WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancient greek temples

  1. Greek Temples and Rituals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutsikas, Efrosyni

    Whether the positioning of ancient Greek temples was deliberate and facilitated astronomical observations has been a concern for scholars since the nineteenth century. Twenty-first-century research on Greek archaeoastronomy has identified the shortcomings of earlier approaches and has built on a new methodology which integrates archaeological, epigraphical, and literary evidence on the astronomical observations, in order to create interpretations that improve our narrative, understanding, and reconstruction of the role of astronomy in ancient Greek cult practice.

  2. POLITICAL AND ECONOMIC RELATIONS OF ANCIENT GREEK TEMPLES

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Deniz; Ayhan Yardimciel; Özlem TOY

    2015-01-01

    Religion and belief concepts accompanied human in the adventure that they lived throughout history. The religion phenomenon within the culture, which was transferred to future generations by developing and accumulating, is quite important. Humankind built their first religious buildings in coordination with the need to shelter. These sanctuaries, which were generally defined as temples until the emergence of divine religions, were turned into central economic Powers with the compensations gra...

  3. Were Greek temples oriented towards aurorae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liritzis, Ioannis; Vassiliou, Helen

    2006-02-01

    Two ancient Greek temples of Apollo at Bassae (Phigaleia, western Peloponnese, Greece), and Thermon at Aetolia, (Aetoloacarnania, western central Greece), have a north-south orientation of their main entrances. This is a rather rare alignment of temples in general and specifically of Apollo in classical Greece, where most of them have broadly an east-west orientation. Based on historical and mythological accounts, as well as astronomical orientation measurements, the northern direction orientation of these constructions may relate to the rare, albeit impressive, occurrence of aurorae borealis, the northern lights. These strong lights are attributed to god Apollo by the epithet ``hyperborean'', meaning to the northern lands. Attribution is supported by archaeomagnetic directional data accompanied by auroral occurrence during those times.

  4. An analysis of astronomical alignments of Greek Sicilian Temples

    CERN Document Server

    Salt, Alun

    2010-01-01

    In the eighth century BC something peculiar seems to happen on Sicily. The archaeological record starts to show the arrival of Greek material culture. By the fifth century BC the island is effectively 'Hellenised' and ancient historians record the political and military action of poleis, Greek city-states. Each polis has traditionally been seen as the offshoot of a city elsewhere. Genealogies of cities ultimately end in cities found in the cities of the Peloponnese and the Aegean. The 'Greek' identity of the Sicilian cities is part of a wider debate on the concept of Identity in the ancient world. This paper considers if there is a contribution archaeoastronomers can make to such discussions by considering the alignments of Greek temples. Greek religion was intimately related to notions of civic identity and what it meant to be 'Greek'. I propose a method of studying small samples of temples, which combines both alignment analysis and historical context. Therefore it may be possible that a study of the temple...

  5. At the Dawn of Greek Astronomy: The Temple of Zagora on Andros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coucouzeli, A.; Avghouli, O.

    2009-08-01

    In this paper we present briefly the main results of our archaeoastronomical study of the temple of Zagora on Andros. This study has shown that the temple was designed for use as an astronomical observatory in the framework of the cult of the Dioskouroi and probably also for time reckoning and calendric purposes around 757 B.C. As the earliest and hitherto the only known observatory from ancient Greece, the temple of Zagora offers new insights into the beginnings of Greek astronomy.

  6. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  7. Understanding the meaning of Greek temples' orientations. Akragas Valley of the Temples as a case study

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, Robert; Orlando, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    The issue of the orientation of Greek Temples has been the subject of several debates since the end of the 19 century. In fact, although a general tendency to orientation within the arc of the rising sun is undeniable, specific patterns and true meaning remain obscure. With the aim of shedding light on this problem we present here a new complete, high precision survey of the temples of Akragas, the so called Valley of the Temples UNESCO site. Our results include a important temple which was essentially yet unpublished, and most of all show that very different reasons influenced the orientation choices, some symbolical, but others by far more practical, besides the general rule of orienting to the rising sun. In particular, the existence of temples orientated in accordance with the towns grid, as well as to the cardinal points irrespectively from the sun's declination associated to true east at the uneven horizon, is evidenced. Finally, for two temples having anomalous orientations a stellar and a lunar propos...

  8. An analysis of astronomical alignments of Greek Sicilian Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Salt, Alun

    2010-01-01

    In the eighth century BC something peculiar seems to happen on Sicily. The archaeological record starts to show the arrival of Greek material culture. By the fifth century BC the island is effectively 'Hellenised' and ancient historians record the political and military action of poleis, Greek city-states. Each polis has traditionally been seen as the offshoot of a city elsewhere. Genealogies of cities ultimately end in cities found in the cities of the Peloponnese and the Aegean. The 'Greek'...

  9. The Language of Ancient Greek Philological Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Brigita Kukjalko

    2011-01-01

    Annotation to the Doctoral Thesis by Brigita Aleksejeva: The Language of Ancient Greek Philological Texts An Ancient Greek philological text often combined the research of various language-related issues, which are nowadays studied by separate branches of linguistics – such as orthography, phonology, morphology, lexicology, syntax, and stylistics. The language of these texts differs from that of the fictional and non-theoretical texts of the period: since they represent the origins of the ...

  10. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  11. Parallel OCR for Ancient Greek Critical Editions

    OpenAIRE

    Del Grosso, Angelo; Boschetti, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This project is focused on the parallelization of OCR processes applied to Ancient Greek critical editions. Two experiments have been performed. The first experiment is related to parameters differently tuned on the nodes of the grid, in order to identify the best combination that improves the accuracy of the recognition. The second experiment concerns the application of OCR with the best parameters on sample pages by a divide et impera strategy. Results related to the performances of the par...

  12. Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were found on the island of Milos in the last century. Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave us the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use. The two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra, which are also described, seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use. PMID:9657298

  13. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  14. Ancient Greek lead findings in Ukraine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In June-August 2006 an expedition with the aim to look for archaeological lead with low levels of 210Pb was organised by a Korean-Ukrainian collaboration on the shelf of the Black Sea, near the Crimean Peninsula. The first samples with ∼0.2 ton of total mass were found at a depth of 28 m among the relics of an ancient Greek ship. Their age has been dated to the first century BC. The element composition of the samples was measured by means of X-ray fluorescence and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) analyses. The radiopurity of the lead was tested using low-level and ultra-low-level γ-spectrometry at a surface laboratory in Kyiv, at the Solotvina Underground Laboratory (Ukraine), and deep underground at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS, Italy). The samples have been assessed at the LNGS also by means of α-spectroscopy. For all investigated radionuclides, only upper limits could be obtained. Limits on activities of radionuclides in the lead after melting were set at the level of -1 (60Co), -1 (137Cs), -1 (226Ra), -1 (228Th), -1 (40K), -1 (210Po), and -1 (210Pb). Any 210Pb present in the lead after it was produced ca. 2000 years ago has decayed away. Assuming secular equilibrium in the 238U chain in the lead, the activity of 210Pb due to 238U can be restricted to -1 before melting, and -1 after melting.

  15. Did the ancient Greeks know of collective tyranny?

    OpenAIRE

    Jordović Ivan

    2005-01-01

    The significance of the question as to whether the ancient Greeks had the notion of collective tyranny results not only from the fact that the answer may help us understand the evolution of Greek political thought, but also from the fact that the study of the oppressive regimes whose exact nature was open to controversy should not consider them only in terms of oligarchy or tyranny, since contemporary attitudes to such regimes were often powerfully influenced by stereotypes. For that reason t...

  16. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector. PMID:26394486

  17. Balancing Acts Between Ancient and Modern Cities: The Ancient Greek Cities Project of C. A. Doxiadis

    OpenAIRE

    Zarmakoupi, Mantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the inception and development of the Ancient Greek Cities (AGC) research project (1963–77) of Constantinos A. Doxiadis and addresses the novelty of its methodological approach to the study of classical urbanism. With the AGC project, Doxiadis launched a comprehensive study of the ancient Greek built environment to provide an overview of the factors involved in its shaping. The project produced 24 published volumes — the first two laying out the historical and methodologica...

  18. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhwen

    2004-01-01

    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  19. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed. PMID:19045647

  20. Empirical Foundations of Atomism in Ancient Greek Philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.

    1996-01-01

    Describes how ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atoms at a time when the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. Concludes that similar experiences can be used in teaching the concept today. (JRH)

  1. The Change from SOV to SVO in Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Examines the distribution of clause types in ancient Greek during the Homeric (pre-800 B.C.) and Hellenistic (ca. 100 A.D.) periods, as well as an intermediate period (ca. 450 B.C.), delineating the evolution from a subject-object-verb (SOV) to a subject-verb-object (SVO) structure. (49 references) (MDM)

  2. Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire. It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice. PMID:26203550

  3. The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C R; Trompoukis, C; Siempos, I I; Falagas, M E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We identified such descriptions in myths regarding Amazons, Hercules, Zeus, Hera and Amaltheia. Furthermore, descriptions on the topic were also found in the work of Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Soranos, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Celsus, Archigenis, Leonides, Galen and Oribasius. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period. PMID:19891848

  4. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    OpenAIRE

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project, extensive measurement data have been collected from three well-preserved theatres, which represent three different stages of enclosing the audience in an open-air environment: (1) the Epidaurus Th...

  5. Heroesx: The Ancient Greek Hero: Spring 2013 Course Report

    OpenAIRE

    Reich, Blair Justin Fire; Emanuel, Jeffrey Paul; Nesterko, Sergiy O; Seaton, Daniel Thomas; Mullaney, Tommy Philip; Waldo, James H.; Chuang, Isaac; Ho, Andrew Dean

    2014-01-01

    CB22x: The Ancient Greek Hero, was offered as a HarvardX course in Spring 2013 on edX, a platform for massive open online courses (MOOCs). It was taught by Professor Greg Nagy. The report was prepared by researchers external to the course team, based on examination of the courseware, analyses of the data collected by the edX platform, and interviews and consultations with the course faculty and team members.

  6. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and...... swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms of...

  7. Empirical foundations of atomism in ancient Greek philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakkopoulos, Sotirios A.; Vitoratos, Evagelos G.

    1996-07-01

    The way by which ancient Greek philosophers came to the concept of atom is presented. The concept of atom, a great creation of the human mind, gave a direct, modern-like explanation of the world, at times in which the huge amount of experimental and theoretical information of today was not available. This lack proved not an impossible obstacle for ancient Greek atomistic philosophers. The continuous regeneration, which makes Nature seem eternal, the physiology of nourishment, the orderly growth and decay of humans, animals and plants, the spreading of a sent, the evaporation and condensation of water, the wearing out of a pavement by the steps of passers-by etc., led philosophers to the concept of atoms. Similar experiences can be appealed to in teaching the concept today. Nevertheless, the concept of atom was not conceived in the same way in all ancient philosophical schools. The struggle to understand Nature, brought forth brilliant ideas and intuitions, which are directly connected to modern aspects of atomic theory, like the atomicity of time and the symmetries of the world of elementary particles. Teachers today can, with benefit to their students, retrace the ancient steps to atomic theory.

  8. The Erotic Conception of Ancient Greek Landscapes and the Heterotopia of the Symposium

    OpenAIRE

    Heirman, Jo

    2012-01-01

    In his article "The Erotic Conception of Ancient Greek Landscapes and the Heterotopia of the Symposium" Jo Heirman discusses the conception of natural landscapes in ancient Greek lyric poetry from the seventh until the fifth century BC and its ideological background. Heirman analyzes lyric poems by Sappho, Ibycus, and Theognis in which landscapes of fields, gardens, and meadows are presented. Heirman's analysis reveals a recurrent erotic pattern in the conception of ancient Greek landscapes c...

  9. 75 FR 41274 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “The Art of Ancient Greek...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``The Art of Ancient Greek Theater... Ancient Greek Theater,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are...

  10. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    OpenAIRE

    Clementi Nicoletta; Fornaro Michele; Fornaro Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most an...

  11. Shaping the pain: Ancient Greek lament and its therapeutic aspect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Đurđina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, which is the first part of a wider research, I focus on different aspects of ancient Greek lament. One of its most important aspects is the therapeutic aspect: by verbalizing, revealing the pain and by sharing it with others, the pain itself is becoming more bearable both for the woman that laments and for the bereaved family. Related to this therapeutic is the creative aspect of lament: the woman that mourns has to lament in order to make it easier for herself and others; but while lamenting, she is creating something. In spite of this constructive, let us call it creative-therapeutic potential, the lament carries in itself a different, rather dark and gloomy potential, if it calls for vengeance, not reconciling with the fact of someone dear’s death. Deeply rooted in funeral ritual, a lament respects certain ritual rules, and yet it is a spontaneous expression of pain. Examining these mutually dependent aspects of lament, I will turn attention to the position of lament in Greek rites and tragedy, that summit Greek art and literature. Ritual lament within ancient tragedy is, as always when it comes to Greek culture, an inexhaustible topic. Although tragedy belongs to literary tradition, it is a trustworthy source for ancient Greek ritual practice; lament within tragedy is thus a ritual lament, and not only a literary one. Characters of many tragedies will mention the therapeutic aspect of lament, examined in this paper: they consider tears, wails and words directed to the deceased as joyful service, enjoyment, music, song precious and indispensable. This paper has its supplement, shaping the pain in few case studies. Inspired by laments of Montenegrin women, those that I have heard or read, I am re-reading Euripides’ Electra and Electra by Danilo Kiš (in which both Euripides’ drama and Montenegrin folklore is reflected, I am watching the Michalis Kakojannis’ movie Electra. Electra’s pain for loss, the one that through

  12. The Greeks and the Utopia: an overview through ancient Greek Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2009-06-01

    term has an ancient Greek root but it does not exist in the vocabulary of ancient Greek language. Although ancient Greeks did not have a conscious concept of utopia, they, however, dreamt, wrote, proposed – with different aims - what we would call now ( paradoxically using a ‘modern’ term ‘utopic’ worlds. From the archaic to the post-classic period, we find literary expressions of utopic thought in ancient Greek culture. Such expressions constitute the basis of the modern Utopia and Utopianism with their positive and negative implications. This essay takes a more detailed look at the work of Aristophanes, considered one of the greatest Greek playwrights, and inquires whether his comedies can be considered utopias.

  13. Of the Egyptians, Ancient Greeks, Jesus, and Teaching Personal Economics in Grades K-12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucey, Thomas A.

    Through this review of literature, the economic attitudes and patterns in ancient Egypt are interpreted. The paper also explains the economic ideas of the ancient Greek philosophers and of Jesus of Nazareth. It observes that societal deterioration, prompted by economic-focused pursuits and different societal interpretations, may occur based on…

  14. FIXING THE ONTOLOGICAL HIERARCHY IN ANCIENT GREEK EPIC

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    Vasiljeva A. S.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis of representations of hierarchical structure of the universe in ancient Greek mythic-epic tradition. In the research there was shown that the myth reflects the main program of interpretation of main principles of the universe by a man in its structure; the Chaos in itself possesses the generative power and forms an order from itself but the hierarchy appears together with the formation of the order-outer space. The first deities – Gaea and born from her Uranus, mountains, Pontus, - possess the great power and in the first place, the power of generation. From works of Gomer and Gesiodus we ascertained that the history of gods was connected with the fight of children with the father-sovereign. One generation of gods became that support on which the other stands. The third generation of gods is sovereigns in greater extent than another one. The generation of Titans is implacable but lives according to unlimited forces of nature. Titans are unbridled. Gods-Olympians, on contrary, have the relation to conscious restriction. Gods of the third generation possess passions: love, hate. However, Olympians as well as humans must submit to transcendental law of the universe. Gods of the third generation join to the rationale. The order of the universe submitted to the law – Destiny is disseminated in human community. Power as an accidental of initial hierarchy gives itself in hands of that who can submit its will to absolute power of Destiny. The legitimacy of power is determined by initial hierarchy of the universe

  15. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  16. Morphology of the heart associated with its function as conceived by ancient Greeks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George

    2014-03-01

    According to their writings, ancient Greek physicians had explored the anatomy of the heart. Although pre-Hippocratic medicine, which relied on religion and mysticism, has nothing more to present than implausible theories and speculations, younger physicians thanks to their animal dissections were able to depict the heart with detail. Hippocratic "On the Heart", Aristotle's, Herophilus', Erasistratus' and Galen's writings provide us with the necessary data to take a look at the anatomy of the heart as it was described back then. Despite of some confusing passages in their writings and some erroneous notions, the heart was described with relative accuracy. In the years after antiquity and in the Middle Age the only information about the anatomy of the heart could be derived from the ancient Greek works and only anatomists of the Renaissance managed to displace them. In this paper we present the knowledge of all known ancient Greek physicians about the heart, with emphasis on its anatomy. PMID:24447741

  17. [A review of the principle mythical gods in ancient greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Like their prehistoric ancestors, the people of early civilizations lived related to the supernatural. Facing life-threatening situations, such as illness and death, people of ancient civilizations resorted to divination, prophecy, or the oracle. Regarding the curative activities of the ancient Greek civilization, there was a period in which these processes were exclusively linked to a supernatural perspective of the origin of disease. This stage of development of Greek healing practices corresponds to what might be called pre-Hippocratic Greek medicine. In ancient Greek civilization, myths exerted a strong influence on the concepts of disease and the healing processes. Although the first divine figure of Greek mythology related to medicine was Paeon, healing cults related to Apollo and Asclepius had a higher importance in tradition and Greek mythology. The Apollonian divine healing consisted in the ability to eliminate chaos and keep away evil, while in the Asclepian perspective, the role of healer was linked to specific procedures. Personal and medical skills allowed Asclepius to surpass his father and achieve his final consecration as a god of medicine. PMID:25643892

  18. 7TH CENTURY ANCIENT TAMIL CHARACTER RECOGNITION FROM TEMPLE WALL INSCRIPTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    Rajakumar S.; Dr.Subbiah Bharathi V.

    2012-01-01

    Recognition of any ancient Tamil characters with respect to any language is complicated, since the ancient Tamil characters differ in written format, intensity, scale, style, and orientation, from person to person. Researchers for the recognition of ancient Tamil languages and scripts are comparatively less with other languages, this is a result of the lack of utilities such as Tamil text databases, dictionaries etc. The problem of ancient Tamil character recognition is the technical challeng...

  19. The Modern Intercultural Persona and "Civitas": Tracing the Path Back to the Ancient Greek Demoi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaiologou, Nektaria

    2011-01-01

    This conceptual paper represents an attempt to reflect on the notion of the "ancient Greek polis"--a subject of study and sometimes heated debate for many philosophers and historians worldwide--as a paradigm of a city that can offer some insight into modern states, in an era of globalisation and tense multiculturalism. By providing a synthesis of…

  20. After Auerbach: Ancient Greek literature as a test case of European Literary historiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.J.F. de Jong

    2014-01-01

    In the first chapter of his celebrated Mimesis (1946) Auerbach discussed a specimen of Ancient Greek literature (Homer) both as the starting point of a European literary history of realism and as a comparandum to biblical storytelling. Both lines of approach have recently been given new impetuses. O

  1. Were the ancient Greeks right that space is continuous material plenum?

    OpenAIRE

    Bulyzhenkov, I. E.

    2010-01-01

    All visible bodies are bound dense vertices of overlapping astroparticles with extremely weak r^{-4} radial densities of elementary (and summary) matter beyond human perception and instrumental resolutions. The non-empty material space of the ancient Greeks have mathematical grounds in the self-consistent reading of Maxwell's phenomenology and Einstein's gravitation through continuous radial sources of classical fields.

  2. Sailors and sanctuaries of the ancient Greek world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Johnston

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The many small maritime sanctuaries where Greek sailors left offerings to the gods are much less well known than such great cult centres as Delphi and Olympia on the mainland. UCL archaeologists have been contributing to the study of these widely scattered but significant sites for over a century, a tradition that continues today.

  3. Influences of ancient Greek spirit on music romanticism as exemplifies in Richard Wagner's Gesamtkunstwerk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siopsi Anastasia

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The romantics' ideal of the arts' collaboration (Mischgedichte finds its most substantial equivalent in Richard Wagner's (1813-1883 "total work of art" (Gesamtkunstwerk. This theory for the restoration of the 'lost' unity of arts was elaborated in many theoretical essays of Wagner and 'applied' in his music dramas. Unity of arts, as well as unity of arts with nature existed according to Wagner in Ancient Greece while drama was the epitome of all expressive elements of nature. This "new art of the future", which Wagner envisaged, would restore the 'wholeness' of ancient Greek drama. It is the purpose, therefore, of this study to analyze mainly from an aesthetic point of view the influences of ancient Greek spirit on romantic thought, by focusing on Wagner's work.

  4. Immortal Temple of South Sea-The Witness of Ancient Marine Trade in Guangzhou%广州古代海路贸易的见证者——南海神庙

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Immortal Temple of South Sea was the biggest, most integrated and unique architecture group of ancient sea Immortal temple. Located in Miaotou village, Huangpu,Guangzhou city, it is magnificent, simple and unsophisticated. The major building is a five-layer hall, from south to north lying Head Door, Yi Door, Double Roofed Corridor, Li Pavilion, Great Hall and Zhaoling Palace.

  5. THE GENIUS LOCI AT THE GREAT TEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL: HERMENEUTIC READING IN THE ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN TEMPLES OF RAMSES II IN NUBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ramzy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologists have long wondered about the Temple of Abu Simbel: its location within the Nubian territory far from major Egyptian cities, and its unique design. Utilizing the hermeneutic process of understanding the whole from the parts and then situating the whole within a bigger whole (context, this study is a trial to arrive at a better interpretation of this monument. Drawing on the characteristic analysis of the temple's Genius Loci as developed by Norberg-Schulz, as well as on Heidegger's anticipatory fore-structures, the study goes on to show that both of the location and the unique structure of the temple were the outcome of political and conceptual aspects of the period, more than being a religious tradition. Reaching this conclusion, another goal had been achieved, where the validity of hermeneutic analyses as a useful tool for discovering new dimensions about historical monuments and archaeological sites had been attested.

  6. 7TH CENTURY ANCIENT TAMIL CHARACTER RECOGNITION FROM TEMPLE WALL INSCRIPTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajakumar S.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Recognition of any ancient Tamil characters with respect to any language is complicated, since the ancient Tamil characters differ in written format, intensity, scale, style, and orientation, from person to person. Researchers for the recognition of ancient Tamil languages and scripts are comparatively less with other languages, this is a result of the lack of utilities such as Tamil text databases, dictionaries etc. The problem of ancient Tamil character recognition is the technical challenge than other languages in respects to the similarity and complexity of characters that are composed of circles, holes, loops and curves. Hence ancient Tamil recognition requires more research to reach the ultimate goal of machine simulation of human reading. In this paper, we have made an attempt to recognize ancient Tamil characters by using SIFT features and presented anew and efficient approach based on bag-of key points representation. Collection of SIFT features are first extracted from local patches on the pre-processed images, and they are then quantized by K-means algorithm to form the bag-of-key points representation of the original images. These fixed-length feature vectors are used toclassify the characters. A recognition system consists of the activities, namely, digitization, pre-processing, feature extraction and classification. This system achieves a maximum recognition accuracy of 84% using SIFT features.

  7. Important Results From Shallow Seismic Observations at the Ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town Site in Upper Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, S. S.; Walters, E.; Cakir, R.

    2011-12-01

    A number of shallow seismic profiles were run within the walled 200x300m perimeter of the ancient Hierakonpolis Temple-Town site in Upper Egypt as part of an interdisciplinary investigation of the progressive rise in the water table caused by nearby irrigation practices. Each of these lines provided a profile of water table depth that is accurate to within approximately 10-15 cm when compared to point measurements on a piezometer array. Water table depths currently range from approximately 0.6m to 1.5m mainly because of buried structures and there is a seasonal variation modulating a steady shallowing trend. Prominent continuous high-velocity, high-frequency (200-300Hz)signals from very shallow depths above the water table were observed along some of these profiles and additional crossing lines were run to map these anomalies; this high-velocity layer is imbedded in the upper layer of unconsolidated, air-filled sediments that have extremely low velocities and very low Q. Subsequent shallow excavations (2001, 2005-2010) at several locations on the site have revealed that the cause of this shallow high-velocity layer is the presence of a zone of closely spaced artifacts (dense in potsherds and stone fragments) above the water table that reveal new, previously-unknown evidence of occupation in the ancient town as early as Dynasty I, c. 3200 BCE. In the northwest excavation an 'in situ' deposit of special pottery lies next to a bench, a large block of dressed limestone. Further to the north, layered occupation suggests a secular context with pottery of Dynasty II, 2900 BCE and a new early date, terminus ante quem, for the accompanying figurines, thus far exclusive to two temple sites in southern Egypt. Of key significance is the discovery of the first reported ebony artifacts (leg of a statue and eyes) found in the region, and rare anywhere in Egypt. To date only a fraction of these anomalous areas have been excavated, so important additional new archaeological finds

  8. Panic and Culture: Hysterike Pnix in the Ancient Greek World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Susan P

    2015-10-01

    Starting perhaps in the second century BCE, and with Hippocratic precedent, ancient medical writers described a condition they called hysterike pnix or "uterine suffocation." This paper argues that uterine suffocation was, in modern terms, a functional somatic syndrome characterized by chronic anxiety and panic attacks. Transcultural psychiatrists have identified and described a number of similar panic-type syndromes in modern populations, and a plausible theory of how they work has been advanced. These insights, applied to the ancient disease of hysterike pnix, demystify the condition and illuminate the experience of the women who suffered from it. PMID:25471069

  9. Worlds full of signs. Ancient Greek divination in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerden, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation compares divination in ancient Greece to divinatory practices in Republican Rome and Neo-Assyrian Mesopotamia. Divination is the human production and interpretation of signs which were thought to have come from the supernatural – the signs could be concerned with past, present or f

  10. Ancient Greek mythology mediated by Latin culture: On Vlastimir Trajković’s arion and Zephyrus returns

    OpenAIRE

    Milin Melita

    2012-01-01

    Vlastimir Trajković (b. 1947) is a prominent Serbian composer with a strong inclination towards subjects from ancient Greek mythology. Among his most important achievements may be counted Arion - le nuove musiche per chitarra ed archi (1979) and Zephyrus returns for flute, viola and piano (2003). Two important aspects of those works are discussed in the present article: 1. the line that connects them to ancient Greek culture via French Modernism (Debussy, R...

  11. Tracing the roots of European bioethics back to the Ancient Greek philosophersphysicians

    OpenAIRE

    Kalokairinou, Eleni M.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the usual claim that Bioethics is a contemporary discipline, I argue that its origins can be traced back to the Ancient Greek philosophers-healers. In classical antiquity philosophy was almost inseparable from medicine not only in the sense that philosophers like Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle contributed to its development, but also in that later philosophers conceived of moral principles and rules in order to prevent the physicians’ malpractice and the patients’ harassment. Fro...

  12. The Topos of the Ephemeral in the Ancient Greek Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana PETCU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fragment of the human condition, the ephemeral which lives within us. Trying to see how much the ephemeral ‘topos’ can be transfered to the performance level, particularly in the staging of the ancient tragedy. An intrusion in the history of this cause gives us the possibility to review in raccourcis its multiple semnifications. The second part of the article draws Hecuba’s portrait into a double mirror, the story of the Troy queen represents the myth of unstable happiness of the ancient world. Ambivalent picture of the character-ephemeris is built between the text of Euripides and modern perfomances on the stages of English, American, Australian and Romanian theatres.We also analyzed a few texts less approached from the directorial point of view, one the one hand in order to nuance the ephemerality topos and, on the other hand, in order to let them out of their shadow corner. The Aeschylian writings, The Seven against Thebes, The Persians and Euripides’ two tragedies Phoenician Women and The Suppliants have been our fundament to discovering new valences of the perishable and to showing the way that this motif can take from reading to scenic practice.

  13. Archaeometrical studies on ancient greek silver coins at Bucharest cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of archaeological objects requires simultaneously non destructive, fast, versatile, sensitive and multielemental methods. Romania has a lot of interesting archaeological sites: Greek on the Black Sea coast, Roman in Transylvania and Dobroudja, Byzantine on the Danube border. Our purpose was to help Romanian archaeologists to identify objects provenance (workshops, technologies, mines) and to explain commercial, military and political aspects. Two methods were used: in air 3 MeV protons PIXE and 241Am source based XRF. For in air PIXE, we used a 3 4 MeV proton beam obtained from the 6.5 MeV Cyclotron nominal regime protons extracted through a 20 mm aluminium foil into the air, striking the sample after 8 10 cm. X rays were detected through reflection, using a horizontal Si(Li) detector. XRF measurements were done with a spectrometer consisting of a 30 mCi 241Am annular gamma source, a Si(Li) detector and a conventional electronic chain. The high number of relevant samples (10 20) and the associated dispersion of concentration values, allow us to consider as acceptable for such experiments obtained sensitivities down to 2 5 ppm for PIXE and down to 20 30 ppm for XRF and accuracy of 15 20% (PIXE), 10 15% (XRF). We obtain the composition of silver coins and comparing the quantities of Ag, Cu, Sn, Pb, and Au, we can find which coins are originals and which are local castled

  14. From ancient Greek medicine to EP³OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopakis, E P; Hellings, P W; Velegrakis, G A; Kawauchi, H

    2010-09-01

    The manuscripts of eminent Byzantine physicians from the 4th to the 14th century contain extensive information on various otorhinolaryngological issues. In their work, the early knowledge of rhinological disease from definition and symptoms to conservative treatment and surgical intervention is intriguing. Most of this meticulous knowledge was developed through time, beginning mainly from Hippocrates and the Hellenistic period. Thereafter, medicine developed through Roman and Byzantium times to finally influence European medicine and later the rest of the Western world. History of medicine reflects the history of mankind itself, and otorhinolaryngology follows closely this path. Our goal is to slim down and illuminate the most challenging of the vast amount of information on rhinological issues contained in the original Greek text of Hippocrates, and mainly in the hagiographical texts of Byzantine medical writers. In particular, we focus on rhinological diseases from antiquity till the time being, following the journey of evolution of topical and nebulizer therapy for sinonasal inflammatory diseases in Greece, from "milothris" to modern nasal sprays, leading to an understanding of the philosophy of our predecessors and the roots of modern rhinology. PMID:21038014

  15. Greek Death-Cult, Modern and Ancient: A Comparison of a Mediterranean and Balkan Cultural Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Håland

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The article examines emotion and identity in connection with Greek death-cult in an attempt to clarify certain contemporary political phenomena in the Mediterranean and Balkan area. The cult of the dead is a common cultural pattern in the area. Why is this cult so persistent? What is death-cult and how does it manifest itself? The article delves into its lasting importance in the Greek part of the cultural area, where the author has conducted several fieldworks. To illustrate the persistence of this cultural pattern, the characteristic aspects connected with death-cult in Greek tradition are discussed: The comparison is based on festivals, which are dedicated to deceased persons and domestic death-rituals combined with ancient sources. Based on them an analytical survey of the relationship between the death-cult dedicated to deceased mediators in ancient and modern society, as it is manifested through laments, burials and the following memorial rituals is made. The modern domestic rituals people perform for their own dead influence the official ideological rituals, and vice versa, the domestic rituals reflect public performances. A study of modern cult practices reveals many parallels with the official cult of the ancients, and suggests ways in which modern rituals can throw new light upon the ancient rituals and vice versa. The article seeks to demonstrate how new ideologies must adjust to older rituals and beliefs and how public and domestic rituals are connected. The article finally suggests how these similarities might represent a common way of expression within a larger context in which the Mediterranean and Balkan cultural meaning of emotion is central.

  16. PIXE analysis of ancient Greek copper coins minted in Epirus, Illyria, Macedonia and Thessaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallithrakas-Kontos, N.; Katsanos, A. A.; Potiriadis, C.; Oeconomidou, M.; Touratsoglou, J.

    1996-04-01

    Ancient copper coins from Greek cities and confederacies such as Amphipolis, Veroia, Dion, Edessa, Magnetes, Stobi, Apollonia, Kerkyra, Pella, Philippoi, Phoenike, and the Macedonian and Thessalian Koina, were analyzed non-destructively by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) after removal of the patina. The copper coins were minted during Roman Imperial times (31 B.C.-268 A.D.). Eleven elements were determined quantitatively. The correlation between the composition and the minting time is examined. The results are compared with those of a previous study for coins from the cities of Nikopolis in Epirus and Thessaloniki in Macedonia, in the same period.

  17. The ERATO project and its contribution to our understanding of the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theatres

    OpenAIRE

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Nielsen, Martin Lisa

    2006-01-01

    The ancient Greek and Roman theatres are famous for the excellent acoustics. However, it is not generally well known that different kinds of theatres were built, for different purposes and with different acoustical conditions. One of the aims in the ERATO project has been to investigate the acoustics of the open air theatres and compare to the smaller, originally roofed theatres, also called odea (from Greek: Odeion, a hall for song and declamation with music). The method has been to make com...

  18. Views on ocular cancer in Arabo-Islamic medicine and the leading influence of the ancient Greek medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Karamanou, Marianna; Chatziioannou, Achilleas; Nikolopoulos, Thomas; Moschos, Marilita M; Androutsos, George

    2016-01-01

    In the ophthalmological treatises of the medieval Arabo-Islamic physicians such as al-Mawsili (9th-10th century), al-Kahhal (ca. 940-1010), Haly Abbas (10th century) and al Sadili (14th century) we may find references about ocular cancer, focusing on eyelid tumors and cancerous ulcers of the cornea. These references are similar to the analogous ones of ancient Greek physicians as these are preserved in the medical texts of the most famous Byzantine doctors, indicating the influence of ancient Greek medicine in the Arabo-Islamic one. PMID:27061559

  19. Eclipse prediction on the ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine known as the Antikythera Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freeth, Tony

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Greek astronomical calculating machine, known as the Antikythera Mechanism, predicted eclipses, based on the 223-lunar month Saros cycle. Eclipses are indicated on a four-turn spiral Saros Dial by glyphs, which describe type and time of eclipse and include alphabetical index letters, referring to solar eclipse inscriptions. These include Index Letter Groups, describing shared eclipse characteristics. The grouping and ordering of the index letters, the organization of the inscriptions and the eclipse times have previously been unsolved. A new reading and interpretation of data from the back plate of the Antikythera Mechanism, including the glyphs, the index letters and the eclipse inscriptions, has resulted in substantial changes to previously published work. Based on these new readings, two arithmetical models are presented here that explain the complete eclipse prediction scheme. The first model solves the glyph distribution, the grouping and anomalous ordering of the index letters and the structure of the inscriptions. It also implies the existence of lost lunar eclipse inscriptions. The second model closely matches the glyph times and explains the four-turn spiral of the Saros Dial. Together, these models imply a surprisingly early epoch for the Antikythera Mechanism. The ancient Greeks built a machine that can predict, for many years ahead, not only eclipses but also a remarkable array of their characteristics, such as directions of obscuration, magnitude, colour, angular diameter of the Moon, relationship with the Moon's node and eclipse time. It was not entirely accurate, but it was an astonishing achievement for its era. PMID:25075747

  20. Sirius in Ancient Greek and Roman Literature: From the Orphic Argonautics to the Astronomical Tables of Georgios Chrysococca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Peter Z.

    2011-11-01

    The brightest star of the night sky, is Sirius, Alpha Canis Majoris (α CMa). Due to its intense brightness, Sirius had one of the dominant positions in ancient mythology, legends and traditions. In this paper the references of the many ancient classical Greek and Roman authors and poets who wrote about Sirius are examined, and the problem of its 'red' color reported in some of these references is discussed.

  1. Reflections on Tutoring Ancient Greek Philosophy: A Case Study of Teaching First-Year Undergraduates in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…

  2. Characterization of ancient Greek coins using non-destructive TOF neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characterization of ten ancient Greek silver coins from the Treasure collection of Gazoros (CH IX 61) found in Serres- North Greece; as well as two silver coin replicas, has been carried out using a polychromatic neutron beam of large cross-section to obtain diffraction patterns from the entire objects. The diffraction profiles indicate that there are three distinct categories of coins. The first one is a set of three coins consisting mainly of silver and copper alloy phases with high quantities of Cu2O and CuCl . The second group is formed of coins with high silver/ copper alloy ratio and the third is a collection of five coins consisting of very high purity silver. The comparison between the diffraction profiles of the original coins to those of the replicas present distinct variations that may be used to differentiate the different groups.

  3. Non-destructive characterization of minerals in ancient Greek ceramics using monochromatic neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A collection of ancient Greek ceramic pieces originating from different excavations from Neos Scopos, Serres, in the North East of Greece has been studied at room temperature by means of non-destructive neutron diffraction using a monochromatic beam. Quantitative phase analyses revealed different compositions of the mineral fractions present, but a general similarity of the main materials is still recognizable. It is shown that the observed variations are partly due to the experimental set-up and they can be remedied by taking a sufficient number of measurements for different sample orientations while bathing the entire object in the beam. An additional reason for the observed anomaly in the mineral phase compositions may be the different heat treatments to which the mixtures of clays/pastes was subjected as well as the postproduction environmental conditions for the selected samples. The firing temperatures were estimated to be in the range of 850-1000 deg. C

  4. History of carotid surgery: from ancient greeks to the modern era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarita, Tiziano; Gerbino, Maurizio; Gurrieri, Carmelina; Lanzino, Giuseppe

    2013-12-01

    A relationship between decreased carotid arterial flow and apoplectic manifestations was already suspected by the ancient Greeks. Early attempts at carotid surgery, however, were limited to emergency arterial ligation in patients with neck trauma. Attempts to suture arterial stumps together to restore blood flow paved the way for Carrel's revolutionary idea of reconstructing the resected or injured arterial segment with an interposition vein graft. DeBakey and Eastcott were the first to perform carotid endarterectomy in North America and the United Kingdom, respectively. In 1959, DeBakey proposed a cooperative study to assess the effectiveness of carotid endarterectomy in the treatment and prevention of ischemic cerebrovascular disease. The study was officially designated the Joint Study of Extracranial Arterial Occlusion and represented the first trial in the United States in which large numbers of patients were randomly allocated to surgical or nonsurgical therapy. PMID:24357636

  5. 卡夫卡与古希腊文化%Kafka and Ancient Greek Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾艳兵

    2012-01-01

    Kafka' s thoughts and writings might come from three cultural sources: Western culture, Jewish culture and Chinese culture. The relationship between Kafka and the latter two has been much studied before, but the relationship between Kafka and Western culture, especially ancient Greek culture, has been neglected. Kafka referred to Greek culture broadly and profoundly: borrowing, applying, deconstructing and even rewriting Greek myths. He took in the ideas of absurdity and labyrinth, and the image of Sisyphus, to deduce and develop them into images and structures of paradox and conundrum, as well as a series of characters like "K", who have a fate similar to that Sisyphus.%卡夫卡思想与创作的文化渊源应该包括三个方面:西方文化、犹太文化和中国文化,但以往我们对卡夫卡与后二者的关系的研究往往较多,反而忽略了卡夫卡与西方文化,尤其是与古希腊文化的关系的研究。卡夫卡广泛而深入地涉猎希腊文化,借用、利用、消解,甚至改写希腊神话。他从古希腊文化中吸纳了有关荒诞、迷宫的观念,以及西西弗斯的形象,然后演绎、发展成了他笔下的悖谬、谜语意象和结构,以及一系列的与西西弗斯同命运的"K们"形象。

  6. Time in Ancient Greek Mythology%古希腊神话中的时间

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽娟; 章紫薇

    2015-01-01

    The representation of time is a key to understanding Greek myths. Chronos in Orpheus religion is the principle of the cosmos. The myth of five races reveals the evolution of human history in some senses. Nyx and Hemera express man‟s fear of the dark and the love for the light. Horae corresponds to the order of social life. Time in ancient Greek mythology presents a complex cyclic property.%对时间的认识和表现是古希腊神话的一个重要且丰富的内容。古老的时间之神克罗诺斯在俄耳甫斯教神话中具有宇宙本原的属性。赫西俄德的五个种族的神话在某种意义上揭示了人类历史的演进过程。夜神和白昼神表达了人类对黑暗的恐惧和对光明的热爱。有关时序规律的神话与社会生活秩序形成对应关系。整体上,时间在古希腊神话中具有依赖内在否定而运转的复杂的循环属性。

  7. Gaia, Helios, Selene and Ouranos: the three principal celestial bodies and the sky in the ancient Greek cosmogony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijević, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Petros

    In this article we consider the role of the three principal celestial bodies, the Earth (Gaia), the Sun (Helios) and the Moon (Selene), as well as the Sky (Ouranos) in the ancient Greek cosmogony. This is done by the analysis of antique Greek texts like Orphic Hymns and the literary remains of the writers and philosophers like Aeschylus, (Pseudo) Apollodorus, Apollonius Rhodius, Aristotle, Euripides, Hesiod, Homer, Hyginus, Nonnus, Pausanias, Pindar and Sophocles, as well as by the analysis of texts of Roman writers like Cicero, Ovid and Pliny.

  8. The Ancient Greeks Speak to Us: A New Humanistic Approach to Classical Greek and Greek Culture for Secondary Schools. Teacher's Guide-Level Alpha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masciantonio, Rudolph; And Others

    A humanistic approach to the study of classical Greek and Greek culture at the secondary school level is detailed in this guide. References to the student programed text and other multisensory instructional materials used in the system focus on instructional objectives geared to students who are not necessarily college-bound. The standard Attic…

  9. Eesti antiigitõlke traditsioonid / Traditions of Estonian Translation from Ancient Greek and Latin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janika Päll

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The tradition of translating ancient Greek and Roman authors into Estonian is short, beginning with first attempts at the end of the 18 th century and the close adaptations of two Anacreontic poems (21 and 24 by the first Estonian poet Kristjan Jaak Peterson (in 1818, which remained in manuscript for a long time. The continuous history of printed translations began in 1878 with the translations from Homer by Jaan Bergmann. At present, a new, extensive and regularly updated bibliography with a database of earlier translations is being created (EAB 2012, which also includes the translations in the journals and more extensive citations in articles, as printing separate books with ancient literature started very late (1908 and was very rare in the beginning.  The periods in Estonian translation reflect the history of the country. Almost every period has its own specific trends, beginning with the focus on Greek and the role of periodicals in the first, resembling the patchwork-model of translation that has been described by Karl Eimermacher. Alongside the wish to entertain and educate, we see a strong tendency to use these translations for the development of Estonian national identity by comparing the Estonian epic “Kalevipoeg” to Homer’s epics and translating pieces from Tacitus’ “Germania” as early references to Estonia and thereby extending Estonia’s written history.  The 1920s and 1930s bring first attempts to create a canon, with a stress on Latin and the translations made for school, as well as the development of verse translation. However, all this was disrupted by the almost total abandonment of the classical tradition during the war and the Stalinist period. The comeback in the 1960s brought the translation of central authors from the classical canon (Homer, Vergil, Sophocles, supported by other activities of canon-building (anticipated partly in the 1920s and 1930s: the composition of anthologies and histories of literature

  10. Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    OpenAIRE

    T. G. Tharaka Kusuminda; W. G. M. Edirisinghe; Ranil P. Nanayakkara; Nilantha Vishvanath

    2013-01-01

    Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Tapho...

  11. Ancient Greek mythology mediated by Latin culture: On Vlastimir Trajković’s arion and Zephyrus returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vlastimir Trajković (b. 1947 is a prominent Serbian composer with a strong inclination towards subjects from ancient Greek mythology. Among his most important achievements may be counted Arion - le nuove musiche per chitarra ed archi (1979 and Zephyrus returns for flute, viola and piano (2003. Two important aspects of those works are discussed in the present article: 1. the line that connects them to ancient Greek culture via French Modernism (Debussy, Ravel, Messiaen and Renaissance poetry and music (Petrarch, Caccini, Monteverdi; 2. modality, which has proved its vitality through long periods of the history of European music, beginning with ancient Greek modes, reaching its high point in the 16th century, and re-emerging at the beginning of the 20th century in different hybrid forms. Trajković is seen as a composer who has shaped his creative identity by exploring the rich musical heritage of the Latin European nations, especially the contributions of Debussy and Ravel.

  12. Diversity and Population status of Bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient cave temple in the Gampaha District, Sri Lanka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. G. Tharaka Kusuminda

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to two unique specializations - echolocation and flight, bats have become one of the most successful groups of extant mammals in the world. Pilikuttuwa rajamaha viharaya, an ancient meditation monastery complex is a one of best places for bats which gives protection in Sri Lanka. In the present study, we evaluate the species diversity and population status of bats in Pilikuttuwa ancient meditation monastery complex with regard to their roosting ecology. Six species of bats including Taphozous melanopogon, Rhinolophus beddomei, Rhinolophus rouxii, Hipposideros galeritus, Hipposideros speoris and Megaderma spasma were recorded with the following conservation status, four in Vulnerable and two in Least Concerned. Taphozous melanopogon was the most abundant, and had the largest population with the widest distribution at the study site. A Natural predator of bats, Paradoxurus hermaphoditus was recorded in one roosting site.

  13. Reflection of Ancient Greek Tradition in the 13th c. Premyslid Celestial Globe Saved in Bernkastel-Kues

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadravová, Alena; Hadrava, Petr

    Athens : Institute of Historical Research/National Hellenic Research Foundation, 2012 - (Katsiampoura, G.) ISBN 978-960-9538-13-8. [International Conference of the European Society for the History of Science, Scientific Cosmopolitanism and Local Cultures: Religions, Ideologies, Societies /5./. 01.11.2012-03.11.2012, Atény] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP405/11/0034 Institutional support: RVO:68378114 ; RVO:67985815 Keywords : ancient Greek astronomical tradition * celestial globes * Ptolemaic constellations Subject RIV: AB - History; BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics (ASU-R)

  14. The City-state Civilization Embodied in Ancient Greek Mythology%浅析古希腊神话中的城邦文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙俊宇

    2011-01-01

    古希腊神话具有的人本主义、民主精神、自由思想、享乐主义等特点,体现出城邦文明的特征。本文分析了古希腊神话的特点及其表现出的城邦文明,并对比了东西方文化视野中的古希腊神话和中国神话。%Features like humanism, democracy, liberal thoughts and hedonism in ancient Greek mythology reflect the characteristics of city-state civilization. This paper analyzes the features of ancient Greek mythology and the city-state civilization it embodied, also compares the ancient Greek and Chinese mythology in the view of the Western and Oriental cultures.

  15. Recenzja książki: Eleanor Dickey, Ancient Greek scholarship: a guide to finding, reading and understanding scholia, commentaries. lexica and grammatical treatises, from their beginnings to the Byzantine period, Oxford University Press, New York 2007, s. 362.

    OpenAIRE

    Chiżyńska, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    In this volume are included two flattering reviews, first of Eleanor Dickey, Ancient Greek scholarship: a guide to finding, reading and understanding scholia, commentaries, lexica and grammatical treatises, from their beginnings to the Byzantine period (New York 2007) and the second of René Nünlist, The ancient critic at work. Terms and concepts of literary criticism in Greek scholia (New York 2009). Both reviewed works focuses on Greek scholarship and are very helpful for modern scholars wit...

  16. The Concept of Law in the Ancient Greek Political Thought: From θεσμός to νόμος

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Azarfaza

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Law is one of the key concepts in ancient Greek political thought. Two different legal-political terms were used for the concept of law in ancient Athens -although not simultaneously. Before putting an end to the tyranny of the Pisistratidae at the end of the sixth century, θεσμός was used in the sense of state law whilst after the Cleisthenes democratic reforms at the beginning of the fifth century, νόμος was the official legal-political term. This study reveals that such terminological change from θεσμός to νόμος reflects a profound change in Athenian political thought. Considering the fact that language mirrors thinking, this change in terminology may reflect a change in Athenian thinking. Hence, through philological analysis, this article aims to expound how ancient Greek political thought altered. Attempting to redefine the unit of Greek political life, πόλις, according to new meaning of the law, this paper is a contribution to the ancient Greek political philosophy.

  17. The Mythology of the Night Sky An Amateur Astronomer's Guide to the Ancient Greek and Roman Legends

    CERN Document Server

    Falkner, David E

    2011-01-01

    Every amateur astronomer can easily recognize most of the constellations, but how many of us know the story behind them? What myths did the Ancient Greeks weave around the mighty hunter Orion that places him so prominently in the sky? Did you know that this mythical being was said to have been killed by Diana, herself a hunter, while he was exhausted by his fight with Scorpius? The constellation of Scorpius, the giant scorpion, is dominated by the red supergiant Antares and hangs in the sky opposite Orion. Yet there is no constellation of Diana to be found! The Mythology of the Night Sky strikes a balance between backyard astronomy and ancient mythology. Organized by seasons, this book describes Ptolemy's 48 constellations with location and description in detail, while also telling the mythological tales in full. Along with the named constellations, this title also incorporates the lore behind the christening of the planets and their satellites. Readers discover the importance of the ancient characters, why...

  18. The Influence of Ancient Greek Culture on Macedonian Literature of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Mitevski

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Influence of Ancient Greek Culture on Macedonian Literature of the 19th CenturyIn Macedonia under the Ottoman rule during the nineteenth century, the Macedonian people-the nation is subject to political pressure and the cultural influence of Turkey and other countries. Under the influence of propaganda leading by Athens and education politics in the area of contemporary Republic of Macedonia, some Macedonian militant intellectuals embraced, at the same time, were influenced by romanticism and the Old-Greek culture, which strongly affect their literary works. In this context, two authors are viewed as the most significant-Jordan Hadji Murad Konstantinov Džinot and Grigor Prlichev. Džinot is the author of dramatized dialogue inspired by the classic Greek mythology, at the school, where he is a teacher. On the pages of the press he announces the publication of its ancient-themed dramas, however, for unknown reasons, none of them does not appear in print. Prlichev well knew the Old-Greek and is an admirer of the works of Homer. Influenced by the poetry of Homer writes in an epic poem in the archaized Greek. Wpływ starogreckiej kultury na literaturę macedońską w XIX wiekuW ramach imperium osmańskiego, którego częścią jest Macedonia w ciągu XIX wieku, macedoński lud-naród podlega politycznej presji i wpływom kulturowym ze strony Turcji i innych państw. Pod wpływem propagandy, którą prowadzą Ateny i która wyraża się m.in. w zakładaniu swoich szkół w Macedonii, niektórzy macedońscy intelektualiści, ogarnięci w tym samym czasie wpływami romantyzmu poznają kulturę starogrecką, co silnie wpłynie na ich twórczość literacką. W tym kontekście wybijają się dwie najbardziej znaczące postaci – Jordan Hadži Konstantinov-Džinot i Grigor Prličev. Džinot jest autorem dramatyzowanych dialogów inspirowanych klasyczną, starogrecką mitologią, wystawianych w szkole, w której sam jest nauczycielem. Na

  19. A Troubling Double-Body: Roland Barthes' Relationship with Ancient Greek Mythology and Bunraku

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine Scherer

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of Roland Barthes' conception of the ideal acting body within different forms of theatre through a consideration of his theories on semiotics. It comparatively discusses his writings on Greek tragedy and Japanese Bunraku in order to outline his ideas about the body's ‘ideal function’ in dramatic performance and its role as signifier to an underlying signified. His reading of the performing body of Greek tragedy within the tradition of doubling and masking leads him to view its meaning as fragmented and its mythology as lacking clear signification. Barthes’ views on Greek tragedy are compared to his views on the Japanese puppet theatre Bunraku. In his article ‘On Bunraku’ Barthes describes how the body is turned into a surface producing endless signifiers that can relate to a clear signified without being disturbed by an actor’s inherent corporeality. The article demonstrates how the two strands of his work, performance and semiotics, are inevitably linked. It shows how using the vocabulary of signifier and signified to distinguish the ‘natural’ from the ‘performing’ body, led Barthes to reject Greek tragedy in favour of Japanese Bunraku.

  20. Synnøve Des Bouvrie (éd.), Myth and Symbol II. Symbolic phenomena in ancient Greek culture

    OpenAIRE

    Van Keer, Ellen

    2011-01-01

    Ce volume présente une série de papiers présentés lors de deux colloques organisés à l’Institut norvégien d’Athènes. Un colloque sur le même thème, organisé à Tromsø, avait été publié en 2002. Avec son sous-titre, « Symbolic Phenomena in Ancient Greek Culture », il entendait guider l’étude du mythe grec vers les questions générales du symbolisme, dont les fondements méthodologiques étaient éclaircis dans une copieuse introduction de l’éditrice. Les contributions du présent volume puisent donc...

  1. Using Ancient Chinese and Greek Astronomical Data: A Training Sequence in Elementary Astronomy for Pre-Service Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hosson, Cécile; Décamp, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    A great amount of research has been carried out world-wide to promote history of science as a powerful science teaching tool. Because the ways of choosing and using historical elements depend on teachers' or researchers' educational purpose, any attempt to support a single model-to-use seems difficult and probably irrelevant. However, specific purposes may reflect specific and prescriptive terms for using historical materials. Our work aims to show up this aspect. It is an attempt to make elements of the history of astronomy involved in the elaboration of a training session for future primary school teachers. Here, ancients' Greek and Chinese historical elements are chosen and organized according to specific educational and conceptual constraints that include the construction of the quasi-parallelism of solar rays reaching Earths' surface, and the spontaneous modeling of the propagation of Sunlight leaning on divergent rays. This leads to an original teaching sequence were historical elements are mixed with non historical ones. This organization forms the support of a pre-service training session developed for future primary school teachers. This session aims to provide future teachers with elementary cosmological knowledge (parallelism of Sunrays, shape and size of the Earth, Sun-Earth distance…), to provide some reference marks of history of ancient cosmologies (spherical and flat Earth) resulting from two distinct contexts, and to approach some aspects associated with Nature of Science (NOS).

  2. 岳西高腔"变"中求存%Study on the influence of Ancient Greek culture on modern design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳

    2012-01-01

    From the philosophy, esthetics and the science, The article discussed the far-reaching influence of ancient Greek culture on modem design. In the aspect of philosophy, the article explored the origin relations between humanism tendency, rationalism thought of ancient Greece and user-friendly design, functionalism, rational design of modem design. In the aesthetics, the article introduced the influence of the ancient Greek harmonious aesthetic on the modem design aesthetic. In the science, the article elaborated the penetration of modem design science thinking by the ancient Greek mathematics, geometry and other scientific achievements.%在多元化碰撞的当今社会,随着高科技和互联网的迅猛发展,人们的生活方式和思想观念也发生了翻天覆地的变化。由于当代人对传统剧种在认识上的差异,岳西高腔该如何发展才能既符合当代审美的口味,又不失经典风采而经久不衰是非常值得深思的一个问题。文章以此为切入点,提出只有在传承与发展中不断增强思“变”意识,才能使岳西高腔焕发生机。

  3. Study on the influence of Ancient Greek culture on modern design%论古希腊文明对现代设计的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭会娟; 汪海波

    2012-01-01

    文章从哲学、美学和科学三个方面论述了古希腊文明对现代设计的深远影响。在哲学方面,探讨了古希腊人本主义倾向和理性主义思想与现代设计人性化设计和功能主义、理性设计的渊源关系;在美学方面,主要介绍了古希腊和谐美学观对现代设计审美的影响;在科学方面,重点论述了古希腊数学、几何学等科学成就对现代设计科学思维的渗透和影响。%From the philosophy, esthetics and the science, The article discussed the far-reaching influence of ancient Greek culture on modem design. In the aspect of philosophy, the article explored the origin relations between humanism tendency, rationalism thought of ancient Greece and user-friendly design, functionalism, rational design of modem design. In the aesthetics, the article introduced the influence of the ancient Greek harmonious aesthetic on the modem design aesthetic. In the science, the article elaborated the penetration of modem design science thinking by the ancient Greek mathematics, geometry and other scientific achievements.

  4. A sustained survival: elements and mythical motifs in ancient Greek philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Saco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Other aspects of historical nature, the distinction between nomos-physis, operated in the archaic Greek world, meant that socio-cultural structures will be intrinsic to the world, to be conventional and imposed to the natural order, a fact which broke the traditional mythical discourse (nature and culture correlations, and began to distinguish between humanity and the world. Despite this twist, the myth did not disappear nor was it entirely overcome or forgotten. In this sense, the proposal offered in this work is theoretical observation of the conduct and influence of the myth in what has conceptualized as «philosophical» in Greece antiquity.

  5. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  6. The Concept of Law in the Ancient Greek Political Thought: From θεσμός to νόμος

    OpenAIRE

    I Azarfaza; M Ghavam Safary

    2014-01-01

    Law is one of the key concepts in ancient Greek political thought. Two different legal-political terms were used for the concept of law in ancient Athens -although not simultaneously. Before putting an end to the tyranny of the Pisistratidae at the end of the sixth century, θεσμός was used in the sense of state law whilst after the Cleisthenes democratic reforms at the beginning of the fifth century, νόμος was the official legal-political term. This study reveals that such terminological chan...

  7. 古希腊体育文化本原初探%A Probe Into The Origin Of Ancient Greek's Sports Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董立兵; 汲智勇

    2012-01-01

    Culture origin is the foundation of the existence of a nation, and it is true with Ancient Greek. The paper, from the perspective of philosophy, tends to analyze the sports culture origin through the analysis of culture origin of Ancient Greek with the purpose of better knowing the cultural attribute of Ancient Greek Sports.%文化本原是一个民族存在的根基;同样,古希腊体育文化本原是古希腊体育的精神内涵,主要尝试从哲学的角度入手,通过对古希腊文化本原的分析,从本体论、认识论、方法论等几个方面,对古希腊体育文化的本原加以分析,从而能更好的了解古希腊方体育项目的内在文化属性。

  8. Jeremiah's Temple Sermon Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    -called Temple Sermon in Jer 26 in the light of the parallel in Jer 7. Apart from the obvious narrative connection, the relation between these two chapters is marked by two elements, first the understanding of relation between the destoyed temple in Shilo and the temple in Jerusalem,  secondly by the so...

  9. Neutron activation analysis on ancient Greek silver coins and related materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    66 archaic Greek silver coins have been analyzed for the minor elements Cu, Au, Bi and Pb, and for the trace elements Na, Mn, Co, Ni, As, Sn, Sb and Ir. Instrumental neutron activation has been used for the determination of Cu and Au and atomic absorption spectroscopy for Pb and Bi. For measurements and evaluation of γ-spectra a PDP 11/40-system is used. Measurements are carried out by means of commercial software programs. The γ-spectra stored on magtapes may be evaluated off-line on a CDC 3300 with the multi-purpose program JANE, or the evaluation is done online with the PDP 11/40-system. The trace elements could be detected only after a separation of the interfering matrix activities by an extraction with a diethyl-dithio-carbamate complex. The homogeneity of Au and Cu in the coins and the significance of the trace elements are discussed. The statistical evaluation of the analytical data reveals distinct groups for coins of some provenances. Tabulated data are given. (T.G.)

  10. Transition from the Temple of Jupiter to the Great Mosque of Damascus in Architecture and Design

    OpenAIRE

    Sobczak, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Great Mosque of Damascus was built between 705 and 715 by the Umayyad Caliph al-Walid I. However, the origins of this building dates to the distant past. At first it was a location of an ancient Aramaean temple dedicated to the god Hadad. With Hellenization the temple was dedicated to Zeus and in the first century BC the Romans transformation it into the Temple of Jupiter Damascenus. In 391 Emperor Theodosius converted the temple into Christian Cathedral of Saint John. Erection ...

  11. The Dikpālas of ancient Java revisited: A new identification for the 24 directional deities on the Śiva temple of the Loro Jonggrang complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Acri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Caṇḍi Śiva, sacred centre of the famous ninth-century Loro Jonggrang temple complex at Prambanan, Central Java, is decorated with numerous iconic and narrative reliefs. Starting from the eastern staircase and traversing the perambulatory in a clockwise direction, we find the narrative reliefs of the Rāmāyaṇa on the balustrade wall on our left, and the iconic reliefs of twenty-four seated male deities, each flanked by several attendants – collectively referred to in the accompanying iconographic plan as ‘Lokapālas with attendants’– on our right, that is, on the temple body proper. The prime objective of the present inquiry is propose a new identification of this set of twenty-four deities forming Śiva’s entourage, which remains an unresolved issue in the art history of Central Java. Our findings will have implications for our understanding of the iconographical master plan of Loro Jonggrang, and, in a wider sense, of certain developments in Indo-Javanese and Balinese iconography.

  12. On the Relation between Ancient Greek Philosophy and Medicine%古代希腊哲学与医学关系探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢仁生

    2014-01-01

    从起源上来看,古希腊的医学与哲学都是脱胎于原始宗教和神话。早期自然哲学虽然与原始宗教和神话研究内容相似,但它却是用理性、从自然本身解释自然现象。古代希腊哲学家们用诸如水、不定、数等来解释万物的本原,以及此后苏格拉底所开创的从个别现象中归纳出普遍性的定义法都影响了古代医学对人体和疾病现象的解释。古希腊医学兴起之后,又反过来对哲学产生影响。无论是柏拉图还是亚里士多德的哲学都深受医学观念的影响,希腊化时期的伊壁鸠鲁和斯多亚学派则更甚。%Originally ,ancient Greek medicine and philosophy were born of the primitive religion and myth .Although the Greek natural philosophy in early period was alike to the primitive religion and myth in contents ,it based on nature itself to explain natural phenomena with reason .The ancient philosophers interpreted the origin of all things in concepts such as water ,apeiron ,number ,and then Socrates advocated a universal definition method from individual phenomenon which impacted on ancient Greek medicine to interpret human body and disease .When the Greek medicine developed vigorously , it effect the Greek philosophy in turn .Whether Plato or Aristotle ,their philosophy were effected by the ideas of medicine , even more so from the Epicurus and Stoic School .

  13. The Academic Profession in the Ancient Greek Directed by Theoretical Reason%理论理性规定的古希腊大学学术职业

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊华军

    2012-01-01

    古希腊哲学家以求知为本性,执着于探索真知,用渊博的知识和高尚的品质教化城邦。为此古希腊哲学家扮演着大学教师的社会角色。作为哲学家的古希腊大学教师不仅学识渊博,而且善于通过多种教学方法引导学生学习。为了更好地追求普遍知识和价值,他们在年轻时跟随一名或者多名著名的哲学家学习知识,并自发地建立了学园。由此,古希腊学术职业打上了理论理性的烙印。%Ancient Greek philosophers were of for the sake of knowledge, so they dedicated to seek truth, educate citizens by virtue of cyclopedia knowledge and noble qualities. For this reason, they played the roles of university teachers. As the philosophers, the ancient Greek faculties were not only well-learned, but also good at guiding the students to learn through a variety of teaching methods. In order to pursue common knowledge and value in a better way, they followed one or more philosophers to learn at very young ages, and established academies spontaneously. It is clear that the ancient Greeks academic profession was regulated by the theoretical reason.

  14. 古希腊哲学中关于思维方法的问题%Problems of Thought Method in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张少禹

    2012-01-01

    Ancient Greek philosophers considered thinking method to be a kind of mental function with the most obvious usage of language organization and behavior planning,only grasping its laws to reveal the thought method.A conclusion of "induction and deduction being the human thought method in ancient Greek philosophy" had been introduced in ancient-Greek philosophy works two thousands years ago,for an example,Aristotle used induction and deduction as the effective way to discuss language in his Rhetoric,so did deductive reasoning as the basic for choices on the move in Ethics.%古希腊哲学家认为人的思维是人大脑的一种机能;思维最为明显的用途是语言的组织和行为的策划。因此,把握有效的组织语言和行为的策划规律,是揭示思维方法的唯一途径,"归纳和演绎是古希腊哲学中人的思维方法",这个结论在两千多年前的古希腊哲学著作中就做过介绍,如亚里士多德在他的《修辞术》中对语言的讨论使用的有效方法是归纳和演绎,以及他在《伦理学》中讨论了人们做事选择所依据的方法仍然是演绎推理。

  15. Feasibility of different cleaning methods for silver-copper alloys by X-ray fluorescence: Application to ancient Greek silver coins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Suárez, A. I.; Ager, F. J.; Rodríquez-Segovia, C.; Gómez-Morón, A.; Chaves, F.; Scrivano, S.; Gómez-Tubío, B.; Pliego, R.; Respaldiza, M. A.

    2016-02-01

    Archeological pieces with high Ag concentrations often have a surface enrichment of Ag. Usually, researchers in this field do not agree on the causes of these enrichments, one of which could be the cleaning procedures. In this work, a set of 18 ancient Greek silver coins was selected to study the effects of different cleaning procedures in terms of producing a surface Ag enrichment. The aim of this study is to find and select the less aggressive one in terms of the lower modification of Ag concentrations and visual aspect. These coins were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) before and after each cleaning procedure.

  16. ON THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND THE PRIMITIVENESS OF ANCIENT CHINESE MYTHOLOGY%古希腊神话的文明性与中国先秦神话的原始性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明霞; 曹萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the narrative form,the framework of Gods and the developing way in ancient Greek myth and ancient Chinese myth,we find that the differences between them are not reflected by types and numbers but by their respective features.One is civilized while the other is still primitive.%通过对古希腊和中国先秦神话的叙事形式、神祗构形和发展路径的对比分析,我们发现造成二者独特的民族特色和相异性的原因,并不在于神话的种类或数量大小等方面,主要表现为古希腊神话的文明性和中国先秦神话的原始性。

  17. Humanity Connotation in Ancient Greek Mythology%神人遇合:古希腊神话人性内涵解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何颖

    2012-01-01

    古希腊神话呈现出张扬个性、放纵原欲、肯定人的世俗生活和个体生命价值的特征。神具有人性,符合人性发展规律。神人拥有共同的本性,神人的遇合体现出神话系统具有体系性、开放性和自由独立性,反映了古希腊人高尚的精神追求和民主自由的艺术创造精神,符合席勒所强调的用精神的完满来实现人生存的意义,对现代人健全精神的提升具有现实指导意义。%Ancient Greek mythology presents advocating personality, indulging original desire, affirming the human' s secular life and the value of individual life. God and human share common nature, which shows that mythology is systematic, open and independent and reveals the ancient Greeks' artistic creation of noble and democratic spirit. This relates with Schiller' s idea to realize the meaning of human existence with the spirit of perfect and has a realistic significance for modern people.

  18. A tale of two analogues: learning at a distance from the ancient greeks and maya and the problem of deciphering extraterrestrial radio transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finney, Ben; Bentley, Jerry

    The transmission of ancient Greek learning and science to medieval western Europe via the translation of Greek and Arab texts is often cited as a terrestrial example of "learning at a distance" that could occur by means of the decipherment of radio messages from advanced extraterrestrial civilizations. However, the translation between such closely related languages as Greek, Latin and Arabic and the decipherment of radio messages from an extraterrestrial civilization to the point where humans could understand them are only nominally analogous tasks. A terrestrial example of such "learning at a distance" from an ancient civilization that perhaps better prepares us for thinking about the immense task inherent in any interstellar knowledge transmission is provided by the lengthy and troubled efforts of western scholars to decipher the inscriptions left by the ancient Maya and to learn from them about this ancient civilization. Only recently, with the rejection of the ideographic fallacy that Maya glyphs symbolized ideas directly without the mediation of language and with the application of linguistic knowledge of Maya languages has it been possible to decipher the Maya inscriptions and learn from them about their science and culture. This experience suggests that without any knowledge of languages in which extraterrestrial messages might be composed, their decipherment could be most problematic. The Maya case is also relevant to the common suggestion that advanced extraterrestrials would deliberately compose messages not in their own natural languages but in artificial ones using logic, numbers, and scientific constants presumably shared among all intelligent civilizations, or at least those in their radio-communicative phases. Numbers and calendrical dating system were the first parts of the Mayan inscriptions to be translated, albeit with the aid of partial "Rosetta stones" left by the Spanish conquerors. This success served, however, to reinforce the ideographic

  19. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  20. Saving Thailand's Temple: How much are people willing to pay?

    OpenAIRE

    Udomsak Seenprachawong

    2006-01-01

    Ancient temples are among Southeast Asia's most important cultural artifacts. They are priceless in terms of their historical and religious importance. They are also vital foreign currency earners as key destinations for tourists. Unfortunately, many temples are in poor condition and deteriorating. One of the key challenges across the region is how to finance the conservation of this cultural heritage. This study from Thailand has looked at how much Thais would be willing to pay (WTP) to cons...

  1. The Temple San Ignacio de Loyola In Pátzcuaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Ledesma Ibarra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the architectural characteristics of the Temple of the Company of Jesus in Patzcuaro. The Temple of San Ignacio de Loyola was tion to an intention to join the Jesuits of the visual and urban discourse in this city-ancient bishopric founded by Don Vasco de Quiroga. With this intention a study is done based on some concepts from the Jesuit architecture and some of the elements of this temple compared to other buildings in the town. 

  2. 略论古希腊的自然观及其生态意蕴%On Ancient Greek View of Nature and its Ecological Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑春; 王东

    2011-01-01

    With a very complex form, ancient Greek view of nature opened various possibilities. We should treat the transcendence of the Greek philosophers carefully (they were firstly embedded in the cultural traditions individually) , and keep a healthy skepticism to the logical conclusion, that to kwon Greek view of nature is not the materialized beginning of viewing nature. It did provided possibility for human to look beyond the nature, but on the other hand it also deceived people by supporting religious beliefs. Ancient Greek view of nature was not a systematic one, and the rich theoretical differences shown by its diverse theories, was where the numerous ecological concepts bred from. The extreme plasticity of Greek view of nature, rooted in the natural philosophers' effort of trying to explore the secret of nature, but they did not interrogate the na- ture as an object of study. They took the experiential phenomena as the basis and starting point, hut always went back to the metaphysics of being. All in all, from the perspective of history of ecological ideas, we will find that, with infinite possibilities, ancient Greek view of nature was the initial framework from where the ecological thought expanded, and the either way through which ecological thought could grow up.%古希腊的自然观呈现出极为复杂的形态,它开启了各种可能。在此我们要审慎地看待希腊哲人的超越性(他们也同样首先是内嵌于文化传统的个人),要对逻辑化的结论保持健康的怀疑:古希腊自然观并非物化地看待自然的开端,它为人类超越地审视自然提供可能,但同时也为人类蒙蔽于自然之内的宗教信念提供支持;古希腊自然观并不系统,在不同理论之中所表现出的丰富差异,是孕育此后诸多生态观念的温床。古希腊自然观所表现出的极强的可塑性,根源于自然哲学家们尝试性地探求自然的秘密,但并不对象性地究诘自然

  3. 酒神祭祀狂欢的审美体验与古希腊悲剧的文学品格%Aesthetic Experience of Dionysian Ritual Carnival and Literary Character of Ancient Greek Tragedy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈传芝

    2014-01-01

    酒神祭祀仪式,因其原始的狂欢场景与审美体验而孕育了古希腊悲剧。古希腊悲剧,就其表演特质的剧场性而言,始于酒神祭祀仪式的空间场景,而就其内在本质的文学性而言,则肇自祭祀狂欢独特的审美体验,即古希腊人精神本体对象化的神灵敬仰和英雄崇拜。%The primitive carnival scenes and the aesthetic experience in Dionysian sacrificial ceremony had bred ancient Greek tragedies. In terms of its performance characteristics at the theatre, ancient Greek tragedies began in the space scenes of Dionysian sacrificial ceremony, but in terms of its inherent nature of literature, ancient Greek tragedies began in the unique aesthetic experience of Dionysian ritual carnival, namely, ancient Greeks' worship of God and hero.

  4. Temples of Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Frank; Hoskin, Michael

    The unique Neolithic temples of Malta have a distinctive orientation toward the range SE-SSW (except for the Mnajdra South Temple which faces E). However, the motive for this preferred direction is not clear. If the motive was astronomical, then the builders could have targeted the bright stars of the Southern Cross and Centaurus. If the opposite direction is taken, then the target could have been the temple builders' ancestral home in Sicily and the surrounding islands. The orientation of the Mnajdra South Temple is remarkable and suggests an alignment with either sunrise midway between the solstices or the heliacal rising of the Pleiades around 3000 BC. The evidence for these alternatives is discussed.

  5. Evolution of the knowledge of electricity and electrotherapeutics with special reference to X-rays and cancer. Part 1. Ancient Greeks to Luigi Galvani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a chronological review of the growth points in the knowledge of electricity, especially as applied to medicine. Commencing with the ancient Greeks and ending with cancer electrotherapeutics at the turn of the 20th century, our history is arranged in chronological order by years of the investigators. William Gilbert (1540-1603) initiated the era of scientific investigation, followed by advances in later centuries by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Abbe Nollet (1700-1770), Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827), Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) among others. Although electrotherapy was infrequently used to treatment malignancy, it was to make a major contribution to cancer therapy because the experience gained in electrotherapeutics paved the way for the rapid adoption of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Within a year of rontge's discovery, more than a thousand books, pamphlets and papers about X-rays were published. (author)

  6. 论《麦克白》中“两希”文化的融合%Amalgamation between Ancient Greek Culture and Hebraism in Macbeth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈树娇

    2012-01-01

    As the renowned representative personage in the late period of Renaissance,Shakespeare became more mature in the thought of consideration and critical acceptation towards Ancient Greek culture as well as Hebraism on the basis of humanistic.Macbeth makes Shakespeare's thought incisively and vividly.This text will see the confliction and amalgamation between Ancient Greek culture and Hebraism through the perspective of heroic image,inward contradiction and temptation of Macbeth's wife,by analyzing the mutual confrontation and dependence between rationality of pursuing nature desire and necessity of reasoning for restricting the desire.%作为文艺复兴后期的代表人物,莎士比亚的思想在人文主义基础上进一步成熟,表现在对"两希"文化的思考和批判的接受。《麦克白》作为其后期作品,将作者的思想淋漓尽致地展现了出来。从麦克白的英雄形象,麦克白的内心矛盾斗争及麦克白夫人引诱唆使麦克白弑君犯罪的三个角度,通过分析追寻自然欲望(野心或者恶)的合理性以及理性(神性或者善)制约欲望的必要性之间相互对抗又相互依赖关系,可了解其"两希"文化的碰撞和融合。

  7. 希腊神话中女性美的政治学阐释%A Political Interpretation to the Feminine Charm in Ancient Greek Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昌其

    2015-01-01

    Feminine charm is an essential quality endued with females by the Nature , and a social attribute entrusted to them by male politics . As an important aspect of female issues in ancient Greek mythology , feminine charm condenses the complicated aesthetic outlook and aesthetic appeal of male politics in ancient Greek society . It demonstrates a cultural confidence that the mythology puts to feminine quality and value of this time . It is the key for us to interpret correctly the female issues in the mythology to unearth the cultural connotation and to reveal the political implication of the female charm in the mythology .%女性美是自然赋予女性的一种本质属性,也是男性政治赋予女性的一种社会属性。女性美作为希腊神话中女性问题的一个重要方面,凝聚着古希腊社会中男性政治复杂的审美观念与审美诉求,表现了神话对这一时期女性品质与价值的文化自信。深入挖掘神话中女性美的文化内涵,揭示神话中女性美的政治意蕴,是我们正确解读神话中众多女性问题的关键。

  8. Speeding up the Raster Scanning Methods used in theX-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Manisha; /Norfolk State U.

    2006-08-24

    Progress has been made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) toward deciphering the remaining 10-20% of ancient Greek text contained in the Archimedes palimpsest. The text is known to contain valuable works by the mathematician, including the ''Method of Mechanical Theorems, the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies'', and several diagrams as well. The only surviving copy of the text was recycled into a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ink used to write on the goat skin parchment is partly composed of iron, which is visible by x-ray radiation. To image the palimpsest pages, the parchment is framed and placed in a stage that moves according to the raster method. When an x-ray beam strikes the parchment, the iron in the ink is detected by a germanium detector. The resulting signal is converted to a gray-scale image on the imaging program, Rasplot. It is extremely important that each line of data is perfectly aligned with the line that came before it because the image is scanned in two directions. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the best parameters for producing well-aligned images and to reduce the scanning time. Imaging half a page of parchment during previous beam time for this project was achieved in thirty hours. Equations were produced to evaluate count time, shutter time, and the number of pixels in this experiment. On Beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), actual scanning time was reduced by one fourth. The remaining pages were successfully imaged and sent to ancient Greek experts for translation.

  9. Speeding up the Raster Scanning Methods used in the X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress has been made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) toward deciphering the remaining 10-20% of ancient Greek text contained in the Archimedes palimpsest. The text is known to contain valuable works by the mathematician, including the ''Method of Mechanical Theorems, the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies'', and several diagrams as well. The only surviving copy of the text was recycled into a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ink used to write on the goat skin parchment is partly composed of iron, which is visible by x-ray radiation. To image the palimpsest pages, the parchment is framed and placed in a stage that moves according to the raster method. When an x-ray beam strikes the parchment, the iron in the ink is detected by a germanium detector. The resulting signal is converted to a gray-scale image on the imaging program, Rasplot. It is extremely important that each line of data is perfectly aligned with the line that came before it because the image is scanned in two directions. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the best parameters for producing well-aligned images and to reduce the scanning time. Imaging half a page of parchment during previous beam time for this project was achieved in thirty hours. Equations were produced to evaluate count time, shutter time, and the number of pixels in this experiment. On Beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), actual scanning time was reduced by one fourth. The remaining pages were successfully imaged and sent to ancient Greek experts for translation

  10. Improving the Raster Scanning Methods used with X-ray Fluorescence to See the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes (SULI Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Isabella B.; /Norfolk State U. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-01-04

    X-ray fluorescence is being used to detect the ancient Greek copy of Archimedes work. The copy of Archimedes text was erased with a weak acid and written over to make a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ancient parchment, made of goat skin, has on it some of Archimedes most valuable writings. The ink in the text contains iron which will fluoresce under x-ray radiation. My research project deals with the scanning and imaging process. The palimpsest is put in a stage that moves in a raster format. As the beam hits the parchment, a germanium detector detects the iron atoms and discriminates against other elements. Since the computer scans in both forwards and backwards directions, it is imperative that each row of data lines up exactly on top of the next row. There are several parameters to consider when scanning the parchment. These parameters include: speed, count time, shutter time, x-number of points, and acceleration. Formulas were made to relate these parameters together. During the actual beam time of this project, the scanning was very slow going; it took 30 hours to scan 1/2 of a page. Using the formulas, the scientists doubled distance and speed to scan the parchment faster; however, the grey scaled data was not lined up properly causing the images to look blurred. My project was is to find out why doubling the parameters caused blurred images, and to fix the problem if it is fixable.

  11. 古希腊和古罗马剧场的声学研究%Acoustics of Ancient Greek and Roman Theatres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robeao Pompoli; Andrea Farnetani; Nicola Prodi

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theatres as it merges from an extensive investigation carried out within the ERATO project ( Identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical Heritage of Ancient Theatres and Odea) financed by the European Commission. In the paper, a deep analysis was devoted to analyze and understand the typical structure of the impulse responses measured in some of the best preserved examples of ancient Roman theatres, namely Aspendos theatre in Turkey and the South Theatre in Jerash, Jordan. Specific acoustical measurements were also carried out on a 1: 20 scale model of the Siracusa theatre.%论述了古希腊与古罗马的剧场音质.该研究是由欧共体资助的ERATO项目"古代剧场和表演场所声学遗产的鉴定、评价与振兴"的一部分.该项目对古希腊与古罗马剧场进行了较详尽的调研.文中通过对若干保存得最好的古罗马剧场,如土耳其阿斯彭多斯剧场以及约旦杰拉斯南方剧场测量的脉冲响应进行深入的分析,探讨了其典型构造.同时对西塔库萨剧场建立了1:20的模型,进行了专门的声学测量.

  12. The sundials of Changzhou Tianning Temple in Qing Dynasty and the design of their restoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Shengchi

    The situation of two large size sundials of Changzhou Tianning Temple in Qing Dynasty is described. Their structures and principles were explored. The comparison between them and the traditional equatorial sundials in ancient China was made.

  13. A submerged temple complex off Pindara, on the northwestern coast of Saurashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Pindara has been an important religious centre since the early historical period as it has been recorded in several ancient texts. An onshore exploration on the northwestern coast of Saurashtra brought to light the remains of a temple complex...

  14. Orientation of Egyptian Temples: An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    Archaeoastronomy has never been a favored discipline within Egyptology. As a consequence, important questions such as the orientation of Egyptian temples and the relevance of astronomy in this respect had not been treated with the requisite seriousness and depth. This situation is changing, however, and over the past decade, there have been several serious attempts to perform an extensive analysis of the orientation of Egyptian monuments. The orientations of approximately 400 temples have been measured in the Nile Valley, the Delta, the Oases, and the Sinai, with the aim of providing a clear answer to the question of whether the ancient Egyptian sacred constructions were astronomically aligned or not. This impressive set of data seems to answer this question in the affirmative.

  15. 略论中希神话的差异%Brief Comments on Ancient Chinese and Greek Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力宁

    2012-01-01

    Myths have great influence on both Chinese and Greek literature. However, they differ fromeach other for reasons of different location, natural environment, culture and national characteristics. Greek myths reflect personality, power and humanity while Chinese myths advocate general characteristics, virtue and divinity. This paper will probe into the differences between these two kinds of myths so as to facilitate readers' understanding of both Chinese and western cultures.%神话对中国和希腊两国文学皆产生了巨大影响。但由于中希两国地域、自然条件、文化传统及民族个性等各方面的不同,使得两国的古代神话呈现出不同的艺术风貌。希腊神话体现的是个性、力量和人性,中国的神话则崇尚共性、德行和神性。本文将从这三方面简要探讨中国神话和希腊神话之间的差异,以便更深刻地了解中希两国文化。

  16. The use of the kidneys in secular and ritual practices according to ancient Greek and Byzantine texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, Athanasios; Skarpelos, Andreas; Tsiros, Georgios

    2005-07-01

    The use of kidneys in secular and spiritual practices was very common for centuries. In this article we present some references on their employment as sacrificial offers, as plain food or as a source for medicaments. Our material derives from Greek texts of the Classical, Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine eras. Relevant extracts from the Old Testament are also included, as they have become part of a common cultural heritage in that period of syncretism, when Jews were Hellenized and Greeks orientized. From the fragments cited in this article, it is obvious that the practical use of kidneys by priests, doctors, and lay persons in the periods under discussion was widespread. The sacrificial offering was based on the religious significance of the organ. The dietary consumption of the kidneys was limited by their function as urine producers. Their medicinal use was dictated first, by the abundance of the adipose tissue surrounding them, which was an ideal warming and binding substance. Second, it may be explained by the deeply rooted conviction that eating a particular organ led to the incorporation of its strength, thus protecting the corresponding eater's organs. Those practices should not surprise us in view of their corresponding modern use. Currently, kidney donors offer their organs in a sacrificial gesture, kidneys are consumed as a delicacy worldwide, and renal tissue is therapeutically used in transplantations and, until very recently, as a source for hormonal substances. PMID:15954932

  17. Orientation of Phoenician Temples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escacena Carrasco, José Luis

    The orientation of Phoenician temples has revealed some of the astronomical knowledge of their builders. What we now know on this topic is complemented by other archaeological documents from Syrio-Palestinian cities and their colonies. The astral aspects of Phoenician religion are a direct legacy from the Canaanite traditions 1,000 years earlier and display connections with Mesopotamia and Egypt.

  18. Rebuilding the Temple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Charlotte

    2012-01-01

    The author believes that any effort to promote a curriculum focused on traditional values in today's academic culture will be promptly and thoroughly sabotaged by those assigned to teach it--which is why she thinks the best bet for traditionalists is to refocus on the Enlightenment inspired "temple of science" vision of a university, which at…

  19. Greek theories on eugenics.

    OpenAIRE

    Galanakis, E.

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works...

  20. 尤金·奥尼尔戏剧中的古希腊悲剧文化根源%The Cultural Roots of the Ancient Greek Tragedy in Eugene O’Neill’s Dramas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵攀

    2013-01-01

      Eugene O’Neill’s dramas are a kind of criticism and inheritance of the ancient Greek tragedy. Ancient Greek tragedy is cultural roots in Eugene O’Neill’s tragedies from an analysis of its tragic figures, tragedy themes and its roots. It helps us appreciate Eugene O’Neill’s dramas better and learn more of his cultural features of ancient Greek tragedy.%  尤金·奥尼尔的戏剧是对古希腊悲剧的批判与继承。文章从奥尼尔作品中的悲剧人物、悲剧主题和悲剧题材的根源出发,研究了尤金·奥尼尔作品中的悲剧文化根源——古希腊的悲剧文化。这为我们更好地欣赏尤金·奥尼尔作品,了解尤金·奥尼尔的古希腊悲剧文化特色奠定了基础。

  1. 北京静福寺侧柏古树林鸟类群落多样性研究%Avian community diversity in Platycladus orientalis ancient trees at the Jingfu Temple in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范宗骥; 董大颖; 郑然; 王敏增; 王奇峰; 关文彬

    2013-01-01

    During the period from April 2011 to April 2012,the bird community was surveyed at the Jingfu Temple in Beijing with fixed strip method for arborvitae ancient forest,deciduous broadleaved forest and mixed broad-conifer forest.A total of 65 species of birds,belonging to 8 orders and 27 families,were recorded,among which there were 28 species of permanent residents,23 summer breeders,5 winter visitors and 9 travelers,and 4 Class Ⅱ protected wildlife of China ; the avifauna was mainly composed of paratactic birds of 44 species (accounted for 67.69%),9 oriental (accounted for 13.85%) and 12widespread species(accounted for 18.46%).The dominant species were great tit (Parus major),blackbilled magpie (Pica pica),aure-winged magpie (Cyanopica cyana),large-billed crow (Covus macrorhynchosw),and red-billed blue magpie (Urocissa erythrorhyncha).According to the survey results,the species,quantity,diversity index of birds had different changes,the species and quantity were the smallest,the diversity index and evenness index were the lowest,the dominance index was the highest in arborvitae ancient forest; the species and quantity were the largest,the diversity index was the highest in deciduous broadleaved forest; while the evenness index was the highest in mixed broad-conifer forest,reflecting the most uniform distribution and the most obvious advantage phenomenon of birds in arborvitae ancient forest.The bird functional food group had different composition in different forest types,4 functional food groups in arborvitae ancient forest of the birds,5 functional food groups in mixed broad-conifer forest,6 functional food groups in deciduous broadleaved forest,reflecting the adaptability of different forest habitat for birds.%2011年4月至2012年4月,采用固定样带法对北京静福寺侧柏古树林区的侧柏古树林、针阔混交林和落叶阔叶林3种林型进行鸟类群落调查.共记录到鸟类65种,隶属8目27科,留鸟28种,夏候鸟23种,冬候鸟5

  2. 古希腊神话的美育思想探析%Exploration and Analysis on the Thought of Aesthetic Education in Ancient-Greek Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨运来; 邹丹

    2013-01-01

      Ancient-Greek mythology has rich spiritual and cultural connotations, and bears the important significance to our contemporary aesthetic education. The Gods and heroes in them have a sound personality and perfect humanity. They not only emphasized publicizing the human nature and original lust, but also attached importance to the statute of rational wisdom being in line with the principle of healthy life and integrating both of them harmoniously and the pursuit of freedom at the same time, all of which are precisely the ideological content of our contemporary aesthetic education reqirements.%  古希腊神话有着丰富的精神文化内涵,它对于我们当代的审美教育具有重要的意义。其中诸神和英雄们有着健全的人格和完美的人性,他们既强调对人的自然本性与原始欲望的张扬,也重视理性智慧合乎生命健康原则的规约,同时,还注重两者的和谐协调及对自由的追求,而这些正是我们当代审美教育的思想内涵所要求的。

  3. City of One Thousand Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Emma Natalya

    2015-01-01

    A Network of Hearsay in South India Although the South Indian city of Kanchipuram is popularly known as the City of One Thousand Temples, there is no existing prescribed circuit, and no comprehensive temple listing or map to guide visitors.* Rather, the thousands of pilgrims who flood the city daily usually only know about the five most famous temples. Scattered street signs throughout the busy city point the way to these sprawling monuments, which are always crowded and especially ...

  4. Ancient Greek Illustrated Dioscoridean Herbals: Origins and Impact of the Juliana Anicia Codex and the Codex Neopolitanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jules JANICK

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacopeia of Pedanius Dioscorides (20-70 ce, entitled Peri Ylis Ialikis (latinized as De Materia Medica, On Medical Matterswas written in Greek about the year 65. It was destined to be one of the most famous books on pharmacology and medicine but is also richin horticulture and plant ecology. An illustrated alphabetical version of Dioscorides’ manuscript was completed in Constantinople about 512. This magnificent volume was prepared and presented to the imperial Princess Juliana Anicia (462-527, daughter of the Emperor Anicius Olybrius, Emperor of the Western Roman Empire. The bound manuscript stored in Ōsterreichische National bibliothek in Vienna is available in facsimile and is now referred to as the Juliana Anicia Codex (JAC or the Codex Vindobonensis Dioscorides. The JAC contains 383 paintings of plants including many horticultural crops, many of which can still be recognized in modern day examples. Ananalys is of the illustrations indicates that they were made by numerous artists of varying skills and it is probable that some were derived from an earlier lost version. The Codex Neapolitanus (NAP (late 6th or early 7th century which now contains 406 plant images on 172folios resides in the Biblioteca Nazionale, Naples is closely related to JAC, and is also available in facsimile editions. A comparison ofthe 352 common illustrations contained in both NAP and JAC suggests that many of the illustrations derived from a common source,perhaps an illustrated collection owned by Theodosius II, but the possibility also exists that some of the NAP images are direct copies of JAC images. There are 31 images in JAC which do not appear in NAP, 1 is a 13th century addition, 4 are images that can be assigned to2 torn pages. and 26 can be assigned to 11 missing leaves of the NAP. Of the 54 images in NAP which do not appear in JAC, 2 are likely to have been Mandragora included in lost folios in JAC, but the other 52 may include other images that

  5. Impact of Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology on the Etymology of Medical Terminology%探索古希腊罗马神话对医学英语术语的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵云茜

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology is the origin of western civilization, which has an important influence on every field of western culture especially on medicine. Language is the carrier of culture and vocabulary is the basic unit of language. Therefore, vocabulary is the most direct tool to support culture. The title, image, name, and story of the Gods of Ancient Greek and Roman Mythology are directly used to name the medical terminology or indirectly deduced the roots, prefixes and suffixes to form the medical terminology. By exploring the origin of medical terms in ancient Greek and Roman mythology, it is helpful to understand the deep meaning of words, grasp the connotation of the words, and stimulate the students’ learning interest.%古希腊罗马神话是西方文明的起源,对西方文化的各个领域,尤其是医学方面影响颇深。语言是文化的载体,词语是语言的基本组成单位,因而词语是承载文化最直接的工具。古希腊罗马神话中神的职能、形象、称谓和典故往往被直接用来命名医学术语或者从中衍生出词根和词缀来构成医学术语。通过古希腊罗马神话探索医学英语术语词源的由来,有助于理解词语的深层意义,准确把握词语的内涵,激发学生的学习兴趣。

  6. Characterization of magnetic spherical fractions in sand deposits for interpretation of environmental change around the El- Zayyan temple, Kharga Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Makiko; Koizumi, Natsuko; Kato, Sayuri; Kikuchi, Ryohei; Kamei, Hiroyuki

    2014-05-01

    Desertification in North Africa has rapidly advanced over the last 6,000 years. Such environmental changes began in the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt (4200 - 3150 BC), and the occupation of Achaemenid Persian and Roman cultures in Egypt occurred under even drier climates. Kharga is the largest oasis of the five oases, located in the western desert of Egypt that contains a treasure trove of archaeological resources. This oasis has been highlighted to promote resource exploration and development of archaeological tourism since the 1980's. The El-Zayyan temple is located 27 km south of the central Kharga oasis. Zayyan was once called 'Tchonemyris', which has connection with the means of 'huge well' in Greek. Although major portions of the temple were rebuilt in 140 AD during the rule of the Roman Emperor Antoninus Pius, this temple is considered to be originally built in the Ptolemaic period (4c-1c BC). It is likely that the area had a sufficient water supply in the past as the El-Zayyan temple stands at the lowest point (-18 m a.s.l.) in the Kharga oasis. Furthermore, the El-Ghueita temple that stands on a hill top at 68.5 m a.s.l., 4 km northward from the El-Zayyan temple, has given name that means 'beautiful garden' in Greek. From these facts, we can imagine that the past landscape of this area contained green surroundings. The El-Ghueita temple was well known as a production centre of high quality wine since the mid-Dynastic age (2050 -1786 BC). As this area is currently arid, it is expected that there were irrigation facilities to maintain the vast farm land during the ancient period. To deepen our knowledge of how people developed their technologies and conducted their life within the natural environment of a drastic drying period, understanding the process of environmental change on a region scale is necessary. The aim of this study was to extract proxies from sand deposits in the western desert area to estimate the change in the environment. We examined the

  7. From the World’s Fair to Disneyland: Pavilions as Temples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimee K. Comstock-Skipp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the visual culture of recreated temple structures in the entertainment settings of international exhibitions and Disneyland. It examines the material and conceptual construction of temple mythology in world’s fairs and amusement parks through the reproduction – or rather, simulation – of Egyptian, Mayan, Aztec, Cambodian, and Hindu structures. Disneyland in southern California has been interpreted as the hybrid descendent of world’s fairs and colonial expositions, the result of continuities and ruptures within the exhibitionary and entertainment traditions of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Given this well-established link, some of the architecture in the Adventureland section of the park can be likened to the pavilions of the colonies in French and British expositions, especially those from the late nineteenth century through to 1939. The creators of the Temple of the Forbidden Eye in Disneyland’s Indiana Jones Adventure ride from 1995 have claimed they were directly inspired by images of temples found within National Geographic magazines of the 1930s. A skim through these attributed sources of information turns up period photographs from world’s fair temple-pavilions. This paper posits that the Disney temple, then, exists as a simulacrum: a copy for which there is no original. However, the author traces its overlooked formal and conceptual precedents in American, French, and British reproductions of Aztec and Mayan temples and palaces, ancient Egyptian temples, and the Cambodian Angkor Wat temple compound. In the colonial villages of expositions, the pavilions of Mexico, Egypt, and Indochina were rendered as regional temples with archaeological displays inside them. This paper goes some way toward addressing the question: what is a pavilion when it takes the form of a temple?

  8. 从古希腊-罗马文化角度正解《嘉莉妹妹》中嘉莉的形象%Illustration of the Rationality in Carrie from the Perspective of Ancient Greek -Rome Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳晓翠

    2015-01-01

    Ancient Greek and Rome culture and the ancient Hebraic and Christian culture are the two sources for the western literature.In the ancient Hebraic and Christian culture,Carrie,in the Sister Carrie of Dreiser,is an enchantress,who should be severely criticized.Since the novel’s publication,the image of Carrie is controver-sial.By the aid of the myth in Greece and Rome,this paper is to illustrate the rationality of Carrie’s image from the perspective of ancient Greek and Rome culture,then to analyze the reasons for her strong desires in material things,and finally to show the limitations in her search for meaning.%古希腊-罗马文化同古希伯来-基督教文化是西方文学创作的两大源头。在古希伯来-基督教文化中,《嘉莉妹妹》中嘉莉的形象是会受到批判的。该小说自出版以来,嘉利它一直是颇有争议的人物形象。本文借助古希腊神话中的形象,从古希腊-罗马传统文化的角度出发,阐释了嘉莉形象的合理性,并分析了造成她强烈欲望形成的原因,指出嘉莉人生追求的局限性。

  9. The Influence of Cultural Anthropology on Zhou Zuo-ren’s Translation of Ancient Greek Literature%文化人类学对周作人译介古希腊文学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兵

    2012-01-01

    As an important thinker during the May the Fourth Movement,Zhou Zuo-ren was greatly influenced by the concepts of cultural anthropology which,at that time,was unfolding itself in the west.Cultural anthropology exerts profound influences upon Zhou’s humane thoughts and translations,especially in the terms of translation from ancient Greek literature.This paper starts off from the aspect of Zhou’s reception of cultural anthropology,and proceeds to analyze Zhou’s purpose,accomplishments and features in translating ancient Greek literature.%作为"五四"时期重要的思想家,周作人深受当时西方方兴未艾的文化人类学的影响。文化人类学理论对周作人的人文思想和翻译活动,尤其是对古希腊文学的翻译发挥着深远的影响。他全景式地译介了希腊的神话、诗歌、戏剧,力图全面展示古希腊人的生活、思想、艺术、人生观、世界观,借以开启民众、教化大众。

  10. Alma, corpo e a antiga civilização grega: as primeiras observações do funcionamento cerebral e das atividades mentais Soul, body and the ancient greek civilization: the first observations of brain functioning and mental activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano S. Castro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Muitos dos conceitos existentes na neurociência moderna possuem suas origens nas especulações elaboradas pelos antigos filósofos e médicos gregos. Questões centrais sobre a fonte dos pensamentos humanos, o mecanismo da atividade cognitiva, e a natureza das emoções, percepção e movimento voluntário, por exemplo, foram levantadas pelos pensadores gregos. É a partir desta civilização que surgem as observações mais sistemáticas sobre a estrutura e o funcionamento do corpo, da mente e a relação entre estas duas entidades. Assim, o presente trabalho pretende observar as principais tentativas iniciais gregas em vincular estruturas do corpo (tais como o cérebro ou o coração e atividades mentais, ao longo das diversas especulações gregas sobre a natureza, a filosofia, a psicologia e a medicina.Many of the existing concepts in modern neuroscience have their origins in the speculations made by ancient Greek philosophers and physicians. Core questions about the source of human thought, the mechanism of cognitive activity as well as the nature of emotions, perceptions and voluntary movements, for example, were raised by Greek thinkers. It is from this civilization that arise more systematic observations on the structure and functioning of body, mind and relationship between these two entities. The present paper intends to adhere to the first Greek attempts to link structures of the body (such as the brain or the heart and mental activities regarding various Greek speculations about the nature, philosophy, psychology and medicine.

  11. Exemplarity and narrative in the Greek tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Cairns, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    This discussion starts from the encounter between Achilles and Priam in Iliad 24, and especially Achilles' remarks on the jars of Zeus (525-35), the seminal expression of a characteristic Greek attitude towards the mutability of fortune and the instability of happiness. Such ideas can be readily paralleled in other cultures, literatures and narrative forms, both ancient and more recent, Greek and non-Greek. Their expression in language, symbol, and art (both verbal and visual) illustrates the...

  12. In Search of Excellence: Historical Roots of Greek Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makedon, Alexander

    This paper seeks to discover conditions that motivate people to achieve excellence and uses the Greek culture as an example of excellence. The document addresses the basic questions: (1) What were the social conditions that resulted in what is widely known as the "Greek Miracle"?; (2) What motivated the ancient Greeks to excel, especially their…

  13. 中国先秦与古希腊体育的差异性及美学品格探究%On Differences and Aesthetic Character between Chinese Pre-Qin Sport and the Ancient Greek Sporty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 邹丹

    2014-01-01

    中国体育与西方体育从文化根源上就呈现出巨大的差异性。中国先秦体育具有礼仪性、养生性、实用性的特征,古希腊体育体现出宗教性、军事性、娱乐性的特点。中国春秋时期的体育在“礼、乐”中彰显德性的教化,具中庸和合与顺应自然的审美意趣,体现出重视技巧和谋略,偏重于以柔克刚的阴柔之美;古希腊体育则在娱乐性的竞技活动中重人格的培养,具崇尚崇高与不受文明礼仪束缚的自然天成的审美倾向,表现出强调力量和速度,偏重于竞技取胜的阳刚之美。%Chinese sports and western sports show huge differences in their culture roots. Chinese Pre- Qin sports has characteristics of etiquette , nourishing of life , practicability,while the ancient Greek sports shows characteristics of religiousness, military ,entertainment. In the period of the spring and autumn, Chinese sports reveals moral education through "the ritual and music", with the doctrine of the mean and aesthetic interest going with the nature, which attaches importance to skills and strategy, and prefers to the feminine beauty with its softer approach to power. On the other hand ,the ancient Greek sports gives priorities to personality training in the entertaining competitive activities, with the aesthetics tendency out of the etiquette rules bound ,which emphasizes on strength and speed, preferring the competitive masculinity.

  14. 古希腊体育中的教育思想与实践%Educational Thought and Practice in Ancient Greek Sports

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘欣然; 李孟华; 陈安顺

    2015-01-01

    From historical perspective of Greek sports, the paper, depending on literature method, discusses the so-cial background of educational thoughts and the specific factors in educational practice. Starting from the P. E. reality in Greek social ideal, the paper believes that P. E. is a means to cultivate qualified citizens of physical reality, which considered that physical education is not only the way to cultivate qualified citizens, but also the act of kindness and norms of behavior of collective justice which has always leading the direction of Greek histo-ry. In sports, the Greek thought of education is to promote general social values and code of conduct, while in city-state education, from the sports practice of Grete, Mycenae, Sparta and Athens, we know the differences and connection between them- - -P. E. is an important basis for the city-state education. The objective of this research is looking for the unique connotation of Greek educational thought and practice from Greek sports history so as to understand of the real significance and value of P. E. through the same national spirit.%采用文献资料法,立足于希腊体育的历史视野,探讨教育思想产生的社会背景,以及教育实践中的特定因素。从希腊社会理想中的体育现实出发,认为体育是培养合格公民的手段,也是集体正义的善举和行为规范,引领着希腊历史前进的方向。在体育中,希腊的教育思想是为了推行普遍的社会价值和行为准则。在城邦教育中,从克里特、迈锡尼、斯巴达和雅典的体育实践,我们了解到它们之间的差异与联系,体育是支撑城邦教育行为的重要依据。本研究目的在于从希腊体育史中,寻找到希腊教育思想与实践的独特内涵,透过民族精神的同一性,认识体育存在的真正意义和价值所在。

  15. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  16. Greek classicism in living structure? Some deductive pathways in animal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweers, G A

    1985-01-01

    Classical temples in ancient Greece show two deterministic illusionistic principles of architecture, which govern their functional design: geometric proportionalism and a set of illusion-strengthening rules in the proportionalism's "stochastic margin". Animal morphology, in its mechanistic-deductive revival, applies just one architectural principle, which is not always satisfactory. Whether a "Greek Classical" situation occurs in the architecture of living structure is to be investigated by extreme testing with deductive methods. Three deductive methods for explanation of living structure in animal morphology are proposed: the parts, the compromise, and the transformation deduction. The methods are based upon the systems concept for an organism, the flow chart for a functionalistic picture, and the network chart for a structuralistic picture, whereas the "optimal design" serves as the architectural principle for living structure. These methods show clearly the high explanatory power of deductive methods in morphology, but they also make one open end most explicit: neutral issues do exist. Full explanation of living structure asks for three entries: functional design within architectural and transformational constraints. The transformational constraint brings necessarily in a stochastic component: an at random variation being a sort of "free management space". This variation must be a variation from the deterministic principle of the optimal design, since any transformation requires space for plasticity in structure and action, and flexibility in role fulfilling. Nevertheless, finally the question comes up whether for animal structure a similar situation exists as in Greek Classical temples. This means that the at random variation, that is found when the optimal design is used to explain structure, comprises apart from a stochastic part also real deviations being yet another deterministic part. This deterministic part could be a set of rules that governs

  17. Study on sources of colored glaze of Xiyue Temple in Shanxi province by INAA and multivariable statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The major, minor and trace elements in the bodies of ancient colored glazes which came from the site of Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln in Shanxi province, and were unearthed from the stratums of Song, Yuan, Ming, Early Qing and Late Qing dynasty were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of multivariable statistical analyses show that the chemical compositions of the colored glaze bodies are steady from Song to Early Qing dynasty, but distinctly different from that in Late Qing. Probably, the sources of fired material of ancient colored glaze from Song to Early Qing came from the site of Xiyue Temple. The chemical compositions of three pieces of colored glazes in Ming dynasty and that in Late Qing are similar to that of Lidipo kiln. From this, authors could conclude that the sources of the materials of ancient coloured glazes of Xiyue Temple in Late Qing dynasty were fired in Lidipo kiln. (authors)

  18. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture. PMID:18794562

  19. The Sardinian type underground well temple at Garlo, Bulgaria: an architectural and astronomical survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsonev, Lyubomir; Kolev, Dimiter

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe a rare but relatively well-preserved Sardinian type underground well temple located at the village of Garlo, in Bulgaria. This dates to the fourteenth or thirteenth century BCE, and contains some unique architectural features. We postulate that the Garlo temple was used during the winter solstice for rituals associated with the 'newly-born Sun', underground water and the start of the new annual cycle of life. Solar and water cults are known from ancient Thrace, but previously they have never been combined in this way.

  20. Overseas Temples and Tamil Migratory Space

    OpenAIRE

    Trouillet, Pierre-Yves

    2012-01-01

    Temples have been places of major importance for Tamil societies for more than fifteen centuries. Following the migration of Tamilians from South India, the perpetuation overseas of their tradition as temple builders and the creation of a Tamil diaspora, they can now be found on the five continents. They are indicative of the exportation of Tamil Hinduism on a global scale and prompt us to ponder the relationships linking these overseas temples and the Tamil migratory space. This paper examin...

  1. Greek astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  2. Fair at the Temple of Earth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    WITH all of its fun and games, the Spring Festival fair at the Temple of Earth in Beijing is a good place to spend the holidays. Ever since 1985, when the temple first resumed the practice of holding the fair during the Spring Festival, the annual event has attracted more and more people every year. In fact, the temple fair has gradually developed into a holiday exhibition of traditional local culture as well as an influential mass cultural activity. The opening ceremony is a major part of the temple fair. All who attend are impressed by its magnificence and liveliness. The arch tower at the entrance

  3. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient coins: The case of Greek silver drachmae from the Emporion site in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greek colonizers arrived at the Iberian Peninsula at the beginning of the sixth century B.C. and founded a small colony known as Emporion in north-east Spain. By the fifth century B.C., this colony became a small polis with a well-organized administrative structure. In this context, the necessity of coinage was a fact and the first coins were minted. Some of these coins were characterized by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment. The analytical study focused on the elemental characterization of the coins minted from the fourth century to the first century B.C. and their compositional evolution during this period. The investigation has pointed out a very high fineness of the alloys throughout the time, with an average silver content around 98.32%, and the feasibility of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence as a screening tool for the characterization of the alloys.

  4. Greek Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Jan N. Bremmer

    1994-01-01

    Students of Greek religion are fortunate in having at their disposal the best recent study of a 'dead' religion: Walter Burkert's Greek Religion (Oxford: Blackwell, 1985). Since the English edition is not essentially different from the German original of 1977, my survey will concentrate on developments since approximately that date. Although Burkert's handbook will be quoted only incidentally, its influence is pervasive, and is always to be presupposed. In the survey I shall offer a synthesis...

  5. Adoption in ancient times

    OpenAIRE

    Bisha Eugena

    2015-01-01

    Since in ancient times, in all human cultures, children transfered from biological parents to parents that want them to create family, for political alliances, for inheritance, for a future marriage, or to care for elderly parents. The practice of adoption was fairly common in different places and periods. Adoption is mention on Bible and Quran. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Babylonians had adoption systems.

  6. Radiocarbon Dating on Jabung Temple Sites one of the Temples in East Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating of organic materials (charcoal) around Jabung templein Jabung temple village, Paiton, Probolinggo district, East Java provincehas been carried out. Excavation archaeologically in different location incertain distance has been done which is considered relevant to the temple'sage and the location of the excavation boxes are the test holes (TH=LU) i.e :LU 1, LU 2, LU 3, LU 4, LU 5, LU 6, LU 7, and LU 8. From those test holes wecan find out that only LU 4 and LU 3 which contain significant charcoal. Thepretreatment (acid, base, acid washing) followed by continued preparationwith carbon contained charcoal burning process, burn to be acetylene gas (C2H2). 14C contained in acetylene is counted by gas proportional counter.After being processed charcoal from LU 3 is not qualified in volumerequirement which is needed for the next analysis. The result for 3000minutes, for background counting = 1.1 ± 0.21 cpm, counting of standard14.51 ± 0.52 cpm, while counting from charcoal sample only from LU 4location is 13.51 ± 0.12 cpm. From data of LU 4 charcoal counting above,we can count the date (age) of the sample that is 510 ± 80 BP. If we usetree ring correction for the data, result will be between 1306-1456 AD onlevel of confidence 68.3% while on level of confidence 95.4% result will bebetween 1281-1624 AD. Relative dating base on ancient inscription show 1354AD. From the data, relative dating is in the range of to absolute dating(radiocarbon dating). (author)

  7. Marae o te Rangi, Temples of the Heavens: Explorations in Polynesian Archaeoastronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, Patrick V.

    2015-08-01

    It is well established that the ancient Polynesians possessed sophisticated knowledge of astronomy, applying their understanding of the movements of heavenly bodies among other things to long-distance navigation and to their calendrical systems. Nonetheless, Polynesian archaeologists have been reticent to apply the methods of archaeoastronomy to the interpretation of prehistoric monumental sites, especially temples (marae and heiau). This presentation draws upon examples from the Mangareva and Hawaiian archipelagoes to demonstrate that Polynesian ritual architecture frequently exhibits regular patterns of orientation, suggesting that these temples were aligned with particular astronomical phenomena, such as solstice, equinox, and Pleiades rising positions. The argument is advanced that Polynesian temples were not only places of offering and sacrifice to the gods, but also locations for formal astronomical observation. In part, such observation was presumably crucial to keeping the Polynesian lunar calendar synchronized with the solar year.

  8. PHRASEOLOGISMS ORIGINATING FROM GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND HISTORY

    OpenAIRE

    Сандра Вуксан

    2012-01-01

    The subject of this work are the etymological and lexical-semantic aspects of phraseologisms originating from greek mythology and ancient greek history. Fifty seven phraseologisms are included. It is noted that in this group of phraseological units etymological component specifically reflects on lexical and semantic. It is possible to divide all the phraseologisms in two groups. First group includes phraseologisms with specified lexical structure, which includes the names of mythological and ...

  9. The ‘enigma of Jesus’’ temple intervention: Four essential keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Domeris

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging consensus, on the intervention of Jesus into the commercial operations of the Jerusalem Temple, speaks in terms of an enacted parable aimed at the temple hierarchy, against the backdrop of the ongoing economic and social oppression of the time. In this article, I consider four essential scholarly insights (keys: The possibility that Caiaphas introduced trade in sacrifices in the Jerusalem Temple; the link between the money changers and Greek-style bankers; the Jewish witness to the extent of high-priestly corruption in the 1st century CE; and finally the presence of the image of Baal-Melkart on the Tyrian Shekel. In the light of the fourth key, in particular, we discover Jesus, like the prophets of old (Jeremiah and Elijah, standing against the greed of the High priests and their abuse of the poor and marginalised, by defending the honour of God, and pronouncing judgement on the temple hierarchy as ‘bandits’ (Jr 7:11 and, like their ancestors, encouragers of ‘Baal worship’ (Jr 7:9.

  10. Opsis: the visuality of Greek drama

    OpenAIRE

    Meineck, Peter

    2011-01-01

    How were Greek plays viewed in the fifth century BCE and by deepening our understanding of their visual dimension might we increase our knowledge of the plays themselves? The aim of this study is to set out the importance of the visual (opsis) when considering ancient Greek drama and provide a basis for constructing a form of “visual dramaturgy” that can be effectively applied to the texts. To that end, this work is divided into five sections, which follow a “top-down” analysis of ancient dra...

  11. A Sound Mind in a Sound Body: That's the Philosophy behind This Classical Greek Magnet School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natale, Jo Anna

    1992-01-01

    Central City High School, Kansas City, Missouri, has found its identity in the past. As part of comprehensive desegregation program, this magnet school offers its students classical Greek program that, like ancient Greek civilization, calls for as much attention to body as to mind. The costly Olympic athletic program and classical Greek curriculum…

  12. Studies in Continuity and Change: A Comparative Study of the Mother Goddess in Ancient India and Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, W. J.

    Visiting the Temple of Kali in Calcutta, India, one understands the importance of an Afro-centric methodology in describing the complex nature of the Mother Goddess in ancient India. Discoveries of ancient female figurines indicate an early Indian concept of the female role in the creation of civilization and culture and of the notion of the…

  13. The first medical ethics and deontology in Europe as derived from Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Meropi K; Pavlides, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki

    2016-01-01

    Medical ethics and deontology are mentioned in Greek myths long before 700 B.C. We collected and present information derived from ancient Greek mythology and related to (how) ancient physicians took care of the sick or injured and how they were rewarded for their services. PMID:27331210

  14. Civil Disobedience at the Mormon Temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocol, Cleo Fellers

    1981-01-01

    This article chronicles events surrounding the pro-ERA/anti-Mormon civil involvement demonstration by 21 feminists in Bellevue, Washington, on the occasion of the dedication of the Bellevue Mormon Temple. (DB)

  15. Andronikos I Komnenos: A Greek Tragedy

    OpenAIRE

    MAGOULIAS, Harry J.

    2011-01-01

    The Annals of Niketas Choniates depict Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185) in certain aspects of his lifestyle as a mirror image of his first cousin, Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (1143-1180). The life and death of Andronikos I Komnenos provide us with a window into the aesthetic, moral, intellectual, religious, economic and emotional world of Byzantine society in the 12th century. It was thanks to the Byzantine empire that the ancient texts were preserved and transmitted. Ancient Greek cul...

  16. Building science of indian temple architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Vardia, Shweta

    2008-01-01

    Master’s Thesis Structural Analysis of Monuments and Historical Constructions Every style of building construction reflects a clearly distinctive basic principle that represents a particular culture and era. In this context the Indian Hindu temple architecture are not only the abode of God and place of worship, but they are also the cradle of knowledge, art, architecture and culture. The practices and traditions of temples exist not only in history but also in present time which g...

  17. Head of all years astronomy and calendars at Qumran in their ancient context

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Dov, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Covering a wide array of sources from ancient Mesopotamia to the Dead Sea Scrolls, this volume offers a different perspective on Jewish apocalyptic time-reckoning during the Second Temple period, based on a calendar year of 364 days.

  18. The Crematorium Temple in the Monumental Cemetery in Milan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annalisa Boi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Crematorium Temple of Milan, first in Italy and among the first in Europe, has played a key role in the revival of cremation, already used by the ancient classical civilizations, becoming a model soon imitated by other cities. Its construction is due to the generosity of the industrialist Albert Keller who worked to introduce the practice of cremation in Milan as an alternative to burial and as solution to the unrelenting settlement expansion of cemeteries, too close to the cities. In 1876 the crematorium was inaugurated with the first implementation of a design by Carlo Maciachini, author of the Monumental Cemetery where the crematorium is located, presented in grecian Doric style in memory of the purifying rituals of classical ideas.

  19. Ancient DNA in Greece. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise associated with early 'ancient DNA' results has not been translated into routine techniques of value to archaeologists. The reasons for this are partly technical - ancient DNA analysis is an extremely difficult technique - and partly practical - ancient DNA analysis is often an 'after thought' to an archaeological project. In this paper ancient human DNA analysis is briefly reviewed paying particular attention to specimens originating from Greek archaeological contexts. Problems commonly encountered during ancient DNA research are summarised and recommendations for future strategies in the application of ancient DNA in archaeology are proposed. (author)

  20. Greek Americanism, "New Greece," and Greek Orthodoxy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athens, Lonnie

    1996-01-01

    Argues that Greek Americanism is neither based upon the wholesale assimilation of American culture nor the futile copying of Greek culture. Instead, an amalgamation of both cultures, a blending together of Greek and American cultures in a manner that produces a unique culture all its own is presented. (GR)

  1. The Salpinx in Greek Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullög Nordquist

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The salpinx is not often treated by scholars of ancient Greek music, because it was mainly a military instrument. The instrument was usually not used for musical purposes, only for giving signals. In Greece the salpinx is known from the 8th century onwards. The Greek salpinx was an aerophone, usually made of bronze, and consisted of an 80 to 120 cm long, straight, tube with cylindrical bore, and with a conical or more often bell-shaped final, kodon, which could be made of bone. The bone had to be fired in order to get the right acoustic qualities, according to Aristotle. Salpinx is usually translated as "trumpet", but the type of sound generator it may have had has been discussed.

  2. From Alfred Street to Temple Street, Detroit

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Chloe

    2015-01-01

    'From Alfred Street to Temple Street, Detroit’, a 9-metre long ink drawing of a single street in Detroit using Google Map Street View to virtually ‘walk’ down the street, recording what is seen. This drawing charts a journey through Brush Park, Detroit, an area famous for its once grand, now derelict houses, ending at the world’s largest Masonic Temple. This arose from Chloë Brown's involvement in a significant international research project ‘Topographies of the Obsolete' initiated by Ber...

  3. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  4. 吴头楚尾的萍乡寺庙文化研究%Analysis of Influence of "Wu" and "Chu" Dynasty on Pingxiang's Temple Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾萍; 梁贵华

    2012-01-01

    号称“吴头楚尾”的萍乡拥有极具特色的寺庙文化。本文将指出萍乡寺庙文化的三大特点:寺庙道观历史悠久;多佛道混杂性质的寺庙道观;含原始宗教气息的众多寺庙。%Pingxiang, influe temple culture. This paper need by the cuhure of "Wu" and "Chu" points out three features of Pingxiang's --Buddism and Taoism temple and pre--historical religion temple. Dynasty ; enjoys temples ; ancient characteristic temple ; muhi

  5. Between family and temple: Jesus and sacrifices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Destro

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Sacrifice generally aims at obtaining from and by supernatural force the right to exercise control over life. As far as Jewish sacrifices are concerned, according to Leviticus, victims’ blood serves to purify the holy places of the temple and no sacrifices can expiate voluntary sins. In Mt  6:12 God’s forgiveness is obtained through a trilateral relationship between the sinner, the “debtor”, and  God, without any expiatory sacrificial act being required. Jesus did not, however, reject the  sacrificial rituals of the temple, those rituals that did not serve to expiate voluntary sins. In Jesus’ proposal, the forgiveness by one individual of another implies a social conception, which includes the absence of debt,  reconciliation, justice and equality. Jesus transforms and relocates two aspects of the religion of the Second  Temple. In his conception, the forgiveness of sins and  a new beginning of people’s lives brought about by the Jubilee can happen anywhere (not only in the temple  and at any time (not only once a year for Yom ha-kippurim.

  6. 福建福鼎市太姥山宋代国兴寺遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Guoxingsi Temple-site of the Song Period at Tailaoshan in Fuding City,Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    福建博物院; 福鼎市文体局; 福鼎市旅游局; 太姥山风景区管理局

    2003-01-01

    In September-November 2001,the Fujian Provincial Museum and other institutions excavated the site of Guoxingsi Temple at Tailaoshan in Fuding City.They revealed the vestiges of pavilions,side rooms,passages,small yards and a stupa in this Song period temple and dug out large quantities of ceramic articles,structural members and inscribed steles.The excavation indicates that the temple was first built in the fourth year of the Qianfu reign,Tang Dynasty,and reached its prosperity atthe turn from the Northern Song to the Southern Song period.The unearthed material contributes to studying the history of architecture and Buddhism in ancient China.

  7. The site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal in Rome: topographical and astronomical approach to the question

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Arrizabalaga y Prado, L.; de La Fuente Marcos, R.

    2005-03-01

    Ancient historians refer to a temple in Rome, dedicated to the Syrian sun god Elagabal, by his high priest, the Roman emperor called Varius (204-222AD, commonly called Elagabalus or Heliogabalus). On the basis of their texts, it has been thought that Varius either built a new temple, or rededicated an existing one, expropriated from some other deity, in order to house his god's principal cult object: a large black meteorite, or baetyl, which Varius brought from its temple at Emesa, in Syria, to Rome. In this paper we analyze the hypothesis that the site of the Varian Temple of Elagabal may have been that now known as the Vigna Barberini. A stratigraphic analysis shows that the Vigna Barberini is an artificial platform, built on the rubble of earlier hillside structures, dating from prehistoric times to the Julio-Claudian period. The platform, with more or less its present shape, is of Flavian date, and at that time contained a portico surrounding a central garden. On top of these, a Severan level corresponds to the base of the foundations of a temple that are very solid and go very deep. The azimuth of the temple wall oriented south-east is about 113°. Using a computer program, we have thoroughly scan ned the night sky in AD 1-250, looking for celestial objects that may have been worshipped in the temple. After taking into account the effects of precession, the main candidate for a celestial body worshipped from this site appears to be the star Sirius. In several Mediterranean cultures, the heliacal ortus, or earliest pre-dawn sighting of Sirius (when Sirius again rises into visibility after being hidden by the Sun's light for about 70 days) was thought to have astrological significance. We have compiled the relevant astronomical data for the heliacal ortus of Sirius in the time span 0-250 AD. During that period of time, it falls between 18th and 20th July. The azimuth angle of Sirius, when rising on the heliacal ortus day ci rca 150 AD, is about 111°. Being

  8. From Edessa To Urfa: Temples Transformed From Church To Mosque In Urfa

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Evren; EROĞLU, Süreyya

    2013-01-01

    City of Urfa, or with it’s ancient name Edessa had been established at the late 4th century BC. Urfa had become a kind of home, even a cradle for different religions, such as pagan beliefs, christianity and Islam since then. Urfa has always been kind of blessed city, which deserves to be called “city of saints”. When we look at the history of religious architecture in Urfa, we see several buildings which had been transformed from church to the mosque, or originally builded as a pagan temple t...

  9. “孔庙世界”的存在本质%Essence of being of“Confucian temple world”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李纪祥

    2016-01-01

    Based on the academic issue about the root of “Confucian temple world”,this paper, explained ZHOU Lian-xi,ZHU Xi,and HUANG Gan’s questions about the sacrifices to ancient sages in Confucian temples and ancestral temples from “Confucius’s own sincerity in sacrificing”.It further put forward that reading the classics written by ancients sages can make one “communicate with”them in spirit,and the sacrifices to memorial tablets,portraits,or statues of sages in Confucian temples and ancestral temples is actually to use Confucian “orthodoxy”surpassing the limit of “blood relationship sacrifice”to realize the “mutual communication”and understanding with the sages in “spirit”.“Confucius’s own sincerity in sacrificing”existing in“Confucian temple world”is to regard the ancient sa-ges as the living ones to show one’s “respect”and “filial piety”to them,constructing the world of“co-existence”with ancient sages and later followers.%基于“孔庙世界”在根源的提问下成为一个学术上可以展开的议题,从孔子“祭如在”出发,通过诠释周濂溪、朱熹、黄干等对于孔庙与乡祠中祭祀先圣先贤的追问,认为对古圣先贤所书写的文本典籍的阅读,与圣贤在精神上“相通”,通过在孔庙、乡祠内对先儒圣贤牌位、画像或塑像的祭祀,用“道统”超越“血缘祭祀”的局限,实现与先圣先贤在“气”的“相感”。“孔庙世界”中的“祭如在”是将先圣先贤模仿为生者进行“致敬”“致孝”,将先圣与后学“共在”于“共在世界”。

  10. Women’s Voice and Religious Utterances in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Giordano

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper tackles the issue of women and religion through a particular looking glass: religious utterances such as curses, supplication, and prayer, as reflected in some passages from ancient Greek epic and tragedy—pivotal literary genres in the ideological discourse of the Greek polis.

  11. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  12. Greek Atomic Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, Duane H. D.

    1981-01-01

    Focusing on history of physics, which began about 600 B.C. with the Ionian Greeks and reaching full development within three centuries, suggests that the creation of the concept of the atom is understandable within the context of Greek physical theory; so is the rejection of the atomic theory by the Greek physicists. (Author/SK)

  13. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the suc

  14. Metaphor and emotion: Eros in the Greek novel

    OpenAIRE

    Cummings, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The study of emotion is an interdisciplinary field. One key aspect of this field is the cultural variation of emotion. This thesis is a contribution to the above area by means of a specific analysis of the ancient Greek conception of the emotion ἔρως. The focus for this study is the Greek Novel, a collection of literary works emerging from the Greek speaking culture of the eastern Mediterranean during the Roman imperial period (1st to 4th cent C.E.). These novels are based upon...

  15. Tourism in China's Buddhist Temples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    In recent years along with the improvement of the livelihoods of Chinese people and the public needs in cultural life, a religious cultural tourism is booming in China. In order to meet the tourist demand, this book is designed as a guide book to introduce 211 famous Buddhist monasteries and temples in various places of China representing different Buddhist sects including Han-Chinese, Tibetan and Southern Buddhism with their rich cultural and historical resources, characteristics of architecture and famous personages.

  16. Greek anatomist herophilus: the father of anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Bay, Noel Si-Yang; Bay, Boon-Huat

    2010-01-01

    One of the most stirring controversies in the history of Anatomy is that Herophilus, an ancient Greek anatomist and his younger contemporary, Erasistratus, were accused of performing vivisections of living humans. However, this does not detract from the fact that Herophilus has made phenomenal anatomical observations of the human body which have contributed significantly towards the understanding of the brain, eye, liver, reproductive organs and nervous system. It is notable that he was the f...

  17. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  18. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…

  19. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  20. Greek Chorus: an Ageless Voice%希腊合唱团:永恒的声音

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The chorus in an ancient Greek drama is typically composed of ten to fifteen men who rhythmically chant a dramatic refrain. They are viewed as one entity in the play as opposed to a group of people.

  1. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding......How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...

  2. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  3. 从中西神话人物区别看中西文化差异的根源--以希腊神话和中国上古神话为例%On the Root of Chinese-Western Cultural Differences Based on the Differences between Chinese and Western Mythological Figures:A Case Study on Greek Mythology and Chinese Ancient Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟

    2014-01-01

    中国古代神话和古希腊神话是中西神话的重要代表。通过比较可以发现,中希神话中的人物在外形和性格方面表现出种种不同。而从这种不同,我们可以看出中西文化所体现的差异,并进一步研究造成这种差异的根源是什么。%Chinese ancient mythology and Greek mythology are respectively the important representative of Chinese and Western mythology. Through comparing them, it can be found that there are a variety of differences in the appearances and characters of mythological figures between Chinese and Greek mythology. From the differences, we can find the differences between Chi-nese and Western culture, and further study the root of the differ-ences.

  4. Calcareous palaeosols and temples in the floodplain of Thebes, Egypt: droughts and decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Angus; Hunter, Morag A.; Pennington, Benjamin T.; Strutt, Kristian D.

    2014-05-01

    The Egypt Exploration Society Theban Harbours and Waterscapes Survey (THaWS) works in the area around modern Luxor (Egypt), and investigates the extent to which the Egyptians manipulated the Nile and floodplain through canal and basin construction. A current focus of the project is to understand the relationship between the floodplain and a series of temples on the West Bank. A longstanding puzzle on the West Bank is why the temple of Amenhotep III (1390-1352 BCE) is not located in the same area as all the others. While 19 kings of the Egyptian New Kingdom (1550-1070 BCE) built their temples on the toe-slope of the limestone cliffs fronting onto the edge of the modern alluvium, Amenhotep's sits entirely on the modern floodplain. Egyptologists have suggested this was done to allow the inundation of the Nile to wash into the temple, symbolising and recreating the essential Egyptian cosmogony of the primeval mound. However, was it possible that a period of low Nile discharge enabled him to build on the alluvium whilst keeping the temple dry from the Nile floods? The project is testing this hypothesis through an interdisciplinary approach which provides focussed information on the development of the floodplain over historic time periods. It combines geophysical survey (Electrical Resistivity Tomography, Ground Penetrating Radar and magnetometry) with geoarchaeology using an Eijkelkamp hand auger and gouge auger with facies being dated using the stratigraphic sequence of ceramic fragments within them. Two fieldwork seasons have been carried out to date (Graham et al. 2012, 2013). Calcareous palaeosols c. 4m below the surface have been identified in three separate augers across a distance of 3 km on the West Bank floodplain, suggesting a period of low inundation levels / drought. At one of the locations an ancient surface appears to lie 0.3-0.4m above the calcisol. Ceramic fragments from this unit tentatively indicate a New Kingdom date. The strontium isotope record from

  5. An Analysis of the Tragic Fate in the Ancient Greek Mythology--Take Oedipus the King as an Example%浅析古希腊神话中的悲剧性命运--以俄狄浦斯王为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    景婷

    2015-01-01

    Tragic fate is an obvious feather of the ancient Greek mythology.Prometheus Bound,Oedipus the King and Medea are the most classical tragedies.Among them,Oedipus the King written by Sophocles tel s that Oedipus is trying to escape the fate of kil ing father and marrying mother.However,his attempt to escape pushes himself to the tragic fate.Through the tragic flaws of Oedipus,Sophocles reveals the arrogant,ignorant and impulsive aspects of human nature and implies the mysterious and irresistible power of fate.This paper takes Oedipus as an example to analyze the tragic fate of the ancient Greek mythology.%悲剧性命运是古希腊神话的一大特点。《被缚的普罗米修斯》、《俄狄浦斯王》、《美狄亚》被称为古希腊三大悲剧。其中古希腊悲剧作家索福克勒斯的俄狄浦斯王讲述了俄狄浦斯竭力逃避神谕所示的杀父娶母的命运,然而他的逃避却让自己更靠近既定的命运。戏剧表现的是人的意志和命运的冲突。通过俄狄浦斯的悲剧性缺陷,索福克勒斯揭示了人性自大,无知,冲动的一面,也暗示了命运神秘无可阻挡的力量。本文将以俄狄浦斯王为例,探究古希腊神话中的悲剧性命运。

  6. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  7. The 'Holy Family' of Shiva in a south Indian temple

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, C. J.

    1995-01-01

    In the myths and rituals of south Indian Hindu temples dedicated to the great god Shiva and his consort Devi, the goddess, the marital relationship between them is a central theme. In many temples, too, the wedding of the god and goddess is a highlight of the annual festival cycle, and nowhere is this more evident than in the city of Madurai in Tamilnadu, whose Great Temple is dedicated to the goddess Minakshi and her husband Sundareshwara, a form of Shiva. In the Minakshi temple (as it is po...

  8. Weathering behavior investigations and treatment of Kom Ombo temple sandstone, Egypt - Based on their sedimentological and petrogaphical information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temraz, Mostafa Gouda; Khallaf, Mohamed K.

    2016-01-01

    The Temple of Kom Ombo is a huge ancient Egyptian temple in Upper Egypt. It was built by Ptolemy VI Philometor (180-145 BC) and added to by subsequent Ptolemys. The structure of the temple is built of local sandstone attributed to the Quseir Formation of "Nubian Sandstone" group at Gebel el-Silsila. Sandstone samples from Kom Ombo temple were taken to verify the source rock of the quarried material. Optical Polarizing Microscope (OPM) and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were used to determine the microstructure and physical properties of the sandstone. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) was carried out for the Sandstone samples to identify its mineralogical composition. The sandstone samples were treated with six polymeric products to determine changes in their physical and mechanical properties after penetration, consolidation of polymers within them. This sandstone is composed mainly of three quartz arenite microfacies (feldspathic, sublithic and calcareous) that are interpreted to have been deposited in fluvial to fluvial-marine environment. Silane polymers is showing a good penetration and filling pores between grains and recommended for treatment and conservation of the sandstone. Acrylic polymer shows random penetration of polymer and formation of a film of polymer on the surface of sandstone. Silo11 gave the best result in consolidation of sandstone samples then primal AC33. Wacker BS29 gave the best result in isolating process of sandstone samples, then wacker BS 290.

  9. Russian Greeks / Greek Russians: Parameters of Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Manuylov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates how the ex-Soviet Greek populations used the reforms in Russia and the re-patriation policy of Greece emerging in the 1990s in order to form a new discourse on Greek identity. This new understanding of the Greek identity was marked by the term “Pontians.” The populations (in a Foucauldian sense) known in Russia and the Soviet Union as Greki, “the Greeks”, were never presented as a unified group nor even as a conglomerate of interacting groups. The new identity discour...

  10. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  11. Characterization of yellow and colorless decorative glasses from the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya

    2013-06-01

    Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.

  12. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

  13. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  14. Modern Greek enlightenment and 19th century Greek nationalism

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNSOY, Murat

    2005-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. This thesis analyzes modern Greek enlightenment and 19th century Greek Nationalism, in the light of nationalism theories. It confronts with the process of Modern Greek enlightenment which took place within the lands of the Ottoman Empire and the Greek nationalism which was the second phase of the modern Greek enlightenment. The thesis argues that the lands where today Greeks live had been invaded and settled by various ethnic groups. As...

  15. Greek and Roman Elements in His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman

    OpenAIRE

    Kleczkowska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The article focuses on the topic of Greek and Roman influences on His Dark Materials by Philip Pullman. The author presents the ancient origins of several motifs of the trilogy, for example compares the daemon from His Dark Materials to the ancient daimon, Lyra’s dream in a cave to Plato’s Allegory of the Cave, the Pullman’s vision of the Underworld to Greek Hades, and the Subtle Knife to the golden bough. She also tries to understand the function of the Greek and Roman elements in the trilog...

  16. Image-Based and Range-Based 3d Modelling of Archaeological Cultural Heritage: the Telamon of the Temple of Olympian ZEUS in Agrigento (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Brutto, M.; Spera, M. G.

    2011-09-01

    The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento (Italy) was one of the largest temple and at the same time one of the most original of all the Greek architecture. We don't know exactly how it was because the temple is now almost completely destroyed but it is very well-known for the presence of the Telamons. The Telamons were giant statues (about 8 meters high) probably located outside the temple to fill the interval between the columns. In accordance with the theory most accredited by archaeologists the Telamons were a decorative element and also a support for the structure. However, this hypothesis has never been scientifically proven. One Telamon has been reassembled and is shown at the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento. In 2009 a group of researchers at the University of Palermo has begun a study to test the hypothesis that the Telamons support the weight of the upper part of the temple. The study consists of a 3D survey of the Telamon, to reconstruct a detailed 3D digital model, and of a structural analysis with the Finite Element Method (FEM) to test the possibility that the Telamon could to support the weight of the upper portion of the temple. In this work the authors describe the 3D survey of Telamon carry out with Range-Based Modelling (RBM) and Image-Based Modeling (IBM). The RBM was performed with a TOF laser scanner while the IBM with the ZScan system of Menci Software and Image Master of Topcon. Several tests were conducted to analyze the accuracy of the different 3D models and to evaluate the difference between laser scanning and photogrammetric data. Moreover, an appropriate data reduction to generate a 3D model suitable for FEM analysis was tested.

  17. Sense the Grandeur of Greek Civifization in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ In this golden autumn, thousands of visitors from home and abroad swarmed into the Capital Museum for the ongoing classical Greek art exhibition - Treasures from the Louvre: Art from Ancient Greece, a joint effort of the Capital Museum in Beijing and Musée du Louvre in Paris.

  18. Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method

  19. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  20. Piracy in the Ancient World: from Minos to Mohammed

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. de Souza

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is an historical analysis of the phenomenon of piracy in the ancient world from the Bronze Age to the Arab conquests. It is based on detailed examination and discussion of the ancient sources. There is a short introduction (Part One) which establishes the scope of the enquiry, defines the subject and surveys modern scholarly literature. Part Two (The Image of Ancient Piracy) consists of a study of the Greek and Latin vocabulary for piracy, and six separate studie...

  1. Ancient anchorage systems in India with reference to the Gujarat coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    , Kindar Kheda near Mul Dwarka (Visawada) and Kanjetar and Kaj near Mul Dwarka (Kodinar). All the three Dwarka have ancient temples dated to the 10 th -12 th century AD. Nonetheless, these sites were ancient busy ports and perhaps temples were served... and anchoring points along the west coast of India from the protohistoric period (Ray, 2003, 2). The discovery of a large number of stone structures and anchors at Dwarka suggests that it was a busy port during the historical and the medieval times (Gaur, et...

  2. Greek Gods and Heroes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter Schoon,; Sander Paarlberg,

    2001-01-01

    Many famous en less famous myths and historic events from Greek antiquity painted by Dutch and Flemish artists from the 16th and 17th century. For the first time a broad selection of paintings and prints with subjects from Greek mythology and history are exposed. Famous painters like Rembrandt, Rube

  3. PHRASEOLOGISMS ORIGINATING FROM GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND HISTORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Сандра Вуксан

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work are the etymological and lexical-semantic aspects of phraseologisms originating from greek mythology and ancient greek history. Fifty seven phraseologisms are included. It is noted that in this group of phraseological units etymological component specifically reflects on lexical and semantic. It is possible to divide all the phraseologisms in two groups. First group includes phraseologisms with specified lexical structure, which includes the names of mythological and historical heroes, mythological creatures, etc. and adjectives derived from that names. They refer to a specific myth, and allow us to assume the meaning of the phraseologism, if we know the proper historical or mythological context. The second group  includes phraseologisms with unspecified lexical structure. Lexical structure of those phraseologisms is not refering to certain myth or story from history and it is harder to explain their meaning.

  4. Architectural Conservation of an Amun Temple in Sudan

    OpenAIRE

    Tracey Sweek; Julie R Anderson; Satoko Tanimoto

    2013-01-01

    Excavation of a 2000 year old Amun Temple at Dangeil in Sudan. Under the directorship of Drs Salah Mohammed Ahmed of the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums, Khartoum and Julie R Anderson of the British Museum, London an excavation of the temple commenced in 2000. Dangeil is located to the south of the 5th Nile cataract in Sudan. In 2008, a preliminary visit was organised to intiate a conservation programme and trials to the architectural fabric of the temple. The materials used ...

  5. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Leroy

    Full Text Available Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India. Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies

  6. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  7. Design of Information Collecting System Towards The Song Dynasty Wooden Hall of Baoguo Temple, Ningbo

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system

  8. Architectural Conservation of an Amun Temple in Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracey Sweek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Excavation of a 2000 year old Amun Temple at Dangeil in Sudan. Under the directorship of Drs Salah Mohammed Ahmed of the National Corporation for Antiquities and Museums, Khartoum and Julie R Anderson of the British Museum, London an excavation of the temple commenced in 2000. Dangeil is located to the south of the 5th Nile cataract in Sudan. In 2008, a preliminary visit was organised to intiate a conservation programme and trials to the architectural fabric of the temple. The materials used in the temple's construction include mud brick, fired brick, lime plaster and sandstone. During the subsequent seasons following 2008 adjustments and evaluations of the previous year's completed trials have been assessed. This case study outlines the progress of the site to date.

  9. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research. PMID:11944656

  10. Silver sources of archaic Greek coinage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on new chemical and lead isotopic results and interpretations of archaic Greek silver coins from the Asyut hoard which was buried around 475 B.C. Aeginetan coins were of central interest in this study. Possible ancient silver mines were explored in the Aegean region in the course of several geologic expeditions, and chemically and isotopically investigated. Some of the silver sources in Greece were traced by combination of the analytical methods and questions of provenance were solved. In addition, processes of silver smelting and refining were studied. Results and implications of this work are summarized in the final section on Conclusions. (orig.)

  11. Temple Monkeys and Health Implications of Commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A.; Heidrich, John; Chalise, Mukesh; Poudel, Narayan; Viscidi, Raphael; Peter A Barry; Allan, Jonathan S; Grant, Richard; Kyes, Randy

    2006-01-01

    The threat of zoonotic transmission of infectious agents at monkey temples highlights the necessity of investigating the prevalence of enzootic infectious agents in these primate populations. Biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), si...

  12. 春秋战国与古希腊廉政思想之比较及其当代价值%Comparison of the Thought Against Corruption in Periods of Spring and Autumn and Warring States and Ancient Greek and Its Contemporary Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建林

    2013-01-01

    中国春秋战国时期和古希腊时代是人类史上的轴心时代,作为东西方文化的胚胎期,各有其独立的文化体系,其廉政思想亦具许多相似和相异之处。比较其异同,对于构建当今廉政文化体系,推进廉政文化建设,定会得到不少启示和借鉴。%Periods of Spring and Autumn and the Warring States and ancient Greek are both regarded as the axial era in hu-man history. As the embryonic phase of the eastern and western civilization, they possess respective and independent cultural systems. The thoughts against corruption in the two periods share many similarities and display many differences. When com-paring their similar and different points, we can surely obtain much enlightenment and reference so as to construct the contem-porary anti-corruption cultural system and promote the anti-corruption construction.

  13. GIS tool to locate major Sikh temples in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saumya

    This tool is a GIS based interactive and graphical user interface tool, which locates the major Sikh temples of USA on a map. This tool is using Java programming language along with MOJO (Map Object Java Object) provided by ESRI that is the organization that provides the GIS software. It also includes some of the integration with Google's API's like Google Translator API. This application will tell users about the origin of Sikhism in India and USA, the major Sikh temples in each state of USA, location, name and detail information through their website. The primary purpose of this application is to make people aware about this religion and culture. This tool will also measure the distance between two temple points in a map and display the result in miles and kilometers. Also, there is an added support to convert each temple's website language from English to Punjabi or any other language using a language convertor tool so that people from different nationalities can understand their culture. By clicking on each point on a map, a new window will pop up showing the picture of the temple and a hyperlink that will redirect to the website of that particular temple .It will also contain links to their dance, music, history, and also a help menu to guide the users to use the software efficiently.

  14. D Digital Simulation of Minnan Temple Architecture CAISSON'S Craft Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Wu, T. C.; Hsu, M. F.

    2013-07-01

    Caisson is one of the important representations of the Minnan (southern Fujian) temple architecture craft techniques and decorative aesthetics. The special component design and group building method present the architectural thinking and personal characteristics of great carpenters of Minnan temple architecture. In late Qing Dynasty, the appearance and style of caissons of famous temples in Taiwan apparently presented the building techniques of the great carpenters. However, as the years went by, the caisson design and craft techniques were not fully inherited, which has been a great loss of cultural assets. Accordingly, with the caisson of Fulong temple, a work by the well-known great carpenter in Tainan as an example, this study obtained the thinking principles of the original design and the design method at initial period of construction through interview records and the step of redrawing the "Tng-Ko" (traditional design, stakeout and construction tool). We obtained the 3D point cloud model of the caisson of Fulong temple using 3D laser scanning technology, and established the 3D digital model of each component of the caisson. Based on the caisson component procedure obtained from interview records, this study conducted the digital simulation of the caisson component to completely recode and present the caisson design, construction and completion procedure. This model of preserving the craft techniques for Minnan temple caisson by using digital technology makes specific contribution to the heritage of the craft techniques while providing an important reference for the digital preservation of human cultural assets.

  15. Greek architecture now

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skousbøll, Karin Merete

    2006-01-01

    With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas....

  16. On the multipart singing in the religious practice of orthodox Greeks and Serbs: The theological-culturological discourse

    OpenAIRE

    Peno Vesna

    2014-01-01

    In 1844, Serbian patriarch Josif Rajačić served two central annual Liturgies, at the feasts of Pasha and Penticost, in the Greek church of Holy Trinity in Vienna; these were accompanied by the four-part choral music. The appearance of new music in several orthodox temples in Habsburg Monarchy (including this one) during the first half of the nineteenth century, became an additional problem in a long chain of troubles that had disturbed the ever imperiled re...

  17. The Composition of New Music Inspired by Music Philosophy and Musical Theoretical Writings from Ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Morsink, Coreen

    2013-01-01

    This thesis consists of a portfolio of compositions linked to ancient Greece and a theoretical and historical explanation of the music of ancient Greece which led to the composing of each piece. Every composition explores an aspect of ancient Greek tuning systems or a tuning system that related to Ancient Greece. Compositions for solo violin, solo alto flute, solo quarter-tone alto flute and solo clarinet use monophony as well as harmonics from the overtone series and number series. A cham...

  18. A Review of Passionate Patron: The Life of Alexander Hardcastle and the Greek Temples of Agrigento

    OpenAIRE

    Antonino Crisa

    2014-01-01

    Richardson’s 143-page book provides an interesting account on the life of Alexander Hardcastle (London, 1872 – Agrigento, 1933), a rich English patron and archaeologist, who operated in Sicily during the early twentieth century. Son of Hernt and Marie Sophie Hardcastle Herschel, Alexander took his military service in the Royal Navy, gaining a thorough technical knowledge, which he successfully used in Sicily. After he obtained a passport in December 1920, Hardcastle moved to Girgenti (now Agr...

  19. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  20. Ancient Egypt, Sacred Science, and Transatlantic Romanticism

    OpenAIRE

    Redd, Marques Jerard

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Egyptian culture has been a powerful influence on a major tradition of English literature that runs from Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene (1596), one of whose major iconographic centers is the temple of Isis, to John Crowley's four-volume novel Ægypt (2007). My dissertation focuses on the Romantic period - the midpoint of this trajectory - because it is an extremely intense moment of this influence. In addition to the visions of Egypt presented in the Bible, Greco-Roman writers, a...

  1. CIVILIZATIONAL AND HISTORICAL ANTHROPOLOGY ASPECTS OF THE «GREEK MIRACLE»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spartak Sh. Aytov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to study the impact of geographical, social and cultural context, mentality character-istics of historical process of society on the origin and characteristics of the development of intellectual achieve-ment, namely philosophy and science. The purpose of the article is to understand natural, historical, cultural, social and psychological aspects that led to the genesis of cognitive development peculiarities of ancient Greek philosophy of scientific knowledge. Methodology. Methodology of the work contains such cognitive approaches as systematic and structural ones, source study and post-positivist concepts, the theory of local civilizations. Theoretical basis and results: the novelty of this work is in studying the diverse factors that determined the emergence and dynamics of ancient Greek philosophical thought and science as a whole system of interrelated elements. The influence on the genesis of philosophy and science of ancient Hellas, its geographical conditions and geopolitical situation as well as the cultural dialogue with surrounding civilizations, the reception of historical and cultural experience of the previ-ous Hellenic civilization, historical process and mentality of ancient Greeks have been analyzed. Conclusions: the whole cluster of the above mentioned factors had a profound and multi-directional influence on the formation and development of Greek philosophy and science. In addition, each of the factors influenced the original intellectual achievements of Greeks. In particular, the influence of natural factors realized in the formation of skills in the men-tality of ancient Greeks has become a prerequisite for philosophizing and scientific knowledge. Geo-political, social and cultural factors have contributed to the geographical expansion of ancient Greeks and their information acquisi-tion about the world. Through the dialogue with other eastern and Mediterranean cultures Greeks mastered intellec

  2. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  3. 古希腊神话和传说中历险精神的文化阐释%Cultural Interpretation of the Adventure Spirit in Ancient Greek Myths and Legends

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林俊

    2011-01-01

    Greek myths and legends create a series of heroic images with adventure spirit,reflecting the cultural characteristics of the western people's zeal for adventure.Adventure spirit runs through the whole process of western civilization,and even becomes an important sign different from other heterogeneous cultures,guiding generations of adventurers to push forward into unknown areas.However,it should not be neglected that its cognitive mode—Separation of Heaven and Man—and secular humanism as well,have brought negative effect to human civilization.%古希腊的神话和传说塑造了一系列具有冒险精神的英雄形象,这些文学形象折射出了西方人热衷冒险的文化特质。在西方文明漫长的发展历程中,这股勇于探索、甘于冒险的历险精神始终贯穿其中,甚至成为有别于其他异质文化的重要标志。它引领着一代又一代的冒险家向未知领域挺进。当然,它内含的"天人相分"的认知模式和"世俗人本意识"对人类文明也产生了一定的消极影响,这一点不容忽视。

  4. A Genome-Wide Search for Greek and Jewish Admixture in the Kashmiri Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashi, Tsewang; Lorenzo, Felipe Ramos; Feusier, Julie Ellen; Mir, Hyder

    2016-01-01

    The Kashmiri population is an ethno-linguistic group that resides in the Kashmir Valley in northern India. A longstanding hypothesis is that this population derives ancestry from Jewish and/or Greek sources. There is historical and archaeological evidence of ancient Greek presence in India and Kashmir. Further, some historical accounts suggest ancient Hebrew ancestry as well. To date, it has not been determined whether signatures of Greek or Jewish admixture can be detected in the Kashmiri population. Using genome-wide genotyping and admixture detection methods, we determined there are no significant or substantial signs of Greek or Jewish admixture in modern-day Kashmiris. The ancestry of Kashmiri Tibetans was also determined, which showed signs of admixture with populations from northern India and west Eurasia. These results contribute to our understanding of the existing population structure in northern India and its surrounding geographical areas. PMID:27490348

  5. Greeks in America; Staff Development Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lereah, Lucy; And Others

    This module lists eight staff development objectives pertaining to various aspects of Greek-American culture. Topics dealt with include Greek emigration and immigration, Greek vocabulary, contributions made by prominent Greek-Americans, Greek family life and the changing role of family members, Greek values, and the growth of Atlanta's Greek…

  6. Ecocriticism and Persian and Greek Myths about the Origin of Fire

    OpenAIRE

    Zekavat, Massih

    2014-01-01

    In his article "Ecocriticism and Persian and Greek Myths about the Origin of Fire" Massih Zekavat argues that some contemporary ecological biases are rooted in ancient thought. Further, Zekavat argues that the study of mythology is relevant to the understanding of culture and ecology thus assisting ecocriticism. The investigation of man/woman, culture/nature, and human/nature binary oppositions conveys that Greek and Persian myths are mostly anthropocentric and androcentric. Zekavat postulate...

  7. Material Girls : Humor and Female Professional Seduction in Greek Literature and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Foka, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Current scholarship typically views the ancient Greek prostitute/ courtesan figure as an artificially manipulated, sexualized body motivated by material profit. By examining fragments of Middle Comedy and their echoes in post-classical antiquity, this article proposes an alternative view of courtesans and prostitutes as professionals of emotional labor. Through narrative analysis, I show that the Greek comic portrayal of courtesans is multifaceted and not sufficiently illuminated by discussio...

  8. The Scandinavian Library of Athens is giving a model for Greek culture

    OpenAIRE

    Kotka, Mari

    2003-01-01

    The Scandinavian Library of Athens concentrates on literature on Greek archaeology, on ancient Greek history, religion, art and history of culture. Since the library use in Greece is not as common as in Scandinavia, the Library provides a good example of the possibilities of a modern archaeological library. The Library is a reference library. It uses UNIMARC based ABEKT program for cataloguing. It participates in the ARGOS project, which aims to combine in one database all the collections of ...

  9. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  10. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology. PMID:18644217

  11. Ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of t...

  12. Greek mathematical thought and the origin of algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Important study focuses on the revival and assimilation of ancient Greek mathematics in the 13th-16th centuries, via Arabic science, and the 16th-century development of symbolic algebra. This brought about the crucial change in the concept of number that made possible modern science - in which the symbolic ""form"" of a mathematical statement is completely inseparable from its ""content"" of physical meaning. Includes a translation of Vieta's Introduction to the Analytical Art. 1968 edition. Bibliography.

  13. The wedding song in Greek literature and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Badnall, Toni Patricia

    2009-01-01

    This thesis examines the Greek wedding song and its function in literature and culture. The genre, hymenaios or epithalamium, has received little scholarly attention, particularly in English (cf. Muth, WS 1954; Tufte, Los Angeles 1970; Contiades-Tsitsoni, Stuttgart 1990, ZPE 1994; Swift, JHS 2006 & DPhil diss.). Yet an examination of the poetry of marriage, a crucial aspect in the study of the ancient world, contributes to our understanding of gender and social relations, as well as literatur...

  14. Towards Modern Greek Consciousness

    OpenAIRE

    Loukia Droulia

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with the subject of Modern Greek consciousness which can be said epigrammatically to have its starting point in the Provisional Constitution of Greece ratified by the Assembly of Epidaurus in January 1822. For it was then necessary that two crucial questions be answered, namely who were to be considered as citizens of the new state about to be created and what regions it covered. The attempt to find answers to these questions necessarily led to the re-examination of the Greek...

  15. Correlation of Radiocarbon Dating on Surowono Temple to Other Temples in Central Java and East of Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon dating on charcoal sample have been carried out from Surowono Temple sites, Canggu village, Pare district, Kediri East Java Province. Sampling carried out by excavation on a few location with 5 test holes, that is LU1, LU2, LU3. LU4, LU5. Laboratorium analysis on significant charcoal sample only gained from LU3 test hole. After being processed and prepared to be benzene by using Benzene Synthesizer and counted by Liquid Scintillation Counter Packard 2000CA/LL, was found that age of radiocarbon dating is 885 ± 51.46 BP or 1052.61 ± 51.46 BP. Correction result tree ring correction resulting confidence level 68.3 % : 1052 - 1245 AD while confidence level on 95.4 % : 1038 - 1262 AD. Compare to recent research shows that radiocarbon dating result on Surowono temple and other temples in East of Java around 13th - 15th century and other temples in Southern of Central Java around 10th century, while other temples in Northern of Central Java around 8'th century. (author)

  16. Hawaiian temples and their orientations: issues of method and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural

  17. Musique mécanique et temple hindou

    OpenAIRE

    Guillebaud, Christine

    2013-01-01

    L’article retrace la genèse du marché de l’automate à musique en Inde du Sud, de sa conception par un ingénieur de Madras à son utilisation dans le temple hindou, jusqu’à son retrait récent de la plupart des grands centres religieux de la région. Il s’agit de questionner le statut hybride de la musique mécanique par rapport aux autres dispositifs visuels et sonores du temple, comme les cloches manuelles de sanctuaire, les enregistrements sur CD ou encore les boîtes électroniques. L’auteur mon...

  18. Partners in Excellence: Development of the Temple College Clinical Simulation Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Temple College (TC) is a comprehensive community college located in Temple, Texas. Temple also is home to Scott & White Hospital, Central Texas Veterans Health Care System, King's Daughters Hospital, and Texas A&M University College of Medicine's clinical campus. In the summer of 2001, TC's health-sciences programs were scattered across three…

  19. Greek, computers and libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel, Evelyn

    1989-01-01

    Reviews the provision of classical and biblical texts on CD-ROM data bases and their use in King's College, London Library. Describes a project to catalogue by the Libertas system a collection of Modern Greek literature in collaboration with the University of Crete. Discusses cataloguing and transliteration problems.

  20. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth, Pandora's…

  1. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  2. Tomb, temple, machine and self: the social construction of the body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Synnott, A

    1992-03-01

    The body is socially constructed; and in this paper we explore the various and ever-changing constructions of the body, and thus of the embodied self, from the Greeks to the present. The one word, body, may therefore signify very different realities and perceptions of reality; and we consider briefly how and why these meanings changed. Plato believed the body was a 'tomb', Paul said it was the 'temple' of the Holy Spirit, the Stoic philosopher Epictetus taught that it was a 'corpse'. Christians believed, and believe, that the body is not only physical, but also spiritual and mystical, and many believed it was an allegory of church, state and family. Some said it was cosmic: one with the planets and the constellations. Descartes wrote that the body is a 'machine', and this definition has underpinned biomedicine to this day; but Sartre said that the body is the self. In sum, the body has no intrinsic meaning. Populations create their own meanings, and thus their own bodies; but how they create, and then change them, and why, reflects the social body. PMID:1600447

  3. The TITUS Project : 25 years of corpus building in ancient languages

    OpenAIRE

    Gippert, Jost

    2013-01-01

    The article summarizes the contents and the structurtal premises of the “Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien” (TITUS), focussing on search functions and facilities and questions of the encoding of ancient languages written in various scripts. Examples are taken from Tocharian, Greek, Vedic Sanskrit, and other ancient Indo-European languages covered by TITUS.

  4. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence...... increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  5. The sunrise amplitude equation applied to an Egyptian temple

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    An equation, fundamental for solar energy applications, can be used to determine the sunrise amplitude at given latitude. It is therefore suitable for being applied to archaeoastronomical calculations concerning the orientation of towns, worship places and buildings. Here it is discussed the case of the Great Temple of Amarna, Egypt, oriented toward the sunrise on the winter solstice.

  6. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development…

  7. Ancient Media in Literature: Golden Printers and Golden Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Karlen

    Seal printing is explored as a literary topic in 28 works dating from the third millennium B.C. to A.D. 1613 (from Sumerian times through Shakespeare's). This ancient printing method is mentioned in the literature of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, and Arabians. It occurs in the works of Herodotus, Plutarch, and Marco Polo, as well as Chaucer and…

  8. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.

    2012-01-01

    Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen state...

  9. Study on the Factors of Kunming Temple Garden in the Period of Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qin; LIU; Yi; LIU

    2014-01-01

    Being based on preliminary study of Kunming famous temples during the Ming and Qing dynasties,field investigation was carried out about the framework of landscape,layout of waters,characteristic of structure and plant furnishing in Tanhua temple,Black Dragon Pool,Masijid of Shuncheng,Haiyuan temple and Golden Shrine which are famous temple garden in Kunming. A simple interpretation was drawn of artistic characteristics on temple garden in Kunming during the Ming and Qing dynasties via analytical investigation on many factors which influenced the development of garden of Dynasties of Ming and Qing. Then we have reviewed the elemental traits of temple garden built at that time,put forward some constructive suggestions on how to protect and develop those temple garden now still exist in Kunming.

  10. Possible Astronomical Intentionality in the Neolithic Mnajdra South Temple in Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomsdalen, Tore

    2015-05-01

    Suggestions of astronomical consideration and intentionality behind the architecture of the Neolithic Mnajdra South Temple is conducted through field studies, observations and researching relevant literature and publications. The research is founded on the temple's orientation, on cross-jam view and off-set illumination of sunrise at equinox, summer and winter solstice. The question of sacred rituals related to specific times or seasonal periods by observing the suns annual path on the eastern horizon, is investigated as a possibility of intentionality for the temples orientation and structure. Demarcated areas of the temple are illuminated at sunrise throughout the year, and especially pronounced at the beginning of modern times' ingress to the cardinal seasons. Of the extant prehistoric temples on Malta, The Mnajdra South Temple is the only one with an evident orientation towards East which coincides with both the sunrise at Equinox and during the temple period, the heliacal rising of the Pleiades.

  11. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  12. Galen and the widow: towards a history of therapeutic masturbation in ancient gynaecology

    OpenAIRE

    King, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This paper offers a close reading of the ancient Greek and Roman texts which Rachel Maines (The Technology of Orgasm, 1999) used as evidence for therapeutic masturbation in the ancient world, and thus presented as precursors for the vibrator. Examining the evidence of the Hippocratic corpus, Celsus, Soranus and Galen, it shows that the lines of transmission between the ancient sources, and in their later reception, are far more complex than her work suggests, and thus challenges her claims f...

  13. The Greek Hyperinflation Revisited

    OpenAIRE

    Alexiou, Constantinos; Tsaliki, Persefoni; Tsoulfidis, Lefteris

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to gain an insight into the Greek hyperinflation that occurred during the period 1941-1946. In doing so, a relatively novel data-set in conjunction with the bound testing approach to cointegration and error correction models developed within the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) framework, shed additional light on the underlying long-run relationship between money supply and inflation. Granger causality tests between money supply and prices are also conducte...

  14. ICT Usage by Greek Accountants

    OpenAIRE

    Efstratios C. Emmanouilidis; Anastasios A. Economides

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates Greek accounting offices use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Initially, a comprehensive questionnaire was developed. It contains 35 questions with multiple answers and 2 open questions tailored to the accountants. One hundred accountants’ offices in a Greek county answered the questionnaire. The findings present their current ICT infrastructure and their use of ICT and accounting e-services. Greek accounting offices have made improvements in adop...

  15. Some notes on medical liability in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somville, F J M P; Broos, P L O; Van Hee, R

    2010-01-01

    Already in ancient times did medical liability occupy mankind. Various civilizations did give their own interpretation on the subject and proposed solutions. Original writings are rare and articles concerning ancient medical liability equally are hard to find. The only relatively trustworthy sources are of legal nature and find their origin in Greek philosophy and Roman Law. At a later stage, Arabic philosophers gave a renewed view on the statements of these previous civilizations and added their own way of thinking. All these influences still reflect in our modern western way of medical acting. Some of these ancient customs concerning medical liability will be discussed in this article. PMID:20690537

  16. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  17. Polyphemus in Greek and Latin poems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panajiotis Asimopulos

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to an intertextual approach to the personality of the Cyclops Polyphemus through poetic works of ancient Greek and Latin authors. Since the comparative method constitutes a reliable condition for every cognitive process, at least so far as the human thought is able to comply with the new knowledge to the existing notions and terms, the distinct physiognomy of poetic inspiration is clarified, but also the structural similarities and fundamental differences related to this famous mythical person are illustrated. Having as a reference point the Homeric “Odyssey” and the cruelty and inhumanity attributed to Polyphemus, we experience the gradual alleviation of the negative features of his character and unexpectedly witness an emotionally wounded, romantic, even gentle and helpless creature. In this way an impressive bridging is held between religion axioms and sociopolitical parameters that are effectively and creatively embodied in poetic works.

  18. Computation of Greeks using Binomial Tree

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshifumi Muroi; Shintaro Suda

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a new efficient algorithm for the computation of Greeks for options using the binomial tree. We also show that Greeks for European options introduced in this article are asymptotically equivalent to the discrete version of Malliavin Greeks. This fact enables us to show that our Greeks converge to Malliavin Greeks in the continuous time model. The computation algorithms of Greeks for American options using the binomial tree is also given in this article. There are three adv...

  19. Cyclopia: from Greek antiquity to medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, George C; Tsiamis, Costas B; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie L

    2013-01-01

    Cyclops are among the best-known monsters of Greek mythology, also mentioned in art and literature. According to the most recent scientific knowledge, the malformations caused by defective development of the anterior brain and midline mesodermal structures include cyclopia (synophthalmos), ethmocephaly, cebocephaly and arrhinencephaly. These severe forebrain lesions often are accompanied by severe systemic malformations, and affected infants rarely survive. Neither true cyclopia nor synophthalmos are compatible with life because an anomalous development of the brain is involved. Thus, it is difficult to assume that ancient Greeks drew their inspiration from an adult patient suffering from cyclopia. Cyclops appear for the first time in literature in Homer's Odyssey (8th-7th century BC) and one of them, Polyphemus, is blinded by the hero of the epic poem. The description of the creature is identical with patients suffering from cyclopia; eyes are fused and above the median eye there is a proboscis, which is the result of an abnormal development of the surface ectodermal structures covering the brain. The next literature appearance of Cyclops is at the end of 7th century BC in "Theogonia", written by Hesiodus. Another interesting description is made by Euripides in his satyr play entitled 'Cyclops' (5th century BC). In conclusion, though it is not certain whether Homer's description of Cyclops was based on his personal experience or the narration of his ancestors, there is no doubt that the ophthalmological disease, cyclopia, was named after this mythical creature. PMID:24640588

  20. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  1. Graeco-Roman Astro-Architecture: The Temples of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Vance R.

    2014-01-01

    Roman architect Marcus Vetruvius Pollio (ca. 75-15 BC) wrote, “[O]ne who professes himself as an architect should be…acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens…. From astronomy we find the east, west, south, and north, as well as the theory of the heavens, the Equinox, Solstice and courses of the Stars.” (De Architectura Libri Decem I:i:3,10). In order to investigate the role of astronomy in temple orientation, the author conducted a preliminary GIS DEM/Satellite Imaging survey of 11 temples at Pompeii, Italy (N 40d 45', E 14d 29'). The GIS survey measured the true azimuth and horizon altitude of each temple’s major axis and was field checked by a Ground Truth survey with theodolite and GPS, 5-18 April 2013. The resulting 3D vector data was analyzed with Program STONEHENGE (Hawkins 1983, 328) to identify the local skyline declinations aligned with the temple major axes. Analysis suggests that the major axes of the temples of Apollo, Jupiter and Venus are equally as likely to have been oriented to Pompeii’s urban grid, itself oriented NW-SE on Mt. Vesuvius’ slope and hydraulic gradient to optimize urban sewer/street drainage (cf. Hodge 1992). However, the remaining nine temples appear to be oriented to astronomical targets on the local horizon associated with Graeco-Roman calendrics and mythology. TEMPLE/ DATE/ MAJOR AXIS ASTRO-TARGET (Skyline Declination in degrees) Public Lares/AD 50/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, Last Gleam (-16.5) Vespsian/ AD 69-79/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, LG (-16.2) Fortuna Augusta/ AD 1/ Winter Solstice Sun Set, LG (-22.9) Aesculapius/ 100 BC/ Perseus Rise (β Persei-Algol = +33.0) & Midsummer Moon Major Stand Still Set, LG (-28.1) Isis/ 100 BC/ Midwinter Moon Major Stand Still Rise, Tangent (+28.5) & Equinox Sun Set, Tangent (-0.3) Jupiter/ 150 BC/ Θ Scorpionis-Sargas Rise (-38.0) Apollo/ 550 (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37.1) Venus/ 150 BC (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37

  2. The Way of Knowing and the Way of Wisdom——On the critical "transition" by Anaxagoras of philosophizing between the ancient Greek schools of thought%知识之路与智慧之路——论阿那克萨戈拉思想在古希腊哲思路径间的关键“传递”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张柯

    2012-01-01

    古希腊思想经历了从"前苏格拉底思想"到古典时期形而上学的转变,阿那克萨戈拉的思想为这一转向做出了决定性贡献,他对前苏格拉底思想中的巴门尼德模式和赫拉克利特模式都给予了深刻阐发和改变,使得两条路径的叠印得以可能,为希腊古典时期形而上学的统贯工作打下了坚实基础。在这种转向中开启了一种意义至为深远的基调转换:本原问题从此被存在问题所取代,思之事情的二重性就此开始逐渐沦入遗忘状态。%The ancient Greek thoughts experienced the transition from pre-Socratic thoughts to the classical metaphysics.Anaxagoras' view played a decisive role in this transition.He made a profound exposition and change of the patterns of thought held by Parmenides and Heraclitus,making it possible to overlap the two paths from each other,and lay a solid foundation for the Greek metaphysical work.There was a far-reaching significance in this shift: the problem of arche has since been replaced by the problem of being,and the duality of things began to fall gradually into oblivion.

  3. Research on fine management and visualization of ancient architectures based on integration of 2D and 3D GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aimed at ancient architectures which own the characteristics of huge data quantity, fine-grained and high-precise, a 3D fine management and visualization method for ancient architectures based on the integration of 2D and 3D GIS is proposed. Firstly, after analysing various data types and characters of digital ancient architectures, main problems and key technologies existing in the 2D and 3D data management are discussed. Secondly, data storage and indexing model of digital ancient architecture based on 2D and 3D GIS integration were designed and the integrative storage and management of 2D and 3D data were achieved. Then, through the study of data retrieval method based on the space-time indexing and hierarchical object model of ancient architecture, 2D and 3D interaction of fine-grained ancient architectures 3D models was achieved. Finally, take the fine database of Liangyi Temple belonging to Wudang Mountain as an example, fine management and visualization prototype of 2D and 3D integrative digital ancient buildings of Liangyi Temple was built and achieved. The integrated management and visual analysis of 10GB fine-grained model of the ancient architecture was realized and a new implementation method for the store, browse, reconstruction, and architectural art research of ancient architecture model was provided

  4. "I'm a Greek Kiwi": Constructing "Greekness" in Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angouri, Jo

    2012-01-01

    The article reports on the preliminary findings of a project on the constructions of "Greekness" in modern diasporas. The discussion draws on data from the self-identified Greek community of Wellington, New Zealand. Interview data, ethnographic diaries, and everyday real-life spoken interactions were collected. The analysis of the data shows that…

  5. Preliminary Study of Ancient Town Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Caoshi Town in Hengdong County,Hunan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The typical style and features of mountains and waters in Caoshi Ancient Town,have hitherto been well preserved. Caoshi Ancient Town boasts superior base of the natural eco-environment and deep-rooted background of regional culture,where mountains,waters,shoals,towns and other landscape elements are merged harmoniously,the transportation and geographical conditions have been fundamentally changed. Ancient towns,old temples,ancient forests,ancient wells and ancient piers are unique in different ways,with characteristics of tourism resources such as long history and ancient folklore. It should seize the historical opportunity of China vigorously developing rural tourism based on the construction of the new socialist countryside,to make characteristic agricultural economy gain ground; assume the leading role to drive the development of tourism economy in surrounding areas; correctly handle the relationship between development and protection to walk the path of sustainable development of tourism.

  6. Visual reconstruction of Hampi Temple - Construed Graphically, Pictorially and Digitally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Natampally

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing temple complex in Hampi, Karnataka, India was extensively studied, analyzed and documented. The complex was measured-drawn and digitized by plotting its edges and vertices using AutoCAD to generate 2d drawings. The graphic 2d elements developed were extended into 3 dimensional objects using Google sketch-up. The tool has been used to facilitate the visual re-construction to achieve the architecture of the temple in its original form. 3D virtual modelling / visual reconstruction helps us to visualize the structure in its original form giving a holistic picture of the Vijayanagara Empire in all its former glory. The project is interpreted graphically using Auto-CAD drawings, pictorially, digitally using Sketch-Up model and Kinect.

  7. Virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist temple features for intercultural communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Takashi; Takao, Hidenobu; Inoue, Tetsuri; Miyamoto, Hiroyuki; Noro, Kageyu

    1998-04-01

    This paper describes the production and presentation of an experimental virtual museum of Japanese Buddhist art. This medium can provide an easy way to introduce a cultural heritage to people of different cultures. The virtual museum consisted of a multimedia program that included stereoscopic 3D movies of Buddhist statues; binaural 3D sounds of Buddhist ceremonies and the fragrance of incense from the Buddhist temple. The aim was to reproduce both the Buddhist artifacts and atmosphere as realistically as possible.

  8. 古埃及的神庙建筑%The Temple Building in Ancient Egypt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    令狐若明

    2009-01-01

    古埃及历史上的新王国时期,埃及人建造了许多宏大的神庙.神庙是古代埃及的一种典型的石造建筑物,其格局几乎固定不变,是由塔门、露天庭院、列柱大厅和神殿四部分组成的.卡纳克神庙和卢克索神庙是古埃及神庙建筑的典范,充分显示了古埃及人的高度智慧和精湛的建筑技术.神庙是古埃及在建筑方面的最后杰出成就,它同金字塔一样,也是古埃及文明高度发展的见证.

  9. On the orientation of pre-islamic temples of north Africa: a re-appraisal (new data in Africa proconsularis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, J. A.; Gaspar, A. T.; Betancort, A. P.; Marrero, R.

    Since the late 1990s, our research group has embarked on a systematic archaeoastronomical study of archaeological sites in the Maghreb. Earlier campaigns were devoted to Tunisia, Morocco and Libya (see e.g. Belmonte et. Al.1998, 1999 and 2002). In this short report we will present part of the data obtained in a field campaign carried out in winter 2002, analyzing the results yielded on early 50 ancient sacred structures (temples, churches, earlier mosques and mausoleums) of an extended area in Northern Tunisia (ancient Africa Proconsularis). These data were not discussed in previous reports on similar structures (e.g. Esteban at.al.2001) , although in a previous paper (Belmonte et.al.2003) we reported our results on the contemporary measured megalithic monuments. This paper will present the data of more than 30 temples and mausoleums of Roman era, 10 pre-Islamic Christian churches and a few earlier mosques. These new data will be discussed together with those obtained in previous campaigns in an attempt to shed some light on the possibility of astronomical alignments within this extended set of monuments (more than a hundred). Our results show that some astronomical patterns could be interpreted as solar ones. Interestingly, this solar tendency was continued by Christian churches until the arrival of Islam. This is a common feature to the other regions of early Christianity (see e.g. Romano 1992). Other curious patterns, including the planning of important cities could presumably be associated to the brightest stars of the sky, Sirius and Canopus. Finally, we will analyse how this astronomical tendencies managed to survive within the first Islamic orienting traditions.

  10. Ancient Greek Tradition in Arabic and Christian Celestial Globes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hadrava, Petr; Hadravová, Alena

    Campobasso : University of Molise, 2012 - (Badolati, E.), s. 77-85 ISBN 9788867350285. [Conference on Cultural Astronomy /3./. Campobasso (IT), 08.11.2011-08.11.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP405/11/0034 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 ; RVO:68378114 Keywords : celestial globes * iconography of constellations Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics; AB - History (USD-C)

  11. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    , extensive measurement data have been collected from three well-preserved theatres, which represent three different stages of enclosing the audience in an open-air environment: (1) the Epidaurus Theatre in Greece without skenae wall or columnade behind the cavea; (2) the Jerash South theatre in Jordan with...

  12. Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

  13. Free Harmonious Beauty of Greek Sculpture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑晓杨

    2015-01-01

    Greek art in the content and form of the art of the beautiful, harmonious effect fully expresses the interpretation of the height of the spirit of freedom, and the Greek sculpture is a powerful representative of Greek art. In this paper, from a few large sculpture art to savor the Greek sculpture artistic freedom and harmonious beauty.

  14. Muslıms’ Attitude Toward Non-Islamic Temples in The Conquests

    OpenAIRE

    CAN, Yılmaz; YILMAZ, Metin

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with Muslims’ attitude toward non-Islamic temples in con-quered lands. Muslims’ attitude toward non-Islamic temples alters according to the form of conquering the city with agreement or peace, time, and the personal attitudes of khalifs or governors. In Islamic history, Muslims appear to use non-Islamic temples with non-Muslims for prayer in the first days of conquering, or to build their mosques in available places, or to transform non-Islamic temples to mosques in different...

  15. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  16. Back to the roots - dermatology in ancient Egyptian medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anke

    2016-04-01

    Although ancient Greek and Roman medicine is generally considered the origin of European medicine, there is evidence in ancient Egyptian texts suggesting a precursor role of ancient Egyptian medicine in this regard. What did Greek and Roman physicians learn from their Egyptian counterparts? Of the medical papyri discovered to date, the largest and most significant - the Ebers papyrus and the Smith papyrus - originate from the beginning of the New Kingdom, however, they were - at least in part - already written during the Old Kingdom. Considering the times, the spectrum of diseases treated as well as the range of conservative and surgical treatment methods was truly astounding. Taking a medical history, performing a thorough manual examination, and assessing clinical findings constituted key components in establishing a diagnosis. Apart from hygienic aspects, skin and hair disorders, the treatment of acute and chronic wounds and injuries as well as cosmetic procedures took on an important role. Even back then, physicians sought to assess inflammatory processes with respect to their cardinal features, implement graded wound therapy, and treat diseases with allopathic drugs. The 'channel theory' prevalent at that time, in which the unimpeded flow of bodily fluids was considered a fundamental prerequisite for health, may likely be regarded as precursor of ancient Greek humoral pathology. The latter became the basis for the subsequently established theory of the four humors, and was thus essential for the entire field of medieval medicine. PMID:27027749

  17. An ancient harbour at Dwarka: Study based on the recent underwater explorations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    . T HE ancient city of Dwarka, situated on the extreme West Coast of Indian territory, occupies an important place in th e cultural and religious history of India. The fabulous architectural planning of the Dwarka temple has attracted tourists from... all over the world. The town has association with Lord Krishna, who is believed to have founded this town by reclaiming 12 yojan a land from the Sea. During its glorious past, Dwarka was a city of beautiful gardens, deep moats, several ponds...

  18. Assessment of the lower ESR dating range in Greek speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilot ESR dating studies on geologically young calcitic sinters were carried out, aiming at assessment of the lower ESR dating range in characteristic Greek speleoenvironments. Five stalactites were dated, coming from an ancient mining gallery, idle for the last 2,500 years, found on Siphnos island (Aegean). The calculated ages range between 1,7-2,0 ka. Medium to low measured external dose rates (aprox. 900 μGy/a) and very low measured radioelement concentration in samples are very usual in the Mediterranean environments. The study concludes that ESR dating of speleothems younger than two millenia is practically unattainable. Some geoarchaeological implications of the obtained ages are discussed. (author)

  19. Sleep and dreaming in Greek and Roman philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbera, Joseph

    2008-12-01

    Theories as to the function of sleep and dreaming have been with us since the beginning of recorded history. In Ancient Greece and Rome the predominant view of dreams was that they were divine in origin. This view was held not only in theory but also in practice with the establishment of various dream-oracles and dream interpretation manuals (Oneirocritica). However, it is also in the Greek and Roman writings, paralleling advances in philosophy and natural science, that we begin to see the first rationalistic accounts of dreaming. This paper reviews the evolution of such rational accounts focusing on the influence of Democritus, who provides us with the first rationalistic account of dreaming in history, and Aristotle, who provides us with the most explicit account of sleep and dreaming in the ancient world. PMID:19014776

  20. Deutsche Literatur in englischer Sprache an der Temple University--Eine Zwischenbilanz (German Literature in English Translation at Temple University--An Interim Statement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo-Mayr, Maria-Luise

    1975-01-01

    Reports on three German literature courses taught in English at Temple University. The descriptions give course content, materials and methodologies used, and an indication of the success of each course. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  1. Cygnus mystery unlocking the ancient secret of life's origins in the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Author, Andrew Collins

    2012-01-01

    It was a universal belief among ancient civilizations that life came originally from the cosmos, and ultimately would return there after death. The shamanic journey was always to this sky-world - and it appears that it was always located in the direction of the stars of Cygnus - also known as the Northern Cross - accessed either via the Milky Way or an imagined cosmic axis. Andrew Collins demonstrates that this belief is based on an ancient astronomy - around 17,000 years old. All over the world, standing stones, temples and monuments are orientated towards the rising and setting of the stars

  2. Thermal performance elevation at Sergey Radonezhskiy temple reconstruction in Volgograd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Valerjevich Korniyenko

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The priority direction of modern architecture and construction is energy efficiency and energy saving. Thermal performance elevation and thermal comfort indoor climate supporting are necessary during all life cycle of the building — at design, construction, operation and reconstruction of buildings. This problem is especially actual for the cultural heritage objects which are of historical and architectural and art value. Preservation of the history and the cultures monuments which are national property, it is important both for present generation, and for descendants. In this article the thermal performance elevation problem solution at St. Sergey Radonezhskiy temple reconstruction in Volgograd is given. On the basis of visual and tool inspection numerous defects of external walls of additional building to the temple by construction which can't provide reliable and safe conditions are revealed. The assessment of hollow masonry thermotechnical parameters by use of temperature and moisture mode method with consideration for edge effects zones is executed. By results of calculation it is established that application according to the design as mineral wool insulation provides minimum admissible requirements for thermal performance. However the lowest value of heat transfer performance uniformity factor testifies to the inefficient design constructive consideration of external walls. The settlement assessment showed that application of monolithic polysterene concrete, according to the author idea, considerably increases the heat transfer performance uniformity factor of external walls. The specified recommendation is realized in practice in 2013.

  3. The Climate and its Impacts on deterioration and weathering rate of EI-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Hossam

    2015-04-01

    Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world's cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration of Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22°30'14" and 26°00'00" N, and between 30°27'00" and 30°47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El-Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve these aims, the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1977 to 2010 (33 years), and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years) as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX). The results were in

  4. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted. PMID:25376129

  5. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    OpenAIRE

    Girish, T. E.; Nair, C. Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in natur...

  6. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  7. Temple Grandin e o autismo: uma análise do filme Temple Grandin and autism: the film review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Schmidt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available o presente artigo trata de uma análise do filme Temple Grandin o qual apresenta um panorama do autismo a partir da experiência singular de vida da protagonista. É apresentada uma breve sinopse do filme que descreve a trajetória de uma pessoa com autismo no enfrentamento de barreiras cotidianas em uma época em que esta condição ainda era muito pouco conhecida. A análise retoma alguns recortes do filme e apóia-se em dados atuais da literatura para discutir pontos referentes ao autismo. Entre outras, discutem-se as especificidades e perspectivas futuras dos diagnósticos categóricos e dimensionais no autismo, bem como as persistentes confusões com nomenclaturas. É revista a noção historicamente construída da pessoa com autismo como extremamente inteligente, propondo desconstruir este estereótipo a partir do entendimento destas habilidades sob o escopo de teorias cognitivas que as definem como partes de um estilo cognitivo diferente. Também são abordadas brevemente as alterações sensoriais presentes no autismo, as quais impulsionam Temple a desenvolver a máquina do abraço para auxiliar pessoas como ela a lidar com dificuldades interpessoais, que muitas vezes são confundidas com inexpressão afetiva. Por fim, são retomadas as correlações outrora sugeridas entre a qualidade da parentalidade e o autismo, conforme ilustrada no filme. Não se pretende aqui esgotar o assunto em uma análise extensa e profunda, mas oferecer uma compreensão teórica sobre a obra.This article presents an analysis of the film Temple Grandin which provides an overview of autism from the unique life experience of Temple Grandin. A brief synopsis is present describing the trajectory of a person with autism in coping with everyday obstacles at a time when this condition was still very little known. The analysis takes some scenes from the movie film to discuss aspects related to autism, based upon the literature. Specificities and future perspectives on

  8. "Three Kinds of Images" in Ancient Greek and Roman Mythologies——Research on the Application of Frye's Prototype Theory to the Structure of Myth Literature%古希腊罗马神话中的“三种意象”——关于运用弗莱原型批评理论解剖神话文学结构形式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王微

    2012-01-01

    Northrop Frye's Anatomy of Criticism marks the rise of the theory "archetypal criticism".The so-called "archetypal criticism" is also known as "myth criticism".Prototype is "the typical image that is repeated".And the most basic literary prototype of human society is myth,which is a form of structure model and the infiltration system in human literature and culture at all levels to become the starting point of human literature.Frye's Anatomy of Criticism is the representative of archetypal criticism.By using the Anatomy of Criticism's different critical modes,we would glimpse a different kind of style of ancient Greek and Roman myths and make a good attempt to apply the prototype critical theory to practical literary criticism.Here we can find many images in ancient Greek and Roman mythology conforming to Frye's archetypal criticism,which reflects the correctness and predictability of Frye's theory.This reflects the role myth plays in human development.%诺斯罗普·弗莱《批评的解剖》的问世,标志着"原型批评"理论的崛起。所谓"原型批评",也叫"神话批评"。原型,就是"典型的即反复出现的意象",人类社会最基本的文学原型就是神话,神话是一种形式结构的模型,是浸润于人类文学文化体系的各个层面,成为研究人类文学的起点。弗莱《批评的解剖》主要是一部原型批评(神话批评)的代表作,通过将《批评的解剖》的不同批评模式运用于古希腊罗马神话,可以窥见古希腊罗马神话别样的风采,也是将原型批评理论运用于实际文学批评的一次有益尝试。依照上述分析方法,我们能够在古希腊罗马神话中找到符合弗莱原型批评理论的众多意象,也能够根据这如此众多的原型意象映衬弗莱理论的正确性与前瞻性,进一步让读者把握古希腊罗马神话除了赏析与文化的作用之外,更深层次地体现了

  9. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  10. The Greek concept of egkíklios paideía and its diffusion in the Hellenistic era

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Spinelli

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about the concept of egkíklios paideía, used in ancient Greece to define the children’s (paidós) school term (egkíklios). The goals of the syllabus used to be, on the one hand, enabling the children to use the intellect, and, on the other hand, professional, social and human amendment. The paper uses two sources. First, the ancient philosophers. Second, other educational conceptions spread all over the Greek civilization in the Hellenistic age. Concerning the ancient philosopher...

  11. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  12. La casa del Palau del Temple, de Barcelona

    OpenAIRE

    Fuguet Sans, Joan

    2004-01-01

    En aquest treball, es revisa i es posa al dia l'opinió expressada, l'any 1989, a L'arquitectura dels templers a Catalunya, sobre la seu de la comanda del Temple a Barcelona. A partir de noves aportacions documentals i bibliogràfiques, no només s'hi subratlla la importància del conjunt, sinó que s'hi constata (després d'analitzar-ne detingudament els pros i els contres) la paternitat templera de la famosa «sala dels cavalls», atribuïda tradicionalment a Pere III. L'estudi es fa extensiu a les ...

  13. THE FARTHEST MOSQUE OR THE ALLEGED TEMPLE AN ANALYTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Hassan Wazeri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Farthest Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem has been associated in the consciousness of the Muslims, with The Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah through a spiritual bond since the event of Isra’ (Night Journey and Mi`raj (Ascension to Heaven. The objective of this study is to determine the orientation of the Farthest Mosque and illustrate the similarity in geometric shape (plan and proportions, between the Farthest Mosque in Jerusalem and the sacred mosque (Al-Ka`bah in Makkah, in the first part of the research. The second part of the research involves a study of some texts from the Old Testament that address the architectural and structural descriptions of the alleged temple, with the purpose of exposing whether glaring contradictions exist between the texts of the Old Testament themselves or between them and the real architectural and structural facts acknowledged by specialists in this field. Keywords: The Farthest mosque, the Alleged Temple, Al-Ka`bah, geometric similarity     Abstrak Masjid tertua (Masjid al-Aqsa di Jarusalem telah dihubungkan dalam kesadaran umat muslim, dengan masjid suci (Masjidil Haram di Mekah melalui ikatan spiritual sejak kejadian Isra’ (perjalanan malam dan Mi’raj (kenaikan  ke  surga.  Tujuan  dari  kajian  ini  adalah  untuk  menentukan  orientasi  masjid  tertua  and menggambarkan kesamaan bentuk geometri (denah dan proporsi, antara masjid tertua di Jarusalem dan masjid suci (Ka’bah di Mekah, di bagian pertama penelitian. Bagian kedua penelitian melibatkan kajian beberapa tulisan dari surat wasiat kuno yang mengarah kepada deskripsi arsitektural dan struktural kuil, dengan tujuan mengekspos baik kontradiksi yang mencolok antara tulisan surat wasiat kuno itu sendiri maupun di antara mereka, dan fakta arsitektural dan struktural yang nyata diakui oleh spesialis di lapangan   Kata kunci: masjid tertua, kuil, ka’bah, kesamaan geometri

  14. The Birth of the Mob: Representations of Crowds in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schwab, Justin Jon

    2011-01-01

    AbstractThe Birth of the Mob: Representations of Crowds in Archaic and Classical Greek LiteraturebyJustin Jon SchwabDoctor of Philosophy in ClassicsUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Leslie Kurke, Chair This dissertation surveys the representation of crowds and related phenomena in Homer, the Attic tragedians, and Aristophanes. The first chapter begins by noting that while recent scholarship has explored the role of the crowd in ancient Roman history and literature, virtually no simi...

  15. The Ming Dynasty Lintao Pagoda Temple and it ’s Holiness’s History---Annotation of Ming Dynasty Pagoda Temple Gratitude Spread Monument%明代临洮宝塔寺及其法王史实考述--明代《宝塔寺报恩传流碑》笺释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜常顺

    2015-01-01

    The Lintao Pagoda Temple of Ming Dynasty was a Tibetan Buddhist monastery ,which was the reconstruction on the basis of the Sakya abolished an ancient temple in the Yuan Dynasty .The origina‐tor Duanzhu early settled in Nanjing Jimingsi ,did many effectiveness for the border political affairs from Hongwu to Xuande periods .During his lifetime he was appointed the Purohita ,after the death was made a West Buddha and Holiness .His disciples made the Beijing Great Nengren Temple as Long -term resi‐dence ,had a very close relationship with the court ,and were the grandees in all the monks .There was lit‐tle attention in previous studies of the Ming Dynasty Lintao Pagoda Temple and its Sangha .This article based on that Pagoda Temple Gratitude Spread Monument ,made a research on relevant facts of the tem‐ple in combination with other historical data .%明代临洮宝塔寺是在元代萨迦派废刹基础上重建的藏传佛教寺院。其开山端竹领占早年入驻南京鸡鸣寺,从洪武到宣德数朝,为明朝边事边政效力甚多。生前受封大国师,死后又被追封为西天佛子、大敏法王。而其弟子门人则以北京大能仁寺为驻锡之所,与宫廷关系十分密切,颇得宠信,仅封为法王者就有4人之多,在驻京藏僧中地位十分显贵。以往研究中对明代临洮宝塔寺及其僧团甚少关注,许多史实也湮没无闻,本文依据明代《宝塔寺报恩传流碑》,并结合其它史料对该寺特别是端竹领占及其法嗣相关史实作为一考述。

  16. Nasalance Norms in Greek Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal…

  17. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  18. Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine hosted Temple Grandin

    OpenAIRE

    Douglas, Jeffrey S.

    2005-01-01

    Dr. Temple Grandin, an associate professor of Animal Science at Colorado State University, recently spoke on agricultural animal welfare issues at the Virginia-Maryland Regional College of Veterinary Medicine.

  19. A MAN AND HIS RIGHTS IN THE CONCEPTS OF ANCIENT REPRESENTATIVES OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND LEGAL THOUGHT

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolay Alekseevich VOLKOV

    2015-01-01

    Emergence of the idea of human rights in V— VI centuries BC in ancient policies and emergence of the principle of citizenship became a major step on the way of humanity towards freedom and progress. The idea and practice of freedom and human rights was given to the world by the most famous of all ancient civilizations — Athens in the views of Heraclitus, Democritus, Protagoras, Antiphont, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, etc. Ancient Greek ideas about human rights formed as a part of myt...

  20. Archaeoastronomy and the chronology of the Temple of Jupiter at Baalbek

    CERN Document Server

    Magli, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    One of the most complex architectural feats ever conceived is the magnificent temple of Jupiter at Baalbek, Lebanon. Several issues remain unsolved about this site, and in particular the chronology and dating of the two podia and the true nature of the cult. We present here some hints coming from orientation and from other features of the temple, which seem to point to a unified project of both podia, originally conceived under Herod the Great.

  1. Between Jesus and Krishna:Christian Encounters with South Indian Temple Dance

    OpenAIRE

    Puri, Stine Simonsen

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: Jan-Dec One of the eight national dances of India, bharatanatyam, partly originates from the area around Tranquebar. During the time that Tranquebar was a Danish colony, devadasis, women who did service at temples through dance, were patronaged by the Thanjavur royal court. In 1623, a Danish/Islandic soldier routinely observed the devadsis dancing outside the Masilammani Nathar temple opposite Fort Dansborg, which he was guarding. His accounts of the dancers are interestin...

  2. Household and meals versus the Temple purity system: Patterns of replication in Luke-Acts

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, J. H.

    1991-01-01

    In Luke-Acts the social codes and concepts associated with food and meals replicate and support the contrasting social codes, interests, and ideologies associated with the Jerusalem Temple, on the one hand, and the Christian household, on the other. In this study the thesis is advanced that in contrast to the Temple and the exclusivist purity and legal system it represents, Luke has used occasions of domestic dining and hospitality to depict an inclusive form of social relations which transce...

  3. From the World’s Fair to Disneyland: Pavilions as Temples

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimee K. Comstock-Skipp

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the visual culture of recreated temple structures in the entertainment settings of international exhibitions and Disneyland. It examines the material and conceptual construction of temple mythology in world’s fairs and amusement parks through the reproduction – or rather, simulation – of Egyptian, Mayan, Aztec, Cambodian, and Hindu structures. Disneyland in southern California has been interpreted as the hybrid descendent of world’s fairs and colonial expositions, the resu...

  4. Osobnosť gréckych hrdinov z pohľadu modernej psychológie (Personality of Greek Heroes from the Viewpoint of Modern Psychology)

    OpenAIRE

    Matúš Porubjak; Rastislav Duriš

    2012-01-01

    Drawing from Homer’s Iliad, the article focuses on characters of ancient Greek heroes and relates them to personality psychology. First, it discusses what major personality characteristics have been identified by modern psychological research and how they can be measured. In the next part, the authors summarize how they attempted to verify the historical and intercultural validity of outlined personality models using theIliad and present the results of their analysis. Concluding that ancient ...

  5. Greeks in America and Greece. The 42-Cent Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Sandra L.

    1981-01-01

    Culture conflict is reflected in Greek-American perceptions of themselves and of Greek nationals and vice versa. Greek Americans feel that hard work has resulted in wealth, education, and success; Greek nationals believe their American counterparts are mercenary and have forgotten old values. Greek Americans resent the behavior of newly arrived…

  6. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  7. For each head differences the corresponding turbine. Energy generating water wheels were already known by Greeks and Romans in the ancient world; Fuer jede Fallhoehe die richtige Turbine. Wasserraeder mit dem Vorteil, damit Energie zu erzeugen, kannten in der Antike schon Griechen und Roemer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, W.

    2006-07-01

    From simple water wheels, working in the Ancient World, to modern hydraulic turbines like Francis, Pelton and Kaplan turbine, the contribution shows the development of this engines generating clean power. Operating with small heads and high flow rates and velocities a new generation like the tube turbine and in special fields the flow rate turbine are able to generate power still more efficiently. (GL)

  8. On the inheriting forms of the temple fair folk-Taking Huangliangmeng temple fair as an example%庙会民俗传承形态研究--以邯郸黄粱梦庙会为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯艳娜; 冯书先

    2016-01-01

    庙会民俗传承形态是庙会民俗表现形式及其功利性目标在传承过程中的变化,具体而言就是庙会民俗事象及其内涵和功能的变化。仔细辨识、分析庙会民俗事象的变化,发现庙会民俗的传承形态主要有四种,分别是庙会民俗事象的“消失”、“消长”、“更替”和“泛化”等。对庙会民俗传承形态的的探讨和研究,有助于更好地认知、理解和把握庙会民俗的传承规律及庙会民俗的历史发展轨迹。%Temple fair folk inheritance pattern is the temple fair folk forms and its utilitarian goal in the changes in the process of inheritance, in particular to the image is the temple fair and connotation and function of change. Carefully identify changes to the image, analysis of temple fair, found that there are four main handed down formation of folk temple fair, the image are respectively the temple fair to the image "disappear", the temple fair to the image of "growth", the temple fair to the image of "replacement" and the temple fair "generalization", etc. To the temple fair folk inheritance in the form of discussion and research, can help to better cognitive, understand and grasp the temple fair folk inheritance law and the historical trajectory of folk temple fair.

  9. Small carnivores of Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve, Karnataka, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honnavalli N. Kumara

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available During the present study in Biligiri Rangaswamy Temple Tiger Reserve (BRT, nine species of small carnivores viz., Jungle Cat Felis chaus, Rusty-spotted Cat Prionalilurus rubiginosus, Leopard Cat Prionailurus bengalensis, Small Indian Civet Viverricula indica, Asian Palm Civet Paradoxurus hermaphroditus, Striped-necked Mongoose Herpestes vitticollis, Ruddy Mongoose Herpestes smithii, Common Mongoose Herpestes edwardsii and Smooth-coated Otter Lutrogale perspicillata, were recorded using camera-trapping technique, transect walks, and night surveys. Vegetation type strongly influences the presence and abundance of each species. The most sightings of small carnivores occurred in dry deciduous forests. Among all the species, the Asian Palm Civet was the most abundant and was followed by the small Indian Civet. Compared to many other forests or regions in India, the sight records of the Rusty-spotted Cat were relatively higher in BRT. Although we were unable to use statistical methods to search for higher levels of interdependencies between forest types and small carnivore abundance, our study sheds light on patterns of small carnivore distribution in this unique habitat which bridges the Western Ghats and the Eastern Ghats.

  10. Antické inšpirácie pre hermeneutiku smrti (Ancient Inspirations for Hermeneutics of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vydra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper investigates ancient understanding of death. There are three interesting problems in ancient thinking. First one, that Greek word sema means a sign but a tombstone, too. It is related to problem of a human memory (a Greek anamnesis. Second one that death is primarily darkening for ancient people. Thanatos – god of death – appears only as a fragment of goddess Night, his mother. Third one, that a fire (or light is import for life of human being. But a fire has symbolical function and it is related to an eternity. There is a light nearby intelligence in ancient world. Desire of philosophers to immortality refers to desire to an eternal intellectual thinking.

  11. Aspect in Greek Future Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Medieval Greek had three future periphrases making use of a finite verb and an infinitive: μέλλω + INF, ἔχω + INF, θέλω + INF. Given the parallel nature of the periphrases as well as the fact that the infinitive existed in both a perfective and an imperfective version, it might be expected that...... the Modern Greek verbal system: μέλλω + INF has a much higher ratio of imperfective infinitives than the two other periphrases especially in AD I, ἔχω + INF starts out using only the perfective infinitive when referring to the future, and θέλω + INF distinguishes for aspect before it gains future...

  12. Some terms from Greek mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1.Narcissus—纳西索斯,水仙花,自恋This term comes from a beautiful Greek myth.Narcissus(纳西索斯)is the son of the river god Cephissus and the nymph(宙斯)Leiriope.He was counted among the most handsome Of young men.His mother was told that he would have a long life,proyided he never looked upon his

  13. The radioactivity of Greek lignites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactivity measurements of Greek lignites have shown that all of them contain radioactive isotopes of the uranium series. Radium-226 and uranium-238 concentrations have been found to be higher than those so far reported in the literature of lignites. Concentrations of 238U up to 35 pCi/g have been observed in the lignites of Serres area (Northern Greece). (T.A.)

  14. Death in the Modern Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Pentaris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Each culture recognizes and identifies death, dying and bereavement in unique ways. Commonly, aculture may be seen through the lens of death rituals; how those are shaped, interpreted and used by the society. This paper aims to look at the Modern Greek culture and depict its ‘visualization’ of death, as well as capture the rituals that mostly identify this specific culture. The Greek culture in overall is strongly influenced by the Greek Orthodox Church. Hence, the experiences of death, dyi...

  15. 'Nature and the Greeks' and 'Science and Humanism'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrödinger, Erwin

    2014-11-01

    Foreword; Part I. Nature and the Greeks: 1. The motives for returning to ancient thought; 2. The competition, reason v. senses; 3. The Pythagoreans; 4. The Ionian enlightenment; 5. The religion of Xenophanes, Heraclitus of Ephesus; 6. The atomists; 7. What are the special features?; Part II. Science and Humanism: 1. The spiritual bearing of science on life; 2. The practical achievements of science tending to obliterate its true import; 3. A radical change in our ideas of matter; 4. Form, not substance, the fundamental concept; 5. The nature of our 'models'; 6. Continuous descriptions and causality; 7. The intricacy of the continuum; 8. The makeshift of wave mechanics; 9. The alleged breakdown of the barrier between subject and object; 10. Atoms or quanta - the counter-spell of old standing, to escape the intricacy of the continuum; 11. Would physical indeterminacy give free will a chance?; 12. The bar to prediction, according to Niels Bohr; Literature.

  16. The art of providing anaesthesia in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaidou, T K; Siempos, I I

    2012-07-01

    We endeavored to thoroughly review Greek mythology and collect tales dealing with anaesthesia and myochalasis (paralysis). Among the evaluated sources were the poems of Hesiod, the epics of Homer, the tragedies of the great Athenian poets (namely Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides) as well as the contributions of several Latin writers, including Ovid. We found several examples of achieving hypnosis, analgesia and amnesia through the administration of drugs (inhaled or not) and music. Adverse events of drugs used for this purpose, such as post-anaesthetic emergence delirium, hallucinations, respiratory arrest and penis erection, were described in the presented myths. We noted that providing sleep was considered a divine privilege, although several mortals (mainly women) exhibited such powers as well. The concepts of sleep and death were closely associated in ancient classical thought. This review may stimulate anaesthetists' fantasy and may help them realise the nobility of their medical specialty. PMID:23230686

  17. An acoustical performance space in ancient India: The Rani Gumpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, C. Thomas; Manthravadi, Umashankar

    2002-11-01

    The Rani Gumpha, or Queen's Cavern, was built by artist-king of Kalinga, Kharavela (ca. 200-100 B.C.). It is a rock cut structure, carved into Udayagiri hill. As in ancient Greek and Roman theaters, the entire performance space of the Rani Gumpa is backed by a decorated facade, and it is remarkably similar to Greek theaters of the Hellenistic period, having both an upper and lower level for playing. There are acoustical chambers behind each level as well as on either side, and a special ''cantor's chamber'' stage left on the lower level. The effect on the voice is astonishing. This is a rock cut acoustical installation analogous to that described by Vitruvius in Book V, Chaps. 5 and 8, of his de Architectura, where he speaks of vessels placed in Greek and Roman theaters for the same purpose. We have created a computerized model of the Ranim Gumpha, using CATT Acoustic. We have taken acoustic measurements of the site, using Aurora Sofware package. Our results indicate that the Rani Gumpha is an acoustical performance site, sharing characteristics of the classical Greek and Roman theaters of approximately the same period.

  18. Ancient Ephesus: Processions as Media of Religious and Secular Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Portefaix

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of religious rituals often reaches beyond their strict religious intentions. Specifically a procession, performed in front of the public, is a most effective instrument of disseminating a message to the crowds. Consequently, this ritual, as is well known, has often been used not only in religious but also in secular contexts; a procession under the cloak of religion can even become a politically useful medium to avoid popular disturbances on peaceful terms. This was the case in ancient Ephesus, where Roman power conflicted with Greek culture from the middle of the first century B.C. onwards. In the beginning of the second century A.D. the public religious life in the city of Ephesus was to a great extent characterized by processions relating to the cult of Artemis Ephesia. The one traditionally performed on the birthday of the goddess called to mind the Greek origin of the city; it was strictly associated with the religious sphere bringing about a close relationship between the goddess and her adherents. The other, artificially created by a Roman, was entirely secular, and spread its message every fortnight in the streets of Ephesus. It referred to the political field of action and intended to strengthen the Roman rule over the city. The Greek origin of Ephesian culture was later included in the message of the procession, reminding the Greeks not to rebel against Roman rule.

  19. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  20. The comparison of absolute dating (Radiocarbon dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The absolute dating (radiocarbon, 14C dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples in Temanggung regency (district) of Central Java Province have been carried out. The field sampling was done especially with the purpose to obtain vertical data, so that excavation method was adopted in the case. The main data were the ecofacts of organic habitation such as bones, woods, charcoals, shells, and paper artefacts. The artefacts data were used as a comparison. The comparative data analysis were conducted at Yogyakarta archaeological Department Laboratory, thus included dating of artefacts which were performed according to archaeological analysis procedures, generally based on the attributes attached to the artefacts, whereas the absolute dating of charcoal samples were performed in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre. Based on the relative dating of epigraphy content on the andesit rock from Gondosuli Temple which showed the year of 754 Saka or 832 AD, the Pringapus Temple was estimated to be built in the 850 AD. According to the absolute dating (Radiocarbon Dating with delta 13C and tree ring corrections) the age for Gondosuli temple based on GDS/LU-2/Spit-7 samples is (384 -602) AD and from GDS/LU-2/Spit-8 = (452 - 652) AD. With these significant differences in the results obtained, it can be concluded that culture environment where the sample were collected already existed before the temple was built. Further investigation is still required

  1. The Greek Archer Evolution in the Greek Military Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Vilariño Rodríguez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory of the bow in the History of Greece is associated with the transformation that was originated inside of the military environment. The poor prominence that for many centuries was granted to the archers in the warlike context, was going to give an unexpected draft with the explosion of the Persian Wars. Later, the playwright Euripides was going to turn Herakles, one of the most famous archer of the hellenic world, into the spokesman of the change that was going to bring with it the acceptance and the definitive incorporation of these soldiers as contingent of considerable value inside the greek armies.

  2. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  3. The Minimalist Syntax of Control in Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetangianni, Konstantia

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation investigates Control phenomena in three distinct domains of the grammar of Modem Greek (subjunctive complements, "V-ondas" adjuncts and ke-complements) and proposes a unifying syntactic account of Control by appealing to the tense properties of these domains. I argue that Control in Greek is best analyzed as an instance of…

  4. Greek Talented Students' Motivation: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbainos, Dimitrios; Kyritsi, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    This article presents one of the few recent attempts to investigate aspects of motivation of Greek gifted students. This effort is particularly challenging since gifted education in Greece is a nonexistent concept, and any study of Greek gifted students has to overcome obstacles related to definition, location and identification of gifted…

  5. Deuteronomy in the Second Temple period: Law and its developing interpretation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Paganini

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available A fulfilled ethical life is a desire that in Israel is closely integrated with the observance of laws and legal instructions. The specific way, in which this aspect is concretised, is not the fundamental aspect for the biblical authors. In Pentateuch there are in fact a lot of legal codes. In prophetical writings these are often called into question and in the Second Temple period there are also attempts to correct biblical legislation, which are not in our biblical canon like the qumranic Temple Scroll. The differences between legal codes in the Bible and in the writings of the Second Temple period are above all witnesses that it is possible to correct, to interpret, to actualise and to rewrite laws, which remains authoritative for the people or for a part of it.

  6. Medios de enfriamiento para el temple // Means for Cooling During the Hardening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Caballero Stevens

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Los factores que rigen el proceso de temple son la temperatura, el tiempo de calentamiento y la velocidad de enfriamiento.Tradicionalmente, la variación de la velocidad de enfriamiento se ha logrado mediante la utilización de diferentes medios como elagua, aceites minerales, aceites orgánicos, metales fundidos y otros.En este trabajo, se presentan las características fundamentales de los medios convencionales y actuales empleados para elenfriamiento durante el temple.Palabras claves: Endurecimiento superficial, temple superficial, medios de enfriamiento._____________________________________________________________________AbstractFactors governing of the hardening process are temperature, heating time and cooling speed. Traditionally, the variation of thecooling time has been achieved by using different means such as water, mineral oils, molten metals, etc.In this work, the fundamental characteristics of the conventional and modern means developed for cooling during the hardeningprocess are presented.Key words: Hardening process, cooling means.

  7. Properties of Roman bricks and mortars used in Serapis temple in the city of Pergamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.

  8. Ancient analogues concerning stability and durability of cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of cementitious materials goes back to ancient times. The Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone and later developed pozzolanic cement by grinding together lime and volcanic ash called open-quotes pozzolanclose quotes which was first found near Port Pozzuoli, Italy. The ancient Chinese used lime-pozzolanic mixes to build the Great Wall. The ancient Egyptians used calcined impure gypsum to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The extraordinary stability and durability of these materials has impressed us, when so much dramatically damaged infrastructure restored by using modern portland cement now requires rebuilding. Stability and durability of cementitious materials have attracted intensive research interest and contractors' concerns, as does immobilization of radioactive and hazardous industrial waste in cementitious materials. Nuclear waste pollution of the environment and an acceptable solution for waste management and disposal constitute among the most important public concerns. The analogy of ancient cementitious materials to modern Portland cement could give us some clues to study their stability and durability. This present study examines selected results of studies of ancient building materials from France, Italy, China, and Egypt, combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cement to evaluate the potential for stability and durability of such materials in nuclear waste forms

  9. Cicerono santykis su graikais ir jų kultūra | Cicero’s attitude to Greeks and their culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kučinskienė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article certain aspects of the following problems are discussed: Cicero’s controversial attitude to the Greeks; the traits of the Greek national character as portrayed in Cicero’s works, as well as Cicero’s ambivalent appreciation of the Greek art and literature.The principle of odi et amo clearly shows itself in Cicero’s attitude to the Greeks, both his contemporaries and the ancients, their art and literature. Cicero felt he owed an enormous debt to his Greek education, considering himself as an inheritor of their culture, and yet he denounced it at every opportunity and tried to emphasise the superiority of the Roman ancestors against the Greeks. He greatly appreciated Greek literature and yet he wished he could manage without it, because the Greek literary standards made him aware of what Roman literature should be.The main national traits ascribed to the Greeks in Cicero’s speeches ant letters are the lack of trustworthiness (fides, unreliability (levitas, and vanity (vanitas as opposed to the Roman dignity (dignitas and gravity (gravitas.We argue that in evaluating Cicero’s attitude to the Greeks it is especially important to take into account the genre of those Cicero’s works from which we derive our knowledge about his views. His speeches as well as his treatises are intended for the public audience, so the author tries to portray himself in accordance with the public expectations, while his private correspondence, especially the letters to Atticus, reveals his personal views, not restricted by the public opinion. As we have shown in this article, in his speeches Cicero tries to conceal his expertise in the Greek art and literature, as this would not fit his Roman dignity. On the other hand, in his private life, as it appears from his letters to Atticus, he eagerly seeks pieces of Greek art to decorate his villas.This seeming inconsistency of Cicero’s views, however, can be partly explained as follows. It is to be

  10. Multimedia systems for art and culture: a case study of Brihadisvara Temple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Anil K.; Goel, Sanjay; Agarwal, Sachin; Mittal, Vipin; Sharma, Hariom; Mahindru, Ranjeev

    1997-01-01

    In India a temple is not only a structure of religious significance and celebration, but it also plays an important role in the social, administrative and cultural life of the locality. Temples have served as centers for learning Indian scriptures. Music and dance were fostered and performed in the precincts of the temples. Built at the end of the 10th century, the Brihadisvara temple signified new design methodologies. We have access to a large number of images, audio and video recordings, architectural drawings and scholarly publications of this temple. A multimedia system for this temple is being designed which is intended to be used for the following purposes: (1) to inform and enrich the general public, and (2) to assist the scholars in their research. Such a system will also preserve and archive old historical documents and images. The large database consists primarily of images which can be retrieved using keywords, but the emphasis here is largely on techniques which will allow access using image content. Besides classifying images as either long shots or close-ups, deformable template matching is used for shape-based query by image content, and digital video retrieval. Further, to exploit the non-linear accessibility of video sequences, key frames are determined to aid the domain experts in getting a quick preview of the video. Our database also has images of several old, and rare manuscripts many of which are noisy and difficult to read. We have enhanced them to make them more legible. We are also investigating the optimal trade-off between image quality and compression ratios.

  11. Determining buried grid street system and native of the remains with GPR and petrography, in ancient Nysa city, Aydin - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Musa; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.

    2010-05-01

    Nysa, is one of the most important ancient cities of the region of Caria in Anatolia (Asia Minor), was built on the slopes on the sides of the stream called Tekkecik, in a 3 km North of Sultanhisar, East of Aydın city of Turkey. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic and the Roman periods and the Byzantine era. Now the Greek theatre and its walled entrance are intact. Other important remains are the gymnasium, stadium, library, temple, nymphaeum, bridge a tunnel like structure and the Byzantine churches in the West; the agora, Bouleuterion / Gerontikon, and the Roman public baths in the East. The first aim of the study was to determine the locations of the buried streets thought grid system according to the some excavated results already in the east and west side of the Nysa. Therefore the GPR studies were realized selected areas, which could include the streets, around the Bouleuterion / Gerontikon and at the South of the library. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were measured on the parallel GPR profiles spaced 1m apart on each part of the study areas using 250 MHz shielded antennas. The processed parallel profile data set was formed through a solid 3D view by aligning the profiles respectively. A simplified amplitude-color range and appropriate opacity function were constructed to activate buried remains. Interactive interpretation was done with time slices and transparent sub-blocks of the 3D volume by arranging an opaque function. It was known that the maximum amplitudes represented the remains. So, weak amplitude range around the zero amplitude was eliminated by giving zero opacity value and transparent 3D imaging was obtained. The second known was that the amplitudes were decreased according to time. Therefore, amplitude scale could be weighted by a constant coefficient changing with the time range of

  12. Household and meals versus the Temple purity system: Patterns of replication in Luke-Acts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Elliott

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available In Luke-Acts the social codes and concepts associated with food and meals replicate and support the contrasting social codes, interests, and ideologies associated with the Jerusalem Temple, on the one hand, and the Christian household, on the other. In this study the thesis is advanced that in contrast to the Temple and the exclusivist purity and legal system it represents, Luke has used occasions of domestic dining and hospitality to depict an inclusive form of social relations which transcends previous Jewish purity regulations and which gives concrete social expression to the inclusive character of the gospel, the kingdom of God, and the Christian community.

  13. Seismic analysis of the Roman Temple of Évora, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Daniel V.; Grecchi, G.; McCall, A; Noh, J; Speer, E; Tohidi, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Roman temple of Évora dates back to the 1st century AD and has undergone several changes throughout history, including various additions, which have been removed. Several archaeological studies have recently been carried out, but the structural safety of the temple is unknown. Of particular concern is the temple’s seismic resistance, as it is located in a region subjected to a moderate seismic hazard. The main purpose of this paper is to ascertain the temple’s behaviour under seismic e...

  14. Les temples protestants « monuments historiques » en Poitou-Charentes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Montagne

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available La faible représentativité des temples protestants dans la liste des monuments historiques a conduit la conservation régionale des monuments historiques de Poitou-Charentes à proposer la protection des temples les plus représentatifs parmi les 130 que compte la région : 58 en Charente-Maritime, 40 en Deux-Sèvres, 24 en Charente et 8 dans la Vienne. La qualité architecturale, leur place dans l’histoire, l’affectation au culte, l’intégration dans le paysage urbain, la présence de mobilier et la place de l’édifice en tant que lieu de mémoire ont servi de critères d’analyse. L’histoire et l’architecture des temples protégés des XIXe et XXe siècles s’inscrivent dans le contexte particulier et mouvementé de l’implantation du culte protestant dans la région.The examination of the lists of protected historic monuments in the Poitou-Charentes region underlined the poor representation in these lists of Protestant temples. This fact incited the historic monuments service of the region to put forward a more representative selection of the 130 Protestant temples to be found in the region, 58 in the Charente-Maritime department, 40 in the Deux-Sèvres, 24 in Charente and 8 in the Vienne. The criteria adopted to analyse these temples included their architectural qualities, their place in history, their use by the Protestant faiths, their integration into their urban environment, the presence of interesting church furnishings and the possible role of the temple as a place of memory. The history and the architecture of these temples during the 19th and 20th centuries are to be understood in the particular and animated context of the arrival of Protestantism in the region.

  15. The Relation of Philosophy and Medicine in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RHEE Kee-Bag

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to deal with two questions concerning the relation of philosophy and medicine in ancient greece  (1 Which influences had philosophy on medicine? (2 Whom did attack the author of On the ancient medicine? And (3 was his criticism right? (1 Philosophy’s influences was twofold  (a As early Greek philosophers had explained natural phenomena by natural elements without recourse to any supernatural god  so authors of Hippocratic Works also had sought to explain diseases  They had replaced magical and religious medicine with rational medicine by virtue of rational explanation  This seems to have represented medicine’s debt to philosophy  (b Many medical authors primarily had studied the nature of human  i e  the basic constituents of the body  since they had thought the very same to be causes of diseases  This aspect shows the conspicuous influence of philosophy  Because it was the nature of cosmos  i e  the source or basic constituent that early Greek philosophers had searched to explain cosmos and all natural phenomena in it  (2 On the other hand the author of On the ancient medicine attacks physicians that are influenced by cosmology of early Greek philosophers  The point of his criticism in Chapter 1 is that ‘philosophical physicians’ postulate one or two constituents of the body as the primary cause of men’s diseases  Then are physicians that postulate various constituents free from the author’s criticism? At least according to Chapter 20 it is not so  He seems to criticize physicians in general who proceed by the hypothetical method  He contrasts this method with the method of trial and error  and asserts that this is of medicine  but that is of philosophy  (3 Although this methodological separation was right in a sense  at least the opinion of the author seems to be extreme  Because medicine can’t be science  if it does not make use of any hypothesis

  16. Aspect in Greek Future Forms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lucas, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Medieval Greek had three future periphrases making use of a finite verb and an infinitive: μέλλω + INF, ἔχω + INF, θέλω + INF. Given the parallel nature of the periphrases as well as the fact that the infinitive existed in both a perfective and an imperfective version, it might be expected that...... these future-referring forms developed aspectual distinctions in similar ways. However based on papyrological evidence from AD I and AD VI this article shows that this was not the case. Rather, each future periphrasis seems to follow its own path towards the aspectual distinction which is a hallmark of...... the Modern Greek verbal system: μέλλω + INF has a much higher ratio of imperfective infinitives than the two other periphrases especially in AD I, ἔχω + INF starts out using only the perfective infinitive when referring to the future, and θέλω + INF distinguishes for aspect before it gains future...

  17. The Climate and Its Impacts on Egyptian Civilized Heritage: Ei-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt As a Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossam Ismael

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world´s cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22º30'14" and 26º00'00" N, and between 30º27'00" and 30º47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El- Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve that aims the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1941 to 2000 (60 years, and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM, X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX. The results were

  18. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  19. Heroism in Greek Mythology%HeroisminGreekMythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘经伟

    2011-01-01

    First and foremost,it is fundamental to understand that the conception of hero in Greek mythology is very different from what modem media and literature portrayed in TV programmes and novels:He must certainly not be the fortunate sons of big wheels,who is born with a silver spoon in his mouth and rests assured knowing that he has a whole world ahead of him;He cannot possibly grow up with ease to be a handsome,generous,smart guy who not only has a gift to win the hearts of girls but also determined by fate to trouble himself by getting entangled in a web of lovers affairs;He is not exactly dipicted as sophisticated and cunning as the Godfather of a band of gangsters or mafia,like "Al Pacino" who dominates a community with formidable "muscles"and ended up as nobody with every beacon light of honor scratched out.

  20. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Girish, T E

    2011-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in nature especially gravity. We show that the studies on retrograde motion and Chesta Bala of planets like Mars in the context of astrology lead to development of differential calculus and planetary dynamics in ancient India. The idea of instantaneous velocity was first developed during the 1st millennium BC and Indians could solve first order differential equations as early as 6th cent AD. Indian contributions to astrophysics and calculus during European dark ages can be considered as a land mark in the pre-renaissance history ...

  1. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  2. NUEVO ESTUDIO DEL TEMPLO VI (TEMPLO DE LAS INSCRIPCIONES DE TIKAL, GUATEMALA (New Study of the Tikal Temple VI (Temple of the Inscriptions, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Beliaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza los datos sobre la cronología del Templo VI (Templo de las Inscripciones de Tikal. Durante el trabajo de la segunda fase del proyecto «Atlas Epigráfico de Petén» (abril-mayo de 2014, fue documentada la inscripción en la crestería del templo, el texto jeroglífico del Clásico Tardío más grande del Petén y uno de los más extensos de todas las Tierras Bajas mayas. La secuencia de la construcción del relieve y estuco modelado observada en la crestería, junto con los datos epigráficos, muestra que el Templo VI fue construido en dos fases. La primera incluyó la edificación de la pirámide basal, el santuario y el relieve en la fachada este de la crestería, dedicados por el rey Yihk’in Chan K’awil en 735. En la segunda fase, fechada hacia 766, el templo fue ampliado y adornado con los relieves de las fachadas norte y sur. ENGLISH: In this paper, data related to the chronology of Temple VI (The Temple of the Inscriptions at Tikal is analyzed. During the second season of fieldwork on the “Atlas Epigráfico de Petén” project (April-May 2014, we documented the inscription on the roof comb of the temple, which is the largest hieroglyphic text from the Late Classic at Petén and one of the largest in the Maya Lowlands. The construction sequence of the relief and sculpted stucco observed on the roof comb, combined with epigraphic data, demonstrates that Temple VI was constructed in two phases. The first included the raising of the basal pyramid, the upper sanctuary, and the relief on the eastern façade of the roof comb, dedicated by the king Yihk’in Chan K’awil in 735 A.D. During the second phase, dated to around 766 A.D., the temple was enlarged and adorned with the reliefs on the north and south facades.

  3. Esotericism Ancient and Modern

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Leo Strauss presents at least two distinct accounts of the idea that the authors in the political-philosophical canon have often masked their true teachings. A weaker account of esotericism, dependent on the contingent fact of persecution, is attributed to the moderns, while a stronger account, stemming from a necessary conflict between philosophy and society, is attributed to the ancients. Although most interpreters agree that Strauss here sides with the ancients, this view fails to consider...

  4. Soils and earthen building materials used for the Buddhist Temple Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Gruber, M.; Herbstová, Vladislava; Frankeová, Dita; Wimmer-Frey, I.; Drdácký, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2016), s. 406-417. ISSN 1558-3058 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : temple * adobe * mineralogical composition * mortar * earth * soil * conservation Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2014

  5. Manufacturing processes of S-shaped temple rings from Vrbno, Central Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottenwelter, Estelle; Hošek, Jiří; Děd, J.; Štefan, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2012), s. 525-533. ISSN 0323-1267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : S-shaped temple rings * Early Middle Ages * Vrbno * tinning * gilding * silver plating Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Virtual Reconstruction of the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia by Terrestrial Laser Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstaedt, M.; Mechelke, K.; Schnelle, M.; Kersten, Th.

    2011-09-01

    In autumn 2009 the Almaqah Temple of Yeha in Ethiopia has been recorded by terrestrial laser scanning and digital photogrammetry in cooperation between the Sana'a Branch of the Orient Department of the German Archaeological Institute and the HafenCity University Hamburg. The temple dates from the 7th Century BC and is one of the best preserved buildings of Sabaean architecture in Africa. As a basis for all future project works a geodetic network was established in UTM-coordinates by GPS measurements. The geodata collected will form the basis for all future work on the temple. The deformations of the facades were determined for restoration issues and the existing parts of the temple were modelled by meshing (3D triangulation). Using the scanned point cloud and a technical analysis of the building the Propylon, which is no longer existent today, was virtually reconstructed. In future, the data will also be included in the master plan for touristic development of the region of Axum and Yeha in northern Ethiopia.

  7. Soundscape evaluation in a Catholic cathedral and Buddhist temple precincts through social surveys and soundwalks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Jin Yong; Hwang, In Hwan; Hong, Joo Young

    2014-04-01

    Religious precincts in urban spaces have their own religious spatiality formed by their sociocultural and historical background. It is necessary to identify the spatiality of urban religious precincts in their sociocultural contexts because soundscape perception is determined largely by context. In the present study, social surveys and soundwalks were performed in a Catholic cathedral and in Buddhist temple precincts in Seoul. In the surveys, important spatial functions, sound, and visual components of the Catholic cathedral and Buddhist temple precincts were investigated by principal component analysis. The results showed that the cathedral precincts play a more important role in social functions related to mainly visual components than the temple precincts do, whereas the functions for religious activities related to sound elements are more stressed in the temple precincts. In the soundwalk evaluation, contributions of soundscape and landscape components to tranquility in the two religious precincts were explored. It was found that pleasantness of soundscape and attractiveness of landscape significantly affected the perception of tranquility. In addition, it was revealed that a sense of enclosure could enhance tranquility in urban religious precincts. PMID:25234985

  8. S-shaped temple rings from Vrbno, characterization of manufacturing processes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottenwelter, Estelle; Hošek, Jiří; Děd, J.

    Bochum : Deutsches Bergbau-Museum Bochum, 2011 - (Hauptmann, A.; Modarressi-Tehrani, D.; Prange, M.). s. 199-200 ISSN 0947-6229. [Archaeometallurgy in Europe /3./. 29.06.2011-01.07.2011, Bochum] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : temple ring * medieval * restoration-conservation science Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  9. Scribal Habits at the Tebtunis Temple Library: on Materiality, formal features, and palaeography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim

    2016-01-01

    variation within the temple library itself, and it can be shown that some features are closely linked to specific scribes and their personal habits. The many distinctive hands attested in the library leads to the related question of paleography and orthography and the extent to which these factors may help...

  10. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  11. The view from Turkey: perceptions of Greeks and Greek-Turkish rapproachment by the Turkish public

    OpenAIRE

    Çarkoğlu, Ali; Carkoglu, Ali

    2004-01-01

    This contribution examines popular support among the Turkish electorate for recent Turkish foreign policy decisions concerning Greece. Data from a nationwide representative survey collected in November 2001 are used to analyze the perceptions and policy preferences concerning recent Greek-Turkish relations. Despite deep-rooted cynicism and distrust toward Greeks and Greek foreign policy, a sizeable constituency supports cooperative policy options on all so-called "sensitive issues" in bilater...

  12. Among Greeks and Romans: history and literature in the classical world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Teresa Marques Gonçalves

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The writing of history was also studied by the ancient authors. The relationship between history and literature, discussed in many contemporary researches, can be analyzed from different angles when you add the reflections of classical authors, Greek and Roman, who produced works in which we perceive the concern for the art of good writing. Persuasion, beauty, and verisimilitude were characteristics that defined the writing of prose and poetry in Classical Antiquity and remain important in the current discussion about the historical knowledge, as we seek to show in this article.

  13. Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moon: Greek and Arabic Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, J. L.; Sidoli, N.

    2007-05-01

    In the 1920s, T. L. Heath pointed out that historians of mathematics have "given too little attention to Aristarchus". This is still true today. The Greek text of Aristarchus's On the Sizes and Distances of the Sun and the Moon has received little attention; the Arabic editions virtually none. Much of what this text has to tell us about ancient and medieval mathematics and the mathematical sciences has gone unnoticed. It should be taken as an important source for our understanding of the mathematical sciences of the early Hellenistic period.

  14. Some Determinations and Findings on Intellectual and Institutional Similarities in the Ancient/Traditional World

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Ahmet

    2013-01-01

    There are remarkable intellectual and institutional similarities on numerous subject/area in the ancient/ traditional World. In this context, it is possible to witness and to see such thoughts and intellectuals that resemble to the Ottoman’s state understanding based on justice -too old- both at the East (Iran and India) and at the West (ancient Greek). Besides, it is also known that such institutions similar to the Ottoman’s “timar” and “guild” system were present at different places and tim...

  15. Polysynthetic Tendencies in Modern Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charitonidis, Chariton

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to provide a more accurate typological classification of Modern Greek. The verb in MG shows many polysynthetic traits, such as noun and adverb incorporation into the verbal complex, a large inventory of bound morphemes, pronominal marking of objects, many potential slots before the verbal head, nonconfigurational syntax, etc. On the basis of these traits, MG has similarities with polysynthetic languages such as Abkhaz, Cayuga, Chukchi, Mohawk, Nahuatl, a.o. I will show that the abundance of similar patterns between MG and polysynthesis point to the evolution of a new system away from the traditional dependent-marking strategy and simple synthesis towards head-marking and polysynthesis. Finally, I will point to the risk of undertaking a direct comparison of different language systems by discussing the pronominal head-marking strategies in MG and the North American languages.

  16. Material Culture of Greek and Roman Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, James

    In the Greek and Roman worlds, astronomy had a rich material culture. Many objects had practical applications to timekeeping or liberal education or astrological prediction, but many others were meant to express philosophical, religious, or political values.

  17. Greek Language teaching by means of technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donika Koçi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Inclusion of technology in the process of second language acquisition has always been a priority for teachers and students. This article reviews the current trends in using technology based on language instructions in Greek language teaching educational settings. Although it has been demonstrated that the use of technology as an instructional medium provides unique learning qualities, it has not been entirely embraced by Greek language teachers and professors in Albania. Furthermore, recent advancements of internet services provide remarkable possibilities for supporting a variety of learning activities in Greek language classrooms. Yet, classroom practice in using technology has not gone too far beyond simple viewing and listening to video content for eliciting discussion among Greek language students. This paper particularly highlights the role of technology in the process of improving student skills.

  18. Evidence of shoreline shift on the northern Saurashtra coast: Study based on the submerged temple complex at Pindara

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    CORRESPONDENCE CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 92, NO. 6, 25 MARCH 2007 733 Evidence of Shoreline shift on the Northern Saurashtra Coast: Study based on the submerged temple complex at Pindara Change in shoreline due to sea-level fluctuations, erosion... to 10th century AD. SCIENTIFIC CORRESPONDENCE CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 92, NO. 6, 25 MARCH 2007 the east. The walls of the temples are plain. The most famous among these is the Sun Temple, which is located landward about 100 m from the high water...

  19. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  20. Some Pitfalls of Translation Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In textual criticism it is important to detect the genesis of mistakes; sometimes the true reading is only reached through the unmasking of the wrong one. Likewise, in order to use critically the Septuagint it is indispensable to find out first its corruptions and mistranslations. The making of a Greek-Hebrew Index of the Antiochene Text in the Historical Books is an excellent occasion to observe the translation process and find out the most common errors made by the translators. A few examples will be commented concerning the following issues: inner-Greek corruptions and misleading translations caused by the graphic confusion of similar letters (paleography or sounds (phonetics, and by a different reading or vocalization of the consonantal text. In several cases this analysis may open a window towards a non-Masoretic Hebrew Vorlage.

    En crítica textual es muy importante descubrir la génesis de los errores; a veces la lectura verdadera sólo se descubre desenmascarando la falsa. De igual manera, para usar críticamente la Septuaginta es imprescindible descubrir primero las corrupciones y los errores de traducción. La confección de un índice griego-hebreo del texto antioqueno en los libros históricos es una ocasión excelente para analizar el proceso de traducción y detectar los errores más comunes cometidos por los traductores. En el artículo se estudian algunos ejemplos con relación a los siguientes fenómenos: corrupciones internas al griego y traducciones equivocadas motivadas por la confusión gráfica de letras (paleografía o sonidos (fonética semejantes y por una vocalización diferente del texto consonántico. En varios casos este análisis permite vislumbrar un texto base hebreo distinto del masorético.

  1. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  2. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonos Efstathios

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

  3. Trichiasis in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostopoulou, Olympia; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Trompoukis, Constantinos

    2016-01-01

    Trichiasis, recognized since the time of Hippocrates, is a cause of ocular irritation that may result in scarring of the cornea and threaten sight. We have reviewed the original Greek medical texts made from the 1st to the 7th century ce and present the existing medical knowledge relating to trichiasis, including its clinical picture, cause, diagnosis, and treatment. Recognition of trichiasis as a stage of trachoma and its distinction from pseudotrichiasis gave the impetus for physicians of the era to use a significant number of pharmaceutical and surgical treatments. PMID:27343968

  4. A Longitudinal Study about the Identity and Moral Development of Greek Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilgannon, Suzanne M.; Erwin, T. Dary

    1992-01-01

    Examined moral reasoning and identity development of Greek and non-Greek men and women. Controlling for entering first-year levels, Greek men scored lower in Confidence component of identity development than did Greek women and non-Greeks. Covarying for entering first-year students' moral reasoning scores, sophomore non-Greek women scored higher…

  5. “The root of all evil”: Frank McGuinness’ Translations of Greek Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Salis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether in political propaganda or in creative the myths of ancient Greece have long attracted scholars, writers and audiences from Ireland. Over the past forty years, a wealth of adaptations of plays by Sophocles and Euripides have been produced, which bring back to life ancient tales of heroes and heroines, in settings at times distinctively local and contemporary, at times deliberately universal. Field Day’s contributions represent a typical instance of the former approach to the classics, while other Irish playwrights have used Greek myths to reflect upon questions that are not exclusively Irish. Their plays may have an Irish echo, and some are even set in Ireland, but their main preoccupation lies beyond geographical borders. Frank McGuinness belongs to this second group of playwrights. To date, he has reworked and staged five Greek plays with great audience and critical acclaim. This paper locates his translations of Sophocles and Euripides within the tradition of classical tragedy use in Ireland at the crossroads between the local and the global and at the search of what he calls ‘the root of all evil’ with special attention to his Oedipus (2008 and Helen (2009.

  6. Comparing photo modeling methodologies and techniques: the instance of the Great Temple of Abu Simbel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Tondo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After fifty years from the Salvage of the Abu Simbel Temples it has been possible to experiment the contemporary photo-modeling tools beginning from the original data of the photogrammetrical survey carried out in the 1950s. This produced a reflection on “Image Based” methods and modeling techniques, comparing strict 3d digital photogrammetry with the latest Structure From Motion (SFM systems. The topographic survey data, the original photogrammetric stereo couples, the points coordinates and their representation in contour lines, allowed to obtain a model of the monument in his configuration before the moving of the temples. The impossibility to carry out a direct survey led to touristic shots to create SFM models to use for geometric comparisons.

  7. AMS 14C dating at CIRCE: The Major Temple in Cumae (NA - Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capano, M.; Rescigno, C.; Sirleto, R.; Passariello, I.; Marzaioli, F.; D'Onofrio, A.; Terrasi, F.

    2015-10-01

    We present here one recent CIRCE (Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) - Caserta (Italy) project on cultural heritage field, analysing several mice bones, discovered in the Major Temple on the acropolis of Cumae (Napoli, Southern Italy). The bones were found in a vase linked to the holy context. In order to know their dating and formulate an hypothesis on their presence on the site, if it was an accidental rodent inclusion (believed on the base of archaeological context to have occurred during building abandonment periods (IV-V or XIII centuries AD)) or an intentional and ritual remain, the bones were 14C dated by AMS at CIRCE. The results indicate that the mice bones date to the IV century BC and are contemporaneous with building construction. This dating seems to exclude an accidental rodent presence and it supports the hypothesis of Apollo veneration in the temple, based on the already known link between mice and Apollo worship rituals.

  8. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  9. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  10. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  11. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  12. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  13. Soils and earthen building materials used for the Buddhist temple complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Gruber, M.; Kostkanová, Vladislava; Frankeová, Dita; Wimmer-Frey, I.; Drdácký, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2016), s. 406-417. ISSN 1558-3058 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : adobe * conservation * earth * mineralogical composition * mortar * soil * temple * texture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 0.561, year: 2014 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15583058.2014.991460

  14. The 297:YEAR-OLO ANCESTRAL TEMPLE OF THE HBE PEOPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Taiping Temple is the sole surviving monument from the Xibe people's early history. It is located in Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. There are differing reports in historical records as to the time of its construction. On the basis of the frequent migrations of the Xibe people, historians agree the most likely construction date is 1707, during the reign of Emperor Kangxi. It was constructed with 60 taels of silver.

  15. From temple to house-church in Luke-Acts: a Lukan challenge to Korean Christianity

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Young-San

    2000-01-01

    This dissertation examines the portrayals of the Temple, synagogue, and house-churches in Luke-Acts to pose a Lukan challenge to the Korean church by using a model of architectural space which is derived from social-scientific ideas originating in anthropology, sociology and social psychology. The dissertation proposes the relevance of the Lukan house-church to the Korean church today so as to transform the latter's character in its architecture and use of space into the inclus...

  16. Religion and Architecture: Designing a temple of Candomble in Salvador Bahia, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Robles, Joaquin G.

    2007-01-01

    My thesis aims to create a place of worship for the people of the neighborhood of Plataforma, located in Salvador Bahia, Brazil. Candomble was introduced to Brazil during times of slavery and is the root of Afro-Brazilian culture. In the chaotic world of favelas (Portuguese for slums) the religion of Candomble brings people together and gives order to the community. The neighborhood's current temple also functions as the local priest's home. As an area of low socioeconomic status, Plataf...

  17. The Temple of Justice; A New Federal Courthouse for the City of Baltimore

    OpenAIRE

    Mattaliano, Megan E

    2013-01-01

    The New Baltimore Federal Courthouse was to be memorable. It would symbolize the transparency, power, and public worth of the American judicial system. It would be a modern temple to justice that would be worthy of the public\\'s trust. The new courthouse was to be progressive, with sky gardens rising in the tower overlooking the Baltimore Convention Center and over the harbor. This courthouse was to be a high performing, bioclimatic skyscraper and its stewardship to the environment would be a...

  18. A Brief Analysis on the Image of Female Monsters in Greek Mythology%浅析希腊神话中的女妖形象

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗艳; 杨锋

    2013-01-01

    Female monsters are a very unique and indispensable group in Greek mythology. Tracing back to the source, the por-trayal of female monsters in Greek mythology is the logical result of the transfer from matriarchal society to patrilineal society and the domination of male power discourse. It also reflects the misogyny in ancient Greek culture.%  女妖是希腊神话故事里一个极为特殊又必不可少的群体。究其根源,希腊神话中女妖形象的塑造,是母系氏族社会向父系氏族社会过渡,男性权力话语取得支配地位的必然结果,是古希腊文化中厌女症的深刻体现。

  19. Sculpture, Dance and Heritage: animating dance sequences from temple reliefs using movement modelling software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Lopez y Royo Iyer

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses research carried out in 1999 at the School of Performing Arts of the University of Surrey, Dance Studies Department. For this research project, computer animation modelling techniques were used to recreate a series of dance movement sequences depicted in the reliefs around the balustrade of the main temple at the Prambanan temple complex in Central Java, built in the 9th century CE. The reconstruction and re-creation of the dance movements from the reliefs are inseparable from the context of the temple complex. The issues of heritage, its interpretation and conservation are also discussed, particularly since the construction of dance as heritage is widespread in Southeast Asia and is linked with tourist consumption of archaeological sites. The article makes a case for the use of computer technology in research areas previously regarded as distinct and disconnected, such as archaeology, art history and dance, and in this specific case study, computer technology has provided a bridge between these disciplines.

  20. Evaluation of Imminent Fire Hazards of Inheritance Ancestral Temple and Mansion in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire hazards of the inheritance buildings are often been neglected, causing fire to take place. Most of the heritage buildings are of large scale, flammable priceless contents and large numbers of visitors, however, the existing structures are weak in fire resistance. There are a few factors that contribute to the fire in these unique yet vulnerable structures Therefore, fire risk assessment plays an important role as many historic buildings in Penang are significant in their architectural value and historically importantt and their destructions by fire are great irreplaceable losses. Thus, this study is intended to identify the current fire emergency plan of heritage temples and mansions in Penang which includes 4 buildings such as Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and Teochew Temple. The possible fire risks of these heritage buildings will be identified and evaluated comprehensively. The previous fire cases will be considered as well in order to discover the common factors contributing to the fire cases at heritage buildings. Time and again, people do not record their findings upon completing the fire risk assessment. Hence this particular research will prepare a complete record of the fire risk assessment. Having a fire risk assessment in the heritage building in Penang can be an interesting study to find out the current situation of heritage building fire protection awareness.

  1. Transliteration and the exchange of computerised Greek language bibliographic records

    OpenAIRE

    Cornel, Evelyn

    1991-01-01

    The libraries of King's College, London and the University of Crete are currently involved in a project to exchange Greek language bibliographic records using both Greek and Latin characters. This has involved an investigation of the problems caused by transliteration; the setting up of a new data base of Greek records and a limited survey of the various character sets currently available to display both Greek and Roman characters.

  2. Osobnosť gréckych hrdinov z pohľadu modernej psychológie (Personality of Greek Heroes from the Viewpoint of Modern Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Porubjak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from Homer’s Iliad, the article focuses on characters of ancient Greek heroes and relates them to personality psychology. First, it discusses what major personality characteristics have been identified by modern psychological research and how they can be measured. In the next part, the authors summarize how they attempted to verify the historical and intercultural validity of outlined personality models using theIliad and present the results of their analysis. Concluding that ancient Greek accounts testify to the universality of human nature throughout ages and cultures, the article also provides the expected personality profiles of major heroes—Achilles and Agamemnon. Even more interestingly, the authors discuss how and why their motives and behavioral tendencies might cause clashes in their interaction, and also what occupational options they would probably face nowadays. Interdisciplinary in its nature, the paper concludes with implications of the results for philosophy.

  3. Ancient aliens on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Bara, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Best-selling author and Secret Space Program researcher Bara brings us this lavishly illustrated volume on alien structures on Mars. Was there once a vast, technologically advanced civilization on Mars, and did it leave evidence of its existence behind for humans to find eons later? Did these advanced extraterrestrial visitors vanish in a solar system wide cataclysm of their own making, only to make their way to Earth and start anew? Was Mars once as lush and green as the Earth, and teeming with life? Did Mars once orbit a missing member of the solar system, a "Super Earth” that vanished in a disaster that devastated life on Earth and Venus and left us only the asteroid belt as evidence of its once grand existence? Did the survivors of this catastrophe leave monuments and temples behind, arranged in a mathematical precision designed to teach us the Secret of a new physics that could lift us back to the stars? Does the planet have an automated defense shield that swallows up robotic probes if they wander int...

  4. Design method and pattern about Sima Qian Temple in Hancheng from the perspective of human settlement science%人居环境科学视野下的韩城司马迁祠设计方法与模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛

    2013-01-01

    This paper attempts to study the design concept, specific methods and cultural communication system in Han-cheng Sima Qian Temple from the traditional settlement environment science. Sima Qian Temple proves that the Chinese ancient city and architecture create a whole environment which includes implications natural, cultural, architecture and human. This environment appears in hierarchy. Ained to set up a human space which contains spiritual information and cultural connotation. The ancient Chinese are likely to draw mental pictures, design cultural streamlines and plan belief structures. The final aim is to educate people and make spiritual home.%试图从传统人居环境科学的角度探析韩城司马迁祠的基本设计理念、营造方法与文化信息传达模式.以司马迁祠例证中国古代城市与建筑的塑造是包含自然,文化,建筑,人和支撑的,以辩证统一的层级模式呈现的,关乎整体格局的环境设计.这样的人居环境就是要建立一个蕴含着深厚文化气场的,人杰地灵的人性空间.以中国式的文人逻辑和人居美学,绘制精神图景和人文意象,贯穿文化流线,统筹信仰格局,从而达到教化育人的基本目的,最终使人类生存生活的精神家园人才辈出,文化兴盛.

  5. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nick Kalogeropoulos

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  6. The Perfective Past Tense in Greek as a Second Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clahsen, Harald; Martzoukou, Maria; Stavrakaki, Stavroula

    2010-01-01

    This study reports results from four experiments investigating the perfective past tense of Greek in adult second language (L2) learners. The data come from L2 learners of Greek with intermediate to advanced L2 proficiency and different native language (L1) backgrounds, and L1 speakers of Greek. All participants were tested in both oral and…

  7. The Greek Phyllada and the Old Serbian Alexander Romance

    OpenAIRE

    Krzysztof Usakiewicz

    2015-01-01

    The Greek Phyllada and the Old Serbian Alexander RomanceThe texts presents chosen fragments of the Greek "Phyllada", or the story about Alexander the Great, and its Polish translation, with an introduction commenting the relation between the Greek and Serbian version of Alexader's gesta.

  8. Ancient Building Wood Repair Technology in Landscape Engineering Project%园林工程古建筑木作工程修缮技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪根宝

    2011-01-01

    中国是一个历史悠久的文明古国,历史遗留的古代园林木作建筑保留很多(例如:浙汀省宁波市的保国禅导大雄宝殿900多年,七塔禅寺圆通窄殿300多年,天童禅寺大雄宝殿300多年等).由于年久失修,一些古建筑整体构架倾斜、腐烂;斗拱榫头断裂、劈裂、糟朽、斗耳脱落、小斗滑脱等现象;因而建筑木作工程修缮技术成为保护古建筑的一门课题,笔者根据近几年一些古建筑文保工程的施工经验,对园林工程古建筑木作上程修缮技术做一点总结.%China enjoys a long history and brilliant civilization, and there are many ancient wood buildings in historical relics and gardens (including the over-900-year Grand Hall in Baoguo Temple, the over-300-year Yuantong Hall in Qita Temple, and the over-300-year Grand Hall in Tiantong Temple in Ningbo of Zhejiang Province.Some of the overall structures or component parts lean, rot.or break up.So the building wood repair technology has become a topic in the protection of ancient buildings.Based on the author's experience of engineering projects for ancient building protection in recent years, the ancient building wood repair technology in landscape engineering projects are summarized.

  9. "Beauty of Youngsters and Ouranion" ——Sports of Ancient Greek from the Angle of Homosexuality%“少年之美与天间之爱”——同性恋视角下的古希腊体育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡艺

    2012-01-01

    Homosexuality between two males was a very common social phenomenon in ancient Greece, and as a main expression form, the homosexuality between a male adult and a male youngster was praised highly. In this homosexual relationship called "ouranion," the male adult was normally the agent case, and he was burdened with the educational task of fostering the youngster to be a highminded person. Normally the strong and hand some youngster would be the favorite worshiped by the public. The "ouranion" between a male adult and a male youngster was based on the identification of the physical beauty, and this special aesthetic direction had very se rious guiding significance. To be strong and handsome just meant to have many worshippers, to have great honor and glorious future ; while to be pale and corpulent just meant to be mocked by the public, and the experience of having no suitor would make their expectation in the citystate to be gloomy. The worshiping of physical beauty made the value of sports that could mould perfect body and foster excellent character stand out to its maximum. Correspondingly, the playgrounds sters and as public cultural space the breeding ground for breeding such as the stadiums that were used as main site of naked training for young of giving lectures and gather-together by the adult citizens, inevitably became homosexuality.%男性之间的同性恋在古希腊是非常普遍的社会现象,成年男子与少年的同性恋作为主要表征形式更是备受推崇。在这种被称为“天间之爱”的同性恋关系中,成年男子通常是主动者,并担负着培养少年高尚品格的教育任务,而身材健硕的俊美少年则往往成为众人追慕的宠儿。成年男子与少年的“天问之爱”是建立在对人体关的认同基础上的,健壮挺拔、朝气蓬勃的少年之美被视为人世间一切关的最充分象征。这种独特的审美取向具有非常严肃的指导意义,拥有健美的

  10. The cosmology of the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    The views of the ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosophers from Ionia opened new paths for the study of nature using human logic. Starting from the worship of the Earth as a goddess, they proceeded to examine its position in the Cosmos (Universe), proposing a spherical shape for our planet. They pioneered the unifying approach for the physical world, assuming one element as the basis for everything in the Universe (this was water for Thales, air for Anaximenes, infinity for Anaximander, fire for Heraclitus). The genesis and the decay of worlds succeed one another eternally. Anaximenes believed, like Anaximander, that our world was not the only one that existed. Heraclitus believed that, of the vast richness of the natural creation with its unpredictable changes, nothing remains stable and motionless. There is not constancy, but only an eternal flow, a perpetual motion. This is exactly what we accept today in quantum physics; the apparent stability and immobility is an illusion of our limited senses. According to Heraclitus, matter is constantly transformed. All the natural philosophers of Ionia distanced God the Creator from nature and history, keeping always a respect for the beliefs of their fellow people; most probably they, too, kept a form of God in an area of their minds, in his spiritual and moral dimension.

  11. 'Ancient episteme' and the nature of fossils: a correction of a modern scholarly error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, J M

    2016-04-01

    Beginning the nineteenth-century and continuing down to the present, many authors writing on the history of geology and paleontology have attributed the theory that fossils were inorganic formations produced within the earth, rather than by the deposition of living organisms, to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Some have even gone so far as to claim this was the consensus view in the classical period up through the Middle Ages. In fact, such a notion was entirely foreign to ancient and medieval thought and only appeared within the manifold of 'Renaissance episteme,' the characteristics of which have often been projected backwards by some historians onto earlier periods. This paper endeavors to correct this error, explain the development of the Renaissance view, describe certain ancient precedents thereof, and trace the history of the misinterpretation in the literature. PMID:26797724

  12. Pollutant lead reveals the pre-Hellenistic occupation and ancient growth of Alexandria, Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Véron, A.; Goiran, J. P.; Morhange, C.; Marriner, N.; Empereur, J. Y.

    2006-03-01

    It is generally accepted that Alexandria ad Aegyptum was founded ex nihilo in 331 BC by Alexander the Great, rapidly growing into one of antiquity's most opulent economic and intellectual centers. However, ancient texts by Strabo (17.1.6) and Pliny (NH 5.11.62) suggest the existence of a pre-Hellenistic settlement named Rhakotis. This literary evidence has fuelled contentious scholarly debate for decades. Here we present new geochemical data from Alexandria's ancient bay sediments, elucidating unequivocal proof for pollutant lead (Pb) input into the harbor during the Egyptian Old Kingdom (2686-2181 BC). A second contamination peak is detected during the Iron Age (1000-800 BC), at the end of the prosperous Ramesses reigns. These findings evidence thriving pre-Hellenistic settlements in Alexandria. During the Greek and Roman periods, we expound the largest Pb pollution ever encountered in ancient city sediments with Pb levels twice as high as those measured in contemporary industrialized estuaries.

  13. Chromium content of selected Greek foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratakos, Michael S; Lazos, Evangelos S; Bratakos, Sotirios M

    2002-05-01

    The total chromium content of a wide variety of Greek foods was determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (GFAAS). Meat, fish and seafood, cereals and pulses were rich sources of chromium (>0.100 microg/g). Fruits, milk, oils and fats and sugar were poor sources. Differences in chromium content were found between different food classes from Greece and those from some other countries. Based on available food consumption data and chromium levels in this study, it was estimated that the chromium intake of Greeks is 143 microg/day, with vegetables, cereals and meat being the main contributors. PMID:12083715

  14. The Greek concept of egkíklios paideía and its diffusion in the Hellenistic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Spinelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the concept of egkíklios paideía, used in ancient Greece to define the children’s (paidós school term (egkíklios. The goals of the syllabus used to be, on the one hand, enabling the children to use the intellect, and, on the other hand, professional, social and human amendment. The paper uses two sources. First, the ancient philosophers. Second, other educational conceptions spread all over the Greek civilization in the Hellenistic age. Concerning the ancient philosophers, the paper analyzes a single dictum attributed to three different philosophers: Gorgias, Aristippus and Bion. The subject of the dictum is a comparison between, on the one hand, philosophy and Penelope, and, on the other hand, the other disciplines of the syllabus and Penelope’s servants. Concerning the Hellenistic diffusion, the paper deals with Filo, Quintilian and Clement of Alexandria. Regarding these writers, the paper aims to show an overturn: among the Greeks, philosophy used to be the master (the déspoina; later, it became the servant (the doulís

  15. Ancient human microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  16. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  17. THE HEROIC NAME ANTILOCHOS AS A PERSONAL NAME AMONGST THE GREEKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Мирко Обрадовић

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the Greek heroic name Antilochos and examines its distribution as a personal name in the ancient Greek world, from the Archaic to the Roman Imperial period. The popularity of the name Antilochos as a personal name among the Greeks derives from the fact that in Homer and in later Greek epic tradition the hero Antilochos has many distinctive features that were highly appreciated by the Greeks. As a beloved son of Nestor, king of Pylos and the great hero of the Trojan Cycle, Antilochos is one of the bravest Achaean warriors who fought at Troy, and even lost his life trying to save his father. On the other hand, Antilochos, following the death of Patroklos, is also attested in tradition as a favorite and close companion of Achilles, the greatest hero of the Trojan War. At the funeral games that Achilles celebrated for Patroklos, Antilochos finished second in the chariot race “by his skill, not by the speed of his horses” (Il. XXIII 515, just as Nestor had advised him and also took part in the foot race. After Antilochos’ death, his shade, along with those of Achilles and Patroklos, was believed to have gone to the Black Sea island later known as Leuke (the White Island. These were all the reasons why the heroic name Antilochos could also be acceptable as a personal name and desirable in the choice of names given to children and was attested as such in all periods and in almost all parts of the Greek world.The personal name Antilochos could sound to the Greeks as a good Panhellenic name, but also as a name attractive particularly to the Athenians and the Ionians. The popularity of the name amongst the Ionians can be best explained with possible Neleid associations and connections, because the aristocratic elites in the Ionian cities mainly claimed Neleid ancestry (ostensibly descendents of Neleus, the son of Poseidon and the father of Nestor. The name Antilochos is thus attested as a personal name in Athens from an early

  18. Development of Voice Onset Time in Standard-Greek and Cypriot-Greek-Speaking Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Petinou, Kakia; Theodorou, Eleni; Karasimou, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    The current investigation examined the development of voice onset time (VOT) in Standard-Greek (SG) and Cypriot-Greek (CG)-speaking children at age levels 2;0-2;5, 2;6-2;11, 3;0-3;5, and 3;6-4;0 years. SG presents with a two-way voicing contrast (voiced and voiceless unaspirated stops) whereas CG is a three-way contrast dialect containing…

  19. Bicultural Childhood. A Case Study with Greek and Greek-Norwegian Families in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Irene Midtskog

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Greek and Greek–Norwegian children’s experiences of migration and bicultural childhood. The period of fieldwork took place in different cities in Norway during the autumn of 2014. The methods employed are questionnaires, worksheets, mind-mapping activities and semi-structured interviews. The participants in the study were children born in Norway with one Greek-born and one Norwegian-born parent, immigrant children from Greece who had been living in Norway between on...

  20. Elementos para la selección de aceros que necesitan temple y revenido // Directions for selection of steel that need to be templing

    OpenAIRE

    V. Carrera Martínez; V. Millo Carmenate; F. Hernández González

    1999-01-01

    A partir del análisis de la metodología de selección del material que se utiliza tanto para el diseño mecánico como para el deherramientas, se da una metodología para el caso de aceros con temple y revenido, que tiene en cuenta la templabilidad delmismo en combinación con la solicitación mecánica a la que se encuentra sometida la pieza. Se ilustra la metodología dedeterminación del diámetro crítico del acero con los diagramas de templabilidad obtenidos por el ensayo Yominy y unnomograma de te...

  1. Modernism in Greek Literature (1910-1940)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H. Hokwerda

    2013-01-01

    Study of the modernist phase of Modern Greek Literature in the first half of the twentieth century, with special attention to the cases of Constantine P. Cavafy (poetry), Nikos Gavriil Pentzikis (prose; novel "The Dead Man and the Resurrection" = O pethaménos ke i anástasi) and Yiorgos Seferis (essa

  2. Environmental assessment of the Greek transport sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport constitutes a crucial factor to the quality of life, since many people depend greatly on access to a reliable transport system. However, there are concerns about the impacts of the transport system on the quality of life, since it constitutes one of the main sources of greenhouse gases and also gives rise to significant air pollution stemming from acidifying pollutants, ozone precursors and particulate matter. During the last decade, the demand for transport services in Greece has rapidly grown following the European trend. Transport policies have recognised the need to restrain transport growth and to improve the various transport modes. Technology and fuel improvements have resulted in decreases of emissions of certain pollutants. Taking into account the major role of road transport in Greece for both passenger and goods transport, this work is focused on the assessment of the Greek transport sector. The changes made in the Greek transport sector during the past decade as well as the adverse environmental impacts of the Greek transport sector are presented and analysed. This work aims to present, assess and investigate the progress of the Greek transport sector-over the past decade-in relation to its sustainability. The scope is to examine the effectiveness of various emission reduction measures, in terms of their effectiveness in reducing emissions from transport

  3. Greek Secondary School Students' Views about Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Koumparou, Helen; Kyriakoudi, Margarita; Papacharalampous, Irene; Trimandili, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them. A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…

  4. The Greek Financial Crisis – Theoretical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The world we live in is a product of the way we think. Our conception of reality determines what we see and what we achieve. The Greek crisis is not simply a case of high public debt, economic mismanagement or weak political will in Greece or the Eurozone. It is underpinned by economic premises, constructs and resulting practices that promote exactly the type of dilemma Greece faces today. Without addressing these conceptual issues, no lasting solution is possible. Rather it can be expected to repeat and spread to other countries and regions. This article is based on views presented by participants in a WAAS webinar examining the Greek financial crisis in the light of economic theory and practice. Wherever there are unmet social needs and underutilized social resources, such as high levels of unemployment, the potential exists to stimulate economic activity, enhance human welfare and promote resilience and sustainable entrepreneurship. Both conditions prevail in Greece today, but neither current nor anticipated policies are likely to result in near term benefits to the Greek people and the local economy nor for Europe and the world economy. It supports the view that a permanent and effective win-win solution can be found to the Greek crisis, compatible with the financial stability of the country and the welfare of its citizens within the framework of the Eurozone, but that such a solution will require a rethinking of fundamental theoretical issues and adoption of innovative policy instruments beyond those presently being contemplated.

  5. Calculating the Greeks by Cubature formulas

    OpenAIRE

    Teichmann, Josef

    2004-01-01

    We provide cubature formulas for the calculation of derivatives of expected values in the spririt of Terry Lyons and Nicolas Victoir. In financial mathematics derivatives of option prices with respect to initial values, so called Greeks, are of particular importance as hedging parameters. Cubature formulas allow to calculate these quantities very quickly. Simple examples are added to the theoretical exposition.

  6. The Greek outside workers radiation passbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the European Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM of the 4 December 1990, on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas, the Greek Government has adopted the Ministerial Order, published in the Official Gazette (No 9087(FOR) 1004 of 1996). The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the competent governmental authority for radiation protection matters. Therefore it is the GAEC's responsibility of monitoring the implementation of this Order. The Order consists of 6 parts, where among others are described the obligations of outside undertakings and operators and the obligations of outside workers. One of the major elements of this Ministerial Order is the radiation passbook.The Greek Radiation Passbook is written in two languages, Greek and English. It contains worker's personal data (identity, medical examinations, training in radiation protection, etc), information concerning his employee (name, address, etc) and worker's dosimetry information such as operational and the official dosimetry (external and internal) data. The radiation passbook is provided only to category A outside workers, working in Greece or abroad. The GAEC distributed the Ministerial Order with application forms to the possible outside undertakings for their information. Until August 1997, 41 radiation passbooks have been attributed to outride workers. All of them are technicians dealing with medical equipment using ionizing radiation. (author)

  7. Greek College Students and Psychopathology: New Insights

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinos Kontoangelos; Sofia Tsiori; Kalliopi Koundi; Xenia Pappa; Pavlos Sakkas; Charalambos C. Papageorgiou

    2015-01-01

    Background: College students’ mental health problems include depression, anxiety, panic disorders, phobias and obsessive compulsive thoughts. Aims: To investigate Greek college students’ psychopathology. Methods: During the initial evaluation, 638 college students were assessed through the following psychometric questionnaires: (a) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ); (b) The Symptom Checklist-90 (SCL-90); (c) The Beck Depression Inventory (BDI); (d) State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI)...

  8. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday speech;…

  9. The Greek media and the Kosovo crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kondopoulou

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The NATO air attacks (24/3/99-10/6/99 as an instrument of force against Serbia to terminate the abuse of the Albanian population in Kosovo, albeit supported by a significant part of the international community, were received much differently in Greece. Key to the climate of strong disagreement with the campaign was the role of the Greek media. The true reason behind the offensive was, according to them, the change in the geopolitical map to the advantage of the West, and in particular the USA. The underlying argument of this paper is that in the Kosovo crisis the media, Greek (and international, projected their own environment. It is particularly apt to examine the Greek case because of its very unique perspective that differentiated the coverage in Greece - a NATO member country - from the overall world media view. Also, the discussion is pertinent because Greek media coverage disagreed with the official government position, which although advocating a diplomatic resolution of the crisis, had to support the Alliance's decision to bomb Serbia. Furthermore, study of this case is significant because the clash of the Greek media view with the mainstream pro-NATO coverage found in many other countries generated negative views on Greece and its media on the international level. An examination of media content reveals that despite any differences concerning political or other factors, and regardless of the variations in the phrasing of the anti-NATO arguments, the overall media perspective exhibited a unanimous opposition to the bombing campaign. By placing the emphasis more or less on the same thematic areas as the world media, but by crucially reversing the line of reasoning (e.g. the refugee problem was blamed on the NATO bombing raids and not on Serbian atrocities, the Greek media invariably remained anti-war, anti-NATO and anti-Albanian in many particular cases, and in principle pro-Serb throughout. A study of the general media and the specific

  10. The Hippocratic oath: A comparative analysis of the ancient text′s relevance to American and Indian modern medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Chandrakant I Jhala; Khushboo N Jhala

    2012-01-01

    Hippocrates (460-375 B.C.), an ancient Greek physician considered the "Father of Medicine," constructed the groundwork for the principles of ethics in medicine over 2,500 years ago in his establishment of the Hippocratic Oath. One of the oldest binding documents in history, the text has remained the ethical template for physicians to this day. The changing cultural and social environment of modern society, accompanied by the advancement in scientific knowledge and therapeutic tools, has surfa...

  11. Hotel Business in Temples in the Tang Dynasty%唐代寺院旅店业初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈金凤; 李珍

    2016-01-01

    唐代寺院旅店业兴盛,成为突出的社会经济现象。这一现象的形成,不仅与唐代佛教鼎盛而寺院经济的繁荣相关,也与这一时期社会经济快速发展、人员流动频繁、寺院旅游休闲、山林修学之风等因素相关。唐代寺院旅店业在一定程度上推动了寺院经济的上升与社会经济文化的进步,同时也强化了佛教的世俗化倾向。%The prosperous of the hotel business in temples was the outstanding social economic phenomenon. The forming of this phenomenon was not only because the prosperous of Buddhism and temple economy,but the social economy development,the floating population,temple tourism leisure and academic studies in the mountains and forests etc. The hotel business in temples promoted the upward of the temple economy and the progress of the social economic culture. At the same time,it strengthened the secularization of Buddhism.

  12. Characterisation of corrosion layers formed under burial environment of copper-based Greek and Roman coins from Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronti, Lucilla; Felici, Anna Candida; Alesiani, Marcella; Tarquini, Ombretta; Bracciale, Maria Paola; Santarelli, Maria Laura; Pardini, Giacomo; Piacentini, Mario

    2015-10-01

    This paper reports on a study carried out on patinas covering copper-based Greek and Roman coins found in the archaeological excavation of Regio VIII.7.1-15 in Pompeii (Italy). Since in cultural heritage ancient artefacts should not be damaged, non-destructive and micro-destructive techniques have been used to identify typical and uncommon compounds and to characterize the surface morphology. The chlorine content of light green patinas and the presence of typical minerals allowed us to identify the bronze disease. Coins from the same stratigraphic unit have shown different morphologies of corrosion, probably due to different micro-environmental conditions.

  13. Chemical analysis of black crust on the Angkor sandstone at the Bayon temple, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Wonsuh; Oguchi, Chiaki; Waragai, Tetsuya

    2014-05-01

    The Angkor complex is the one of the greatest cultural heritages in the world. It is constructed in the early 12th century, designated as a world cultural heritage by UNESCO in 1992. The temples at the Angkor complex are mainly made of sandstone and laterite. However, due to the tropical climate, plants, lichens and various microorganisms are growing well on the rock surface. Black crusts are also easily found on the stone surface. The 21st technical session of the International Coordinating Committee for the Safeguarding and Development of the Historic Site of Angkor (ICC-Angkor) held in 2012 recommended that to preserve both the biofilms and the forest cover and to prohibit the biocides (chlorine-based) and organic biocides. However, there are many reports that lichens and microorganisms accelerate rock weathering. It is important to clarify that how the biofilm on the Angkor temples affect Angkor sandstones. We sampled Angkor sandstone covered by black crust at the Bayon temple, Angkor complex, and observed the section and the surface of the rock sample by using SEM. Surfaces of the samples are not polished in order to observe the original condition. The samples are coated with gold for 180 seconds. The depth of the black crust is up to 1 mm. Many filamentous materials were found on the black crust. Average energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy data of the five areas of ca. 20 μm ×15 μm in the black crusts shows that over 80 % of the filamentous materials are compounds of carbon. It seems that these materials are hyphae. The shape of the hypha is like a thread and its size is few μm in diameter and up to several centimeters in length. Black crusts are consisted of elements and compounds of carbon, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, and Fe. Further research has to be done to find out the better and proper way of conservation for the Angkor complex.

  14. Gnomons in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  15. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  16. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, A N; Koutsoyiannis, D; Tchobanoglous, G

    2005-01-01

    The status of urban sewerage and stormwater drainage systems in ancient Greece is reviewed, based on the results of archaeological studies of the 20th century. Emphasis is given to the construction, operation, and management of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems during the Minoan period (2nd millennium B.C.). The achievements of this period in dealing with the hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and cities, were so advanced that they can only be compared to modern urban water systems, developed in Europe and North America in the second half of the 19th century A.D. The advanced Minoan technologies were exported to all parts of Greece in later periods of the Greek civilization, i.e. in Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods. PMID:15607179

  17. 周代宗庙礼制考%The Research on the Etiquettes of Zhou Dynasty’s Ancestral Temple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王启敏

    2015-01-01

    周代社会中与宗庙相关的礼制多种多样。宗庙始成要举行落成典礼,作歌诗以纪之。祭庙的形式可谓五花八门,而且祭者的态度要十分的恭敬、严谨。诸侯有丧事了,要在宗庙吊唁,规矩也很多。此外,如天子即位,天子(或诸侯)娶妻、嫁女、出国、归国、出征、凯旋等都要在宗庙举行郑重的祭告仪式。在宗庙的守护、装饰、迁移等方面,在当时也有着严格的、不同的礼节制度要遵守。%In Zhou dynasty the related ancestral temple customs are various. After the completion of ancestral temple, it should be inaugurated and poems should be made to memorize. The forms of memorial temples are varied. The attitude of the emperor and monarch muse be very respectful. The same was the monarch’s condolences at the ancestral temple. In addition, the ascending to the throne as emperor, or monarch, getting married or married abroad, returning to the homeland and triumphing must be held in the ancestral temple solemnly and be reported to ancestral temple. The temple’s guardian, decoration, migration and the others also have restricted rules to obey.

  18. Geoarchaeology and geomorphology of Phoenicus ancient harbor, NW coast of Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moustafa, Samah; Torab, Magdy

    2016-04-01

    Phoenicus Greek harbor located in SE coastline of Ras El Hekma area, west of Alexandria city for about 220 km. It is shaped as triangle with its headland extending into the Mediterranean Sea for about 15 km. It is occupied by sedimentary rocks belonging to the Tertiary and Quaternary Eras, the western coastline consists of Pleistocene, Separated polygons of limestone sheets and fossil lime stone, where there are coastal platforms, fluvial forms and solution holes. The location and description of Phoenicus ancient harbor were mentioned by some late writers (Fourtau,1893) & (Muller,1901), some geoarchaeological indicators were discovered by the authors such as fish tanks, well, remains of breakwater and wine press. The present work is mainly devoted to define the geomorphological and geoarchaelological indicators of Phoenicus Greek harbor site, based on detailed geomorphological and geoarchaelogical surveying, sampling, dating and mapping as well as satellite image interpretation and GIS techniques.

  19. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  20. Ancient celtic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  1. La réforme de la tradition des devadasi. Danse et musique dans les temples hindous

    OpenAIRE

    Inoue, Takako

    2011-01-01

    Les devadasi, jadis spécialisées dans l’exécution des rituels en offrant des danses et des chants aux temples, furent considérées comme des prostituées et stigmatisées pendant la période coloniale. Il en résulta que la loi interdit à ces femmes de participer aux rituels des temples et que la danse des devadasi fut séparée des manifestations cultuelles et reconstituée pour devenir le Bharatanatyam. On peut mieux comprendre le processus du mouvement anti-nautch qui boycotta leur danse et la ren...

  2. IMAGES OF THE KIZHI TEMPLES IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE 20TH CENTURY (ON THE OCCASION OF TERCENTENARY OF THE CHURCH OF TRANSFIGURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Leonidovna Shilova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An image of the temple (the church oft en appears in the Kizhi plots of Russian Literature. Th e artilce describes its artistic implementation, semantics and its main literary characteristics. Th e study is based on the texts of N. Klyuyev, K. Paustovsky, A. Voznesensky, R. Rozhdestvensky, V. Pul'kin, I. Strelkova and others. On the one hand, the image of the temple fi nds its justifi cation in the peculiarities of real Kizhi landscape where the silhouette of the temple ensemble appears as a visual center of perception. On the other hand, the image of the temple oft en acts as a semantic center of the literary texts. As the analysis shows, the image of the temple displays notable semiotic activity and has a significant impact on plot-constructing and themes. Surprisingly, it also infuses Christian themes, quotes and allusions into the secular texts of the Soviet period.

  3. Orientatio ad Sidera (OAS): a comprehensive project for cultural astronomy research in ancient Mediterranean cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio; César González-García, A.; Rodríguez-Antón, Andrea

    2015-08-01

    During the last decade (starting in 2005), the OAS Project has been run, with the support of the Spanish research agencies. Within its framework, research on cultural astronomy has been developed for a series of ancient cultures from the Atlantic Islands to the Arabian Peninsula with the Meditterranean Sea as the pricipal axis of the project. A catalogue of studies has been performed in a set of cultures such as the Megalithic Phenomenon, ancient Egypt, Middle East Bronze and Iron Age civilizations and the Roman World, among many others. In this essay a general scope of the project and a series of most interesting outcomes will be presented. The evolutionary ties of the megalithic monuments of the Iberian Peninsula and elsewhere, the pattern of orientation of Egyptian temples and skyscaping practices within the Hittite, Commagenian or Nabataean cultures, among others, will be shown; finishing in a comprehensive, statistical and comparative study of the orientation patterns of thousands of ancient monuments of the Mediterranean region. Finally, a sketch of our most recent, still ongoing, research on the astronomical and non-astronomical practices used in the planning of cities in the Roman World will be a compelling and promising closing remark of our analysis.

  4. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC

  5. Augmented Reality Mobile Application of Balinese Hindu Temples: DewataAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ferliyanto Waruwu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality is a visual technology which combines virtual objects into the real environment in real time. E-tourism in Bali needs to be optimized, so that information technology can help tourists and provide new experiences when traveling. Generally, tourists wish for gaining information in an attractive way about visiting tourism objects. Nowadays, mobile-based application programs that provide information about tourism objects in Bali are rarely found. Therefore, it is important to develop an application which provides information system about tourism objects, especially about the Tanah Lot temple. By implementing augmented reality technology, which grows rapidly all over the world, the application of DewataAR can show 3 dimensional objects, video, and audio information of the temples. The application works by scanning brochure of tourism object by using an Android smartphone or tablet, then it can display 3 dimensional objects, video, and audio information about those tourism objects. Hence, augmented reality can be alternative media for promoting tourism object attractively for tourists and also be able to develop tourism in Bali.

  6. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akanksha, E-mail: bhuaks29@gmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Jain, Akansha, E-mail: akansha007@rediffmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Sarma, Birinchi K., E-mail: birinchi_ks@yahoo.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pca.iesd@bhu.ac.in [Institute for Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, Harikesh B., E-mail: hbs1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  7. The Nile floodplain, hydroclimatic variability, and its relation with cultural dynamics in ancient Thebes (Luxor, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Graham, Angus; Pennington, Ben; Hunter, Morag; Strutt, Kris; Barker, Dominic; Masson, Aurelia; Emery, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The western bank of the river Nile in the Luxor region (Egypt) separates New Kingdom divine temple complexes in the central axis of the river valley from contemporaneous sites on the desert edge and limestone plateau. The intermediate Nile floodplain features relatively few known archaeological sites, but played an important role in the ancient ritual landscape by connecting the focal region of the living (floodplain) with that of the dead (desert). All Royal Funerary Temple Complexes of the New Kingdom period (1539-1077 BCE), which played a central role in the cosmogonical landscape, are positioned within a confined 3.5 km long strip of land on the western edge of the present floodplain. This preferential location, together with contemporary textual sources and tomb scenes suggesting the nearby presence of canals, have led to the hypothesis that natural and human-made waterways may have once connected the main channel of the Nile with the desert edge. Until the present research took place, no detailed study of pre-existing channel networks existed in the region, leaving a gap in current knowledge on the configuration and use of the ancient floodplain. This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at mapping and dating ancient waterways in the Theban region and aims to find evidence for the natural or human origin of such channels. Boreholes and Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were carried out along a transect that connects the edge of the Holocene floodplain with the current position of the river Nile. Satellite imagery and textual sources were also used to augment the fieldwork. The data indicate the presence of an infilled abandoned channel of the Nile in the western distal part of the current floodplain, adjoining the Funerary Temple complexes. Over 2100 ceramic fragments were analysed from the sedimentary infilling of the silted-up river course, dating it to the end of the New Kingdom, and indicating that the channel and temples

  8. Storms in Ancient Egypt: the Examples of Historical Natural Disasters Impacts on the Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    Though rain storms are infrequent in Egypt, which is normally a rainless country, some Ancient Egyptian texts give accounts of violent storms and rains. Actually, even small amounts of rain in that area could cause huge impact, as none of the water was absorbed by soil, and, running off, it could create dangerous torrents. The Tempest stele, circa 1550 BC, recounts a highly destructive storm happened during the reign of Ahmose I, the king of Egypt's 18 dynasty. The catastrophy is described in details, including the specific noise, overall darkness, torrent so that no torch could be lit. Many houses were washed into the river, temples, tombs and pyramids damaged and collapsed. The stele commemorates the restoration works made by the king who was able to cope with this great disaster and "re-establish the Two Lands". Some egyptologists believe that this event is related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, but this is unlikely given the description in the stele.

  9. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  10. Sexual Harassment in the Greek Criminal Law

    OpenAIRE

    Elissavet Symeonidou-Kastanidou

    2008-01-01

    The present paper examines the problem of sexual harassment at workplace. Initially, it examines the real extend of the problem, then records the way this problem is faced within the European Union and finally analyzes sexual harassment as an individual criminal offence according to the Law 3488/2006. The problems of the new law are studied and the introduction of a new criminal provision within the Greek Criminal Code is proposed.

  11. Sexual Harassment in the Greek Criminal Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elissavet Symeonidou-Kastanidou

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the problem of sexual harassment at workplace. Initially, it examines the real extend of the problem, then records the way this problem is faced within the European Union and finally analyzes sexual harassment as an individual criminal offence according to the Law 3488/2006. The problems of the new law are studied and the introduction of a new criminal provision within the Greek Criminal Code is proposed.

  12. The Greek Crisis: Causes and Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vlamis Prodromos; Kouretas Georgios P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents and critically discusses the origins and causes of the Greek fiscal crisis and its implications for the euro currency as well as the SEE economies. In the aftermath of the 2007-2009 financial crisis the enormous increase in sovereign debt has emerged as an important negative outcome, since public debt was dramatically increased in an effort by the US and the European governments to reduce the accumulated growth of private debt in the years preceding the recent financ...

  13. Stereotypes concerning Greeks in Serbian language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić Stana

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Stereotypes concerning Greeks in Serbian language are researched through the historical source (Dictionary of JAZU. The source describes a complex representation, with a truthful foundation that incorporates layers of mythological and historical memories on stereotypes in the traditional culture. This ethnic stereotype of the people associated with Serbs in one very positive experience, both in mythological and historical legacies, is freed from prejudice, thus preventing a possibility of political misuse of its ethnic symbolism.

  14. Stereotypes concerning Greeks in Serbian language

    OpenAIRE

    Ristić Stana

    2006-01-01

    Stereotypes concerning Greeks in Serbian language are researched through the historical source (Dictionary of JAZU). The source describes a complex representation, with a truthful foundation that incorporates layers of mythological and historical memories on stereotypes in the traditional culture. This ethnic stereotype of the people associated with Serbs in one very positive experience, both in mythological and historical legacies, is freed from prejudice, thus preventing a possibility of po...

  15. What HappensAfter a Greek Default

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A Greek default has already occurred in the eyes of investors, even though it technically hasn't happened yet. The market is now forcing European leaders to quickly decide how they want the rest of the sovereign debt crisis to play out. While the technical default of Greece--inevitable as it is--took around 18 months, similar defaults in other peripheral eurozone members will probably come much faster.

  16. greek SLPs knowledge and perceptions of telepractice

    OpenAIRE

    Pitsikali, Theodora –Christina

    2014-01-01

    Telepractice is a service delivery model that allows speech- language pathologists to provide their services in remote areas via a teleconference tool. The current study aimed to investigate the knowledge, the use, the perceptions and intentions of Greek SLPs on telepractice. For the purposes of this study a non experimental, descriptive method survey research design selected. Information collected via an online, distributed, self- administered questionnaire. The instrumental tool designed...

  17. Marketing applications in Greek academic library services

    OpenAIRE

    Γαρουφάλλου, Εμμανουήλ; Ζαφειρίου, Γεωργία; Σιάτρη, Ράνια; Μπαλαπανίδου, Αικατερίνη; Garoufallou, Emmanouel; Zafeiriou, Georgia; Siatri, Rania; Balapanidou, Ekaterini

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to describe marketing methods, techniques and activities used in Greek academic libraries and their staff perceptions regarding the importance of marketing applications. In addition, it identifies factors which hinder the uptake of marketing, and investigates the evaluation methods used. Design/methodology/approach – There are 151 central and departmental academic libraries in Greece, yet there is limited published research concerning their marketing activities. Therefore, it ...

  18. Fertility among greek migrant women returnees

    OpenAIRE

    Πετρόπουλος, Νικόλας Π.; Μπαλούρδας, Διονύσιος

    2002-01-01

    The present article, using data from the 1988 "return migration" sampling survey, analyses the fertility patterns of return migrant women, who had been born in Greece and compares them with those of non-migrant Greek women using linear regression analysis. Separate regression equations were also estimated for women returnees by country of immigration (Germany, USA, Canada, Australia). As it was observed the average fertility rates were differentiated with respect to country of ...

  19. Financial innovations Involving the Greek Drachma

    OpenAIRE

    E. K. Gatzonas; Michael G Papaioannou

    1997-01-01

    During the last decade, a number of new financial instruments and derivative products related to the Greek drachma have emerged in local as well as international capital markets. The paper analyzes the characteristics of these financial instruments which are traded in organized exchanges and over-the-counter (OTC) markets, and evaluates the conditions under which they have evolved. Drawing from legislative and industry developments in the European Union (EU) and the United States, the paper a...

  20. Epigraphic Bulletin for Greek Religion 2009

    OpenAIRE

    Chaniotis, Angelos

    2014-01-01

    The 22nd issue of the Epigraphic Bulletin for Greek Religion presents a selection of the epigraphic publications of 2009 and some additions to earlier issues. Following the practice of the most recent issues, emphasis was placed on the presentation of new corpora and editions of new texts, rather than on summarizing books or articles that use epigraphic material. Due to demanding research and administrative duties, this year I have been unable to complete the survey of journals on time. In or...

  1. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of

  2. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  3. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  4. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  5. The communication factor in Greek foreign policy: an analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Skouroliakou, Melina

    2012-01-01

    This paper looks into the communication factor in Greek foreign policy. It aims at identifying communication patterns and models used to convey Greek foreign policy positions abroad. It examines critically the efficacy of the applied practice and argues that the communication factor has been disregarded by foreign policy-makers, making successful promotion of Greek foreign policy problematic and hurting the image of the country internationally. The paper suggests that Greece should invest in ...

  6. Dositej Obradović and the Greek enlightenment

    OpenAIRE

    Kitromilides Paschalis M.

    2013-01-01

    In this communication an attempt is made to broaden the basis of received knowledge concerning Dositej Obradović’s affinities with the culture of the Greek Enlightenment by suggesting working hypotheses concerning a much expanded range of possible contacts and relationships with major personalities and sources of Greek Enlightenment literature, hitherto unnoticed by research on his life and thought. The denser texture of Dositej’s encounters with Greek Enli...

  7. A Comparative Study of International and Greek Search Engines

    OpenAIRE

    Γαρουφάλλου, Εμμανουήλ

    2011-01-01

    A study was carried out by Greek students in March 2011 to investigate a variety of Greek and international search engines. The study looked at how search engines respond to user experience in the search for information and assessed users' opinions regarding specific characteristics of search engines and the results they generate. The results showed that users prefer international search engines to the Greek ones. In particular, they show special preference for google.com when searching for i...

  8. COMPUTATION OF GREEKS FOR JUMP-DIFFUSION MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    M'Hamed Eddahbi; SIDI MOHAMED LALAOUI BEN CHERIF; ABDELAZIZ NASROALLAH

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper, we compute the Greeks for a class of jump diffusion models by using Malliavin calculus techniques. More precisely, the model under consideration is governed by a Brownian component and a jump part described by a compound Poisson process. Our approach consists of approximating the compound Poisson process by a suitable sequence of standard Poisson processes. The Greeks of the original model are obtained as limits or weighted limits of the Greeks of the approximate model. ...

  9. Traditional perception of Greeks in Serbian oral tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Konjik Ivana

    2006-01-01

    Based on material on Greeks from Vuk’s corpus of epic poems, we discuss the construction of ethnic stereotype of Greeks in Serbian language. However, the limitation of the paper’s possible conclusion lies in the nature of the corpus: Vuk had deliberately chosen one material over another, therefore, the corpus relating to Greeks cannot be considered as representative of the whole Serbian folk poems. Therefore, the discussion is limited to certain elements of the stereotype. Nevertheless, these...

  10. Determinants of the Greek stock-bond correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Petros M. Migiakis

    2010-01-01

    The stock-bond correlation has been related to market uncertainty and macroeconomic variables. In this paper, we focus on the common pricing process of Greek stocks and bonds, through the correlation of their returns. We derive dynamic conditional correlations of Greek stock and government bond returns, covering the period 1999-2009. We find that the dynamics of the Greek stock-bond correlation are explained by several risk factors, related to liquidity and market’s uncertainty while being su...

  11. Geographical collections in Greek academic libraries: Current situation and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Καπιδάκης, Σαράντος; Βαρδακώστα, Ιφιγένεια

    2011-01-01

    The paper aims at exploring the existence of geospatial collections and the GIS services in Greek academic libraries through a research in their websites. The initial hypothesis is that Greek academic libraries are not familiar with geographical information and services and therefore they have not developed efficient collections and services for their patrons regarding geospatial data. Thus, a research was conducted in various Greek Higher Education Institutions for departments affiliated wit...

  12. Price, Income & Unemployment Effects on Greek Professional Football

    OpenAIRE

    Vassiliki Avgerinou; Stefanos Giakoumatos

    2009-01-01

    Based on data of 26 Greek professional football clubs of Division A’ and B’ for 16 seasons (1991/92-2006/07), we investigate the effect of sporting and economic variables on the attendance in Greek football stadia. Price, income and unemployment are found to be statistically significant in the small Greek football market, while controlling for classic sporting determinants of demand such as success, entertainment and promotion/relegation. We include two more dummy variables; one for the new s...

  13. Chimeric creatures in Greek mythology and reflections in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    2001-04-15

    "The Chimaera" in Homer's Iliad, "was of divine stock, not of men, in the forepart a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the midst a goat, ellipsis Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods." In Hesiod's Theogony it is emphasized that "Chimaera ellipsis had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snakeellipsis". In addition to this interspecies animal chimera, human/animal chimeras are referred to in Greek mythology, preeminent among them the Centaurs and the Minotaur. The Centaurs, as horse/men, first appear in Geometric and early Archaic art, but in the literature not until early in the fifth century B.C. The bullheaded-man Minotaur, who is not certainly attested in the literary evidence until circa 500 B.C., first appears in art about 650 B.C. Attempts, in the fourth century B.C. and thereafter, to rationalize their mythical appearance were in vain; their chimeric nature retained its fascinating and archetypal form over the centuries. Early in the 1980s, experimental sheep/goat chimeras were produced removing the reproductive barrier between these two animal species. Late in the 1990s, legal, political, ethical, and moral fights loomed over a patent bid on human/animal chimeras. Chimeric technology is recently developed; however, the concept of chimerism has existed in literary and artistic form in ancient mythology. This is yet another example where art and literature precede scientific research and development. PMID:11337752

  14. 南宁古城园林与城池建设的关系%The Relationship of Ancient Gardens and Ancient Nanning City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷云黎

    2012-01-01

    In Chinese classical gardens, the ancient public gardens and government office yard are lower than the imperial gardens, temple gardens and private gardens in popularity. But in some particular ancient cities, their functions are obviously higher than other gardens. In ancient Nanning city construction, the ancient public gardens and government office yard occupies an important position, and are the main component of urban construction, endowed with some irreplaceable functions. Analyzing the generality and particularity of their relationship can help the construction of current urban gardens and landscapes become full of local characteristics, and add historical culture connotation to urban landscape, which is of extensive practical significance.%在中国古典园林中,公共园林与衙署园林在知名度上要低于皇家园林和私家宅园,但是在一些特定的古代城市中,它的作用要明显高于其他园林在南宁的古代城市建设中,公共园林与衙署园林占据重要地位,是城市建设的主要组成部分,被赋予了一些不可替代的功能.分析其关系的通用性与特殊性,对于深入认知中国园林传统,建设有地方特色的当前城市园林最观,增加城市园林景观的历史文化内涵具有广泛的现实意义.

  15. Poets and athletes: Olympic winners and losers in early Greek lyric

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William J. Henderson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Greek society was extremely competitive; amongst the nobility especially there was the constant need for an ideal of achievement on the battlefield or athletics track and to integrate this into the family history. In the absence of the role the present-day media plays in our society, three poets in particular recorded, propagated and praised the achievements of athletes at the Olympic and other games: Simonides, Pindar and Bacchylides. For a winner they composed a special victory hymn, the epinikion, an elevated ode sung by a chorus with musical accompaniment. In this article extracts of such poems are analysed in order to illustrate the poets’ views regarding winners and losers.

  16. The Ancient Greek discovery of the nervous system: Alcmaeon, Praxagoras and Herophilus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panegyres, Konstantine P; Panegyres, Peter K

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this historical overview is to show that the theories of Alcmaeon of Croton formed an important part of a developing conception of the brain and the nervous system. The vital contributions of Praxagoras of Kos, who suggested the existence of what we now call "neurons", and Herophilus of Chalcedon, who distinguished between sensory and motor nerves and demonstrated the existence of the nervous system by dissection, also established the foundation principles of neuroscience, but their importance is sometimes forgotten. We trace the discovery of the nervous system through an investigation of these three thinkers. Combining astounding philosophical concepts with sharp observation, they conceived and demonstrated the existence of a nervous system by the third century BCE. This discovery is central not only to neuroscience, but also to all of medicine and to our concept of the human organism: it articulated the connection between the mind, the brain, and the body. PMID:26898584

  17. The universe of conics from the ancient Greeks to 21st century developments

    CERN Document Server

    Glaeser, Georg; Odehnal, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This text presents the classical theory of conics in a modern form. It includes many novel results that are not easily accessible elsewhere. The approach combines synthetic and analytic methods to derive projective, affine and metrical properties, covering both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. With more than two thousand years of history, conic sections play a fundamental role in numerous fields of mathematics and physics, with applications to mechanical engineering, architecture, astronomy, design and computer graphics. This text will be invaluable to undergraduate mathematics students, those in adjacent fields of study, and anyone with an interest in classical geometry. Augmented with more than three hundred fifty figures and photographs, this innovative text will enhance your understanding of projective geometry, linear algebra, mechanics, and differential geometry, with careful exposition and many illustrative exercises. Authors Hellmuth Stachel, born 1942, got his PhD and habilitation in geometry ...

  18. Heaven and Earth in Ancient Greek Cosmology From Thales to Heraclides Ponticus

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, Dirk L

    2011-01-01

    In Miletus, about 550 B.C., together with our world-picture cosmology was born. This book tells the story. In Part One the reader is introduced in the archaic world-picture of a flat earth with the cupola of the celestial vault onto which the celestial bodies are attached. One of the subjects treated in that context is the riddle of the tilted celestial axis. This part also contains an extensive chapter on archaic astronomical instruments. Part Two shows how Anaximander (610-547 B.C.) blew up this archaic world-picture and replaced it by a new one that is essentially still ours. He taught that the celestial bodies orbit at different distances and that the earth floats unsupported in space. This makes him the founding father of cosmology. Part Three discusses topics that completed the new picture described by Anaximander. Special attention is paid to the confrontation between Anaxagoras and Aristotle on the question whether the earth is flat or spherical, and on the battle between Aristotle and Heraclid...

  19. Aspetti Moderni della Fisica Greca : Modern Aspects of Ancient Greek Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Recami, Erasmo

    1970-01-01

    Plutarchus, circa 100 AD, in his early book on "astrophysics" --in which he exposed, in a sense, a general theory of gravitation-- wrote the noticeable passage: The Moon gets the guarantee of not falling down just from its motion and from the dash associated with its revolution, exactly as stones in slings cannot fall due to their circular whirling motion; in fact, each thing is dragged by its mere natural motion only if it isn't deviated by something else. The Moon, therefore, is not dragged down by its weight, because its natural tendency is frustrated by its revolution. And, on the contrary, it would be really amazing if it could remain at rest always at the same place, like the Earth. While Posidonius (circa 135-51 BC) had written: Matter is endowed with a cohesion that keeps it together and against which the surrounding vacuum has no power. Indeed, the material world is supported by an immense force, and alternately contracts and expands in the vacuum following its own physical processes, now consumed by...

  20. Review of Perseus 2.0: Sources and Studies on Ancient Greek Culture [CD-ROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Eiteljorg, II

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available I have a love-hate relationship with the Perseus Project. Since I first learned about it, when it was still a plan more than a project, I have been impressed by its audacious scope. I have also been very impressed by the far-sightedness of the project directors as they have made certain that the data they store - not necessarily the data they put out on the commercial CDs but the underlying data stored on disc at project headquarters - have been stored in the most sophisticated and neutral formats possible. They have, for instance, used SGML for text and complex databases for other information. They are also storing mapping information in GIS format. On the other hand, I have found myself unimpressed with the CDs produced, both the original one in 1992 and the most recent version, Perseus 2.0, which was released recently. There is much in the new version to admire, much that impresses. Unfortunately, though, there is also much that is worrisome or ineffective or simply not of good quality.

  1. Translating ancient Greek aspect: Sappho's Fr. 1 Voigt / Janika Päll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päll, Janika, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Vana-kreeka keele aspektist, selle kasutamisest ja tõlkimisprobleemidest Sappho luuletuse tõlkeid analüüsides. Lisas toodud ka Sappho luuletus originaalkeeles, tõlked ladina, eesti, inglise, saksa, itaalia, prantsuse ja vene keelde

  2. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  3. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  4. Greek Auditors in the Courses of Jean Lamarck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spyros I. Asdrachas

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the records of Lamarck's audiences, six students of Greek origin could be identified as attending his lectures between 1804-1827. In the catalogue published by Pietro Corsi four of them are listed as Greeks and two as Romanians. All have been properly identified. The Greeks were I. Kokkonis, S. Kanellos, D. Nitsos and D. Taillapierras, while the Romanians were two Greek physicians residing in Romania, I. K. Bouboukis and Th. Georgiades. It is worth noting that after their return to their home country none of them wrote on or advertised Lamarck's doctrines on species transformation.

  5. Greek Auditors in the Courses of Jean Lamarck

    OpenAIRE

    Spyros I. Asdrachas; Krimbas, Costas B.

    2006-01-01

    In the records of Lamarck's audiences, six students of Greek origin could be identified as attending his lectures between 1804-1827. In the catalogue published by Pietro Corsi four of them are listed as Greeks and two as Romanians. All have been properly identified. The Greeks were I. Kokkonis, S. Kanellos, D. Nitsos and D. Taillapierras, while the Romanians were two Greek physicians residing in Romania, I. K. Bouboukis and Th. Georgiades. It is worth noting that after their return to their h...

  6. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-01-01

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species. PMID:27395093

  7. A MAN AND HIS RIGHTS IN THE CONCEPTS OF ANCIENT REPRESENTATIVES OF PHILOSOPHICAL AND LEGAL THOUGHT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolay Alekseevich VOLKOV

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Emergence of the idea of human rights in V— VI centuries BC in ancient policies and emergence of the principle of citizenship became a major step on the way of humanity towards freedom and progress. The idea and practice of freedom and human rights was given to the world by the most famous of all ancient civilizations — Athens in the views of Heraclitus, Democritus, Protagoras, Antiphont, Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Epicurus, etc. Ancient Greek ideas about human rights formed as a part of mythological views that the polis or the citystate and its laws are of divine origin and are based on divine justice. Further development of sociophilosophical and political-legal concepts of human rights in Ancient Greece occurred in search and substantiation, along with the divine origin, of objective natural-legal basis for the existence of the polis, its laws and social existence of people. Natural-legal ideas of ancient Greek thinkers about freedom and equality of all human beings further developed in Ancient Rome, and especially in the philosophical and legal views of the Stoics Seneca, Marcus Aurelius, and Cicero, the ancient Roman thinker, philosopher and orator. In their teaching on human rights, the natural-legal idea of freedom and equality was extended beyond the narrow polis and ethnic framework and was expanded to all members of the humankind as fellow citizens of a single cosmopolitan state. According to the results of the conducted research, the author notes that the ancient thinkers, prominent representatives of philosophical, legal, and political thought of that time laid the foundations of the doctrine of human rights, which was further developed in the medieval beliefs of medieval representatives, especially in the views of the authors of the liberal world outlook of the New times. The English and American Age of Enlightenment, French bourgeoisdemocratic revolution have become a new important milestone and a new stage in theoretical

  8. Reasons for relativism: Feyerabend on the 'Rise of Rationalism' in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that essential features of Feyerabend's philosophy, namely his radicalization of critical rationalism and his turn to relativism, could be understood better in the light of his engagement with early Greek thought. In contrast to his earlier, Popperian views he came to see the Homeric worldview as a genuine alternative, which was not falsified by the Presocratics. Unlike socio-psychological and externalist accounts my reading of his published and unpublished material suggests that his alternative reconstruction of the ancient beginnings of the Western scientific tradition motivate and justify his moderate Protagorean relativism. PMID:27269265

  9. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Velázquez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La concha del bivalvo panámico Pinctada mazatlanica fue ampliamente utilizada por las antiguas sociedades del México prehispánico; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481, lo que llama la atención, ya que para entonces los mexicas no habían logrado conquistar emplazamientos en la costa del Pacífico. En los sucesivos agrandamientos arquitectónicos es notable el descenso en los objetos de la referida ostra, lo cual en principio se explicó por la mayor destrucción que éstos habían sufrido; sin embargo, el hallazgo de varios ricos depósitos en el predio conocido como Casa de las Ajaracas, correspondientes al reinado de Moctezuma II (1502-1521, en los que prácticamente se encuentra ausente la Pinctada mazatlanica, da lugar a nuevas interpretaciones. En el presente trabajo se presentan 2 posibles hipótesis para explicar el hecho anterior.The nacreous shell of the tropical Pacific mollusc Pinctada mazatlanica was widely used by the ancient inhabitants of Mexico. Around 600 pieces made of this shell have been found in offerings buried in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Most of these objects come from the IVth construction stage (1440-1481, prior to the conquest of the Pacific Coast by the Aztecs. It was previously thought that the considerably smaller numbers found in the following stages were due to the greater degree of destruction suffered by the temple. Nevertheless, the almost complete absence of this material in nine offerings found recently corresponding to the VIIth construction stage (1502-1521, raise other possibilities. In this work two different hypotheses are presented to explain this observation.

  10. Alabanza y crítica del deporte en la literatura griega = Praise and criticism of sport in greek literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando García Romero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se pretende ofrecer una visión general de la valoración del deporte y los deportistas en la sociedad griega antigua, desde nuestras primeras referencias literarias, en los poemas homéricos. Tomando como punto de partida la imagen opuesta que se ofrece de los atletas en los epinicios de Píndaro y en los epigramas satíricos contra los deportistas contenidos en la Antología Palatina, nos centramos en particular en el estudio de las recompensas que recibían los atletas, como fiel reflejo de la alta estimación social de los triunfos deportivos, y, en relación con ello, en los aspectos que los autores griegos antiguos critican en el deporte profesional, a partir de textos de Jenófanes, Eurípides, Platón, Aristóteles, los escritos médicos, etc. También dedicamos unas páginas a destacar el primordial papel de la formación física en el sistema educativo de las ciudades griegas y, en general, la importancia de la práctica no profesional del deporte en la sociedad griega antigua.----------------------------------------------------------------------------In this essay we try to present an overall view of the valuation of sport and athletes in the ancient Greek society, from our first literary evidences, in the Homeric poems. Starting from the opposite image of the athletes offered by Pindar’s epinicians and by the satyrical epigrams against athletes that we find in the Anthologia Palatina, we study particularly the prizes received by the athletes (as faithful testimony of the high social valuation of the sporting success. In relatioship with this argument, we study the aspects blamed in the professional sport by the ancient Greek authors (texts by Xenophanes, Euripides, Plato, Aristotle, medical writings, etc.. We also emphasize the essential role of the physical activities in the Greek poleis’ educational organization and, in general, the importance of the non professional practice of sport in the ancient Greek

  11. Cutaneous larva migrans among devotees of the Nallur temple in Jaffna, Sri Lanka.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam Kannathasan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many cases of Cutaneous Larva Migrans (CLM have been observed among devotees, during and immediately after the annual festival at the Nallur Hindu temple in Jaffna. OBJECTIVE: To ascertain the risk factors associated with infestation and devotees' knowledge and practices regarding the condition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A cross-sectional study using an interviewer-administered questionnaire and observation was conducted in August 2010. Out of 200 selected devotees 194(97% responded. Soil and dog faecal samples were collected from the temple premises and examined for the presence of nematode larva and egg respectively. Among 194 male respondents, 58.2%(95% CI: 51.2%-65.0% had lesions of CLM. One hundred and thirty (67% respondents performed the ritual everyday; whereas 33% did so on special days. One hundred and twelve (57.7% participants performed the ritual before 5.00am and remaining 42.3% performed after 5.00am. Among the participants, 77(36.7% had the similar condition in previous years. One hundred and fifty seven (80.9% were aware about this disease and 52(27% devotees adopted some kind of precautionary measures. Bivariate analysis showed significant association between occurrence of CLM lesions and frequency of performing the ritual (p<0.001, OR-15.1; 95% CI:7.2-32.0, the timing of ritual performance (p = 0.022, OR-1.96; 95% CI:1.10-3.52, similar condition in previous year (p<0.001, OR-6.83; 95% CI: 3.39-13.76 and previous awareness of the condition (p = 0.005; OR-0.59;95% CI:0.43-0.82. Multivariate analysis showed that the frequency of ritual performance (OR-11.75; 95% CI 5.37-25.74 and similar conditions in previous years (OR-4.71; 95% CI: 2.14-10.39 were the independent risk factors. Two of the 20 soil samples were positive for the nematode larvae and three out of five dog faeces were positive for hookworm eggs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Deworming the stray dogs around the temple premises combined with the

  12. The Kalash genetic isolate: ancient divergence, drift, and selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayub, Qasim; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Pagani, Luca; Haber, Marc; Mohyuddin, Aisha; Khaliq, Shagufta; Mehdi, Syed Qasim; Tyler-Smith, Chris

    2015-05-01

    The Kalash represent an enigmatic isolated population of Indo-European speakers who have been living for centuries in the Hindu Kush mountain ranges of present-day Pakistan. Previous Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA markers provided no support for their claimed Greek descent following Alexander III of Macedon's invasion of this region, and analysis of autosomal loci provided evidence of a strong genetic bottleneck. To understand their origins and demography further, we genotyped 23 unrelated Kalash samples on the Illumina HumanOmni2.5M-8 BeadChip and sequenced one male individual at high coverage on an Illumina HiSeq 2000. Comparison with published data from ancient hunter-gatherers and European farmers showed that the Kalash share genetic drift with the Paleolithic Siberian hunter-gatherers and might represent an extremely drifted ancient northern Eurasian population that also contributed to European and Near Eastern ancestry. Since the split from other South Asian populations, the Kalash have maintained a low long-term effective population size (2,319-2,603) and experienced no detectable gene flow from their geographic neighbors in Pakistan or from other extant Eurasian populations. The mean time of divergence between the Kalash and other populations currently residing in this region was estimated to be 11,800 (95% confidence interval = 10,600-12,600) years ago, and thus they represent present-day descendants of some of the earliest migrants into the Indian sub-continent from West Asia. PMID:25937445

  13. Astronomy in the Ancient Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, Irakli; Jijelava, Badri

    This chapter discusses the role of recurrent heavenly phenomena in the formation of ancient cultural traditions. Artifacts bearing witness to astronomical and calendrical practices in the ancient Caucasus are described and we analyze the significance of the "boats of the sun" petroglyphs at Gobustan in Azerbaijan, the solar station at Abuli in Georgia, and the "sky dial" at Carahunge in Armenia. Similarities and differences between the ancient cultures of the region are discussed. Finally, we present the results of the latest field research and new facts and hypotheses.

  14. The Ancient Egyptian Demonology Project

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Felicitas

    2016-01-01

    “The Ancient Egyptian Demonology Project: Second Millennium BCE” was intended and funded as a three-year project (2013-2016) to explore the world of Ancient Egyptian demons in the 2nd millennium BC. It intends to create a classification and ontology of benevolent and malevolent demons. Whereas ancient Egyptians did not use a specific term denoting “demons”, liminal beings known from various other cultures such as δαίμονες, ghosts, angels, Mischwesen, genies, etc., were nevertheless described ...

  15. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancesto...

  16. 道教宫观建筑中的养生意蕴%The regimen implication in Taoist temple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗明月

    2012-01-01

    道教宫观除了作为道教信徒讲经习道、从事宗教活动、聚居的场所之外,还有着丰厚的养生意蕴。具体表现为:道观的选址讲究养生之功、道观的布局遵守养生法则、道观的色彩装饰注重养生之喻、道观的建造以神仙宫阙为蓝本。道教宫观以此方式,来实现人们对于身心康泰的追求及表达对长生成仙的追求。%Taoist temple is containing the regimen implication besides being Taoism besides the disciple says the lieu u- sing personal influence,living in a compact community as a result of exercising road, being engaged in religion. Shown by: concretely the Taoist temple selections location is particular about meritorious service,the Taoist temple layout of keeping in good health observing the law of life,the Taoist temple decoration attaches importance to Yu of keeping in good health, the Taoist temple formation takes supernatural being imperial palace as chief source. The Taoism palace observes these way, comes to realize people to go after of body and mind in good health,expresses and the go after becoming a celestial being to longevity.

  17. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  18. Measuring Greek and Greek-Cypriot Students' Phonological Awareness Skills: A Preliminary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triga, Anastassia; Kakopsitou, Polina

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a new Greek phonological awareness test for preschool and primary school age children (ages 5-7) in Greece and Cyprus. A new phonological awareness test with 168 items was individually administered to 132 students (60 students in Cyprus and 72 students in Greece) from five urban, five semi-rural, and three…

  19. Tai Buddhist Practices in Dehong Prefecture, Yunnan, ChinaReligion as Non-religion: The Place of Chinese Temples in Phuket, Southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuki Kataoka

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on a case study of Chinese temples in Phuket, aims to demonstrate the importance of religious activities lying outside “religion” in the so-called “Buddhist” societies in Thailand, as well as to question the category of “religion” itself. In Thailand, most of the Chinese temples (called sanchao in Thai are not recognized as “religious places” by the religious administration (namely the Department of Religious Affairs, since they come under the supervision of the Ministry of the Interior. In Phuket, Chinese temples as “non-religious” places (of worship? outnumber officially recognized Buddhist temples and they offer occasions for the worship of Buddhist deities. One of the unique features of the “Buddhist” activities of the Chinese temples in Phuket is that they are conducted without monks. Because the Chinese temples are placed outside the state protection of “religion,” they are not institutionalized as belonging to any state-approved religion. This is beneficial to the Chinese temples as they do not have to compete with “state Buddhism”; in such temples indiscriminate syncretic worship is also latently sanctioned. In Phuket the functions of Chinese associations and charity foundations overlap with those of the Chinese temples, challenging the definition of religion in yet another way. Our discussion leads us to conclude that all these activities lying outside of “religion” actually occupy an important part of “Buddhism” in Thailand. Thus a reconsideration of the framework of “Buddhism” and “religion” in Thailand is necessary.

  20. Pollution effects on stone benches of the Eagle Warriors Precinct at the Major Temple, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During Major Temple archaeological site excavations in Downtown Mexico City, the precinct of one of the most important Mexica military caste, the Eagle Warriors, was discovered. The ceremonial enclosure is composed of three rooms surrounded by paintings on 11 stone benches placed against the walls. Nowadays, these paintings and the stones present the effects of different deterioration processes produced by the underground water level, high humidity, and the presence of soil, water, and air pollutants. Ion beam analysis of samples from the benches and wall paintings was performed using PIXE and RBS techniques. Using enrichment factors of elements relative to iron concentrations, possible contamination by sulfur and chlorine salts was found, as well as airborne zinc scavenged by rain

  1. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  2. Short Overview of the Evolution of Modern Greek State

    OpenAIRE

    Shalva Tchkadua

    2012-01-01

    In the article the author describes and analyzes the historical path of Greece, from the national liberation movement to its integration into Euro-Atlantic structures. The article briefly but clearly describes the process of the Greek national liberation movement. The author highlights the Greek nation’s fight to strengthen independence and democracy.

  3. Home Space: Youth Identification in the Greek Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsolidis, Georgina; Pollard, Vikki

    2010-01-01

    This article draws on a larger study on schooling and diaspora using the case of the Greek community of Melbourne, Australia to examine processes of identification of young people with access to minority cultures. The Melbourne Greek community is long-standing, diverse, and well-established. Because of this, the young people involved in this study…

  4. Cognitive Effects of Greek Affiliation in College: Additional Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascarella, Ernest T.; Flowers, Lamont; Whitt, Elizabeth J.

    2009-01-01

    Previous research published in this journal found broad-based negative effects of Greek affiliation on standardized measures of cognitive development after 1 year of college. Following the same sample, and employing essentially the same research design and analytic model, the present study found that the negative effects of Greek affiliation were…

  5. The Standardization of the Concepts about Print into Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tafa, Eufimia

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate and standardize Concepts About Print (C.A.P.) into Greek, and to assess its psychometric properties. Particularly, this study evaluated the reliability and validity of the Greek version of C.A.P., and item difficulty and discrimination index and examined whether there were differences between boys and…

  6. Alternatives to Greek-Letter Organizations Warrant a Second Look

    Science.gov (United States)

    David, Marc C.

    2004-01-01

    Because of the discriminatory practices and lack of appeal of many predominantly White Greek-letter organizations, students of color sought the development of their own. Alpha Phi Alpha, Rho Psi, MALIK Sigma Psi, Lambda Theta Phi, and Alpha Pi Omega set the stage for later African American, Asian, African, Latino and American Indian Greek-letter…

  7. The Latin-Greek Connection: Building Vocabulary through Morphological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasinski, Timothy V.; Padak, Nancy; Newton, Joanna; Newton, Evangeline

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the authors make a case for teaching vocabulary in the elementary grades through a focus on the morphological structure of words, in particular English words that are derived through Latin and Greek roots and affixes. The authors present a set of engaging instructional ideas for the use of Latin and Greek derivations to teach…

  8. THE GREEKS OF GEORGIA: MIGRATION AND SOCIOECONOMIC PROBLEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Komakhia, Mamuka

    2005-01-01

    Greeks first came to western Georgia in the 8th-7th centuries B.C., yet the ancestors of most of the Greeks now living in the country came in the 19th and 20th centuries. Today, the once large diaspora (which comprised a significant part of Georgia's population) has shrunk to several thousand people.

  9. Greek Membership: The Relationship with First-Year Academic Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBard, Robert; Sacks, Casey

    2012-01-01

    Much has been written about the need for student involvement to build a sense of belonging on college campuses. However, when it comes to membership in Greek social organizations, such involvement has been largely cast as negative. Unlike many of the anecdotal articles critical of the influence joining a Greek social organization can have on…

  10. Teachers' Perceptions of Greek Special Education Policies and Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kevin J.; Morfidi, Eleni; Soulis, Spyros

    2013-01-01

    Special education teachers and related service providers were interviewed for their perspectives on Greek special education policies and practices and how these influenced their job preparation and duties. Specifically, they were asked about the impact of the following on their jobs: Greek law related to the education of students with…

  11. English Vocabularies Derived from Greek and Roman Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪桥; 赵孔银

    2012-01-01

    1. introduction 1.1 the current situation of greek and roman mythology in english study The backgrounds knowledge of Greek and Roman mythology are so familiar to native English speakers, but so unfamiliar to us Non-English-speaking country English learners. Until now, we are not concentrated on those backgrounds knowledge but on listening,

  12. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage and...... contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  13. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentra...

  14. Greek petrochemicals finds buyers for plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greek Petrochemicals (Athens) has found buyers for two polyethylene (PE) plants it ordered from U.K. contractors 10 years ago and that are currently stored in Manchester. It is understood that Thai Polyethylene (Bangkok) has been selected to acquire the 70,000-m.t./year ICI process low-density PE plant engineered by Simon-Carves. Reliance Industries is in talks to by the 50,000-m.t./year Union Carbide Unipol process high-density PE unit. The plants are to be installed at Map Ta Put, Thailand and Hazira, India, respectively

  15. Classical Greek Drama and its Contemporary Performance --about Antigone%Classical Greek Drama and its Contemporary Performance --about Antigone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张舒音

    2011-01-01

    1. Classical Greek drama Classical Greece is the period of brilliant achievement associating with the flowering of democracy in the Greek cities. Drama is one of the most splendid products of fifth-century BCE. Being expected to do more than just enterta

  16. 78 FR 18455 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... United States of America the two hundred and thirty- seventh. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2013-07171... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation 8942 of March 22, 2013 Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2013 By the President of...

  17. 75 FR 15601 - Greek Independence Day: a National Day of Celebration of Greek And American Democracy, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-30

    ... thirty-fourth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2010-7240 Filed 3-29-10; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W0-P ... Documents#0;#0; #0; #0;Title 3-- #0;The President ] Proclamation Greek Independence Day: a National Day of Celebration of Greek And American Democracy, 2010 By the President of the United States of America...

  18. 76 FR 17329 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ....) [FR Doc. 2011-7502 Filed 3-28-11; 8:45 am] Billing code 3195-W1-P ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8640 of March 24, 2011 Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2011 By the President of the United States of America A...

  19. Book of Greek Myths. A Yearling Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aulaire, Ingri; d'Aulaire, Edgar Parin

    This oversized, illustrated book discusses the gods, goddesses, and legendary figures of ancient Greece in a relaxed and humorous tone to entertain, enlighten, and educate young people. The first section of the book discusses the "olden times," Gaea, and the Titans. The second section tells the story of Zeus and his family, with sections on Hera,…

  20. The Greek Key: Getting Acquainted in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augeri, Hunter; Efstathiou, Eirene; Michou, Maria; Sanders, Jan Motyka

    2011-01-01

    Greece conjures up images of idyllic island landscapes, turquoise seas and venerable mythic deeds set among majestic monuments. These notions are, moreover, often associated with a history, religious culture and language that are ancient. Tourist posters and national sentiment aside, today the Hellenic Republic is a country that is as much…