WorldWideScience

Sample records for ancient greek temples

  1. Greek Tragedy and Ancient Healing: Poems as Theater and Asclepian Temple in Miniature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorelick, Kenneth

    1987-01-01

    Explores the healing processes at work in poetry therapy by examining two healing traditions that were contemporary in Athens of the fifth century B.C.: the tragic drama and the Asclepian healing procedure. Suggests that poetry therapy unites the powerful healing forces inherent in these ancient Greek practices, which accounts for some of its…

  2. New Measurements of the Azimuthal Alignments of Greek Temples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickelson, M. E.; Higbie, C.; Boyd, T. W.

    1998-12-01

    The canonical opinion about the placement of Greek temples is that they are oriented east-west (Dinsmoor 1975). Major exceptions, such as the temple of Apollo at Bassae which faces north-south, are always noted in the handbooks, but many other temples are scattered across the Greek landscape in a variety of orientations. Although no surviving ancient author ever discusses the criteria for placing or orienting temples, we may assume from scattered remarks that Greeks had reasons for choosing the sites and orientations. In the last century, archaeologists and architects such as Nissen (1896), Penrose (1893) and Dinsmoor (1939), have measured the alignments of Greek temples on the Greek mainland, the west coast of Turkey, and the Aegean islands. Their data have varying degrees of precision and accuracy, as a recent paper by Papathanassiou (1994) makes clear. Parallel work done in Italy on Etruscan temples by Aveni and Romano (1994) provides further stimulus to re-investigate Greek temples. We have undertaken two field seasons in Greece to make preliminary measurements for a number of temples associated with Athena, Apollo, and Zeus. These temples were chosen for a number of reasons. The structures have to be well enough preserved to allow determination of the orientation of foundations, location of doorways and other openings, placement of cult statues etc. By focusing on these three gods, we may be able to discover patterns in the orientation and placement for specific divinities. For some of these questions, we are dependent on literary and inscriptional evidence, such as the work of the Greek travel writer, Pausanias. This paper describes the preliminary measurements made over our two field seasons in Greece. Field methods and analysis of the data will be presented along with proposed applications. Research supported by the Denison University Research Foundation.

  3. My Temple with a Frieze: Learning from the Greeks and Romans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsche, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Both Greeks and Romans placed the building of temples and sanctuaries high on their list of architectural priorities, as these structures were a source of public pride. The temples were built as shrines for the all-important gods and goddesses of the ancient world. The Parthenon is a great example of this. The frieze on the Parthenon shows scenes…

  4. Ancient Greek Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannah, Robert

    Greek festival calendars were in origin lunar, eventually being aligned with the sun through various lunisolar intercalary cycles. Each city-state had its own calendar, whose month names have some, little, or no similarity with those of other city-states. These names often reflect gods or festivals held in their honor in a given month, so there is an explicitly sacred character to the calendar. New Year's Day could also differ from one state to another, but generally began with the sighting of the first new moon after one of the four tropical points. Even the introduction of the Roman Julian calendar brought little uniformity to the eastern Greek calendars. The calendar is one of the elements which can assist in understanding the siting of Greek sacred structures.

  5. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  6. A Review of Passionate Patron: The Life of Alexander Hardcastle and the Greek Temples of Agrigento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonino Crisa

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Richardson’s 143-page book provides an interesting account on the life of Alexander Hardcastle (London, 1872 – Agrigento, 1933, a rich English patron and archaeologist, who operated in Sicily during the early twentieth century. Son of Hernt and Marie Sophie Hardcastle Herschel, Alexander took his military service in the Royal Navy, gaining a thorough technical knowledge, which he successfully used in Sicily. After he obtained a passport in December 1920, Hardcastle moved to Girgenti (now Agrigento, where he purchased a new house, the so-called Villa Aurea , and allocated private funds to perform excavations and massive renovation works at the nearby Greek temples of Akragas . In particular, he restored eight columns of the Temples of Herakles  and Demetra , and excavated part of the ancient city walls in the 1920s. His activity caused a great sensation in both Sicily and Great Britain, as articles in newspapers clearly testify.

  7. Ancient Greek new music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Žužek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I use a contextual approach to questions about the revolutionary »new music« in ancient Greece. This view is different from the nowadays most common formalistk view. Rather than analyze textual sources stylistically, I will try to present the available lata in the context of the structure and events of the Athenian society at a tirne when a wave of »new« poetics appeared. In the following discussion it is argued that the »new music« and the phenomena of the destruction of mousiké connected with it are not an esthetical novum, but more a consequence of the change of the discursive practice, where a musical poetry became less important and needless.

  8. Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Marković Vera

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analyzed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represent...

  9. Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Vera

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analyzed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represents the ancient Greek language transcribed into Latin.

  10. [Ancient Greek in modern language of medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marković, Vera

    2007-01-01

    In order to standardize language of medicine, it is essential to have a good command of ancient Greek and Latin. We cannot deny a huge impact of ancient Greek medicine on medical terminology. Compounds of Greek origin related to terms for organs, illnesses, inflammations, surgical procedures etc. have been listed as examples. They contain Greek prefixes and suffixes transcribed into Latin and they have been analysed. It may be concluded that the modern language of medicine basically represents the ancient Greek language transcribed into Latin.

  11. From ancient Greek Logos to European rationality

    OpenAIRE

    APOSTOLOPOULOU GEORGIA

    2016-01-01

    Because of history, culture, and politics, European identity has its archetypical elements in ancient Greek culture. Ancient Greek philosophy brought Logos to fore and defined it as the crucial problem and the postulate of the human. We translate the Greek term Logos in English as reason or rationality. These terms, however, do not cover the semantic field of Logos since this includes, among other things, order of being, ground, language, argument etc. The juxtaposition of Logos (reason) to m...

  12. Ancient Greek with Thrasymachus: A Web Site for Learning Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…

  13. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  14. Attitudes to Ancient Greek in Three Schools: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Frances

    2018-01-01

    This study comes in response to recent changes in UK policy, whereby Ancient Greek and Latin have been included alongside modern languages as part of the curriculum at Key Stage 2. It aims to understand how Ancient Greek is surviving and thriving in three different types of schools. After a short overview of the history of Greek teaching in the…

  15. Homosexuality according to ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2017-01-01

    Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love. It is believed that in the Homeric world homosexuality was not favored. In Greek society of the archaic period, the restriction of women at home, the satisfaction of sexual needs with courtesans, the marriage for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property, put women aside, marginalizing them in terms of social life, impeding the cultivation of emotional relationships between sexes. At the same time, in the society of those times, the aristocratic ideal, the constant communication of men during military training and the war, the male nudity in sports and the promotion of beauty and bravery in athletic contests, as well as the gatherings and the entertainment of men at the symposia, created a suitable substrate in which male homosexuality could develop. In this context, pedophile relationships were developed mainly during the archaic period, as recorded on vase paintings, where a mature man developed a special relationship with a teenager of the same social class. The mature man had the role of mentor for the juvenile, he would look after him and cover his living expenses and education cost. In this relationship, exhibiting predominantly the social dimension of an initiation process and introduction to adult life, the erotic homosexual intercourse could find a place to flourish. The above-mentioned relationship could not last forever, given that this would later transform into an emotional

  16. Statistical Analysis of Temple Orientation in Ancient India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aller, Alba; Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    2015-05-01

    The great diversity of religions that have been followed in India for over 3000 years is the reason why there are hundreds of temples built to worship dozens of different divinities. In this work, more than one hundred temples geographically distributed over the whole Indian land have been analyzed, obtaining remarkable results. For this purpose, a deep analysis of the main deities who are worshipped in each of them, as well as of the different dynasties (or cultures) who built them has also been conducted. As a result, we have found that the main axes of the temples dedicated to Shiva seem to be oriented to the east cardinal point while those temples dedicated to Vishnu would be oriented to both the east and west cardinal points. To explain these cardinal directions we propose to look back to the origins of Hinduism. Besides these cardinal orientations, clear solar orientations have also been found, especially at the equinoctial declination.

  17. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient…

  18. Penile representations in ancient Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2013-12-01

    The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

  19. Sin, Punishment And Forgiveness In Ancient Greek Religion: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks in particular at the special sin of hubris in ancient Greek religious thought. It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this ...

  20. Borromean Triangles and Prime Knots in an Ancient Temple

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    a computer mouse with cable which forms the logo of the Topo- logical Quantum .... theory of knots stayed on and was developed into a beautiful. Figure 3. A prime knot ... ematics to build bridges with the inner worlds that these temples seek to ...

  1. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  2. Astrology in Ancient Greek and Roman Culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2018-04-01

    This article deals with astrology in Greek and Roman culture. It considers astrology's theoretical background, technical basis, interpretative conventions, social functions, religious and political uses, and theory of fate, as well as critiques of it. Astrology is the name given to a series of diverse practices based in the idea that the stars, planets, and other celestial phenomena possess significance and meaning for events on Earth. It assumes a link between Earth and sky in which all existence—spiritual, psychological, and physical—is interconnected. Most premodern cultures practiced a form of astrology. A particularly complex variety of it evolved in Mesopotamia in the first and second millennia BCE from where it was imported into the Hellenistic world from the early 4th century BCE onward. There it became attached to three philosophical schools: those pioneered by Plato, Aristotle, and the Stoics, all of which shared the assumption that the cosmos is a single, living, integrated whole. Hellenistic astrology also drew on Egyptian temple culture, especially the belief that the soul could ascend to the stars. By the 1st century CE the belief in the close link between humanity and the stars had become democratized and diversified into a series of practices and schools of thought that ranged across Greek and Roman culture. It was practiced at the imperial court and in the street. It could be used to predict individual destiny, avert undesirable events, and arrange auspicious moments to launch new enterprises. It could advise on financial fortunes or the condition of one's soul. It was conceived of as natural science and justified by physical influences, or considered to be divination, concerned with communication with the gods and goddesses. In some versions the planets were neither influences nor causes of events on Earth, but timing devices, which indicated the ebb and flow of human affairs, like the hands on a modern clock. Astrology had a radical view of

  3. Balancing Acts Between Ancient and Modern Cities: The Ancient Greek Cities Project of C. A. Doxiadis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mantha Zarmakoupi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the inception and development of the Ancient Greek Cities (AGC research project (1963–77 of Constantinos A. Doxiadis and addresses the novelty of its methodological approach to the study of classical urbanism. With the AGC project, Doxiadis launched a comprehensive study of the ancient Greek built environment to provide an overview of the factors involved in its shaping. The project produced 24 published volumes — the first two laying out the historical and methodological parameters of the ensuing 22 monographs with case studies — as well as 12 unpublished manuscripts, and through international conferences initiated a wider dialogue on ancient cities beyond the classical Greek world. It was the first interdisciplinary study that attempted to tackle the environmental factors, together with the social and economic ones, underpinning the creation, development and operation of ancient Greek cities. Doxiadis’s innovative approach to the analysis of the ancient city was indebted to his practice as an architect and town planner and was informed by his theory of Ekistics. His purpose was to identify the urban planning principles of ancient Greek settlements in order to employ them in his projects. This paper examines the concept and methodology of the AGC project as well as the ways in which Doxiadis used the study of ancient cities in relation to his contemporary urban/architectural agendas, and explains this important moment in the historiography of ancient Greek urbanism.

  4. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios

    2015-08-01

    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  5. The Change from SOV to SVO in Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Ann

    1994-01-01

    Examines the distribution of clause types in ancient Greek during the Homeric (pre-800 B.C.) and Hellenistic (ca. 100 A.D.) periods, as well as an intermediate period (ca. 450 B.C.), delineating the evolution from a subject-object-verb (SOV) to a subject-verb-object (SVO) structure. (49 references) (MDM)

  6. Doctors in ancient Greek and Roman rhetorical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Craig A

    2013-10-01

    This article collects and examines all references to doctors in rhetorical exercises used in ancient Greek and Roman schools in the Roman Empire. While doctors are sometimes portrayed positively as philanthropic, expert practitioners of their divinely sanctioned art, they are more often depicted as facing charges for poisoning their patients.

  7. Acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters in use today

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Anders Christian; Angelakis, Konstantinos

    2006-01-01

    In the Mediteranan area a large number of open, ancient Greek and Roman theatres are still today facing a busy schedule of performances including both classical and contemporary works of dance, drama, concerts, and opera. During the EU funded ``Erato'' project and a subsequent master thesis project...

  8. On the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Prodi, Nicola; Pompoli, Roberto

    2008-09-01

    The interplay of architecture and acoustics is remarkable in ancient Greek and Roman theaters. Frequently they are nowadays lively performance spaces and the knowledge of the sound field inside them is still an issue of relevant importance. Even if the transition from Greek to Roman theaters can be described with a great architectural detail, a comprehensive and objective approach to the two types of spaces from the acoustical point of view is available at present only as a computer model study [P. Chourmouziadou and J. Kang, "Acoustic evolution of ancient Greek and Roman theaters," Appl. Acoust. 69, re (2007)]. This work addresses the same topic from the experimental point of view, and its aim is to provide a basis to the acoustical evolution from Greek to Roman theater design. First, by means of in situ and scale model measurements, the most important features of the sound field in ancient theaters are clarified and discussed. Then it has been possible to match quantitatively the role of some remarkable architectural design variables with acoustics, and it is seen how this criterion can be used effectively to define different groups of ancient theaters. Finally some more specific wave phenomena are addressed and discussed.

  9. Changing the Topic. Topic Position in Ancient Greek Word Order

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, R.J.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Greek, topics can be expressed as intra-clausal constituents but they can also precede or follow the main clause as extra-clausal constituents. Together, these various topic expressions constitute a coherent system of complementary pragmatic functions. For a comprehensive account of topic

  10. Caesarean section in Ancient Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lurie, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    The narrative of caesarean birth appears on several occasions in Greek mythology: in the birth of Dionysus is the God of the grape harvest and winemaking and wine; in the birth of Asclepius the God of medicine and healing; and in the birth of Adonis the God of beauty and desire. It is possible, however not obligatory, that it was not solely a fantasy but also reflected a contemporary medical practice.

  11. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    and swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms...

  12. Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.

  13. The breast: from Ancient Greek myths to Hippocrates and Galen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, C R; Trompoukis, C; Siempos, I I; Falagas, M E

    2009-01-01

    This is a historical article about Ancient Greek literature from mythological times until the first centuries AD with regard to the female breast. We endeavoured to collect several elegant narratives on the topic as well as to explore the knowledge of Ancient Greek doctors on the role, physiology and pathology of breast and the treatment of its diseases. We identified such descriptions in myths regarding Amazons, Hercules, Zeus, Hera and Amaltheia. Furthermore, descriptions on the topic were also found in the work of Hippocrates, Aristoteles, Soranos, Alexander of Aphrodisias, Celsus, Archigenis, Leonides, Galen and Oribasius. We may conclude that some of today's medical knowledge or practice regarding the breast was also known in the historical period.

  14. Uterine cancer in the writings of ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Sgantzos, Markos; Deligeoroglou, Efthimios; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the views on uterine cancer of the ancient Greek physicians. We emphasize on uterine's cancer aetiology according to the dominant in antiquity humoural theory, on its surgical treatment suggested by Soranus of Ephesus, and in the vivid description provided by Aretaeus of Cappadocia. During that period, uterine cancer was considered as an incurable and painful malignancy and its approach was mainly palliative.

  15. Mental health and sexual activity according to ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoucalas, G; Kontaxaki, Μ-Ι; Karamanou, Μ; Sgantzos, Μ; Androutsos, G

    2015-01-01

    The ancient Greek physicians have not failed in their studies to indicate the beneficial role of sexual activity in human health. They acknowledged that sex helps to maintain mental balance. Very interesting is their observation that sex may help mental patients to recover. Nevertheless they stressed emphatically that sex is beneficial only when there is a measure in it, so they believed that sexual abstinence or excessive sexual activity affect negatively the mental and physical health of man. Ancient Greek physicians reached this conclusion by empirical observation. They tried to justify the mental imbalance, as the potential physical problems, which probably will be listed today in the psychosomatic manifestations, of people with long-term sexual abstinence or hyperactivity, based on the theory of humors which was the main methodological tool of ancient Greek medicine. Their fundamental idea was that the four humors of the body (blood, phlegm, yellow and black bile) should be in balance. Therefore they believed that the loss and the exchange of bodily fluids during sex help body's humors to maintain their equilibrium which in turn will form the basis for the physical and mental health. Although in ancient medical texts the irrationality presented by people in the aforementioned conditions was not attributed in any of the major mental illnesses recognized in antiquity, as mania, melancholy and phrenitis, our belief is that their behavior is more suited to the characteristics of melancholy, while according to modern medicine it should be classified in the depressive disorders. We have come to this conclusion, because common characteristics of people who either did not have sexual life or was overactive, was sadness, lack of interest and hope, as well as paranoid thinking that can reach up to suicide. Regarding the psychosomatic problems, which could occur in these people, they were determined by the ancient Greek physicians in the following; continuous headaches

  16. Suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, L; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Tsiamis, C; Ploumpidis, D

    2013-12-01

    We attempt to present and analyze suicidal behaviour in the ancient Greek and Roman world. Drawing information from ancient Greek and Latin sources (History, Philosophy, Medicine, Literature, Visual Arts) we aim to point out psychological and social aspects of suicidal behaviour in antiquity. The shocking exposition of suicides reveals the zeitgeist of each era and illustrates the prevailing concepts. Social and legal reactions appear ambivalent, as they can oscillate from acceptance and interpretation of the act to punishment. In the history of these attitudes, we can observe continuities and breaches, reserving a special place in cases of mental disease. The delayed emergence of a generally accepted term for the voluntary exit from life (the term suicidium established during the 17th century), is connected to reactions triggered by the act of suicide than to the frequency and the extent of the phenomenon. The social environment of the person, who voluntary ends his life usually dictates the behaviour and historical evidence confirms the phenomenon. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Shaping the pain: Ancient Greek lament and its therapeutic aspect?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šijaković Đurđina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, which is the first part of a wider research, I focus on different aspects of ancient Greek lament. One of its most important aspects is the therapeutic aspect: by verbalizing, revealing the pain and by sharing it with others, the pain itself is becoming more bearable both for the woman that laments and for the bereaved family. Related to this therapeutic is the creative aspect of lament: the woman that mourns has to lament in order to make it easier for herself and others; but while lamenting, she is creating something. In spite of this constructive, let us call it creative-therapeutic potential, the lament carries in itself a different, rather dark and gloomy potential, if it calls for vengeance, not reconciling with the fact of someone dear’s death. Deeply rooted in funeral ritual, a lament respects certain ritual rules, and yet it is a spontaneous expression of pain. Examining these mutually dependent aspects of lament, I will turn attention to the position of lament in Greek rites and tragedy, that summit Greek art and literature. Ritual lament within ancient tragedy is, as always when it comes to Greek culture, an inexhaustible topic. Although tragedy belongs to literary tradition, it is a trustworthy source for ancient Greek ritual practice; lament within tragedy is thus a ritual lament, and not only a literary one. Characters of many tragedies will mention the therapeutic aspect of lament, examined in this paper: they consider tears, wails and words directed to the deceased as joyful service, enjoyment, music, song precious and indispensable. This paper has its supplement, shaping the pain in few case studies. Inspired by laments of Montenegrin women, those that I have heard or read, I am re-reading Euripides’ Electra and Electra by Danilo Kiš (in which both Euripides’ drama and Montenegrin folklore is reflected, I am watching the Michalis Kakojannis’ movie Electra. Electra’s pain for loss, the one that through

  18. The Greeks and the Utopia: an overview through ancient Greek Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosanna Lauriola

    2009-06-01

    term has an ancient Greek root but it does not exist in the vocabulary of ancient Greek language. Although ancient Greeks did not have a conscious concept of utopia, they, however, dreamt, wrote, proposed – with different aims - what we would call now ( paradoxically using a ‘modern’ term ‘utopic’ worlds. From the archaic to the post-classic period, we find literary expressions of utopic thought in ancient Greek culture. Such expressions constitute the basis of the modern Utopia and Utopianism with their positive and negative implications. This essay takes a more detailed look at the work of Aristophanes, considered one of the greatest Greek playwrights, and inquires whether his comedies can be considered utopias.

  19. Greek Medicine Practice at Ancient Rome: The Physician Molecularist Asclepiades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Santacroce

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action. Opinions about the human nature (naturalistic thinking and the origin of the illness and heal were the basis of Greek medicine practiced by ancient priests of Asclepius. However, with the evolution of the thought for the continuous research of “κόσμος” (world knowledge, philosophy woulld become an integral part of medicine and its evolution. This close relationship between philosophy and medicine is confirmed by the Greek physician Galen in the era of the Roman Empire. Methods: Philosophical thought looked for world knowledge starting from mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, medicine, psychology, metaphysics, sociology, and ethics. We must keep in mind that, according to the ancient people, the physicians could not heal the patients without the aid of a “divine God” until medicine, thanks to the Hippocratic practice, became more independent from the supernatural, and contemporary, ethical, and professional. Many physicians were philosophers, as confirmed by their views of life, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Aristotle (hailed as the father of comparative anatomy and physiology, Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Croton, Empedocles, Praxagoras, Erasistratus, Galen, and others, including Asclepiades of Bithynia (atomists affinity. Asclepiades, a Greek physician born in Prusa, studied in Athens and Alexandria. His thought was influenced by Democritus’ theories, refusing extensively

  20. Greek Medicine Practice at Ancient Rome: The Physician Molecularist Asclepiades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacroce, Luigi; Bottalico, Lucrezia; Charitos, Ioannis Alexandros

    2017-01-01

    Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action. Opinions about the human nature (naturalistic thinking) and the origin of the illness and heal were the basis of Greek medicine practiced by ancient priests of Asclepius. However, with the evolution of the thought for the continuous research of “κόσμος” (world) knowledge, philosophy woulld become an integral part of medicine and its evolution. This close relationship between philosophy and medicine is confirmed by the Greek physician Galen in the era of the Roman Empire. Methods: Philosophical thought looked for world knowledge starting from mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, medicine, psychology, metaphysics, sociology, and ethics. We must keep in mind that, according to the ancient people, the physicians could not heal the patients without the aid of a “divine God” until medicine, thanks to the Hippocratic practice, became more independent from the supernatural, and contemporary, ethical, and professional. Many physicians were philosophers, as confirmed by their views of life, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Aristotle (hailed as the father of comparative anatomy and physiology), Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Croton, Empedocles, Praxagoras, Erasistratus, Galen, and others, including Asclepiades of Bithynia (atomists affinity). Asclepiades, a Greek physician born in Prusa, studied in Athens and Alexandria. His thought was influenced by Democritus’ theories, refusing extensively the Hippocratic

  1. Greek Medicine Practice at Ancient Rome: The Physician Molecularist Asclepiades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santacroce, Luigi; Bottalico, Lucrezia; Charitos, Ioannis Alexandros

    2017-12-12

    Background: In the pre-Hellenistic period, the concept of medicine was not well-defined. Usually, a disease was considered as a divine punishment and its treatment was devolved to the priests who asked for healing from the divinities. The only job that could be compared to medical practice was a kind of itinerant medicine, derived from the Egyptian therapeutic tradition based only on practical experience and performed by people that knew a number of remedies, mostly vegetable, but without any theoretical bases about the possible mechanisms of action. Opinions about the human nature (naturalistic thinking) and the origin of the illness and heal were the basis of Greek medicine practiced by ancient priests of Asclepius. However, with the evolution of the thought for the continuous research of "κόσμος" (world) knowledge, philosophy woulld become an integral part of medicine and its evolution. This close relationship between philosophy and medicine is confirmed by the Greek physician Galen in the era of the Roman Empire. Methods: Philosophical thought looked for world knowledge starting from mathematics, physics, astronomy, chemistry, medicine, psychology, metaphysics, sociology, and ethics. We must keep in mind that, according to the ancient people, the physicians could not heal the patients without the aid of a "divine God" until medicine, thanks to the Hippocratic practice, became more independent from the supernatural, and contemporary, ethical, and professional. Many physicians were philosophers, as confirmed by their views of life, such as Hippocrates of Cos, Aristotle (hailed as the father of comparative anatomy and physiology), Pythagoras of Samos, Alcmaeon of Croton, Empedocles, Praxagoras, Erasistratus, Galen, and others, including Asclepiades of Bithynia (atomists affinity). Asclepiades, a Greek physician born in Prusa, studied in Athens and Alexandria. His thought was influenced by Democritus' theories, refusing extensively the Hippocratic ideas that

  2. Analysis of the Design Criteria for Ancient Greek and Roman Catapults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paasch, Kasper

    2011-01-01

    This paper will give a short overview of use of COMSOL Multiphysics for analyzing ancient Greek and Roman catapults with the main focus on the energy storing torsion springs. Catapults have been known and used in the Greek and Roman world from around 399 BC and a fully standardized design for pow...

  3. Perseus Project: Interactive Teaching and Research Tools for Ancient Greek Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crane, Gregory; Harward, V. Judson

    1987-01-01

    Describes the Perseus Project, an educational program utilizing computer technology to study ancient Greek civilization. Including approximately 10 percent of all ancient literature and visual information on architecture, sculpture, ceramics, topography, and archaeology, the project spans a range of disciplines. States that Perseus fuels student…

  4. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementi Nicoletta

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The origins of Western culture extensively relate to Ancient Greek culture. While many ancient cultures have contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and the origins of psychiatry, the Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients expressed towards medicine and toward what today is referred to as 'psychopathology'. Myths and religious references were used to explain what was otherwise impossible to understand or be easily communicated. Most ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients may have had towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common even today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths could represent a valuable knowledge base for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. This paper explores many human aspects and feelings towards doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths and focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  5. The Olympic Games as reflection conditions of development Ancient Greek civilization in Hellenism period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasianenko Ol'ga Gennadievna

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The author has realized the historical analysis of the Olympic Games at consideration the conditions of Ancient Greek civilization development in Hellenism period. Had presented the division into the periodization of Greek civilization development in which had learned a major changes in the world-view of Hellenes under the A. Macedonian influence, notably: professionalization of sport and gradual fading of ideals, making basis of olympism, and also Christianity following late which results in the decline of the Olympic Games.

  6. [A review of the principle mythical gods in ancient greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lips Castro, Walter; Urenda Arias, Catalina

    2014-12-01

    Like their prehistoric ancestors, the people of early civilizations lived related to the supernatural. Facing life-threatening situations, such as illness and death, people of ancient civilizations resorted to divination, prophecy, or the oracle. Regarding the curative activities of the ancient Greek civilization, there was a period in which these processes were exclusively linked to a supernatural perspective of the origin of disease. This stage of development of Greek healing practices corresponds to what might be called pre-Hippocratic Greek medicine. In ancient Greek civilization, myths exerted a strong influence on the concepts of disease and the healing processes. Although the first divine figure of Greek mythology related to medicine was Paeon, healing cults related to Apollo and Asclepius had a higher importance in tradition and Greek mythology. The Apollonian divine healing consisted in the ability to eliminate chaos and keep away evil, while in the Asclepian perspective, the role of healer was linked to specific procedures. Personal and medical skills allowed Asclepius to surpass his father and achieve his final consecration as a god of medicine.

  7. THE GENIUS LOCI AT THE GREAT TEMPLE OF ABU SIMBEL: HERMENEUTIC READING IN THE ARCHITECTURAL LANGUAGE OF ANCIENT EGYPTIAN TEMPLES OF RAMSES II IN NUBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelly Ramzy

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Archaeologists have long wondered about the Temple of Abu Simbel: its location within the Nubian territory far from major Egyptian cities, and its unique design. Utilizing the hermeneutic process of understanding the whole from the parts and then situating the whole within a bigger whole (context, this study is a trial to arrive at a better interpretation of this monument. Drawing on the characteristic analysis of the temple's Genius Loci as developed by Norberg-Schulz, as well as on Heidegger's anticipatory fore-structures, the study goes on to show that both of the location and the unique structure of the temple were the outcome of political and conceptual aspects of the period, more than being a religious tradition. Reaching this conclusion, another goal had been achieved, where the validity of hermeneutic analyses as a useful tool for discovering new dimensions about historical monuments and archaeological sites had been attested.

  8. Mechanical Assessment of Fire Damage of the Ancient Greek Temple of Marble Stone

    OpenAIRE

    山田, 眞生

    2016-01-01

    Historical masonry heritages buildings existing in earthquake-prone countries have been affected many times by earthquakes in their long histories. The Parthenon, Athens in Greece is one of the most famous buildings, and it well known that the Parthenon was damaged seriously by earthquakes and especially human disasters. Therefore, restoration works have been performed carefully since 1975. In addition, marble stone constructions, for example marble column, also suffered serious damage by two...

  9. Space on the move: the travel of narratology to Ancient Greek lyric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heirman, J.

    2011-01-01

    In this article I to investigate the possibility of applying narratology (primarily with regard to ‘space’) to ancient Greek lyric poetry (7th-5th C. B.C.). Narratology has initially been developed for the analysis of modern novels and has only recently been applied to other fields, for instance to

  10. Symbolic 'Lived Spaces' in Ancient Greek Lyric and the Heterotopia of the Symposium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heirman, J.; Heirman, J.; Klooster, J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper looks at the presentation of space in ancient Greek lyric poetry of the seventh through the fifth century BCE and its ideological function in the cultural-historical context. This poetry, by authors including Sappho, Solon and Pindar, comes after the Homeric epics about Troy and Odysseus

  11. Ritualizing the Use of Coins in Ancient Greek Sanctuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The article explores aspects of the monetization of the Greek sanctuaries, more specifically how space was created to accommodate coins as objects and their use within the sacred sphere. Except in a limited number of cases, our understanding is still quite fragmented. Where most research has...

  12. Sailors and sanctuaries of the ancient Greek world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Johnston

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The many small maritime sanctuaries where Greek sailors left offerings to the gods are much less well known than such great cult centres as Delphi and Olympia on the mainland. UCL archaeologists have been contributing to the study of these widely scattered but significant sites for over a century, a tradition that continues today.

  13. Medicine and psychiatry in Western culture: among Ancient Greek myths and modern prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornaro, Michele; Clementi, Nicoletta; Fornaro, Pantaleo

    2009-01-01

    While many ancient cultures contributed to our current knowledge about medicine and psychiatry origins, Ancient Greeks were among the best observers of feelings and moods patients could express toward medicine and toward what today referred as "psychopathology". Myths and religious references were used to explain what elsewhere impossible to understand or easily communicated. Most of ancient myths focus on ambiguous feelings patients could have towards drugs, especially psychotropic ones. Interestingly, such prejudices are common yet today. Recalling ancient findings and descriptions made using myths, should represent a valuable knowledge for modern physicians, especially for psychiatrists, and their patients, with the aim of better understanding each other and therefore achieving a better clinical outcome. The paper explores many human aspects and feelings toward doctors and their cures, referring to ancient myths, focusing on the perception of mental illness.

  14. Ritualizing the Use of Coins in Ancient Greek Sanctuaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lykke, Anne

    2017-01-01

    The article explores aspects of the monetization of the Greek sanctuaries, more specifically how space was created to accommodate coins as objects and their use within the sacred sphere. Except in a limited number of cases, our understanding is still quite fragmented. Where most research has...... of coins and in extension to develop an understanding of the possible changes in human behavior in the sanctuaries based on this evidence....

  15. Rape and Adultery in Ancient Greek and Yoruba Societies | Olasope ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Athens and other ancient cultures, a woman, whatever her status and whatever her age or social class, was, in law, a perpetual minor. Throughout her life, she was in the legal control of a guardian who represented her in law. Rape, as unlawful carnal knowledge of a woman, warranted a capital charge in the ...

  16. Worlds full of signs. Ancient Greek divination in context

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerden, Kim

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation compares divination in ancient Greece to divinatory practices in Republican Rome and Neo-Assyrian Mesopotamia. Divination is the human production and interpretation of signs which were thought to have come from the supernatural – the signs could be concerned with past, present or

  17. Teaching Ancient Greek History in Greek Compulsory Education: Textual and Ideological Continuities and Discontinuities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papakosta, Konstantina

    2017-01-01

    The reality of Greek education presents a dissension in relation to the global trends regarding the existence and use of a single textbook per school subject. This reality also influences the orientation of education research. Thus, the international trend to study how textbooks affect the uptake of knowledge by the student, which is followed by…

  18. Panic and Culture: Hysterike Pnix in the Ancient Greek World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattern, Susan P

    2015-10-01

    Starting perhaps in the second century BCE, and with Hippocratic precedent, ancient medical writers described a condition they called hysterike pnix or "uterine suffocation." This paper argues that uterine suffocation was, in modern terms, a functional somatic syndrome characterized by chronic anxiety and panic attacks. Transcultural psychiatrists have identified and described a number of similar panic-type syndromes in modern populations, and a plausible theory of how they work has been advanced. These insights, applied to the ancient disease of hysterike pnix, demystify the condition and illuminate the experience of the women who suffered from it. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Historical Perspectives on Ancient Greek Derived "a" Prefixed Nomenclature for Acquired Neurocognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2017-06-01

    Distinct forms of acquired neurocognitive impairment are often described by "a" prefixed terms that derive from ancient Greek (and in one case Latin). Two modern English language neurological and neuropsychological reference books were searched to identify 17 such terms in contemporary usage: amnesia, akinesia, ataxia, aphasia, agraphia, anosmia, apraxia, athetosis, ageusia, achromatopsia, agnosia, alexia, amusia, anomia, anarthria, anosognosia, and acalculia. These were traced to their initial association with acquired neurocognitive impairment in German, English, and French language medical publications from the late 18th, 19th, and early 20th centuries (1770 through 1920). Some of these terms (e.g., agnosia) were used in ancient Greek, although not associated with neurocognitive impairment. The remainder constitute novel semantically plausible (e.g., anosmia) and unclear (e.g., alexia) formulations. In the localizationist thinking of the time, neurocognition was conceived as being organized within specialized "centers" in specific locations connected by pathways within the brain.

  20. Eloquent Alogia: Animal Narrators in Ancient Greek Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Hawkins

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical Greek literature presents a variety of speaking animals. These are not, of course, the actual voices of animals but human projections. In a culture that aligns verbal mastery with social standing, verbal animals present a conundrum that speaks to an anxiety about human communication. I argue that the earliest examples of speaking animals, in Homer, Hesiod and Archilochus, show a fundamental connection with Golden Age tales. Later authors, such as Plutarch and Lucian, look back on such cases from a perspective that does not easily accept notions of divine causation that would permit such fanciful modes of communication. I argue that Plutarch uses a talking pig to challenge philosophical categories, and that Lucian transforms a sham-philosopher of a talking-cock to undermine the very pretense of philosophical virtue.

  1. Tracing the roots of European bioethics back to the Ancient Greek philosophersphysicians

    OpenAIRE

    Kalokairinou, Eleni M.

    2011-01-01

    Contrary to the usual claim that Bioethics is a contemporary discipline, I argue that its origins can be traced back to the Ancient Greek philosophers-healers. In classical antiquity philosophy was almost inseparable from medicine not only in the sense that philosophers like Empedocles, Plato and Aristotle contributed to its development, but also in that later philosophers conceived of moral principles and rules in order to prevent the physicians’ malpractice and the patients’ harassment. Fro...

  2. Searching the seat of the soul in Ancient Greek and Byzantine medical literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykouras, Eleftherios; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie; Ploumpidis, Demetrios N

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the ancient and medieval concepts about the seat of the mental functions, as exposed in Greek texts from Antiquity to Byzantine times. The review of the philosophical and medical literature from the original ancient Greek language from the Homeric epics to the Holy Fathers of Christianity, as the problem of the seat of the soul remained without a certain answer through the centuries. Primitive concepts attributed great significance to the soul and dictated cannibal behaviours for the possession and eating of the defeated enemy's heart. Mental functions, such as thinking, feeling and mainly those related to affective manifestations, were attributed to the heart and to some other internal organs (liver, diaphragm) from the times of Greek mythology. Philosophy and empirical medicine had underestimated the brain probably because it is a 'silent' organ, contrary to the palpitating heart, with its obvious participations in the emotional reactions. The role of the brain as the mental organ and the seat of emotions has been gradually recognized. The permanent question of the seat of the soul had been for many centuries a critical dispute and the contribution of Greek philosophical and medical thought was decisive for the contemporary transformation of the whole concept.

  3. From ancient Greek medicine to EP³OS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopakis, E P; Hellings, P W; Velegrakis, G A; Kawauchi, H

    2010-09-01

    The manuscripts of eminent Byzantine physicians from the 4th to the 14th century contain extensive information on various otorhinolaryngological issues. In their work, the early knowledge of rhinological disease from definition and symptoms to conservative treatment and surgical intervention is intriguing. Most of this meticulous knowledge was developed through time, beginning mainly from Hippocrates and the Hellenistic period. Thereafter, medicine developed through Roman and Byzantium times to finally influence European medicine and later the rest of the Western world. History of medicine reflects the history of mankind itself, and otorhinolaryngology follows closely this path. Our goal is to slim down and illuminate the most challenging of the vast amount of information on rhinological issues contained in the original Greek text of Hippocrates, and mainly in the hagiographical texts of Byzantine medical writers. In particular, we focus on rhinological diseases from antiquity till the time being, following the journey of evolution of topical and nebulizer therapy for sinonasal inflammatory diseases in Greece, from "milothris" to modern nasal sprays, leading to an understanding of the philosophy of our predecessors and the roots of modern rhinology.

  4. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voultsiadou, Eleni

    2010-07-20

    Marine organisms are currently investigated for the therapeutic potential of their natural products with very promising results. The human interest for their use in healing practices in the Eastern Mediterranean goes back to the antiquity. An attempt is made in the present work to investigate the therapeutic properties of marine invertebrates and the ways they were used in the medical practice during the dawn of the western medicine. The classical Greek texts of the Ancient Greek (Classical, Hellenistic and Roman) and early Byzantine period were studied and the data collected were analysed in order to extract detailed information on the parts of animal bodies and the ways they were used for healing purposes. Thirty-eight marine invertebrates were recorded for their therapeutic properties and uses in 40 works of 20 classical authors, covering a time period of 11 centuries (5th c. BC to 7th c. AD). The identified taxa were classified into 7 phyla and 11 classes of the animal kingdom, while molluscs were the dominant group. Marine invertebrates were more frequently used for their properties relevant to digestive, genitourinary and skin disorders. Flesh, broth, skeleton, or other special body parts of the animals were prepared as drinks, collyria, suppositories, cataplasms, compresses, etc. Marine invertebrates were well known for their therapeutic properties and had a prominent role in the medical practice during the Ancient Greek and the early Byzantine period. The diversity of animal species and their medicinal uses reflect the maritime nature of the Greek civilization, which flourished on the coasts and islands of the Aegean Sea. Most of them were common species exploited by humans for food or other everyday uses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Comments on three-dimensional modeling in ancient greek and roman architecture: Herodotus, Aristotle and Vitruvius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Rozestraten

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Herodotus' and Aristotle's text's extracts refered on specific bibliography as proofs of the use of architectural scale models in greek ancient architect's design process. This review of the original texts reveals mistaken traductions over whom insustainable historical perspectives have been built. The historical documents review extends to the roman world and analizes Vitruvius' text's extracts. This study aims, by relating textual documents and objects gattered by archaeology, to build new interpretations on the subject of representation and design process in Antiquity.

  6. A comparison of Ancient Greek and Roman Sports Diets with Modern Day Practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian; Bartels, Else Marie

    2016-01-01

    potential. In reality, nothing has changed between the ancient and modern athletes. To be optimal, a sports diet should be nutritionally balanced, whilst accommodating the genetic and environmental requirements, the gender and age needs, the demands of the sports discipline, as well as addressing any......With the preparations for the Olympics 2016 in Rio came a series of demands to the sports world in terms of attaining optimal physical performance for the many disciplines represented at today’s Olympics. In the light of this, we have focused on the dietary and physiological requirements...... of a modern Olympic athlete and contrast these with those of ancient Greek and Roman athletes. Our particular emphasis has been on the source of nutrients, historical dietary trends, and the search for the optimal sports diet, that is to say a diet that will ensure the attainment of an athlete’s full...

  7. On the Contribution of Slovenian Linguistics to the History of the Ancient Greek Perfect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An important contribution to the history of the Ancient Greek perfect is the study of Erika Mihevc-Gabrovec, The Disappearance of the Perfect in Late Greek (La disparition du parfait dans le grec de la basse époque. In terms of theory and content, her study continues the work of Pierre Chantraine, but somewhat diverges from her predecessor’s views on the issue of the merger between the aorist and the perfect, identifying examples of the use of the perfect even in an – according to Pierre Chantraine – relatively late period.  Some years after the publication of Erika Mihevc-Gabrovec’s book, the question of when the aorist and the perfect may have merged was raised again, to be addressed by McKay in a number of articles. Today, the views on the subject are strongly divided.   As argued by the author of this paper, one of the setbacks in examining the merger between the aorist and the perfect concerns the methodology, since researchers have tended to rely exclusively on their sense of language. A possible new approach is offered in the framework of the Slovenian theory of Natural Syntax, which has from the start paid considerable attention to English sentences of the I believe her to be intelligent type. The paper describes similar sentences in New Testament Greek, terming them “sentences of the λέγουσινἀνάστασινμὴεἶναι type”. In New Testament Greek, they display a tendency to use the present infinitive of stative verbs; relatively frequent is also the perfect infinitive (of non-stative verbs, while, as already noted in other studies, these sentences – at least in New Testament Greek – avoid the aorist infinitive. Such sentences thus bear witness to the fact that the aorist and the perfect were not fully interchangeable in New Testament Greek; the status of the aorist and perfect infinitives in sentences of the λέγουσινἀνάστασινμὴεἶναι type should also be taken into

  8. How angry was the ancient Greek god Poseidon in 141/142 A.D.?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şahin, Murat; Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk

    2017-04-01

    Poseidon, also known as "God of Sea" or "Earth-Shaker", was one of the Olympian's Gods in the Greek mythology. It was a common belief that Poseidon shows his rage by tsunamis and earthquakes. So, the how angry Poseidon in 141/142 A.D.? According to the historical records, the whole area including Lycian cities and Rhodes was affected by a destructive earthquake and a following tsunami in 141/142. After these events the emperor of Greeks made donations to the Lycian cities and Rhodes for their recovery with relative to the damage and importance of the city. 141/142 earthquake had a considerable amount of damage on 28 ancient cities. With respect to the historical catalogues, this earthquake had at least 9-10 intensity and caused a tsunami in Rhodes and harbour of the ancient city of Patara. In this study, we try to restrict the magnitude of the event by using PGA (peak ground acceleration), MMI (Modified Mercalli Intensity), tsunami modelling and amount of aids. Our preliminary results suggest that this event has to be bigger or equal magnitude 8.

  9. Sirius in Ancient Greek and Roman Literature: From the Orphic Argonautics to the Astronomical Tables of Georgios Chrysococca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, Efstratios; Manimanis, Vassilios N.; Dimitrijevi, Milan S.; Mantarakis, Peter Z.

    2011-11-01

    The brightest star of the night sky, is Sirius, Alpha Canis Majoris (α CMa). Due to its intense brightness, Sirius had one of the dominant positions in ancient mythology, legends and traditions. In this paper the references of the many ancient classical Greek and Roman authors and poets who wrote about Sirius are examined, and the problem of its 'red' color reported in some of these references is discussed.

  10. Empathy as a Tool for Historical Understanding: An Evaluative Approach of the Ancient Greek Primary History Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarakou, Elisabeth D.

    2008-01-01

    The present study examines the ancient Greek history curriculum and the corresponding textbook as they are implemented in the fourth grade of primary school in an aim to determine whether and to what extent empathy is recognized as a fundamental tool for historical understanding. A close examination of the curriculum revealed that empathy is not…

  11. Reflections on Tutoring Ancient Greek Philosophy: A Case Study of Teaching First-Year Undergraduates in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of my reflections on teaching a first-year undergraduate tutorial on Ancient Greek Philosophy in the UK. This study draws upon the notion of reflective practice as an essential feature of teaching, in this case applied to Higher Education. My aim is to show how a critical engagement with my teaching practices and the overall…

  12. Colchicum genus in the writings of ancient Greek and Byzantine physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Papaioannou, Theodoros; Panayiotakopoulos, George; Saridaki, Zenia; Vrachatis, Dimitrios A; Karamanou, Marianna

    2018-01-14

    The plants of the Colchicum family were known during the archaic period in Greece for their deleterious properties. Later on, they were used for the treatment of podagra. The treatment was introduced by the ancient Greek physicians and passed on to the Byzantine and Arabian physicians to endure until nowadays. The first plant was most probably named "Medea" from the notorious Colchican witch. As the most common member of the family blossoms in autumn, the plant was named Colchicum autumnale. Various nominations were also used, such as Ephemeron, Hermodactyl, Anima articulorum and Surugen. Our article discusses them, while at the same time presents the most notable authorities who have used Colchicum plants in herbal medicine and toxicology. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  13. Mapping the Words: Experimental visualizations of translation structures between Ancient Greek and Classical Arabic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torsten Roeder

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with presentation forms of linguistic transformation processes from ancient Greek sources that were translated into classical Arabic from the 9th to 11th century AD. Various examples demonstrate how visualizations support the interpretation of corpus structures, lexical differentiation, grammatical transformation and translation processes for single lexemes in the database project Glossarium Graeco-Arabicum. The database contains about 100,000 manually collected word pairs (still growing from 76 texts and their translations. The article discusses how the project utilizes Sankey diagrams, tree maps, balloon charts, data grids and classical coordinate systems to point out specific aspects of the data. Visualizations not only help beginners to understand the corpus structure, they also help editors and specialized users to identify specific phenomena. A well-documented interface design is crucial both for usability and interpretative work.

  14. Theories About Blood Coagulation in the Writings of Ancient Greek Medico-philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoucalas, Gregory; Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodoros G; Sgantzos, Markos

    2017-01-01

    Anaxagoras and Empedocles both established during the Presocratic era a pioneering theory for the creation of everything in the universe. Macrocosmos' impact through the "Four Elements Theory" explained the conglomeration of the blood inside the vessels. Hippocrates, who instituted the "Four Humours theory", clearly understood blood's coagulation and introduced the term "thrombus". Plato, Aristotle and Galen, all engaged with the clotting phenomenon trying to interpret it. After eons of inquiry, it was the innovative thinking of the ancient Greek medico philosophers that set the scientific bases towards the understanding of a process that had been analyzing until our era. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Ancient Greek mythology mediated by Latin culture: On Vlastimir Trajković’s arion and Zephyrus returns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milin Melita

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Vlastimir Trajković (b. 1947 is a prominent Serbian composer with a strong inclination towards subjects from ancient Greek mythology. Among his most important achievements may be counted Arion - le nuove musiche per chitarra ed archi (1979 and Zephyrus returns for flute, viola and piano (2003. Two important aspects of those works are discussed in the present article: 1. the line that connects them to ancient Greek culture via French Modernism (Debussy, Ravel, Messiaen and Renaissance poetry and music (Petrarch, Caccini, Monteverdi; 2. modality, which has proved its vitality through long periods of the history of European music, beginning with ancient Greek modes, reaching its high point in the 16th century, and re-emerging at the beginning of the 20th century in different hybrid forms. Trajković is seen as a composer who has shaped his creative identity by exploring the rich musical heritage of the Latin European nations, especially the contributions of Debussy and Ravel.

  16. Ancient Greek Legend in Modern Japanese Literature: “Run, Melos!” by Dazai Osamu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lija GANTAR

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dazai Osamu (1909-1948, a modern Japanese writer, wrote “Run, Melos!” in 1940. The short story is a rework of an Ancient Greek legend of Damon and Pythias from the 4th century B.C., which was introduced to Dazai through Schiller’s version of the legend, “The Hostage”. The legend, based on a true event, represents the perfect friendship and was reworked a number of times by different antique writers. After having been forgotten for a while, it reappeared in the Middle Ages as a fictional story and has gotten many new adaptations from then on. One of them was Schiller’s ballad in 1798, which – alongside an anecdote from Dazai’s own life – represented the basis for Dazai’s story. Even though “Run, Melos!” is not an autobiographical work, Dazai managed to pass his own feelings onto the characters, add some biblical elements, and included a never-before-employed dark twist in the story, thus making his version more realistic than the preceding ones. Despite the distance in time and place between him and the legend, with “Run, Melos!”, Dazai managed to retell a Western literature story, making it a part of the Japanese literature as well, adding motifs and themes influenced by his own life, time, and place.

  17. ACCURATE 3D SCANNING OF DAMAGED ANCIENT GREEK INSCRIPTIONS FOR REVEALING WEATHERED LETTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Papadaki

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and ”hidden” letters.

  18. Accurate 3d Scanning of Damaged Ancient Greek Inscriptions for Revealing Weathered Letters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadaki, A. I.; Agrafiotis, P.; Georgopoulos, A.; Prignitz, S.

    2015-02-01

    In this paper two non-invasive non-destructive alternative techniques to the traditional and invasive technique of squeezes are presented alongside with specialized developed processing methods, aiming to help the epigraphists to reveal and analyse weathered letters in ancient Greek inscriptions carved in masonry or marble. The resulting 3D model would serve as a detailed basis for the epigraphists to try to decipher the inscription. The data were collected by using a Structured Light scanner. The creation of the final accurate three dimensional model is a complicated procedure requiring large computation cost and human effort. It includes the collection of geometric data in limited space and time, the creation of the surface, the noise filtering and the merging of individual surfaces. The use of structured light scanners is time consuming and requires costly hardware and software. Therefore an alternative methodology for collecting 3D data of the inscriptions was also implemented for reasons of comparison. Hence, image sequences from varying distances were collected using a calibrated DSLR camera aiming to reconstruct the 3D scene through SfM techniques in order to evaluate the efficiency and the level of precision and detail of the obtained reconstructed inscriptions. Problems in the acquisition processes as well as difficulties in the alignment step and mesh optimization are also encountered. A meta-processing framework is proposed and analysed. Finally, the results of processing and analysis and the different 3D models are critically inspected and then evaluated by a specialist in terms of accuracy, quality and detail of the model and the capability of revealing damaged and "hidden" letters.

  19. Analysis of the dative in impersonal constructions: the concepts of subject and semi-subject in ancient Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Conti

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Impersonal constructions holding a complement both in dative and genitive are attested in Greek with a few verbs, which share the property of expressing the interests or the needs of human beings. These constructions, which occur in several ancient Indo- European languages, are documented in the post- Homeric period in the case of Greek. In the opposite, personal constructions, which appear more recently in other languages, are already documented in Greek since Homer’s times. The dative in the impersonal construction refers to human entities, codes the Experiencer and it is also the topic. These properties, which are close to those of the prototypical subject, seem to allow the dative to show some subject-like syntactic behaviour. In fact, we will argue that the dative in the impersonal construction behaves as a semi-subject, i. e. a verbal complement which, regardless of its coding, does have a set of properties that are typically associated with the subject in Greek. As well as the complement in dative, the complement in genitive in the impersonal construction exhibits a syntactic behaviour similar to the subject. However, the genitive does not follow the same patterns the dative does in the impersonal construction.

  20. The Ancient Greek Way of Life and the Consequences of the Dominance of the Appetitive Part of the Soul in Mankind Today

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiorgo N. Maniatis

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I examine the healthy ancient Greek way of life by contrast to the unhealthy way of life of contemporary man, who at the greatest percentage is homo economicus. First, I examine the ancient Greek philosophical perceptions of the soul, with emphasis on the great psychological theory of Plato, aiming to show the healthy way that the ancient Greeks perceived the soul and the homologous ethical way that they lived their life in accordance with its nature in order to live as much eudaimonically as possible. Next, in comparison, I examine the new contemporary man, homo economicus, in whom the appetitive part of the soul dominates, and investigate those catastrophic consequences that this dominance of the inferior part of the human soul have brought in our global era, in sectors such as the economy, education and politics, resulting to the decadence of life.

  1. Panhellenism in the Sculptures of the Zeus Temple at Olympia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ross Holloway

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The inclusion of Theseus and the Thessalian centauromachy along with the labors of Heracles served to extend to the whole Greek world the scope of heroic honors illustrated on the temple.

  2. Rhetoric Tradition and Democracy: Isocrates’ Role in Ancient Greek Political Idea. Start Point of Western Political Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokri Mehdi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Political participation and the public education that have always been deployed to support the incipient progress of the civic life are revived in the modern political discourses. It has been believed that the age of pre-Socrates was the age of the Sophists whose acrid fallacy works occupied the political sphere, a malaise in government. However, speaking non-traditionally in the modern pedagogical system, there were some pre-Socratic thinkers and political philosophers/orators who’s works are the backbone of modern discourse on this matter. It will be examined whether any part of the classical rhetoric apparatus can be recovered and put to a good practice in the modern education and modern political participation. This point will be illustrated, furthermore, in this paper by alleging the importance of rhetoric, its role in Ancient Greek Democracy, and its influence on the modern concepts of power and democracy, as a continual element in a historical-political life. The further consideration is whether there was any democratic Polis existed in Ancient Athens and then, if there was, what characteristics it consisted of. Moreover, whether such concept can or should be considered in modern political discourses. In this sense, the liberal, non-dogmatic strain of the sophistry of Isocrates tradition urges us to indicate that the findings of this educational principles are, if not necessary, but adjutant complementary metes to our modern political knowledge of the states. In the end, it is inquired to see comparatively that how the tradition of rhetorical art and the concept of power in the Ancient Greek society have pertained to the modern democratic elements and whether we are able to empower this influential element in modern states.

  3. The Mythology of the Night Sky An Amateur Astronomer's Guide to the Ancient Greek and Roman Legends

    CERN Document Server

    Falkner, David E

    2011-01-01

    Every amateur astronomer can easily recognize most of the constellations, but how many of us know the story behind them? What myths did the Ancient Greeks weave around the mighty hunter Orion that places him so prominently in the sky? Did you know that this mythical being was said to have been killed by Diana, herself a hunter, while he was exhausted by his fight with Scorpius? The constellation of Scorpius, the giant scorpion, is dominated by the red supergiant Antares and hangs in the sky opposite Orion. Yet there is no constellation of Diana to be found! The Mythology of the Night Sky strikes a balance between backyard astronomy and ancient mythology. Organized by seasons, this book describes Ptolemy's 48 constellations with location and description in detail, while also telling the mythological tales in full. Along with the named constellations, this title also incorporates the lore behind the christening of the planets and their satellites. Readers discover the importance of the ancient characters, why...

  4. The human skin: a meeting ground for the ideas about macrocosm and microcosm in ancient and Medieval and Greek literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamandopoulos, A A; Goudas, P; Diamandopoulos, A H

    2001-12-01

    We have been interested in the cleansing capacity of skin during the recent years. In a paper of ours (1) we presented a few references to Hippocrates' and Galen's ideas on the subject, while the main body of the article was based on the 17th-20th centuries' relative practices. In a second paper (2), we were mainly testing the ancient and Medieval Greek ideas on skin catharsis against some clinical work of ours. In this paper we now present the ideas of the pagan and Byzantine Greek authors (5th cent. BC - 10th cent. AD) on the relationship of the human body to the natural and man-made world. Special emphasis is given to the relationship between purification through the skin and world purification. Based on the similarity of the Empedokles' concept of the four elements and Hippocrates' thesis concerning the four humours, the Earth itself was personified and became a living organism that felt cold, perspired and became dry. Man started to seek a natural explanation for his diseases and alterations of his body functions. Hence, perspiration, fever, urination, headache, stroke, were explained in cosmological terms. Extracts from many medical and non-medical writers, like Empedocles, Hippocrates, Aristotle, Galen, the Fathers of the Church, Meletius latrosophista, Theophilus Protospatharius, Michael Psellus and other sources are presented, in order to show the close relationship between an abundance of diseases and an array of natural phenomena.

  5. A sustained survival: elements and mythical motifs in ancient Greek philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio López Saco

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Other aspects of historical nature, the distinction between nomos-physis, operated in the archaic Greek world, meant that socio-cultural structures will be intrinsic to the world, to be conventional and imposed to the natural order, a fact which broke the traditional mythical discourse (nature and culture correlations, and began to distinguish between humanity and the world. Despite this twist, the myth did not disappear nor was it entirely overcome or forgotten. In this sense, the proposal offered in this work is theoretical observation of the conduct and influence of the myth in what has conceptualized as «philosophical» in Greece antiquity.

  6. The Greek medical texts and the sexual ethos of ancient Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keuls, E C

    1995-01-01

    After at least a century of institutionalized pederasty Athenian society developed legal and moral sanctions against this practice at the end of the fifth century BC as the indirect result of the introduction of medicine. Viewing the sex drive as a bodily need, analogous to hunger and thirst, it cast a disparaging light on the role played by the passive partner. It is here argued that the principal catalyst of the transformation of biology into prescriptive ethics was Democritus of Abdera, whose preoccupation with medicine is known. Democritus probably influenced Aristotle, who articulated the harshest condemnation of pederasty found in Greek texts.

  7. Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds.), The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015)

    OpenAIRE

    William C. Miller

    2017-01-01

    A review of the book: Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds.), The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015)

  8. «Monetary Program» of Ancient Greek Olympic Games (History and British Historiography of the XIX – Early ХХ Centuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Gzhibovskaya

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Commemorative coins are one of the attributes of the modern Olympic movement, relating to the category of «Games Product». Monetary program “Sochi 2014”, realized since 2011 is one of the most extensive and design diversified. The tradition to stamp out coins in the host city of the Olympic Games was established in Ancient Greece. They served not only as a means of exchange or as a store of value, ancient Greeks managed to make them works of art. Ancient authors’ data, concerning coinage site, time and type don’t give an accurate account of the coins we can reasonably call the “Olympic” ones. This problem has been solved by numismatologists from late XVIII century through the present. Their views of ancient “monetary program” differ. This article is focused on the special character of these discrepancies both in historical records and historiography

  9. Human or superhuman: The concept of hero in ancient Greek religion and/in politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Lada

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The word hero appears in Greek language with a twofold meaning. On one hand it is used for denoting a divine being, who lived a mortal life, but after doing some great deed deserved to become god. On the other hand, the hero stands for great and brave warrior who is ready to give his life in order to gain immortal glory, and continue to live in the social sphere, in the memory of his descendants. Exactly this epic narrative survived and was exploited many times, as a very convenient and useful pattern in con strutting the ideal of brave warrior, ready to die for his country when necessary. I am going to requisition the relation between two meanings of the word hero, in order to get deeper insight in the meaning of this twofold term in the social and cultural context in which it appears, as a religious concept or as a narrative in war propaganda.

  10. Looks of Love and Loathing: Cultural Models of Vision and Emotion in Ancient Greek Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas L. Cairns

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the intersection of cultural models of emotion, specifically love and envy, with folk and scientific models of vision in Greek antiquity. Though the role of the eyes in the expression of these emotions can intersect with widespread beliefs in vision as a 'haptic', material process, analogous to touch, none the less the emotional concepts resist absorption into a single over-arching theory of the physical effects of seeing and being seen. The specific cultural models of vision ('active', 'passive', and 'interactive' are enlisted in support of cultural models of emotion where they fit, modified where they fit less well, and ignored when they do not fit at all.

  11. The influence of ancient Greek thought on fifteenth century anatomy: Galenic influence and Leonardo da Vinci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Richard Isaiah; Gonzales, Jocelyn; Iwanaga, Joe; Loukas, Marios; Oskouian, Rod J; Tubbs, R Shane

    2018-06-01

    Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519) can be called one of the earliest contributors to the history of anatomy and, by extension, the study of medicine. He may have even overshadowed Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the so-called founder of human anatomy, if his works had been published within his lifetime. While some of the best illustrations of their time, with our modern knowledge of anatomy, it is clear that many of da Vinci's depictions of human anatomy are inaccurate. However, he also made significant discoveries in anatomy and remarkable predictions of facts he could not yet discover with the technology available to him. Additionally, da Vinci was largely influenced by Greek anatomists, as indicated from his ideas about anatomical structure. In this historical review, we describe da Vinci's history, influences, and discoveries in anatomical research and his depictions and errors with regards to the musculoskeletal system, cardiovascular system, nervous system, and other organs.

  12. Cannibalism in Latin-Greek sources: its references in mythology and ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingo F. Sanz

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article tries to analyze and comment on the greater amount of references regarding the phenomenon of cannibalism that there exists in Greek and Latin literary tradition. After reviewing many of the sources, it is possible to distinguish the different ways in which this tradition approached such phenomenon and to discover a common intention: starting from the mythology or the Homeric epic, going through the different philosophical trends and schools of thought, we will begin to realize and conclude that in many occasions there is a use of the concept of cannibalism to negatively define «the other», the outcast or foreigner, opening thus a topic that still survives nowadays.

  13. From Hades to Hel and from Elysium to Valhǫll : A Comparative Research about Death and Afterlife in ancient Greek and Viking society

    OpenAIRE

    Karagianni, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    The present thesis is a comparative research about death and afterlife in ancient Greek and Viking society making use of both literary sources such as the Eddas and the Homeric epic poems and archaeological evidence including ship burials, rune stones, grave steles and vase paintings. I start applying the subject of death and afterlife individually on each civilization and for this purpose the two first chapters consist of two parts; the first part deals with beliefs about death and afterlife...

  14. The Dikpālas of ancient Java revisited: A new identification for the 24 directional deities on the Śiva temple of the Loro Jonggrang complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Acri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Caṇḍi Śiva, sacred centre of the famous ninth-century Loro Jonggrang temple complex at Prambanan, Central Java, is decorated with numerous iconic and narrative reliefs. Starting from the eastern staircase and traversing the perambulatory in a clockwise direction, we find the narrative reliefs of the Rāmāyaṇa on the balustrade wall on our left, and the iconic reliefs of twenty-four seated male deities, each flanked by several attendants – collectively referred to in the accompanying iconographic plan as ‘Lokapālas with attendants’– on our right, that is, on the temple body proper. The prime objective of the present inquiry is propose a new identification of this set of twenty-four deities forming Śiva’s entourage, which remains an unresolved issue in the art history of Central Java. Our findings will have implications for our understanding of the iconographical master plan of Loro Jonggrang, and, in a wider sense, of certain developments in Indo-Javanese and Balinese iconography.

  15. Myth Today: the Traditional Understanding of Myth in Critical Theories of Society and the Usefulness of Vernant's Concept of Ancient Greek Mythology for Contemporary Cultural Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jože Vogrinc

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available There is no shortage of speaking about »myths« in contemporary popular culture, and often ancient Greek myths are evoked. »Myth«, however, is usually taken to mean a widely distributed story or belief which is inexact, false and/or fabricated – typically, to manipulate the multitude. In critical theories of society after Marx there are hints of different, theoretically more productive accounts of modern heritage or modern correspondences with Greek mythology. Marx himself has influenced cultural theorists with his account of the relationship between Greek mythology and Greek art as given in his Grundrisse. In his view, mythology serves as the arsenal and foundation of art because in mythology »nature and social forms are already reworked in an unconsciously artistic way by the popular imagination«. This account, together with a hint that there exist (in newspapers modern correspondences with such a relationship, has led to various theoretical elaborations of contemporary popular culture and ideology (e.g. in A. Gramsci, R. Williams, L. Althusser, P. Macherey etc.. None of them, however, retains »myth« as a concept; the word, when used, refers to ideology. Even R. Barthes, who developed a semiological concept of myth, did not refer to its Greek cultural meaning but used it explicitly as a tool for analysing the ideological manipulation of popular culture. C. Lévi-Strauss in social anthropology in general and J.-P. Vernant in the anthropology of ancient worlds have, on the other hand, developed the structural analysis of myths as essential to a culture without reducing it disparagingly to ideology. In our view, it should be possible to transpose Vernant's treatment of myth as a variable and shifting popular account of topics vital to its consumers to the study of today's popular culture and media.

  16. Application of INAA to archaeometry: Provenance determination of ancient Greek and Roman white marble artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moens, L.J.; Roos, P.G.; De Paepe, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the past five years a large scale project was set up to develop a method to determine the provenance of ancient sculptures made of white marble. The problem was solved by applying three different methods of analysis to the material: INAA and EAAS for the determination of minor- and trace-elements, mass spectrometry measuring the relative abundance of the stable O- and C-isotopes and finally petrography. It was found that these three methods yield complementary information. The role of INAA is of capital importance since it allows one to determine the concentration of a large number of elements in a single sample. In addition the application of multi-variate statistical analysis was indispensable to extract the useful information from the data set. After the analysis of hundreds of quarry samples and the setting up of a reference data base, the method was applied to the provenance determination of about a hundred Green and Roman sculptures from several museums in Europe and the US

  17. Ankara Temple (Monumentum Ancyranum/Temple of Augustus and Rome restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Gökdemir

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Temple of Augustus and Rome, also referred as Monumentum Ancyranum (Ankara Temple, is located near Haci Bayram Mosque in Ulus, Ankara. The temple which was built on behalf of Phrygian God ‘Men’ in 2nd century BC has been destroyed. The temple whose remains are present, on the other hand, was built for Roman Emperor ‘Augustus’ (Gaius Octavius in 25 BC in the name of a commitment sign by King Pilamenes, the son of King Amintos, of Galatia. The positions of the 4 columns in the doorways and 2 columns in the rear sides are recognizable. Currently, only the sidewalls and ornamented door part are remaining. The original testament of Augustus in Temple of Rome, which is written in Latin and Greek and is telling the achievements of Augustus, is imitated in the mosque that is neighboring the wall of Monumentum Ancyranum. Some parts of the patina are spilled because of the climatic parameters (wind, heat, precipitation, and frost. As a result of the petrographic analysis made on the spilled parts of patina, it is concluded that the temple, which has a great importance in the world history, has to be restorated. As a result of the analyses (scanning electron microscope (SEM analysis, EDS, and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis, inner and outer sides of Naos are being constructed without mortar. In the parts, which are broken from the main body, calcium carbonate (CaCO3 and magnesium carbonate (MgCO3 are detected. Besides, it is observed that the main body of the temple is mainly consisting of calcium mineral. If this temple will be restored in the future, it is important to watch out for the calcium mineral property of the building.

  18. The Temple San Ignacio de Loyola In Pátzcuaro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alfonso Ledesma Ibarra

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes some of the architectural characteristics of the Temple of the Company of Jesus in Patzcuaro. The Temple of San Ignacio de Loyola was tion to an intention to join the Jesuits of the visual and urban discourse in this city-ancient bishopric founded by Don Vasco de Quiroga. With this intention a study is done based on some concepts from the Jesuit architecture and some of the elements of this temple compared to other buildings in the town. 

  19. Temples of Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Frank; Hoskin, Michael

    The unique Neolithic temples of Malta have a distinctive orientation toward the range SE-SSW (except for the Mnajdra South Temple which faces E). However, the motive for this preferred direction is not clear. If the motive was astronomical, then the builders could have targeted the bright stars of the Southern Cross and Centaurus. If the opposite direction is taken, then the target could have been the temple builders' ancestral home in Sicily and the surrounding islands. The orientation of the Mnajdra South Temple is remarkable and suggests an alignment with either sunrise midway between the solstices or the heliacal rising of the Pleiades around 3000 BC. The evidence for these alternatives is discussed.

  20. The Greek Concept of the State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The starting-point of my paper is the general recognition of the importance of Ancient Greek democracy and Greek political philosophy for modern democracy and for the assessment of political activity today. Here I draw on the studies by Castoriadis and Hansen. With regard to the ancient definitions of the state, Aristotle’s distinctive feature is that he takes into account the topographical and political-administrative aspects, while Plato’s definitions are – predictably –characterised by the notion that a politician is one who administers state affairs on the basis of his knowledge. The discussion of the entry polis in theEtymologicum Magnum is accompanied by a brief survey of the more recent etymological explanations from the perspective of semantics. Language issues are further addressed in the section on synonyms for the polis, such as ἀκρόπολις, ἄστυ, χώρα, ἄνθρωποι, δῆμος, κοινωνία, πατρίς, ἔθνος. Describing the basic characteristics of the concept of the state, the paper begins with the territory or space, which is often merely touched upon in political theory as the latter prefers to concentrate on the functioning of the political system. According to Aristotle, the territory or space is, like the climate, an external condition of the state, but at the same time a basic one, determined by Nature, φύσις, herself. The discussion of the populace from a political perspective dwells on the Greek vocabulary referring to citizens, male and female. Among the characteristics of the Greek concept of the state, particular emphasis is placed on the religious and mythological foundation of its politics, which is evident in the worship of gods/goddesses as the tutelary deities of cities (such as Zeus, Athena, Hera, Apollo, etc., with their temples, in the cult of the hearth goddess Hestia, and in the Tholos as the Prytaneum building. A further essential quality of the ancient Greek

  1. Ancient Greek and Indian theatres: their origin in choral dances, which represent old myths by means of mimesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Rodríguez Adrados

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the subject of the origin of Greek theatre, especially of tragedy, the author insists in defending the theory already published by him in several occasions, according to which it would have been originated in choral, religious dances, which represent myths by means of an old mimesis. Aristotle suggested choral lyric as its origin, but he did it in a superficial manner. The author develops his theory in detail and speaks of the necessity of using information found in Greek theatre plays themselves: lyric unities and their organization as theatre plays, adding the recitation of the choreutae to choral passages. He proves all this with parallel facts found in Indian theatre by Prof. Gupt, from New Delhi, as well as with the correlation that the author sets between these evidences and the Greek ones: mimetic dance, rite and myth.

  2. Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds., The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William C. Miller

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available A review of the book: Rune Frederiksen, Elizabeth R. Gebhard & Alexander Sokolicek (eds., The Architecture of the Ancient Greek Theatre, Monographs of the Danish Institute, Volume 17 (Aarhus: Aarhus University Press and The Danish Institute at Athens, 2015

  3. The Concept of Law in the Ancient Greek Political Thought: From θεσμός to νόμος

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Azarfaza

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Law is one of the key concepts in ancient Greek political thought. Two different legal-political terms were used for the concept of law in ancient Athens -although not simultaneously. Before putting an end to the tyranny of the Pisistratidae at the end of the sixth century, θεσμός was used in the sense of state law whilst after the Cleisthenes democratic reforms at the beginning of the fifth century, νόμος was the official legal-political term. This study reveals that such terminological change from θεσμός to νόμος reflects a profound change in Athenian political thought. Considering the fact that language mirrors thinking, this change in terminology may reflect a change in Athenian thinking. Hence, through philological analysis, this article aims to expound how ancient Greek political thought altered. Attempting to redefine the unit of Greek political life, πόλις, according to new meaning of the law, this paper is a contribution to the ancient Greek political philosophy.

  4. Evolution of the knowledge of electricity and electrotherapeutics with special reference to X-rays and cancer. Part 1. Ancient Greeks to Luigi Galvani

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mould, R. F.; Aronowitz, J. N.

    2006-01-01

    We present a chronological review of the growth points in the knowledge of electricity, especially as applied to medicine. Commencing with the ancient Greeks and ending with cancer electrotherapeutics at the turn of the 20 t h century, our history is arranged in chronological order by years of the investigators. William Gilbert (1540-1603) initiated the era of scientific investigation, followed by advances in later centuries by Otto von Guericke (1602-1686), Abbe Nollet (1700-1770), Luigi Galvani (1737-1798), Alessandro Volta ( 1745-1827), Michael Faraday (1791-1867) and Nikola Tesla (1856-1943) among others. Although electrotherapy was infrequently used to treatment malignancy, it was to make a major contribution to cancer therapy because the experience gained in electrotherapeutics paved the way for the rapid adoption of diagnostic and therapeutic radiology. Within a year of rontge's discovery, more than a thousand books, pamphlets and papers about X-rays were published. (author)

  5. Speeding up the Raster Scanning Methods used in theX-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, Manisha; /Norfolk State U.

    2006-08-24

    Progress has been made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) toward deciphering the remaining 10-20% of ancient Greek text contained in the Archimedes palimpsest. The text is known to contain valuable works by the mathematician, including the ''Method of Mechanical Theorems, the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies'', and several diagrams as well. The only surviving copy of the text was recycled into a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ink used to write on the goat skin parchment is partly composed of iron, which is visible by x-ray radiation. To image the palimpsest pages, the parchment is framed and placed in a stage that moves according to the raster method. When an x-ray beam strikes the parchment, the iron in the ink is detected by a germanium detector. The resulting signal is converted to a gray-scale image on the imaging program, Rasplot. It is extremely important that each line of data is perfectly aligned with the line that came before it because the image is scanned in two directions. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the best parameters for producing well-aligned images and to reduce the scanning time. Imaging half a page of parchment during previous beam time for this project was achieved in thirty hours. Equations were produced to evaluate count time, shutter time, and the number of pixels in this experiment. On Beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), actual scanning time was reduced by one fourth. The remaining pages were successfully imaged and sent to ancient Greek experts for translation.

  6. Speeding up the Raster Scanning Methods used in the X-Ray Fluorescence Imaging of the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, Manisha; Norfolk State U.

    2006-01-01

    Progress has been made at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) toward deciphering the remaining 10-20% of ancient Greek text contained in the Archimedes palimpsest. The text is known to contain valuable works by the mathematician, including the ''Method of Mechanical Theorems, the Equilibrium of Planes, On Floating Bodies'', and several diagrams as well. The only surviving copy of the text was recycled into a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ink used to write on the goat skin parchment is partly composed of iron, which is visible by x-ray radiation. To image the palimpsest pages, the parchment is framed and placed in a stage that moves according to the raster method. When an x-ray beam strikes the parchment, the iron in the ink is detected by a germanium detector. The resulting signal is converted to a gray-scale image on the imaging program, Rasplot. It is extremely important that each line of data is perfectly aligned with the line that came before it because the image is scanned in two directions. The objectives of this experiment were to determine the best parameters for producing well-aligned images and to reduce the scanning time. Imaging half a page of parchment during previous beam time for this project was achieved in thirty hours. Equations were produced to evaluate count time, shutter time, and the number of pixels in this experiment. On Beamline 6-2 at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL), actual scanning time was reduced by one fourth. The remaining pages were successfully imaged and sent to ancient Greek experts for translation

  7. The ERATO project and its contribution to our understanding of the acoustics of ancient Greek and Roman theatres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rindel, Jens Holger; Nielsen, Martin Lisa

    2006-01-01

    the acoustics of the open air theatres and compare to the smaller, originally roofed theatres, also called odea (from Greek: Odeion, a hall for song and declamation with music). The method has been to make computer models of the spaces, first as the exist today, and adjust the acoustical data for surface...... of the spaces. The acoustical simulations have given a lot of interesting information about the acoustical qualities, mainly in the Roman theatres, but the earlier Greek theatre has also been studied in one case (Syracusa in Italy). It is found that the Roman open-air theatres had very high clarity of sound......, but the sound strength was quite low. In contrast, the odea had reverberation time like a concert hall, relatively low clarity, and high sound strength. Thus, the acoustical properties reflect the original different purposes of the buildings, the theatre intended mainly for plays (speech) and the Odeon mainly...

  8. Improving the Raster Scanning Methods used with X-ray Fluorescence to See the Ancient Greek Text of Archimedes (SULI Paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffin, Isabella B.; /Norfolk State U. /SLAC, SSRL

    2006-01-04

    X-ray fluorescence is being used to detect the ancient Greek copy of Archimedes work. The copy of Archimedes text was erased with a weak acid and written over to make a prayer book in the Middle Ages. The ancient parchment, made of goat skin, has on it some of Archimedes most valuable writings. The ink in the text contains iron which will fluoresce under x-ray radiation. My research project deals with the scanning and imaging process. The palimpsest is put in a stage that moves in a raster format. As the beam hits the parchment, a germanium detector detects the iron atoms and discriminates against other elements. Since the computer scans in both forwards and backwards directions, it is imperative that each row of data lines up exactly on top of the next row. There are several parameters to consider when scanning the parchment. These parameters include: speed, count time, shutter time, x-number of points, and acceleration. Formulas were made to relate these parameters together. During the actual beam time of this project, the scanning was very slow going; it took 30 hours to scan 1/2 of a page. Using the formulas, the scientists doubled distance and speed to scan the parchment faster; however, the grey scaled data was not lined up properly causing the images to look blurred. My project was is to find out why doubling the parameters caused blurred images, and to fix the problem if it is fixable.

  9. A submerged temple complex off Pindara, on the northwestern coast of Saurashtra

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Pindara has been an important religious centre since the early historical period as it has been recorded in several ancient texts. An onshore exploration on the northwestern coast of Saurashtra brought to light the remains of a temple complex...

  10. Incubation as a form of psychotherapy in the care of patients in ancient and modern Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, M G

    1975-01-01

    Incubation or temple sleep in sanctuaries of Aesculapius, Amphiaraos, Trophonios, etc., for the care of patients was practised even in the older times of ancient Greece and may be viewed as a form of psychotherapy and especially as 'dream-psychotherapy'. In Greek antiquity, as it is known, dreams were considered as a way of communication between gods and men. Survival of the custom of incubation exists even in our times in modern Greece, but are disappearing slowly. An attempt is made to find an explanation, if any, of those miraculous cures in accordance with the scientific thought of today.

  11. The Temple Translator's Workstation Project

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Vanni, Michelle; Zajac, Remi

    1996-01-01

    .... The Temple Translator's Workstation is incorporated into a Tipster document management architecture and it allows both translator/analysts and monolingual analysts to use the machine- translation...

  12. Greek theories on eugenics.

    OpenAIRE

    Galton, D J

    1998-01-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works...

  13. From the World’s Fair to Disneyland: Pavilions as Temples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaimee K. Comstock-Skipp

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the visual culture of recreated temple structures in the entertainment settings of international exhibitions and Disneyland. It examines the material and conceptual construction of temple mythology in world’s fairs and amusement parks through the reproduction – or rather, simulation – of Egyptian, Mayan, Aztec, Cambodian, and Hindu structures. Disneyland in southern California has been interpreted as the hybrid descendent of world’s fairs and colonial expositions, the result of continuities and ruptures within the exhibitionary and entertainment traditions of the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Given this well-established link, some of the architecture in the Adventureland section of the park can be likened to the pavilions of the colonies in French and British expositions, especially those from the late nineteenth century through to 1939. The creators of the Temple of the Forbidden Eye in Disneyland’s Indiana Jones Adventure ride from 1995 have claimed they were directly inspired by images of temples found within National Geographic magazines of the 1930s. A skim through these attributed sources of information turns up period photographs from world’s fair temple-pavilions. This paper posits that the Disney temple, then, exists as a simulacrum: a copy for which there is no original. However, the author traces its overlooked formal and conceptual precedents in American, French, and British reproductions of Aztec and Mayan temples and palaces, ancient Egyptian temples, and the Cambodian Angkor Wat temple compound. In the colonial villages of expositions, the pavilions of Mexico, Egypt, and Indochina were rendered as regional temples with archaeological displays inside them. This paper goes some way toward addressing the question: what is a pavilion when it takes the form of a temple?

  14. Look and Do Ancient Greece. Teacher's Manual: Primary Program, Greek Art & Architecture [and] Workbook: The Art and Architecture of Ancient Greece [and] K-4 Videotape. History through Art and Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luce, Ann Campbell

    This resource, containing a teacher's manual, reproducible student workbook, and a color teaching poster, is designed to accompany a 21-minute videotape program, but may be adapted for independent use. Part 1 of the program, "Greek Architecture," looks at elements of architectural construction as applied to Greek structures, and…

  15. Greek "calendars" and symbolic representation of the cosmic order. Seasonal rites for Demeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kravaritou, S.

    Ancient Greeks made no use of a liturgical text in order to prescribe their annual religious time, since it was marked by diversity in month names between different cities and communities, as well as by a great number of individual festivals imposed in different periodical cycles, that in addiction were subject of continuous changes according to the city and historical period. Those parameters produce extra difficulties in any attempt to reconstruct the date of specific festivals. We will deal with this questions through epigraphic evidence implying existence of festivals with movable dates including seasonal rites celebrated in honor of Demeter and related deities. If some of these rites were actually mobiles and the moment of their celebration was changing from year to year, there must be surely an impact of this eventual fact in the study of the orientation of temples and sanctuaries associated to those cults and their receivers.

  16. Greek theories on eugenics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galton, D J

    1998-08-01

    With the recent developments in the Human Genome Mapping Project and the new technologies that are developing from it there is a renewal of concern about eugenic applications. Francis Galton (b1822, d1911), who developed the subject of eugenics, suggested that the ancient Greeks had contributed very little to social theories of eugenics. In fact the Greeks had a profound interest in methods of supplying their city states with the finest possible progeny. This paper therefore reviews the works of Plato (The Republic and Politics) and Aristotle (The Politics and The Athenian Constitution) which have a direct bearing on eugenic techniques and relates them to methods used in the present century.

  17. Liberating the Temple Mount: apocalyptic tendencies among Jewish temple activists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Leppäkari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Every now and then instances of violence are played out at the Temple Mount area in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram-esh-sharif. Some of the cases are referred to as results of the so-called ‘Jerusalem syndrome’, incidents when individuals’ manifestations of pre-existing psychopathology culminate in violent actions. Israeli psychiatrists and others have treated such incidents as examples of when peoples’ expectations of a heavenly Jerusalem collide with the very earthly reality in the city. For some people, such encounters may create anxiety that may threaten the victim’s very sanity. In such situations, an apocalyptic mission may become the only way for them to cope with the situation at hand. But the Temple Mount does not only attract lone-acting individuals, it also attracts organized groups who refer to the very spot as an important identity marker. In this article, the author draws on her field research material and interviews with Jewish Third Temple activists in Jerusalem collected on and off between 1998 and 2004. Here Yehuda Etzion’s, Gershon Salomon’s and Yoel Lerner’s theology and activities are studied in light of apocalyptic representations, and how these are expressed in relation to religious longing for the Third Temple in the light of the Gaza withdrawal. Not all those who are engaged in endtime scenarios act upon their visions. In Jerusalem, there have been, and still are, several religious-political groups that more or less ritually perambulate the Temple Mount area.

  18. Connecting the Greeks : Festival networks in the Hellenistic world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williamson, Christina; van Nijf, Onno; Mann, Christian; Remijssen, Sophie; Scharff, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Panhellenic festivals were central to the ancient Greek world since archaic times, with places such as Delphi and Olympia defining the essence of a Greek ‘imagined community’. In the Hellenistic period, several Greek cities began to organize large-scale festivals of their own at their main

  19. Sources and Resources for Teaching about Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridakis, John N.; Mantzanas, Theophilos

    1977-01-01

    This article identifies print, non-print, and human sources and resources useful to elementary and secondary teachers of ancient Greek history. A rationale for teaching Greek history is also included. (Author/RM)

  20. Study on sources of colored glaze of Xiyue Temple in Shanxi province by INAA and multivariable statistical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin

    2005-01-01

    The major, minor and trace elements in the bodies of ancient colored glazes which came from the site of Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln in Shanxi province, and were unearthed from the stratums of Song, Yuan, Ming, Early Qing and Late Qing dynasty were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The results of multivariable statistical analyses show that the chemical compositions of the colored glaze bodies are steady from Song to Early Qing dynasty, but distinctly different from that in Late Qing. Probably, the sources of fired material of ancient colored glaze from Song to Early Qing came from the site of Xiyue Temple. The chemical compositions of three pieces of colored glazes in Ming dynasty and that in Late Qing are similar to that of Lidipo kiln. From this, authors could conclude that the sources of the materials of ancient coloured glazes of Xiyue Temple in Late Qing dynasty were fired in Lidipo kiln. (authors)

  1. Sport and medicine in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelboom, T; Rouffin, C; Fierens, E

    1988-01-01

    Sport and medicine in ancient Greece were the result of a widespread tradition of liberty, which was at the heart of one of the most brilliant civilizations in history. Whereas war encouraged the development of surgical knowledge springing out of medical experience on the battlefield, peace promoted the burgeoning of sport as an integral part of Greek upbringing, allowing the channeling of young people's aggressiveness into physical competition. Medicine was magical and mythological, especially in the time of Homer (9th century BC); Aesculapius, the mythical god of healing, was its reference point. With Hippocrates (5th century BC), the body of medical experience was to be codified and built up, and was to undergo a novel evolution based on the theory of the balance of the four humors. The athlete's mentality, faced with trauma in the sports ground, underwent a change; injury was no longer considered a punishment by the gods. At the same time, temple offerings tendered in the hope of victory gave way to the athlete's personal preparation based on a specifically modified lifestyle, diet, and training. The resulting progress in medicine and public health, especially from the 5th century BC onward, was not only to favor athletic performances of high quality but also surgical techniques that were very advanced for their time. Thus it can be seen that the medical knowledge associated with the practice of sport progressed during antiquity because of its obligation to follow the warrior and then the athlete.

  2. Greek classicism in living structure? Some deductive pathways in animal morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweers, G A

    1985-01-01

    Classical temples in ancient Greece show two deterministic illusionistic principles of architecture, which govern their functional design: geometric proportionalism and a set of illusion-strengthening rules in the proportionalism's "stochastic margin". Animal morphology, in its mechanistic-deductive revival, applies just one architectural principle, which is not always satisfactory. Whether a "Greek Classical" situation occurs in the architecture of living structure is to be investigated by extreme testing with deductive methods. Three deductive methods for explanation of living structure in animal morphology are proposed: the parts, the compromise, and the transformation deduction. The methods are based upon the systems concept for an organism, the flow chart for a functionalistic picture, and the network chart for a structuralistic picture, whereas the "optimal design" serves as the architectural principle for living structure. These methods show clearly the high explanatory power of deductive methods in morphology, but they also make one open end most explicit: neutral issues do exist. Full explanation of living structure asks for three entries: functional design within architectural and transformational constraints. The transformational constraint brings necessarily in a stochastic component: an at random variation being a sort of "free management space". This variation must be a variation from the deterministic principle of the optimal design, since any transformation requires space for plasticity in structure and action, and flexibility in role fulfilling. Nevertheless, finally the question comes up whether for animal structure a similar situation exists as in Greek Classical temples. This means that the at random variation, that is found when the optimal design is used to explain structure, comprises apart from a stochastic part also real deviations being yet another deterministic part. This deterministic part could be a set of rules that governs

  3. Radiocarbon Dating on Jabung Temple Sites one of the Temples in East Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F, Wisjachudin; Rosyidin; Sumiyatno; Siswanto; Siregar, DarwinA.

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon dating of organic materials (charcoal) around Jabung templein Jabung temple village, Paiton, Probolinggo district, East Java provincehas been carried out. Excavation archaeologically in different location incertain distance has been done which is considered relevant to the temple'sage and the location of the excavation boxes are the test holes (TH=LU) i.e :LU 1, LU 2, LU 3, LU 4, LU 5, LU 6, LU 7, and LU 8. From those test holes wecan find out that only LU 4 and LU 3 which contain significant charcoal. Thepretreatment (acid, base, acid washing) followed by continued preparationwith carbon contained charcoal burning process, burn to be acetylene gas (C 2 H 2 ). 14 C contained in acetylene is counted by gas proportional counter.After being processed charcoal from LU 3 is not qualified in volumerequirement which is needed for the next analysis. The result for 3000minutes, for background counting = 1.1 ± 0.21 cpm, counting of standard14.51 ± 0.52 cpm, while counting from charcoal sample only from LU 4location is 13.51 ± 0.12 cpm. From data of LU 4 charcoal counting above,we can count the date (age) of the sample that is 510 ± 80 BP. If we usetree ring correction for the data, result will be between 1306-1456 AD onlevel of confidence 68.3% while on level of confidence 95.4% result will bebetween 1281-1624 AD. Relative dating base on ancient inscription show 1354AD. From the data, relative dating is in the range of to absolute dating(radiocarbon dating). (author)

  4. Energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis of ancient coins: The case of Greek silver drachmae from the Emporion site in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitarch, A.; Queralt, I.

    2010-01-01

    Greek colonizers arrived at the Iberian Peninsula at the beginning of the sixth century B.C. and founded a small colony known as Emporion in north-east Spain. By the fifth century B.C., this colony became a small polis with a well-organized administrative structure. In this context, the necessity of coinage was a fact and the first coins were minted. Some of these coins were characterized by using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence equipment. The analytical study focused on the elemental characterization of the coins minted from the fourth century to the first century B.C. and their compositional evolution during this period. The investigation has pointed out a very high fineness of the alloys throughout the time, with an average silver content around 98.32%, and the feasibility of energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence as a screening tool for the characterization of the alloys.

  5. Earthquake Archaeology: a case study from Ancient Cnidus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, I. S.; Altunel, E.; Piccardi, L.

    2003-04-01

    Ancient earthquakes can leave their mark in the mythical practices and literary accounts of ancient peoples, the stratigraphy of their site histories, and the structural integrity of their constructions. The ancient Greek/Roman city of Cnidus in southwestern Turkey records all three. A spectacular exposed fault plane cliff bordering the northern edge of the city appears to have been an important revered site, bearing votive niches carved into the near-vertical slip plane and associated with a Sanctuary of Demeter that implies a connection to the underworld. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquake faulting can be found in the form of a destruction horizon of contorted soil, relics and human remains exposed in the original excavations of the Sanctuary of Demeter by Sir Charles Newton (1857-58) and in a destruction horizon of burnt soil and bone uncovered by the ongoing excavation of a colonnaded street. Structural damage to constructions is widespread across the site, with warped and offset walls in the Sanctuary of Demeter, collapsed buildings in several places, and a parallel arrangement of fallen columns in the colonnaded street. The most remarkable structural evidence for fault activity, however, is the rupture of the ancient city's famous Round Temple of Aphrodite, whose podium reveals a history of damage and which is unambiguously displaced across a bedrock fault. While these phenomena are equivocal when viewed in isolation, collectively they imply at least two damaging earthquakes at the site, one (possibly both) of which ruptured along the fault on which the city is found. The Cnidus case study highlights how reliable identification of archaeoseismic damage relies on compiling an assemblage of indicators rather than the discovery of a diagnostic "smoking gun".

  6. Whither prometheus' liver? Greek myth and the science of regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Power, Carl; Rasko, John E J

    2008-09-16

    Stem-cell biologists and those involved in regenerative medicine are fascinated by the story of Prometheus, the Greek god whose immortal liver was feasted on day after day by Zeus' eagle. This myth invariably provokes the question: Did the ancient Greeks know about the liver's amazing capacity for self-repair? The authors address this question by exploring the origins of Greek myth and medicine, adopting a 2-fold strategy. First, the authors consider what opportunities the ancient Greeks had to learn about the liver's structure and function. This involves a discussion of early battlefield surgery, the beginnings of anatomical research, and the ancient art of liver augury. In addition, the authors consider how the Greeks understood Prometheus' immortal liver. Not only do the authors examine the general theme of regeneration in Greek mythology, they survey several scholarly interpretations of Prometheus' torture.

  7. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Greek and roman calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Hannah, Robert

    2005-01-01

    The smooth functioning of an ordered society depends on the possession of a means of regularising its activities over time. That means is a calendar, and its regularity is a function of how well it models the more or less regular movements of the celestial bodies - of the moon, the sun or the stars. Greek and Roman Calendars examines the ancient calendar as just such a time-piece, whose elements are readily described in astronomical and mathematical terms. The story of these calendars is one of a continuous struggle to maintain a correspondence with the regularity of the seasons and the sun, d

  9. Greek astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Heath, Sir Thomas L

    2011-01-01

    Astronomy as a science began with the Ionian philosophers, with whom Greek philosophy and mathematics also began. While the Egyptians and Babylonians had accomplished much of astronomical worth, it remained for the unrivalled speculative genius of the Greeks, in particular, their mathematical genius, to lay the foundations of the true science of astronomy. In this classic study, a noted scholar discusses in lucid detail the specific advances made by the Greeks, many of whose ideas anticipated the discoveries of modern astronomy.Pythagoras, born at Samos about 572 B.C., was probably the first

  10. USE OF MODERN INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN TEACHING OF OLD GREEK FOR UNIVERSITY STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viacheslav M. Shovkovyi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Work is devoted to determination of sphere of the use of modern information technologies in the process of teaching the ancient Greek language for students of higher educational establishments. The necessity of the use of electronic dictionaries and internet-resources is grounded during teaching of normative course of grammar of ancient Greek language, ancient Greek textual criticism, and also disciplines of extralinguistic block. An electronic dictionary and internet-resources is able to provide mobility, plenitude of information. Theoretical positions of the article must be fixed in basis of development of site which will have complete information about a culture and way of life of ancient greeks.

  11. Temple consecration rituals in ancient India. Text and archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slaczka, Anna Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    The present dissertation concentrates on the study of construction rituals of the Hindu tradition, with special attention to the prathameshtakaanyaasa (the laying of the first stones), the garbhanyaasa (the placing of the consecration deposit) and the muurdheshtakaanyaasa (the placing of the

  12. The ‘enigma of Jesus’’ temple intervention: Four essential keys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Domeris

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The emerging consensus, on the intervention of Jesus into the commercial operations of the Jerusalem Temple, speaks in terms of an enacted parable aimed at the temple hierarchy, against the backdrop of the ongoing economic and social oppression of the time. In this article, I consider four essential scholarly insights (keys: The possibility that Caiaphas introduced trade in sacrifices in the Jerusalem Temple; the link between the money changers and Greek-style bankers; the Jewish witness to the extent of high-priestly corruption in the 1st century CE; and finally the presence of the image of Baal-Melkart on the Tyrian Shekel. In the light of the fourth key, in particular, we discover Jesus, like the prophets of old (Jeremiah and Elijah, standing against the greed of the High priests and their abuse of the poor and marginalised, by defending the honour of God, and pronouncing judgement on the temple hierarchy as ‘bandits’ (Jr 7:11 and, like their ancestors, encouragers of ‘Baal worship’ (Jr 7:9.

  13. The Presence of Ancient Greece in Modern Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anton, John P.

    1977-01-01

    The author relates the ways in which a present day visitor to Greece will be reminded of ancient Greek history. The legendary hospitality, Greek statues, the landscape, Greek dances, gestures, and customs are some of the topics discussed. (Author/RM)

  14. Problem-oriented approach to Ancient philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berstov, Igor

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Igor Berestov and Marina Wolf of the Institute of philosophy and law, Novosibirsk, discuss various methodological difficulties typical of studies in the history of Ancient Greek philosophy and try to develop their own problem-oriented approach.

  15. Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, R. Lynn

    Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

  16. Ethnic vs Math: The Secret inside Borobudur Temple, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Nugroho Yanuarto

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mostly in Eastern religions, particularly in Indonesia the ancient Imperial cults of Borobudur temple as Buddhism, ritually celebrate their beliefs as a congregation where prayer and religious addresses are a communal activity. This culture is interesting to study whether building a place of worship is built on the cultural elements or there is a correlation with formula or complicated calculations about how the building is erected . The mathematical study for Borobudur’s architectural design has once related to answer the question about the metric system used by ancient Javanese to build such giant buildings with good measurement. Fractal dimension is calculated by using the cube counting method and found that the dimension is , which is laid between the two-dimensional plane and three dimensional space. The applied fractal geometry and self-similarity of the building is emerged as the building process implement the metric rules, since there is no universal metric standard known in ancient traditional Javanese culture thus the architecture is not based on final master plan. The paper also proposes how the hypothetical algorithmic architecture might be applied computationally in order to see some experimental generations of similar building. The paper ends with some conjectures for further challenge and  insights related to fractal geometry in Javanese traditional cultural heritages.

  17. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Lin; Feng Songlin; Li Rongwu; Lue Zhirong; Li Guoxia

    2008-01-01

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper

  18. The provenance study of Chinese ancient architectonical colored glaze by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Key Laboratory of Beam Technology and Material Modification of Ministry of Education, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing Radiation Center, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: chenglin@bnu.edu.cn; Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Rongwu [Department of Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100049 (China); Lue Zhirong [Shan' xi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Xi' an 710054 (China); Li Guoxia [Institute of Physical Engineering, Zhengzhou University, Zhengzhou 450052 (China)

    2008-12-15

    The colored glazes are very popular and famous in Chinese ancient architectures. In order to exactly locate the provenance of ancient architectonical colored glazes, 196 pieces of ancient colored glaze bodies and porcelain bodies fired in Xiyue Temple and Lidipo kiln are analyzed by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are reported and discussed in this paper.

  19. Preliminary Study of Ancient Town Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Caoshi Town in Hengdong County, Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tian-zhao; Yang, Zai-tian; Liu Pei-lin

    2012-01-01

    The typical style and features of mountains and waters in Caoshi Ancient Town, have hitherto been well preserved. Caoshi Ancient Town boasts superior base of the natural eco-environment and deep-rooted background of regional culture, where mountains, waters, shoals, towns and other landscape elements are merged harmoniously, the transportation and geographical conditions have been fundamentally changed. Ancient towns, old temples, ancient forests, ancient wells and ancient piers are unique in...

  20. Head of all years astronomy and calendars at Qumran in their ancient context

    CERN Document Server

    Ben-Dov, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Covering a wide array of sources from ancient Mesopotamia to the Dead Sea Scrolls, this volume offers a different perspective on Jewish apocalyptic time-reckoning during the Second Temple period, based on a calendar year of 364 days.

  1. The temple and the plane tree: rationality and cult at the beginnings of western medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominiczak, M H

    2001-10-01

    There are multiple interrelationships between science, medicine and visual arts. This article discusses aspects of architecture associated with the Greek healing cult of Asklepios, the case in point being the Asklepios temple on the island of Kos in the Aegean. Further, the cult is contrasted with the beginnings of the observation-based medicine practised by Hippocrates (460-c.370 BC). Finally, it is suggested that including elements of visual arts in medical education is consistent with the aims of the new medical curricula.

  2. The first medical ethics and deontology in Europe as derived from Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidou, Meropi K; Pavlides, Pavlos; Fiska, Aliki

    2016-01-01

    Medical ethics and deontology are mentioned in Greek myths long before 700 B.C. We collected and present information derived from ancient Greek mythology and related to (how) ancient physicians took care of the sick or injured and how they were rewarded for their services.

  3. Max Raphael, dialectics and Greek art

    OpenAIRE

    Healy, P.

    2007-01-01

    The article outlines what is required for a theory of art in the late work of Max Raphael, by showing that it is a response to a problematic first formulated, but left unanswered, by Marx, and which can be seen as developed by Raphael in his writing, especially the text he devoted to a dialectic interpretation of Greek art, with special reference to temple architecture. In detailing this latter study it is possible to see how Raphael’s understanding and analysis is guided by his account of an...

  4. Max Raphael: Dialectics and Greek Art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Healy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The article outlines what is required for a theory of art in the late work of Max Raphael, by showing that it is a response to a problematic first formulated, but left unanswered, by Marx, and which can be seen as developed by Raphael in his writing, especially the text he devoted to a dialectic interpretation of Greek art, with special reference to temple architecture. In detailing this latter study it is possible to see how Raphael’s understanding and analysis is guided by his account of an empirical theory of art, and contributes to its further elaboration.

  5. Dacic Ancient Astronomical Research in Sarmizegetuza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Romanian territory belongs to Carpatho-Danubian Space and to Ancient Europe. The Ancient European Society was a vast cultural entity based on a theocratic, matriarchal society, peaceful and art creating.Temples of Sarmizegetusa have given rise to several theories over time, proven by historians with the most diverse arguments. The largest complex of temples and sanctuaries was founded in Sarmizegetusa Regia, the Dacian’s main fortress and ancient capital of Dacia in the time of King Decebalus. The mysterious form of settlements has led researchers to the conclusion that the locations were astronomical observation shrines. Among the places of Dacian worship in Orastie Mountains the most impressive is the Great Circular Sanctuary, used to perform some celestial observations, and also as original solar calendar. This paper had the purpose to re-discover the Dacian Civilization and Dacian cosmogony based on the accumulated knowledge upon our country’s past.

  6. On Three Locations Connected with Aristotle: Ancient Stagira - Mieza - Athens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentin Kalan

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The last decade has witnessed well-nigh simultaneous discoveries on three archaeological sites connected with Aristotle, which have eliminated many cliches and mistaken assumptions about the philosopher's life and work. These are: (1 his native town of Stagira, or Stagirus; (2 his school in the Macedonian town of Mieza; and (3 the location of the Peripatetic school, the Lyceum, at Athens. The first part of the article thus briefly surveys the most important discoveries about the layout of ancient Stagira, as described in the monograph by Konstantinos Sismanidis. The  main  archaeological finds include an early classical town-wall (an admirable example of military architecture, the  stoa,  an  aqueduct, the  foundations of three  temples, silver coins with the type of a wild boar, etc.-The second part moves from a preliminary description of Mieza to an  attempt at  reconstructing the philosophical ideas transmitted by Aristotle to Alexander and  his peers at Mieza- not  Pella-, using  Plutarch's Life of Alexander as a starting-point. Such education would have been  impossible if the Macedonians had not been  Greeks  and  their  language a Greek  dialect, and  it is the failure to realize this fact that has long impeded- and  still does- our understanding of Aristotle's attitude to Philip and  Alexander. The article touches on  the potential relevance of Alexander's politics for  the  present, which  may be sought in  its interplay of  two processes: the  spreading of Greek culture abroad on  the  one hand, and, on  the  other, the  preservation of  other cultures with which  the Greeks came into contact. The third part, drawing on  Rupp's book Peripatoi, presents the  latest archaeological discoveries relating to the exact location of Aristotle's Peripatos in Athens. In 323 BC -immediately after Alexander's death- Aristotle retired from Athens for the  second time, his life endangered by the  prevailing anti

  7. Measurements of natural radioactivity inside Dandara temple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, N.K.; Saied, M.H.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H.

    1994-01-01

    The natural radioactivities inside Dandara temple are studied by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. The variation of these activities with location is investigated. Average values of the identified radionuclides inside the halls, sanctuary and crypt of the temple are examined. It is estimated that the mean value lies in the range 37.9-90.1 for 212 Pb, 70.0-36.0 for 214 Bi, 52.6-76.2 for 228 Ac, 1.6-5.9 for 208 Tl, while for 40 K it is 169.3-286.6. (author)

  8. Measurements of natural radioactivity inside Dandara temple

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, N.K.; Saied, M.H.; Abbady, A.; El-Kamel, A.H. [Assiut Univ. (Egypt). Dept. of Physics

    1994-07-01

    The natural radioactivities inside Dandara temple are studied by using a NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. The variation of these activities with location is investigated. Average values of the identified radionuclides inside the halls, sanctuary and crypt of the temple are examined. It is estimated that the mean value lies in the range 37.9-90.1 for {sup 212}Pb, 70.0-36.0 for {sup 214}Bi, 52.6-76.2 for {sup 228} Ac, 1.6-5.9 for {sup 208} Tl, while for {sup 40}K it is 169.3-286.6. (author).

  9. Practical Hints on Greek and Latin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jopes, James

    1978-01-01

    A discussion of some of the difficulties and procedures in translating classical quotations occurring in a modern text. Some of the topics covered are: use of published translations, transliteration from ancient Greek, and non-classical idioms such as medieval and botanical Latin. (AMH)

  10. HOSIOS. A semantic study of Greek piety

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peels, S.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this thesis is to understand the meaning and usage of the Ancient Greek lexeme hosios and its cognates in the period from Homer until the end of the 5th century B.C. The adjective hosios was an evaluation relating to what humans must do to please the gods; it is often translated as

  11. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  12. Architectural and Artistic Design of Wooden Iconostases in New and Restored Temples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yudin, V.

    2017-11-01

    During various periods of the modern Russian history, religious architecture was viewed from different angles - at first, as a valuable fragment of a culture that had gone into oblivion, later - as a living tradition sprouting from ancient roots to the present and requiring reunification with it. Therefore, despite the obvious elaboration of the topic, the appeal to it does not lose its relevance turning in different facets of its aspects. The iconostasis is the most important architectural element of the church interior, a small likeness of the temple of heaven and earth. The planned destruction of iconostases in the Soviet era, violation of traditions, connections, continuity, lack of basic information on design, construction and technology of their production makes the study of wooden iconostases and the principles of their restoration and re-creation relevant and important for both theorists and practitioners of architecture, as well as restoration workshops. When reconstructing the monuments of the temple architecture, the architectural style is not always observed, therefore, an architectural and artistic appearance of a monument is violated. Besides, during the monument reconstruction the traditional features of the region in which the temple was located are not taken into account. This factor is the most important one because each region has its own traditional school of iconostases manufacturing and temples building. This article presents the results of the study on the design of the wooden iconostasis of the Church of the Intercession of the Virgin on the lower floor of the Savior’s Transfiguration Temple (1894), in the NizhneSinyachikha Museum Reserve taking into account regional peculiarities.

  13. New Readings in Greek Mathematics: Sources, Problems, Publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knorr, Wilbur R.

    1990-01-01

    The field of ancient Greek mathematics is discussed in terms of how representative is the surviving corpus of the ancient achievement in mathematics, the patterns of thought by which they were discovered, and the construction of mathematics during this period. The research being done in this field is described. (KR)

  14. Scribal Habits at the Tebtunis Temple Library

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryholt, Kim

    2018-01-01

    the temple library itself, and it can be shown that some features are closely linked to specific scribes and their personal habits. The many distinctive hands attested in the library leads to the related question of paleography and orthography and the extent to which these factors may help to determinative...

  15. Should the Shaolin Temple Be Commercialized?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    China’s famous Shaolin Temple has re- cently opened a shop on the country’s largest online C2C marketplace www.taobao.com, selling a variety of Shaolin-related products. One notable item is the Shaolin Kungfu Secret Recipe costing 9,999 yuan($1,429).

  16. Acres of Rhinestones: Temple Betrays Its Heritage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelnick, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Liberal education has been disappearing, and what remains is diminished and compromised. At Temple University, the largest department in the college of liberal arts is criminal justice. The second largest is counseling psychology, and the humanities disciplines have become left-veering sociology. While islands of traditional learning survive, the…

  17. Myth and Philosophy in ancient Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionuţ ŞTEFAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available nto mythological horizon, universe is thinking in relation to the primordial deities. Doesn't exist a specialized concept, or a term for thinking the universe. What is important is the sacrifice originating mytholigical horizon, the first primordial deities. These gods must "die" at the birth of the universe; and this is the primordial sacrifice. Theme of the original sacrifice will survive until today. Into the philosophical horizon the Universe is thought through the concept. The first concept is the original concept of the anaximandrian infinity which is called apeiron.

  18. The Table of Chords and Greek Trigonometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Buscherini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Trigonometry was born due to the need of ancient astronomy to calculate and to predict the movement of the heavenly bodies. However it is hard to know who the founder of this mathematical branch was: it is likely that its origins date back to Hipparchus of Nicaea who compiled the first table of chords, which are the forerunners of the modern trigonometric function “sine”. Nevertheless the most ancient existing work on trigonometry is the Almagest of Ptolemy in which the author describes the mathematical steps that are necessary for the compilation of the table of chords. These steps are based on more ancient theories and for this reason one gets the impression that they could be the result of a preparatory study. This article is not only a brief survey of Greek trigonometry but it also analyzes the Greek numeration system, the sexagesimal fractions and the arithmetical operations which were used in the calculation of the chords.

  19. The Salpinx in Greek Cult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gullög Nordquist

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available The salpinx is not often treated by scholars of ancient Greek music, because it was mainly a military instrument. The instrument was usually not used for musical purposes, only for giving signals. In Greece the salpinx is known from the 8th century onwards. The Greek salpinx was an aerophone, usually made of bronze, and consisted of an 80 to 120 cm long, straight, tube with cylindrical bore, and with a conical or more often bell-shaped final, kodon, which could be made of bone. The bone had to be fired in order to get the right acoustic qualities, according to Aristotle. Salpinx is usually translated as "trumpet", but the type of sound generator it may have had has been discussed.

  20. 福建福鼎市太姥山宋代国兴寺遗址的发掘%Excavation of the Guoxingsi Temple-site of the Song Period at Tailaoshan in Fuding City,Fujian

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    福建博物院; 福鼎市文体局; 福鼎市旅游局; 太姥山风景区管理局

    2003-01-01

    In September-November 2001,the Fujian Provincial Museum and other institutions excavated the site of Guoxingsi Temple at Tailaoshan in Fuding City.They revealed the vestiges of pavilions,side rooms,passages,small yards and a stupa in this Song period temple and dug out large quantities of ceramic articles,structural members and inscribed steles.The excavation indicates that the temple was first built in the fourth year of the Qianfu reign,Tang Dynasty,and reached its prosperity atthe turn from the Northern Song to the Southern Song period.The unearthed material contributes to studying the history of architecture and Buddhism in ancient China.

  1. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  2. OF THE GREAT TEMPLE OF BEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Denker

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Great Temple of Bel in Palmyra was a unique edifice which had blended the well established lines of Greco-Roman architecture with the art and taste of the Orient. With the gilded bronze capitals of its 41 Corinthian columns it was the product of enormous effort and budget. It was the gem of a remarkable epoch of wealthy Palmyra and mighty Roma. With its splendidly decorated adyta ceilings it became a source of inspiration and imagination for Western architecture and decorative arts. While continuing to captivate the World, it was leveled and vanished as a grim result of conflict based vandalism. The aim of this work is to piece together this, the most eloquent and stupendous monument of the Roman East, from its ruins and reconstruct it as it was once extant. Its loss is irreplacable, but its photo-realistic reconstruction can offer some solace by waking the memories of the great temple as in the past. The lost reality of the Great Temple of Bel is revived here by digitally constructing its “ghost images".

  3. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  4. Tech Talk for Social Studies Teachers: Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahl, Ronald H.

    1998-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of 10 Web sites concerning ancient Egypt that have materials appropriate for social studies classes. Includes virtual tours of Egypt and specific temples, explorations of the pyramids, archaeological and geographic information, and information on the Egyptian "Book of the Dead." (MJP)

  5. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  6. The art of providing resuscitation in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siempos, Ilias I; Ntaidou, Theodora K; Samonis, George

    2014-12-01

    We reviewed Greek mythology to accumulate tales of resuscitation and we explored whether these tales could be viewed as indirect evidence that ancient Greeks considered resuscitation strategies similar to those currently used. Three compendia of Greek mythology: The Routledge Handbook of Greek Mythology, The Greek Myths by Robert Graves, and Greek Mythology by Ioannis Kakridis were used to find potentially relevant narratives. Thirteen myths that may suggest resuscitation (including 1 case of autoresuscitation) were identified. Methods to attempt mythological resuscitation included use of hands (which may correlate with basic life support procedures), a kiss on the mouth (similar to mouth-to-mouth resuscitation), application of burning torches (which might recall contemporary use of external defibrillators), and administration of drugs (a possible analogy to advanced life support procedures). A careful assessment of relevant myths demonstrated that interpretations other than medical might be more credible. Although several narratives of Greek mythology might suggest modern resuscitation techniques, they do not clearly indicate that ancient Greeks presaged scientific methods of resuscitation. Nevertheless, these elegant tales reflect humankind's optimism that a dying human might be restored to life if the appropriate procedures were implemented. Without this optimism, scientific improvement in the field of resuscitation might not have been achieved.

  7. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  8. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  9. TREATMENT OF FRACTURES IN ANCIENT EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. K. Bashurov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The most complete information about the medicine in Ancient Egypt two papyrus provided: a large medical papyrus of G. Ebers and papyrus about the surgery of E. Smith. Smith’s papyrus is of particular interest as it contains the information on the status of surgery in Ancient Egypt. Papyrus consists of descriptions of the clinical cases. To the present time, 48 cases have survived; it is arranged in order of location - from the head down to the feet. Orthopedic deformities were reflected in the figures on the walls of the pyramids and temples as well as the description of the mummies and archaeological finds.

  10. Josephus, fifth evangelist, and Jesus on the Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Willem van Henten

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution aims at deconstructing a Christian master narrative that interprets Josephus as crucial support for the New Testament message that the Temple had to become a ruin, in line with the will of God. It argues for an alternative interpretation, namely that both Jesus of Nazareth and Josephus considered the Temple to be still relevant, albeit in different ways. For Jesus the Temple was the self-evident cultic centre of Judaism and a special place to experience his relationship with God. None of Jesus’ statements about the Temple in their original context necessarily implies that Jesus assumed that the institution of the Temple would stop functioning in the near future or at the end of time. Josephus’s perspective on the Temple changes in his works. The elaborate description of Jerusalem and the Temple in War 5 reads as a written monument of the past, but several passages in Josephus’s Antiquities and Against Apion imply that the Temple was still important after 70 CE. Josephus may have reckoned with the possibility that the Temple was going to be rebuilt if the Romans allowed for it. This contribution is dedicated to Pieter G.R. de Villiers, a modest but sophisticated scholar and a good friend.

  11. Characterization of yellow and colorless decorative glasses from the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klysubun, Wantana; Ravel, Bruce; Klysubun, Prapong; Sombunchoo, Panidtha; Deenan, Weeraya

    2013-06-01

    Yellow and colorless ancient glasses, which were once used to decorate the Temple of the Emerald Buddha, Bangkok, Thailand, around 150 years ago, are studied to unravel the long-lost glass-making recipes and manufacturing techniques. Analyses of chemical compositions, using synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (SRXRF), indicate that the Thai ancient glasses are soda lime silica glasses (60 % SiO2; 10 % Na2O; 10 % CaO) bearing lead oxide between 2-16 %. Iron (1.5-9.4 % Fe2O3) and manganese (1.7 % MnO) are present in larger abundance than the other 3 d transition metals detected (0.04-0.2 %). K-edge x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) and extended x-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) provide conclusive evidence on the oxidation states of Fe being 3+ and Mn being 2+ and on short-length tetrahedral structures around the cations. This suggests that iron is used as a yellow colorant with manganese as a decolorant. L 3-edge XANES results reveal the oxidation states of lead as 2+. The results from this work provide information crucial for replicating these decorative glasses for the future restoration of the Temple of the Emerald Buddha.

  12. Preprocessing Greek Papyri for Linguistic Annotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vierros, Marja

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Greek documentary papyri form an important direct source for Ancient Greek. It has been exploited surprisingly little in Greek linguistics due to a lack of good tools for searching linguistic structures. This article presents a new tool and digital platform, “Sematia”, which enables transforming the digital texts available in TEI EpiDoc XML format to a format which can be morphologically and syntactically annotated (treebanked, and where the user can add new metadata concerning the text type, writer and handwriting of each act of writing. An important aspect in this process is to take into account the original surviving writing vs. the standardization of language and supplements made by the editors. This is performed by creating two different layers of the same text. The platform is in its early development phase. Ongoing and future developments, such as tagging linguistic variation phenomena as well as queries performed within Sematia, are discussed at the end of the article.

  13. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  14. Temple tree; Frangipani-common name; Gopur- champa - Sanskrit

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Plumeria rubraL. Syn. P. acutifoliaPoir. (Temple tree; Frangipani-common name; Gopur- champa - Sanskrit, Hindi) of Apocynaceae is an ornamental tree that is often cultivated in gardens and near temples. Both leaves and flowers are showy and contain milky latex. Flowers are in bunches, large and white with yellow ...

  15. The Synthesis of Biodiesel from Used Temple Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddu, Sharanabasappa; Kivade, S. B.; Ramana, P.

    2018-05-01

    Safe and sustainable resources of energy is required for the financial and industrial growth. A new approach in investigating, growth, production and the economy is necessary, for the future reorganization of a sustainable natural raw material. In India, because of many mythological and religious beliefs thousands of devotees pour oil in lamps in various temples and also over the idols in Hanuman and Shani temples. This poured oil cannot be utilized and was ultimately wasted. One of tender advertisements by department of Muzarai of Karnataka Government, the used oil potential at shree Renuka yallamma temple Soundatti, Belagavi district is 18,900 kg for the year 2016-2017. This is only one temple oil potential; the number of Hindu temples in India is a Puzzle. This used temple oil was used as alternative feedstock, to decrease the cost of bio fuel. Using ASTM standard methods, the properties of used temple oil biodiesel were analyzed. From the tests it is clear that the, properties of used temple oil biodiesel are similar to diesel fuel. The obtained yield of biodiesel was 94.51%. This study identified that the price of the feedstock was one of the most significant factors.

  16. Interpretations of Greek Mythology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan

    1987-01-01

    This collection of original studies offers new interpretations of some of the best known characters and themes of Greek mythology, reflecting the complexity and fascination of the Greek imagination. Following analyses of the concept of myth and the influence of the Orient on Greek mythology, the

  17. The Cost of Living in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Morales Harley

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the most relevant economic aspects of Ancient Greece, more specifically, 5th century BC Athens. It explores the Greek notion of economy, the monetary system, the financial administration and the labor market, in order to contextualize the cost of living. The examples on this matter take into account the products’ costs and the people’s wages.

  18. IMAGE-BASED AND RANGE-BASED 3D MODELLING OF ARCHAEOLOGICAL CULTURAL HERITAGE: THE TELAMON OF THE TEMPLE OF OLYMPIAN ZEUS IN AGRIGENTO (ITALY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Lo Brutto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento (Italy was one of the largest temple and at the same time one of the most original of all the Greek architecture. We don’t know exactly how it was because the temple is now almost completely destroyed but it is very well-known for the presence of the Telamons. The Telamons were giant statues (about 8 meters high probably located outside the temple to fill the interval between the columns. In accordance with the theory most accredited by archaeologists the Telamons were a decorative element and also a support for the structure. However, this hypothesis has never been scientifically proven. One Telamon has been reassembled and is shown at the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento. In 2009 a group of researchers at the University of Palermo has begun a study to test the hypothesis that the Telamons support the weight of the upper part of the temple. The study consists of a 3D survey of the Telamon, to reconstruct a detailed 3D digital model, and of a structural analysis with the Finite Element Method (FEM to test the possibility that the Telamon could to support the weight of the upper portion of the temple. In this work the authors describe the 3D survey of Telamon carry out with Range-Based Modelling (RBM and Image-Based Modeling (IBM. The RBM was performed with a TOF laser scanner while the IBM with the ZScan system of Menci Software and Image Master of Topcon. Several tests were conducted to analyze the accuracy of the different 3D models and to evaluate the difference between laser scanning and photogrammetric data. Moreover, an appropriate data reduction to generate a 3D model suitable for FEM analysis was tested.

  19. Image-Based and Range-Based 3d Modelling of Archaeological Cultural Heritage: the Telamon of the Temple of Olympian ZEUS in Agrigento (italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo Brutto, M.; Spera, M. G.

    2011-09-01

    The Temple of Olympian Zeus in Agrigento (Italy) was one of the largest temple and at the same time one of the most original of all the Greek architecture. We don't know exactly how it was because the temple is now almost completely destroyed but it is very well-known for the presence of the Telamons. The Telamons were giant statues (about 8 meters high) probably located outside the temple to fill the interval between the columns. In accordance with the theory most accredited by archaeologists the Telamons were a decorative element and also a support for the structure. However, this hypothesis has never been scientifically proven. One Telamon has been reassembled and is shown at the Archaeological Museum of Agrigento. In 2009 a group of researchers at the University of Palermo has begun a study to test the hypothesis that the Telamons support the weight of the upper part of the temple. The study consists of a 3D survey of the Telamon, to reconstruct a detailed 3D digital model, and of a structural analysis with the Finite Element Method (FEM) to test the possibility that the Telamon could to support the weight of the upper portion of the temple. In this work the authors describe the 3D survey of Telamon carry out with Range-Based Modelling (RBM) and Image-Based Modeling (IBM). The RBM was performed with a TOF laser scanner while the IBM with the ZScan system of Menci Software and Image Master of Topcon. Several tests were conducted to analyze the accuracy of the different 3D models and to evaluate the difference between laser scanning and photogrammetric data. Moreover, an appropriate data reduction to generate a 3D model suitable for FEM analysis was tested.

  20. (francuski Les temples payens de Sirmium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremić Miroslav

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available (farncuski Les édifices de culte païens ont été ici considérés en distinguant deux groupes selon leur position par rapport aux remparts. Le premier de ces groupes incluant les ouvrages situés en dehors de l'enceinte a déjà fait l'objet de plusieurs publications de sorte que ce travail se contente de rappeler brièvement leurs principales caractéristiques au début du texte. Lorsqu'il s'agit du Sirmium intra muros, nonobstant la présence de vestiges de murs massifs et de plastique architecturale décorative dans la partie centrale de la ville antique autorisant d'envisager la présence de temples païens, l'ensemble de la littérature publiée ne fait aucune mention de tels édifices. Les résultats d'une analyse a posteriori du matériel archéologique enregistré dans la documentation conservée à l'Institut archéologique de Belgrade, ainsi que l'observation du matériel lapidaire et décoratif des dépôts du Musée du Srem à Sremska Mitrovica ont permis à l'auteur de ce travail de constater (avec toute la réserve voulue dans ses conclusions que l'espace situé à l'est du forum accueillait, pour le moins quatre temples païens. L'existence de ces édifices de culte a été située au sein de divers intervalles compris entre le IIe et le IVe siècle. Il est intéressant de noter que le plus ancien d'entre eux (IIe siècle, dégagé sur le site 42, était doté d'une construction portante en bois. Un peu plus au nord ont été exhumés les vestiges d'un édifice de culte (59 datant du IIIe-IVe siècle qui pourrait être identifié avec un fanum gallo-romain, mais cela restera pour l'instant de l'ordre de l'hypothèse. Plus à l'est, sur une vaste plate-forme en dalles de marbre ont été érigés vers la fin du IIIe ou au début du IVe siècle deux autres temples (sites 43 et 47. Malheureusement un certain nombre de questions, entre autres relatives à leur structure et leur dédicace, ne pourrons ici trouver une réponse d

  1. Means to flexibly attach lens frames to temple members

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Harry D.

    1995-01-01

    The invention is a band hinge for flexibly connecting the temple member to the lens frame thereby preventing damage from inadvertent pressure or cyclic wear. A distinguishing feature of the invention is the use of a band hinge that holds together the temple member and the lens frame without the use of a pin or screw hinging mechanism. The invention allows for a high degree of freedom of movement for the temple member with respect to the lens frame which will prevent most forms of damages to the glasses from these types of events.

  2. On the Development and Evolution of Astronomy in ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maravelias, S. E.

    In the present paper the development and evolution of astronomy in = Ancient Egypt are briefly examined. Emphasis is given to the = applications of astronomy on: (i) the orientation of temples and = pyramids, and the subsequent determination of the year; (ii) the = reorientation of temples --after the lapse of several centuries-- (due = to the fact that the priesthood was empirically aware of the precession = of equinoxes, and the subsequent use of this very fact in order to = estimate the archaeological age of temples, tombs and pyramids; (iii) = the heliacal rising of Sirius, which was used by ancient = priests-astronomers in order to fix the New Year's Day and determine the = seasons of the civil year, although the discre pancy of the Sothic cycle = in their calendrical system was not seriously taken into account. = Finally the conclusion put forward is that astronomy in Ancient Egypt = never reached the grounds of pure science (as in Ancient Greece), at = least before the Ptolemaic era, but always remained under the influence = of traditionalism and mythology pertaining more to the sphere of = religion and dogma.

  3. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Stéphanie; Hendrickson, Mitch; Delqué-Kolic, Emmanuelle; Vega, Enrique; Dillmann, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD) for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India). Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies related to iron

  4. First Direct Dating for the Construction and Modification of the Baphuon Temple Mountain in Angkor, Cambodia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéphanie Leroy

    Full Text Available Architecture represents key evidence of dynastic practice and change in the archaeological world. Chronologies for many important buildings and sequences, including the iconic temples of medieval Angkor in Cambodia, are based solely on indirect associations from inscriptions and architectural styles. The Baphuon temple, one of the last major buildings in Angkor without textual or scientifically-derived chronological evidence, is crucial both for the context and date of its construction and the period when its western façade was modified into a unique, gigantic Reclining Buddha. Its construction was part of a major dynastic change and florescence of the Hindu-Mahayana Buddhist state and the modification is the key evidence of Theravada Buddhist power after Angkor's decline in the 15th century. Using a newly-developed approach based on AMS radiocarbon dating to directly date four iron crampons integrated into the structure we present the first direct evidence for the history of the Baphuon. Comprehensive study of ferrous elements shows that both construction and modification were critically earlier than expected. The Baphuon can now be considered as the major temple associated with the imperial reformations and territorial consolidation of Suryavarman I (1010-1050 AD for whom no previous building to legitimize his reign could be identified. The Theravada Buddhist modification is a hundred years prior to the conventional 16th century estimation and is not associated with renewed use of Angkor. Instead it relates to the enigmatic Ayutthayan occupation of Angkor in the 1430s and 40s during a major period of climatic instability. Accurately dating iron with relatively low carbon content is a decisive step to test long-standing assumptions about architectural histories and political processes for states that incorporated iron into buildings (e.g., Ancient Greece, medieval India. Furthermore, this new approach has the potential to revise chronologies

  5. Shaping space: facial asymmetries in fifth-century Greek sculpture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochscheid, H.; Hamel, R.; Wootton, W.; Russell, B.; Libonati, E.

    2015-01-01

    The phenomenon of optical correction in Classical Greek sculpture has been attested by both ancient authors and modern scholars. Despite the apparent normalcy of optical correction in sculpture, however, there are no obvious reasons for it and how such correction worked in statues is a question

  6. The Imperfect Unbound : A Cognitive Linguistic Approach to Greek Aspect

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Allan, R.J.; Bentein, Klaas; Janse, Mark; Soltic, Jorie

    2017-01-01

    In Ancient Greek narrative, the imperfect typically presents the state of affairs as ongoing in order to serve as a temporal framework for the occurrence of one or more other states of affairs. However, in narrative we also find a considerable number of imperfects (especially with verbs of motion

  7. Design of Information Collecting System Towards The Song Dynasty Wooden Hall of Baoguo Temple, Ningbo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. He

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we’ll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven’t been included in the

  8. Design of Information Collecting System Towards The Song Dynasty Wooden Hall of Baoguo Temple, Ningbo

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, S.; Tang, Z.; Yang, S.

    2015-09-01

    Baoguo Temple is located half way up Lingshan Mountain in Northern Ningbo, Zhejiang Province, China. The main hall of Baoguo Temple is Song dynasty wooden structure. As the oldest wooden architecture in Jiangnan, China, it is a national major protective historical relic. In 2005, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum was set up and opens to the outside world. From 2007, to be able to protect it more effectively and foreseeably, Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum began to build information collecting systems towards historical architectures using modern information technology. After comparing correlated studies both at home and abroad, we found that: heritage protection abroad started earlier than us, and it has already established thorough protection system, relevant protection mechanism, and also issued relevant protection laws and regulations. The technology which was utilized in protection abroad was not only limited in RS, GIS, GPS, VR, but also included many emerging technology such as using a computational fluid dynamics model to simulate the condition of temperature and humidity. The main body of this paper are going to talk about four parts: the first one is existing information system. In this part, we'll introduce the information collecting system, which was preliminarily built in 2007 in Baoguo Temple Ancient Architecture Museum. Using the modern digital computer information technology, researchers can gradually check and acquire the information of the material of relics, the condition of the structure stress and the natural environmental information, which may probably affect the cultural architecture. And this part may be divided into information collection, information management and exhibition. The second part is update scheme design of original information collecting equipment and technology. Original information collecting system of microenvironment is relatively independent and data haven't been included in the management of the system

  9. Greek management and culture

    OpenAIRE

    Giousmpasoglou, Charalampos

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the Greek management context from various perspectives such as the national culture distinctive characteristics (i.e., dominant societal values) and the findings of research conducted on the Greek management context since the early 1980s. The overall conclusion is that Greek management is influenced by both the European/global business environment and the national/local distinctive characteristics and societal values. Based on the existing literature, it was found that unt...

  10. Ancient genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Hoelzel, A Rus

    2005-01-01

    Ever since its invention, the polymerase chain reaction has been the method of choice for work with ancient DNA. In an application of modern genomic methods to material from the Pleistocene, a recent study has instead undertaken to clone and sequence a portion of the ancient genome of the cave bear.

  11. 77 FR 18897 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-28

    ... our Union. Through two World Wars and a long Cold War, America and Greece stood as allies in the... United States of America A Proclamation Two hundred and thirty-six years ago, a new American Nation was... ancient Hellas, where Greeks brought forth the world's first democracy and kindled a philosophical...

  12. Archaeogeophysical Surveys on Mersin, Silifke, Uzuncaburç (Diokaisareia) Zeus Olbios Temple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmet Yüksel, Fethi; Deniz, Hazel; Şahin, Hamdi

    2017-04-01

    The ancient city of Diocaesarea (Uzuncaburç), located 30 km north Silifke in Mersin, was a temple centre subjected to Olba in the Hellenistic period. It was declared as free city by Tiberius in the Early Imperial period and it flourished until the 5th century AD. During this period, a Thykhaion to the west of the city was built in the 1st century AD by Obrimos and his son Oppius from his wife Kyria, daughter of Leonidas. A theater was also erected in the co-reign of Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus and the city gate in the west of Diocaesarea was repaired under Arcadius and Honorius (396-408 AD). It was financed by the dux ad comes of Isauria, Leontios. In July 2011, archaeogeophysical measurements were made on the columns of the town of Zeus Olbios and on the peripteral Street of the city by magnetic methods. The purpose of these investigations is to determine the presence of architectural remains under the ground at the points specified. G-858 Cesium Gradiometer (G-858 Cesium Gradiometer) was used for magnetic measurement. These measurements were made on 38 pitches of 20 m length in Zeus Olbios temple on 13 creeks of 160 m length on the city's columned street. obtained sub-sensor, top sensor and gradient magnetic maps are created. Linear, angular locations with high susceptibilty were identified on magnetic maps. Keywords: Magnetic, Diokaisareia (Uzuncahurç), Archaeogeophysics, Archaeology, Cesium Gradiometer

  13. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2010-01-01

    the technical challenges that face researchers in the field. We catalogue the diverse sequencing methods and source materials used to obtain ancient mitogenomic sequences, summarise the associated genetic and phylogenetic studies that have been conducted, and evaluate the future prospects of the field.......The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were...... obtained. As a result of various methodological developments, including the introduction of high-throughput sequencing techniques, the total number of ancient mitogenome sequences has increased rapidly over the past few years. In this review, we present a brief history of ancient mitogenomics and describe...

  14. D Digital Simulation of Minnan Temple Architecture CAISSON'S Craft Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Y. C.; Wu, T. C.; Hsu, M. F.

    2013-07-01

    Caisson is one of the important representations of the Minnan (southern Fujian) temple architecture craft techniques and decorative aesthetics. The special component design and group building method present the architectural thinking and personal characteristics of great carpenters of Minnan temple architecture. In late Qing Dynasty, the appearance and style of caissons of famous temples in Taiwan apparently presented the building techniques of the great carpenters. However, as the years went by, the caisson design and craft techniques were not fully inherited, which has been a great loss of cultural assets. Accordingly, with the caisson of Fulong temple, a work by the well-known great carpenter in Tainan as an example, this study obtained the thinking principles of the original design and the design method at initial period of construction through interview records and the step of redrawing the "Tng-Ko" (traditional design, stakeout and construction tool). We obtained the 3D point cloud model of the caisson of Fulong temple using 3D laser scanning technology, and established the 3D digital model of each component of the caisson. Based on the caisson component procedure obtained from interview records, this study conducted the digital simulation of the caisson component to completely recode and present the caisson design, construction and completion procedure. This model of preserving the craft techniques for Minnan temple caisson by using digital technology makes specific contribution to the heritage of the craft techniques while providing an important reference for the digital preservation of human cultural assets.

  15. GIS tool to locate major Sikh temples in USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Saumya

    This tool is a GIS based interactive and graphical user interface tool, which locates the major Sikh temples of USA on a map. This tool is using Java programming language along with MOJO (Map Object Java Object) provided by ESRI that is the organization that provides the GIS software. It also includes some of the integration with Google's API's like Google Translator API. This application will tell users about the origin of Sikhism in India and USA, the major Sikh temples in each state of USA, location, name and detail information through their website. The primary purpose of this application is to make people aware about this religion and culture. This tool will also measure the distance between two temple points in a map and display the result in miles and kilometers. Also, there is an added support to convert each temple's website language from English to Punjabi or any other language using a language convertor tool so that people from different nationalities can understand their culture. By clicking on each point on a map, a new window will pop up showing the picture of the temple and a hyperlink that will redirect to the website of that particular temple .It will also contain links to their dance, music, history, and also a help menu to guide the users to use the software efficiently.

  16. Greek Gods and Heroes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peter Schoon,; Sander Paarlberg,

    2001-01-01

    Many famous en less famous myths and historic events from Greek antiquity painted by Dutch and Flemish artists from the 16th and 17th century. For the first time a broad selection of paintings and prints with subjects from Greek mythology and history are exposed. Famous painters like Rembrandt,

  17. Unwrapping an Ancient Egyptian Mummy Using X-Rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen W.

    2010-01-01

    This article describes a project of unwrapping an ancient Egyptian mummy using x-ray computed tomography (CT). About 600 x-ray CT images were obtained through the mummified body of a female named Tjetmutjengebtiu (or Jeni for short), who was a singer in the great temple of Karnak in Egypt during the 22nd dynasty (c 945-715 BC). The x-ray CT images…

  18. Ancient Resistome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaitan, Abiola Olumuyiwa; Rolain, Jean-Marc

    2016-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ancient biological mechanism in bacteria, although its proliferation in our contemporary world has been amplified through antimicrobial therapy. Recent studies conducted on ancient environmental and human samples have uncovered numerous antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. The resistance genes that have been reported from the analysis of ancient bacterial DNA include genes coding for several classes of antibiotics, such as glycopeptides, β-lactams, tetracyclines, and macrolides. The investigation of the resistome of ancient bacteria is a recent and emerging field of research, and technological advancements such as next-generation sequencing will further contribute to its growth. It is hoped that the knowledge gained from this research will help us to better understand the evolution of antibiotic resistance genes and will also be used in drug design as a proactive measure against antibiotic resistance.

  19. Archaeology and Developmental Psychology: A Brief Survey of Ancient Athenian Toys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommer, Maria; Sommer, Dion

    2017-01-01

    The authors note that ancient Athens, in important ways, connected children, toys, and play. But they also find the scholarship of toys sparse and scattered. They discuss obstacles that can skew our modern view of the Greek mind, and they caution that modern eyes should not see play where the Greeks saw ritual and religious devotion. With these…

  20. Temples in the Ghassulian Culture: Terminology and social implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Gošić

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Archaeological discussions on prehistoric ritual are largely concerned with their material remains, including architectural debris. The first step in interpretation of such remains is their precise identification and categorization. There are numerous terms for objects and architectural remains that are widely utilized in the archaeological jargon, including, but not limited to, the terms temple, sanctuary and shrine. During almost a century of studying the Chalcolithic Ghassulian culture of the southern Levant, various architectural structures excavated at the sites of Teleilat Ghassul, Gilat and En Gedi have all been interpreted as temples, sanctuaries, or shrines – terms that in case of the Ghassulian culture are used as synonymous of temples. However, the actual architectural remains from these sites differ significantly and explicit definitions on what is meant by the terms used are rare. Apart from demonstrating the importance of properly defining a term in a context in which it is used, the aim of the present paper is to compare these various architectural remains, as well as various interpretations of Ghassulian society and the role the presumed temples played in them. This will be the basis for evaluating how classifying archaeological structures as temples has influenced interpretations of Ghassulian social organization.

  1. [Gods, women and pharmacy in Greek Mythology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vons, J

    2001-01-01

    The study of Greek Mythology fully justifies Herophilus's phrase: "Medicines are the hands of Gods" (third cent. B.C.). A number of Gods are said to be the inventors of the drugs which are useful to men. Their names are still alive in the scholarly or popular appellations of a great many medicinal herbs. However, insofar as the action of a drug (of a Pharmakon) remains mysterious, one finds it in essentially female practices as well as in medicine. The study of these ancient beliefs, which have survived in spite of the progress of twentieth century science, can develop the history of epistemology of pharmacy by stimulating interdisciplinary research.

  2. Silver sources of archaic Greek coinage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentner, W.; Mueller, O.; Wagner, G.A.; Gale, N.H.

    1978-01-01

    The authors report on new chemical and lead isotopic results and interpretations of archaic Greek silver coins from the Asyut hoard which was buried around 475 B.C. Aeginetan coins were of central interest in this study. Possible ancient silver mines were explored in the Aegean region in the course of several geologic expeditions, and chemically and isotopically investigated. Some of the silver sources in Greece were traced by combination of the analytical methods and questions of provenance were solved. In addition, processes of silver smelting and refining were studied. Results and implications of this work are summarized in the final section on Conclusions. (orig.) [de

  3. Andronikos I Komnenos: A Greek Tragedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harry J. MAGOULIAS

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Annals of Niketas Choniates depict Emperor Andronikos I Komnenos (1183-1185 in certain aspects of his lifestyle as a mirror image of his first cousin, Emperor Manuel I Komnenos (1143-1180. The life and death of Andronikos I Komnenos provide us with a window into the aesthetic, moral, intellectual, religious, economic and emotional world of Byzantine society in the 12th century. It was thanks to the Byzantine empire that the ancient texts were preserved and transmitted. Ancient Greek culture and reason, in particular, continued to inform Christian values while, at the same time, both could be in radical conflict. The tragic reign of Andronikos as presented by Niketas Choniates conforms to Aristotle's principles of classical drama, but there is a fundamental disagreement between the author of the Poetics and the historian as to what constitutes tragedy, which underlines this conflict.

  4. Hawaiian temples and their orientations: issues of method and interpretation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    2015-08-01

    In 2002 I began a collaboration with Pat Kirch (Berkeley) to survey the temple sites (heiau) in the Kahikinui and Kaupo districts of southern Maui, and study their orientations and potential astronomical significance. Our investigations of over 70 temples in the area were completed in 2011 and are due for publication in 2016. Pat Kirch will present some of our main conclusions in his keynote talk within FM2. In this paper I propose to concentrate on issues of field methodology and procedure that have wider implications for developments in method and practice within archaeoastronomy. Methodologically, temple sites in the Hawaiian Islands constitute a "halfway house" between prehistoric monuments in Europe, where the only evidence is archaeological and studies of orientations tend to follow formal, "data-driven" or statistical, approaches, and Mesoamerica, where the existence of pre-conquest written records and inscriptions and post-conquest ethnohistory relegate "alignment studies" to a secondary role. In Hawai‘i, cultural data, including oral histories recorded after conquest, provide a finer balance between historical accounts and the physical evidence. Selection issues at the Maui temple sites include distinguishing marginal temple sites from house sites and identifying the intended direction of orientation at complex structures. Initial analyses of the principal orientations identified clusterings in orientation which were interpreted as relating to different gods, and particular the war-god Ku and the god of dryland agriculture, Lono. Later, more comprehensive surveys revealed evidence of observing platforms and foresights at some of the Lono temples, suggesting that systematic observations were made of the Pleiades, known from the ethnohistory to be of particular calendrical significance. This type of alignment evidence is too subjective to be sustained on the basis of a formal analysis alone but, given the historical context, provides a more robust cultural

  5. Greek architecture now

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skousbøll, Karin Merete

    2006-01-01

    With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas.......With the author's Scandinavian viewpoint the aim of this book has been an investigation into contemporary Greek architecture and at the same time providing an understanding for its essential characteristics based on the historic, cultural heritage of Hellas....

  6. Initial research on planning and design of today's Buddhist temple

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xinjian LI; Guangya ZHU

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the reconstruction planning for the Chongyuan Temple in Suzhou Industrial Park, the planners explored the elements of contemporary Buddhism architecture planning and design in terms of the social multi-requirement, environmental utilization fitted for a given time and place, appropriate temple pat-tern on specification and institution, functional division for harmonic relationship between monks and laymen, etc. For realization of historic mission: carrying forward the cultural tradition and constructing harmonic society, this paper proposes some principles of creation, which have historical evidence and are keeping pace with the times.

  7. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    throughput of next generation sequencing platforms and the ability to target short and degraded DNA molecules. Many ancient specimens previously unsuitable for DNA analyses because of extensive degradation can now successfully be used as source materials. Additionally, the analytical power obtained...... by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans...

  8. Reconstruction of the ancient Greeks’ psychological portrait in the Classic period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuteinikov A. N.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available the article discusses the dependence of the psychological structure of the living on conditions of people in the appropriate age; considers the dominance of specific character traits and values of the ancient Greeks of the classical period; describes the worldview and mentality of the Greeks in the specified period. The concept of collective responsibility. Paris as a collective image of the ancient Greeks. Respect for labour. The cult of beauty of the naked body. Gradual disclaimer out the offerings. Tolerance of homosexuality. The humane attitude to slaves. Intelligent competitiveness.

  9. Josephus, fifth evangelist, and Jesus on the Temple

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-02

    Jul 2, 2015 ... mobile device to read online. ... Josephus mentions John the Baptist and Jesus' brother James ... literature second only to the Bible itself in importance' ...... Collins (2001:45–47; 2007:526–527) notes that the saying ..... Fredriksen, P., 2008, 'Gospel chronologies, the scene in the Temple, and the crucifixion.

  10. The 'enigma of Jesus'' temple intervention: Four essential keys

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-29

    Jul 29, 2015 ... Bible, they offer their own interpretation of the Jesus event. Common to ... of this article, I will focus on the Gospels of Mark and John representing ..... temple grounds, A.Y. Collins (2001) suggests that Jesus was .... Pe'a 2:16).

  11. The Temple at Ayia Irini: Mythology and Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Eisner

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Minoan features in the temple goods are consistent with the prominence of Ceos in the myth of Dionysus and Ariadne, so that the goddess and her consort represented by the statues can be seen as their Bronze Age predecessors.

  12. In Lawsuit Accord, Temple U. to Boost Women's Sports Aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlander, Susan

    1988-01-01

    In the out-of-court settlement of an eight-year-old sex discrimination lawsuit, Temple University agreed to give almost half of athletic scholarships to women, sponsor a new women's team, and add new women's program staff. The settlement may put pressure for equitable sports programs on other institutions. (MSE)

  13. Modelling and analysis of South Indian temple structures under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    JETSON A RONALD

    2018-05-11

    May 11, 2018 ... The seismic input is based on a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis of the archaeological site. ... 1. Introduction. 1.1 The Dravidian style of temple architecture ..... PGA for different return periods are tabulated (table 1) and the ...

  14. Greek, Indian and Arabic logic

    CERN Document Server

    Gabbay, Dov M

    2004-01-01

    Greek, Indian and Arabic Logic marks the initial appearance of the multi-volume Handbook of the History of Logic. Additional volumes will be published when ready, rather than in strict chronological order. Soon to appear are The Rise of Modern Logic: From Leibniz to Frege. Also in preparation are Logic From Russell to Gödel, Logic and the Modalities in the Twentieth Century, and The Many-Valued and Non-Monotonic Turn in Logic. Further volumes will follow, including Mediaeval and Renaissance Logic and Logic: A History of its Central. In designing the Handbook of the History of Logic, the Editors have taken the view that the history of logic holds more than an antiquarian interest, and that a knowledge of logic's rich and sophisticated development is, in various respects, relevant to the research programmes of the present day. Ancient logic is no exception. The present volume attests to the distant origins of some of modern logic's most important features, such as can be found in the claim by the authors of t...

  15. Looking for Colour on Greek and Roman Sculpture

    OpenAIRE

    Amanda Claridge

    2011-01-01

    Review of: Vinzenz Brinkmann, Oliver Primavesi, Max Hollein, (eds), Circumlitio. The Polychromy of Antique and Medieval Sculpture. Liebighaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt am Main, 2010. New scientific methods now being applied to the analysis of traces of pigments and gilding on ancient Greek and Roman marble statuary, and other marble artefacts, have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the relationship between form and colour in antiquity. At present the enquiry is still...

  16. Greek mathematical thought and the origin of algebra

    CERN Document Server

    Klein, Jacob

    1992-01-01

    Important study focuses on the revival and assimilation of ancient Greek mathematics in the 13th-16th centuries, via Arabic science, and the 16th-century development of symbolic algebra. This brought about the crucial change in the concept of number that made possible modern science - in which the symbolic ""form"" of a mathematical statement is completely inseparable from its ""content"" of physical meaning. Includes a translation of Vieta's Introduction to the Analytical Art. 1968 edition. Bibliography.

  17. Greek Teachers Programme 2015

    CERN Multimedia

    Hoch, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The 3rd edition of this year's Greek Teachers Programme was co-organized by CERN Education Group and the Hellenic Physical Society and took place from 8 to 12 November 2015. The programme targets physics high-school teachers from all over Greece. It aims to help teachers inspire the next generation of scientists and engineers by motivating their students to understand and appreciate how science works at the world's largest physics laboratory, whereby increasing their interest in pursuing studies in STEM fields in secondary and post-secondary education. 33 teachers took part in this programme which comprised lectures by Greek members of the CERN scientific community, with visits to experimental facilities, hands-on activities and dedicated sessions on effective and creative ways through which participants may bring physics, particle physics and CERN closer to their school classroom. In 2015, more than 100 teachers took part in the three editions of the Greek Teachers Programme.

  18. Conception, complicated pregnancy, and labour of gods and heroes in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iavazzo, Christos; Trompoukis, Constantinos; Sardi, Thalia; Falagas, Matthew E

    2008-01-01

    Pregnancy and labour are holy moments in a woman's life. Even in Greek mythology we can find descriptions of them. We searched in the Greek myths to find descriptions of labours of ancient heroes and gods. We identified descriptions of extracorporeal fertilization, superfecundation, ectopic pregnancy, preterm labour, prolonged pregnancy and Caesarean section. The use of imagination could help the reader to find similarities in present or future developments in the field of obstetrics. It could be concluded that various aspects of modern obstetrical practice are described in Greek mythology.

  19. Plato and Play: Taking Education Seriously in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angour, Armand

    2013-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines Plato's notions of play in ancient Greek culture and shows how the philosopher's views on play can be best appreciated against the background of shifting meanings and evaluations of play in classical Greece. Play--in various forms such as word play, ritual, and music--proved central to the development of…

  20. Ancient Media in Literature: Golden Printers and Golden Authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooradian, Karlen

    Seal printing is explored as a literary topic in 28 works dating from the third millennium B.C. to A.D. 1613 (from Sumerian times through Shakespeare's). This ancient printing method is mentioned in the literature of the Egyptians, Greeks, Hebrews, and Arabians. It occurs in the works of Herodotus, Plutarch, and Marco Polo, as well as Chaucer and…

  1. New Interpretations of the History of Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avraamides, Achilles

    1977-01-01

    The author critically examines the most significant interpretations and reinterpretations of ancient Greek history of interest to secondary teachers. Discussed are the history of Mycenaeans, Athenians, and Persians, military history, Alexander, and the role of the centuries 800 B.C.-500 B.C. in preparing for classical times. (Author/RM)

  2. Graeco-Roman Astro-Architecture: The Temples of Pompeii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiede, Vance R.

    2014-01-01

    Roman architect Marcus Vetruvius Pollio (ca. 75-15 BC) wrote, “[O]ne who professes himself as an architect should be…acquainted with astronomy and the theory of the heavens…. From astronomy we find the east, west, south, and north, as well as the theory of the heavens, the Equinox, Solstice and courses of the Stars.” (De Architectura Libri Decem I:i:3,10). In order to investigate the role of astronomy in temple orientation, the author conducted a preliminary GIS DEM/Satellite Imaging survey of 11 temples at Pompeii, Italy (N 40d 45', E 14d 29'). The GIS survey measured the true azimuth and horizon altitude of each temple’s major axis and was field checked by a Ground Truth survey with theodolite and GPS, 5-18 April 2013. The resulting 3D vector data was analyzed with Program STONEHENGE (Hawkins 1983, 328) to identify the local skyline declinations aligned with the temple major axes. Analysis suggests that the major axes of the temples of Apollo, Jupiter and Venus are equally as likely to have been oriented to Pompeii’s urban grid, itself oriented NW-SE on Mt. Vesuvius’ slope and hydraulic gradient to optimize urban sewer/street drainage (cf. Hodge 1992). However, the remaining nine temples appear to be oriented to astronomical targets on the local horizon associated with Graeco-Roman calendrics and mythology. TEMPLE/ DATE/ MAJOR AXIS ASTRO-TARGET (Skyline Declination in degrees) Public Lares/AD 50/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, Last Gleam (-16.5) Vespsian/ AD 69-79/ Cross-Quarter 7 Nov/3 Feb Sun Set, LG (-16.2) Fortuna Augusta/ AD 1/ Winter Solstice Sun Set, LG (-22.9) Aesculapius/ 100 BC/ Perseus Rise (β Persei-Algol = +33.0) & Midsummer Moon Major Stand Still Set, LG (-28.1) Isis/ 100 BC/ Midwinter Moon Major Stand Still Rise, Tangent (+28.5) & Equinox Sun Set, Tangent (-0.3) Jupiter/ 150 BC/ Θ Scorpionis-Sargas Rise (-38.0) Apollo/ 550 (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37.1) Venus/ 150 BC (rebuilt 70 BC)/ α Columbae-Phact Rise (-37

  3. Project work Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization?

    OpenAIRE

    Hvastija, Darka; Kos, Jasna

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the project for 15-year-old students with the title Ancient Greece and Rome and the sub-title Is the Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome really the Cradle of European Civilization? is introduced. It shows how to connect mathematics with art, history, physics, geography and philosophy by studying ancient Greek scientists and their achievements. Collaborative teaching is introduced. The major aim of the project was to show mathematics as a part of human civilization and to follow...

  4. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  5. Greek and Roman Myths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Fredella; Faggionato, Michael

    Designed for use with the text "Greek and Roman Myths," this junior high school learning activity packet introduces students to mythology and examines the influence of myths on contemporary culture. Over 20 exercises, tagged to specific readings in the text, cover identification of the major gods, the Prometheus myth, the Atlas myth,…

  6. Greek & Roman Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Alma

    Activities and background information on Greek and Roman mythology are presented. The unit is designed for eighth graders, but many of the activities can be modified for other grade levels. The unit includes: (1) a content outline; (2) a list of instructional materials including suggested textbooks, teacher-prepared materials, and resource…

  7. Reconsiderations about Greek homosexualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Percy, William Armstrong

    2005-01-01

    Focusing his analysis on (mostly Athenian) vase paintings of the sixth- and early fifth-century and on a handful of texts from the late fifth- and early fourth-century (again Athenian), Dover depicted the pederastic relationship of erastes (age 20 to 30) and eromenos (age 12-18) as defined by sexual roles, active and passive, respectively. This dichotomy he connected to other sexual and social phenomena, in which the active/ penetrating role was considered proper for a male adult Athenian citizen, while the passive/penetrated role was denigrated, ridiculed, and even punished. Constructing various social and psychological theories, Foucault and Halperin, along with a host of others, have extended his analysis, but at the core has remained the Dover dogma of sexual-role dichotomization. Penetration has become such a focal point in the scholarship that anything unable to be analyzed in terms of domination is downplayed or ignored. To reduce homosexuality or same-sex behaviors to the purely physical or sexual does an injustice to the complex phenomena of the Greek male experience. From Sparta to Athens to Thebes and beyond, the Greek world incorporated pederasty into their educational systems. Pederasty became a way to lead a boy into manhood and full participation in the polis, which meant not just participation in politics but primarily the ability to benefit the city in a wide range of potential ways. Thus the education, training, and even inspiration provided in the pederastic relationship released creative forces that led to what has been called the Greek 'miracle.' From around 630 BCE we find the institution of Greek pederasty informing the art and literature to a degree yet to be fully appreciated. Moreover, this influence not only extends to the 'higher' realms of culture, but also can be seen stimulating society at all levels, from the military to athletic games, from philosophy to historiography. An understanding of sexual practices-useful, even essential, to

  8. Research on fine management and visualization of ancient architectures based on integration of 2D and 3D GIS technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Yan; Shaohua, Wang; Jiayuan, Li; Qingwu, Hu

    2014-01-01

    Aimed at ancient architectures which own the characteristics of huge data quantity, fine-grained and high-precise, a 3D fine management and visualization method for ancient architectures based on the integration of 2D and 3D GIS is proposed. Firstly, after analysing various data types and characters of digital ancient architectures, main problems and key technologies existing in the 2D and 3D data management are discussed. Secondly, data storage and indexing model of digital ancient architecture based on 2D and 3D GIS integration were designed and the integrative storage and management of 2D and 3D data were achieved. Then, through the study of data retrieval method based on the space-time indexing and hierarchical object model of ancient architecture, 2D and 3D interaction of fine-grained ancient architectures 3D models was achieved. Finally, take the fine database of Liangyi Temple belonging to Wudang Mountain as an example, fine management and visualization prototype of 2D and 3D integrative digital ancient buildings of Liangyi Temple was built and achieved. The integrated management and visual analysis of 10GB fine-grained model of the ancient architecture was realized and a new implementation method for the store, browse, reconstruction, and architectural art research of ancient architecture model was provided

  9. Visual reconstruction of Hampi Temple - Construed Graphically, Pictorially and Digitally

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meera Natampally

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The existing temple complex in Hampi, Karnataka, India was extensively studied, analyzed and documented. The complex was measured-drawn and digitized by plotting its edges and vertices using AutoCAD to generate 2d drawings. The graphic 2d elements developed were extended into 3 dimensional objects using Google sketch-up. The tool has been used to facilitate the visual re-construction to achieve the architecture of the temple in its original form. 3D virtual modelling / visual reconstruction helps us to visualize the structure in its original form giving a holistic picture of the Vijayanagara Empire in all its former glory. The project is interpreted graphically using Auto-CAD drawings, pictorially, digitally using Sketch-Up model and Kinect.

  10. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  11. The sacred foodscapes of Thai Buddhist temples in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Plank

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Thai Buddhist communities are by far the fastest-growing Buddhist establishments in Sweden, and – contrary to other Buddhist congregations that are mainly clustered in the cities – Thai Buddhist temples can be found in sparsely-populated areas and rural parts of Sweden. This article aims to document and analyse the ‘foodscape’ of diasporic Thai Buddhism in Sweden. In particular the article identifies and discusses five different strategies used by local communities- in order to support their temples in urban as well as rural areas: 1 local support, 2 pre-cooking and freezing, 3 pre-organised almsgiving in nearby cities, 4 change of food gifts, 5 change of the nikaya. A temple’s location in a rural area can drive forward a reinterpretation and adaptation of the monk’s rules, and contribute to a changing composition of food gifts. Food performs several functions. In addition to the religious functions that are associated with almsgiving, food can also serve as a means of generating bonding and bridging civic social capital, and providing economic income to temples.

  12. Ergonomic design in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmaras, N; Poulakakis, G; Papakostopoulos, V

    1999-08-01

    Although the science of ergonomics did not actually emerge until the 20th century, there is evidence to suggest that ergonomic principles were in fact known and adhered to 25 centuries ago. The study reported here is a first attempt to research the ergonomics concerns of ancient Greeks, on both a conceptual and a practical level. On the former we present a collection of literature references to the concepts of usability and human-centred design. On the latter, examples of ergonomic design from a variety of fields are analysed. The fields explored here include the design of everyday utensils, the sculpture and manipulation of marble as a building material and the design of theatres. Though hardly exhaustive, these examples serve to demonstrate that the ergonomics principles, in content if not in name, actually emerged a lot earlier than is traditionally thought.

  13. Tales of some ancient harbors in the Aegean back-arc region: Earthquakes, coastal changes, historical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiros, Stathis; Saltogianni, Vasso

    2017-04-01

    Tectonically active terrains are characterized by seismic transient ground motions (shaking) and by permanent ground motions in the vicinity of activated faults, with both effects occasionally leaving their signature on human constructions and the landscape. Especially in coastal areas marked by small tidal ranges and normal water salinity, as is the case with most parts of the Eastern Mediterranean, even small-amplitude tectonic motions can be derived from observations on coastal constructions, mainly harbors, but also on spring chambers in nearly arid environments, sewers, etc. Such observations, if coupled with well-dated observations of destructions and repairs and of changes in the occupation style of ancient sites can permit precious information conveyed from archaeology to tectonics/seismology and vice versa. A transect with harbor remains from Rhodes to the Gulf of Corinth and then till the Ionian Islands provides some excellent examples. The military harbor of Rhodes, in an area of long term uplift, a coded report of which seems to be provided by ancient poet Pindar, was subject to seismic subsidence and destruction, but with major international support, it was repaired, till renewed uplift brought it several meters above the water. In the Corinth area, the Kenchreai harbor was abruptly submerged during a major repair of a temple, as revealed by precious stained glass panels, ready to use but abandoned in shallow water beneath ruins, while radiometric dating of the uplift in the western Lechaion harbor, constrains its excavation in swampy environment not in Roman times, but to the period of flourishing of Corinth in circa 600BC and the colonization of Italy. Farther west, the sea-level mark of the harbor of Aigeira, at Mavra Litharia (Derveni/Akrata) indicates 4m uplift since the Roman period, at least partly seismic, correlating with an exposed reef and the abandonment of the repairs of the theatre of Aigeira. Seismic land uplift explains the demise of

  14. [Female erotic dreams and female seed in ancient Greek medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andò, Valeria

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses passages of the Hippocratic Corpus, of Aristotle and Galen about oneirogmòs, spermatic emission during sleep, referring specifically to women. Into the Hippocratic texts there is only one gynaecological case among many cases about males: for them this nocturnal emission is symptom of dangerous illness and De genitura gives a causal explanation of such phaenomenon. Instead, in Aristotle and Galen erotic dream is evidence for or against emission of female seed and female contribution to generation. As the argument ofHistoria animalium book X shows clear theoretical differences from that of De generatione animalium, the topic of erotic dream also concerns issues of authenticity.

  15. From ancient Greek medicine to EP³OS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prokopakis, E. P.; Hellings, P. W.; Velegrakis, G. A.; Kawauchi, H.

    2010-01-01

    The manuscripts of eminent Byzantine physicians from the 4th to the 14th century contain extensive information on various otorhinolaryngological issues. In their work, the early knowledge of rhinological disease from definition and symptoms to conservative treatment and surgical intervention is

  16. Intertextuality in Ancient Greek Tragedy: The Case of Euripidean Orestes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaž Zabel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the role of intertextuality in understanding Euripides’ Orestes, beginning with an overview of intertextuality theories, especially those from the domain of structuralism, i.e. by Julia Kristeva (and Mikhail Bakhtin, Roland Barthes, Michael Riffaterre, and Gérard Genette. The second part of the paper discusses the theoretical implications of intertextuality for classical philology and provides a literature review of intertextuality in Orestes. The concluding part presents three possible objections to Zeitlin’s argument about the intertextuality of Orestes. A discussion of the social context of the tragedy is followed by an account of the structuralists’ understanding of language and rounded off with speculations on the possibility of intertextuality in oral literature.

  17. A neutron diffraction study of ancient Greek ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siouris, I.M.; Walter, J.

    2006-01-01

    Non-destructive neutron diffraction studies were performed on three 2nd-century BC archaeological pottery fragments from the excavation site of Neos Scopos, Serres, in North Greece. In all the 273 K diagrams quartz and feldspars phase fractions are dominant. Diopside and iron oxide phases were also identifiable. The diopside content is found to decrease with increasing quartz-feldspar compositions. Iron oxides containing minerals were found to be present and the phase compositions reflect upon the coloring of the samples. However, the different content compositions of the phases may suggest different regions of the original clay materials as well as different preparation techniques. The firing temperatures were determined to be in the range of 900-1000 deg. C

  18. Radiocarbon dating of mortars from ancient Greek palaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zouridakis, N.; Saliege, J.F.; Person, A.; Filippakis, S.E.

    1987-01-01

    The study deals with radiocarbon dating of lime mortars which were used as supports for Mycenaean and Minoan paintings. The 14 C dates are, on the whole, compatible with the historical data, and thus show that a large proportion of the Mycenaean surficial coatings can be dated by the radiocarbon method. However, in order to determine the age of the mortars accurately, it is necessary to evaluate the amount of sedimentary carbonate which may have been added to them. It is shown here that the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of lime mortars are significant indicators that such a mixing actually took place. (author)

  19. Radiocarbon dating of mortars from ancient Greek palaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zouridakis, N.; Saliege, J.F.; Person, A.; Filippakis, S.E.

    1987-02-01

    The study deals with radiocarbon dating of lime mortars which were used as supports for Mycenaean and Minoan paintings. The /sup 14/C dates are, on the whole, compatible with the historical data, and thus show that a large proportion of the Mycenaean surficial coatings can be dated by the radiocarbon method. However, in order to determine the age of the mortars accurately, it is necessary to evaluate the amount of sedimentary carbonate which may have been added to them. It is shown here that the oxygen and carbon isotope compositions of lime mortars are significant indicators that such a mixing actually took place.

  20. 3D DIGITAL SIMULATION OF MINNAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE CAISSON'S CRAFT TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    Y. C. Lin; T. C. Wu; M. F. Hsu

    2013-01-01

    Caisson is one of the important representations of the Minnan (southern Fujian) temple architecture craft techniques and decorative aesthetics. The special component design and group building method present the architectural thinking and personal characteristics of great carpenters of Minnan temple architecture. In late Qing Dynasty, the appearance and style of caissons of famous temples in Taiwan apparently presented the building techniques of the great carpenters. However, as the y...

  1. The value of ancient architecture for educational program of masters of architectural space design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prishchepa Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of archaeological sites of ancient Greek colony-towns and medieval fortresses gives a real insight into the interaction of all spheres of human activity in ancient times. Ancient Greek Emporium is a vivid example of the architecture, art, archaeology and urban planning synthesis. Archaeological excavations provide an opportunity to study the artefacts of the ancient world belonging to several fields, such as sculpture, decorative arts, fashion design and household. Studying history of archaeology right on the place of excavation of an ancient city masters can imagine the scale of buildings, streets layout and location of business, administrative and residential buildings. It allows students to form professional way of thinking in a short period in order to gather the material and work on the master thesis.

  2. [The representation of physical pain in art and the Greek escultural group of the Laocoonte].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roqué, M H; Ruival, C; Roqué, C M

    2006-01-01

    It makes reference to the symptoms and signs of external pain and internal man suffering, masterly represented on marble by greek sculptors of Ancient Greece. A demonstration of the importance of literature and sculpture as an humanistic complement for teaching History of Medicine.

  3. Cyclopia: from Greek antiquity to medical genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalantzis, George C; Tsiamis, Costas B; Poulakou-Rebelakou, Effie L

    2013-01-01

    Cyclops are among the best-known monsters of Greek mythology, also mentioned in art and literature. According to the most recent scientific knowledge, the malformations caused by defective development of the anterior brain and midline mesodermal structures include cyclopia (synophthalmos), ethmocephaly, cebocephaly and arrhinencephaly. These severe forebrain lesions often are accompanied by severe systemic malformations, and affected infants rarely survive. Neither true cyclopia nor synophthalmos are compatible with life because an anomalous development of the brain is involved. Thus, it is difficult to assume that ancient Greeks drew their inspiration from an adult patient suffering from cyclopia. Cyclops appear for the first time in literature in Homer's Odyssey (8th-7th century BC) and one of them, Polyphemus, is blinded by the hero of the epic poem. The description of the creature is identical with patients suffering from cyclopia; eyes are fused and above the median eye there is a proboscis, which is the result of an abnormal development of the surface ectodermal structures covering the brain. The next literature appearance of Cyclops is at the end of 7th century BC in "Theogonia", written by Hesiodus. Another interesting description is made by Euripides in his satyr play entitled 'Cyclops' (5th century BC). In conclusion, though it is not certain whether Homer's description of Cyclops was based on his personal experience or the narration of his ancestors, there is no doubt that the ophthalmological disease, cyclopia, was named after this mythical creature.

  4. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, D.; Cheng, H.S.; Lin, J.W.; Yang, F.J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE

  5. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Lin, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2006-08-15

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE.

  6. PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, D.; Cheng, H. S.; Lin, J. W.; Yang, F. J.

    2006-08-01

    This paper reports the PIXE study on the provenance of Chinese ancient porcelain made in 7-10th century. The chemical compositions of Jun celadon samples made at Juntai, Linru and Hunyuan kilns, the white-glazed porcelain samples made at Ding, Huangye and Dangyangyu kilns, and the Ru celadon samples made at Qiangliang Temple were measured by external-beam PIXE, and the factor analysis was applied for identifying their provenances. Experimental results show that the porcelain products made at different kilns can be distinguished according to the compositional differences measured by PIXE.

  7. Greek mythology: the eye, ophthalmology, eye disease, and blindness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompoukis, Constantinos; Kourkoutas, Dimitrios

    2007-06-01

    In distant eras, mythology was a form of expression used by many peoples. A study of the Greek myths reveals concealed medical knowledge, in many cases relating to the eye. An analysis was made of the ancient Greek texts for mythological references relating to an understanding of vision, visual abilities, the eye, its congenital and acquired abnormalities, blindness, and eye injuries and their treatment. The Homeric epics contain anatomical descriptions of the eyes and the orbits, and an elementary knowledge of physiology is also apparent. The concept of the visual field can be seen in the myth of Argos Panoptes. Many myths describe external eye disease ("knyzosis"), visual disorders (amaurosis), and cases of blinding that, depending on the story, are ascribed to various causes. In addition, ocular motility abnormalities, congenital anomalies (cyclopia), injuries, and special treatments, such as the "licking" method, are mentioned. The study of mythological references to the eye reveals reliable medical observations of the ancient Greeks, which are concealed within the myths.

  8. From antiquity to Olympic revival: sports and Greek national historiography (nineteenth-twentieth centuries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouri, Christina

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the evolution of the historiography of Greek sport from the foundation of the Greek state (1830) until 1982 and its links with Greek national history, which also took shape primarily during the nineteenth century. The gradual 'nationalisation' of sport as an element of Greek national character since antiquity corresponded to changes in perceptions of the national past reflected in historiography. The ancient Olympic Games, Byzantine contests and exercises, the competitions of the klephts and armatoloi (militia soldiers) during the Ottoman rule and the modern revival of the Olympic Games were all successively integrated in a national history of sport confirming national continuity and unity. However this particular genre of national historiography did not gain academic recognition until recently. The authors of histories of physical exercise and sport were amateurs or physical education instructors and could not ensure to their work the authority of a separate discipline.

  9. Transition of Greek art song from the national school to modernism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kontossi Sofia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study presents the different ways in which two Greek composers, Leonidas Zoras and Jani Christou, viewed modernism. The songs of Zoras are typical example of the gradual withdrawal from the aesthetic framework of the National School which dominated during the first decades of the twentieth century. In contrast, Jani Christou, who spent his childhood in Alexandria and received an exclusively Western-type education, remained untouched by Greek traditional music or the Greek National School. His work was moulded by the ancient Greek philosophical belief in the elation of the listener through the transcendental power of Art. By his Six T. S. Eliot Songs Christou offered some of the best examples of twentieth-century expressionistic vocal music.

  10. The Amenity of Temple and Longshan Forest in Xishuangbanna Restored

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    <正>Dai nationality believes in Buddhism. According to the Book of Yebei (shell leave) in Dai language, there have been 28 Buddha, including Sakyamuni, passed on from generation to generation, Sakyamuni was the last generation of Buddha. It is said that their attainment of enlighten and becoming Buddha were connected with trees, Sakyamuni was under Bodhi-tree to become Buddha. These trees were deemed as Holy Bodies, they received careful protection from Dai people. There is a saying in Dai nationality that "never discard parents and never cut Bodhi-tree. The old regulation stipulates that cutting Bodhi-tree will be deemed as destroying temple or

  11. Radar Image with Color as Height, Sman Teng, Temple, Cambodia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    This image of Cambodia's Angkor region, taken by NASA's Airborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (AIRSAR), reveals a temple (upper-right) not depicted on early 19th Century French archeological survey maps and American topographic maps. The temple, known as 'Sman Teng,' was known to the local Khmer people, but had remained unknown to historians due to the remoteness of its location. The temple is thought to date to the 11th Century: the heyday of Angkor. It is an important indicator of the strategic and natural resource contributions of the area northwest of the capitol, to the urban center of Angkor. Sman Teng, the name designating one of the many types of rice enjoyed by the Khmer, was 'discovered' by a scientist at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., working in collaboration with an archaeological expert on the Angkor region. Analysis of this remote area was a true collaboration of archaeology and technology. Locating the temple of Sman Teng required the skills of scientists trained to spot the types of topographic anomalies that only radar can reveal.This image, with a pixel spacing of 5 meters (16.4 feet), depicts an area of approximately 5 by 4.7 kilometers (3.1 by 2.9 miles). North is at top. Image brightness is from the P-band (68 centimeters, or 26.8 inches) wavelength radar backscatter, a measure of how much energy the surface reflects back toward the radar. Color is used to represent elevation contours. One cycle of color represents 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change, so going from blue to red to yellow to green and back to blue again corresponds to 25 meters (82 feet) of elevation change.AIRSAR flies aboard a NASA DC-8 based at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, Calif. In the TOPSAR mode, AIRSAR collects radar interferometry data from two spatially separated antennas (2.6 meters, or 8.5 feet). Information from the two antennas is used to form radar backscatter imagery and to generate highly accurate elevation data. Built

  12. Digital Study and Web-based Documentation of the Colour and Gilding on Ancient Marble Artworks

    OpenAIRE

    Siotto, Eliana; Palma, Gianpaolo; Potenziani, Marco; Scopigno, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Greek and Roman marble artworks have been deeply studied from a typological and stylistic point of view, while there is still a limited knowledge on the pigments, dyes, binders and technical expedients used by Roman artists. In a renewed scientific interest towards the ancient polychromy (colour and gilding), a digital methodological and multidisciplinary approach can provide valuable information to better investigate and understand this fundamental aspect and to get a complete sense on Greek...

  13. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  14. For the benefit of the Greek “Great Idea ”: the excavations during the Asia Minor campaign (1919 - 22

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalliope Pavli

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available U pon the landing of t he Greek troops in Smyrna on May 1919 , that inaugura ted a 3 - years military campaign , the Greek Government sent archaeologists to excavate some of the most famous archaeological sites of the western coast , while the Greek Army also participated by gathering artifacts on its way to Ankara . The researches attempted to “ prove ” the “since ever pure ” and “solid” Greekness of Asia Minor by d iminish ing, on the other hand, the role of other ancient people into the creation of the Aegean and Anatolian civilization ; e ven the Islamic monuments were built by Greeks, according to Greek scholars and to the racial classification of people and their abilities. T he Greek campaign hadn’t been simply a matter of historical (misinterpretation ; t he Greek ruling class never hid e that their ultimate goal was the raw materials of Anatolia even if the ethno - historical myths history and the archeological interpretations added a widely accepted gloss in the war . T his paper aims to introduce the predetermined archaeological assessment s in relation to the necessity of the Greek government to become more effective ideologically, especially on realizing that the campaign was no more politically and militarily tenable .

  15. Suicide and parasuicide in ancient personal testimonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1993-01-01

    Attitudes toward suicide have not always been the same as they are today, and understanding the ideas of other cultures and times could enable us to reexamine contemporary conceptions of self-killing. Greek and Roman personal testimonies were examined to investigate the thesis that ancients did not see suicide as caused by psychic or emotional forces. Indeed, though the documents of antiquity give us a closer look into personal motives, they demonstrate that even would-be self-killers themselves wished to regard suicide as a rational act of volition.

  16. Ancient Indian Astronomy in Introductory Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahari Achar, B. N.

    1997-10-01

    It is customary in introductory survey courses in astronomy to devote some time to the history of astronomy. In the available text books only the Greek contribution receives any attention. Apart from Stonehenge and Chichenitza pictures, contributions from Babylon and China are some times mentioned. Hardly any account is given of ancient Indian astronomy. Even when something is mentioned it is incomplete or incorrect or both. Examples are given from several text books currently available. An attempt is made to correct this situation by sketching the contributions from the earliest astronomy of India, namely Vedaanga Jyotisha.

  17. Goethe among the Ancients: Nature and Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Rubio Garrido

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available During his trip to Sicily, a striking triad influenced Goethe. In the first place, a certain mythological predisposition presides over his descriptions. Second, he includes in his narration digressions about geology, geography, and botany. Finally, he dwells on detailed allusions to his artistic experiences, which include principally those related to architecture. As a result, Goethe combined in Sicily the experience of the ancient myth with the intimate conviction that feeling the natural and the Greek, as far as architecture is concerned, joins him to a meaning with validity in his time.

  18. Deutsche Literatur in englischer Sprache an der Temple University--Eine Zwischenbilanz (German Literature in English Translation at Temple University--An Interim Statement)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caputo-Mayr, Maria-Luise

    1975-01-01

    Reports on three German literature courses taught in English at Temple University. The descriptions give course content, materials and methodologies used, and an indication of the success of each course. (Text is in German.) (TL)

  19. Sunglasses with thick temples and frame constrict temporal visual field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denion, Eric; Dugué, Audrey Emmanuelle; Augy, Sylvain; Coffin-Pichonnet, Sophie; Mouriaux, Frédéric

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to compare the impact of two types of sunglasses on visual field and glare: one ("thick sunglasses") with a thick plastic frame and wide temples and one ("thin sunglasses") with a thin metal frame and thin temples. Using the Goldmann perimeter, visual field surface areas (cm²) were calculated as projections on a 30-cm virtual cupola. A V4 test object was used, from seen to unseen, in 15 healthy volunteers in the primary position of gaze ("base visual field"), then allowing eye motion ("eye motion visual field") without glasses, then with "thin sunglasses," followed by "thick sunglasses." Visual field surface area differences greater than the 14% reproducibility error of the method and having a p thick sunglasses." This decrease was most severe in the temporal quadrant (-33%; p thick sunglasses" than with the "thin sunglasses" (p thick sunglasses" is offset by the much poorer ability to use lateral space exploration; this results in a loss of most, if not all, of the additional visual field gained through eye motion.

  20. The Representation of Aboriginality in the Novels of Peter Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bill Phillips

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Identity politics is fraught with difficulties. Of few places is this truer than in Australia when it comes to the representation of Aboriginality. On the one hand the absence or invisibility of Aboriginality in Australian life and culture maybe interpreted as a deliberate exclusion of a people whose presence is uncomfortable or inconvenient for many Australians of immigrant origin. Equally, the representation of Aboriginality by non-Aboriginals may be seen as an appropriation of identity, an inexcusable commercial exploitation or an act of neocolonialism. Best-selling and prize-winning South African-born author Peter Temple appears to be very much aware of these pitfalls. In his crime novels, written between 1996 and 2009, he has obviously made the decision to grasp the nettle and attempt to represent Aboriginality in a way that would be as acceptable as possible. This paper traces the evolution of Temple's representation of Aboriginality through the three major Aboriginal characters present in his novels: Cameron Delray (Bad Debts, 1996; Black Tide, 1999; Dead Point, 2000; and White Dog, 2003, Ned Lowey (An Iron Rose, 1998 and Detective Sergeant Paul Dove (The Broken Shore, 2005 and Truth, 2009.

  1. THE APPLICATION OF SURVEY IN ER WANG TEMPLE RESTITUTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Shuai

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Er Wang Temple, in World Heritage Site "Dujiang Weirs and Qingchengshan Mountai", was severely destroyed in Wenchuan earthquake of May 2008. There are several problems at different level in every building, such as structural distortion, foundation displacement, wall fracture, roof damage, etc. The stage was completely collapsed in the earthquake. Tableland the stage situated had a huge crack and slope collapse. This article is for the stage renovation. The survey of damage in earthquake is the basis of Er Wang Temple restituting. Survey including field survey after the earthquake and the measurement and investigation for the remained construction member of the main wood structure. For field survey, the basis of pillars which had not have significantly affects in earthquake could be seem as the reference points for measurement. The investigation of remained main wood construction member, especially the size of the key structures and site and manufacture method of the joints, is the important basis for recovery stage. Our team did our utmost to restore the original appearance of stage in design, materials and craft by various tools, which include measured drawings in different times, old images collection, fine measuring by 3D laser scan, measurement of leftover pieces, logical inference.

  2. Anatomical Basis for Safe and Effective Volumization of the Temple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breithaupt, Andrew D; Jones, Derek H; Braz, Andre; Narins, Rhoda; Weinkle, Susan

    2015-12-01

    One of the earliest but often unaddressed signs of facial aging is volume loss in the temple. Treatment of the area can produce satisfying results for both patient and practitioner. Safe injection requires explicit knowledge of the anatomy to avoid complications related to the multitude of vessels that course throughout the region at various depths. The authors aim to detail the anatomy of the area and provide a safe and easy-to-follow method for injection. The authors review the relevant anatomy of the temporal region and its application to cosmetic filler injections. The authors describe an easy-to-follow approach for a safe and effective injection window based on numerous anatomical studies. Injection in this area is not without risk, including potential blindness. The authors review the potential complications and their treatments. Hollowing of the temple is an early sign of aging that, when corrected, can lead to significant patient and practitioner satisfaction. Proper anatomically knowledge is required to avoid potentially severe complications. In this study, the authors present a reliable technique to safely and effectively augment this often undertreated area of the aging face.

  3. The Invention of Infertility in the Classical Greek World:

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when “infertility,” understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented. PMID:24362276

  4. Early Greek Typography in Milan: A Historical Note on a New Greek Typeface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallraff, Martin

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the history of Greek typography, focusing on the first book to be entirely printed in Greek in 1476 and the series of new typefaces that resulted. Cites Milan as a center of Greek printing in the early history of Greek typography. Describes a revival of one of these typefaces created under the name of Milan Greek. (PA)

  5. Temple Grandin e o autismo: uma análise do filme Temple Grandin and autism: the film review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Schmidt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available o presente artigo trata de uma análise do filme Temple Grandin o qual apresenta um panorama do autismo a partir da experiência singular de vida da protagonista. É apresentada uma breve sinopse do filme que descreve a trajetória de uma pessoa com autismo no enfrentamento de barreiras cotidianas em uma época em que esta condição ainda era muito pouco conhecida. A análise retoma alguns recortes do filme e apóia-se em dados atuais da literatura para discutir pontos referentes ao autismo. Entre outras, discutem-se as especificidades e perspectivas futuras dos diagnósticos categóricos e dimensionais no autismo, bem como as persistentes confusões com nomenclaturas. É revista a noção historicamente construída da pessoa com autismo como extremamente inteligente, propondo desconstruir este estereótipo a partir do entendimento destas habilidades sob o escopo de teorias cognitivas que as definem como partes de um estilo cognitivo diferente. Também são abordadas brevemente as alterações sensoriais presentes no autismo, as quais impulsionam Temple a desenvolver a máquina do abraço para auxiliar pessoas como ela a lidar com dificuldades interpessoais, que muitas vezes são confundidas com inexpressão afetiva. Por fim, são retomadas as correlações outrora sugeridas entre a qualidade da parentalidade e o autismo, conforme ilustrada no filme. Não se pretende aqui esgotar o assunto em uma análise extensa e profunda, mas oferecer uma compreensão teórica sobre a obra.This article presents an analysis of the film Temple Grandin which provides an overview of autism from the unique life experience of Temple Grandin. A brief synopsis is present describing the trajectory of a person with autism in coping with everyday obstacles at a time when this condition was still very little known. The analysis takes some scenes from the movie film to discuss aspects related to autism, based upon the literature. Specificities and future perspectives on

  6. The Architecture of Physical Culture in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Debevec

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the interaction between the culture of the body and architectural creativity in Ancient Greece. This interaction is rooted in a concern for personal and group security, the basis of which was physical fitness, as well as in the immersion of Greek reality in religion, which depicted gods and goddesses in perfect human bodies. Together with a developed feeling for the community, these two aspects stimulated the design of a special architecture devoted to physical culture. Baths, gymnasiums, palaestras, stadiums, hippodromes and theatres are original flashes of Greek architectural genius. They are golden ‘vessels’ devoted to the admiration of beauty, agility and the expressive power of the body – virtues which paved the way to a godlike semblance for every Greek.

  7. The Climate and its Impacts on deterioration and weathering rate of EI-Nadura Temple in El- Kharga Oasis, Western Desert of Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismael, Hossam

    2015-04-01

    Undoubtedly, El-Kharga Oasis monumental sites are considered an important part of our world's cultural heritage in the South Western Desert of Egypt. These sites are scattered on the floor of the oasis representing ancient civilizations. The Roman stone monuments in Kharga represent cultural heritage of an outstanding universal value. Such those monuments have suffered weathering deterioration. There are various elements which affect the weathering process of stone monuments: climate conditions, shapes of cultural heritages, exposed time periods, terrains, and vegetation around them, etc. Among these, climate conditions are the most significant factor affecting the deterioration of Archeological sites in Egypt. El- Kharga Oasis belongs administratively to the New Valley Governorate. It is located in the southern part of the western desert of Egypt, lies between latitudes 22°30'14" and 26°00'00" N, and between 30°27'00" and 30°47'00" E. The area of El Kharga Oasis covers about 7500 square kilometers. Pilot studies were carried out on the EI-Nadura Temple, composed of sandstones originating from the great sand sea. The major objective of this study is to monitor and measure the weathering features and the weathering rate affecting the building stones forming El-Nadora Roman building rocks in cubic cm. To achieve these aims, the present study used analysis of climatic data such as annual and seasonal solar radiation, Monthly average number of hours of sunshine, maximum and minimum air temperatures, wind speed, which have obtained from actual field measurements and data Meteorological Authority of El-Kharga station for the period 1977 to 2010 (33 years), and from the period 1941-2050 (110 years) as a long term of temperature data. Several samples were collected and examined by polarizing microscopy (PLM), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray analysis system (SEM-EDX). The results were in

  8. Nasalance norms in Greek adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okalidou, Areti; Karathanasi, Asimina; Grigoraki, Eleni

    2011-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to derive nasalance norms for monolingual Greek speakers, to examine nasalance scores as a function of gender and to draw cross-linguistic comparisons based on normative data. Participants read aloud a corpus of linguistic material, consisting of (1) a nasal text, an oral text and a balanced text; (2) a set of nasal sentences and four sets of oral sentences and (3) repetitions of each of 12 syllable types (8 oral and 4 nasal). The last two sets of material corpus were based on an adaptation of the Simplified Nasometric Assessment Procedures Test (SNAP test) test ( MacKay and Kummer, 1994 ) in Greek, called the G-SNAP test. Eighty monolingual healthy young adult speakers of Greek, 40 males (mean age = 21 years) and 40 females (mean age = 20.5 years), with normal hearing and speech characteristics and unremarkable history were included in the study. The Nasometer (model 6200-3) was used to derive nasalance scores. Mean normative nasalance for spoken Greek was 25.50%, based on the G-oronasal text (with 8.6% nasals). Nasalance scores did not differ significantly with respect to gender. Finally, spoken Greek consistently yielded lower nasalance scores than other languages examined in past work. The aforementioned normative data on nasalance of young adult speakers of Greek are valid across gender and have direct clinical utility as they provide valuable reference information for the diagnosis and management of Greek adults with resonance disorders caused by velar dysfunction.

  9. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, L.; Ding, X.L.; Feng, S.L.; Feng, X.Q.; Lu, Z.R.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  10. The building stones of ancient Egypt a gift of its geology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemm, Dietrich D.; Klemm, Rosemarie

    2001-08-01

    Building stones and clay-rich Nile mud were ancient Egypt's main raw construction materials. While the mud was easily accessible along the Nile river valley, the immense quantities of the different stone materials used for construction of the famous pyramids, precious temples and tombs needed a systematic quarrying organization, well arranged transport logistics over extreme distances and a high standard of stone masonry. The petrography, occurrence, and main applications of the 11 most popular stone types used in ancient Egypt are described in this contribution. Rough estimates of the scale of this mining activity, based on the volume of many different ancient quarry sites, all over Egypt, reveal that the monuments known today represent only a small fraction of the amount of building stones mined during the long, ancient Egyptian history.

  11. Assessment of the lower ESR dating range in Greek speleothems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassiakos, Y.

    2001-01-01

    Pilot ESR dating studies on geologically young calcitic sinters were carried out, aiming at assessment of the lower ESR dating range in characteristic Greek speleoenvironments. Five stalactites were dated, coming from an ancient mining gallery, idle for the last 2,500 years, found on Siphnos island (Aegean). The calculated ages range between 1,7-2,0 ka. Medium to low measured external dose rates (aprox. 900 μGy/a) and very low measured radioelement concentration in samples are very usual in the Mediterranean environments. The study concludes that ESR dating of speleothems younger than two millenia is practically unattainable. Some geoarchaeological implications of the obtained ages are discussed. (author)

  12. Greek marbles: determination of provenance by isotopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, H; Craig, V

    1972-04-28

    A study has been made of carbon-13 and oxygen-18 variations in Greek marbles from the ancient quarry localities of Naxos, Paros, Mount Hymettus, and Mount Pentelikon. Parian, Hymettian, and Pentelic marbles can be clearly distinguished by the isotopic relationships; Naxian marbles fall into two groups characterized by different oxygen-18/oxygen-16 ratios. Ten archeological samples were also analyzed; the isotopic data indicate that the "Theseion" is made of Pentelic marble and a block in the Treasury of Siphnos at Delphi is probably Parian marble.

  13. Looking for Colour on Greek and Roman Sculpture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Claridge

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Review of: Vinzenz Brinkmann, Oliver Primavesi, Max Hollein, (eds, Circumlitio. The Polychromy of Antique and Medieval Sculpture. Liebighaus Skulpturensammlung, Frankfurt am Main, 2010. New scientific methods now being applied to the analysis of traces of pigments and gilding on ancient Greek and Roman marble statuary, and other marble artefacts, have the potential to revolutionise our understanding of the relationship between form and colour in antiquity. At present the enquiry is still in its infancy, but the papers delivered at a conference held in Frankfurt in 2008, reviewed here, provide a general introduction to the subject and to a wide range of work in progress.

  14. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  15. Ideas of Physical Forces and Differential Calculus in Ancient India

    OpenAIRE

    Girish, T. E.; Nair, C. Radhakrishnan

    2010-01-01

    We have studied the context and development of the ideas of physical forces and differential calculus in ancient India by studying relevant literature related to both astrology and astronomy since pre-Greek periods. The concept of Naisargika Bala (natural force) discussed in Hora texts from India is defined to be proportional to planetary size and inversely related to planetary distance. This idea developed several centuries prior to Isaac Newton resembles fundamental physical forces in natur...

  16. KARL GOOSS AND A TEMPLE OF JUPITER IN APULUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba Szabó

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Karl Gooss (1844-1881 was one of the few intellectuals of his time who witnessed personally the building of the railway and the ditch of Alba Iulia between 1865 and 1868. The construction was the biggest project of the city since the building of the Vauban fort and destroyed the most significant part of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis, one of the biggest urban centers of the province. During these works, Gooss witnessed the discovery and destruction of the first Jupiter temple attested in Dacia, the biggest silver deposit ever found in Transylvania and the first coin hoard of Apulum. His German publication was ignored by the later historiography, although it is the first and only detailed account of the archaeological finds discovered in the Partoș in the end of August, 1867. His detailed account helps us to identify the context of some well known artifacts and to reconsider the topography of the Colonia Aurelia Apulensis.

  17. THE FARTHEST MOSQUE OR THE ALLEGED TEMPLE AN ANALYTIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yehia Hassan Wazeri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Farthest Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem has been associated in the consciousness of the Muslims, with The Sacred Mosque (Al-Masjid Al-Haram in Makkah through a spiritual bond since the event of Isra’ (Night Journey and Mi`raj (Ascension to Heaven. The objective of this study is to determine the orientation of the Farthest Mosque and illustrate the similarity in geometric shape (plan and proportions, between the Farthest Mosque in Jerusalem and the sacred mosque (Al-Ka`bah in Makkah, in the first part of the research. The second part of the research involves a study of some texts from the Old Testament that address the architectural and structural descriptions of the alleged temple, with the purpose of exposing whether glaring contradictions exist between the texts of the Old Testament themselves or between them and the real architectural and structural facts acknowledged by specialists in this field. Keywords: The Farthest mosque, the Alleged Temple, Al-Ka`bah, geometric similarity     Abstrak Masjid tertua (Masjid al-Aqsa di Jarusalem telah dihubungkan dalam kesadaran umat muslim, dengan masjid suci (Masjidil Haram di Mekah melalui ikatan spiritual sejak kejadian Isra’ (perjalanan malam dan Mi’raj (kenaikan  ke  surga.  Tujuan  dari  kajian  ini  adalah  untuk  menentukan  orientasi  masjid  tertua  and menggambarkan kesamaan bentuk geometri (denah dan proporsi, antara masjid tertua di Jarusalem dan masjid suci (Ka’bah di Mekah, di bagian pertama penelitian. Bagian kedua penelitian melibatkan kajian beberapa tulisan dari surat wasiat kuno yang mengarah kepada deskripsi arsitektural dan struktural kuil, dengan tujuan mengekspos baik kontradiksi yang mencolok antara tulisan surat wasiat kuno itu sendiri maupun di antara mereka, dan fakta arsitektural dan struktural yang nyata diakui oleh spesialis di lapangan   Kata kunci: masjid tertua, kuil, ka’bah, kesamaan geometri

  18. Notes on the Presence of the Greek Tragedy in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandro Romero Rey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The ancient world and, in particular that of Greek tragedy, is present in Colombia under various masks. This article takes on a journey through the presence of the works of Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides in different artistic manifestations. From poetry and narrative, to cinema and the visual arts, ancient tragedy has served as a metaphor to reflect on the situation of extreme violence in this South American country and the ways in which a possible utopia of reconciliation can be built. At the same time, it focuses on the different scenic models, from their praxis on the stage where the “illustrative” versions stand out, to the transformations in the representation conventions or the use of fables as triggers in much more ambitious creative immersions. The following paper in English was the starting point for Encounters with Classical Antiquity in Latin America. A Humanities / Humanity Workshop at Yale University in October 2017, presented by its author.

  19. GPR investigation to allocate the archaeological remains in Mut temple, Luxor, Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Atya

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available GPR investigation has been conducted on Mut temple; to the south portion of Al-Karnak temple at the eastern bank of Luxor city. Within the survey, the GPR SIR system-10A has been used connected to 100/500 MHz antenna. The present work is oriented to allocate the buried Archaeological ruins at the site, and also to evaluate the archaeological significance of the artifacts in concern to the hydro-situation. The survey is composed of three data sets; the first set (A includes three GPR profiles located inside the temple palisade at the western bank of the holy lake, the second set (B includes four profiles distributed on the yard between Mute and Al Karnak temples, and the third set (C includes three profiles oriented to study the EW Sphinx Avenue front of Mute temple. The measured GPR data has been processed and visualized in different ways to show the infra-content of the artifacts in the buried subsurface of the temple. Furthermore, intensive mutual work and discussion with the local inspectorate at Luxor about the results would lead to detect the zones of possible findings and, as much as possible, to define their identities. A series of sectional GPR records, time slices, maps, and 3D graphs are introduced to represent the remains of Mut temple and its infrastructure.

  20. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  1. Greek paideia and terms of probability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Leon Parada

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses three aspects of the conceptual framework for a doctoral dissertation research in process in the field of Mathematics Education, in particular, in the subfield of teaching and learning basic concepts of Probability Theory at the College level. It intends to contrast, sustain and elucidate the central statement that the meanings of some of these basic terms used in Probability Theory were not formally defined by any specific theory but relate to primordial ideas developed in Western culture from Ancient Greek myths. The first aspect deals with the notion of uncertainty, with that Greek thinkers described several archaic gods and goddesses of Destiny, like Parcas and Moiras, often personified in the goddess Tyche—Fortuna for the Romans—, as regarded in Werner Jaeger’s “Paideia”. The second aspect treats the idea of hazard from two different approaches: the first approach deals with hazard, denoted by Plato with the already demythologized term ‘tyche’ from the viewpoint of innate knowledge, as Jaeger points out. The second approach deals with hazard from a perspective that could be called “phenomenological”, from which Aristotle attempted to articulate uncertainty with a discourse based on the hypothesis of causality. The term ‘causal’ was opposed both to ‘casual’ and to ‘spontaneous’ (as used in the expression “spontaneous generation”, attributing uncertainty to ignorance of the future, thus respecting causal flow. The third aspect treated in the paper refers to some definitions and etymologies of some other modern words that have become technical terms in current Probability Theory, confirming the above-mentioned main proposition of this paper.

  2. The Origins of Greek Civilization: From the Bronze Age to the Polis ca. 2500-600 B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmell, Rhoda; And Others

    This document consists of three units in which students study and compare the two civilizations of ancient Greece, that of the Greek kingdoms of the second millennium B.C. and the city states of historical Greece, and learn how historians use archaeological evidence to reconstruct the history of Mycenaean Greece. Suggestions are included for…

  3. Greeks, British Greek Cypriots and Londoners: a comparison of morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavreas, V G; Bebbington, P E

    1988-05-01

    This paper reports the results of a comparison of the rates of psychiatric disorder from three general population surveys in which the PSE-ID-CATEGO system was used for case-definition. These surveys were of an English sample in Camberwell, London, and of two Greek samples, the first in Athens, the second of Greek Cypriot immigrants living in Camberwell. The results show that the rates of psychiatric disorders in both Greek samples were somewhat higher than those of the Camberwell population, the differences being accounted for by higher rates of anxiety disorders, especially in women. Comparisons in terms of syndrome profiles showed that Greeks reported more symptoms of generalized anxiety than their English counterparts who, in their turn, reported higher rates of obsessive symptoms, and symptoms of social anxiety. The higher rates in the Greek samples were possibly due to an increased frequency of non-specific neurotic symptoms like worrying and tension. The results of other European community surveys with the PSE suggest that there might be a genuine and general North-South difference in the expression of psychological distress. Cultural differences in terms of personality traits and culturally sanctioned child rearing practices might account for the findings.

  4. Greek Immigrants in Australia: Implications for Culturally Sensitive Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiades, Savvas Daniel

    2015-10-01

    This exploratory research examined adjustment challenges, resiliencies, attitudes, emotional health, economic stability, criminal involvement, victimization and service experiences, and some cultural propensities of Greek Immigrants (GIs) in Australia using a convenient multi-generational sample (n = 123; response rate = .5). Data were collected via surveys, telephone, and personal-interviews in four major Australian cities. Among other things, the study revealed that Greek identity and cultural customs are often significant to first generation GIs. Adjustment challenges upon entry include primarily language, housing, and transportation difficulties, nostalgia for relatives and the motherland, unfamiliarity with socio-cultural systems, unemployment, money challenges, and lack of friendships. Christian faith, the extended family, family values and traditions, cultural pride for ancient Greek achievements, and a hard 'work ethic' are notable resiliencies that support GIs in their struggles and solidify their pursuit for happiness and success. Financial concerns, aging, and nostalgia for relatives and the motherland were the primary causes of socio-emotional instability. Attitudinal differences in the respondents based on age, gender, and socio-economic status, cross-cultural comparisons, and recommendations for culturally-sensitive practice with GIs are analyzed and methodological limitations illuminated. Future research needs in the field are also highlighted.

  5. 'Rewrite this ancient end!' Staging transition in post-apartheid South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Weyenberg, A.

    2008-01-01

    Aeschylus based his Oresteia, the only full trilogy of Greek tragedies known to us today, on the ancient myth of the house of Atreus and set it in the aftermath of the Trojan War. Nonetheless, the trilogy arguably held great contemporary relevance when it was first performed at the Dionysia festival

  6. 3D DIGITAL SIMULATION OF MINNAN TEMPLE ARCHITECTURE CAISSON'S CRAFT TECHNIQUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. C. Lin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Caisson is one of the important representations of the Minnan (southern Fujian temple architecture craft techniques and decorative aesthetics. The special component design and group building method present the architectural thinking and personal characteristics of great carpenters of Minnan temple architecture. In late Qing Dynasty, the appearance and style of caissons of famous temples in Taiwan apparently presented the building techniques of the great carpenters. However, as the years went by, the caisson design and craft techniques were not fully inherited, which has been a great loss of cultural assets. Accordingly, with the caisson of Fulong temple, a work by the well-known great carpenter in Tainan as an example, this study obtained the thinking principles of the original design and the design method at initial period of construction through interview records and the step of redrawing the "Tng-Ko" (traditional design, stakeout and construction tool. We obtained the 3D point cloud model of the caisson of Fulong temple using 3D laser scanning technology, and established the 3D digital model of each component of the caisson. Based on the caisson component procedure obtained from interview records, this study conducted the digital simulation of the caisson component to completely recode and present the caisson design, construction and completion procedure. This model of preserving the craft techniques for Minnan temple caisson by using digital technology makes specific contribution to the heritage of the craft techniques while providing an important reference for the digital preservation of human cultural assets.

  7. Health status and occupational risk factors in Greek small fisheries workers

    OpenAIRE

    Frantzeskou, Elpida; Jensen, Olaf Chresten; Linos, Athena

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Fishing is an extremely dangerous occupational activity that predisposes to occupational diseases and accidents. Greece, with about 16,000 km of coastline and its unique morphological characteristics with small islands and peninsulas, represents a strong proof of its great tradition in the fisheries sector since ancient times. The aim of the study was to examine the health status and the health risk factors present in Greek fishery workers, by exploring their working environment, ...

  8. Through the Lens of Sigfried Giedion. Exploring Modernism and the Greek Vernacular in Situ

    OpenAIRE

    Kousidi, Stamatina

    2016-01-01

    Focusing on Sigfried Giedion's initial visit to Greece, in the scope of CIAM IV, this study explores his approach to the myth of the Mediterranean as a germ of Western modernist architecture. Through a closer look at Giedion's photographic and literary lenses, it mainly considers his appreciation of early manifestations of modernity in the extended area of Athens, namely the Villa Fakidis (1932-1933) and Kalisperi Primary School (1931). Their apposition to the ancient and vernacular Greek arc...

  9. The Greek public debt problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalis Nikiforos

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present paper examines the issue of the Greek public debt. After providing a historical discussion, we show that the austerity of the last six years has been unsuccessful in stabilizing the debt while, at the same time, it has taken a heavy toll on the economy and society. The recent experience shows that the public debt is unsustainable and therefore a restructuring is needed. An insistence on the current policies is not justifiable either on pragmatic or on moral or any other grounds. The experience of Germany in the early post-WWII period provides some useful hints for the way forward. A solution to the public debt problem is a necessary but not sufficient condition for the solution of the Greek and European crisis. A wider agenda that deals with the malaises of the Greek economy and the structural imbalances of the Eurozone is of vital importance.

  10. Genetic concepts in Greek literature from the eighth to the fourth century B.C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    1992-03-01

    A review of the concepts of genetics found in epic, historical and dramatic ancient Greek writings from the eighth to the fourth centuries B.C., is presented. The derived data suggest that the development of genetical concepts and ideas started with the praise of the heroes' divine or noble origin in Homer's epic poems (eighth century B.C.). It continued in the tracing of the descent and vicissitudes of the families of the Greek gods and the common ancestry of the Greek tribes as described in Hesiod's genealogical poems (around 700 B.C.), in the statement of descent and dual parenthood of leaders and kings in the books of Herodotus and Xenophon (fifth and fourth centuries B.C.), and in the concern about the lineage of the tragic figures in Greek drama (fifth century B.C.). The genetical concepts expressed in these writings most probably reflected popular notions of that time. They must, therefore, have been the basis of the perceptions and theories on heredity and procreation expressed by the ancient physicians and philosophers in the fifth and fourth centuries B.C., which in turn influenced the development of genetics for many centuries.

  11. Antikos tradicijos ir naujos tendencijos Bizantijos rašytinėje kalboje | Traditions of Antiquity and New Tendencies in Written Greek of the Byzantine Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Svarevičiūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Byzantine period, the norms of written Greek were primarily rooted in the ancient Greek literary tradition and not in the native linguistic competence. The article touches upon the questions linked to the role of rhetorical theory and techniques reinforced by the Greek educational system and the Byzantine Atticism. Particular attention is paid to the different written registers – low, middle, and high –, different styles according to genre and period, and the lack of consistency in writing at all levels.

  12. Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bloemfontein's Greek community: historical background, emigration and settlement, ca 1885 - ca 1985. ... South African Journal of Cultural History ... In this study a review is provided of the reasons why Greeks settled in Bloemfontein since about 1885, where these Greek immigrants came from, and how they travelled to ...

  13. Teaching for Content: Greek Mythology in French.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giauque, Gerald S.

    An intermediate-level university French course in Greek mythology was developed to (1) improve student skills in reading, writing, speaking, and comprehending French, (2) familiarize students with Greek mythology, and (3) prepare students to deal better with allusions to Greek mythology in French literature. The texts used are a French translation…

  14. Research on Non-Destructive Testing Technology in Conservation Repair Project of Ancestral Temple in Mukden Palace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Fu, M.

    2017-08-01

    Due to the use of wood and other non-permanent materials, traditional Chinese architecture is one of the most fragile constructions in various heritage objects today. With the increasing emphasis on the protection of cultural relics, the repair project of wooden structure has become more and more important. There are various kinds of destructions, which pose a hidden danger to the overall safety of the ancient buildings, caused not only by time and nature, but also by improper repairs in history or nowadays. Today, the use of digital technology is a basic requirement in the conservation of cultural heritage. Detection technology, especially non-destructive testing technology, could provide more accurate records in capturing detailed physical characteristics of structures such as geometric deformation and invisible damage, as well as prevent a man-made destruction in the process of repair project. This paper aims to interpret with a typical example, Ancestral Temple in Mukden Palace, along with a discussion of how to use the non-destructive testing technology with ground penetrating radar, stress wave, resistograph and so on, in addition to find an appropriate protection method in repair project of traditional Chinese wooden architecture.

  15. RESEARCH ON NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING TECHNOLOGY IN CONSERVATION REPAIR PROJECT OF ANCESTRAL TEMPLE IN MUKDEN PALACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the use of wood and other non-permanent materials, traditional Chinese architecture is one of the most fragile constructions in various heritage objects today. With the increasing emphasis on the protection of cultural relics, the repair project of wooden structure has become more and more important. There are various kinds of destructions, which pose a hidden danger to the overall safety of the ancient buildings, caused not only by time and nature, but also by improper repairs in history or nowadays. Today, the use of digital technology is a basic requirement in the conservation of cultural heritage. Detection technology, especially non-destructive testing technology, could provide more accurate records in capturing detailed physical characteristics of structures such as geometric deformation and invisible damage, as well as prevent a man-made destruction in the process of repair project. This paper aims to interpret with a typical example, Ancestral Temple in Mukden Palace, along with a discussion of how to use the non-destructive testing technology with ground penetrating radar, stress wave, resistograph and so on, in addition to find an appropriate protection method in repair project of traditional Chinese wooden architecture.

  16. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  17. Antické inšpirácie pre hermeneutiku smrti (Ancient Inspirations for Hermeneutics of Death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Vydra

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The author in this paper investigates ancient understanding of death. There are three interesting problems in ancient thinking. First one, that Greek word sema means a sign but a tombstone, too. It is related to problem of a human memory (a Greek anamnesis. Second one that death is primarily darkening for ancient people. Thanatos – god of death – appears only as a fragment of goddess Night, his mother. Third one, that a fire (or light is import for life of human being. But a fire has symbolical function and it is related to an eternity. There is a light nearby intelligence in ancient world. Desire of philosophers to immortality refers to desire to an eternal intellectual thinking.

  18. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  19. Temple and Postauricular Dissection in Face and Neck Lift Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joo Heon Lee

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Periauricular paresthesia may afflict patients for a significant amount of time after facelift surgery. When performing face and neck lift surgery, temple and posterior auricular flap dissection is undertaken directly over the auriculotemporal, great auricular, and lesser occipital nerve territory, leading to potential damage to the nerve. The auriculotemporal nerve remains under the thin outer superficial fascia just below the subfollicular level in the prehelical area. To prevent damage to the auriculotemporal nerve and to protect the temporal hair follicle, the dissection plane should be kept just above the thin fascia covering the auriculotemporal nerve. Around the McKinney point, the adipose tissue covering the deep fascia is apt to be elevated from the deep fascia due to its denser fascial relationship with the skin, which leaves the great auricular nerve open to exposure. In order to prevent damage to the posterior branches of the great auricular nerve, the skin flap at the posterior auricular sulcus should be elevated above the auricularis posterior muscle. Fixating the superficial muscular aponeurotic system flap deeper and higher to the tympano-parotid fascia is recommended in order to avoid compromising the lobular branch of the great auricular nerve. The lesser occipital nerve (C2, C3 travels superficially at a proximal and variable level that makes it vulnerable to compromise in the mastoid dissection. Leaving the adipose tissue at the level of the deep fascia puts the branches of the great auricular nerve and lesser occipital nerve at less risk, and has been confirmed not to compromise either tissue perfusion or hair follicles.

  20. Generics Pricing: The Greek Paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karafyllis, Ioannis; Variti, Lamprini

    2017-01-01

    This paper explains and develops a methodological framework to help evaluate the performance of generic pharmaceutical policies and the correct evaluation of generics sales. Until today erroneous recording of generics does not help proper pricing and their penetration in the Greek market. This classifies Greece on the outliners in every study or comparison that is referred on papers or studies.

  1. Greek Hepatoscopy and its Criteria

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vítek, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 1 (2016), s. 139-164 ISSN 0033-4987 Institutional support: RVO:67985955 Keywords : divination * liver * signs * divinatory treatises * Greek religion Subject RIV: AA - Philosophy ; Religion http://www.libraweb.net/articoli.php?chiave=201606401&rivista=64

  2. Jews and Greeks in Alexandria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klemen Klun

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the history of contacts and cultural exchange between the Jews and the Greeks in early and late antiquity, especially relevant not only for historians and philologists, but also for those interested in Hellenistic philosophy and the origins of Christianity, having its roots into a very complex fusion of Jewish and Greek tradition. Metropolitan city of Alexandria in Ptolemaic Egypt provided a very fruitfull milieu for this kind of cultural contact just from the time the group of seventy-two translators arrived to the city to translate the Hebrew Scripture for the famous library in the time of Ptolemy II (285-247 BCE and his librarian Demetrius of Phalerum. For the genealogy of contacts between two nations that both contributed so much to the Western thought, we may, of course, go back to the history and relevant sources. The City of Jerusalem, for instance, is mentioned for the first time in the old Egyptian Tell el-Amarna correspondence (XIV. century BCE, while the Jews (though often named as the Syrians of Palestine are referred to by many Greek authors (poet Alcaius from Lesbos, Herodotus, Theophrastus, Hecataeus of Abdera, an Egyptian priest in Heliopolis Manetho, Polybius, Menander, and many others. The Hebrew Bible (Tanakh on the other hand, provides an interesting source of records of contacts between the old Israelites and the Greek speaking tribes (from the Ionian isles, Crete, Cyprus etc, back to the reign of king David and king Solomon (X. century BCE, which both allegedly enrolled Greek soldiers and officials in their armies (cf. 2 Samuel 20, 23; 1 Kings 1, 38. The Bible also reports about trade contacts between Palestine and Greek lsles (cf. Ezekiel 27, 7; Joel 4.6, and also about Greek settlers in the 'Holly land' (cf. Deuteronomy 2, 23; Jeremiah 47, 4; Zephaniah 2, 5. The period after Alexander the Great is also very important for relations between Greeks and Jews. When his diadochoi came to Palestine, they

  3. Ancient Ephesus: Processions as Media of Religious and Secular Propaganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Portefaix

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of religious rituals often reaches beyond their strict religious intentions. Specifically a procession, performed in front of the public, is a most effective instrument of disseminating a message to the crowds. Consequently, this ritual, as is well known, has often been used not only in religious but also in secular contexts; a procession under the cloak of religion can even become a politically useful medium to avoid popular disturbances on peaceful terms. This was the case in ancient Ephesus, where Roman power conflicted with Greek culture from the middle of the first century B.C. onwards. In the beginning of the second century A.D. the public religious life in the city of Ephesus was to a great extent characterized by processions relating to the cult of Artemis Ephesia. The one traditionally performed on the birthday of the goddess called to mind the Greek origin of the city; it was strictly associated with the religious sphere bringing about a close relationship between the goddess and her adherents. The other, artificially created by a Roman, was entirely secular, and spread its message every fortnight in the streets of Ephesus. It referred to the political field of action and intended to strengthen the Roman rule over the city. The Greek origin of Ephesian culture was later included in the message of the procession, reminding the Greeks not to rebel against Roman rule.

  4. The comparison of absolute dating (Radiocarbon dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faisal, W; Arumbinang, H; Taftazani, A; Widayati, S; Sumiyatno; Suhardi

    1996-01-01

    The absolute dating (radiocarbon, 14 C dating) and relative dating of Pringapus and Gondosuli temples in Temanggung regency (district) of Central Java Province have been carried out. The field sampling was done especially with the purpose to obtain vertical data, so that excavation method was adopted in the case. The main data were the ecofacts of organic habitation such as bones, woods, charcoals, shells, and paper artefacts. The artefacts data were used as a comparison. The comparative data analysis were conducted at Yogyakarta archaeological Department Laboratory, thus included dating of artefacts which were performed according to archaeological analysis procedures, generally based on the attributes attached to the artefacts, whereas the absolute dating of charcoal samples were performed in the Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory at Yogyakarta Nuclear Research Centre. Based on the relative dating of epigraphy content on the andesit rock from Gondosuli Temple which showed the year of 754 Saka or 832 AD, the Pringapus Temple was estimated to be built in the 850 AD. According to the absolute dating (Radiocarbon Dating with delta 13 C and tree ring corrections) the age for Gondosuli temple based on GDS/LU-2/Spit-7 samples is (384 -602) AD and from GDS/LU-2/Spit-8 = (452 - 652) AD. With these significant differences in the results obtained, it can be concluded that culture environment where the sample were collected already existed before the temple was built. Further investigation is still required

  5. Pharmacology and psychiatry at the origins of Greek medicine: The myth of Melampus and the madness of the Proetides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, Matteo F; Marzari, Francesca; Kesel, Andreas J; Bonalume, Laura; Saettini, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    Melampus is a seer-healer of Greek myth attributed with having healed the young princesses of Argos of madness. Analysis of this legend and its sources sheds light on the early stages of the "medicalizing" shift in the history of ancient Greek medicine. Retrospective psychological diagnosis suggests that the descriptions of the youths' madness rose from actual observation of behavioral and mental disorders. Melampus is credited with having healed them by administering hellebore. Pharmacological analysis of botanical specimens proves that Helleborus niger features actual neurological properties effective in the treatment of mental disorders. The discussion aims at examining the rational aspects of the treatment of mental conditions in Greco-Roman antiquity.

  6. Properties of Roman bricks and mortars used in Serapis temple in the city of Pergamon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozkaya, Ozlem Aslan; Boeke, Hasan

    2009-01-01

    Serapis temple, which was constructed in the Roman period in the city of Pergamon (Bergama/Turkey), is one of the most important monuments of the world heritage. In this study, the characteristics of bricks and mortars used in the temple have been determined in order to define the necessary characteristics of the intervention materials, which will be used in the conservation works of the temple. Several analyses were carried out to determine their basic physical properties, raw material compositions, mineralogical and microstructural properties using X-ray diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscope and a Thermo Gravimetric Analyzer. Analysis results indicated that the mortars are stiff, compact and hydraulic due to the use of natural pozzolanic aggregates. The Roman bricks are of low density, high porosity and were produced from raw materials containing calcium poor clays fired at low temperatures.

  7. Medios de enfriamiento para el temple // Means for Cooling During the Hardening Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Caballero Stevens

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Los factores que rigen el proceso de temple son la temperatura, el tiempo de calentamiento y la velocidad de enfriamiento.Tradicionalmente, la variación de la velocidad de enfriamiento se ha logrado mediante la utilización de diferentes medios como elagua, aceites minerales, aceites orgánicos, metales fundidos y otros.En este trabajo, se presentan las características fundamentales de los medios convencionales y actuales empleados para elenfriamiento durante el temple.Palabras claves: Endurecimiento superficial, temple superficial, medios de enfriamiento._____________________________________________________________________AbstractFactors governing of the hardening process are temperature, heating time and cooling speed. Traditionally, the variation of thecooling time has been achieved by using different means such as water, mineral oils, molten metals, etc.In this work, the fundamental characteristics of the conventional and modern means developed for cooling during the hardeningprocess are presented.Key words: Hardening process, cooling means.

  8. Ancient analogues concerning stability and durability of cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W.; Roy, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of cementitious materials goes back to ancient times. The Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone and later developed pozzolanic cement by grinding together lime and volcanic ash called open-quotes pozzolanclose quotes which was first found near Port Pozzuoli, Italy. The ancient Chinese used lime-pozzolanic mixes to build the Great Wall. The ancient Egyptians used calcined impure gypsum to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The extraordinary stability and durability of these materials has impressed us, when so much dramatically damaged infrastructure restored by using modern portland cement now requires rebuilding. Stability and durability of cementitious materials have attracted intensive research interest and contractors' concerns, as does immobilization of radioactive and hazardous industrial waste in cementitious materials. Nuclear waste pollution of the environment and an acceptable solution for waste management and disposal constitute among the most important public concerns. The analogy of ancient cementitious materials to modern Portland cement could give us some clues to study their stability and durability. This present study examines selected results of studies of ancient building materials from France, Italy, China, and Egypt, combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cement to evaluate the potential for stability and durability of such materials in nuclear waste forms

  9. Negation and Nonveridicality in the History of Greek

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatzopoulou, Aikaterini

    2012-01-01

    This study provides a thorough investigation of the expression primarily of sentential negation in the history of Greek, through quantitative data from representative texts from three major stages of vernacular Greek (Attic Greek, Koine, Late Medieval Greek), and qualitative data from Homeric Greek until Standard Modern. The contrast between two…

  10. Adamantios Korais and the Greek Language Policy at the Turn of the 18th to the 19th Centuries (translated by Jerneja Kavčič

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Mutavdžić

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study outlines and examines the attempts at a standardisation of the Modern Greek language made during the crucial period of national formation, which coincided with the Greek Enlightenment (Νεοελληνικός Διαφωτισμός. The turn of the 18th to the 19th centuries was the period when the Greek language question (το ελληνικό γλωσσικό ζήτημα first appeared in Greek society. Marked by the complicated diglossia situation, this question itself and the suggested solutions were strongly influenced by four different socio-political visions of an independent Greek society, as well as by the conflicting opinions on, and calls for, language codification and standardisation. Although several proposals for a language reform were put forward, none of them was found satisfactory or widely accepted, since they were unable to solve the diglossia and offer a good language basis for the education of the generations to come. In terms of language policy and language planning, the proposal of the first modern Greek linguist, Adamantios Korais, represented a so-called ‘middle way’ (μέση οδός. Korais neither fully accepted common vernacular Greek nor rejected Ancient Greek, which was impossible to neglect with its weight of ancient heritage. While his proposal initially seemed likely to solve the Greek diglossic situation, it unfortunately failed to do so and in fact exacerbated the situation.

  11. Paranada: Beyond Beyond

    OpenAIRE

    Hector Currie; Juan Pacheco

    2009-01-01

    “Paranada: Beyond Beyond” represents the culmination of the author’s research findings of geometric evidence in the Pythagorean design of the temple and theatre complex of the ancient Greek Temple of Delphi. Rather than a dualistic moral judgment, Delphic rites sought a dynamic equipoise between Apollonian and Dionysian psychic forces, transcending the self/boundless dichotomy. The temple has a deflection of 7.5 degrees—1/12th the 90-degree gravitational fall of all existents, the gravitation...

  12. Medicinal efficacy of plants utilized as temple food in traditional Korean Buddhism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun; Song, Mi-Jang; Potter, Daniel

    2006-03-08

    We investigated the medicinal efficacies of plants used as food in 27 Korean Buddhist temples from 1997 to 2002. We studied 161 species of plants belonging to 135 genera in 65 families. Twenty-one plant parts were utilized as food in 42 different preparations. Approximately 82% of the plants studied had medicinal effects, with a wide range of efficacies (126 types). Of the medicinal plants, 52% were used for digestive problems, circulatory illnesses, and respiratory diseases. These results demonstrate that a high proportion of the food consumed in Korean temples is medicinal, and is used for a wide variety of diseases.

  13. Reconstructing an Ancient Wonder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhof, Christopher J.

    2001-01-01

    Describes a Montessori class project involving the building of a model of the ancient Briton monument, Stonehenge. Illustrates how the flexibility of the Montessori elementary curriculum encourages children to make their own toys and learn from the process. (JPB)

  14. Research of Ancient Architectures in Jin-Fen Area Based on GIS&BIM Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Jing; Zheng, Qiuhong; Gao, Huiying; Sun, Hai

    2017-05-01

    The number of well-preserved ancient buildings located in Shanxi Province, enjoying the absolute maximum proportion of ancient architectures in China, is about 18418, among which, 9053 buildings have the structural style of wood frame. The value of the application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) and GIS (Geographic Information System) is gradually probed and testified in the corresponding fields of ancient architecture’s spatial distribution information management, routine maintenance and special conservation & restoration, the evaluation and simulation of related disasters, such as earthquake. The research objects are ancient architectures in JIN-FEN area, which were first investigated by Sicheng LIANG and recorded in his work of “Chinese ancient architectures survey report”. The research objects, i.e. the ancient architectures in Jin-Fen area include those in Sicheng LIANG’s investigation, and further adjustments were made through authors’ on-site investigation and literature searching & collection. During this research process, the spatial distributing Geodatabase of research objects is established utilizing GIS. The BIM components library for ancient buildings is formed combining on-site investigation data and precedent classic works, such as “Yingzao Fashi”, a treatise on architectural methods in Song Dynasty, “Yongle Encyclopedia” and “Gongcheng Zuofa Zeli”, case collections of engineering practice, by the Ministry of Construction of Qing Dynasty. A building of Guangsheng temple in Hongtong county is selected as an example to elaborate the BIM model construction process based on the BIM components library for ancient buildings. Based on the foregoing work results of spatial distribution data, attribute data of features, 3D graphic information and parametric building information model, the information management system for ancient architectures in Jin-Fen Area, utilizing GIS&BIM technology, could be constructed to support the

  15. Research of Ancient Architectures in Jin-Fen Area Based on GIS and BIM Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jing; Zheng, Qiuhong; Gao, Huiying; Sun, Hai

    2017-01-01

    The number of well-preserved ancient buildings located in Shanxi Province, enjoying the absolute maximum proportion of ancient architectures in China, is about 18418, among which, 9053 buildings have the structural style of wood frame. The value of the application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) and GIS (Geographic Information System) is gradually probed and testified in the corresponding fields of ancient architecture’s spatial distribution information management, routine maintenance and special conservation and restoration, the evaluation and simulation of related disasters, such as earthquake. The research objects are ancient architectures in JIN-FEN area, which were first investigated by Sicheng LIANG and recorded in his work of “Chinese ancient architectures survey report”. The research objects, i.e. the ancient architectures in Jin-Fen area include those in Sicheng LIANG’s investigation, and further adjustments were made through authors’ on-site investigation and literature searching and collection. During this research process, the spatial distributing Geodatabase of research objects is established utilizing GIS. The BIM components library for ancient buildings is formed combining on-site investigation data and precedent classic works, such as “Yingzao Fashi”, a treatise on architectural methods in Song Dynasty, “Yongle Encyclopedia” and “Gongcheng Zuofa Zeli”, case collections of engineering practice, by the Ministry of Construction of Qing Dynasty. A building of Guangsheng temple in Hongtong county is selected as an example to elaborate the BIM model construction process based on the BIM components library for ancient buildings. Based on the foregoing work results of spatial distribution data, attribute data of features, 3D graphic information and parametric building information model, the information management system for ancient architectures in Jin-Fen Area, utilizing GIS and BIM technology, could be constructed to support

  16. Endocrinology in ancient Sparta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoulogiannis, Ioannis N; Spandidos, Demetrios A

    2007-01-01

    This article attempts to analyze the crucial link between the plant Agnus castus and human health, particularly hormonal status, with special reference to the needs of the society of ancient Sparta. The ancient Spartans used Agnus both as a cure for infertility and as a remedy to treat battle wounds. These special properties were recognized by the sanctuary of Asclepios Agnita, which was located in Sparta, as well as by medical practitioners in Sparta during the classical, Hellenistic and Roman ages.

  17. Exploring classical Greek construction problems with interactive geometry software

    CERN Document Server

    Meskens, Ad

    2017-01-01

    In this book the classical Greek construction problems are explored in a didactical, enquiry based fashion using Interactive Geometry Software. The book traces the history of these problems, stating them in modern terminology. By focusing on constructions and the use of GeoGebra the reader is confronted with the same problems that ancient mathematicians once faced. The reader can step into the footsteps of Euclid, Viète and Cusanus amongst others and then by experimenting and discovering geometric relationships far exceed their accomplishments. Exploring these problems with the neusis-method lets him discover a class of interesting curves. By experimenting he will gain a deeper understanding of how mathematics is created. More than 100 exercises guide him through methods which were developed to try and solve the problems. The exercises are at the level of undergraduate students and only require knowledge of elementary Euclidean geometry and pre-calculus algebra. It is especially well-suited for those student...

  18. The art of providing anaesthesia in Greek mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntaidou, T K; Siempos, I I

    2012-07-01

    We endeavored to thoroughly review Greek mythology and collect tales dealing with anaesthesia and myochalasis (paralysis). Among the evaluated sources were the poems of Hesiod, the epics of Homer, the tragedies of the great Athenian poets (namely Aeschylus, Sophocles and Euripides) as well as the contributions of several Latin writers, including Ovid. We found several examples of achieving hypnosis, analgesia and amnesia through the administration of drugs (inhaled or not) and music. Adverse events of drugs used for this purpose, such as post-anaesthetic emergence delirium, hallucinations, respiratory arrest and penis erection, were described in the presented myths. We noted that providing sleep was considered a divine privilege, although several mortals (mainly women) exhibited such powers as well. The concepts of sleep and death were closely associated in ancient classical thought. This review may stimulate anaesthetists' fantasy and may help them realise the nobility of their medical specialty.

  19. Showroom10: Greek designers showroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evgeneiadou, E.

    2017-10-01

    Showroom10 is the first exclusive Greek designer’s showroom. It represents established and upcoming Greek designers in Greece and Cyprus. The mission and main task is to successfully place the designer’s collections in the Greek, European and worldwide market. The purpose of the showroom is to put a collection in front of the appropriate buyer accelerate its revenue growth and create brand awareness. The search for new collections is one of the most important tasks and challenge of a showroom’s business. Market research, travels and fashion trade shows are some ways to stand before an interested brand. Each collection must first be selected in terms of authenticity, clear brand DNA as we call it in fashion. Secondly, must be competitive in terms of materials, designs and prices. But, are all the above enough for the global fashion market? This paper describes a case study (Showroom 10), showing a general overview about the most important phases of “designer’s road” in Greece.

  20. Sonar Subsea Images of Large Temples, Mammoths, Giant Sloths. Huge Artwork Carvings, Eroded Cities, Human Images, and Paleo Astronomy Sites that Must be Over Ten Thousand Years Old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, R. L.

    2016-12-01

    Computer enhancing of side scanning sonar plots revealed images of massive art, apparent ruins of cities, and subsea temples. Some images are about four to twenty kilometers in length. Present water depths imply that many of the finds must have been created over ten thousand years ago. Also, large carvings of giant sloths, Ice Age elk, mammoths, mastodons, and other cold climate creatures concurrently indicate great age. In offshore areas of North America, some human faces have beards and what appear to be Caucasian characteristics that clearly contrast with the native tribal images. A few images have possible physical appearances associated with Polynesians. Contacts and at least limited migrations must have occurred much further in the ancient past than previously believed. Greatly rising sea levels and radical changes away from late Ice Age climates had to be devastating to very ancient civilizations. Many images indicate that these cultures were capable of construction and massive art at or near the technological level of the Old Kingdom in Egypt. Paleo astronomy is obvious in some plots. Major concerns are how to further evaluate, catalog, protect, and conserve the creations of those cultures.

  1. Determining buried grid street system and native of the remains with GPR and petrography, in ancient Nysa city, Aydin - Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadioglu, Selma; Kadioglu, Musa; Kadioglu, Yusuf K.

    2010-05-01

    Nysa, is one of the most important ancient cities of the region of Caria in Anatolia (Asia Minor), was built on the slopes on the sides of the stream called Tekkecik, in a 3 km North of Sultanhisar, East of Aydın city of Turkey. The buildings, streets and public squares of the ancient city were supported by vaulted substructures adapted to the topographic conditions. There are important ruins on the site from the Hellenistic and the Roman periods and the Byzantine era. Now the Greek theatre and its walled entrance are intact. Other important remains are the gymnasium, stadium, library, temple, nymphaeum, bridge a tunnel like structure and the Byzantine churches in the West; the agora, Bouleuterion / Gerontikon, and the Roman public baths in the East. The first aim of the study was to determine the locations of the buried streets thought grid system according to the some excavated results already in the east and west side of the Nysa. Therefore the GPR studies were realized selected areas, which could include the streets, around the Bouleuterion / Gerontikon and at the South of the library. Two dimensional (2D) GPR data were measured on the parallel GPR profiles spaced 1m apart on each part of the study areas using 250 MHz shielded antennas. The processed parallel profile data set was formed through a solid 3D view by aligning the profiles respectively. A simplified amplitude-color range and appropriate opacity function were constructed to activate buried remains. Interactive interpretation was done with time slices and transparent sub-blocks of the 3D volume by arranging an opaque function. It was known that the maximum amplitudes represented the remains. So, weak amplitude range around the zero amplitude was eliminated by giving zero opacity value and transparent 3D imaging was obtained. The second known was that the amplitudes were decreased according to time. Therefore, amplitude scale could be weighted by a constant coefficient changing with the time range of

  2. Greek-Turkish Crises since 1955. Implications for Greek-Turkish Conflict Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-03-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS GREEK-TURKISH CRISES SINCE 1955. IMPLICATIONS FOR GREEK-TURKISH CONFLICT MANAGEMENT by...EU, WEU) have only to gain from a Greek-Turkish rapprochement. 14. SUBJECT TERMS GrEek-Turkish RElATiONS, CRiSiS MANAgEMENT, CONfLICT management 15...crises, because the intended outcome of mediation attempts has been regional stability instead of Greek-Turkish conflict management . Power mediation

  3. Tot Graeci Tot Sententiae: Astronomical Perspective Multiplicity in Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, O.

    2011-06-01

    Ancient Greece was made of a multiplicity of thinking heads, in an atmosphere of (relative) freedom of opinions, in every field of knowledge. then we should not wonder if many astronomical and cosmological theories, survived until our 17th century, had already been formulated by different philosophers and in different regions, cities and periods of Greek history. Geocentric and heliocentric theories, as well as an atomistic theory of an infinite universe (with infinite worlds), could survive without crashing with one another. In the same time, religious opinions regarding the planets and Sun as a series of gods were present, however not on a scientific ground.

  4. The Relation of Philosophy and Medicine in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RHEE Kee-Bag

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to deal with two questions concerning the relation of philosophy and medicine in ancient greece  (1 Which influences had philosophy on medicine? (2 Whom did attack the author of On the ancient medicine? And (3 was his criticism right? (1 Philosophy’s influences was twofold  (a As early Greek philosophers had explained natural phenomena by natural elements without recourse to any supernatural god  so authors of Hippocratic Works also had sought to explain diseases  They had replaced magical and religious medicine with rational medicine by virtue of rational explanation  This seems to have represented medicine’s debt to philosophy  (b Many medical authors primarily had studied the nature of human  i e  the basic constituents of the body  since they had thought the very same to be causes of diseases  This aspect shows the conspicuous influence of philosophy  Because it was the nature of cosmos  i e  the source or basic constituent that early Greek philosophers had searched to explain cosmos and all natural phenomena in it  (2 On the other hand the author of On the ancient medicine attacks physicians that are influenced by cosmology of early Greek philosophers  The point of his criticism in Chapter 1 is that ‘philosophical physicians’ postulate one or two constituents of the body as the primary cause of men’s diseases  Then are physicians that postulate various constituents free from the author’s criticism? At least according to Chapter 20 it is not so  He seems to criticize physicians in general who proceed by the hypothetical method  He contrasts this method with the method of trial and error  and asserts that this is of medicine  but that is of philosophy  (3 Although this methodological separation was right in a sense  at least the opinion of the author seems to be extreme  Because medicine can’t be science  if it does not make use of any hypothesis

  5. Resistance to change in Greek higher education

    OpenAIRE

    Kremmyda, Stamatia

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study of resistance to the changes in Greek higher education that were implemented within the framework of the 1999 Bologna Agreement of the European Union in the period 2007-2008. The changes that occurred were of great significance for Greece’s education system as they introduced important changes in the structure and function of Greek higher education. This thesis argues that the organisational culture that had been created throughout the history of Greek higher education ...

  6. Long Memory in the Greek Stock Market

    OpenAIRE

    John T. Barkoulas; Christopher F. Baum; Nickolaos Travlos

    1996-01-01

    We test for stochastic long memory in the Greek stock market, an emerging capital market. The fractional differencing parameter is estimated using the spectral regression method. Contrary to findings for major capital markets, significant and robust evidence of positive long-term persistence is found in the Greek stock market. As compared to benchmark linear models, the estimated fractional models provide improved out-of-sample forecasting accuracy for the Greek stock returns series over long...

  7. Death in the Modern Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Pentaris, Panagiotis

    2012-01-01

    Each culture recognizes and identifies death, dying and bereavement in unique ways. Commonly, a culture may be seen through the lens of death rituals; how those are shaped, interpreted and used by the society. This paper aims to look at the Modern Greek culture and depict its ‘visualization’ of death, as well as capture the rituals that mostly identify this specific culture. The Greek culture in overall is strongly influenced by the Greek Orthodox Church. Hence, the experiences of death, dyin...

  8. Greek Monk Theodore as the first Primate of Canterbury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ks. Warsonofiusz (Doroszkiewicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The theological climate of the young Church of Anglo-Saxon Christians was determined by Irish and Welsh monks maintaining the tradition of the Egyptian desert. The Angles and Saxons had a particular vision of the natural world, of the eternal world, a particular comprehension of sin and repentance. Rome in its missionary work used them to attach the British Christians the see of St Peter. Britain had no original link with the culture and tradition of the classical Church. It has been particularly established and enforced in VII and VIII, when England received a great dose of classical learning and theology due to the activity of archbishop of Canterbury Theodore and monk Hadrian. The formerly Greek monk Theodore – well learned in the Holy Scripture as well as Greek and Latin classics – was named the archbishop of Canterbury by pope Vitalian under the condition that he should notintroduce any typically Greek customs. Theodore named Hadrian the abbot of the Canterbury monastery of St Peter. There and in York young English could pursue classical studies of the Holy Scriptures, poetry, philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, etc. It resulted in significant literary development in Britain, of which venerable Bede is an example.Theodore introduced in Canterbury proto-byzantine canonical law, during two famous synods established doctrinal and ecclesiastical foundations of English Christianity based on ancient orthodox tradition of Eastern part of the Mediterranean region. At the Synod of Hatfield,with the other bishops, Theodore confirmed the Nicean Creed, fiveformer ecumenical councils and the generally accepted Church Fathers. They worked also on practical church unity, that is established: common date of Easter with other parts of Christian world, non-intervention ofbishops in other dioceses, canonical laws regulating the attitude of bishops towards monastic communities and the decrees against monophysismonks coming from Persia.

  9. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  10. NUEVO ESTUDIO DEL TEMPLO VI (TEMPLO DE LAS INSCRIPCIONES DE TIKAL, GUATEMALA (New Study of the Tikal Temple VI (Temple of the Inscriptions, Guatemala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri Beliaev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente trabajo analiza los datos sobre la cronología del Templo VI (Templo de las Inscripciones de Tikal. Durante el trabajo de la segunda fase del proyecto «Atlas Epigráfico de Petén» (abril-mayo de 2014, fue documentada la inscripción en la crestería del templo, el texto jeroglífico del Clásico Tardío más grande del Petén y uno de los más extensos de todas las Tierras Bajas mayas. La secuencia de la construcción del relieve y estuco modelado observada en la crestería, junto con los datos epigráficos, muestra que el Templo VI fue construido en dos fases. La primera incluyó la edificación de la pirámide basal, el santuario y el relieve en la fachada este de la crestería, dedicados por el rey Yihk’in Chan K’awil en 735. En la segunda fase, fechada hacia 766, el templo fue ampliado y adornado con los relieves de las fachadas norte y sur. ENGLISH: In this paper, data related to the chronology of Temple VI (The Temple of the Inscriptions at Tikal is analyzed. During the second season of fieldwork on the “Atlas Epigráfico de Petén” project (April-May 2014, we documented the inscription on the roof comb of the temple, which is the largest hieroglyphic text from the Late Classic at Petén and one of the largest in the Maya Lowlands. The construction sequence of the relief and sculpted stucco observed on the roof comb, combined with epigraphic data, demonstrates that Temple VI was constructed in two phases. The first included the raising of the basal pyramid, the upper sanctuary, and the relief on the eastern façade of the roof comb, dedicated by the king Yihk’in Chan K’awil in 735 A.D. During the second phase, dated to around 766 A.D., the temple was enlarged and adorned with the reliefs on the north and south facades.

  11. Dating implications from solar bleaching of thermoluminescence of ancient marble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liritzis, I.; Galloway, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    Measurements of Thermoluminescence (TL) from Greek marble quarried at Paros, Naxos, Pendeli, Hymitos, Thassos, which have been known since ancient time are presented. The results concern i) the solar bleaching of TL, ii) the solar transmission through marble thicknesses up to 16 mm, and iii) the implications for potential dating of ancient carbed marble monuments/objects. The bleaching rate for marbles is very fast during the first hour of exposure. The solar penetration is at least 35 mm for long exposures. Beyond the 2 mm marble slab for exposure times 90-120 hours of sunshine, the residual bleached TL level is not reached. The bleached TL reaches a plateau which serves as the 'zero time' upon which the archaeological TL dose subsequently builds up and gives the age of a marble monument. (author)

  12. Across Ages: Generations Communicate in Unique Multidisciplinary Learning Retreat at Temple University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gifford, Carol J.

    "Across Ages: Entering the 80's--the Quality of Life," was the theme of a week-long multidisciplinary, intergenerational (ages 14 to 92) model program sponsored by Temple University's Institute on Aging, and held on its suburban Ambler (Pennsylvania) campus in the summer of 1980. Aimed at devising methods of stimulating dialogue and…

  13. Measurement of acoustic characteristics of Japanese Buddhist temples in relation to sound source location and direction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soeta, Yoshiharu; Shimokura, Ryota; Kim, Yong Hee; Ohsawa, Tomohiro; Ito, Ken

    2013-05-01

    Although temples are important buildings in the Buddhist community, the acoustic quality has not been examined in detail. Buddhist monks change the location and direction according to the ceremony, and associated acoustical changes have not yet been examined scientifically. To discuss the desired acoustics of temples, it is necessary to know the acoustic characteristics appropriate for each phase of a ceremony. In this study, acoustic measurements were taken at various source locations and directions in Japanese temples. A directional loudspeaker was used as the source to provide vocal acoustic fields, and impulse responses were measured and analyzed. The speech transmission index was higher and the interaural cross-correlation coefficient was lower for the sound source directed toward the side wall than that directed toward the altar. This suggests that the change in direction improves speech intelligibility, and the asymmetric property of direct sound and complex reflections from the altar and side wall increases the apparent source width. The large and coupled-like structure of the altar of a Buddhist temple may have reinforced the reverberation components and the table in the altar, which is called the "syumidan," may have decreased binaural coherence.

  14. 76 FR 56491 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Tombs, Temples and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... exhibition ``Tombs, Temples and Warriors: China's Imperial Legacy,'' imported from abroad for temporary... the exhibit objects at the Bowers Museum, Santa Ana, California, from on or about October 1, 2011, until on or about March 4, 2012, at the Houston Museum of Natural Sciences, Houston, Texas, from on or...

  15. Manufacturing processes of S-shaped temple rings from Vrbno, Central Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ottenwelter, Estelle; Hošek, Jiří; Děd, J.; Štefan, I.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 3 (2012), s. 525-533 ISSN 0323-1267 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : S-shaped temple rings * Early Middle Ages * Vrbno * tinning * gilding * silver plating Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  16. Reconsideration of the Coexistence of Buddhist Temple Education and State Education in Xishuangbanna, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing; Moore, Danièle

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents data gathered in interviews with 29 informants in Xishuangbanna Dai Autonomous Prefecture of Yunnan, China--an administrative region with Theravada Buddhist religious identity. The data highlight tensions between the traditional faith-based education provided by Theravada Buddhist temple schools and secular state education. The…

  17. Provisional, Primordial and Preexistent Temples in the Dead Sea Scrolls and Related Texts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, Søren

    2015-01-01

    The Bible itself indicates that there is a prehistory to the Solomonic temple: It existed in a portable version during the wilderness years in the shape of the Tabernacle, and that in turn was built after a model shown to Moses on Mt. Sinai by God himself. It is no wonder that the Dead Sea Scrolls...

  18. The Greek Archer Evolution in the Greek Military Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Javier Vilariño Rodríguez

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The trajectory of the bow in the History of Greece is associated with the transformation that was originated inside of the military environment. The poor prominence that for many centuries was granted to the archers in the warlike context, was going to give an unexpected draft with the explosion of the Persian Wars. Later, the playwright Euripides was going to turn Herakles, one of the most famous archer of the hellenic world, into the spokesman of the change that was going to bring with it the acceptance and the definitive incorporation of these soldiers as contingent of considerable value inside the greek armies.

  19. Greek Talented Students' Motivation: A Qualitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zbainos, Dimitrios; Kyritsi, Anastasia

    2011-01-01

    This article presents one of the few recent attempts to investigate aspects of motivation of Greek gifted students. This effort is particularly challenging since gifted education in Greece is a nonexistent concept, and any study of Greek gifted students has to overcome obstacles related to definition, location and identification of gifted…

  20. Contagion during the Greek sovereign debt crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mink, M.; de Haan, J.

    We examine the impact of news about Greece and news about a Greek bailout on bank stock prices in 2010 using data for 48 European banks. We identify the twenty days with extreme returns on Greek sovereign bonds and categorise the news events during those days into news about Greece and news about

  1. Learning the Greek Language via Greeklish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Karakos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Learning Greek as a second or foreign language has drawn the attention of many researchers throughout time. A dictionary is amongst the first things a foreign language student uses. Reading comprehension is significantly improved by the use of a dictionary, especially when this includes the way words are pronounced. We developed a assistance software for learning the Greek Language via Greeklish. Since, the basic vocabulary of a language is the basis of understanding the language itself, the dictionary proposed aims to make the basic Greek words easier to pronounce as well as to give the explanation of the word in English. The aim of this software is to provide a useful tool to learn the Greek language individually. Moreover, it aims to be involved, as an assistance tool for learning Greek as a second or foreign language.

  2. The invention of infertility in the classical Greek world: medicine, divinity, and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flemming, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the understandings of, and responses to, reproductive failure in the classical Greek world. It discusses explanations and treatments for non-procreation in a range of ancient Greek medical texts, focusing on the writings of the Hippocratic Corpus, which devote considerable energy to matters of fertility and generation, and places them alongside the availability of a divine approach to dealing with reproductive disruption, the possibility of asking various deities, including the specialist healing god Asclepius, for assistance in having children. Though the relations between these options are complex, they combine to produce a rich remedial array for those struggling with childlessness, the possibility that any impediment to procreation can be removed. Classical Greece, rather than the nineteenth century, or even 1978, is thus the time when "infertility," understood as an essentially reversible somatic state, was invented.

  3. Cicerono santykis su graikais ir jų kultūra | Cicero’s attitude to Greeks and their culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audronė Kučinskienė

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In this article certain aspects of the following problems are discussed: Cicero’s controversial attitude to the Greeks; the traits of the Greek national character as portrayed in Cicero’s works, as well as Cicero’s ambivalent appreciation of the Greek art and literature.The principle of odi et amo clearly shows itself in Cicero’s attitude to the Greeks, both his contemporaries and the ancients, their art and literature. Cicero felt he owed an enormous debt to his Greek education, considering himself as an inheritor of their culture, and yet he denounced it at every opportunity and tried to emphasise the superiority of the Roman ancestors against the Greeks. He greatly appreciated Greek literature and yet he wished he could manage without it, because the Greek literary standards made him aware of what Roman literature should be.The main national traits ascribed to the Greeks in Cicero’s speeches ant letters are the lack of trustworthiness (fides, unreliability (levitas, and vanity (vanitas as opposed to the Roman dignity (dignitas and gravity (gravitas.We argue that in evaluating Cicero’s attitude to the Greeks it is especially important to take into account the genre of those Cicero’s works from which we derive our knowledge about his views. His speeches as well as his treatises are intended for the public audience, so the author tries to portray himself in accordance with the public expectations, while his private correspondence, especially the letters to Atticus, reveals his personal views, not restricted by the public opinion. As we have shown in this article, in his speeches Cicero tries to conceal his expertise in the Greek art and literature, as this would not fit his Roman dignity. On the other hand, in his private life, as it appears from his letters to Atticus, he eagerly seeks pieces of Greek art to decorate his villas.This seeming inconsistency of Cicero’s views, however, can be partly explained as follows. It is to be

  4. Antické chrámové průčelí v novoklasicistní architektuře českých zemí

    OpenAIRE

    Zyková, Michaela

    2009-01-01

    Focused on Neoclassical architecture, this work is discusing the continuing of classical tradition. Join the ancient art is inquired into the number and form of the temple front in this artstyle in architecture. The temple front may be the personification of the ancient greek and roman art, mainly architecture. For this porpouse it contains a catalogue of buildings with such element. Czech lands, in the time if neoclassicism, were part of Habsburg monarchy, so the problem is solved also in la...

  5. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  6. Cranial trauma in ancient Greece: from Homer to classical authors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsolaki, Eleni; Astyrakaki, Elisabeth; Stefanakis, George; Agouridakis, Panos; Askitopoulou, Helen

    2010-12-01

    This article presents literary evidence on traumatic cranio-cerebral injuries in ancient Greece from about 900 B.C. to 100 B.C. The main sources of information are epic and classic Greek texts of that period. Homer provides the first literary source of head trauma, which he portrayed in his epic poems The Iliad and The Odyssey. He describes 41 injuries of the head, face and cervical spine, of which all but two were fatal. Subsequently, other classical authors like Plato, Plutarch and others illustrate cases of cranial trauma that occurred mainly in the battlefields, during athletic games or in unusual accidents. They describe some interesting cases of head trauma in prominent men, such as the poet Aeschylos, the kings Pyrrhos and Kyros and Alexander the Great. Most of these descriptions show that the ancient Greeks possessed very good knowledge of the anatomy of the head and neck region and also of the pathophysiological consequences of trauma in the region. Copyright © 2010 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  8. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  10. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  11. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  12. The Beginnings of the History of Philosophy in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacija J. Fridl

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Like many contemporary researchers into the ancient history of philosophy and into encyclopedic Hellenistic works (Mejer, Schoefield, Runia, Maasfeld ..., the author observes that a great deal of research into ancient doxography and Diogenes Laertius has focused on evaluation. Her own paper, on the other hand, turns to the question: What can Laertius’ attention to philosophers’ biographies in his Lives and Opinions of Eminent Philosophers tell us about the Ancient Greek view of the philosophical thought from the past?  As noted by the author, the term ‘doxography’ itself, which bears the connotation of a less reliable source and is applied today to almost every ancient explanation of any philosophical doctrine, was established by Hermann Diels as late as the 19th century. Yet this view of earlier thought was in fact already developed by Aristotle. His treatise On the Soul defines the philosophical tenets of his precursors as ‘opinions’, which are then critically examined and rejected. This attitude to earlier philosophy informs all Aristotle’s writings and his methodology of philosophy in general, for his prima philosophia as a ‘science which considers the truth’ is founded precisely on the critique of earlier thought. He critically evaluates even the tenets of his teacher Plato, in order to surpass him with his own philosophy. Thus he lays the foundations of evolutionary historiography, which perceives history as a spiritual progress and has lasted through Hegel, Marx, and – with a negative historical connotation – Heidegger – to this day. Plato, by contrast, envisages, through the very form of the dialogue, the relation to earlier philosophy as a conversation, a constant interweaving and fertilisation of one’s own thought with the wisdom of one’s precursors. This perception is further reinforced by his doctrine of knowledge as a process of remembering, that is, of philosophy as a road to wisdom leading back

  13. Case report: partial relapse of Bell's palsy following superficial radiotherapy to a basal cell carcinoma in the temple

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brincat, Stephen; Mantell, B.S.

    1986-01-01

    A patient who developed a partial relapse of Bell's palsy following superficial radiotherapy to a basal cell carcinoma in the temple is reported. Nerves injured by Bell's palsy may be more susceptible to radiation induced damage. (author)

  14. Geo-Environmental Estimation of Land Use Changes and Its Effects on Egyptian Temples at Luxor City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelaziz Elfadaly

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the years, the Egyptian temples at Luxor city have been intensely investigated, but most of these studies just focused on the classical sides of the archaeological and historical descriptions. Many of the environmental problems are the inevitable results of the unplanned urban crawling around the monuments temples. This paper aims at assessing the environmental changes around some temples of Luxor City using remote sensing and GIS techniques. In particular, a historical database made up of Corona and Landsat TM data have been investigated along with the new acquisitions of Quickbird 2 and Sentinel 2. Results from our investigation highlighted rapid changes in urban and agricultural areas, which adversely affected the Egyptian monumental temples causing serious degradation phenomena. Using the information obtained from our RS&GIS based analysis, mitigation strategies have been also identified for supporting the preservation of the archaeological area.

  15. Ancient aliens on mars

    CERN Document Server

    Bara, Mike

    2013-01-01

    Best-selling author and Secret Space Program researcher Bara brings us this lavishly illustrated volume on alien structures on Mars. Was there once a vast, technologically advanced civilization on Mars, and did it leave evidence of its existence behind for humans to find eons later? Did these advanced extraterrestrial visitors vanish in a solar system wide cataclysm of their own making, only to make their way to Earth and start anew? Was Mars once as lush and green as the Earth, and teeming with life? Did Mars once orbit a missing member of the solar system, a "Super Earth” that vanished in a disaster that devastated life on Earth and Venus and left us only the asteroid belt as evidence of its once grand existence? Did the survivors of this catastrophe leave monuments and temples behind, arranged in a mathematical precision designed to teach us the Secret of a new physics that could lift us back to the stars? Does the planet have an automated defense shield that swallows up robotic probes if they wander int...

  16. Comparing photo modeling methodologies and techniques: the instance of the Great Temple of Abu Simbel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Di Tondo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available After fifty years from the Salvage of the Abu Simbel Temples it has been possible to experiment the contemporary photo-modeling tools beginning from the original data of the photogrammetrical survey carried out in the 1950s. This produced a reflection on “Image Based” methods and modeling techniques, comparing strict 3d digital photogrammetry with the latest Structure From Motion (SFM systems. The topographic survey data, the original photogrammetric stereo couples, the points coordinates and their representation in contour lines, allowed to obtain a model of the monument in his configuration before the moving of the temples. The impossibility to carry out a direct survey led to touristic shots to create SFM models to use for geometric comparisons.

  17. [Acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy for treatment of temple-jaw joint dysfunction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Hui; Zhang, Wen

    2009-04-01

    To compare clinical therapeutic effects of acupuncture combined with magnetic therapy and simple magnetic therapy on temple-jaw joint dysfunction. Eighty-two cases were randomly divided into an observation group (n = 52) and a control group (n = 30). The observation group was treated with acupuncture at Xiaguan (ST 7), Jiache (ST 6), Hegu (LI 4), etc. and AL-2 low frequency electromagnetic comprehensive treatment instrument; the control group was treated with AL-2 low frequency electromagnetic comprehensive treatment instrument. The cured and markedly effective rate of 90.4% in the observation group was significantly better than 66.7% in the control group (P magnetic therapy is significantly better than that of the simple magnetic therapy on temple-jaw joint dysfunction.

  18. Destroying God's Temple? Physical Inactivity, Poor Diet, Obesity, and Other "Sin" Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faries, Mark D; McClendon, Megan; Jones, Eric J

    2017-02-17

    On average, our participants (N = 112), who self-proclaimed to be Christians, believed that physically inactive lifestyles, unhealthy eating, overeating, and being obese destroy the body, God's temple. However, these beliefs were less definitive, than those of other common "sin" behaviors, such as drug use, smoking, and excessive drinking of alcohol. In addition, destroying the body with physical inactivity or poor diet was not necessarily viewed as sinful. Subsequently, these beliefs did not relate to self-reported physical activity, dietary behavior, or body mass index. It is possible that inactivity, poor dietary habits, and obesity are not internalized into the spiritual perspective as destroying the body, God's temple, in the same way as other "sin" behaviors.

  19. The Odiousness of Greek Debt in Light of the Findings of the Greek Debt Truth Committee

    OpenAIRE

    Bantekas, I; Vivien, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Unlike the popular narrative, which suggests that the Greek debt crisis was the result of lavish spending, this article demonstrates that the ‘crisis’ was generated by a transformation of purely private debt into public debt. This finding is supported by the preliminary report of the Greek Parliamentary Committee on the Truth of the Greek Debt, which clearly demonstrated the exponential increase of private debt in Greece risked the collapse of the private financial institutions exposed to it,...

  20. The 297:YEAR-OLO ANCESTRAL TEMPLE OF THE HBE PEOPLE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Taiping Temple is the sole surviving monument from the Xibe people's early history. It is located in Heping District, Shenyang, Liaoning Province. There are differing reports in historical records as to the time of its construction. On the basis of the frequent migrations of the Xibe people, historians agree the most likely construction date is 1707, during the reign of Emperor Kangxi. It was constructed with 60 taels of silver.

  1. Conceptions of warlike angels in literature of the late Second Temple period

    OpenAIRE

    Michalak, Aleksander Roman

    2011-01-01

    The work begins with a chapter that presents the various traditions concerning "angelic" warriors in the Hebrew Bible. In this context, we have investigated the two main biblical traditions: the council of gods and the Angel of Yahweh. It can be demonstrated that both these traditions were connected with martiality, which might have influenced later speculations about warlike angels. The second chapter deals with the various Second Temple beliefs concerning the principal angels, angelic hiera...

  2. Soils and earthen building materials used for the Buddhist Temple Complex

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Slížková, Zuzana; Gruber, M.; Herbstová, Vladislava; Frankeová, Dita; Wimmer-Frey, I.; Drdácký, Miloš

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 4 (2016), s. 406-417 ISSN 1558-3058 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP105/12/G059; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1219 Keywords : adobe * conservation * earth * mineralogical composition * mortar * soil * temple * texture Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage Impact factor: 1.053, year: 2016 http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15583058.2014.991460

  3. Temple Wars: Cambodia’s Dispute Over Preah Vihear Ownership and its Effects on National Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    patronage of Buddhism and aspects of kingship that led to territorial expansion. Suryavarman was a unifying monarch that expanded the Khmer Empire by...to Buddhism may be the reason why elements of the religion are found in the temple’s architecture. Likewise, the thirteenth century brought about a...decline of Hindu worship in the Khmer Empire and the Preah Vihear Temple was then dedicated to Buddhism . 23 Cambodia’s Geography and its

  4. Influence of headache frequency on clinical signs and symptoms of TMD in subjects with temple headache and TMD pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Gary C; John, Mike T; Ohrbach, Richard; Nixdorf, Donald R; Schiffman, Eric L; Truelove, Edmond S; List, Thomas

    2011-04-01

    The relationship of the frequency of temple headache to signs and symptoms of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders (TMD) was investigated in a subset of a larger convenience sample of community TMD cases. The study sample included 86 painful TMD, nonheadache subjects; 309 painful TMD subjects with varied frequency of temple headaches; and 149 subjects without painful TMD or headache for descriptive comparison. Painful TMD included Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders diagnoses of myofascial pain, TMJ arthralgia, and TMJ osteoarthritis. Mild to moderate-intensity temple headaches were classified by frequency using criteria based on the International Classification of Headache Disorder, 2nd edition, classification of tension-type headache. Outcomes included TMD signs and symptoms (pain duration, pain intensity, number of painful masticatory sites on palpation, mandibular range of motion), pressure pain thresholds, and temple headache resulting from masticatory provocation tests. Trend analyses across the painful TMD groups showed a substantial trend for aggravation of all of the TMD signs and symptoms associated with increased frequency of the temple headaches. In addition, increased headache frequency showed significant trends associated with reduced PPTs and reported temple headache with masticatory provocation tests. In conclusion, these findings suggest that these headaches may be TMD related, as well as suggesting a possible role for peripheral and central sensitization in TMD patients. Copyright © 2010 International Association for the Study of Pain. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of Imminent Fire Hazards of Inheritance Ancestral Temple and Mansion in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire hazards of the inheritance buildings are often been neglected, causing fire to take place. Most of the heritage buildings are of large scale, flammable priceless contents and large numbers of visitors, however, the existing structures are weak in fire resistance. There are a few factors that contribute to the fire in these unique yet vulnerable structures Therefore, fire risk assessment plays an important role as many historic buildings in Penang are significant in their architectural value and historically importantt and their destructions by fire are great irreplaceable losses. Thus, this study is intended to identify the current fire emergency plan of heritage temples and mansions in Penang which includes 4 buildings such as Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and Teochew Temple. The possible fire risks of these heritage buildings will be identified and evaluated comprehensively. The previous fire cases will be considered as well in order to discover the common factors contributing to the fire cases at heritage buildings. Time and again, people do not record their findings upon completing the fire risk assessment. Hence this particular research will prepare a complete record of the fire risk assessment. Having a fire risk assessment in the heritage building in Penang can be an interesting study to find out the current situation of heritage building fire protection awareness.

  6. Semiotic Analysis of the Auspicious Images of a Taiwanese Folk Religion Temple

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Ming Yang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In Taiwan, temples were decorated with painted and sculptured auspicious images that promote the communication between worshippers and deities. In this study, we adopted grounded theory and ethnography with applied semiotic theory to analysis the semiotic meanings of the auspicious images of Taiwanese folk religion temple, identify the semiotic characteristics of the images, and summarize the signs associated with the images. A total of 126 image samples were collected from field study, and the KJ method was subsequently performed to categorize and analyze the samples. Finally, some significant findings were obtained, the functional aspects of the aforementioned images mostly belong to the categories of symbol and homonymy, whereas their mental aspects belong to the categories of psychological and physiological requirements. In sum, humans perceive the world through signs and that human life is the semiotization of the world, although Eastern and Western cultures are characteristically different, they share much similarity in communication methods. The findings of this study can foster the understanding of the truth, goodness, and beauty of the architectural decoration of temples in Taiwan and the modesty, hospitality, generosity, and religiosity of Taiwanese society.

  7. PLEIADES IN ANCIENT MESOPOTAMIA

    OpenAIRE

    Verderame, L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper I will analyse the different features of the Pleiades in the astronomical, astrological, and calendrical interpretation as well as their mythical and cultural background in ancient Mesopotamia. According to cuneiform sources, the Pleiades are among the most important stars. They are simply known in Sumerian as ―the Stars‖ (MUL.MUL), while their Akkadian name, ―the Bristle‖ (zappu), links them to the imagery and the cultural context of the ―Bull of Heaven‖ constellation (Taurus),...

  8. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  9. Isaac Vossius’ Sylloge of Greek Technopaegnia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Galán-Vioque

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Tracing the sources that Vossius (1618–1689 used in compiling his anthology of Greek technopaegnia (Leiden ms. Vossius misc. 13 illuminates both his research methods and the evolution of his dispute with Salmasius.

  10. 'The Greek Fall: Simulacral Thanatotourism in Europe'

    OpenAIRE

    Tzanelli, R

    2012-01-01

    The paper explores the socio-cultural dynamics of Greek demonstrations in 2011, suggesting that their function exceeds that of social movements as we know them. A form of what I term ‘simulacral thanatotourism’, including marches and demonstrations to Greek cities in protest for austerity measures, actualised in this context a form of mourning about the end of Greece’s place in European polity. This mourning, which places Greece at the centre of a withering European democratic cosmos, inspire...

  11. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. SOCIOLOGIC EXAMINATION OF HELLENISTIC ART IN THE LIGHT OF ANCIENT ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Aslıhan OZTURK

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the emergence of Hellenistic Art, historical and social background that constitutive it, important features that put it forward and important artworks in the light of Ancient Era Society and Art general framework will be examined. Hellenistic Art as an Ancient Era Art was existed blending Greek culture and art which are dominant elements of the empire and cultures of conquered lands, progressed as a mixed culture. On the wide geography that Alexander the Great conquered, in time differences showed up in the direction of the beliefs, social structure and sense of art of this region and powerful and effective artworks were revealed taking form of this differences with a common understanding. In this reseach, Hellenistic Art that showed a common understanding belongs to almost whole known World in Ancient Era and its sociologic Fundamentals will be analyzed.

  13. Some Pitfalls of Translation Greek

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Marcos, Natalio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In textual criticism it is important to detect the genesis of mistakes; sometimes the true reading is only reached through the unmasking of the wrong one. Likewise, in order to use critically the Septuagint it is indispensable to find out first its corruptions and mistranslations. The making of a Greek-Hebrew Index of the Antiochene Text in the Historical Books is an excellent occasion to observe the translation process and find out the most common errors made by the translators. A few examples will be commented concerning the following issues: inner-Greek corruptions and misleading translations caused by the graphic confusion of similar letters (paleography or sounds (phonetics, and by a different reading or vocalization of the consonantal text. In several cases this analysis may open a window towards a non-Masoretic Hebrew Vorlage.

    En crítica textual es muy importante descubrir la génesis de los errores; a veces la lectura verdadera sólo se descubre desenmascarando la falsa. De igual manera, para usar críticamente la Septuaginta es imprescindible descubrir primero las corrupciones y los errores de traducción. La confección de un índice griego-hebreo del texto antioqueno en los libros históricos es una ocasión excelente para analizar el proceso de traducción y detectar los errores más comunes cometidos por los traductores. En el artículo se estudian algunos ejemplos con relación a los siguientes fenómenos: corrupciones internas al griego y traducciones equivocadas motivadas por la confusión gráfica de letras (paleografía o sonidos (fonética semejantes y por una vocalización diferente del texto consonántico. En varios casos este análisis permite vislumbrar un texto base hebreo distinto del masorético.

  14. Ottoman Greek Education System and Greek Girls' Schools in Istanbul (19th and 20th Centuries)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daglar Macar, Oya

    2010-01-01

    Modernization efforts in education, which were initiated in the 19th century, can be seen as forerunners of the modernization attempts in the Republic period. In this article, Greek education system in the Ottoman Empire will be discussed and the effects and importance of the changes observed in Greek girls' education in 19th and 20th centuries on…

  15. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  16. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  17. Musical ensembles in Ancient Mesapotamia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krispijn, T.J.H.; Dumbrill, R.; Finkel, I.

    2010-01-01

    Identification of musical instruments from ancient Mesopotamia by comparing musical ensembles attested in Sumerian and Akkadian texts with depicted ensembles. Lexicographical contributions to the Sumerian and Akkadian lexicon.

  18. Chemical analysis of Greek pollen - Antioxidant, antimicrobial and proteasome activation properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonos Efstathios

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollen is a bee-product known for its medical properties from ancient times. In our days is increasingly used as health food supplement and especially as a tonic primarily with appeal to the elderly to ameliorate the effects of ageing. In order to evaluate the chemical composition and the biological activity of Greek pollen which has never been studied before, one sample with identified botanical origin from sixteen different common plant taxa of Greece has been evaluated. Results Three different extracts of the studied sample of Greek pollen, have been tested, in whether could induce proteasome activities in human fibroblasts. The water extract was found to induce a highly proteasome activity, showing interesting antioxidant properties. Due to this activity the aqueous extract was further subjected to chemical analysis and seven flavonoids have been isolated and identified by modern spectral means. From the methanolic extract, sugars, lipid acids, phenolic acids and their esters have been also identified, which mainly participate to the biosynthetic pathway of pollen phenolics. The total phenolics were estimated with the Folin-Ciocalteau reagent and the total antioxidant activity was determined by the DPPH method while the extracts and the isolated compounds were also tested for their antimicrobial activity by the dilution technique. Conclusions The Greek pollen is rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids which indicate the observed free radical scavenging activity, the effects of pollen on human fibroblasts and the interesting antimicrobial profile.

  19. “The root of all evil”: Frank McGuinness’ Translations of Greek Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loredana Salis

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Whether in political propaganda or in creative the myths of ancient Greece have long attracted scholars, writers and audiences from Ireland. Over the past forty years, a wealth of adaptations of plays by Sophocles and Euripides have been produced, which bring back to life ancient tales of heroes and heroines, in settings at times distinctively local and contemporary, at times deliberately universal. Field Day’s contributions represent a typical instance of the former approach to the classics, while other Irish playwrights have used Greek myths to reflect upon questions that are not exclusively Irish. Their plays may have an Irish echo, and some are even set in Ireland, but their main preoccupation lies beyond geographical borders. Frank McGuinness belongs to this second group of playwrights. To date, he has reworked and staged five Greek plays with great audience and critical acclaim. This paper locates his translations of Sophocles and Euripides within the tradition of classical tragedy use in Ireland at the crossroads between the local and the global and at the search of what he calls ‘the root of all evil’ with special attention to his Oedipus (2008 and Helen (2009.

  20. Katharsis of the skin: Peeling applications and agents of chemical peelings in Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursin, F; Steger, F; Borelli, C

    2018-04-28

    Recipes for peelings date back to medical texts of old Egypt. The oldest medical papyri contain recipes for "improving beauty of the skin" and "removing wrinkles" by use of agents like salt and soda. The Egyptian Queen Cleopatra (69-30 BC) is said to have taken bathes in donkey's milk in order to improve the beauty of her skin. However, little is known about other agents and peeling applications in later Greek medical textbooks. We will discover new agents and describe ancient peeling applications. First, we will have to identify ancient Greek medical terms for the modern terms "peeling" and "chemical peeling". Second, based on the identified terms we will perform a systematic fulltext search for agents in original sources. Third, we will categorize the results into three peeling applications: (1) cleansing, (2) aesthetical improvement of the skin, and (3) therapy of dermatological diseases. We performed a full systematic keyword search with the identified Greek terms in databases of ancient Greek texts. Our keywords for peeling and chemical peeling are "smēxis" and "trīpsis". Our keywords for agents of peeling and chemical peeling are "smégmata", "rhýmmata", "kathartiká", and "trímmata". Diocles (4 th century BC) was the first one who mentioned "smēxis" and "trīpsis" as parts of daily cleansing routine. Criton (2 nd century AD) wrote about peeling applications, but any reference to the agents is lost. Antyllos (2 nd century AD) composed three lists of peeling applications including agents. Greek medical textbooks of Graeco-Roman antiquity report several peeling applications like cleansing, brightening, darkening, softening, and aesthetical improvement of the skin by use of peeling and chemical peeling, as well as therapy of dermatological diseases. There are 27 ancient agents for what is contemporarily called peeling and chemical peeling. We discovered more specific agents than hitherto known to research. This article is protected by copyright. All rights

  1. Detecting Ancient Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela M. Gernaey

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Some diseases have played a more significant role in human development than others. Here we describe the results of a trial to diagnose ancient tuberculosis using chemical methods. Palaeo-epidemiological studies of the disease are compromised, but it has become apparent that tuberculosis (TB is a 'population-density dependent' disease. From modern studies, it is also apparent that the prevalence of TB can be used as an indicator of the level of poverty within the studied population. Mid-shaft rib samples from articulated individuals recovered from the former Newcastle Infirmary Burial Ground (1753-1845 AD were examined for mycolic acids that are species-specific for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The 24% of ribs positive for mycolic acids correlated with the documented 27% tuberculosis prevalence. Mycolic acid biomarkers have the potential to provide an accurate trace of the palaeo-epidemiology of tuberculosis in ancient populations, thereby providing an indication of the overall level of poverty - a useful adjunct for archaeology.

  2. Symbolic structure in the architecture of the temple – introduction into theology of the sacred art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Uścinowicz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Symbol has always been an intrinsic part of a person. The human being – homo religiosus – is by nature also a homo symbolicus, who thinks and feels symbolically, who lives symbolically. In the domain of sacrum, in the temple, life is realized through holy symbols.In the past, this was directly reflected in the architecture and in the art of all religions. They have their special compensation in the temple and vice versa; the temple is a concrete manifestation of the function of a symbol. Thanks to them, art could manifest itself, could naturally pass from the level of aesthetics to the level of religion. Nowadays we face a kind of crisis of symbol in the sphere of art, certain reluctance towards symbols. The language of symbols seems to be dying out.Two thousand years of history of Christianity proved that a main criterion of a value of church architecture was not based on architectural precursors. This architecture was sacred because it was a carrier of a „truth of God” and – like a liturgical mysterion and iconography art – it was a theological comment. It was a codified language of the transposes of religions essences and orders, into the form of architectural expression. This was in a East Christianity and this happens there up to this day.One of the proofs to confirmate this thesis is an example of dome. It has been in existence since the beginning of forming the traditional architecture structure of the orthodox temple; it manifested symbolical and archetype essence – as an interior space and as an exterior form. In the history of architecture as well as the history of religion it had precisely defined symbolic meanings. They designated its significance in the temple, they gave rise to its long duration in the history, and eventually they gave it a status of an essential element, an everlasting witness of Divine mystery”. Presentation of this essence and orders constructs indispensable context to a value of the

  3. Influence of temple headache frequency on physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with temporomandibular disorder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Thomas; John, Mike T; Ohrbach, Richard; Schiffman, Eric L; Truelove, Edmond L; Anderson, Gary C

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the relationship of headache frequency with patient-reported physical functioning and emotional functioning in temporomandibular disorder (TMD) subjects with concurrent temple headache. The Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD (RDC/TMD) Validation Project identified, as a subset of 614 TMD cases and 91 controls (n = 705), 309 subjects with concurrent TMD pain diagnoses (RDC/TMD) and temple headache. The temple headaches were subdivided into infrequent, frequent, and chronic headache according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders, second edition (ICHD-II). Study variables included self-report measures of physical functioning (Jaw Function Limitation Scale [JFLS], Graded Chronic Pain Scale [GCPS], Short Form-12 [SF-12]) and emotional functioning (depression and anxiety as measured by the Symptom Checklist-90R/SCL-90R). Differences among the three headache subgroups were characterized by increasing headache frequency. The relationship between ordered headache frequency and physical as well as emotional functioning was analyzed using linear regression and trend tests for proportions. Physical functioning, as assessed with the JFLS (P headache frequency. Emotional functioning, reflected in depression and anxiety, was also associated with increased frequency of headache (both P Headache frequency was substantially correlated with reduced physical functioning and emotional functioning in subjects with TMD and concurrent temple headaches. A secondary finding was that headache was precipitated by jaw activities more often in subjects with more frequent temple headaches.

  4. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  5. Ancient philosophical ideas of the soul (Plato-Aristotelian tradition and Stoicism as a source of Patristic Thought

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaitsev Cornelius

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the ancient idea of the soul that in the patristic era has been enriched by the perception of the methodology of ancient philosophy. Greek and Roman thinkers considered some properties of the soul, its immortality, revealed its “levels and strata” (Plato, Aristotle, expressed first guesses about the nature of sinful passions (the Stoics. But some aspects still remained unresolved so far. This is the issue of materiality or immateriality, of the soul, which "raised" in the Russian Empire in the 19th century (the dispute saints Theophan the Recluse and Ignatius Brianchaninov and remains relevant today.

  6. Osobnosť gréckych hrdinov z pohľadu modernej psychológie (Personality of Greek Heroes from the Viewpoint of Modern Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matúš Porubjak

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from Homer’s Iliad, the article focuses on characters of ancient Greek heroes and relates them to personality psychology. First, it discusses what major personality characteristics have been identified by modern psychological research and how they can be measured. In the next part, the authors summarize how they attempted to verify the historical and intercultural validity of outlined personality models using theIliad and present the results of their analysis. Concluding that ancient Greek accounts testify to the universality of human nature throughout ages and cultures, the article also provides the expected personality profiles of major heroes—Achilles and Agamemnon. Even more interestingly, the authors discuss how and why their motives and behavioral tendencies might cause clashes in their interaction, and also what occupational options they would probably face nowadays. Interdisciplinary in its nature, the paper concludes with implications of the results for philosophy.

  7. The Fall of the Tektōn and The Rise of the Architect: On The Greek Origins of Architectural Craftsmanship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Holst

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The origins of architectural craftsmanship in ancient Greece are to be found in the archaic arts of tectonics. The first Greek architects, appearing under that name around the 6th century BC, rose out of and based their work on this age-old tectonic tradition, which semantically underwent a transformation during the time from Homer to Plato, the latter relegating the tektones to a lower rank in the order of craftsmanship. Through a detailed reading of the ancient Greek testimonies of the tectonic tradition, the paper demonstrates that in the Homeric tradition the tektones were hailed as versatile, first-rate craftsmen who created wonders out of matter, but in classical times they fell from their high status of old. In Plato’s writings tectonics ends up at the lower end of the epistemological and ontological scale.

  8. David J. Stuart-Fox, Pura Besakih. Temple, Religion and Society in Bali

    OpenAIRE

    Guillot, Claude

    2005-01-01

    Bali constitue une exception dans le monde insulindien auquel il appartient. Alors que les autres îles ont très majoritairement adopté l'islam et quelques-unes le christianisme, Bali a préservé son héritage « hindouiste » au point de passer, en grande partie à tort, pour un conservatoire de la civilisation javanaise antérieure à l'islamisation. Ce particularisme se traduit dans le paysage par une profusion de temples et templions qui rythment l'horizon des villes, des villages et des champs e...

  9. Management of floral waste generated from temples of Jaipur city through vermicomposting

    OpenAIRE

    Priyanka Tiwari; Shelja K Juneja

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at management of floral waste generated from temples of Jaipur city through vermicomposting. In this study, flower waste consisted of variety of flowers out of which marigold was chosen as it was found in maximum amount. The vermibeds were prepared by mixing the marigold with cow dung in different proportions viz., 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10 and they were filled in the earthen pots, individually. Simultaneously, a control (without worms) for each of these concentrati...

  10. INAA and petrological study of sandstones from Khmer temples in Angkor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucera, J.; Kranda, K.; Novak, J.K.; Poncar, J.; Krausova, I.; Soukal, L.

    2009-01-01

    INAA was used to determine 35 major, minor and trace elements in sandstone samples taken from building blocks of 21 Khmer temples in Angkor, Cambodia. The sandstone samples were also characterized by conventional optical microscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis and electron microprobe analysis. The aim of this work was to examine the hypothesis that a particular elemental and/or mineral composition of the building materials can be characteristic of a particular architectural style/building period in the history of constructing the Angkor monuments. Preliminary results of this study are presented

  11. Health behavior and college students: does Greek affiliation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott-Sheldon, Lori A J; Carey, Kate B; Carey, Michael P

    2008-02-01

    The college years offer an opportunity for new experiences, personal freedom, and identity development; however, this period is also noted for the emergence of risky health behaviors that place college students at risk for health problems. Affiliation with on-campus organizations such as fraternities or sororities may increase a students' risk given the rituals and socially endorsed behaviors associated with Greek organizations. In this study, we examined alcohol and drug use, smoking, sexual behavior, eating, physical activity, and sleeping in 1,595 college students (n = 265 Greek members, n = 1,330 non-Greek members). Results show Greek members engaged in more risky health behaviors (e.g., alcohol use, cigarette smoking, sexual partners, and sex under the influence of alcohol or drugs) than non-Greek members. Greek and non-Greek members did not differ in condom use, unprotected sex, eating, and physical activity behaviors. Implications for prevention and intervention strategies among Greek members are discussed.

  12. The language of modern medicine: it's all Greek to me.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Kristopher N

    2004-01-01

    The Greek language has shaped and formed the lexicon of modern medicine. Although medical terminology may seem complex and difficult to master, the clarity and functionality of this language owe a great debt to the tongue of the classical Greeks.

  13. Greek-English Word Processing on the Macintosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusten, Jeffrey

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the complete Greek-English word processing system of the Apple Macintosh computer. Describes the features of its operating system, shows how the Greek fonts look and work, and enumerates both the advantages and drawbacks of the Macintosh. (SED)

  14. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  15. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando

    2018-01-01

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleo...

  16. The cosmology of the pre-Socratic Greek philosophers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    The views of the ancient Greek pre-Socratic philosophers from Ionia opened new paths for the study of nature using human logic. Starting from the worship of the Earth as a goddess, they proceeded to examine its position in the Cosmos (Universe), proposing a spherical shape for our planet. They pioneered the unifying approach for the physical world, assuming one element as the basis for everything in the Universe (this was water for Thales, air for Anaximenes, infinity for Anaximander, fire for Heraclitus). The genesis and the decay of worlds succeed one another eternally. Anaximenes believed, like Anaximander, that our world was not the only one that existed. Heraclitus believed that, of the vast richness of the natural creation with its unpredictable changes, nothing remains stable and motionless. There is not constancy, but only an eternal flow, a perpetual motion. This is exactly what we accept today in quantum physics; the apparent stability and immobility is an illusion of our limited senses. According to Heraclitus, matter is constantly transformed. All the natural philosophers of Ionia distanced God the Creator from nature and history, keeping always a respect for the beliefs of their fellow people; most probably they, too, kept a form of God in an area of their minds, in his spiritual and moral dimension.

  17. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  18. Some Syntactic Features of Relative Constructions in the Greek New Testament

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman C du Toit

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Greek New Testament, relative sentences that are introduced by relative pronouns alone, apart from the adverbial uses, are the most frequent subordinate sentence type. The research reported on in this paper aimed to investigate and describe a number of syntactic features of relative constructions in the Greek New Testament, taking account, among others, of some typological parameters that have been developed in the general linguistics literature for these constructions.The results indicate that relative constructions in the Greek New Testament have a variety of features, all of which have counterparts in some modern (or other ancient languages, despite the differences. The relative sentence in the Greek New Testament is mostly postnominal, and the relative pronoun-type is used in those cases for encoding the role of the coreferential element in the relative sentence. Phrases expressing a variety of syntactic functions in a sentence (e.g. subject, direct object, etc. are accessible to relativisation, that is, they can be represented by relative pronouns. Nominal elements serve mostly as antecedents of relative sentences, although sentences appear in that function as well.A variety of syntactic types of relative sentences can be distinguished, including the prenominal participial, postnominal finite/participial, circumnominal, free relative, adverbial, prejoined, postjoined, sentential and conjoined types. These can be linked in a systematic way to the four functions of relative sentences in the New Testament, i.e. identifying, appositive, adverbial and continuative.Relative sentences also play a role in communicative strategies. Prejoined relative sentences, for example, are most suitable for exposition and theme-building, especially in the correlative diptych construction.

  19. Greek women and broken nerves in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunk, P

    1989-05-01

    In this paper, I examine the importance of class, ethnicity and gender in the causation and meaning of somatization for Greek women in Montreal. I argue that nevra--a form of psychosocial distress experienced by many of the women--is a phenomenon of the poor working conditions, low wages and gender relations in the Greek community. Data is based on interviews with 100 Greek families in Montreal and 45 patients in two different clinical settings. Comparing results with material on nervios and nerves from Latin America and the United States, I concur with Low (1985) that nerves should be viewed as a 'culturally-interpreted symptom' rather than a 'culture bound syndrome'. It is further suggested that the importance of social and material conditions and gender relations in mediating the cultural interpretation must be stressed. Failure to do so often results in the medicalization of nevra and the creation of a chronic sick role for the patient.

  20. Apolipoprotein E polymorphism in the Greek population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavounou, E; Economou-Petersen, E; Karadima, G; Panas, M; Avramopoulos, D; Varsou, A; Vassilopoulos, D; Petersen, M B

    1997-10-01

    The APOE gene is located on chromosome 19, and the three common alleles are designated epsilon2, epsilon3, and epsilon4. The epsilon4 allele is associated with increased plasma cholesterol, atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease, Alzheimer's disease, and decreased longevity. The objective of the present study was to estimate the distribution of APOE alleles in the Greek population by DNA analysis. The material consisted of 216 voluntary, healthy Greek blood donors (146 males/70 females). The APOE allele frequencies were epsilon2: 5.3%, epsilon3: 88.2%, epsilon4: 6.5%. The epsilon4 allele frequency of 6.5% in the Greek population is, together with the frequency in the Chinese population, among the lowest in the world.

  1. [An outline of odontoiatry and odontology in the ancient world].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musitelli, S

    1996-01-01

    Dentistry was surely practiced in ancient Egypt, Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, Etruria, Greece and Rome, but odontology arose only with the dawn of Greek science. One may find the first references to a rational odontology only in the fragments of the Pre-socratic philosophers and in the Corpus Hippocraticum. Aristotle was the first to treat odontology under a comparative anatomo-physiological point of view. Celsus and Scribonius Largus got their matter from Hippocrates, Aristotle, the Hellenistic anatomists as well as from folk-traditions, but payed attention rather to dentistry than to odontology. Finally Galen gathered all the knowledge about odontology and dentistry from Hippocrates up to the Hellenistic anatomists and organized all the matter in his monumental teleologic and theological system, that was inherited by both the so called iatrosophists and the Byzantine physicians.

  2. Origins of the ancient constellations: I. The Mesopotamian traditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J. H.

    1998-02-01

    In the sky-map of ancient Babylon, constellations had two different roles, and thus developed into two overlapping traditions. One set of constellations represented the gods and their symbols; the other set represented rustic activities and provided a farming calendar. Many constellations were shared by the two traditions, but in some regions of sky there were alternative divine and rustic figures. These figures developed in stages from ~3200 BC to ~500 BC. Of the divine set, the most important (although the last to be finalised) were the twelve zodiacal signs, plus several associated animals (the serpent, crow, eagle, and fish), which were all transmitted to the classical Greek sky-map that we still use today. Conversely, the rustic constellations of workers and tools and animals were not transmitted to the West. However, a few of them may have survived in Bedouin Arab sky-maps of the first millennium AD.

  3. Transdermal opioid patches for pain treatment in ancient Greece

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Hansen, Steen Honore'; Bartels, Else M.

    2012-01-01

    that OVDO can be useful for treating extreme pain and swellings, forming one of the best eye salves. Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment, an opium-based treatment, forms a "patch" when applied externally as an ointment, because it quickly dries to cover a localized region but still retains its elastic properties......Pain treatment in ancient Greece, and through the middle ages in Europe, was to a great extent based on the expertise of the Greek physician Galen (c. 129-200 A.D.). Galen makes particular reference to "Olympic Victor's Dark Ointment" (OVDO), which is listed with a number of collyria. Galen states...... abilities in terms of drug delivery, which could be transferred to modern medicine. Indeed, this may lead to a better choice of morphine use and controlled management in individual patient cases, taking both pain relief and anti-inflammatory aspects into account....

  4. Urban wastewater and stormwater technologies in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakis, A N; Koutsoyiannis, D; Tchobanoglous, G

    2005-01-01

    The status of urban sewerage and stormwater drainage systems in ancient Greece is reviewed, based on the results of archaeological studies of the 20th century. Emphasis is given to the construction, operation, and management of sewerage and stormwater drainage systems during the Minoan period (2nd millennium B.C.). The achievements of this period in dealing with the hygienic and the functional requirements of palaces and cities, were so advanced that they can only be compared to modern urban water systems, developed in Europe and North America in the second half of the 19th century A.D. The advanced Minoan technologies were exported to all parts of Greece in later periods of the Greek civilization, i.e. in Mycenaean, Archaic, Classical, and Hellenistic periods.

  5. Elements for the Theory of Value in Ancient Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Ivlampie

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although axiology is a new philosophical discipline (the second half of the 19th century, we can talk about both a prehistory and a protohistory of axiology. The most important aspect of axiology belongs to its prehistory. Examining the doctrines of ancient philosophers one can conclude that, although no Greek thinker had the distinct conscience of a specific realm of values, yet each generation had intuitions proper to the axiological perspective. Their intuitions regarded the human act of founding the world of values (the Sophists, or the argumentation in favour of the general character of values (Plato and Aristotle or a hierarchy of values as a model of human education and formation.

  6. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Gong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tripitaka is the world’s most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  7. 78 FR 18455 - Greek Independence Day: A National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... celebrates Greek Independence Day to strengthen the bonds between the birthplace of democracy and the world's... National Day of Celebration of Greek and American Democracy. I call upon the people of the United States to...

  8. The influence of Greek drama on Matthew's Gospel

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-20

    May 20, 2014 ... This article presents the Greek influence on the genre of Matthew's text. Greek and Roman .... Matthew's Gospel, it is necessary to examine the basic make- up of Greek .... purpose of the chorus was to depict the reaction of the people in the audience. ..... in Knowing Jesus and his friends better, viewed 18 ...

  9. The influence of Greek drama on Matthew's Gospel | Warner | HTS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents the Greek influence on the genre of Matthew's text. Greek and Roman tragedy is examined, from which the five basic elements of tragedy are identified. A brief examination of the characters in the Matthean text is done to identify Greek cultural influences on the structuring of the Gospel. This study offers ...

  10. The Greek concept of egkíklios paideía and its diffusion in the Hellenistic era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Spinelli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is about the concept of egkíklios paideía, used in ancient Greece to define the children’s (paidós school term (egkíklios. The goals of the syllabus used to be, on the one hand, enabling the children to use the intellect, and, on the other hand, professional, social and human amendment. The paper uses two sources. First, the ancient philosophers. Second, other educational conceptions spread all over the Greek civilization in the Hellenistic age. Concerning the ancient philosophers, the paper analyzes a single dictum attributed to three different philosophers: Gorgias, Aristippus and Bion. The subject of the dictum is a comparison between, on the one hand, philosophy and Penelope, and, on the other hand, the other disciplines of the syllabus and Penelope’s servants. Concerning the Hellenistic diffusion, the paper deals with Filo, Quintilian and Clement of Alexandria. Regarding these writers, the paper aims to show an overturn: among the Greeks, philosophy used to be the master (the déspoina; later, it became the servant (the doulís

  11. Hydroarchaeology: Measuring the Ancient Human Impact on the Palenque Watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, K. D.; Duffy, C. J.

    2010-03-01

    Palenque, one of the best known Classic Maya centers, has what is arguably the most unique and intricate system of water management known anywhere in the Maya Lowlands. Years of archaeological research, including intensive mapping between 1997 and 2000, reveal that this major center, situated on a narrow escarpment at the base of a high mountain range in northern Chiapas, Mexico, began as a modest settlement about AD 100. Then, during the seventh and eighth centuries, Palenque experienced explosive growth, mushrooming into a dense community with an estimated population of 6000 and approximately 1500 structures — residences, palaces, and temples¬ - under a series of powerful rulers. This process of "urban" growth led to obvious changes in landcover. In order to better understand the effects that landcover and climate change have on the availability of water for an ancient city a new approach is required. In this paper we explore a hydroarchaeological approach that utilizes simulated daily paleoclimate data, watershed modeling, and traditional archaeology to view the response of ancient human impact within the watershed surrounding Palenque. There is great potential for watershed-climate modeling in developing plausible scenarios of water use and supply, and the effect of extreme conditions (flood and drought), all of which cannot be fully represented by atmosphere-based climate and weather projections. The first objective of the paper is to test the hypothesis that drought was a major cause for Palenque’s collapse. Did the Maya abandon Palenque in search of water? Secondly, we evaluate the hydraulic design of the water management features at Palenque against extreme meteorological events. How successful was the hydraulic engineering of the Maya in coping with droughts and floods? The archaeological implications for this non-invasive "virtual" method are many, including detecting periods of stress within a community, estimating population by developing caps

  12. Albanians in the Greek informal economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droukas, E

    1998-04-01

    "This article addresses the issue of Albanian immigration to Greece, underlines its special character and discusses the problems arising from the Greek immigration policy which, so far, has focused on short-term, inefficient and sometimes conflicting solutions. This article also delineates the current situation of Albanian immigrants, who constitute the largest group amongst all immigrants in Greece and who are largely undocumented. It examines the controversial issue of Albanian criminality, and the social construction of negative stereotypes through prejudicial representations of Albanians by the Greek media." excerpt

  13. A Greek physician's portrait in Windsor Castle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartsocas, Christos S

    2017-01-01

    To the visitor to Windsor Castle, the Thomas Lawrence portraits in the Waterloo Chamber represent the most important contributors to the military defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte, by British, Prussian, Russian and Austrian forces at the Battle of Waterloo. Nevertheless, only few individuals realise that a Greek physician, Count Ioannis Capodistrias, a native of the island of Corfu, stands among these leading personalities as a diplomat, the Russian Minister of Foreign Affairs, who contributed remarkably to European unity in the early nineteenth century and as a statesman ('Governor' of Greece) with a tragic end to his life, after establishing a Greek State practically from ruins.

  14. Making a Voluntary Greek Debt Exchange Work

    OpenAIRE

    Gulati, Mitu; Zettelmeyer, Jeromin

    2012-01-01

    Within the next few months, the Greek government, is supposed to persuade private creditors holding about EUR 200bn in its bonds to voluntarily exchange their existing bonds for new bonds that pay roughly 50 percent less. This may work with large creditors whose failure to participate in a debt exchange could trigger a Greek default, but may not persuade smaller creditors, who will be told that their claims will continue to be fully serviced if they do not participate in the exchange. This pa...

  15. Entertainment in View of Politicians in Ancient Greece and Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discloses the cultural and social conditions of the entertainment phenomenon in Ancient Greece and Rome and the attitude of the authorities to it. The appearance of entertainment is closely related to the worship of cult of Gods. It is shown that the Romans being more materialistic and pragmatic paid less attention to spiritual entertainment than Greeks who fostered dramatic performances. Greek rulers and noblemen saw relaxational and educational function of the entertainment and also considered it as reducing tension and promoting solidarity. However, they did not intrude into its practical organization and had only a monitoring position, whereas the Romans were more interested in daily life and its bodily pleasures. Accordingly in recreational activities – games there dominated the spirit of competition, especially the gladiators games, which were bloody and cruel, but heated passions of spectators whose majority was comprised of plebs. There is shown that the authorities considered the entertainment as an effective tool to reach political aims, especially for gaining the support of commons in various elections, so they financed gladiators’ performances generously.This tradition is still topical in the flow of years. These days it has become the constituent part of the political marketing.

  16. A Valuation of the Restoration of Hwangnyongsa Temple in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Hee Kim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hwangnyongsa Temple (HT in South Korea belongs to the Gyeongju Historic Areas, designated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2000. The temple was destroyed by fire in AD 1238 and today there are few traces left, however the government is seeking to restore HT. This paper aims to evaluate the economic benefits of the restoration using contingent valuation (CV, and to then perform a cost-benefit analysis of the restoration. For this purpose, people’s willingness to pay (WTP for the restoration is elicited from a survey of 1000 households. The average household’s WTP is estimated as KRW 2341 (USD 2.07 per annum. The current values of the benefits and costs of the restoration computed for the relevant period and population are KRW 415.3 billion (USD 366.9 million and KRW 232.2 billion (USD 205.1 million, respectively. As the former is more than the latter, the restoration is socially profitable.

  17. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Akanksha; Jain, Akansha; Sarma, Birinchi K.; Abhilash, P.C.; Singh, Harikesh B.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC

  18. Solid waste management of temple floral offerings by vermicomposting using Eisenia fetida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Akanksha, E-mail: bhuaks29@gmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Jain, Akansha, E-mail: akansha007@rediffmail.com [Department of Botany, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Sarma, Birinchi K., E-mail: birinchi_ks@yahoo.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Abhilash, P.C., E-mail: pca.iesd@bhu.ac.in [Institute for Environment and Sustainable Development, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India); Singh, Harikesh B., E-mail: hbs1@rediffmail.com [Department of Mycology and Plant Pathology, Institute of Agricultural Sciences, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221 005 (India)

    2013-05-15

    Highlights: ► Effective management of temple floral offerings using E. fetida. ► Physico-chemical properties in TW VC were better especially EC, C/N, C/P and TK. ► TW VC as plant growth promoter at much lower application rates than KW and FYW VC. - Abstract: Recycling of temple waste (TW) mainly comprising of floral offerings was done through vermitechnology using Eisenia fetida and its impact on seed germination and plant growth parameters was studied by comparing with kitchen waste (KW) and farmyard waste (FYW) vermicompost (VC). The worm biomass was found to be maximum in TW VC compared to KW and FYW VCs at both 40 and 120 days old VCs. Physico-chemical analysis of worm-worked substrates showed better results in TW VC especially in terms of electrical conductivity, C/N, C/P and TK. 10% TW VC–water extract (VCE) showed stimulatory effect on germination percentage of chickpea seeds while KW and FYW VCE proved effective at higher concentration. Variation in growth parameters was also observed with change in the VC–soil ratio and TW VC showed enhanced shoot length, root length, number of secondary roots and total biomass at 12.5% VC compared to KW and FYW VC.

  19. Accelerated stone deterioration induced by forest clearance around the Angkor temples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, Marie-Françoise; Vautier, Franck; Voldoire, Olivier; Roussel, Erwan

    2014-09-15

    The present study provides the first quantitative assessment of the deteriorative impact of forest clearance on susceptible sandstone masonries. At Ta Keo, a 1000yr-old temple cleared of the Angkor forest in the early 20th century, GIS-based analysis of historic imagery indicates an average ten-fold increase in stone loss rates (0.2 instead of 0.02% per year). This accelerated decay is assigned to the climatic stress provoked by the exposure of fragile ornamented sandstones to the harsh impact of tropical sunshine and monsoon rains. Comparative climate monitoring with the Beng Mealea temple, still located in a forested environment, suggests a three-fold post-clearance increase in daily temperature and humidity ranges, which is conducive to enhanced swelling-shrinking movements responsible for accelerated sandstone contour scaling. Comparative visual assessment based on a customised 7-point scale of mechanical weathering confirms the protective role of canopy, with 79% of decorative motifs still almost free of mechanical weathering in the forest (against 7% at the cleared site). Disruption of archaeological structures by roots of individual trees can be locally observed at Angkor, but this does not negate the dominant overall buffering function of the forest cover. At Angkor and other cultural heritage sites, this bioprotective 'umbrella effect' should be considered as a valuable ecosystem service to be taken into account when defining and implementing strategies of sustainable management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. AMS {sup 14}C dating at CIRCE: The Major Temple in Cumae (NA – Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Capano, M., E-mail: capano@cerege.fr [Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli – CIRCE (Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage), San Nicola la Strada, CE (Italy); Rescigno, C.; Sirleto, R. [Dipartimento di Lettere e Beni Culturali, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Santa Maria Capua Vetere, CE (Italy); Passariello, I. [INNOVA-CIRCE, San Nicola la Strada, CE (Italy); Marzaioli, F.; D’Onofrio, A.; Terrasi, F. [INNOVA-CIRCE, San Nicola la Strada, CE (Italy); Dipartimento di Matematica e Fisica, Seconda Università degli Studi di Napoli, Caserta (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    We present here one recent CIRCE (Centre for Isotopic Research on Cultural and Environmental Heritage) – Caserta (Italy) project on cultural heritage field, analysing several mice bones, discovered in the Major Temple on the acropolis of Cumae (Napoli, Southern Italy). The bones were found in a vase linked to the holy context. In order to know their dating and formulate an hypothesis on their presence on the site, if it was an accidental rodent inclusion (believed on the base of archaeological context to have occurred during building abandonment periods (IV–V or XIII centuries AD)) or an intentional and ritual remain, the bones were {sup 14}C dated by AMS at CIRCE. The results indicate that the mice bones date to the IV century BC and are contemporaneous with building construction. This dating seems to exclude an accidental rodent presence and it supports the hypothesis of Apollo veneration in the temple, based on the already known link between mice and Apollo worship rituals.

  1. Prevention of functional disorders of temple-lower-jaw joints in the orthopedic treatment of patients with terminal defects of teeth row

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tokmakova E.V.

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The study of temple-lower-jaw joints was provided in 40 patients with defects of teeth row, complicated with distal displacement of lower jaw. It was functional disorders of temple-lower-jaw joint and identified the possibility of their prevention

  2. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural’s many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc. reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect

  3. Digital Technology in the protection of cultural heritage Bao Fan Temple mural digital mapping survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Peng Xi county, Sichuan province, the Bao Fan temple mural digitization survey mapping project: we use three-dimensional laserscanning, multi-baseline definition digital photography, multi-spectral digital image acquisition and other technologies for digital survey mapping. The purpose of this project is to use modern mathematical reconnaissance mapping means to obtain accurate mural shape, color, quality and other data. Combined with field investigation and laboratory analysis results, and based on a comprehensive survey and study, a comprehensive analysis of the historical Bao Fan Temple mural artistic and scientific value was conducted. A study of the mural's many qualities (structural, material, technique, preservation environment, degradation, etc.) reveal all aspects of the information carried by the Bao Fan Temple mural. From multiple angles (archeology, architecture, surveying, conservation science and other disciplines) an assessment for the Bao Fan Temple mural provides basic data and recommendations for conservation of the mural. In order to achieve the conservation of cultural relics in the Bao Fan Temple mural digitization survey mapping process, we try to apply the advantages of three-dimensional laser scanning equipment. For wall murals this means obtaining three-dimensional scale data from the scan of the building and through the analysis of these data to help determine the overall condition of the settlement as well as the deformation of the wall structure. Survey analysis provides an effective set of conclusions and suggestions for appropriate mural conservation. But before data collection, analysis and research need to first to select the appropriate scanning equipment, set the appropriate scanning accuracy and layout position of stations necessary to determine the scope of required data. We use the fine features of the three-dimensional laser scanning measuring arm to scan the mural surface deformation degradation to reflect the actual state of

  4. The Nile floodplain, hydroclimatic variability, and its relation with cultural dynamics in ancient Thebes (Luxor, Egypt)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toonen, Willem H. J.; Graham, Angus; Pennington, Ben; Hunter, Morag; Strutt, Kris; Barker, Dominic; Masson, Aurelia; Emery, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    The western bank of the river Nile in the Luxor region (Egypt) separates New Kingdom divine temple complexes in the central axis of the river valley from contemporaneous sites on the desert edge and limestone plateau. The intermediate Nile floodplain features relatively few known archaeological sites, but played an important role in the ancient ritual landscape by connecting the focal region of the living (floodplain) with that of the dead (desert). All Royal Funerary Temple Complexes of the New Kingdom period (1539-1077 BCE), which played a central role in the cosmogonical landscape, are positioned within a confined 3.5 km long strip of land on the western edge of the present floodplain. This preferential location, together with contemporary textual sources and tomb scenes suggesting the nearby presence of canals, have led to the hypothesis that natural and human-made waterways may have once connected the main channel of the Nile with the desert edge. Until the present research took place, no detailed study of pre-existing channel networks existed in the region, leaving a gap in current knowledge on the configuration and use of the ancient floodplain. This study presents the results of a multi-disciplinary study aimed at mapping and dating ancient waterways in the Theban region and aims to find evidence for the natural or human origin of such channels. Boreholes and Electric Resistivity Tomography (ERT) were carried out along a transect that connects the edge of the Holocene floodplain with the current position of the river Nile. Satellite imagery and textual sources were also used to augment the fieldwork. The data indicate the presence of an infilled abandoned channel of the Nile in the western distal part of the current floodplain, adjoining the Funerary Temple complexes. Over 2100 ceramic fragments were analysed from the sedimentary infilling of the silted-up river course, dating it to the end of the New Kingdom, and indicating that the channel and temples

  5. Storms in Ancient Egypt: the Examples of Historical Natural Disasters Impacts on the Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrova, Anastasia

    2013-04-01

    Though rain storms are infrequent in Egypt, which is normally a rainless country, some Ancient Egyptian texts give accounts of violent storms and rains. Actually, even small amounts of rain in that area could cause huge impact, as none of the water was absorbed by soil, and, running off, it could create dangerous torrents. The Tempest stele, circa 1550 BC, recounts a highly destructive storm happened during the reign of Ahmose I, the king of Egypt's 18 dynasty. The catastrophy is described in details, including the specific noise, overall darkness, torrent so that no torch could be lit. Many houses were washed into the river, temples, tombs and pyramids damaged and collapsed. The stele commemorates the restoration works made by the king who was able to cope with this great disaster and "re-establish the Two Lands". Some egyptologists believe that this event is related to the Minoan eruption of Thera, but this is unlikely given the description in the stele.

  6. IMAGES OF THE KIZHI TEMPLES IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE 20TH CENTURY (ON THE OCCASION OF TERCENTENARY OF THE CHURCH OF TRANSFIGURATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natal'ya Leonidovna Shilova

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available An image of the temple (the church oft en appears in the Kizhi plots of Russian Literature. Th e artilce describes its artistic implementation, semantics and its main literary characteristics. Th e study is based on the texts of N. Klyuyev, K. Paustovsky, A. Voznesensky, R. Rozhdestvensky, V. Pul'kin, I. Strelkova and others. On the one hand, the image of the temple fi nds its justifi cation in the peculiarities of real Kizhi landscape where the silhouette of the temple ensemble appears as a visual center of perception. On the other hand, the image of the temple oft en acts as a semantic center of the literary texts. As the analysis shows, the image of the temple displays notable semiotic activity and has a significant impact on plot-constructing and themes. Surprisingly, it also infuses Christian themes, quotes and allusions into the secular texts of the Soviet period.

  7. Bicultural Childhood. A Case Study with Greek and Greek-Norwegian Families in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Liland, Irene Midtskog

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to explore Greek and Greek–Norwegian children’s experiences of migration and bicultural childhood. The period of fieldwork took place in different cities in Norway during the autumn of 2014. The methods employed are questionnaires, worksheets, mind-mapping activities and semi-structured interviews. The participants in the study were children born in Norway with one Greek-born and one Norwegian-born parent, immigrant children from Greece who had been living in Norway between on...

  8. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  9. Greek Secondary School Students' Views about Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrikaki, Evangelia; Koumparou, Helen; Kyriakoudi, Margarita; Papacharalampous, Irene; Trimandili, Maria

    2012-01-01

    This paper aims to give a picture of Greek students' views about biology and some of the factors that affect them. A questionnaire measuring students' intrinsic motivation to learn biology, individual interest in biology and perceived difficulty of biology, along with information about students' gender, level, parents' occupation and educational…

  10. The Johannine Literature in a Greek Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buch-Hansen, Gitte

    2017-01-01

    and apocalypticism by Greek rationality, to illustrate the Prologue’s Middle Platonism, and to introduce Stoicism into John’s thinking. Finally, it demonstrates how readings of the Prologue in light of Aristotle’s theory of epigenesis have displaced the focus from the logos to the pneuma and thereby managed...

  11. The Greek Financial Crisis – Theoretical Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Jacobs

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The world we live in is a product of the way we think. Our conception of reality determines what we see and what we achieve. The Greek crisis is not simply a case of high public debt, economic mismanagement or weak political will in Greece or the Eurozone. It is underpinned by economic premises, constructs and resulting practices that promote exactly the type of dilemma Greece faces today. Without addressing these conceptual issues, no lasting solution is possible. Rather it can be expected to repeat and spread to other countries and regions. This article is based on views presented by participants in a WAAS webinar examining the Greek financial crisis in the light of economic theory and practice. Wherever there are unmet social needs and underutilized social resources, such as high levels of unemployment, the potential exists to stimulate economic activity, enhance human welfare and promote resilience and sustainable entrepreneurship. Both conditions prevail in Greece today, but neither current nor anticipated policies are likely to result in near term benefits to the Greek people and the local economy nor for Europe and the world economy. It supports the view that a permanent and effective win-win solution can be found to the Greek crisis, compatible with the financial stability of the country and the welfare of its citizens within the framework of the Eurozone, but that such a solution will require a rethinking of fundamental theoretical issues and adoption of innovative policy instruments beyond those presently being contemplated.

  12. The End of the Greek City States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helms, Dorcas

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the demise of the Hellenic period and the factors responsible for the domination of Greece by Macedonia. Asks students to decide whether the Persian and Peloponnesian Wars were justified. Focuses on the role of Demosthenes and his championing of Greek liberty. (RW)

  13. Internships at Greek Universities: An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihail, Dimitrios M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Greece has the highest youth unemployment rate in the European Union. Even though it is clear that persistent unemployment requires bold measures so as to engage young educated Greeks in the labour market, there is no coherent policy at present targeting that population group, especially university students. This paper explores university…

  14. The Greek outside workers radiation passbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenopoulou, V.

    1997-01-01

    Following the European Council Directive 90/641/EURATOM of the 4 December 1990, on the operational protection of outside workers exposed to the risk of ionising radiation during their activities in controlled areas, the Greek Government has adopted the Ministerial Order, published in the Official Gazette (No 9087(FOR) 1004 of 1996). The Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) is the competent governmental authority for radiation protection matters. Therefore it is the GAEC's responsibility of monitoring the implementation of this Order. The Order consists of 6 parts, where among others are described the obligations of outside undertakings and operators and the obligations of outside workers. One of the major elements of this Ministerial Order is the radiation passbook.The Greek Radiation Passbook is written in two languages, Greek and English. It contains worker's personal data (identity, medical examinations, training in radiation protection, etc), information concerning his employee (name, address, etc) and worker's dosimetry information such as operational and the official dosimetry (external and internal) data. The radiation passbook is provided only to category A outside workers, working in Greece or abroad. The GAEC distributed the Ministerial Order with application forms to the possible outside undertakings for their information. Until August 1997, 41 radiation passbooks have been attributed to outride workers. All of them are technicians dealing with medical equipment using ionizing radiation. (author)

  15. Greek and Roman Mythology: English, Mythology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargraves, Richard; Kenzel, Elaine

    The aim of the Quinmester course "Greek and Roman Mythology" is to help students understand mythological references in literature, art, music, science and technology. The subject matter includes: creation myths; myths of gods and heroes; mythological allusions in astrology, astronomy, literature, science, business, puzzles, and everyday…

  16. The Greek media and the Kosovo crisis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Kondopoulou

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available The NATO air attacks (24/3/99-10/6/99 as an instrument of force against Serbia to terminate the abuse of the Albanian population in Kosovo, albeit supported by a significant part of the international community, were received much differently in Greece. Key to the climate of strong disagreement with the campaign was the role of the Greek media. The true reason behind the offensive was, according to them, the change in the geopolitical map to the advantage of the West, and in particular the USA. The underlying argument of this paper is that in the Kosovo crisis the media, Greek (and international, projected their own environment. It is particularly apt to examine the Greek case because of its very unique perspective that differentiated the coverage in Greece - a NATO member country - from the overall world media view. Also, the discussion is pertinent because Greek media coverage disagreed with the official government position, which although advocating a diplomatic resolution of the crisis, had to support the Alliance's decision to bomb Serbia. Furthermore, study of this case is significant because the clash of the Greek media view with the mainstream pro-NATO coverage found in many other countries generated negative views on Greece and its media on the international level. An examination of media content reveals that despite any differences concerning political or other factors, and regardless of the variations in the phrasing of the anti-NATO arguments, the overall media perspective exhibited a unanimous opposition to the bombing campaign. By placing the emphasis more or less on the same thematic areas as the world media, but by crucially reversing the line of reasoning (e.g. the refugee problem was blamed on the NATO bombing raids and not on Serbian atrocities, the Greek media invariably remained anti-war, anti-NATO and anti-Albanian in many particular cases, and in principle pro-Serb throughout. A study of the general media and the specific

  17. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  18. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage...... and contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  19. Heaven and Earth in Ancient Greek Cosmology From Thales to Heraclides Ponticus

    CERN Document Server

    Couprie, Dirk L

    2011-01-01

    In Miletus, about 550 B.C., together with our world-picture cosmology was born. This book tells the story. In Part One the reader is introduced in the archaic world-picture of a flat earth with the cupola of the celestial vault onto which the celestial bodies are attached. One of the subjects treated in that context is the riddle of the tilted celestial axis. This part also contains an extensive chapter on archaic astronomical instruments. Part Two shows how Anaximander (610-547 B.C.) blew up this archaic world-picture and replaced it by a new one that is essentially still ours. He taught that the celestial bodies orbit at different distances and that the earth floats unsupported in space. This makes him the founding father of cosmology. Part Three discusses topics that completed the new picture described by Anaximander. Special attention is paid to the confrontation between Anaxagoras and Aristotle on the question whether the earth is flat or spherical, and on the battle between Aristotle and Heraclid...

  20. Review of Perseus 2.0: Sources and Studies on Ancient Greek Culture [CD-ROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harrison Eiteljorg, II

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available I have a love-hate relationship with the Perseus Project. Since I first learned about it, when it was still a plan more than a project, I have been impressed by its audacious scope. I have also been very impressed by the far-sightedness of the project directors as they have made certain that the data they store - not necessarily the data they put out on the commercial CDs but the underlying data stored on disc at project headquarters - have been stored in the most sophisticated and neutral formats possible. They have, for instance, used SGML for text and complex databases for other information. They are also storing mapping information in GIS format. On the other hand, I have found myself unimpressed with the CDs produced, both the original one in 1992 and the most recent version, Perseus 2.0, which was released recently. There is much in the new version to admire, much that impresses. Unfortunately, though, there is also much that is worrisome or ineffective or simply not of good quality.

  1. The Influence of Ancient Greek Culture on Macedonian Literature of the 19th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitomir Mitevski

    2015-07-01

    Прличев е добро образован во старогрчкиот јазик и особено добар познавач  на Хомер. Под влијание на хомерската поезија, тој пишува на еден архаизиран грчки јазик епска поема под наслов ‛Ο ’Aρματωλός (во македонски превод Серадот или Мартолозот и со неа победува на поетскиот конкурс во Атина 1860 година. Второто негово епско дело под наслов Σκενδέρμπεης исто така е напишано во духот на хомерската поезија и тоа се гледа главно во областа на стилот (епитети и споредби и во композицијата (обработка на типични епски теми. На преведувачки план, Џинот најавува во печатот превод на трагедијата Антигона од Софокле, дело чија судбина исто така не ни е позната, а Прличев пишува препев на Хомеровата Илијада на еден посебен јазик кој претставува смеса од словенските јазици, а самиот автор го нарекува „општословенски“.

  2. The universe of conics from the ancient Greeks to 21st century developments

    CERN Document Server

    Glaeser, Georg; Odehnal, Boris

    2016-01-01

    This text presents the classical theory of conics in a modern form. It includes many novel results that are not easily accessible elsewhere. The approach combines synthetic and analytic methods to derive projective, affine and metrical properties, covering both Euclidean and non-Euclidean geometries. With more than two thousand years of history, conic sections play a fundamental role in numerous fields of mathematics and physics, with applications to mechanical engineering, architecture, astronomy, design and computer graphics. This text will be invaluable to undergraduate mathematics students, those in adjacent fields of study, and anyone with an interest in classical geometry. Augmented with more than three hundred fifty figures and photographs, this innovative text will enhance your understanding of projective geometry, linear algebra, mechanics, and differential geometry, with careful exposition and many illustrative exercises. Authors Hellmuth Stachel, born 1942, got his PhD and habilitation in geometry ...

  3. Translating ancient Greek aspect: Sappho's Fr. 1 Voigt / Janika Päll

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Päll, Janika, 1965-

    2007-01-01

    Vana-kreeka keele aspektist, selle kasutamisest ja tõlkimisprobleemidest Sappho luuletuse tõlkeid analüüsides. Lisas toodud ka Sappho luuletus originaalkeeles, tõlked ladina, eesti, inglise, saksa, itaalia, prantsuse ja vene keelde

  4. Cambios en el uso de la ostra perlera Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan Changes in the use of the pearl oyster Pinctada mazatlanica (Bivalvia: Pteriidae in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrián Velázquez

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available La concha del bivalvo panámico Pinctada mazatlanica fue ampliamente utilizada por las antiguas sociedades del México prehispánico; en las ofrendas enterradas en el Templo Mayor de Tenochtitlan se han encontrado alrededor de 600 objetos elaborados con ella, la mayor parte de los cuales proceden de la etapa constructiva IV (1440-1481, lo que llama la atención, ya que para entonces los mexicas no habían logrado conquistar emplazamientos en la costa del Pacífico. En los sucesivos agrandamientos arquitectónicos es notable el descenso en los objetos de la referida ostra, lo cual en principio se explicó por la mayor destrucción que éstos habían sufrido; sin embargo, el hallazgo de varios ricos depósitos en el predio conocido como Casa de las Ajaracas, correspondientes al reinado de Moctezuma II (1502-1521, en los que prácticamente se encuentra ausente la Pinctada mazatlanica, da lugar a nuevas interpretaciones. En el presente trabajo se presentan 2 posibles hipótesis para explicar el hecho anterior.The nacreous shell of the tropical Pacific mollusc Pinctada mazatlanica was widely used by the ancient inhabitants of Mexico. Around 600 pieces made of this shell have been found in offerings buried in the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan. Most of these objects come from the IVth construction stage (1440-1481, prior to the conquest of the Pacific Coast by the Aztecs. It was previously thought that the considerably smaller numbers found in the following stages were due to the greater degree of destruction suffered by the temple. Nevertheless, the almost complete absence of this material in nine offerings found recently corresponding to the VIIth construction stage (1502-1521, raise other possibilities. In this work two different hypotheses are presented to explain this observation.

  5. An ancient explanation of presbyopia based on binocular vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbero, Sergio

    2014-06-01

    Presbyopia, understood as the age-related loss of ability to clearly see near objects, was known to ancient Greeks. However, few references to it can be found in ancient manuscripts. A relevant discussion on presbyopia appears in a book called Symposiacs written by Lucius Mestrius Plutarchus around 100 A.C. In this work, Plutarch provided four explanations of presbyopia, associated with different theories of vision. One of the explanations is particularly interesting as it is based on a binocular theory of vision. In this theory, vision is produced when visual rays, emanating from the eyes, form visual cones that impinge on the objects to be seen. Visual rays coming from old people's eyes, it was supposed, are weaker than those from younger people's eyes; so the theory, to be logically coherent, implies that this effect is compensated by the increase in light intensity due to the overlapping, at a certain distance, of the visual cones coming from both eyes. Thus, it benefits the reader to move the reading text further away from the eyes in order to increase the fusion area of both visual cones. The historical hypothesis taking into consideration that the astronomer Hipparchus of Nicaea was the source of Plutarch's explanation of the theory is discussed. © 2013 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Reasons for relativism: Feyerabend on the 'Rise of Rationalism' in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heit, Helmut

    2016-06-01

    This paper argues that essential features of Feyerabend's philosophy, namely his radicalization of critical rationalism and his turn to relativism, could be understood better in the light of his engagement with early Greek thought. In contrast to his earlier, Popperian views he came to see the Homeric worldview as a genuine alternative, which was not falsified by the Presocratics. Unlike socio-psychological and externalist accounts my reading of his published and unpublished material suggests that his alternative reconstruction of the ancient beginnings of the Western scientific tradition motivate and justify his moderate Protagorean relativism. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Advanced Hygrothermal Performance of Building Component at Reconstruction of S. Radonezhskiy Temple in Volgograd

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents new thermal design of external wall S. Radonezhskiy temple in Volgograd is developed according to author’s concept. The three-layer brick wall, including a thermal insulation layer from concrete with polystyrene aggregates, is considered. Calculation of interstitial condensation in building component is carried out according to simplified calculation method developed by the author and harmonized to ISO 13788. Analysis of calculation results shows that condensation occurs at one interface during some months but there is no accumulation over the year as all the condensate is predicted to evaporate again. Thus, there is no systematic moisture accumulation at the building component within a year. The risk of run-off from non-absorbent materials will be very low. Analysis of the evaporation rates at the interface shows that duration of drying wetted layer in external wall during initial stage does not exceed admissible values.

  8. Pura Besakih. Temple, Religion and Society in Bali, David J. Stuart-Fox

    OpenAIRE

    Guermonprez, Jean-François

    2013-01-01

    Cet ouvrage est la thèse de doctorat soutenue en 1987 par l’un des meilleurs connaisseurs de Bali, David Stuart-Fox, à l’issue d’un très long séjour dans l’île où il aimait vivre, sans songer à engager une carrière universitaire qui ne l’attirait guère. Son objet d’étude, à peine effleuré par les auteurs orientalistes de la période coloniale, est le plus grand temple de l’île, Pura Besakih, à vrai dire un complexe de quatre-vingt-six sanctuaires situés sur les flancs du plus haut volcan de l’...

  9. The Evolution of the Golden Temple of Amritsar into a Major Sikh Pilgrimage Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajinder S. Jutla

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Today the Sikh diaspora encompasses much of the world, having spread from India and Southeast Asia to the Pacific Rim, the Middle East, East Africa, Europe, and the Americas. Sikhism is a monotheistic world religion founded in the 15th century by Guru Nanak. His successors continued his teachings and provided a distinct shape to the Sikh community with a written language, a religious scripture and many institutions. The paper examines the significance of sacred place and the role of pilgrimage according to Sikh scripture. It also explores Sikh attitudes and practices towards pilgrimage through a questionnaire based survey. Finally, the paper investigates how the Golden Temple of Amritsar emerged as a sacred place for Sikhs and how it evolved into a major place of pilgrimage.

  10. Pollution effects on stone benches of the Eagle Warriors Precinct at the Major Temple, Mexico City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, J.; Gallardo, M.L.; Grimaldi, D.M.; Roman-Berrelleza, J.A.; Ruvalcaba-Sil, J.L.; Ontalba Salamanca, M.A.; Morales, J.G.

    1999-01-01

    During Major Temple archaeological site excavations in Downtown Mexico City, the precinct of one of the most important Mexica military caste, the Eagle Warriors, was discovered. The ceremonial enclosure is composed of three rooms surrounded by paintings on 11 stone benches placed against the walls. Nowadays, these paintings and the stones present the effects of different deterioration processes produced by the underground water level, high humidity, and the presence of soil, water, and air pollutants. Ion beam analysis of samples from the benches and wall paintings was performed using PIXE and RBS techniques. Using enrichment factors of elements relative to iron concentrations, possible contamination by sulfur and chlorine salts was found, as well as airborne zinc scavenged by rain

  11. Le temple-mémorial de Château-Thierry : approche monographique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Magnien

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Le temple-mémorial de Château-Thierry, inauguré en 1924 est réalisé par deux architectes : Paul-Philippe Cret et Achille-Henri Chauquet, L’édifice est décoré d’un vitrail-tableau intitulé La Fayette nous voilà ! représentant La Fayette accueillant le général Pershing et de verrières ornées de scènes tirées des Paraboles de l’artiste suisse Eugène Burnand par son fils David Burnand. La chaire et le mobilier ont été offerts par des paroisses américaines en souvenir des soldats tombés au front. Par son architecture, son mobilier et les circonstances de la commande, le temple de Château-Thierry méritait une étude.The American memorial church of Château-Thierry, dedicated in 1924 has been built by two architects, Paul-Philippe Cret and Achille-Henri Chauquet. The church is adorned by a stained glass church window showing La Fayette welcoming Pershing and by some others stained glasses representing parables by David Burnand from sketches of his father Eugène Burnand. American churches supplied the pulpit and other furniture to adorn the building in memory of the soldiers died in the battle front. By its architecture, its furniture and the circumstances of its edification, the memorial church of Château-Thierry deserves a study

  12. Planning Of Drainage Channel Dimension In The Core Zone Of Muara Takus Temple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Alfian

    2017-12-01

    Preservation of Cultural Heritage is a dynamic effort to maintain the existence of cultural heritage by protecting, developing, and utilizing the cultural heritage in the contemporary context. To protect the cultural heritage in term of conservation called protection of which the effort to prevent and overcome from damage, it needs to do destruction or obliteration through rescue, security, zoning, maintenance, and restoration of cultural heritage. The most fundamental issue is the hydrological impact of the existence of Hydroelectric Power Koto Panjang located around Muara Takus temple that could threaten the sustainability of the region. In this case, hydroelectric dam frequently causes Kampar Kanan River overflowed thus potentially floods, especially in the rainy season that could eventually submerges Muara Takus area. The total area of the region Muara Takus enshrinement is ± 94.5 hectares that are divided into two main parts. Those are the terrestrial land of ± 56.44 m², and PLTA Koto Panjang lake of ± 38.06 m². Consequently, it is necessary for drainage planning of economical dimension in the core zone of Muara Takus temple. Furthermore, from the data of the maximum rainfall of 101 mm/day obtained a discharge of rainfall of 0.38 m3/second so that this discharge of rainfall can be designed drainage channel dimension to accommodate the discharge of rainfall. From the analysis of dimension designed drainage is the size of 30 cm x 45 cm. this dimension can accommodate the discharge rainfall that is equal to 0.43 m3 / second. Regarding the finding, it can be concluded that the discharge of rainfall that occurred less than discharge calculation of dimensional analysis of drainage channel so that the size of this dimension can accommodate discharge rainfall occurs.

  13. Occupational medicine in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziskind, Bernard; Halioua, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    Only the remarkable organisation of Egyptian society, based on an economy of redistribution and allocation of tasks, enabled the erection of the pyramids and the construction of the great temples. Medicine naturally found its place in this organisation as illness was part of the afflictions the pharaoh had to fight against. This particular task was delegated to doctors. The organisation of a medical group could be witnessed on the banks of the Nile almost 5000 years ago and Hesy-Re "the greatest of doctors" (1750 BC), doctor to pharaoh Djoser, is one of the oldest known to mankind. Some doctors were assigned by Egyptian administration to deal with the health problems of communities of workers carrying out the same duties. We consider these doctors to be the pioneers of medicine in the workplace.

  14. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  15. Literary evidence for taro in the ancient Mediterranean: A chronology of names and uses in a multilingual world

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthukumaran, Sureshkumar; Tozzi, Giulia; Nastasi, Antonino; Boivin, Nicole

    2018-01-01

    Taro, Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott, is a vegetable and starchy root crop cultivated in Asia, Oceania, the Americas, Africa, and the Mediterranean. Very little is known about its early history in the Mediterranean, which previous authors have sought to trace through Classical (Greek and Latin) texts that record the name colocasia (including cognates) from the 3rd century BC onwards. In ancient literature, however, this name also refers to the sacred lotus, Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. and its edible rhizome. Like taro, lotus is an alien introduction to the Mediterranean, and there has been considerable confusion regarding the true identity of plants referred to as colocasia in ancient literature. Another early name used to indicate taro was arum, a name already attested from the 4th century BC. Today, this name refers to Arum, an aroid genus native to West Asia, Europe, and the Mediterranean. Our aim is to explore historical references to taro in order to clarify when and through which routes this plant reached the Mediterranean. To investigate Greek and Latin texts, we performed a search using the Thesaurus Linguae Graecae (TLG) and the Thesaurus Linguae Latinae (TLL), plus commentaries and English and French translations of original texts. Results show that while in the early Greek and Latin literature the name kolokasia (Greek κολοκάσια) and its Latin equivalent colocasia refer to Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn., after the 4th century AD a poorly understood linguistic shift occurs, and colocasia becomes the name for taro. We also found that aron (Greek ἄρον) and its Latin equivalent arum are names used to indicate taro from the 3rd century BC and possibly earlier. PMID:29870533

  16. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  17. Abandonment of terminally ill patients in the Byzantine era. An ancient tradition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaratos, J; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E; Marketos, S

    1999-06-01

    Our research on the texts of the Byzantine historians and chroniclers revealed an apparently curious phenomenon, namely, the abandonment of terminally ill emperors by their physicians when the latter realised that they could not offer any further treatment. This attitude tallies with the mentality of the ancient Greek physicians, who even in Hippocratic times thought the treatment and care of the terminally ill to be a challenge to nature and hubris to the gods. Nevertheless, it is a very curious attitude in the light of the concepts of the Christian Byzantine physicians who, according to the doctrines of the Christian religion, should have been imbued with the spirit of philanthropy and love for their fellowmen. The meticulous analysis of three examples of abandonment of Byzantine emperors, and especially that of Alexius I Comnenus, by their physicians reveals that this custom, following ancient pagan ethics, in those times took on a ritualised form without any significant or real content.

  18. Beyond the East-West Dilemma: Rethinking Greekness Through Diffracted Gazes in Contemporary Greek Travelogues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peggy Karpouzou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Travel writing has been viewed as one of the main sources of national typologies and is often held responsible for the consolidation of stereotypes about otherness and for the promotion of an imperialist agenda. This paper aims to investigate conceptions of Greekness in contemporary Greek travelogues which involve a rethinking of stereotypical national representations. The analysis proceeds by proposing the method of “questioning home” in travelogues through diffracted gazes towards the traveller’s homeland as a result of his encounter with otherness. In the second part, Greekness is explored beyond the nation-state approach and the long-held national stereotype of the “Greek particularism”, Greece’s isolation because of the country’s unresolved tension between East and West. A. Vistonitis’ and M. Kassolas’s travelogues reporting their travels to the East (China and to the West (USA respectively at the end of the 20th century are examined as case-studies. Through narrators’ dialogues with their hosts and the raising of relevant political and geopolitical issues, “transnational” conceptions of Greek identity are explored: the notions of “diaspora”, “cosmopolitan citizenship”, “openness” and “connectivity” challenge the national narration based on “purity” and “exclusion”, and facilitate the investigation of potential roles for Greece in the globalized world of the early 21st century.

  19. IMAGES OF THE KIZHI TEMPLES IN RUSSIAN LITERATURE OF THE 20TH CENTURY (ON THE OCCASION OF TERCENTENARY OF THE CHURCH OF TRANSFIGURATION)

    OpenAIRE

    Natal'ya Leonidovna Shilova

    2014-01-01

    An image of the temple (the church) oft en appears in the Kizhi plots of Russian Literature. Th e artilce describes its artistic implementation, semantics and its main literary characteristics. Th e study is based on the texts of N. Klyuyev, K. Paustovsky, A. Voznesensky, R. Rozhdestvensky, V. Pul'kin, I. Strelkova and others. On the one hand, the image of the temple fi nds its justifi cation in the peculiarities of real Kizhi landscape where the silhouette of the temple ensemble ...

  20. [Population policy: the legacy of Greek thought].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgegren Reategui, F

    1994-01-01

    The author "explains that the Greek philosophy and scientific thought developed elements of what is known today as population policies. These include roles and gender relationships, the population volume, the family, sexuality, birth control, eugenics, abortion and [quality of life]....The first part of the article reviews issues on family and women's roles. The second part is related to aspects associated with sexuality and...population policy." (SUMMARY IN ENG) excerpt

  1. Chimeric creatures in Greek mythology and reflections in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazopoulou-Kyrkanidou, E

    2001-04-15

    "The Chimaera" in Homer's Iliad, "was of divine stock, not of men, in the forepart a lion, in the hinder a serpent, and in the midst a goat, ellipsis Bellerophon slew her, trusting in the signs of the gods." In Hesiod's Theogony it is emphasized that "Chimaera ellipsis had three heads, one of a grim-eyed lion, another of a goat, and another of a snakeellipsis". In addition to this interspecies animal chimera, human/animal chimeras are referred to in Greek mythology, preeminent among them the Centaurs and the Minotaur. The Centaurs, as horse/men, first appear in Geometric and early Archaic art, but in the literature not until early in the fifth century B.C. The bullheaded-man Minotaur, who is not certainly attested in the literary evidence until circa 500 B.C., first appears in art about 650 B.C. Attempts, in the fourth century B.C. and thereafter, to rationalize their mythical appearance were in vain; their chimeric nature retained its fascinating and archetypal form over the centuries. Early in the 1980s, experimental sheep/goat chimeras were produced removing the reproductive barrier between these two animal species. Late in the 1990s, legal, political, ethical, and moral fights loomed over a patent bid on human/animal chimeras. Chimeric technology is recently developed; however, the concept of chimerism has existed in literary and artistic form in ancient mythology. This is yet another example where art and literature precede scientific research and development. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss. Inc.

  2. [The cult of Asklepios and the doctors in Greek epigraphical evidence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nissen, Cécile

    2007-01-01

    Greek inscriptions afford several examples of the relationship between Asklepios, the god of medicine, and human doctors in Graeco-Roman Antiquity. Many dedications of steles, statues, altars and even sanctuaries were consecrated to Asklepios by physicians. Other physicians have undertaken the offices of zacorate or priesthood in the worship of Asklepios. In some cities, notably at Athens and Ephesos, the doctors sacrificed collectively to the physician-god. The aim of this paper is to explain these cult relations between Asklepios and the doctors. After the Asklepiads, doctors at Kos and Knidos, who were believed to be the descendants of Asklepios, all the ancient doctors were connected with Asklepios by their techne; the physician-god was the divine patron of the physicians. Furthermore although the doctors rejected the divine origin of the diseases, they acknowledged the healing power of the gods, especially Asklepios, and could seek his help.

  3. Through the Lens of Sigfried Giedion. Exploring Modernism and the Greek Vernacular in Situ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kousidi, Matina

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on Sigfried Giedion's initial visit to Greece, in the scope of CIAM IV, this study explores his approach to the myth of the Mediterranean as a germ of Western modernist architecture. Through a closer look at Giedion's photographic and literary lenses, it mainly considers his appreciation of early manifestations of modernity in the extended area of Athens, namely the Villa Fakidis (1932-1933 and Kalisperi Primary School (1931. Their apposition to the ancient and vernacular Greek architecture generates a dynamic discourse between areas and eras, while serving as a pivotal catalyst for the discussion of contextualization, immutability and identity – areas that are also comprised by the Modern Movement. This article thus discusses Giedion's reflection on a reciprocal relationship between Greece and the Western world, at a time when the former was striving to define its architectural identity.

  4. Devastating epidemics in recent ages Greek populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotsiou, Antonia; Michalaki, Vasiliki; Anagnostopoulou, Helen N

    2017-12-01

    In the recent Greek ages the most devastating epidemics were plague, smallpox, leprosy and cholera. In 1816 plague struck the Ionian and Aegean Islands, mainland Greece, Constantinople and Smyrna. The Venetians ruling the Ionian Islands effectively combated plague in contrast to the Ottomans ruling all other regions. In 1922, plague appeared in Patras refugees who were expelled by the Turks from Smyrna and Asia Minor. Inoculation against smallpox was first performed in Thessaly by the Greek women, and the Greek doctors Emmanouel Timonis (1713, Oxford) and Jakovos Pylarinos (1715, Venice) made relevant scientific publications. The first leper colony opened in Chios Island. In Crete, Spinalonga was transformed into a leper island, which following the Independence War against Turkish occupation and the unification of Crete with Greece in 1913, was classified as an International Leper Hospital. Cholera struck Greece in 1853-1854 brought by the French troops during the Crimean War, and again during the Balkan Wars (1912-13) when the Bulgarian troops brought cholera to northern Greece. Due to successive wars, medical assistance was not always available, so desperate people turned many times to religion through processions in honor of local saints, for their salvation in epidemics.

  5. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linardakis Manolis K

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. Methods A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents, and interviewed during the 2004–2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. Results 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers. Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p Conclusion Smoking prevalence is high even among parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  6. Smoking habits of Greek preschool children's parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardavas, Constantine I; Athanasopoulos, Dimitrios; Balomenaki, Evaggelia; Niaounaki, Dora; Linardakis, Manolis K; Kafatos, Anthony G

    2007-06-14

    Smoking is Greece's largest public health threat. Greece has the highest adult smoking prevalence among all E.U countries, which in turn possibly predisposes Greek children and adolescents to smoke. The purpose of our study was to research into the smoking habits of preschool children's parents since children of that age could be vulnerable to parental negative role modeling and to investigate into the necessity of conducting a public health awareness programme aimed at the general population. A cross-sectional study was performed on the parents of children enrolled in kindergarten in western Crete-Greece (2809 parents), and interviewed during the 2004-2005 Cretan school health promotion programme. 63% of households had at least one parent a current smoker and in 26% both parents were found to be current smokers. Smoking prevalence among adults with preschool children was estimated at 44% (52% of fathers and 36% of mothers). Paternal education and nationality were statistically significantly related to smoking (p parents with preschool children. Taking into account the parents' significant primary role in the children's upbringing and the effect that parental induced passive smoking has on children's health and health attitude; one can deduce that the health of Greek children is under threat. It is of major importance that educational and policy intervention measures are implemented to reduce such a situation that could contribute to promoting the initiation of smoking among Greek adolescents.

  7. Origins of the historiography of modern Greek science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patiniotis, Manolis

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to examine how Greek historians account for the presence of modern scientific ideas in the intellectual environment of eighteenth-century Greek-speaking society. It will also discuss the function of the history of modern Greek science in the context of Greek national historiography. As will be shown, the history of modem Greek science spent most of its life under the shadow of the history of ideas. Despite its seemingly secondary role, however, it occupied a distinctive place within national historiography because it formed the ground upon which different perceptions of the country's European identity converged. In this respect, one of the main goals of this paper is to outline the particular ideological presumptions, which shaped the historiography of modern Greek science under different historical circumstances. At the end an attempt will be made to articulate a viewpoint more in tandem with the recent methodological developments in the history of science.

  8. Marine research in Greece and the additional Greek marine research centres: Progress and present situation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritonidis, S.

    1995-03-01

    Greece, as is known, has a coastline of 17 000 km, and over 2000 small and large islands. As expected, the quest of humankind for new sources of matter and energy has been focussed on the sea, with fishery being its primary interest. A number of philosophers and scientists have been involved in the study of this vast ecosystem since ancient times (Aristotle). The political, social and geographical upheavals witnessed in the Greek area, have, however resulted in bringing all these activities to a halt. The first contemporary research work commenced at the end of the 18th century/beginning of the 19th — with marine flora and fauna as its starting point. The first investigations had, of course, been limited to random collections of marine material done in the frame of international exploratory expeditions. Studies became more systematic by the end of the 19th and beginning of the 20th century, with priority being given to the animal kingdom (fish, molluscs, etc.). Investigation of the marine phytobenthos (macrophyceae, phytoplankton) was to follow. The past 40 years research has been more extensive, not limited only to biogeographical evaluations, but also having expanded to physiological and ecological levels. The relevant institutes of Greek universities have all the while watched and contributed to this effort. Today, this kind of research is being supported by the N.M.R.C., the Center of Marine Research, University of Crete, and two research boats which sail the Greek seas. In the ever-changing world, the study of marine flora and fauna has certainly made great progress; however, there are still two big problems to be faced. The first deals with increasing pollution of the seas, the second, with the difficulties in finding and affording adequate financial resources that would enable a more detailed and complete execution of this research work.

  9. GREEK «ΦΥΣΙΣ» AS THE BASIS OF GENDER STEREOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Storozhuk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Considering the fact that the concept «by nature» formed the basis of diametrically different approaches to the interpretation of the place and role of women not only in Greek society, but determined the gender relations up to this time, the article examines the features of the interpretation of the term «nature» («φύσις» in Greek outlook and the impact of natural-philosophical ideas on the evolution of gender relations of Ancient period. Methodology of the study is caused by interdisciplinary approach, involving not only the use of scientific methods such as analysis, synthesis and generalization and so on. Basic principles of philosophical hermeneutics, hypothetical-deductive method and contextual analysis are used at the same time. Originality lies in the denial of existing idea in contemporary intellectual discourse that the concept «by nature» is a conceptual prerequisite for ensuring gender inequality. Against this background, it is shown that gender equality and inequalities are both caused by the dominant in the public worldview meta-narrative paradigm and specific features of interpretation of the concept «by nature» (or «nature». So when nature is seen in physiological or empirical sense, it establishes a pattern of gender inequality. The same can occur in cases of dogmatization and mythologizing of empiricism, which appears on the ideological level as a meta-narrative. However, when the concept of «nature» acquires metaphysical meaning and is viewed as a kind of potentiality that is actualized in the presence of favorable conditions prerequisites of gender equality are emerging. Conclusions. Having considered the proposed by Greek philosophy approaches to gender interaction as a kind of stereotypes, we conclude that the development of gender relations in individual historical terms was caused by the specificity of the dominant narrative of life and world order.

  10. Parental characteristics of Jews and Greeks in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, G; Lipscombe, P

    1979-09-01

    A controlled study was conducted in Sydney to assess the reported characteristics of Jewish and Greek parents. Using a measure of fundamental parental characteristics the 81 Jewish subjects differed from controls only in scoring their mothers as less caring. The 125 Greek subjects scored both parents as more overprotective; further investigation revealed that the Greek parents were overprotective of their daughters only. Findings in the latter study suggest that overprotection by Greek parents may be influenced slightly by the age of the child when migrating, and that such a cultural pattern is resistant to acculturation effects.

  11. An annotated checklist of the Greek Stonefly Fauna (Insecta: Plecoptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaouzas, Ioannis; Andriopoulou, Argyro; Kouvarda, Theodora; Murányi, Dávid

    2016-05-17

    An overview of the Greek stonefly (Plecoptera) fauna is presented as an annotated index of all available published records. These records have resulted in an updated species list reflecting current taxonomy and species distributions of the Greek peninsula and islands. Currently, a total of 71 species and seven subspecies belonging to seven families and 19 genera are reported from Greece. There is high species endemicity of the Leuctridae and Nemouridae, particularly on the Greek islands. The endemics known from Greece comprise thirty species representing 42% of the Greek stonefly fauna. The remaining taxa are typical Balkan and Mediterranean species.

  12. Greek (Hesychian κόρος ‘great number of men’ and related words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elwira Kaczyńska

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper one Hesychian gloss is discussed from the historical-comparative point of view. It is suggested that the Ancient Greek appellative κόρος denoting ‘great number of men’ (πλῆθος ὰνθρώπων represents an archaic term (IE. *kóros ‘army, crowd; the people under arms’, which is attested also at the eastern periphery (especially in Iranian and Baltic and the western one (in Lusitanian, cf. Lusit. PN Coro-cuta, Coro-poti, Corobulti and so on. A variant Indo-European form *koryos appears as an appellative in Celtic, Germanic and Baltic, also as a first or second part of the ethnic and personal names (e.g. in Boeotian Greek, Celtic and Germanic. A primitive derivative *koryanos ‘army leader’ is firmly attested in Greek (see Gk. κοίρανος m. ‘ruler, leader, commander (in war or peace’, generally ‘lord, master’, also ‘king’ in the Boeotian dialect, North Germanic (cf. Odin’s by-name Herjann and perhaps in Lusitanian (see Lusit. PN Coriana.

  13. VЪZGLAVLENIJE or VЪZGRAŽDENIJE? On the Slavonic Translation of the Greek Word Ἀνακεφαλαίωσις

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita I. Chernysheva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this article the author examines the meaning of the Church Slavonic words vъzglavlenije (literally ‘heading’ and vъzgraždenije (literally ‘erecting’ that occur in the Great Menaion Reader compiled in the 16th century under the supervision of St. Macarius, metropolitan of Moscow. These words have been used to translate the Greek term ἀνακεφαλαίωσις ‘recapitulation’ in Constantinopolitan Patriarch Tarasios’ Homily on the Entrance of the Theotokos into the Temple. The first Slavonic word is a specific derivational and semantic calque. The second one seems to be more correct as the exact semantic equivalent for the Greek word. Comparative analysis of derivative relationships of the Church Slavonic words and their comparison with Greek data as well as the treatment of some unique and rare passages, including those of a theological character, make it possible to establish previously uncovered lexical meaning of the words vъzglavlenije and vъzgraždenije ‘implementation.’ The problem of theological commentary in historical dictionaries of a general character is also covered in this article.

  14. From Ottoman colonial rule to nation statehood: Schooling and national identity in the early Greek school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore G. Zervas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available After Ottoman colonial rule, education in Greece became an important institution for the ideological construction of a Greek national identity. This paper looks at schooling in Greece just prior to the Greek Revolution and immediately after Greek Independence, and how the Greek national school system assisted in the construction of a Greek national identity. This paper is divided into several sections. The introductory section discusses how a newly independent Greek nation-state struggled to unite the Greek people under a collective national identity. While most people at the time identified with their families, communities, and Greek Orthodox Christian religion, after Greek independence people began to see themselves as members of a broader Greek nation. The section that follows provides a discussion of Greek education during Ottoman colonial rule, and how a type of Greek identity (centered around the Greek Orthodox Christian faith was maintained through the Greek Orthodox mileu. The Greek Church ran schools, and taught Greek children how to read and write, as well as the virtues of the Orthodox Christian faith. Section three of the article looks at Greek education during the early years of the Greek nation-state. In this section the general contours of the Greek educational system are delineated. The section also discusses how the organization of the Greek national school system was borrowed from extant school models found in Western Europe. Section four describes the Greek national curriculum and how the national curriculum would help to teach future generations of Greek citizens what it meant to be Greek. This is further reinforced in the Greek school textbook, which is part of the discussion in section five. Section five concludes with the role of education and its implications in uniting nations from around the world.

  15. Bodies that differ: mid- and upper-class women and the quest for "Greekness" in female bodily culture (1896-1940).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournaraki, Eleni

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses different expressions of mid- and upper-class Greek women's use of classical antiquity in relation to female bodily culture. It focuses on two cases, connected with successive phases of the collective women's action in Greece. The first case concerns principally the conjuncture of the Athens Olympic Games of 1896. The games offered the opportunity to the Ladies' Journal, the weekly that gave expression to the first feminist group in Greece and its leading figure, C. Parren, to put forward a discourse which, by constructing a specific image of the ancient Heraia games for 'maidens', 'invents' a specific athletic-competitive 'tradition' on behalf of Greek women of their social class. The second case rejoins the same circle of women principally in the interwar years as leading figures of the Lyceum of Greek Women, the organization which distinguished itself by juxtaposing to the newly formed militant feminist organizations its 'hellenic-worthy' activity, by organizing monumental festivals in the Panathenaic Stadium, which, through displays of 'national' dances - folk and 'ancient' dances - and other ritual events, performed the 'tradition' of the nation from prehistory until today.

  16. Digital Preservation of Ancient Maya Cave Architecture: Recent Field Efforts in Quintana Roo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissolo, D.; Lo, E.; Hess, M. R.; Meyer, D. E.; Amador, F. E.

    2017-08-01

    The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico) is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized - often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  17. DIGITAL PRESERVATION OF ANCIENT MAYA CAVE ARCHITECTURE: RECENT FIELD EFFORTS IN QUINTANA ROO, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Rissolo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The presence of ancient Maya shrines in caves serves as unequivocal evidence for the ritual appropriation of these subterranean spaces and their significance with respect to Maya religious practice. Detailed study of the miniature masonry temples and altar features in the caves of Quintana Roo, Mexico reveals a strong stylistic and likely functional correspondence between these structures and their terrestrial counterparts at Postclassic sites. The Proyecto Arquitectura Subterranea de Quintana Roo (coordinated by the Center of Interdisciplinary Science for Art, Architecture, and Archaeology, or CISA3, at the University of California, San Diego and in collaboration with the Instituto Nacional de Antropologia e Historia in Mexico is conducting a survey and program of digital documentation of both the pristine and impacted cave shrines of the region. Once an area is developed and populated, and access is opened to caves containing ancient architectural features, they are soon vandalized – often resulting in the complete obliteration of these rare miniature buildings and their diagnostic architectural elements. This emergent situation necessitates the use of rapid reality-capture tools; however, the physical challenges of working in caves requires researchers of adapt increasingly common architectural documentation methodologies to more adverse field conditions.

  18. An enigmatic graffito from the sun temple of Nyuserre and the meaning of the so-called “slaughterhouse”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Nuzzolo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available For a long time the presence of a “slaughterhouse” in the sun temple of Nyuserre has been taken for granted as the result of the investigation conducted by Ludwig Borchardt in Abu Ghurab in 1898–1901. However, several pieces of archaeological and textual evidence, including the documents from the Abusir papyri, which are contemporary with the sun temples, challenge this reconstruction. An important element in this discussion may probably come from the correct reading and interpretation of a hieratic inscription found inside the so-called “slaughterhouse” and later on completely forgotten. To this inscription, and the important institutions mentioned therein, we shall pay attention in this article.

  19. Application of 3D laser scanning technology in historical building preservation: a case study of a Chinese temple

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu Min; Lu, Nien Hua; Wu, Tsung Chiang

    2005-06-01

    This study applies 3D Laser scanning technology to develop a high-precision measuring system for digital survey of historical building. It outperformed other methods in obtaining abundant high-precision measuring points and computing data instantly. In this study, the Pei-tien Temple, a Chinese Taoism temple in southern Taiwan famous for its highly intricate architecture and more than 300-year history, was adopted as the target to proof the high accuracy and efficiency of this system. By using French made MENSI GS-100 Laser Scanner, numerous measuring points were precisely plotted to present the plane map, vertical map and 3D map of the property. Accuracies of 0.1-1 mm in the digital data have consistently been achieved for the historical heritage measurement.

  20. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ber system prevalent during the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. In this article, we study the ... civilization provides a better insight into the thought processes of the ancient Babylonian mathematicians. In this context, consider the following ...

  1. Informal Learning in Late-Nineteenth and Early-Twentieth-Century Greece: Greek Children's Literature in Historical and Political Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zervas, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    After Greek independence from the Ottoman Empire (1827), a newly formed Greek state looked to retrieve its past through the teaching of a Greek national history. For much of the nineteenth century Greek schools forged common religious, linguistic, and historical ties among the Greek people through the teaching of a Greek historical past (Zervas…

  2. Ancient woodland boundaries in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ancient woodland * historical ecology * landscape archaeology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2010

  3. Ancient Biomolecules and Evolutionary Inference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappellini, Enrico; Prohaska, Ana; Racimo, Fernando; Welker, Frido; Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Allentoft, Morten E; de Barros Damgaard, Peter; Gutenbrunner, Petra; Dunne, Julie; Hammann, Simon; Roffet-Salque, Mélanie; Ilardo, Melissa; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Wang, Yucheng; Sikora, Martin; Vinner, Lasse; Cox, Jürgen; Evershed, Richard P; Willerslev, Eske

    2018-04-25

    Over the last decade, studies of ancient biomolecules-particularly ancient DNA, proteins, and lipids-have revolutionized our understanding of evolutionary history. Though initially fraught with many challenges, the field now stands on firm foundations. Researchers now successfully retrieve nucleotide and amino acid sequences, as well as lipid signatures, from progressively older samples, originating from geographic areas and depositional environments that, until recently, were regarded as hostile to long-term preservation of biomolecules. Sampling frequencies and the spatial and temporal scope of studies have also increased markedly, and with them the size and quality of the data sets generated. This progress has been made possible by continuous technical innovations in analytical methods, enhanced criteria for the selection of ancient samples, integrated experimental methods, and advanced computational approaches. Here, we discuss the history and current state of ancient biomolecule research, its applications to evolutionary inference, and future directions for this young and exciting field. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biochemistry Volume 87 is June 20, 2018. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

  4. Sri Dalada Maligawa - 3D-Scanning and Documentation of the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic at Kandy, Sri Lanka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahrig, M.; Luib, A.

    2017-08-01

    Sri Dalada Maligawa - the Temple of the Sacred Tooth Relic - is one of the most important pilgrim sites in Buddhist culture. It is the main part of the UNESCO World Heritage Site Sacred City of Kandy. Since the end of the 17th century the temple has been keeping the sacred tooth of the Buddha. Until now an accurate documentation of the temple with all its rich decorations is missing. The Temple is built in an area vulnerable to environmental factors like earthquakes or monsoon rains and was the target of terrorist attacks. To help preserving this important cultural heritage a research project was carried out. Main part of the project was a 3D-documentation of the entire temple by using Terrestrial-Laser-Scanning (TLS) and the creating of CAD-Plans. In addition to the documentation of the architecture several details were taken in high resolution by Structured-Light-Scanning (SLS). All data will be part of the digital archive of the temple and were used as a base for a general site monitoring, especially to observe cracks. Next to the mere documentation a transfer of knowledge was another aim of the project. In future most of the analysis of the scan data can be done by local specialists.

  5. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  6. Ancient Persian Skywatching and Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sołtysiak, Arkadiusz

    The peoples of Iran used lunisolar calendars until the early fifth century BCE when the 365-day calendar with 30 months and 5 epagomenal days was introduced. This calendar was not corrected to the actual length of the tropical year, and therefore, seasonal festivals gradually moved away from their seasons. Finally, around the turn of the fifth century CE, a partially successful calendar reform was undertaken, and the feasts were restored to their original seasons. In that time, Sasanian kings were interested in astrology, and some Greek and Hindu astrological texts were translated into Persian, but there is no evidence of indigenous contributions to skywatching.

  7. Book of Greek Myths. A Yearling Special.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Aulaire, Ingri; d'Aulaire, Edgar Parin

    This oversized, illustrated book discusses the gods, goddesses, and legendary figures of ancient Greece in a relaxed and humorous tone to entertain, enlighten, and educate young people. The first section of the book discusses the "olden times," Gaea, and the Titans. The second section tells the story of Zeus and his family, with sections…

  8. The Greek Key: Getting Acquainted in Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augeri, Hunter; Efstathiou, Eirene; Michou, Maria; Sanders, Jan Motyka

    2011-01-01

    Greece conjures up images of idyllic island landscapes, turquoise seas and venerable mythic deeds set among majestic monuments. These notions are, moreover, often associated with a history, religious culture and language that are ancient. Tourist posters and national sentiment aside, today the Hellenic Republic is a country that is as much…

  9. Geoarchaeology of Ancient Avlida (Boeotia, Central Greece): a long-term connectivity between human occupation and landscape changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghilardi, M.; Colleu, M.; Fachard, S.; Psomiadis, D.; Demory, F.; Delanghe-Sabatier, D.; Triantaphyllou, M.; Pavlopoulos, K.; Bicket, A.

    2012-04-01

    This paper aims to study the reationships between the human occupation of Ancient Avlida and the landscape configuration for the last thousands years around the site. The geoarchaeological study presented here focus first on the careful scrutiny of the literary sources from Ancient authors such as Strabo and Pausanias who both mention the presence of archaeological remains. The site has been well known for the presence of the Artemis temple and is considered as the starting point of the Achaean ships during the Trojan war. More recently, archaeological researches have been conducted during the 1950's and the 1960's and excavations have been undertaken. However, the landscape configuration was not investigated during archaeological surveys and this paper aims to reconstruct the palaeoenvironmental evolution of the ancient bay, gradually silted up along the recent Holocene to create the modern actual lowlands. Two cores, down to a maximum depth of 4.40m and accurately levelled, were studied together for mollusc and microfauna (ostracods and forams) identifications, laser grain size analyses and magnetic susceptibility measurements in order to reveal the facies evolution of the area. In addition, 6 radiocarbon dating (A.M.S. method) helped to obtain a chronostratigraphy sequence. Finally, our results show that the area was an open marine bay from circa 5000 cal. B.C. to the beginning Byzantine period (5th to 6th century A.D.) and during the Trojan war, this site could have hosted eventual military boats in a calm marine environment of deposition.

  10. Management of floral waste generated from temples of Jaipur city through vermicomposting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka Tiwari

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at management of floral waste generated from temples of Jaipur city through vermicomposting. In this study, flower waste consisted of variety of flowers out of which marigold was chosen as it was found in maximum amount. The vermibeds were prepared by mixing the marigold with cow dung in different proportions viz., 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10 and they were filled in the earthen pots, individually. Simultaneously, a control (without worms for each of these concentrations was prepared and maintained. Eisenia foetida was introduced into each of these trays except the control. The bioconversion ratio i.e., waste into vermicompost was found to be high in 60:40 proportion than the others. Vermicompost obtained was analysed for various parameters like organic carbon, total nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium and magnesium. The amount of organic carbon, potassium and phosphorus was more in vermicompost samples for all the groups as compared to compost samples. It was concluded that floral waste with cow dung at 50:50, 60:40 and 70:30 ratios could be converted into a nutrient rich vermicompost. International Journal of Environment Vol. 5 (1 2016,  pp: 1-13

  11. Landslide Hazard Assessment near Kedarnath Temple in Himalayan region considering cloudburst tragedy in 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, T. A.; Singh, T. N., Sr.

    2017-12-01

    The world famous Shri Kedarnath Temple in Uttarakhand state of India is located in the western extremity of the young and dynamically active Central Himalaya. As Indian plate is moving towards Eurasian plate which has steep slopes, highly variable altitudes and uncertain climatic conditions. Due to high seismic activity Himalayan rock mass is highly fractured, shattered and inherently weakness pose threat for landslide. On 16th and 17th June 2013, was witness an extreme climatic events of century in the history of the region, the high intensity rainfall, (> 400mm) caused number of landslide which have adverse economic and societal impacts, including the potential for heavy loss of human and widespread devastation of natural resources, infrastructures. The study region is at high altitude around 3583 meters, which is affected from impact of glacial melt due to climate change and future increase in rainfall subjected to high level uncertainty of landslides. Aerial and field survey has been done of the region and most vulnerable landslide locations of hill slope and road cut slope are studied for future prospect of safety. SLIDE 6.0, PHASE27 (numerical software) for slope stability, geomechanical profile of rock and kinematics analysis to know the type of failures. Rock quality tunneling index (Q), Geological strength (GSI), Slope mass Rating (SMR) and factor of safety were determined to know the slope instability. Our finding provides an important aspect for future safety as provide the information for landslide warning system and engineering countermeasures.

  12. Functional categories in agrammatism: evidence from Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stavrakaki, Stavroula; Kouvava, Sofia

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study is twofold. First, to investigate the use of functional categories by two Greek agrammatic aphasics. Second, to discuss the implications of our findings for the characterization of the deficit in agrammatism. The functional categories under investigation were the following: definite and indefinite articles, personal pronouns, aspect, tense, subject-verb agreement, wh-pronouns, complementizers and the mood marker na (=to). Based on data collected through different methods, it is argued that the deficit in agrammatism cannot be described in terms of a structural account but rather by means of difficulties in the implementation of grammatical knowledge.

  13. Dietary Habits of Greek Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piperakis, S. M.; Papadimitriou, V.; Zafiropoulou, M.; Piperakis, A. S.; Zisis, P.

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess Greek primary (1st to 6th grade) school children's dietary habits and the factors influencing them. Our results show that children know the value of different foods. The socio-economic status of father has no effect on the attitude of children towards choosing their diet, however, mothers' educational status appears to have an effect on their children's behaviour. Place of residence (urban or semi-rural areas) and gender does not influence their knowledge about different diets. It was, finally, shown that as children grow older they tend to eat less healthy foods.

  14. The reallocation of [ʝ] in cypriot greek

    OpenAIRE

    Pappas, Panayiotis A.

    2016-01-01

    This  article examines the variation between lateral palatal ([ʎ]) and fricative palatal ([ʝ])  instantiations of the variable (liV) in Cypriot Greek. Through the analysis of two datasets, one based on  sociolinguistic interviews, and one based on elicitation task s, it is shown that the fricative variant, which  used to be associated mainly with the city of Ammochostos (Famagusta), is now present in all three major  urban centres of the island, and that young men are leading the change. The ...

  15. The Puzzle of the Missing Greek Exports

    OpenAIRE

    Uwe Boewer; Vasiliki Michou; Christoph Ungerer

    2014-01-01

    Why is Greece such a surprisingly closed economy? We employ a gravity model of trade to explain the appallingly poor export performance of Greece and argue that weak institutional quality accounts for a large part of this shortfall. Using a rich dataset of bilateral value-added exports of goods and services of 39 exporters and 56 importers for 18 sectors, we first estimate that Greece exports ? less than what regular international trade patterns would predict on basis of Greek GDP, the size o...

  16. GREEK ECONOMIC CRISIS ON MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GĂBAN LUCIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to examine briefly some elements of macroeconomic aspects that could explain - at least partly - a number of causes of the current economic crisis in Greece. Using data provided by competent bodies, is intended as a more accurate outlining the differences between Greece and the other countries of the European Union member show widespread Greek State as an outlier among the countries that make up the current "U.E. 28 ". The analysis is based on three indicators relevant to the case – unemployment, government debt and nonperforming loans.

  17. Gender and leadership in Greek primary education

    OpenAIRE

    Papanastasiou, Efthymia

    2016-01-01

    Women constitute more than half of the teaching force in primary schools in Greece but men are more likely than women to achieve headship. In other countries (e.g. in the USA, in the UK and in other European countries) women are represented in educational leadership in disproportionately low numbers, too.The aim of this thesis is to cast light on the neglected phenomenon of women’s relatively low participation in Greek primary school leadership and to explore the constructions of men and wome...

  18. Greek Astronomy and the Medieval Arabic Tradition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saliba, George

    2002-07-01

    Islamic scholars of the Middle Ages are often credited with preserving the scientific writings of Antiquity through the Dark Ages of Europe. Saliba argues that the medieval Islamic astronomers did far more—actually correcting and improving on Greek astronomy by creating new mathematical tools to explain the motions of celestial objects. These tools were so useful that Copernicus appears to have borrowed them for use in his heliocentric cosmology. In this new light, the medieval Islamic astronomers played a fundamental role in the scientific revolution that was forged in Europe during the Renaissance.

  19. Evaluating and Recommending Greek Newspapers' Websites Using Clustering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanellopoulos, Dimitris; Kotsiantis, Sotiris

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to evaluate Greek newspaper websites using clustering and a number of criteria obtained from the Alexa search engine. Furthermore, a recommendation approach is proposed for matching Greek online newspapers with the profiles of potential readers. The paper presents the implementation and validation of a recommender…

  20. Short Overview of the Evolution of Modern Greek State

    OpenAIRE

    Shalva Tchkadua

    2012-01-01

    In the article the author describes and analyzes the historical path of Greece, from the national liberation movement to its integration into Euro-Atlantic structures. The article briefly but clearly describes the process of the Greek national liberation movement. The author highlights the Greek nation’s fight to strengthen independence and democracy.