recognize the benefits of Qigong on keeping body and mind health, helping recov-er from disease, facilitating learning and memory and alleviating many ailments associated with aging, for the improvement of living quality.%通过对一些古籍文献关于气功与养生的内容进行归纳总结,结合在气功养生实践中的体会,比较食补养生的不足,讨论气功对养生的重要性,旨在让更多的人认识气功的健全身心、养生康复、益智延年的养生作用,提高人民生活健康水平。

  13. Origin and history of mitochondrial DNA lineages in domestic horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cieslak

    Full Text Available Domestic horses represent a genetic paradox: although they have the greatest number of maternal lineages (mtDNA of all domestic species, their paternal lineages are extremely homogeneous on the Y-chromosome. In order to address their huge mtDNA variation and the origin and history of maternal lineages in domestic horses, we analyzed 1961 partial d-loop sequences from 207 ancient remains and 1754 modern horses. The sample set ranged from Alaska and North East Siberia to the Iberian Peninsula and from the Late Pleistocene to modern times. We found a panmictic Late Pleistocene horse population ranging from Alaska to the Pyrenees. Later, during the Early Holocene and the Copper Age, more or less separated sub-populations are indicated for the Eurasian steppe region and Iberia. Our data suggest multiple domestications and introgressions of females especially during the Iron Age. Although all Eurasian regions contributed to the genetic pedigree of modern breeds, most haplotypes had their roots in Eastern Europe and Siberia. We found 87 ancient haplotypes (Pleistocene to Mediaeval Times; 56 of these haplotypes were also observed in domestic horses, although thus far only 39 haplotypes have been confirmed to survive in modern breeds. Thus, at least seventeen haplotypes of early domestic horses have become extinct during the last 5,500 years. It is concluded that the large diversity of mtDNA lineages is not a product of animal breeding but, in fact, represents ancestral variability.

  14. Modernity after Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A strategy for the second modernization raises, beyond objectives, a series of epistemicresponsibilities. It is known that modernization stemming from the Enlightment had, among other things,the pretense that it is a project which is self-legitimating. Its profound rationales are the only justification.Referential self-centering proved to be the one that made possible a practice of the new. Modernizationhaving the function of renouncing myth – meaning an eliminatory formula for the past – and thefixation in the opportunity and potentiality of the present, seemed to close an insoluble but extremelyengrossing problem: that of a propensity towards utopia, of the risky escape towards the future. Thetraditionalization of the new constitutes a support for the daring to break out of the captivity of themoment.Modernization becomes the experience of combining the new which, thus, creates a succession ofpresent times. The future is no longer the result of fantasy, but a system’s direct expression to combine thenew. Therefore the future is an option for one or another model of the present, often tested previouslysomewhere else. In a non-metaphysical way, the future can be seen, touched, tried, lived by simplegeographical movement. The sense of evolution has de-temporalized taking the form of the concomitant,parallel, enclosed, neighboring space. We just have to be in the trend, to evolve in the context.Globalization defines the context and its conception – as a project of the second modernity – showsus the trends. The problem is how to understand the context in order to find the sense of the trend. Are wethe load the sense with the values of the first modernity or will we have to turn to the values of anothermodernity? Why do we have to move away from the significance of the processes which made up the firstmodernity? How do we relate to the content of the new context in which the structural trends of today’sworld are taking place? What is the

  15. Human evolution: a tale from ancient genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-02-05

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become a major player in the understanding of our evolutionary history.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity'.

  16. The Case of the Missing Ancient Fungal Polyploids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew A; Ganley, Austen R D; Gabaldón, Toni; Cox, Murray P

    2016-12-01

    Polyploidy-the increase in the number of whole chromosome sets-is an important evolutionary force in eukaryotes. Polyploidy is well recognized throughout the evolutionary history of plants and animals, where several ancient events have been hypothesized to be drivers of major evolutionary radiations. However, fungi provide a striking contrast: while numerous recent polyploids have been documented, ancient fungal polyploidy is virtually unknown. We present a survey of known fungal polyploids that confirms the absence of ancient fungal polyploidy events. Three hypotheses may explain this finding. First, ancient fungal polyploids are indeed rare, with unique aspects of fungal biology providing similar benefits without genome duplication. Second, fungal polyploids are not successful in the long term, leading to few extant species derived from ancient polyploidy events. Third, ancient fungal polyploids are difficult to detect, causing the real contribution of polyploidy to fungal evolution to be underappreciated. We consider each of these hypotheses in turn and propose that failure to detect ancient events is the most likely reason for the lack of observed ancient fungal polyploids. We examine whether existing data can provide evidence for previously unrecognized ancient fungal polyploidy events but discover that current resources are too limited. We contend that establishing whether unrecognized ancient fungal polyploidy events exist is important to ascertain whether polyploidy has played a key role in the evolution of the extensive complexity and diversity observed in fungi today and, thus, whether polyploidy is a driver of evolutionary diversifications across eukaryotes. Therefore, we conclude by suggesting ways to test the hypothesis that there are unrecognized polyploidy events in the deep evolutionary history of the fungi.

  17. Genomic correlates of atherosclerosis in ancient humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Thompson, Randall C; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Allam, Adel H; Finch, Caleb E; Frohlich, Bruno; Kaplan, Hillard; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Miyamoto, Michael I; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Thomas, Gregory S; Krause, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Paleogenetics offers a unique opportunity to study human evolution, population dynamics, and disease evolution in situ. Although histologic and computed x-ray tomographic investigations of ancient mummies have clearly shown that atherosclerosis has been present in humans for more than 5,000 years, limited data are available on the presence of genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease in ancient human populations. In a previous whole-genome study of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy from the Alps, an increased risk for coronary heart disease was detected. The Iceman's genome revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. Future genetic studies of ancient humans from various geographic origins and time periods have the potential to provide more insights into the presence and possible changes of genetic risk factors in our ancestors. The study of ancient humans and a better understanding of the interaction between environmental and genetic influences on the development of heart diseases may lead to a more effective prevention and treatment of the most common cause of death in the modern world.

  18. Trading on History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANKOT

    2004-01-01

    Marco Polo journeyed here on his route across China in thethirteenth century.Now, nearly 8oo years later, Kashgar - once me most critical junction on the ancient Silk Road - while still evoking the atmosphere of medieval travels, is rapidly catching up with China's modern development.

  19. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  20. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  1. Surface faulting and paleoseismic history of the 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake area, west-central Nevada, and implications for modern tectonics of the Walker Lane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, J.W.; DePolo, C.M.; Ramelli, A.R.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A. M.; Meyer, C.E.

    1999-01-01

    The 1932 Cedar Mountain earthquake (Ms 7.2) was one of the largest historical events in the Walker Lane region of western Nevada, and it produced a complicated strike-slip rupture pattern on multiple Quaternary faults distributed through three valleys. Primary, right-lateral surface ruptures occurred on north-striking faults in Monte Cristo Valley; small-scale lateral and normal offsets occurred in Stewart Valley; and secondary, normal faulting occurred on north-northeast-striking faults in the Gabbs Valley epicentral region. A reexamination of the surface ruptures provides new displacement and fault-zone data: maximum cumulative offset is estimated to be 2.7 m, and newly recognized faults extend the maximum width and end-to-end length of the rupture zone to 17 and 75 km, respectively. A detailed Quaternary allostratigraphic chronology based on regional alluvialgeomorphic relationships, tephrochronology, and radiocarbon dating provides a framework for interpreting the paleoseismic history of the fault zone. A late Wisconsinan alluvial-fan and piedmont unit containing a 32-36 ka tephra layer is a key stratigraphic datum for paleoseismic measurements. Exploratory trenching and radiocarbon dating of tectonic stratigraphy provide the first estimates for timing of late Quaternary faulting along the Cedar Mountain fault zone. Three trenches display evidence for six faulting events, including that in 1932, during the past 32-36 ka. Radiocarbon dating of organic soils interstratified with tectonically ponded silts establishes best-fit ages of the pre-1932 events at 4, 5,12,15, and 18 ka, each with ??2 ka uncertainties. On the basis of an estimated cumulative net slip of 6-12 m for the six faulting events, minimum and maximum late Quaternary slip rates are 0.2 and 0.7 mm/yr, respectively, and the preferred rate is 0.4-0.5 mm/yr. The average recurrence (interseismic) interval is 3600 yr. The relatively uniform thickness of the ponded deposits suggests that similar

  2. The Revelation of Ancient School Characteristics to Modern Colleges%我国古代书院办学特色对现代大学的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张牧

    2012-01-01

    书院是我国封建社会一种独具特色的教育组织形式。历时千年以上,地域遍布全国,书院对我国古代高等教育事业和学术文化发展都有着卓越贡献。书院为我们积累了丰富文化财富和宝贵办学经验,重新思考书院的历史经验,全面把握其办学特色,如:"讲会"制度、"问难辩论式"教学、学田制、名师讲学等,从中汲取精华再加以丰富发展,对于我们今天大学的改革和建设有着重要的启迪作用。%College is a unique form of educational organization in China's feudal society. Lasted over a thousand years, ge- ography throughout the country, the College have a remarkable contribution to the cause of higher education and academic and cultural development of ancient China. College for our accumulated rich cultural wealth and valuable school experience, re-thinking historical experience of the College, a comprehensive grasp of their school characteristics, such as: "lectures" sys- tem, "asked the difficult debate style" of teaching, learning Tian system, teacher lectures, etc., from learn the essence coupled with the extensive development has an important inspiration for the reform and construction of our university today.

  3. Valid Reasoning in Ancient China from the Perspective of Modern Logic%从现代逻辑观点看中国古代的有效推理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨武金

    2011-01-01

    中国古代逻辑也是研究推理和论证的。推理和论证的主要目的是揭示一个命题为真的原因或理由。推理关系是一种 "必然地得出" 的关系。墨子提出了四种推理模式:"辟"、"侔"、"援"、"推",而且把 "推" 又分为两种 "止",即归纳"止" 式推论和演绎 "止" 式推论。特别地,墨家提出了 "效" 作为判定推理是否有效的标准。%Ancient Chinese logic concerns reasoning and argumentation. The main aim of argumentation is to reveal the reasons for true statements. The relation between the reasons and the statement to be explained is how the truth of the the statement "necessarily comes about"given the reasons. The Mohists advanced four kinds of reasoning pattern: "illustrating (pi,辟)", "parallelizing (mou, 侔)", "adducing (yuan, 援)" and "inferring (tui, 推)". "Inferring"can also be divided into two kinds of "stopping (zhi, 止)", that is to say, inductive and deductive "stopping" inferences. In addition, the Mohists proposed a standard called "xiao (效)" for determining whether or not reasoning is valid.

  4. 南昌古城湖泊生态经济发展史对建设鄱阳湖生态经济区的启示%Title: The Development History of Lake's Ecological Economy in Ancient Nanchang City and Its Revelation to the Construction of Poyang Lake' s Ecological Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余万霰

    2011-01-01

    2000年前,古南昌城墙将位于抚河与赣江汇流处的四个湖泊围住,城内水面占1/2以上,人们聚居湖边.屋前是街道,屋后是码头,形成了世界鲜见的湖泊商业,逐步演变为商业最发达、人口最稠密的城市中心区域。但四湖并未被污染,原生态地貌保留至今,同步积淀了丰富的历史文化,是一部世界鲜见的城市湖泊生态保护与经济繁荣和谐运行史,对都阳湖生态经济区建设有重要启发意义。建议恢复古南昌湖泊商业的历史原貌,建设具有世界独特的“湖泊商业旅游区”。%About two thousand years ago, ancient Nanchang city was almost a water city. People settled around the lake. where streets stood in front of the room and harbor lied behind it. Ancient Nanchang city had increasingly becoming a rare lake commerce center, which had boomed business and dense population. Most importantly, the four lakes in ancient Nanchang city had never been populated and even kept its primitive geomorphology and accumulated rich historical culture. It inspires Poyang Lake's construction of ecological economy for its harmony between everlasting ecological protection and economical prosperity. This paper suggests the commercial history of ancient Nanchang city should be resumed and a world-specific"Lake Commercial Tourist Zone" should Be constructed.

  5. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  6. Ancient Archways and Ancestral Halls in Shexian County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    SHEXIAN, located in the southern foothills of Huangshan Mountain in Anhui Province, is an ancient county which was once the seat of Huizhou Prefecture. The area is also known as the birthplace of Anhui merchants. With a long history, favorable geographic position and a unique culture created mainly by those rich Anhui merchants, Shexian has retained a large number of cultural relics, especially ancient archways,

  7. Fast, accurate and automatic ancient nucleosome and methylation maps with epiPALEOMIX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Kristian Ebbesen; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Schubert, Mikkel;

    2016-01-01

    The first epigenomes from archaic hominins (AH) and ancient anatomically modern humans (AMH) have recently been characterized, based, however, on a limited number of samples. The extent to which ancient genome-wide epigenetic landscapes can be reconstructed thus remains contentious. Here, we pres...

  8. Ancient hydrothermal ecosystems on earth: a new palaeobiological frontier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, M R

    1996-01-01

    Thermal springs are common in the oceans and on land. Early in the history of the Earth they would have been even more abundant, because of a higher heat flow. A thermophilic lifestyle has been proposed for the common ancestor of extant life, and hydrothermal ecosystems can be expected to have existed on Earth since life arose. Though there has been a great deal of recent research on this topic by biologists, palaeobiologists have done little to explore ancient high temperature environments. Exploration geologists and miners have long known the importance of hydrothermal systems, as they are sources for much of our gold, silver, copper, lead and zinc. Such systems are particularly abundant in Archaean and Proterozoic successions. Despite the rarity of systematic searches of these by palaeobiologists, already 12 fossiliferous Phanerozoic deposits are known. Five are 'black smoker' type submarine deposits that formed in the deep ocean and preserve a vent fauna like that in the modern oceans; the oldest is Devonian. Three are from shallow marine deposits of Carboniferous age. As well as 'worm tubes', several of these contain morphological or isotopic evidence of microbial life. The oldest well established fossiliferous submarine thermal spring deposit is Cambro-Ordovician; microorganisms of at least three or four types are preserved in this. One example each of Carboniferous and Jurassic sub-lacustrine fossiliferous thermal springs are known. There are two convincing examples of fossiliferous subaerial hydrothermal deposits. Both are Devonian. Several known Proterozoic and Archaean deposits are likely to preserve a substantial palaeobiological record, and all the indications are that there must be numerous deposits suitable for study. Already it is demonstrable that in ancient thermal spring deposits there is a record of microbial communities preserved as stromatolites, microfossils, isotope distribution patterns and hydrocarbon biomarkers.

  9. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C

    2008-07-07

    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (-6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested.

  10. Logical Discussion and History of Modern Teaching Media%现代教学媒体的逻辑探讨和历史沿革

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙福海; 张明明

    2012-01-01

    "Teaching Media" is a relatively new concept,is generally a teaching tool or teaching methods in the past to refer to audio-visual education materials,"electronical educational media" to refer to modern teaching media.Advances in the development of modern teaching media,multimedia and online education has become a major research and modern teaching media is increasingly showing its important role.Through the logic of modern teaching media,to understand its essence and meaning,and also analyzed the historical evolution of modern teaching media in order to figure out the ins and outs of modern teaching media.%"教学媒体"是一个较新的概念,在过去一般是用教学工具或教学手段来指称,在以前的电化教育教材中,是用"电化教育媒体"这个名词来指称现代教学媒体的。但是现代教学媒体的发展一日千里,多媒体和网络教育已经成为了主要研究内容,现代教学媒体日益显示出其重要作用。文章通过对现代教学媒体进行逻辑上的探讨,了解了它的实质和涵义,同时也分析了现代教学媒体的历史演变,以期弄清现代教学媒体的来龙去脉。

  11. Is the turbidite facies association scheme valid for interpreting ancient submarine fan environments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, G.; Damuth, J. E.; Moiola, R. J.

    1985-04-01

    Although turbidite facies reflect only processes of deposition, turbidite facies associations are routinely used to identify ancient submarine-fan subenvironments (e.g., upper fan, channel, lobe, etc.). The assumption that process of deposition also reflects environment of deposition may not be valid for the following reasons: (1) Mutti and Ricci Lucchi's facies association scheme for submarine fans has been developed exclusively from ancient turbidite sequences; however, the true relationship between such turbidite facies associations and related fan subenvironments has not been confirmed from modern fans; (2) individual channel-levee systems of many modern submarine fans are in many cases large enough to contain the entire ancient fan systems on which these facies associations are based; (3) large channel-levee systems comparable to those of modern fans have not been recognized in outcrops. Consequently, the validity of turbidite facies associations for interpreting ancient submarine-fan subenvironments must be considered tenuous until confirmed in modern fans.

  12. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  13. A Summary and Review of the Chinese Modern Famine History Research Since the Beginning of the 21st Century%新世纪以来中国近代灾荒史研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董强

    2011-01-01

    As an important branch of social history research,famine history has always been paid great attention to by scholars at home and abroad.The frequency of China's famines in modern times has made China faced with an unprecedented disaster relief situation.Since the beginning of the 21st century,in order to make an in-depth exploration of the social change of Modern China,scholars not only continue to study the causes of famine and the process in recent years,but also begin to try to study famine based on economic factors,cultural factors,geography,environment,and many other factors,all of which have expanded the research perspectives of the history of Modern China's famines.%灾荒史作为社会史研究的重要分支,历来备受海内外学者瞩目。近代灾荒的频发,使得灾难深重的中国面临前所未有的抗灾赈济局面。新世纪以来,为了深入剖析近代中国的社会变迁,学界除继续探讨近代灾荒的成灾诱因与过程外,开始尝试将灾荒与经济、文化、地理环境等诸多因素结合起来考察,从而拓展灾荒史的研究视域。

  14. Balances instruments, manufacturers, history

    CERN Document Server

    Robens, Erich; Kiefer, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    The book deals mainly with direct mass determination by means of a conventional balances. It covers the history of the balance from the beginnings in Egypt earlier than 3000 BC to recent developments. All balance types are described with emphasis on scientific balances. Methods of indirect mass determination, which are applied to very light objects like molecules and the basic particles of matter and celestial bodies, are included.  As additional guidance, today’s manufacturers are listed and the profile of important companies is reviewed. Several hundred photographs, reproductions and drawings show instruments and their uses. This book includes commercial weighing instruments for merchandise and raw materials in workshops as well as symbolic weighing in the ancient Egyptian’s ceremony of ‘Weighing of the Heart’, the Greek fate balance, the Roman  Justitia, Juno Moneta and Middle Ages scenes of the Last Judgement with Jesus or St. Michael and of modern balances. The photographs are selected from the...

  15. A BRIEF DISCUSSION OF THE HISTORY AND RELIGIOUS BELIEFS OF THE ANCIENT CITY OF GAOCHANG IN WESTERN REGIONS%简论西域古城高昌的历史与宗教信仰

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱国祥

    2012-01-01

    The paper gives a brief account of the development of the ancient city of Gaochang in Western Regions in four different historical periods and analyzes the religious beliefs of Gaochang in each historical period.It believes that a co-exist system of multi-religious beliefs existed there with Buddhistm as the dominant belief in ancient Gaochang.%介绍了西域古城高昌在四个不同历史时期的发展概况,分析了高昌古城每一历史阶段的宗教信仰,认为古西域高昌存在以佛教为主导的多宗教并存的信仰体系。

  16. [The analysis of the eugenic culture in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Gong-Cheng; Zong, Hong

    2010-09-01

    There was a centuries-old culture of eugenics in ancient China. We should have comprehensive and objective cognition of this tradition. The ancient people did not generally advocate marrying at a mature age as do people of modern times. They not only considered the prepotency, but also were influenced by other complicated social factors on the problem of mate selection. Although advocates of coition techniques claimed the purpose of prepotency, the eugenic effect of coition techniques deserved to be suspect. Regarding the aspect of embryo conservation and care, the most significant thing was not so-called "prenatal education", but various antenatal care methods which were proposed by TCM scholars. By making a comparison with modern eugenics, the ancient eugenics had the characteristics of valuing the male child only, commiserating with deformity and being based on familial values.

  17. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  18. 遂昌古代银矿遗址采矿历史及矿业工艺探讨%A Discussion on the Mining History and the Mining Technology of the Ancient Silver Site in Suichang County

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐岩辛; 邹霞; 陈美君; 许红根

    2012-01-01

    The paper studied the features of the typical ancient silver sites in Suichang.Zhejiang province, and made the following conclusions by referencing to the historical documents:Sui-Chang Ancient Silver Mining started from the be-ginning of the Tang Dynasty,and developed to an scale business in the Song Dynasty,and reached to the flourishing pe-riod at the Ming Dynasty. Meantime,this paper summarized a set of the Mining Technology and the Technological Process of the Ancient Silver Mining, including Mineral Prospecting by experience,Mining by roasting and blasting Technology, Mineral Beneficiation by elutriation method,and Melting by cupellation,which were very important to the further studies on the ancient mining technology in our country.%通过对浙江省遂昌典型古代银矿遗址特征的详细研究,结合史籍记载,总结出遂昌古代银矿业采矿历史为唐初已开始采银,宋代规模化开采,明代达到鼎盛时期;同时提出了古人的经验找矿、“烧爆法”采矿、“淘洗法”选矿及“灰吹法”冶炼等生产技术和工艺流程,该成果对进一步研究我国古代矿业科技具有重要意义.

  19. On the Ancient History Informed by the Funeral Customs of Slaughtering Bulls by Yaozu in White Trousers%白裤瑶砍牛丧葬习俗刻录的上古史

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    磨现强

    2011-01-01

    The funeral customs of slaughtering bulls by the Yaozu people in White Trousers have remained the historical information that they have gradually altered the bad habit of fighting and eating their own species in the ancient times,concentrated the masses' forces,and developed farming and pasturage.The scene of feasting on long table reappears the vision of eating beef instead of human flesh in the ancient times of Emperors Huang,Yao and Shun,which showed that the ancestors had improved their consciousness of getting rid of the bad habit.Moreover,the scene of slaughtering bulls has exhibited the skills and wisdom of the ancient people in taming and fighting against the giant beasts,and reproduced the historical scenes of taming bulls and riding horses in the ancient times of Emperor Huang.%白裤瑶砍牛丧葬习俗保留着上古人类进化历程中逐步改变同类争斗相食陋习凝聚群体合力、发展农耕畜牧的历史信息,吃长席宴场景再现出上古黄帝、尧、舜时期弃人尸改吃牛畜的人数与意识提高改变同类相食陋习人数成正比的早期人类社会现状,砍牛场景保留着远古人类驯伏大型猛兽的技巧智慧,还原出上古黄帝时期人类"服牛乘马"的历史场景。

  20. Modern African, Asian, Latin American, and Middle Eastern Military History: A Bibliography of English-Language Books and Articles Published From 1960-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    Blackburn, Kevin. “Recalling War Trauma of the Pacific War and the Japanese Occupation in the Oral History of Malaysia and Singapore.” The Oral...XXX 2 (Spring 2008): 83-107. Fitzgerald, John. “Warlords, Bullies , and State Building in Nationalist China: The Guangdong Cooperative Movement...During the Vietnam War.” The Journal of Military History LXX 1 (January 2006): 91-122. Hawkins, David C. “Britain and Malaysia -- Another View: Was