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Sample records for ancient gene acquisition

  1. Biological consequences of ancient gene acquisition and duplication in the large genome soil bacterium, ""solibacter usitatus"" strain Ellin6076

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challacombe, Jean F [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Eichorst, Stephanie A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Xie, Gary [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kuske, Cheryl R [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hauser, Loren [ORNL; Land, Miriam [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial genome sizes range from ca. 0.5 to 10Mb and are influenced by gene duplication, horizontal gene transfer, gene loss and other evolutionary processes. Sequenced genomes of strains in the phylum Acidobacteria revealed that 'Solibacter usistatus' strain Ellin6076 harbors a 9.9 Mb genome. This large genome appears to have arisen by horizontal gene transfer via ancient bacteriophage and plasmid-mediated transduction, as well as widespread small-scale gene duplications. This has resulted in an increased number of paralogs that are potentially ecologically important (ecoparalogs). Low amino acid sequence identities among functional group members and lack of conserved gene order and orientation in the regions containing similar groups of paralogs suggest that most of the paralogs were not the result of recent duplication events. The genome sizes of cultured subdivision 1 and 3 strains in the phylum Acidobacteria were estimated using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine the prevalence of the large genome trait within the phylum. Members of subdivision 1 were estimated to have smaller genome sizes ranging from ca. 2.0 to 4.8 Mb, whereas members of subdivision 3 had slightly larger genomes, from ca. 5.8 to 9.9 Mb. It is hypothesized that the large genome of strain Ellin6076 encodes traits that provide a selective metabolic, defensive and regulatory advantage in the variable soil environment.

  2. Ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

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    Veiga-Crespo, P; Poza, M; Prieto-Alcedo, M; Villa, T G

    2004-07-01

    Amber is a plant resin mainly produced by coniferous trees that, after entrapping a variety of living beings, was subjected to a process of fossilization until it turned into yellowish, translucent stones. It is also one of the best sources of ancient DNA on which to perform studies on evolution. Here a method for the sterilization of amber that allows reliable ancient DNA extraction with no actual DNA contamination is described. Working with insects taken from amber, it was possible to amplify the ATP9, PGU1 and rRNA18S ancient genes of Saccharomyces cerevisiae corresponding to samples from the Miocene and Oligocene. After comparison of the current genes with their ancient (up to 35-40 million years) counterparts it was concluded that essential genes such as rRNA18S are highly conserved and that even normal 'house-keeping' genes, such as PGU1, are strikingly conserved along the millions of years that S. cerevisiae has evolved.

  3. Gene Acquisition Convergence between Entomopoxviruses and Baculoviruses

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    Julien Thézé

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Organisms from diverse phylogenetic origins can thrive within the same ecological niches. They might be induced to evolve convergent adaptations in response to a similar landscape of selective pressures. Their genomes should bear the signature of this process. The study of unrelated virus lineages infecting the same host panels guarantees a clear identification of phyletically independent convergent adaptation. Here, we investigate the evolutionary history of genes in the accessory genome shared by unrelated insect large dsDNA viruses: the entomopoxviruses (EPVs, Poxviridae and the baculoviruses (BVs. EPVs and BVs have overlapping ecological niches and have independently evolved similar infection processes. They are, in theory, subjected to the same selective pressures from their host’s immune responses. Their accessory genomes might, therefore, bear analogous genomic signatures of convergent adaption and could point out key genomic mechanisms of adaptation hitherto undetected in viruses. We uncovered 32 homologous, yet independent acquisitions of genes originating from insect hosts, different eukaryotes, bacteria and viruses. We showed different evolutionary levels of gene acquisition convergence in these viruses, underlining a continuous evolutionary process. We found both recent and ancient gene acquisitions possibly involved to the adaptation to both specific and distantly related hosts. Multidirectional and multipartite gene exchange networks appear to constantly drive exogenous gene assimilations, bringing key adaptive innovations and shaping the life histories of large DNA viruses. This evolutionary process might lead to genome level adaptive convergence.

  4. Characterization of an ancient lepidopteran lateral gene transfer.

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    David Wheeler

    Full Text Available Bacteria to eukaryote lateral gene transfers (LGT are an important potential source of material for the evolution of novel genetic traits. The explosion in the number of newly sequenced genomes provides opportunities to identify and characterize examples of these lateral gene transfer events, and to assess their role in the evolution of new genes. In this paper, we describe an ancient lepidopteran LGT of a glycosyl hydrolase family 31 gene (GH31 from an Enterococcus bacteria. PCR amplification between the LGT and a flanking insect gene confirmed that the GH31 was integrated into the Bombyx mori genome and was not a result of an assembly error. Database searches in combination with degenerate PCR on a panel of 7 lepidopteran families confirmed that the GH31 LGT event occurred deep within the Order approximately 65-145 million years ago. The most basal species in which the LGT was found is Plutella xylostella (superfamily: Yponomeutoidea. Array data from Bombyx mori shows that GH31 is expressed, and low dN/dS ratios indicates the LGT coding sequence is under strong stabilizing selection. These findings provide further support for the proposition that bacterial LGTs are relatively common in insects and likely to be an underappreciated source of adaptive genetic material.

  5. Resurrecting ancestral genes in bacteria to interpret ancient biosignatures

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    Kacar, Betul; Guy, Lionel; Smith, Eric; Baross, John

    2017-11-01

    Two datasets, the geologic record and the genetic content of extant organisms, provide complementary insights into the history of how key molecular components have shaped or driven global environmental and macroevolutionary trends. Changes in global physico-chemical modes over time are thought to be a consistent feature of this relationship between Earth and life, as life is thought to have been optimizing protein functions for the entirety of its approximately 3.8 billion years of history on the Earth. Organismal survival depends on how well critical genetic and metabolic components can adapt to their environments, reflecting an ability to optimize efficiently to changing conditions. The geologic record provides an array of biologically independent indicators of macroscale atmospheric and oceanic composition, but provides little in the way of the exact behaviour of the molecular components that influenced the compositions of these reservoirs. By reconstructing sequences of proteins that might have been present in ancient organisms, we can downselect to a subset of possible sequences that may have been optimized to these ancient environmental conditions. How can one use modern life to reconstruct ancestral behaviours? Configurations of ancient sequences can be inferred from the diversity of extant sequences, and then resurrected in the laboratory to ascertain their biochemical attributes. One way to augment sequence-based, single-gene methods to obtain a richer and more reliable picture of the deep past, is to resurrect inferred ancestral protein sequences in living organisms, where their phenotypes can be exposed in a complex molecular-systems context, and then to link consequences of those phenotypes to biosignatures that were preserved in the independent historical repository of the geological record. As a first step beyond single-molecule reconstruction to the study of functional molecular systems, we present here the ancestral sequence reconstruction of the

  6. Lateral Gene Transfer Dynamics in the Ancient Bacterial GenusStreptomyces.

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    McDonald, Bradon R; Currie, Cameron R

    2017-06-06

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) profoundly shapes the evolution of bacterial lineages. LGT across disparate phylogenetic groups and genome content diversity between related organisms suggest a model of bacterial evolution that views LGT as rampant and promiscuous. It has even driven the argument that species concepts and tree-based phylogenetics cannot be applied to bacteria. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are surprisingly rare in the ubiquitous and biomedically important bacterial genus Streptomyces Using a molecular clock, we estimate that the Streptomyces bacteria are ~380 million years old, indicating that this bacterial genus is as ancient as land vertebrates. Calibrating LGT rate to this geologic time span, we find that on average only 10 genes per million years were acquired and subsequently maintained. Over that same time span, Streptomyces accumulated thousands of point mutations. By explicitly incorporating evolutionary timescale into our analyses, we provide a dramatically different view on the dynamics of LGT and its impact on bacterial evolution. IMPORTANCE Tree-based phylogenetics and the use of species as units of diversity lie at the foundation of modern biology. In bacteria, these pillars of evolutionary theory have been called into question due to the observation of thousands of lateral gene transfer (LGT) events within and between lineages. Here, we show that acquisition and retention of genes through LGT are exceedingly rare in the bacterial genus Streptomyces , with merely one gene acquired in Streptomyces lineages every 100,000 years. These findings stand in contrast to the current assumption of rampant genetic exchange, which has become the dominant hypothesis used to explain bacterial diversity. Our results support a more nuanced understanding of genetic exchange, with LGT impacting evolution over short timescales but playing a significant role over long timescales. Deeper understanding of LGT provides new

  7. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification.

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    Ziesemer, Kirsten A; Mann, Allison E; Sankaranarayanan, Krithivasan; Schroeder, Hannes; Ozga, Andrew T; Brandt, Bernd W; Zaura, Egija; Waters-Rist, Andrea; Hoogland, Menno; Salazar-García, Domingo C; Aldenderfer, Mark; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Weston, Darlene A; MacDonald, Sandy J; Thomas, Gavin H; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M; Hofman, Corinne; Warinner, Christina

    2015-11-13

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341-534) of this gene has been suggested as an excellent candidate for ancient DNA amplification and microbial community reconstruction. However, in practice this metataxonomic approach often produces highly skewed taxonomic frequency data. In this study, we use non-targeted (shotgun metagenomics) sequencing methods to better understand skewed microbial profiles observed in four ancient dental calculus specimens previously analyzed by amplicon sequencing. Through comparisons of microbial taxonomic counts from paired amplicon (V3 U341F/534R) and shotgun sequencing datasets, we demonstrate that extensive length polymorphisms in the V3 region are a consistent and major cause of differential amplification leading to taxonomic bias in ancient microbiome reconstructions based on amplicon sequencing. We conclude that systematic amplification bias confounds attempts to accurately reconstruct microbiome taxonomic profiles from 16S rRNA V3 amplicon data generated using universal primers. Because in silico analysis indicates that alternative 16S rRNA hypervariable regions will present similar challenges, we advocate for the use of a shotgun metagenomics approach in ancient microbiome reconstructions.

  8. Intrinsic challenges in ancient microbiome reconstruction using 16S rRNA gene amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziesemer, K.A.; Mann, A.E.; Sankaranarayanan, K.; Schroeder, H.; Ozga, A.T.; Brandt, B.W.; Zaura, E.; Waters-Rist, A.; Hoogland, M.; Salazar-García, D.C.; Aldenderfer, M.; Speller, C.; Hendy, J.; Weston, D.A.; MacDonald, S.J.; Thomas, G.H.; Collins, M.J.; Lewis, C.M.; Hofman, C.; Warinner, C.

    2015-01-01

    To date, characterization of ancient oral (dental calculus) and gut (coprolite) microbiota has been primarily accomplished through a metataxonomic approach involving targeted amplification of one or more variable regions in the 16S rRNA gene. Specifically, the V3 region (E. coli 341-534) of this

  9. Acquisition of an animal gene by microsporidian intracellular parasites

    OpenAIRE

    Selman, Mohammed; Pombert, Jean-François; Solter, Leellen; Farinelli, Laurent; Weiss, Louis M.; Keeling, Patrick; Corradi, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    Parasites have adapted to their specialised way of life by a number of means, including the acquisition of genes by horizontal gene transfer. These newly acquired genes seem to come from a variety of sources, but seldom from the host, even in the most intimate associations between obligate intracellular parasite and host [1]. Microsporidian intracellular parasites have acquired a handful of genes, mostly from bacteria, that help them take energy from their hosts or protect them from the envir...

  10. ACQUISITION OF 3D INFORMATION FOR VANISHED STRUCTURE BY USING ONLY AN ANCIENT PICTURE

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    Y. Kunii

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to acquire 3D information for reconstruction of vanished historical structure, grasp of 3D shape of such structure was attempted by using an ancient picture. Generally, 3D information of a structure is acquired by photogrammetric theory which requires two or more pictures. This paper clarifies that the geometrical information of the structure was obtained only from an ancient picture, and 3D information was acquired. This kind of method was applied for an ancient picture of the Old Imperial Theatre. The Old Imperial Theatre in the picture is constituted by two-point perspective. Therefore, estimated value of focal length of camera, length of camera to the Old Imperial Theatre and some parameters were calculated by estimation of field angle, using body height as an index of length and some geometrical information. Consequently, 3D coordinate of 120 measurement points on the surface of the Old Imperial Theatre were calculated respectively, and 3DCG modeling of the Old Imperial Theatre was realized.

  11. Ancient origin and gene mosaicism of the progenitor of mycobacteriumtuberculosis.

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    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The highly successful human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an extremely low level of genetic variation, which suggests that the entire population resulted from clonal expansion following an evolutionary bottleneck around 35,000 y ago. Here, we show that this population constitutes just the visible tip of a much broader progenitor species, whose extant representatives are human isolates of tubercle bacilli from East Africa. In these isolates, we detected incongruence among gene phylogenies as well as mosaic gene sequences, whose individual elements are retrieved in classical M. tuberculosis. Therefore, despite its apparent homogeneity, the M. tuberculosis genome appears to be a composite assembly resulting from horizontal gene transfer events predating clonal expansion. The amount of synonymous nucleotide variation in housekeeping genes suggests that tubercle bacilli were contemporaneous with early hominids in East Africa, and have thus been coevolving with their human host much longer than previously thought. These results open novel perspectives for unraveling the molecular bases of M. tuberculosis evolutionary success.

  12. Establishing the validity of domestication genes using DNA from ancient chickens

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    Girdland Flink, Linus; Allen, Richard; Barnett, Ross; Malmström, Helena; Peters, Joris; Eriksson, Jonas; Andersson, Leif; Dobney, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding of the importance of these genes during the initial stages of the domestication process traditionally rests on the assumption that robust inferences about the past can be made on the basis of modern genetic datasets. A growing body of evidence from ancient DNA studies, however, has revealed that ancient and even historic populations often bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. Here, we test the temporal context of selection on specific genetic loci known to differentiate modern domestic chickens from their extant wild ancestors. We extracted DNA from 80 ancient chickens excavated from 12 European archaeological sites, dated from ∼280 B.C. to the 18th century A.D. We targeted three unlinked genetic loci: the mitochondrial control region, a gene associated with yellow skin color (β-carotene dioxygenase 2), and a putative domestication gene thought to be linked to photoperiod and reproduction (thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, TSHR). Our results reveal significant variability in both nuclear genes, suggesting that the commonality of yellow skin in Western breeds and the near fixation of TSHR in all modern chickens took place only in the past 500 y. In addition, mitochondrial variation has increased as a result of recent admixture with exotic breeds. We conclude by emphasizing the perils of inferring the past from modern genetic data alone. PMID:24753608

  13. Establishing the validity of domestication genes using DNA from ancient chickens.

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    Girdland Flink, Linus; Allen, Richard; Barnett, Ross; Malmström, Helena; Peters, Joris; Eriksson, Jonas; Andersson, Leif; Dobney, Keith; Larson, Greger

    2014-04-29

    Modern domestic plants and animals are subject to human-driven selection for desired phenotypic traits and behavior. Large-scale genetic studies of modern domestic populations and their wild relatives have revealed not only the genetic mechanisms underlying specific phenotypic traits, but also allowed for the identification of candidate domestication genes. Our understanding of the importance of these genes during the initial stages of the domestication process traditionally rests on the assumption that robust inferences about the past can be made on the basis of modern genetic datasets. A growing body of evidence from ancient DNA studies, however, has revealed that ancient and even historic populations often bear little resemblance to their modern counterparts. Here, we test the temporal context of selection on specific genetic loci known to differentiate modern domestic chickens from their extant wild ancestors. We extracted DNA from 80 ancient chickens excavated from 12 European archaeological sites, dated from ∼ 280 B.C. to the 18th century A.D. We targeted three unlinked genetic loci: the mitochondrial control region, a gene associated with yellow skin color (β-carotene dioxygenase 2), and a putative domestication gene thought to be linked to photoperiod and reproduction (thyroid-stimulating hormone receptor, TSHR). Our results reveal significant variability in both nuclear genes, suggesting that the commonality of yellow skin in Western breeds and the near fixation of TSHR in all modern chickens took place only in the past 500 y. In addition, mitochondrial variation has increased as a result of recent admixture with exotic breeds. We conclude by emphasizing the perils of inferring the past from modern genetic data alone.

  14. Spider Transcriptomes Identify Ancient Large-Scale Gene Duplication Event Potentially Important in Silk Gland Evolution.

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    Clarke, Thomas H; Garb, Jessica E; Hayashi, Cheryl Y; Arensburger, Peter; Ayoub, Nadia A

    2015-06-08

    The evolution of specialized tissues with novel functions, such as the silk synthesizing glands in spiders, is likely an influential driver of adaptive success. Large-scale gene duplication events and subsequent paralog divergence are thought to be required for generating evolutionary novelty. Such an event has been proposed for spiders, but not tested. We de novo assembled transcriptomes from three cobweb weaving spider species. Based on phylogenetic analyses of gene families with representatives from each of the three species, we found numerous duplication events indicative of a whole genome or segmental duplication. We estimated the age of the gene duplications relative to several speciation events within spiders and arachnids and found that the duplications likely occurred after the divergence of scorpions (order Scorpionida) and spiders (order Araneae), but before the divergence of the spider suborders Mygalomorphae and Araneomorphae, near the evolutionary origin of spider silk glands. Transcripts that are expressed exclusively or primarily within black widow silk glands are more likely to have a paralog descended from the ancient duplication event and have elevated amino acid replacement rates compared with other transcripts. Thus, an ancient large-scale gene duplication event within the spider lineage was likely an important source of molecular novelty during the evolution of silk gland-specific expression. This duplication event may have provided genetic material for subsequent silk gland diversification in the true spiders (Araneomorphae). © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  15. SL1 RNA gene recovery from Enterobius vermicularis ancient DNA in pre-Columbian human coprolites.

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    Iñiguez, Alena Mayo; Reinhard, Karl; Carvalho Gonçalves, Marcelo Luiz; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Araújo, Adauto; Paulo Vicente, Ana Carolina

    2006-11-01

    Enterobius vermicularis, pinworm, is one of the most common helminths worldwide, infecting nearly a billion people at all socio-economic levels. In prehistoric populations the paleoparasitological findings show a pinworm homogeneous distribution among hunter-gatherers in North America, intensified with the advent of agriculture. This same increase also occurred in the transition from nomad hunter-gatherers to sedentary farmers in South America, although E. vermicularis infection encompasses only the ancient Andean peoples, with no record among the pre-Colombian populations in the South American lowlands. However, the outline of pinworm paleoepidemiology has been supported by microscopic finding of eggs recovered from coprolites. Since molecular techniques are precise and sensitive in detecting pathogen ancient DNA (aDNA), and also could provide insights into the parasite evolutionary history, in this work we have performed a molecular paleoparasitological study of E. vermicularis. aDNA was recovered and pinworm 5S rRNA spacer sequences were determined from pre-Columbian coprolites (4110 BC-AD 900) from four different North and South American archaeological sites. The sequence analysis confirmed E. vermicularis identity and revealed a similarity among ancient and modern sequences. Moreover, polymorphisms were identified at the relative positions 160, 173 and 180, in independent coprolite samples from Tulán, San Pedro de Atacama, Chile (1080-950 BC). We also verified the presence of peculiarities (Splicing leader (SL1) RNA sequence, spliced donor site, the Sm antigen biding site, and RNA secondary structure) which characterise the SL1 RNA gene. The analysis shows that the SL1 RNA gene of contemporary pinworms was present in pre-Columbian E. vermicularis by 6110 years ago. We were successful in detecting E. vermicularis aDNA even in coprolites without direct microscopic evidence of the eggs, improving the diagnosis of helminth infections in the past and further

  16. Ancient horizontal gene transfer from bacteria enhances biosynthetic capabilities of fungi.

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    Imke Schmitt

    Full Text Available Polyketides are natural products with a wide range of biological functions and pharmaceutical applications. Discovery and utilization of polyketides can be facilitated by understanding the evolutionary processes that gave rise to the biosynthetic machinery and the natural product potential of extant organisms. Gene duplication and subfunctionalization, as well as horizontal gene transfer are proposed mechanisms in the evolution of biosynthetic gene clusters. To explain the amount of homology in some polyketide synthases in unrelated organisms such as bacteria and fungi, interkingdom horizontal gene transfer has been evoked as the most likely evolutionary scenario. However, the origin of the genes and the direction of the transfer remained elusive.We used comparative phylogenetics to infer the ancestor of a group of polyketide synthase genes involved in antibiotic and mycotoxin production. We aligned keto synthase domain sequences of all available fungal 6-methylsalicylic acid (6-MSA-type PKSs and their closest bacterial relatives. To assess the role of symbiotic fungi in the evolution of this gene we generated 24 6-MSA synthase sequence tags from lichen-forming fungi. Our results support an ancient horizontal gene transfer event from an actinobacterial source into ascomycete fungi, followed by gene duplication.Given that actinobacteria are unrivaled producers of biologically active compounds, such as antibiotics, it appears particularly promising to study biosynthetic genes of actinobacterial origin in fungi. The large number of 6-MSA-type PKS sequences found in lichen-forming fungi leads us hypothesize that the evolution of typical lichen compounds, such as orsellinic acid derivatives, was facilitated by the gain of this bacterial polyketide synthase.

  17. An ancient gene network is co-opted for teeth on old and new jaws.

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    Gareth J Fraser

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertebrate dentitions originated in the posterior pharynx of jawless fishes more than half a billion years ago. As gnathostomes (jawed vertebrates evolved, teeth developed on oral jaws and helped to establish the dominance of this lineage on land and in the sea. The advent of oral jaws was facilitated, in part, by absence of hox gene expression in the first, most anterior, pharyngeal arch. Much later in evolutionary time, teleost fishes evolved a novel toothed jaw in the pharynx, the location of the first vertebrate teeth. To examine the evolutionary modularity of dentitions, we asked whether oral and pharyngeal teeth develop using common or independent gene regulatory pathways. First, we showed that tooth number is correlated on oral and pharyngeal jaws across species of cichlid fishes from Lake Malawi (East Africa, suggestive of common regulatory mechanisms for tooth initiation. Surprisingly, we found that cichlid pharyngeal dentitions develop in a region of dense hox gene expression. Thus, regulation of tooth number is conserved, despite distinct developmental environments of oral and pharyngeal jaws; pharyngeal jaws occupy hox-positive, endodermal sites, and oral jaws develop in hox-negative regions with ectodermal cell contributions. Next, we studied the expression of a dental gene network for tooth initiation, most genes of which are similarly deployed across the two disparate jaw sites. This collection of genes includes members of the ectodysplasin pathway, eda and edar, expressed identically during the patterning of oral and pharyngeal teeth. Taken together, these data suggest that pharyngeal teeth of jawless vertebrates utilized an ancient gene network before the origin of oral jaws, oral teeth, and ectodermal appendages. The first vertebrate dentition likely appeared in a hox-positive, endodermal environment and expressed a genetic program including ectodysplasin pathway genes. This ancient regulatory circuit was co-opted and modified

  18. Ancient genes establish stress-induced mutation as a hallmark of cancer.

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    Luis Cisneros

    Full Text Available Cancer is sometimes depicted as a reversion to single cell behavior in cells adapted to live in a multicellular assembly. If this is the case, one would expect that mutation in cancer disrupts functional mechanisms that suppress cell-level traits detrimental to multicellularity. Such mechanisms should have evolved with or after the emergence of multicellularity. This leads to two related, but distinct hypotheses: 1 Somatic mutations in cancer will occur in genes that are younger than the emergence of multicellularity (1000 million years [MY]; and 2 genes that are frequently mutated in cancer and whose mutations are functionally important for the emergence of the cancer phenotype evolved within the past 1000 million years, and thus would exhibit an age distribution that is skewed to younger genes. In order to investigate these hypotheses we estimated the evolutionary ages of all human genes and then studied the probability of mutation and their biological function in relation to their age and genomic location for both normal germline and cancer contexts. We observed that under a model of uniform random mutation across the genome, controlled for gene size, genes less than 500 MY were more frequently mutated in both cases. Paradoxically, causal genes, defined in the COSMIC Cancer Gene Census, were depleted in this age group. When we used functional enrichment analysis to explain this unexpected result we discovered that COSMIC genes with recessive disease phenotypes were enriched for DNA repair and cell cycle control. The non-mutated genes in these pathways are orthologous to those underlying stress-induced mutation in bacteria, which results in the clustering of single nucleotide variations. COSMIC genes were less common in regions where the probability of observing mutational clusters is high, although they are approximately 2-fold more likely to harbor mutational clusters compared to other human genes. Our results suggest this ancient mutational

  19. The Drosophila melanogaster methuselah gene: a novel gene with ancient functions.

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    Ana Rita Araújo

    Full Text Available The Drosophila melanogaster G protein-coupled receptor gene, methuselah (mth, has been described as a novel gene that is less than 10 million years old. Nevertheless, it shows a highly specific expression pattern in embryos, larvae, and adults, and has been implicated in larval development, stress resistance, and in the setting of adult lifespan, among others. Although mth belongs to a gene subfamily with 16 members in D. melanogaster, there is no evidence for functional redundancy in this subfamily. Therefore, it is surprising that a novel gene influences so many traits. Here, we explore the alternative hypothesis that mth is an old gene. Under this hypothesis, in species distantly related to D. melanogaster, there should be a gene with features similar to those of mth. By performing detailed phylogenetic, synteny, protein structure, and gene expression analyses we show that the D. virilis GJ12490 gene is the orthologous of mth in species distantly related to D. melanogaster. We also show that, in D. americana (a species of the virilis group of Drosophila, a common amino acid polymorphism at the GJ12490 orthologous gene is significantly associated with developmental time, size, and lifespan differences. Our results imply that GJ12490 orthologous genes are candidates for developmental time and lifespan differences in Drosophila in general.

  20. Assessing the fidelity of ancient DNA sequences amplified from nuclear genes

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    Binladen, Jonas; Wiuf, Carsten Henrik; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2006-01-01

    in phenotypic traits of extinct taxa. It is well documented that postmortem damage in ancient mtDNA can lead to the generation of artifactual sequences. However, as yet no one has thoroughly investigated the damage spectrum in ancient nuDNA. By comparing clone sequences from 23 fossil specimens, recovered from...

  1. Ancient Genetic Signatures of Orang Asli Revealed by Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms.

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    Hanis Z A NurWaliyuddin

    Full Text Available The aboriginal populations of Peninsular Malaysia, also known as Orang Asli (OA, comprise three major groups; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. Here, we analyzed for the first time KIR gene polymorphisms for 167 OA individuals, including those from four smallest OA subgroups (Che Wong, Orang Kanaq, Lanoh and Kensiu using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP analyses. The observed distribution of KIR profiles of OA is heterogenous; Haplotype B is the most frequent in the Semang subgroups (especially Batek while Haplotype A is the most common type in the Senoi. The Semang subgroups were clustered together with the Africans, Indians, Papuans and Australian Aborigines in a principal component analysis (PCA plot and shared many common genotypes (AB6, BB71, BB73 and BB159 observed in these other populations. Given that these populations also display high frequencies of Haplotype B, it is interesting to speculate that Haplotype B may be generally more frequent in ancient populations. In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively. Orang Kanaq, the smallest and the most endangered of all OA subgroups, has lost some degree of genetic variation, as shown by their relatively high frequency of the AB2 genotype (0.73 and a total absence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 genes. Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival. This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations.

  2. Ancient Genetic Signatures of Orang Asli Revealed by Killer Immunoglobulin-Like Receptor Gene Polymorphisms.

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    NurWaliyuddin, Hanis Z A; Norazmi, Mohd N; Edinur, Hisham A; Chambers, Geoffrey K; Panneerchelvam, Sundararajulu; Zafarina, Zainuddin

    2015-01-01

    The aboriginal populations of Peninsular Malaysia, also known as Orang Asli (OA), comprise three major groups; Semang, Senoi and Proto-Malays. Here, we analyzed for the first time KIR gene polymorphisms for 167 OA individuals, including those from four smallest OA subgroups (Che Wong, Orang Kanaq, Lanoh and Kensiu) using polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific primer (PCR-SSP) analyses. The observed distribution of KIR profiles of OA is heterogenous; Haplotype B is the most frequent in the Semang subgroups (especially Batek) while Haplotype A is the most common type in the Senoi. The Semang subgroups were clustered together with the Africans, Indians, Papuans and Australian Aborigines in a principal component analysis (PCA) plot and shared many common genotypes (AB6, BB71, BB73 and BB159) observed in these other populations. Given that these populations also display high frequencies of Haplotype B, it is interesting to speculate that Haplotype B may be generally more frequent in ancient populations. In contrast, the two Senoi subgroups, Che Wong and Semai are displaced toward Southeast Asian and African populations in the PCA scatter plot, respectively. Orang Kanaq, the smallest and the most endangered of all OA subgroups, has lost some degree of genetic variation, as shown by their relatively high frequency of the AB2 genotype (0.73) and a total absence of KIR2DL2 and KIR2DS2 genes. Orang Kanaq tradition that strictly prohibits intermarriage with outsiders seems to have posed a serious threat to their survival. This present survey is a demonstration of the value of KIR polymorphisms in elucidating genetic relationships among human populations.

  3. Ancient Expansion of the Hox Cluster in Lepidoptera Generated Four Homeobox Genes Implicated in Extra-Embryonic Tissue Formation

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    Taylor, William R.; Gibbs, Melanie; Breuker, Casper J.; Holland, Peter W. H.

    2014-01-01

    Gene duplications within the conserved Hox cluster are rare in animal evolution, but in Lepidoptera an array of divergent Hox-related genes (Shx genes) has been reported between pb and zen. Here, we use genome sequencing of five lepidopteran species (Polygonia c-album, Pararge aegeria, Callimorpha dominula, Cameraria ohridella, Hepialus sylvina) plus a caddisfly outgroup (Glyphotaelius pellucidus) to trace the evolution of the lepidopteran Shx genes. We demonstrate that Shx genes originated by tandem duplication of zen early in the evolution of large clade Ditrysia; Shx are not found in a caddisfly and a member of the basally diverging Hepialidae (swift moths). Four distinct Shx genes were generated early in ditrysian evolution, and were stably retained in all descendent Lepidoptera except the silkmoth which has additional duplications. Despite extensive sequence divergence, molecular modelling indicates that all four Shx genes have the potential to encode stable homeodomains. The four Shx genes have distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns in early development of the Speckled Wood butterfly (Pararge aegeria), with ShxC demarcating the future sites of extraembryonic tissue formation via strikingly localised maternal RNA in the oocyte. All four genes are also expressed in presumptive serosal cells, prior to the onset of zen expression. Lepidopteran Shx genes represent an unusual example of Hox cluster expansion and integration of novel genes into ancient developmental regulatory networks. PMID:25340822

  4. Positive selection and ancient duplications in the evolution of class B floral homeotic genes of orchids and grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondragón-Palomino, Mariana; Hiese, Luisa; Härter, Andrea; Koch, Marcus A; Theißen, Günter

    2009-01-01

    Background Positive selection is recognized as the prevalence of nonsynonymous over synonymous substitutions in a gene. Models of the functional evolution of duplicated genes consider neofunctionalization as key to the retention of paralogues. For instance, duplicate transcription factors are specifically retained in plant and animal genomes and both positive selection and transcriptional divergence appear to have played a role in their diversification. However, the relative impact of these two factors has not been systematically evaluated. Class B MADS-box genes, comprising DEF-like and GLO-like genes, encode developmental transcription factors essential for establishment of perianth and male organ identity in the flowers of angiosperms. Here, we contrast the role of positive selection and the known divergence in expression patterns of genes encoding class B-like MADS-box transcription factors from monocots, with emphasis on the family Orchidaceae and the order Poales. Although in the monocots these two groups are highly diverse and have a strongly canalized floral morphology, there is no information on the role of positive selection in the evolution of their distinctive flower morphologies. Published research shows that in Poales, class B-like genes are expressed in stamens and in lodicules, the perianth organs whose identity might also be specified by class B-like genes, like the identity of the inner tepals of their lily-like relatives. In orchids, however, the number and pattern of expression of class B-like genes have greatly diverged. Results The DEF-like genes from Orchidaceae form four well-supported, ancient clades of orthologues. In contrast, orchid GLO-like genes form a single clade of ancient orthologues and recent paralogues. DEF-like genes from orchid clade 2 (OMADS3-like genes) are under less stringent purifying selection than the other orchid DEF-like and GLO-like genes. In comparison with orchids, purifying selection was less stringent in DEF

  5. Gene Acquisitions from Bacteria at the Origins of Major Archaeal Clades Are Vastly Overestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groussin, Mathieu; Boussau, Bastien; Szöllõsi, Gergely; Eme, Laura; Gouy, Manolo; Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Daubin, Vincent

    2016-02-01

    In a recent article, Nelson-Sathi et al. (NS) report that the origins of major archaeal lineages (MAL) correspond to massive group-specific gene acquisitions via HGT from bacteria (Nelson-Sathi et al. 2015. Origins of major archaeal clades correspond to gene acquisitions from bacteria. Nature 517(7532):77-80.). If correct, this would have fundamental implications for the process of diversification in microbes. However, a reexamination of these data and results shows that the methodology used by NS systematically inflates the number of genes acquired at the root of each MAL, and incorrectly assumes bacterial origins for these genes. A reanalysis of their data with appropriate phylogenetic models accounting for the dynamics of gene gain and loss between lineages supports the continuous acquisition of genes over long periods in the evolution of Archaea. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Virtualizing ancient Rome: 3D acquisition and modeling of a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Gabriele; Frischer, Bernard; De Simone, Monica; Cioci, Andrea; Spinetti, Alessandro; Carosso, Luca; Micoli, Laura L.; Russo, Michele; Grasso, Tommaso

    2005-01-01

    Computer modeling through digital range images has been used for many applications, including 3D modeling of objects belonging to our cultural heritage. The scales involved range from small objects (e.g. pottery), to middle-sized works of art (statues, architectural decorations), up to very large structures (architectural and archaeological monuments). For any of these applications, suitable sensors and methodologies have been explored by different authors. The object to be modeled within this project is the "Plastico di Roma antica," a large plaster-of-Paris model of imperial Rome (16x17 meters) created in the last century. Its overall size therefore demands an acquisition approach typical of large structures, but it also is characterized extremely tiny details typical of small objects (houses are a few centimeters high; their doors, windows, etc. are smaller than 1 centimeter). This paper gives an account of the procedures followed for solving this "contradiction" and describes how a huge 3D model was acquired and generated by using a special metrology Laser Radar. The procedures for reorienting in a single reference system the huge point clouds obtained after each acquisition phase, thanks to the measurement of fixed redundant references, are described. The data set was split in smaller sub-areas 2 x 2 meters each for purposes of mesh editing. This subdivision was necessary owing to the huge number of points in each individual scan (50-60 millions). The final merge of the edited parts made it possible to create a single mesh. All these processes were made with software specifically designed for this project since no commercial package could be found that was suitable for managing such a large number of points. Preliminary models are presented. Finally, the significance of the project is discussed in terms of the overall project known as "Rome Reborn," of which the present acquisition is an important component.

  7. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  8. Horizontal acquisition of multiple mitochondrial genes from a parasitic plant followed by gene conversion with host mitochondrial genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Weilong

    2010-12-01

    mitochondrial copies suggests that transferred genes may be evolutionarily important in generating mitochondrial genetic diversity. Finally, the complex relationships within each lineage of transferred genes imply a surprisingly complicated history of these genes in Plantago subsequent to their acquisition via HGT and this history probably involves some combination of additional transfers (including intracellular transfer, gene duplication, differential loss and mutation-rate variation. Unravelling this history will probably require sequencing multiple mitochondrial and nuclear genomes from Plantago. See Commentary: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1741-7007/8/147.

  9. Origins of major archaeal clades correspond to gene acquisitions from bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson-Sathi, Shijulal; Sousa, Filipa L; Roettger, Mayo; Lozada-Chávez, Nabor; Thiergart, Thorsten; Janssen, Arnold; Bryant, David; Landan, Giddy; Schönheit, Peter; Siebers, Bettina; McInerney, James O; Martin, William F

    2015-01-01

    The mechanisms that underlie the origin of major prokaryotic groups are poorly understood. In principle, the origin of both species and higher taxa among prokaryotes should entail similar mechanisms--ecological interactions with the environment paired with natural genetic variation involving lineage-specific gene innovations and lineage-specific gene acquisitions. To investigate the origin of higher taxa in archaea, we have determined gene distributions and gene phylogenies for the 267,568 protein-coding genes of 134 sequenced archaeal genomes in the context of their homologues from 1,847 reference bacterial genomes. Archaeal-specific gene families define 13 traditionally recognized archaeal higher taxa in our sample. Here we report that the origins of these 13 groups unexpectedly correspond to 2,264 group-specific gene acquisitions from bacteria. Interdomain gene transfer is highly asymmetric, transfers from bacteria to archaea are more than fivefold more frequent than vice versa. Gene transfers identified at major evolutionary transitions among prokaryotes specifically implicate gene acquisitions for metabolic functions from bacteria as key innovations in the origin of higher archaeal taxa.

  10. Transcriptional regulator-mediated activation of adaptation genes triggers CRISPR de novo spacer acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Tao; Li, Yingjun; Wang, Xiaodi

    2015-01-01

    Acquisition of de novo spacer sequences confers CRISPR-Cas with a memory to defend against invading genetic elements. However, the mechanism of regulation of CRISPR spacer acquisition remains unknown. Here we examine the transcriptional regulation of the conserved spacer acquisition genes in Type I......, it was demonstrated that the transcription level of csa1, cas1, cas2 and cas4 was significantly enhanced in a csa3a-overexpression strain and, moreover, the Csa1 and Cas1 protein levels were increased in this strain. Furthermore, we demonstrated the hyperactive uptake of unique spacers within both CRISPR loci...... in the presence of the csa3a overexpression vector. The spacer acquisition process is dependent on the CCN PAM sequence and protospacer selection is random and non-directional. These results suggested a regulation mechanism of CRISPR spacer acquisition where a single transcriptional regulator senses the presence...

  11. Toward a new history and geography of human genes informed by ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Joseph K; Reich, David

    2014-09-01

    Genetic information contains a record of the history of our species, and technological advances have transformed our ability to access this record. Many studies have used genome-wide data from populations today to learn about the peopling of the globe and subsequent adaptation to local conditions. Implicit in this research is the assumption that the geographic locations of people today are informative about the geographic locations of their ancestors in the distant past. However, it is now clear that long-range migration, admixture, and population replacement subsequent to the initial out-of-Africa expansion have altered the genetic structure of most of the world's human populations. In light of this we argue that it is time to critically reevaluate current models of the peopling of the globe, as well as the importance of natural selection in determining the geographic distribution of phenotypes. We specifically highlight the transformative potential of ancient DNA. By accessing the genetic make-up of populations living at archaeologically known times and places, ancient DNA makes it possible to directly track migrations and responses to natural selection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification of the VERNALIZATION 4 gene reveals the origin of spring growth habit in ancient wheats from South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kippes, Nestor; Debernardi, Juan M; Vasquez-Gross, Hans A; Akpinar, Bala A; Budak, Hikment; Kato, Kenji; Chao, Shiaoman; Akhunov, Eduard; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2015-09-29

    Wheat varieties with a winter growth habit require long exposures to low temperatures (vernalization) to accelerate flowering. Natural variation in four vernalization genes regulating this requirement has favored wheat adaptation to different environments. The first three genes (VRN1-VRN3) have been cloned and characterized before. Here we show that the fourth gene, VRN-D4, originated by the insertion of a ∼290-kb region from chromosome arm 5AL into the proximal region of chromosome arm 5DS. The inserted 5AL region includes a copy of VRN-A1 that carries distinctive mutations in its coding and regulatory regions. Three lines of evidence confirmed that this gene is VRN-D4: it cosegregated with VRN-D4 in a high-density mapping population; it was expressed earlier than other VRN1 genes in the absence of vernalization; and induced mutations in this gene resulted in delayed flowering. VRN-D4 was found in most accessions of the ancient subspecies Triticum aestivum ssp. sphaerococcum from South Asia. This subspecies showed a significant reduction of genetic diversity and increased genetic differentiation in the centromeric region of chromosome 5D, suggesting that VRN-D4 likely contributed to local adaptation and was favored by positive selection. Three adjacent SNPs in a regulatory region of the VRN-D4 first intron disrupt the binding of GLYCINE-RICH RNA-BINDING PROTEIN 2 (TaGRP2), a known repressor of VRN1 expression. The same SNPs were identified in VRN-A1 alleles previously associated with reduced vernalization requirement. These alleles can be used to modulate vernalization requirements and to develop wheat varieties better adapted to different or changing environments.

  13. Mosaic genome of endobacteria in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi: Transkingdom gene transfer in an ancient mycoplasma-fungus association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Cortés, Gloria; Ghignone, Stefano; Bonfante, Paola; Schüßler, Arthur

    2015-06-23

    For more than 450 million years, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have formed intimate, mutualistic symbioses with the vast majority of land plants and are major drivers in almost all terrestrial ecosystems. The obligate plant-symbiotic AMF host additional symbionts, so-called Mollicutes-related endobacteria (MRE). To uncover putative functional roles of these widespread but yet enigmatic MRE, we sequenced the genome of DhMRE living in the AMF Dentiscutata heterogama. Multilocus phylogenetic analyses showed that MRE form a previously unidentified lineage sister to the hominis group of Mycoplasma species. DhMRE possesses a strongly reduced metabolic capacity with 55% of the proteins having unknown function, which reflects unique adaptations to an intracellular lifestyle. We found evidence for transkingdom gene transfer between MRE and their AMF host. At least 27 annotated DhMRE proteins show similarities to nuclear-encoded proteins of the AMF Rhizophagus irregularis, which itself lacks MRE. Nuclear-encoded homologs could moreover be identified for another AMF, Gigaspora margarita, and surprisingly, also the non-AMF Mortierella verticillata. Our data indicate a possible origin of the MRE-fungus association in ancestors of the Glomeromycota and Mucoromycotina. The DhMRE genome encodes an arsenal of putative regulatory proteins with eukaryotic-like domains, some of them encoded in putative genomic islands. MRE are highly interesting candidates to study the evolution and interactions between an ancient, obligate endosymbiotic prokaryote with its obligate plant-symbiotic fungal host. Our data moreover may be used for further targeted searches for ancient effector-like proteins that may be key components in the regulation of the arbuscular mycorrhiza symbiosis.

  14. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-01-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. PMID:26839128

  15. Large-Scale Analyses of Angiosperm Nucleotide-Binding Site-Leucine-Rich Repeat Genes Reveal Three Anciently Diverged Classes with Distinct Evolutionary Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhu-Qing; Xue, Jia-Yu; Wu, Ping; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Wu, Yue; Hang, Yue-Yu; Wang, Bin; Chen, Jian-Qun

    2016-04-01

    Nucleotide-binding site-leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) genes make up the largest plant disease resistance gene family (R genes), with hundreds of copies occurring in individual angiosperm genomes. However, the expansion history of NBS-LRR genes during angiosperm evolution is largely unknown. By identifying more than 6,000 NBS-LRR genes in 22 representative angiosperms and reconstructing their phylogenies, we present a potential framework of NBS-LRR gene evolution in the angiosperm. Three anciently diverged NBS-LRR classes (TNLs, CNLs, and RNLs) were distinguished with unique exon-intron structures and DNA motif sequences. A total of seven ancient TNL, 14 CNL, and two RNL lineages were discovered in the ancestral angiosperm, from which all current NBS-LRR gene repertoires were evolved. A pattern of gradual expansion during the first 100 million years of evolution of the angiosperm clade was observed for CNLs. TNL numbers remained stable during this period but were eventually deleted in three divergent angiosperm lineages. We inferred that an intense expansion of both TNL and CNL genes started from the Cretaceous-Paleogene boundary. Because dramatic environmental changes and an explosion in fungal diversity occurred during this period, the observed expansions of R genes probably reflect convergent adaptive responses of various angiosperm families. An ancient whole-genome duplication event that occurred in an angiosperm ancestor resulted in two RNL lineages, which were conservatively evolved and acted as scaffold proteins for defense signal transduction. Overall, the reconstructed framework of angiosperm NBS-LRR gene evolution in this study may serve as a fundamental reference for better understanding angiosperm NBS-LRR genes. © 2016 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  16. Ancient origin and gene mosaicism of the progenitor of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Cristina Gutierrez

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The highly successful human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis has an extremely low level of genetic variation, which suggests that the entire population resulted from clonal expansion following an evolutionary bottleneck around 35,000 y ago. Here, we show that this population constitutes just the visible tip of a much broader progenitor species, whose extant representatives are human isolates of tubercle bacilli from East Africa. In these isolates, we detected incongruence among gene phylogenies as well as mosaic gene sequences, whose individual elements are retrieved in classical M. tuberculosis. Therefore, despite its apparent homogeneity, the M. tuberculosis genome appears to be a composite assembly resulting from horizontal gene transfer events predating clonal expansion. The amount of synonymous nucleotide variation in housekeeping genes suggests that tubercle bacilli were contemporaneous with early hominids in East Africa, and have thus been coevolving with their human host much longer than previously thought. These results open novel perspectives for unraveling the molecular bases of M. tuberculosis evolutionary success.

  17. Identification of host genes that affect acquisition of an integrative and conjugative element in Bacillus subtilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Grossman, Alan D.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Conjugation, a major type of horizontal gene transfer in bacteria, involves transfer of DNA from a donor to a recipient using donor-encoded conjugation machinery. Using a high throughput screen (Tn-seq), we identified genes in recipients that contribute to acquisition of the integrative and conjugative element ICEBs1 by Bacillus subtilis. We found that null mutations in some genes caused an increase, and others a decrease in conjugation efficiency. Some mutations affected conjugation only when present in recipients. Other mutations affected conjugation when present in donors or recipients. Most of the genes identified are known or predicted to affect the cell envelope. Several encode enzymes involved in phospholipid biosynthesis and one encodes a homolog of penicillin binding proteins. Two of the genes identified also affected conjugation of Tn916, indicating that their roles in conjugation may be general. We did not identify any genes in recipients that were essential for ICEBs1 conjugation, indicating that if there are such genes, then these are either essential for cell growth or redundant. Our results indicate that acquisition of ICEBs1, and perhaps other conjugative elements, is robust and not easily avoided by mutation and that several membrane-related functions affect the efficiency of conjugation. PMID:25069588

  18. Oxytocin Pathway Genes: Evolutionary Ancient System Impacting on Human Affiliation, Sociality, and Psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Ruth; Monakhov, Mikhail; Pratt, Maayan; Ebstein, Richard P

    2016-02-01

    Oxytocin (OT), a nonapeptide signaling molecule originating from an ancestral peptide, appears in different variants across all vertebrate and several invertebrate species. Throughout animal evolution, neuropeptidergic signaling has been adapted by organisms for regulating response to rapidly changing environments. The family of OT-like molecules affects both peripheral tissues implicated in reproduction, homeostasis, and energy balance, as well as neuromodulation of social behavior, stress regulation, and associative learning in species ranging from nematodes to humans. After describing the OT-signaling pathway, we review research on the three genes most extensively studied in humans: the OT receptor (OXTR), the structural gene for OT (OXT/neurophysin-I), and CD38. Consistent with the notion that sociality should be studied from the perspective of social life at the species level, we address human social functions in relation to OT-pathway genes, including parenting, empathy, and using social relationships to manage stress. We then describe associations between OT-pathway genes with psychopathologies involving social dysfunctions such as autism, depression, or schizophrenia. Human research particularly underscored the involvement of two OXTR single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs53576, rs2254298) with fewer studies focusing on other OXTR (rs7632287, rs1042778, rs2268494, rs2268490), OXT (rs2740210, rs4813627, rs4813625), and CD38 (rs3796863, rs6449197) single nucleotide polymorphisms. Overall, studies provide evidence for the involvement of OT-pathway genes in human social functions but also suggest that factors such as gender, culture, and early environment often confound attempts to replicate first findings. We conclude by discussing epigenetics, conceptual implications within an evolutionary perspective, and future directions, especially the need to refine phenotypes, carefully characterize early environments, and integrate observations of social behavior across

  19. An ancient dental gene set governs development and continuous regeneration of teeth in sharks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasch, Liam J; Martin, Kyle J; Cooper, Rory L; Metscher, Brian D; Underwood, Charlie J; Fraser, Gareth J

    2016-07-15

    The evolution of oral teeth is considered a major contributor to the overall success of jawed vertebrates. This is especially apparent in cartilaginous fishes including sharks and rays, which develop elaborate arrays of highly specialized teeth, organized in rows and retain the capacity for life-long regeneration. Perpetual regeneration of oral teeth has been either lost or highly reduced in many other lineages including important developmental model species, so cartilaginous fishes are uniquely suited for deep comparative analyses of tooth development and regeneration. Additionally, sharks and rays can offer crucial insights into the characters of the dentition in the ancestor of all jawed vertebrates. Despite this, tooth development and regeneration in chondrichthyans is poorly understood and remains virtually uncharacterized from a developmental genetic standpoint. Using the emerging chondrichthyan model, the catshark (Scyliorhinus spp.), we characterized the expression of genes homologous to those known to be expressed during stages of early dental competence, tooth initiation, morphogenesis, and regeneration in bony vertebrates. We have found that expression patterns of several genes from Hh, Wnt/β-catenin, Bmp and Fgf signalling pathways indicate deep conservation over ~450 million years of tooth development and regeneration. We describe how these genes participate in the initial emergence of the shark dentition and how they are redeployed during regeneration of successive tooth generations. We suggest that at the dawn of the vertebrate lineage, teeth (i) were most likely continuously regenerative structures, and (ii) utilised a core set of genes from members of key developmental signalling pathways that were instrumental in creating a dental legacy redeployed throughout vertebrate evolution. These data lay the foundation for further experimental investigations utilizing the unique regenerative capacity of chondrichthyan models to answer evolutionary

  20. Genomic Evidence of Chemotrophic Metabolisms in Deep-Dwelling Chloroflexi Conferred by Ancient Horizontal Gene Transfer Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momper, L. M.; Magnabosco, C.; Amend, J.; Osburn, M. R.; Fournier, G. P.

    2017-12-01

    The marine and terrestrial subsurface biospheres represent quite likely the largest reservoirs for life on Earth, directly impacting surface processes and global cycles throughout Earth's history. In the deep subsurface biosphere (DSB) organic carbon and energy are often extremely scarce. However, archaea and bacteria are able to persist in the DSB to at least 3.5 km below surface [1]. Understanding how they persist, and by what metabolisms they subsist, are key questions in this biosphere. To address these questions we investigated 5 global DSB environments: one legacy mine in South Dakota, USA, 3 mines in South Africa and marine fluids circulating beneath the Juan de Fuca Ridge. Boreholes within these mines provided access to fluids buried beneath the earth's surface and sampled depths down to 3.1 km. Geochemical data were collected concomitantly with DNA for metagenomic sequencing. We examined genomes of the ancient and deeply branching Chloroflexi for metabolic capabilities and interrogated the geochemical drivers behind those metabolisms with in situ thermodynamic modeling of reaction energetics. In total, 23 Chloroflexi genomes were identified and analyzed from the 5 subsurface sites. Genes for nitrate reduction (nar) and sulfite reduction (dsr) were found in many of the South Africa Chloroflexi but were absent from genomes collected in South Dakota. Indeed, nitrate reduction was among the most energetically favorable reactions in South African fluids (10-14 kJ cell-1 sec -1 per mol of reactant) and sulfur reduction with Fe2+ or H2 was also exergonic [2]. Conversely, genes for nitrite and nitrous oxide reduction (nrf, nir and nos) were found in genomes collected in South Dakota and Juan de Fuca, but not South Africa. We examined the origin of genes conferring these metabolisms in the Chloroflexi genomes. We discovered evidence for horizontal gene transfer (HGT) for all of these putative metabolisms. Retention of these genes in Chloroflexi lineages indicates

  1. Somatic stem cells express Piwi and Vasa genes in an adult ctenophore: ancient association of "germline genes" with stemness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alié, Alexandre; Leclère, Lucas; Jager, Muriel; Dayraud, Cyrielle; Chang, Patrick; Le Guyader, Hervé; Quéinnec, Eric; Manuel, Michaël

    2011-02-01

    Stem cells are essential for animal development and adult tissue homeostasis, and the quest for an ancestral gene fingerprint of stemness is a major challenge for evolutionary developmental biology. Recent studies have indicated that a series of genes, including the transposon silencer Piwi and the translational activator Vasa, specifically involved in germline determination and maintenance in classical bilaterian models (e.g., vertebrates, fly, nematode), are more generally expressed in adult multipotent stem cells in other animals like flatworms and hydras. Since the progeny of these multipotent stem cells includes both somatic and germinal derivatives, it remains unclear whether Vasa, Piwi, and associated genes like Bruno and PL10 were ancestrally linked to stemness, or to germinal potential. We have investigated the expression of Vasa, two Piwi paralogues, Bruno and PL10 in Pleurobrachia pileus, a member of the early-diverging phylum Ctenophora, the probable sister group of cnidarians. These genes were all expressed in the male and female germlines, and with the exception of one of the Piwi paralogues, they showed similar expression patterns within somatic territories (tentacle root, comb rows, aboral sensory complex). Cytological observations and EdU DNA-labelling and long-term retention experiments revealed concentrations of stem cells closely matching these gene expression areas. These stem cell pools are spatially restricted, and each specialised in the production of particular types of somatic cells. These data unveil important aspects of cell renewal within the ctenophore body and suggest that Piwi, Vasa, Bruno, and PL10 belong to a gene network ancestrally acting in two distinct contexts: (i) the germline and (ii) stem cells, whatever the nature of their progeny. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Evolutionary responses to a constructed niche: ancient Mesoamericans as a model of gene-culture coevolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tábita Hünemeier

    Full Text Available Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a gene-culture coevolution model. For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n = 1905 to the analysis. In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in 230Cys evolutionary history. The estimated age of 230Cys is compatible with its origin occurring in the American continent. The correlation of its frequencies with the archeological data on Zea pollen in Mesoamerica/Central America, the neutral coalescent simulations, and the F(ST-based natural selection analysis suggest that maize domestication was the driving force in the increase in the frequencies of 230Cys in this region. These results may represent the first example of a gene-culture coevolution involving an autochthonous American allele.

  3. Evolutionary Responses to a Constructed Niche: Ancient Mesoamericans as a Model of Gene-Culture Coevolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hünemeier, Tábita; Amorim, Carlos Eduardo Guerra; Azevedo, Soledad; Contini, Veronica; Acuña-Alonzo, Víctor; Rothhammer, Francisco; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel; Mazières, Stephane; Barrantes, Ramiro; Villarreal-Molina, María Teresa; Paixão-Côrtes, Vanessa Rodrigues; Salzano, Francisco M.; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Bortolini, Maria Cátira

    2012-01-01

    Culture and genetics rely on two distinct but not isolated transmission systems. Cultural processes may change the human selective environment and thereby affect which individuals survive and reproduce. Here, we evaluated whether the modes of subsistence in Native American populations and the frequencies of the ABCA1*Arg230Cys polymorphism were correlated. Further, we examined whether the evolutionary consequences of the agriculturally constructed niche in Mesoamerica could be considered as a gene-culture coevolution model. For this purpose, we genotyped 229 individuals affiliated with 19 Native American populations and added data for 41 other Native American groups (n = 1905) to the analysis. In combination with the SNP cluster of a neutral region, this dataset was then used to unravel the scenario involved in 230Cys evolutionary history. The estimated age of 230Cys is compatible with its origin occurring in the American continent. The correlation of its frequencies with the archeological data on Zea pollen in Mesoamerica/Central America, the neutral coalescent simulations, and the FST-based natural selection analysis suggest that maize domestication was the driving force in the increase in the frequencies of 230Cys in this region. These results may represent the first example of a gene-culture coevolution involving an autochthonous American allele. PMID:22768049

  4. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  5. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2010-01-01

    The mitochondrial genome has been the traditional focus of most research into ancient DNA, owing to its high copy number and population-level variability. Despite this long-standing interest in mitochondrial DNA, it was only in 2001 that the first complete ancient mitogenomic sequences were obtai...

  6. Transgenic Nicotiana tabacum plants expressing a fungal copper transporter gene show enhanced acquisition of copper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sudhir; Korripally, Premsagar; Vancheeswaran, Ramachandran; Eapen, Susan

    2011-10-01

    The diets of two-thirds of the world's population are deficient in one or more essential elements and one of the approaches to enhance the levels of mineral elements in food crops is by developing plants with ability to accumulate them in edible parts. Besides conventional methods, transgenic technology can be used for enhancing metal acquisition in plants. Copper is an essential element, which is often deficient in human diet. With the objective of developing plants with improved copper acquisition, a high-affinity copper transporter gene (tcu-1) was cloned from fungus Neurospora crassa and introduced into a model plant (Nicotiana tabacum). Integration of the transgene was confirmed by Southern blot hybridization. Transgenic tobacco plants (T(0) and T(1)) expressing tcu-1, when grown in hydroponic medium spiked with different concentrations of copper, showed higher acquisition of copper (up to 3.1 times) compared with control plants. Transgenic plants grown in soil spiked with copper could also take up more copper compared with wild-type plants. Supplementation of other divalent cations such as Cd(2+) and Zn(2+) did not alter uptake of Cu by transgenic plants. The present study has shown that expression of a heterologous copper transporter in tobacco could enhance acquisition of copper.

  7. Comparative genomics of the bacterial genus Listeria: Genome evolution is characterized by limited gene acquisition and limited gene loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barker Melissa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The bacterial genus Listeria contains pathogenic and non-pathogenic species, including the pathogens L. monocytogenes and L. ivanovii, both of which carry homologous virulence gene clusters such as the prfA cluster and clusters of internalin genes. Initial evidence for multiple deletions of the prfA cluster during the evolution of Listeria indicates that this genus provides an interesting model for studying the evolution of virulence and also presents practical challenges with regard to definition of pathogenic strains. Results To better understand genome evolution and evolution of virulence characteristics in Listeria, we used a next generation sequencing approach to generate draft genomes for seven strains representing Listeria species or clades for which genome sequences were not available. Comparative analyses of these draft genomes and six publicly available genomes, which together represent the main Listeria species, showed evidence for (i a pangenome with 2,032 core and 2,918 accessory genes identified to date, (ii a critical role of gene loss events in transition of Listeria species from facultative pathogen to saprotroph, even though a consistent pattern of gene loss seemed to be absent, and a number of isolates representing non-pathogenic species still carried some virulence associated genes, and (iii divergence of modern pathogenic and non-pathogenic Listeria species and strains, most likely circa 47 million years ago, from a pathogenic common ancestor that contained key virulence genes. Conclusions Genome evolution in Listeria involved limited gene loss and acquisition as supported by (i a relatively high coverage of the predicted pan-genome by the observed pan-genome, (ii conserved genome size (between 2.8 and 3.2 Mb, and (iii a highly syntenic genome. Limited gene loss in Listeria did include loss of virulence associated genes, likely associated with multiple transitions to a saprotrophic lifestyle. The genus

  8. Massive gene acquisitions in Mycobacterium indicus pranii provide a perspective on mycobacterial evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Vikram; Raghuvanshi, Saurabh; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Ahmed, Niyaz; Hasnain, Seyed E.; Tyagi, Akhilesh K.; Tyagi, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the evolutionary and genomic mechanisms responsible for turning the soil-derived saprophytic mycobacteria into lethal intracellular pathogens is a critical step towards the development of strategies for the control of mycobacterial diseases. In this context, Mycobacterium indicus pranii (MIP) is of specific interest because of its unique immunological and evolutionary significance. Evolutionarily, it is the progenitor of opportunistic pathogens belonging to M. avium complex and is endowed with features that place it between saprophytic and pathogenic species. Herein, we have sequenced the complete MIP genome to understand its unique life style, basis of immunomodulation and habitat diversification in mycobacteria. As a case of massive gene acquisitions, 50.5% of MIP open reading frames (ORFs) are laterally acquired. We show, for the first time for Mycobacterium, that MIP genome has mosaic architecture. These gene acquisitions have led to the enrichment of selected gene families critical to MIP physiology. Comparative genomic analysis indicates a higher antigenic potential of MIP imparting it a unique ability for immunomodulation. Besides, it also suggests an important role of genomic fluidity in habitat diversification within mycobacteria and provides a unique view of evolutionary divergence and putative bottlenecks that might have eventually led to intracellular survival and pathogenic attributes in mycobacteria. PMID:22965120

  9. Screening a novel Na+/H+ antiporter gene from a metagenomic library of halophiles colonizing in the Dagong Ancient Brine Well in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wenliang; Zhang, Jie; Li, Lin; Liang, Huazhong; Luo, Hai; Zhao, Jian; Yang, Zhirong; Sun, Qun

    2010-05-01

    Metagenomic DNA libraries constructed from the Dagong Ancient Brine Well were screened for genes with Na(+)/H(+) antiporter activity on the antiporter-deficient Escherichia coli KNabc strain. One clone with a stable Na(+)-resistant phenotype was obtained and its Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene was sequenced and designated as m-nha. The deduced amino acid sequence of M-Nha protein consists of 523 residues with a calculated molecular weight of 58 147 Da and a pI of 5.50, which is homologous with NhaH from Halobacillus dabanensis D-8(T) (92%) and Halobacillus aidingensis AD-6(T) (86%), and with Nhe2 from Bacillus sp. NRRL B-14911 (64%). It had a hydropathy profile with 10 putative transmembrane domains and a long carboxyl terminal hydrophilic tail of 140 amino acid residues, similar to Nhap from Synechocystis sp. and Aphanothece halophytica, as well as NhaG from Bacillus subtilis. The m-nha gene in the antiporter-negative mutant E. coli KNabc conferred resistance to Na(+) and the ability to grow under alkaline conditions. The difference in amino acid sequence and the putative secondary structure suggested that the m-nha isolated from the Dagong Ancient Brine Well in this study was a novel Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene.

  10. Variants in host viral replication cycle genes are associated with heterosexual HIV-1 acquisition in Africans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigham, Abigail W; Mackelprang, Romel D; Celum, Connie; De Bruyn, Guy; Beima-Sofie, Kristin; John-Stewart, Grace; Ronald, Allan; Mugo, Nelly R; Buckingham, Kati; Bamshad, Michael J; Mullins, James I; McElrath, M J; Lingappa, Jairam R

    2014-06-01

    We evaluated genetic variants in 51 candidate genes encoding proteins that interact with HIV-1 during the virus life cycle for association with HIV-1 outcomes in an African cohort. Using a nested case-control study within a cohort of heterosexual HIV-1-serodiscordant couples, we genotyped 475 haplotype-tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (tagSNPs) and 18 SNPs previously associated with HIV-1 transmission and/or progression (candidate SNPs) in 51 host genes. We used logistic and Cox proportional hazard regression with adjustment for sex, age, and population stratification to detect SNP associations with HIV-1 acquisition, plasma HIV-1 set point, and a composite measure of HIV-1 disease progression. Significant thresholds for tagSNP, but not candidate SNP, associations were subjected to Bonferroni correction for multiple testing. We evaluated 491 HIV-1-infected and 335 HIV-1-uninfected individuals for 493 SNPs, 459 of which passed quality control filters. Candidate SNP PPIA rs8177826 and tagSNP SMARCB1 rs6003904 were significantly associated with HIV-1 acquisition risk (odds ratio = 0.14, P = 0.03, and odds ratio = 2.11, Pcorr = 0.01, respectively). Furthermore, the TT genotype for CCR5 rs1799988 was associated with a mean 0.2 log10 copies per milliliter lower plasma HIV-1 RNA set point (P = 0.04). We also identified significant associations with HIV-1 disease progression for variants in FUT2 and MBL2. Using a targeted gene approach, we identified variants in host genes whose protein products interact with HIV-1 during the virus replication cycle and were associated with HIV-1 outcomes in this African cohort.

  11. A spruce gene map infers ancient plant genome reshuffling and subsequent slow evolution in the gymnosperm lineage leading to extant conifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavy, Nathalie; Pelgas, Betty; Laroche, Jérôme; Rigault, Philippe; Isabel, Nathalie; Bousquet, Jean

    2012-10-26

    Seed plants are composed of angiosperms and gymnosperms, which diverged from each other around 300 million years ago. While much light has been shed on the mechanisms and rate of genome evolution in flowering plants, such knowledge remains conspicuously meagre for the gymnosperms. Conifers are key representatives of gymnosperms and the sheer size of their genomes represents a significant challenge for characterization, sequencing and assembling. To gain insight into the macro-organisation and long-term evolution of the conifer genome, we developed a genetic map involving 1,801 spruce genes. We designed a statistical approach based on kernel density estimation to analyse gene density and identified seven gene-rich isochors. Groups of co-localizing genes were also found that were transcriptionally co-regulated, indicative of functional clusters. Phylogenetic analyses of 157 gene families for which at least two duplicates were mapped on the spruce genome indicated that ancient gene duplicates shared by angiosperms and gymnosperms outnumbered conifer-specific duplicates by a ratio of eight to one. Ancient duplicates were much more translocated within and among spruce chromosomes than conifer-specific duplicates, which were mostly organised in tandem arrays. Both high synteny and collinearity were also observed between the genomes of spruce and pine, two conifers that diverged more than 100 million years ago. Taken together, these results indicate that much genomic evolution has occurred in the seed plant lineage before the split between gymnosperms and angiosperms, and that the pace of evolution of the genome macro-structure has been much slower in the gymnosperm lineage leading to extent conifers than that seen for the same period of time in flowering plants. This trend is largely congruent with the contrasted rates of diversification and morphological evolution observed between these two groups of seed plants.

  12. A spruce gene map infers ancient plant genome reshuffling and subsequent slow evolution in the gymnosperm lineage leading to extant conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavy Nathalie

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Seed plants are composed of angiosperms and gymnosperms, which diverged from each other around 300 million years ago. While much light has been shed on the mechanisms and rate of genome evolution in flowering plants, such knowledge remains conspicuously meagre for the gymnosperms. Conifers are key representatives of gymnosperms and the sheer size of their genomes represents a significant challenge for characterization, sequencing and assembling. Results To gain insight into the macro-organisation and long-term evolution of the conifer genome, we developed a genetic map involving 1,801 spruce genes. We designed a statistical approach based on kernel density estimation to analyse gene density and identified seven gene-rich isochors. Groups of co-localizing genes were also found that were transcriptionally co-regulated, indicative of functional clusters. Phylogenetic analyses of 157 gene families for which at least two duplicates were mapped on the spruce genome indicated that ancient gene duplicates shared by angiosperms and gymnosperms outnumbered conifer-specific duplicates by a ratio of eight to one. Ancient duplicates were much more translocated within and among spruce chromosomes than conifer-specific duplicates, which were mostly organised in tandem arrays. Both high synteny and collinearity were also observed between the genomes of spruce and pine, two conifers that diverged more than 100 million years ago. Conclusions Taken together, these results indicate that much genomic evolution has occurred in the seed plant lineage before the split between gymnosperms and angiosperms, and that the pace of evolution of the genome macro-structure has been much slower in the gymnosperm lineage leading to extent conifers than that seen for the same period of time in flowering plants. This trend is largely congruent with the contrasted rates of diversification and morphological evolution observed between these two groups of seed

  13. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  14. Tamil Merchant in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  15. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  16. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequen...

  17. Evolutionary acquisition and loss of saxitoxin biosynthesis in dinoflagellates: the second "core" gene, sxtG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Russell J S; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A; Jakobsen, Kjetill S

    2013-04-01

    Saxitoxin and its derivatives are potent neurotoxins produced by several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species. SxtA is the initial enzyme in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin. The dinoflagellate full mRNA and partial genomic sequences have previously been characterized, and it appears that sxtA originated in dinoflagellates through a horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium. So far, little is known about the remaining genes involved in this pathway in dinoflagellates. Here we characterize sxtG, an amidinotransferase enzyme gene that putatively encodes the second step in saxitoxin biosynthesis. In this study, the entire sxtG transcripts from Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and Alexandrium minutum CCMP113 were amplified and sequenced. The transcripts contained typical dinoflagellate spliced leader sequences and eukaryotic poly(A) tails. In addition, partial sxtG transcript fragments were amplified from four additional Alexandrium species and Gymnodinium catenatum. The phylogenetic inference of dinoflagellate sxtG, congruent with sxtA, revealed a bacterial origin. However, it is not known if sxtG was acquired independently of sxtA. Amplification and sequencing of the corresponding genomic sxtG region revealed noncanonical introns. These introns show a high interspecies and low intraspecies variance, suggesting multiple independent acquisitions and losses. Unlike sxtA, sxtG was also amplified from Alexandrium species not known to synthesize saxitoxin. However, amplification was not observed for 22 non-saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate species other than those of the genus Alexandrium or G. catenatum. This result strengthens our hypothesis that saxitoxin synthesis has been secondarily lost in conjunction with sxtA for some descendant species.

  18. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  19. Ironing Out the Unconventional Mechanisms of Iron Acquisition and Gene Regulation in Chlamydia

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    Nick D. Pokorzynski

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The obligate intracellular pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis, along with its close species relatives, is known to be strictly dependent upon the availability of iron. Deprivation of iron in vitro induces an aberrant morphological phenotype termed “persistence.” This persistent phenotype develops in response to various immunological and nutritional insults and may contribute to the development of sub-acute Chlamydia-associated chronic diseases in susceptible populations. Given the importance of iron to Chlamydia, relatively little is understood about its acquisition and its role in gene regulation in comparison to other iron-dependent bacteria. Analysis of the genome sequences of a variety of chlamydial species hinted at the involvement of unconventional mechanisms, being that Chlamydia lack many conventional systems of iron homeostasis that are highly conserved in other bacteria. Herein we detail past and current research regarding chlamydial iron biology in an attempt to provide context to the rapid progress of the field in recent years. We aim to highlight recent discoveries and innovations that illuminate the strategies involved in chlamydial iron homeostasis, including the vesicular mode of acquiring iron from the intracellular environment, and the identification of a putative iron-dependent transcriptional regulator that is synthesized as a fusion with a ABC-type transporter subunit. These recent findings, along with the noted absence of iron-related homologs, indicate that Chlamydia have evolved atypical approaches to the problem of iron homeostasis, reinvigorating research into the iron biology of this pathogen.

  20. Ancient Bedforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    18 August 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows groupings of large ripple-like windblown bedforms on the floor of a large crater (larger than the image shown here) in Sinus Sabaeus, south of Schiaparelli Basin. These ripple-like features are much larger than typical wind ripples on Earth, but smaller than typical sand dunes on either planet. Like most of the other ripple-like bedforms in Sinus Sabaeus, they are probably ancient and no longer mobile. Dark streaks on the substrate between the bedforms were formed by passing dust devils. This image is located near 13.0oS, 343.7oW. The image covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across and sunlight illuminates the scene from the upper left.

  1. The Cuticle Protein Gene MPCP4 of Myzus persicae (Homoptera: Aphididae) Plays a Critical Role in Cucumber Mosaic Virus Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yan; Gao, Xi-Wu

    2017-06-01

    Myzus persicae (Sulzer) (Homoptera: Aphididae) is one of the most important agricultural pests worldwide. In addition to sucking phloem sap, M. persicae also transmits Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) as a vector in a nonpersistent manner. At present, the infection mechanism remains unclear, especially the process of aphid virus acquisition. In this study, we isolated four M. persicae cuticle protein genes (MPCP1, MPCP2, MPCP4, and MPCP5) from M. persicae. The relative amount of the gene encoding Cucumber mosaic virus capsid protein (CMV CP) and the transcript levels of these four cuticle protein genes were investigated in aphid virus acquisition by feeding the tobacco preinfested by CMV. The relative expression of MPCP1, MPCP2, and MPCP4 were significantly higher than MPCP5 at 24 h after aphids feeding on virus-infested tobacco. Yeast two-hybrid assays demonstrated that the protein encoded by MPCP4 gene was closely associated with the CMV CP through the direct interaction. Moreover, the ability of M. persicae to acquire CMV was suppressed by RNA interference of MPCP4. All these lines of evidence indicate that MPCP4, as a viral putative receptor in the stylet of aphid, plays an important role in aphid acquisition of CMV. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  2. Ancestral acquisitions, gene flow and multiple evolutionary trajectories of the type three secretion system and effectors in Xanthomonas plant pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merda, Déborah; Briand, Martial; Bosis, Eran; Rousseau, Céline; Portier, Perrine; Barret, Matthieu; Jacques, Marie-Agnès; Fischer-Le Saux, Marion

    2017-11-01

    Deciphering the evolutionary history and transmission patterns of virulence determinants is necessary to understand the emergence of novel pathogens. The main virulence determinant of most pathogenic proteobacteria is the type three secretion system (T3SS). The Xanthomonas genus includes bacteria responsible for numerous epidemics in agroecosystems worldwide and represents a major threat to plant health. The main virulence factor of Xanthomonas is the Hrp2 family T3SS; however, this system is not conserved in all strains and it has not been previously determined whether the distribution of T3SS in this bacterial genus has resulted from losses or independent acquisitions. Based on comparative genomics of 82 genome sequences representing the diversity of the genus, we have inferred three ancestral acquisitions of the Hrp2 cluster during Xanthomonas evolution followed by subsequent losses in some commensal strains and re-acquisition in some species. While mutation was the main force driving polymorphism at the gene level, interspecies homologous recombination of large fragments expanding through several genes shaped Hrp2 cluster polymorphism. Horizontal gene transfer of the entire Hrp2 cluster also occurred. A reduced core effectome composed of xopF1, xopM, avrBs2 and xopR was identified that may allow commensal strains overcoming plant basal immunity. In contrast, stepwise accumulation of numerous type 3 effector genes was shown in successful pathogens responsible for epidemics. Our data suggest that capacity to intimately interact with plants through T3SS would be an ancestral trait of xanthomonads. Since its acquisition, T3SS has experienced a highly dynamic evolutionary history characterized by intense gene flux between species that may reflect its role in host adaptation. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial and archaeal arsC gene sequences suggests an ancient, common origin for arsenate reductase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dugas Sandra L

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ars gene system provides arsenic resistance for a variety of microorganisms and can be chromosomal or plasmid-borne. The arsC gene, which codes for an arsenate reductase is essential for arsenate resistance and transforms arsenate into arsenite, which is extruded from the cell. A survey of GenBank shows that arsC appears to be phylogenetically widespread both in organisms with known arsenic resistance and those organisms that have been sequenced as part of whole genome projects. Results Phylogenetic analysis of aligned arsC sequences shows broad similarities to the established 16S rRNA phylogeny, with separation of bacterial, archaeal, and subsequently eukaryotic arsC genes. However, inconsistencies between arsC and 16S rRNA are apparent for some taxa. Cyanobacteria and some of the γ-Proteobacteria appear to possess arsC genes that are similar to those of Low GC Gram-positive Bacteria, and other isolated taxa possess arsC genes that would not be expected based on known evolutionary relationships. There is no clear separation of plasmid-borne and chromosomal arsC genes, although a number of the Enterobacteriales (γ-Proteobacteria possess similar plasmid-encoded arsC sequences. Conclusion The overall phylogeny of the arsenate reductases suggests a single, early origin of the arsC gene and subsequent sequence divergence to give the distinct arsC classes that exist today. Discrepancies between 16S rRNA and arsC phylogenies support the role of horizontal gene transfer (HGT in the evolution of arsenate reductases, with a number of instances of HGT early in bacterial arsC evolution. Plasmid-borne arsC genes are not monophyletic suggesting multiple cases of chromosomal-plasmid exchange and subsequent HGT. Overall, arsC phylogeny is complex and is likely the result of a number of evolutionary mechanisms.

  4. Major Histocompatibility Complex Genes Map to Two Chromosomes in an Evolutionarily Ancient Reptile, the Tuatara Sphenodon punctatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Hilary C; O'Meally, Denis; Ezaz, Tariq; Amemiya, Chris; Marshall-Graves, Jennifer A; Edwards, Scott

    2015-05-07

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) genes are a central component of the vertebrate immune system and usually exist in a single genomic region. However, considerable differences in MHC organization and size exist between different vertebrate lineages. Reptiles occupy a key evolutionary position for understanding how variation in MHC structure evolved in vertebrates, but information on the structure of the MHC region in reptiles is limited. In this study, we investigate the organization and cytogenetic location of MHC genes in the tuatara (Sphenodon punctatus), the sole extant representative of the early-diverging reptilian order Rhynchocephalia. Sequencing and mapping of 12 clones containing class I and II MHC genes from a bacterial artificial chromosome library indicated that the core MHC region is located on chromosome 13q. However, duplication and translocation of MHC genes outside of the core region was evident, because additional class I MHC genes were located on chromosome 4p. We found a total of seven class I sequences and 11 class II β sequences, with evidence for duplication and pseudogenization of genes within the tuatara lineage. The tuatara MHC is characterized by high repeat content and low gene density compared with other species and we found no antigen processing or MHC framework genes on the MHC gene-containing clones. Our findings indicate substantial differences in MHC organization in tuatara compared with mammalian and avian MHCs and highlight the dynamic nature of the MHC. Further sequencing and annotation of tuatara and other reptile MHCs will determine if the tuatara MHC is representative of nonavian reptiles in general. Copyright © 2015 Miller et al.

  5. Conserved and non-conserved enhancers direct tissue specific transcription in ancient germ layer specific developmental control genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourque Guillaume

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying DNA sequences (enhancers that direct the precise spatial and temporal expression of developmental control genes remains a significant challenge in the annotation of vertebrate genomes. Locating these sequences, which in many cases lie at a great distance from the transcription start site, has been a major obstacle in deciphering gene regulation. Coupling of comparative genomics with functional validation to locate such regulatory elements has been a successful method in locating many such regulatory elements. But most of these studies looked either at a single gene only or the whole genome without focusing on any particular process. The pressing need is to integrate the tools of comparative genomics with knowledge of developmental biology to validate enhancers for developmental transcription factors in greater detail Results Our results show that near four different genes (nkx3.2, pax9, otx1b and foxa2 in zebrafish, only 20-30% of highly conserved DNA sequences can act as developmental enhancers irrespective of the tissue the gene expresses in. We find that some genes also have multiple conserved enhancers expressing in the same tissue at the same or different time points in development. We also located non-conserved enhancers for two of the genes (pax9 and otx1b. Our modified Bacterial artificial chromosome (BACs studies for these 4 genes revealed that many of these enhancers work in a synergistic fashion, which cannot be captured by individual DNA constructs and are not conserved at the sequence level. Our detailed biochemical and transgenic analysis revealed Foxa1 binds to the otx1b non-conserved enhancer to direct its activity in forebrain and otic vesicle of zebrafish at 24 hpf. Conclusion Our results clearly indicate that high level of functional conservation of genes is not necessarily associated with sequence conservation of its regulatory elements. Moreover certain non conserved DNA elements might have

  6. Phylogenomic Analysis Demonstrates a Pattern of Rare and Ancient Horizontal Gene Transfer between Plants and Fungi[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Thomas A.; Soanes, Darren M.; Foster, Peter G.; Leonard, Guy; Thornton, Christopher R.; Talbot, Nicholas J.

    2009-01-01

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of genetic material across species boundaries and is an important evolutionary phenomenon in the ancestry of many microbes. The role of HGT in plant evolutionary history is, however, largely unexplored. Here, we compare the genomes of six plant species with those of 159 prokaryotic and eukaryotic species and identify 1689 genes that show the highest similarity to corresponding genes from fungi. We constructed a phylogeny for all 1689 genes identified and all homolog groups available from the rice (Oryza sativa) genome (3177 gene families) and used these to define 14 candidate plant-fungi HGT events. Comprehensive phylogenetic analyses of these 14 data sets, using methods that account for site rate heterogeneity, demonstrated support for nine HGT events, demonstrating an infrequent pattern of HGT between plants and fungi. Five HGTs were fungi-to-plant transfers and four were plant-to-fungi HGTs. None of the fungal-to-plant HGTs involved angiosperm recipients. These results alter the current view of organismal barriers to HGT, suggesting that phagotrophy, the consumption of a whole cell by another, is not necessarily a prerequisite for HGT between eukaryotes. Putative functional annotation of the HGT candidate genes suggests that two fungi-to-plant transfers have added phenotypes important for life in a soil environment. Our study suggests that genetic exchange between plants and fungi is exceedingly rare, particularly among the angiosperms, but has occurred during their evolutionary history and added important metabolic traits to plant lineages. PMID:19584142

  7. Comparative Profile of Heme Acquisition Genes in Disease-Causing and Colonizing Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus haemolyticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hariadi, Nurul I; Zhang, Lixin; Patel, Mayuri; Sandstedt, Sara A; Davis, Gregg S; Marrs, Carl F; Gilsdorf, Janet R

    2015-07-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHI) are Gram-negative bacteria that colonize the human pharynx and can cause respiratory tract infections, such as acute otitis media (AOM). Since NTHI require iron from their hosts for aerobic growth, the heme acquisition genes may play a significant role in avoiding host nutritional immunity and determining virulence. Therefore, we employed a hybridization-based technique to compare the prevalence of five heme acquisition genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, hemR, and hup) between 514 middle ear strains from children with AOM and 235 throat strains from healthy children. We also investigated their prevalences in 148 Haemophilus haemolyticus strains, a closely related species that colonizes the human pharynx and is considered to be nonpathogenic. Four out of five genes (hxuA, hxuB, hxuC, and hemR) were significantly more prevalent in the middle ear strains (96%, 100%, 100%, and 97%, respectively) than in throat strains (80%, 92%, 93%, and 85%, respectively) of NTHI, suggesting that strains possessing these genes have a virulence advantage over those lacking them. All five genes were dramatically more prevalent in NTHI strains than in H. haemolyticus, with 91% versus 9% hxuA, 98% versus 11% hxuB, 98% versus 11% hxuC, 93% versus 20% hemR, and 97% versus 34% hup, supporting their potential role in virulence and highlighting their possibility to serve as biomarkers to distinguish H. influenzae from H. haemolyticus. In summary, this study demonstrates that heme acquisition genes are more prevalent in disease-causing NTHI strains isolated from the middle ear than in colonizing NTHI strains and H. haemolyticus isolated from the pharynx. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. MimiLook: A Phylogenetic Workflow for Detection of Gene Acquisition in Major Orthologous Groups of Megavirales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sourabh; Panda, Arup; Colson, Philippe; Raoult, Didier; Pontarotti, Pierre

    2017-04-07

    With the inclusion of new members, understanding about evolutionary mechanisms and processes by which members of the proposed order, Megavirales, have evolved has become a key area of interest. The central role of gene acquisition has been shown in previous studies. However, the major drawback in gene acquisition studies is the focus on few MV families or putative families with large variation in their genetic structure. Thus, here we have tried to develop a methodology by which we can detect horizontal gene transfers (HGTs), taking into consideration orthologous groups of distantly related Megavirale families. Here, we report an automated workflow MimiLook, prepared as a Perl command line program, that deduces orthologous groups (OGs) from ORFomes of Megavirales and constructs phylogenetic trees by performing alignment generation, alignment editing and protein-protein BLAST (BLASTP) searching across the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) non-redundant (nr) protein sequence database. Finally, this tool detects statistically validated events of gene acquisitions with the help of the T-REX algorithm by comparing individual gene tree with NCBI species tree. In between the steps, the workflow decides about handling paralogs, filtering outputs, identifying Megavirale specific OGs, detection of HGTs, along with retrieval of information about those OGs that are monophyletic with organisms from cellular domains of life. By implementing MimiLook, we noticed that nine percent of Megavirale gene families (i.e., OGs) have been acquired by HGT, 80% OGs were Megaviralespecific and eight percent were found to be sharing common ancestry with members of cellular domains (Eukaryote, Bacteria, Archaea, Phages or other viruses) and three percent were ambivalent. The results are briefly discussed to emphasize methodology. Also, MimiLook is relevant for detecting evolutionary scenarios in other targeted phyla with user defined modifications. It can be accessed at

  9. An ancient history of gene duplications, fusions and losses in the evolution of APOBEC3 mutators in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Münk Carsten

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The APOBEC3 (A3 genes play a key role in innate antiviral defense in mammals by introducing directed mutations in the DNA. The human genome encodes for seven A3 genes, with multiple splice alternatives. Different A3 proteins display different substrate specificity, but the very basic question on how discerning self from non-self still remains unresolved. Further, the expression of A3 activity/ies shapes the way both viral and host genomes evolve. Results We present here a detailed temporal analysis of the origin and expansion of the A3 repertoire in mammals. Our data support an evolutionary scenario where the genome of the mammalian ancestor encoded for at least one ancestral A3 gene, and where the genome of the ancestor of placental mammals (and possibly of the ancestor of all mammals already encoded for an A3Z1-A3Z2-A3Z3 arrangement. Duplication events of the A3 genes have occurred independently in different lineages: humans, cats and horses. In all of them, gene duplication has resulted in changes in enzyme activity and/or substrate specificity, in a paradigmatic example of convergent adaptive evolution at the genomic level. Finally, our results show that evolutionary rates for the three A3Z1, A3Z2 and A3Z3 motifs have significantly decreased in the last 100 Mya. The analysis constitutes a textbook example of the evolution of a gene locus by duplication and sub/neofunctionalization in the context of virus-host arms race. Conclusions Our results provide a time framework for identifying ancestral and derived genomic arrangements in the APOBEC loci, and to date the expansion of this gene family for different lineages through time, as a response to changes in viral/retroviral/retrotransposon pressure.

  10. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K; Jurka, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR) retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT), which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes.

  11. Ancient Origin of the U2 Small Nuclear RNA Gene-Targeting Non-LTR Retrotransposons Utopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji K Kojima

    Full Text Available Most non-long terminal repeat (non-LTR retrotransposons encoding a restriction-like endonuclease show target-specific integration into repetitive sequences such as ribosomal RNA genes and microsatellites. However, only a few target-specific lineages of non-LTR retrotransposons are distributed widely and no lineage is found across the eukaryotic kingdoms. Here we report the most widely distributed lineage of target sequence-specific non-LTR retrotransposons, designated Utopia. Utopia is found in three supergroups of eukaryotes: Amoebozoa, SAR, and Opisthokonta. Utopia is inserted into a specific site of U2 small nuclear RNA genes with different strength of specificity for each family. Utopia families from oomycetes and wasps show strong target specificity while only a small number of Utopia copies from reptiles are flanked with U2 snRNA genes. Oomycete Utopia families contain an "archaeal" RNase H domain upstream of reverse transcriptase (RT, which likely originated from a plant RNase H gene. Analysis of Utopia from oomycetes indicates that multiple lineages of Utopia have been maintained inside of U2 genes with few copy numbers. Phylogenetic analysis of RT suggests the monophyly of Utopia, and it likely dates back to the early evolution of eukaryotes.

  12. Decreased Expression of the Early Mitotic Gene, CHFR, Contributes to the Acquisition of Breast Cancer Phenotypes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Privette, Lisa M

    2008-01-01

    .... As previously reported, nearly 40% of breast cancer show decreased CHFR expression compared to normal cells and tissues and the loss of CHFR expression by RNAi in cell culture models leads to the acquisition of several tumorigenic phenotypes...

  13. Mechanisms Involved in Acquisition of blaNDM Genes by IncA/C2 and IncFIIY Plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wailan, Alexander M; Sidjabat, Hanna E; Yam, Wan Keat; Alikhan, Nabil-Fareed; Petty, Nicola K; Sartor, Anna L; Williamson, Deborah A; Forde, Brian M; Schembri, Mark A; Beatson, Scott A; Paterson, David L; Walsh, Timothy R; Partridge, Sally R

    2016-07-01

    blaNDM genes confer carbapenem resistance and have been identified on transferable plasmids belonging to different incompatibility (Inc) groups. Here we present the complete sequences of four plasmids carrying a blaNDM gene, pKP1-NDM-1, pEC2-NDM-3, pECL3-NDM-1, and pEC4-NDM-6, from four clinical samples originating from four different patients. Different plasmids carry segments that align to different parts of the blaNDM region found on Acinetobacter plasmids. pKP1-NDM-1 and pEC2-NDM-3, from Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli, respectively, were identified as type 1 IncA/C2 plasmids with almost identical backbones. Different regions carrying blaNDM are inserted in different locations in the antibiotic resistance island known as ARI-A, and ISCR1 may have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-3 by pEC2-NDM-3. pECL3-NDM-1 and pEC4-NDM-6, from Enterobacter cloacae and E. coli, respectively, have similar IncFIIY backbones, but different regions carrying blaNDM are found in different locations. Tn3-derived inverted-repeat transposable elements (TIME) appear to have been involved in the acquisition of blaNDM-6 by pEC4-NDM-6 and the rmtC 16S rRNA methylase gene by IncFIIY plasmids. Characterization of these plasmids further demonstrates that even very closely related plasmids may have acquired blaNDM genes by different mechanisms. These findings also illustrate the complex relationships between antimicrobial resistance genes, transposable elements, and plasmids and provide insights into the possible routes for transmission of blaNDM genes among species of the Enterobacteriaceae family. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. Extensive gene acquisition in the extremely psychrophilic bacterial species Psychroflexus torquis and the link to sea-ice ecosystem specialism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Powell, Shane M; Wilson, Richard; Bowman, John P

    2014-01-01

    Sea ice is a highly dynamic and productive environment that includes a diverse array of psychrophilic prokaryotic and eukaryotic taxa distinct from the underlying water column. Because sea ice has only been extensive on Earth since the mid-Eocene, it has been hypothesized that bacteria highly adapted to inhabit sea ice have traits that have been acquired through horizontal gene transfer (HGT). Here we compared the genomes of the psychrophilic bacterium Psychroflexus torquis ATCC 700755(T), associated with both Antarctic and Arctic sea ice, and its closely related nonpsychrophilic sister species, P. gondwanensis ACAM 44(T). Results show that HGT has occurred much more extensively in P. torquis in comparison to P. gondwanensis. Genetic features that can be linked to the psychrophilic and sea ice-specific lifestyle of P. torquis include genes for exopolysaccharide (EPS) and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) biosynthesis, numerous specific modes of nutrient acquisition, and proteins putatively associated with ice-binding, light-sensing (bacteriophytochromes), and programmed cell death (metacaspases). Proteomic analysis showed that several genes associated with these traits are highly translated, especially those involved with EPS and PUFA production. Because most of the genes relating to the ability of P. torquis to dwell in sea-ice ecosystems occur on genomic islands that are absent in closely related P. gondwanensis, its adaptation to the sea-ice environment appears driven mainly by HGT. The genomic islands are rich in pseudogenes, insertional elements, and addiction modules, suggesting that gene acquisition is being followed by a process of genome reduction potentially indicative of evolving ecosystem specialism.

  15. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  16. Hypoxia and bicarbonate could limit the expression of iron acquisition genes in Strategy I plants by affecting ethylene synthesis and signaling in different ways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; García-Mateo, María J; Lucena, Carlos; Romera, Francisco J; Rojas, Carmen L; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, it was shown that bicarbonate (one of the most important factors causing Fe chlorosis in Strategy I plants) can limit the expression of several genes involved in Fe acquisition. Hypoxia is considered another important factor causing Fe chlorosis, mainly on calcareous soils. However, to date it is not known whether hypoxia aggravates Fe chlorosis by affecting bicarbonate concentration or by specific negative effects on Fe acquisition. Results found in this work show that hypoxia, generated by eliminating the aeration of the nutrient solution, can limit the expression of several Fe acquisition genes in Fe-deficient Arabidopsis, cucumber and pea plants, like the genes for ferric reductases AtFRO2, PsFRO1 and CsFRO1; iron transporters AtIRT1, PsRIT1 and CsIRT1; H(+) -ATPase CsHA1; and transcription factors AtFIT, AtbHLH38, and AtbHLH39. Interestingly, the limitation of the expression of Fe-acquisition genes by hypoxia did not occur in the Arabidopsis ethylene constitutive mutant ctr1, which suggests that the negative effect of hypoxia is related to ethylene, an hormone involved in the upregulation of Fe acquisition genes. As for hypoxia, results obtained by applying bicarbonate to the nutrient solution suggests that ethylene is also involved in its negative effect, since ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid; ethylene precursor) partially reversed the negative effect of bicarbonate on the expression of Fe acquisition genes. Taken together, the results obtained show that hypoxia and bicarbonate could induce Fe chlorosis by limiting the expression of Fe acquisition genes, probably because each factor negatively affects different steps of ethylene synthesis and/or signaling. © 2013 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  17. Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) shoot apex with a fungal phytase gene improves phosphorus acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiying; Liu, Jianfeng; Wang, Xingfen

    2013-01-01

    Cotton is an important world economic crop plant. It is considered that cotton is recalcitrant to in vitro proliferation. Somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration has been successful by using hypocotyl, whereas it is highly genotype dependent. Here, a genotype-independent cotton regeneration protocol from shoot apices is presented. Shoot apices from 3- to 5-day-old seedlings of cotton are infected with an Agrobacterium strain, EHA105, carrying the binary vector pC-KSA contained phytase gene (phyA) and the marker gene neomycin phosphotransferase (NPTII), and directly regenerated as shoots in vitro. Rooted shoots can be obtained within 6-8 weeks. Plants that survived by leaf painting kanamycin (kan) were -further analyzed by DNA and RNA blottings. The transgenic plants with increased the phosphorus (P) acquisition efficiency were obtained following the transformation method.

  18. Analysis of iron acquisition and storage-related genes in clinical and non-clinical strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Pawan Kumar; Bajaj, Priyanka; Virdi, Jugsharan Singh

    2015-10-01

    Possession of mechanisms for iron acquisition and its storage enhances the ability of the bacteria to survive in the iron-limiting environment of the host. In this study, 81 strains of Yersinia enterocolitica biovar 1A isolated from various clinical (n = 51) and non-clinical (n = 30) sources were investigated for the presence of the genes related to iron acquisition and storage. Important genes which were present in more than 85% of the strains included hasA, foxA, bfr, bfd, ftnA, and hmsT as well as the fhuCDB, fepBDGCfesfepA, feoAB, yfuABCD, hemPRSTUV, and hmsHFRS gene clusters. Majority of these genes is being reported for the first time in biovar 1A strains and showed significant homology with genes present in the known pathogenic biovars of Y. enterocolitica. However, no significant difference was observed in the distribution of iron acquisition and storage-related genes among clinical and non-clinical biovar 1A strains. Thus, it may be suggested that the presence of iron acquisition and storage-related genes per se might not be responsible for the supposedly better ability of clinical biovar 1A strains to cause infections in humans. However, in the backdrop of this data, the need to undertake functional studies are highly recommended. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Acquisition and evolution of plant pathogenesis-associated gene clusters and candidate determinants of tissue-specificity in xanthomonas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Lu

    Full Text Available Xanthomonas is a large genus of plant-associated and plant-pathogenic bacteria. Collectively, members cause diseases on over 392 plant species. Individually, they exhibit marked host- and tissue-specificity. The determinants of this specificity are unknown.To assess potential contributions to host- and tissue-specificity, pathogenesis-associated gene clusters were compared across genomes of eight Xanthomonas strains representing vascular or non-vascular pathogens of rice, brassicas, pepper and tomato, and citrus. The gum cluster for extracellular polysaccharide is conserved except for gumN and sequences downstream. The xcs and xps clusters for type II secretion are conserved, except in the rice pathogens, in which xcs is missing. In the otherwise conserved hrp cluster, sequences flanking the core genes for type III secretion vary with respect to insertion sequence element and putative effector gene content. Variation at the rpf (regulation of pathogenicity factors cluster is more pronounced, though genes with established functional relevance are conserved. A cluster for synthesis of lipopolysaccharide varies highly, suggesting multiple horizontal gene transfers and reassortments, but this variation does not correlate with host- or tissue-specificity. Phylogenetic trees based on amino acid alignments of gum, xps, xcs, hrp, and rpf cluster products generally reflect strain phylogeny. However, amino acid residues at four positions correlate with tissue specificity, revealing hpaA and xpsD as candidate determinants. Examination of genome sequences of xanthomonads Xylella fastidiosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia revealed that the hrp, gum, and xcs clusters are recent acquisitions in the Xanthomonas lineage.Our results provide insight into the ancestral Xanthomonas genome and indicate that differentiation with respect to host- and tissue-specificity involved not major modifications or wholesale exchange of clusters, but subtle changes in a small

  20. Horizontal Gene Acquisitions, Mobile Element Proliferation, and Genome Decay in the Host-Restricted Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lori R; Scully, Erin D; Straub, Timothy J; Park, Jihye; Stephenson, Andrew G; Beattie, Gwyn A; Gleason, Mark L; Kolter, Roberto; Coelho, Miguel C; De Moraes, Consuelo M; Mescher, Mark C; Zhaxybayeva, Olga

    2016-03-18

    Modern industrial agriculture depends on high-density cultivation of genetically similar crop plants, creating favorable conditions for the emergence of novel pathogens with increased fitness in managed compared with ecologically intact settings. Here, we present the genome sequence of six strains of the cucurbit bacterial wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila (Enterobacteriaceae) isolated from infected squash plants in New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Michigan. These genomes exhibit a high proportion of recent horizontal gene acquisitions, invasion and remarkable amplification of mobile genetic elements, and pseudogenization of approximately 20% of the coding sequences. These genome attributes indicate that E. tracheiphila recently emerged as a host-restricted pathogen. Furthermore, chromosomal rearrangements associated with phage and transposable element proliferation contribute to substantial differences in gene content and genetic architecture between the six E. tracheiphila strains and other Erwinia species. Together, these data lead us to hypothesize that E. tracheiphila has undergone recent evolution through both genome decay (pseudogenization) and genome expansion (horizontal gene transfer and mobile element amplification). Despite evidence of dramatic genomic changes, the six strains are genetically monomorphic, suggesting a recent population bottleneck and emergence into E. tracheiphila's current ecological niche. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  1. Horizontal Gene Acquisitions, Mobile Element Proliferation, and Genome Decay in the Host-Restricted Plant Pathogen Erwinia Tracheiphila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Lori R.; Scully, Erin D.; Straub, Timothy J.; Park, Jihye; Stephenson, Andrew G.; Beattie, Gwyn A.; Gleason, Mark L.; Kolter, Roberto; Coelho, Miguel C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.; Mescher, Mark C.; Zhaxybayeva, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Modern industrial agriculture depends on high-density cultivation of genetically similar crop plants, creating favorable conditions for the emergence of novel pathogens with increased fitness in managed compared with ecologically intact settings. Here, we present the genome sequence of six strains of the cucurbit bacterial wilt pathogen Erwinia tracheiphila (Enterobacteriaceae) isolated from infected squash plants in New York, Pennsylvania, Kentucky, and Michigan. These genomes exhibit a high proportion of recent horizontal gene acquisitions, invasion and remarkable amplification of mobile genetic elements, and pseudogenization of approximately 20% of the coding sequences. These genome attributes indicate that E. tracheiphila recently emerged as a host-restricted pathogen. Furthermore, chromosomal rearrangements associated with phage and transposable element proliferation contribute to substantial differences in gene content and genetic architecture between the six E. tracheiphila strains and other Erwinia species. Together, these data lead us to hypothesize that E. tracheiphila has undergone recent evolution through both genome decay (pseudogenization) and genome expansion (horizontal gene transfer and mobile element amplification). Despite evidence of dramatic genomic changes, the six strains are genetically monomorphic, suggesting a recent population bottleneck and emergence into E. tracheiphila’s current ecological niche. PMID:26992913

  2. The genome of a pathogenic rhodococcus: cooptive virulence underpinned by key gene acquisitions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Letek

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available We report the genome of the facultative intracellular parasite Rhodococcus equi, the only animal pathogen within the biotechnologically important actinobacterial genus Rhodococcus. The 5.0-Mb R. equi 103S genome is significantly smaller than those of environmental rhodococci. This is due to genome expansion in nonpathogenic species, via a linear gain of paralogous genes and an accelerated genetic flux, rather than reductive evolution in R. equi. The 103S genome lacks the extensive catabolic and secondary metabolic complement of environmental rhodococci, and it displays unique adaptations for host colonization and competition in the short-chain fatty acid-rich intestine and manure of herbivores--two main R. equi reservoirs. Except for a few horizontally acquired (HGT pathogenicity loci, including a cytoadhesive pilus determinant (rpl and the virulence plasmid vap pathogenicity island (PAI required for intramacrophage survival, most of the potential virulence-associated genes identified in R. equi are conserved in environmental rhodococci or have homologs in nonpathogenic Actinobacteria. This suggests a mechanism of virulence evolution based on the cooption of existing core actinobacterial traits, triggered by key host niche-adaptive HGT events. We tested this hypothesis by investigating R. equi virulence plasmid-chromosome crosstalk, by global transcription profiling and expression network analysis. Two chromosomal genes conserved in environmental rhodococci, encoding putative chorismate mutase and anthranilate synthase enzymes involved in aromatic amino acid biosynthesis, were strongly coregulated with vap PAI virulence genes and required for optimal proliferation in macrophages. The regulatory integration of chromosomal metabolic genes under the control of the HGT-acquired plasmid PAI is thus an important element in the cooptive virulence of R. equi.

  3. Early evolutionary acquisition of stomatal control and development gene signalling networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, Caspar; Gray, Julie E; Beerling, David J

    2013-10-01

    Fossil stomata of early vascular land plants date back over 418 million years and exhibit properties suggesting that they were operational, including differentially thickened guard cells and sub-stomatal chambers. Molecular studies on basal land plant groups (bryophytes and lycophytes) provide insight into the core genes involved in sensing and translating changes in the drought hormone abscisic acid (ABA), light and concentration of CO2 into changes in stomatal aperture. These studies indicate that early land plants probably possessed the genetic tool kits for stomata to actively respond to environmental/endogenous cues. With these ancestral molecular genetic tool kits in place, stomatal regulation of plant carbon and water relations may have became progressively more effective as hydraulic systems evolved in seed plant lineages. Gene expression and cross-species gene complementation studies suggest that the pathway regulating stomatal fate may also have been conserved across land plant evolution. This emerging area offers a fascinating glimpse into the potential genetic tool kits used by the earliest vascular land plants to build and operate the stomata preserved in the fossil record. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  5. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  6. Medicine in Ancient Assur

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arbøll, Troels Pank

    This dissertation is a microhistorical study of a single individual named Kiṣir-Aššur who practiced medicine in the ancient city of Assur (modern northern Iraq) in the 7th century BCE. The study provides the first detailed analysis of one healer’s education and practice in ancient Mesopotamia...

  7. Evolutionary Acquisition and Loss of Saxitoxin Biosynthesis in Dinoflagellates: the Second “Core” Gene, sxtG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orr, Russell J. S.; Stüken, Anke; Murray, Shauna A.

    2013-01-01

    Saxitoxin and its derivatives are potent neurotoxins produced by several cyanobacteria and dinoflagellate species. SxtA is the initial enzyme in the biosynthesis of saxitoxin. The dinoflagellate full mRNA and partial genomic sequences have previously been characterized, and it appears that sxtA originated in dinoflagellates through a horizontal gene transfer from a bacterium. So far, little is known about the remaining genes involved in this pathway in dinoflagellates. Here we characterize sxtG, an amidinotransferase enzyme gene that putatively encodes the second step in saxitoxin biosynthesis. In this study, the entire sxtG transcripts from Alexandrium fundyense CCMP1719 and Alexandrium minutum CCMP113 were amplified and sequenced. The transcripts contained typical dinoflagellate spliced leader sequences and eukaryotic poly(A) tails. In addition, partial sxtG transcript fragments were amplified from four additional Alexandrium species and Gymnodinium catenatum. The phylogenetic inference of dinoflagellate sxtG, congruent with sxtA, revealed a bacterial origin. However, it is not known if sxtG was acquired independently of sxtA. Amplification and sequencing of the corresponding genomic sxtG region revealed noncanonical introns. These introns show a high interspecies and low intraspecies variance, suggesting multiple independent acquisitions and losses. Unlike sxtA, sxtG was also amplified from Alexandrium species not known to synthesize saxitoxin. However, amplification was not observed for 22 non-saxitoxin-producing dinoflagellate species other than those of the genus Alexandrium or G. catenatum. This result strengthens our hypothesis that saxitoxin synthesis has been secondarily lost in conjunction with sxtA for some descendant species. PMID:23335767

  8. Genome analysis of a simultaneously predatory and prey-independent, novel Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus from the River Tiber, supports in silico predictions of both ancient and recent lateral gene transfer from diverse bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hobley Laura

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution equipped Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus predatory bacteria to invade other bacteria, digesting and replicating, sealed within them thus preventing nutrient-sharing with organisms in the surrounding environment. Bdellovibrio were previously described as “obligate predators” because only by mutations, often in gene bd0108, are 1 in ~1x107 of predatory lab strains of Bdellovibrio converted to prey-independent growth. A previous genomic analysis of B. bacteriovorus strain HD100 suggested that predatory consumption of prey DNA by lytic enzymes made Bdellovibrio less likely than other bacteria to acquire DNA by lateral gene transfer (LGT. However the Doolittle and Pan groups predicted, in silico, both ancient and recent lateral gene transfer into the B. bacteriovorus HD100 genome. Results To test these predictions, we isolated a predatory bacterium from the River Tiber- a good potential source of LGT as it is rich in diverse bacteria and organic pollutants- by enrichment culturing with E. coli prey cells. The isolate was identified as B. bacteriovorus and named as strain Tiberius. Unusually, this Tiberius strain showed simultaneous prey-independent growth on organic nutrients and predatory growth on live prey. Despite the prey-independent growth, the homolog of bd0108 did not have typical prey-independent-type mutations. The dual growth mode may reflect the high carbon content of the river, and gives B. bacteriovorus Tiberius extended non-predatory contact with the other bacteria present. The HD100 and Tiberius genomes were extensively syntenic despite their different cultured-terrestrial/freshly-isolated aquatic histories; but there were significant differences in gene content indicative of genomic flux and LGT. Gene content comparisons support previously published in silico predictions for LGT in strain HD100 with substantial conservation of genes predicted to have ancient LGT origins but little conservation of AT

  9. An In Vitro Blood-Feeding Method Revealed Differential Borrelia turicatae (Spirochaetales: Spirochaetaceae) Gene Expression After Spirochete Acquisition and Colonization in the Soft Tick Ornithodoros turicata (Acari: Argasidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelakanta, Girish; Sultana, Hameeda; Sonenshine, Daniel E; Marconi, Richard T

    2017-03-01

    In the Midwestern, Southwestern, and Southern part of the United States, the soft tick Ornithodoros turicata transmits the spirochete Borrelia turicatae, the causative agent of relapsing fever in humans. In this study, we report a simplified and an efficient method of in vitro feeding to evaluate O. turicata-B. turicatae interactions. Both nymphal and adult female ticks successfully acquired spirochetes upon in vitro feeding on the B. turicatae-infected blood. We also noted transstadial transmission of spirochetes to adult ticks that were molted from nymphs fed on B. turicatae-infected blood. A differential expression pattern for some of the B. turicatae genes was evident after acquisition and colonization of the vector. The levels of arthropod-associated lipoprotein Alp-mRNA were significantly upregulated and the mRNA levels of factor H binding protein FhbA and immunogenic protein BipA were significantly downregulated in the spirochetes after acquisition into ticks in comparison with spirochetes grown in culture medium. In addition, genes such as bta124 and bta116 were significantly upregulated in spirochetes in unfed ticks in comparison with the levels noted in spirochetes after acquisition. These findings represent an efficient in vitro blood-feeding method to study B. turicatae gene expression after acquisition and colonization in these ticks. In summary, we report that B. turicatae survive and develop in the tick host when acquired by in vitro feeding. We also report that B. turicatae genes are differentially expressed in ticks in comparison with the in vitro-grown cultures, indicating influence of tick environment on spirochete gene expression. © The Authors 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  11. Ancient Chinese Precedents in China

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Geddis, Robert

    1999-01-01

    ... classics from ancient china. The assumption is that since China's political and military leaders state openly that their strategy is based on traditional Chinese strategic concepts, a study of ancient classics on strategy...

  12. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this series of articles, we intend to have a glimpse of some of the landmarks in ancient In- dian mathematics with special emphasis on num- ber theory. This issue features a brief overview of some of the high peaks of mathematics in an- cient India. In the next part we shall describe. Aryabhata's general solution in integers ...

  13. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  14. Trepanation in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobert, Leah; Binello, Emanuela

    2017-05-01

    Trepanation, the process of making a burr hole in the skull to access the brain, is an ancient form of a primitive craniotomy. There is widespread evidence of contributions made to this practice by ancient civilizations in Europe, Africa, and South America, where archaeologists have unearthed thousands of trepanned skulls dating back to the Neolithic period. Little is known about trepanation in China, and it is commonly believed that the Chinese used only traditional Chinese medicine and nonsurgical methods for treating brain injuries. However, a thorough analysis of the available archeological and literary evidence reveals that trepanation was widely practiced throughout China thousands of years ago. A significant number of trepanned Chinese skulls have been unearthed showing signs of healing and suggesting that patients survived after surgery. Trepanation was likely performed for therapeutic and spiritual reasons. Medical and historical works from Chinese literature contain descriptions of primitive neurosurgical procedures, including stories of surgeons, such as the legendary Hua Tuo, and surgical techniques used for the treatment of brain pathologies. The lack of translation of Chinese reports into the English language and the lack of publications on this topic in the English language may have contributed to the misconception that ancient China was devoid of trepanation. This article summarizes the available evidence attesting to the performance of successful primitive cranial surgery in ancient China. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major…

  16. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  17. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Number Theory for its own sake, as a great 'intellectual challenge, has a long history, particularly here in India. Already in the 7th century, Brahmagupta made impor- tant contributions to what is now known (incorrectly) as. Pell's equation.: Michael Atiyah ([1], p.913). In number theory, the grandest achievements of ancient.

  18. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  19. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  20. Mathematics in Ancient India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SERIES I ARTICLE. Mathematics in Ancient India. 3. Brahmagupta's Lemma: The Samasabhavana. Amartya Kumar Dutta is an Associate Professor of. Mathematics at the. Indian Statistical. Institute, Kolkata. His research interest is in commutative algebra. Part 1, An overview, Reso- nance, VoL7, No.4, pp.4-19,. 2002. Part 2.

  1. Incest in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Škorić Marko

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available There are many controversies that surround the problem of incest in Ancient Egypt. One of them is belief that incest was practiced exclusively by the Royal families, which is incorrect. I will try to show that at this time we don’t have satisfactory explanation of this kind of behavior, but that there are interesting suggestions for further research.

  2. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  3. A new model involving ethylene, nitric oxide and Fe to explain the regulation of Fe-acquisition genes in Strategy I plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; Suárez, Vicente; Romera, Francisco J; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2011-05-01

    In previous work it has been shown that both ethylene and NO (nitric oxide) participate in a similar way in the up-regulation of several Fe-acquisition genes of Arabidopsis and other Strategy I plants. This raises the question as to whether NO acts through ethylene or ethylene acts through NO, or whether both act in conjunction. One possibility is that NO could increase ethylene production. Conversely, ethylene could increase NO production. By using Arabidopsis and cucumber plants, we have found that both possibilities occur: NO greatly induces the expression in roots of genes involved in ethylene synthesis: AtSAM1, AtSAM2, AtACS4, AtACS6, AtACO1, AtACO2, AtMTK; CsACS2 and CsACO2; on the other hand, ethylene greatly enhances NO production in the subapical region of the roots. These results suggest that each substance influences the production of the other and that both substances could be necessary for up-regulation of Fe-acquisition genes. This has been further confirmed in experiments with simultaneous application of the NO donor GSNO (S-nitrosoglutathione) and ethylene inhibitors; or with simultaneous application of the ethylene precursor ACC (1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid) and an NO scavenger. Both GSNO and ACC enhanced ferric reductase activity in control plants, but not in those plants simultaneously treated with the ethylene inhibitors or the NO scavenger, respectively. To explain all these results and previous ones we have proposed a new model involving ethylene, NO, and Fe in the up-regulation of Fe-acquisition genes of Strategy I plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. Genome evolution in an ancient bacteria-ant symbiosis: parallel gene loss among Blochmannia spanning the origin of the ant tribe Camponotini

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E. Williams

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stable associations between bacterial endosymbionts and insect hosts provide opportunities to explore genome evolution in the context of established mutualisms and assess the roles of selection and genetic drift across host lineages and habitats. Blochmannia, obligate endosymbionts of ants of the tribe Camponotini, have coevolved with their ant hosts for ∼40 MY. To investigate early events in Blochmannia genome evolution across this ant host tribe, we sequenced Blochmannia from two divergent host lineages, Colobopsis obliquus and Polyrhachis turneri, and compared them with four published genomes from Blochmannia of Camponotus sensu stricto. Reconstructed gene content of the last common ancestor (LCA of these six Blochmannia genomes is reduced (690 protein coding genes, consistent with rapid gene loss soon after establishment of the symbiosis. Differential gene loss among Blochmannia lineages has affected cellular functions and metabolic pathways, including DNA replication and repair, vitamin biosynthesis and membrane proteins. Blochmannia of P. turneri (i.e., B. turneri encodes an intact DnaA chromosomal replication initiation protein, demonstrating that loss of dnaA was not essential for establishment of the symbiosis. Based on gene content, B. obliquus and B. turneri are unable to provision hosts with riboflavin. Of the six sequenced Blochmannia, B. obliquus is the earliest diverging lineage (i.e., the sister group of other Blochmannia sampled and encodes the fewest protein-coding genes and the most pseudogenes. We identified 55 genes involved in parallel gene loss, including glutamine synthetase, which may participate in nitrogen recycling. Pathways for biosynthesis of coenzyme A, terpenoids and riboflavin were lost in multiple lineages, suggesting relaxed selection on the pathway after inactivation of one component. Analysis of Illumina read datasets did not detect evidence of plasmids encoding missing functions, nor the presence of

  5. Ancient drainages divide cryptic species in Australia's arid zone: morphological and multi-gene evidence for four new species of Beaked Geckos (Rhynchoedura).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepper, Mitzy; Doughty, Paul; Hutchinson, Mark N; Scott Keogh, J

    2011-12-01

    Deserts and other arid zones remain among the least studied biomes on Earth. Emerging genetic patterns of arid-distributed biota suggest a strong link between diversification history and both the onset of aridification and more recent cycles of severe aridification. A previous study based on 1 kb of mtDNA of the monotypic gecko genus Rhynchoedura identified five allopatric clades across the vast Australian arid zone. We supplemented this data with 2.2kb from three nuclear loci and additional mtDNA sequences. Phylogenetic relationships estimated from the mtDNA data with ML and Bayesian methods were largely concordant with relationships estimated with the nDNA data only, and mtDNA and nDNA data combined. These analyses, and coalescent-based species-tree inference methods implemented with (∗)BEAST, largely resolve the relationships among them. We also carried out an examination of 19 morphological characters for 268 museum specimens from across Australia, including all 197 animals for which we sequenced mtDNA. The mtDNA clades differ subtly in a number of morphological features, and we describe three of them as new species, raise a fourth from synonymy, and redescribe it and the type species, Rhynchoedura ornata. We also describe a morphologically distinctive new species from Queensland based on very few specimens. The distribution of arid zone clades across what is now relatively homogeneous sand deserts seems to be related to a topographic divide between the western uplands and eastern lowlands, with species' distributions correlated with dryland rivers and major drainage divides. The existence of five cryptic species within the formerly monotypic Rhynchoedura points to ancient divergences within the arid zone that likely were driven by wet phases as well as dry ones. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. An extended phylogenetic analysis reveals ancient origin of "non-green" phosphoribulokinase genes from two lineages of "green" secondary photosynthetic eukaryotes: Euglenophyta and Chlorarachniophyta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sekimoto Hiroyuki

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Euglenophyta and Chlorarachniophyta are groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes harboring secondary plastids of distinct green algal origins. Although previous phylogenetic analyses of genes encoding Calvin cycle enzymes demonstrated the presence of genes apparently not derived from green algal endosymbionts in the nuclear genomes of Euglena gracilis (Euglenophyta and Bigelowiella natans (Chlorarachniophyta, the origins of these "non-green" genes in "green" secondary phototrophs were unclear due to the limited taxon sampling. Results Here, we sequenced five new phosphoribulokinase (PRK genes (from one euglenophyte, two chlorarachniophytes, and two glaucophytes and performed an extended phylogenetic analysis of the genes based on a phylum-wide taxon sampling from various photosynthetic eukaryotes. Our phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the PRK sequences form two genera of Euglenophyta formed a robust monophyletic group within a large clade including stramenopiles, haptophytes and a cryptophyte, and three genera of Chlorarachniophyta were placed within the red algal clade. These "non-green" affiliations were supported by the taxon-specific insertion/deletion sequences in the PRK alignment, especially between euglenophytes and stramenopiles. In addition, phylogenetic analysis of another Calvin cycle enzyme, plastid-targeted sedoheptulose-bisphosphatase (SBP, showed that the SBP sequences from two genera of Chlorarachniophyta were positioned within a red algal clade. Conclusions Our results suggest that PRK genes may have been transferred from a "stramenopile" ancestor to Euglenophyta and from a "red algal" ancestor to Chlorarachniophyta before radiation of extant taxa of these two "green" secondary phototrophs. The presence of two of key Calvin cycle enzymes, PRK and SBP, of red algal origins in Chlorarachniophyta indicate that the contribution of "non-green" algae to the plastid proteome in the "green" secondary phototrophs is

  7. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak

    2014-01-01

    cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction......Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...

  8. Bacteria in ancient sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izzo, G.

    1986-01-01

    In order to ascertain the role of biological activity in ancient sediments, two microbiological studies were carried out. The first was on pleistocenic clay sediments on land, the second on deep oceanic sediments. In the present paper by direct counting the samples is demonstrated the presence of bacteria in a range of 10 5 to 10 7 . Further studies must be carried out to ascertain the activities by in situ incubation methods

  9. Childbirth in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamberlain, Geoffrey

    2004-11-01

    Medicine in ancient Egypt was much more advanced than the rest of the Biblical world, especially in trauma surgery. Care at the time of childbirth was however virtually non-existent. There were no trained obstetricians or midwives but a galaxy of gods were at hand. This article traces what we can piece together about pregnancy of childbirth from the evidence we have in tombs and papyri of Egypt.

  10. Investigation on the Ancient Site Location in the Mesopotamian Region Based on ALOS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Ken; Hasegawa, Hitoshi; Ushiki, Hisao; Goto, Tomoya

    2008-11-01

    This project aims to investigate the location of ancient Mesopotamian sites in Iraq and to create a distribution map using ALOS data. Iraq is a centre of the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. A distribution map is essential to conduct a prompt investigation and preservation of ancient sites and cultural heritage in Iraq which are at risk of looting and robbery due to the recent Iraqi condition. Firstly this project enables to create Satellite Image Map of Iraq, where the acquisition of detailed map is not possible, based on ALOS Data. The ancient site of Mesopotamia is called "Tell" which is swelled up from the alluvial plain and forms like a hill with the bare land on the surface. Secondly, the estimation of locating ancient site has been undertaken by using the Satellite Image Interpretation method. Finally the locations of the ancient sites and the Satellite Image map are layered to produce the Distribution Map.

  11. Linen in Ancient Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    dr.Rehab Mahmoud Ahmed Elsharnouby

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Egypt was famous through the Ancient Near East for both weaving linen cloth and the produced quantities. Cloth was sent as expensive gifts from one king to another and given to a laborer as wages in return for his work. Cloth was regarded as an essential element in everyday life as it could be used for everything: clothing, bedding, trappings for animals, or sails of a ship. It was in fact one of the most widely used item throughout Ancient Egypt. Although other textile fibers were used in Pharaonic Egypt, namely, sheep's wool, goat hair and a form of coir, the majority of textiles were made from the plant Linum usitatissimum, flax. Cloth made from this fiber is defined as linen. The research starts with a brief definition of the flax, and then reviews the scenes representing the sowing and the harvesting of its seeds. It also focuses on the way of removing the seeds heads, the preparing of the flax for spinning: retting, beating and scutching. After that, it deals with transforming flax into orderly lengths, and rolling it into balls or coils. The researcher as well studies the Ancient Egyptian spinning techniques: grasped spindle, support spindle and drop spinning; the different types of weaving: tabby weaves, basket weaves, tapestry weaves and warps-patterned weave and the types of looms that were in use in Egypt, namely, the horizontal and vertical looms.

  12. The obesity gene, TMEM18, is of ancient origin, found in majority of neuronal cells in all major brain regions and associated with obesity in severely obese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Levine Allen S

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background TMEM18 is a hypothalamic gene that has recently been linked to obesity and BMI in genome wide association studies. However, the functional properties of TMEM18 are obscure. Methods The evolutionary history of TMEM18 was inferred using phylogenetic and bioinformatic methods. The gene's expression profile was investigated with real-time PCR in a panel of rat and mouse tissues and with immunohistochemistry in the mouse brain. Also, gene expression changes were analyzed in three feeding-related mouse models: food deprivation, reward and diet-induced increase in body weight. Finally, we genotyped 502 severely obese and 527 healthy Swedish children for two SNPs near TMEM18 (rs6548238 and rs756131. Results TMEM18 was found to be remarkably conserved and present in species that diverged from the human lineage over 1500 million years ago. The TMEM18 gene was widely expressed and detected in the majority of cells in all major brain regions, but was more abundant in neurons than other cell types. We found no significant changes in the hypothalamic and brainstem expression in the feeding-related mouse models. There was a strong association for two SNPs (rs6548238 and rs756131 of the TMEM18 locus with an increased risk for obesity (p = 0.001 and p = 0.002. Conclusion We conclude that TMEM18 is involved in both adult and childhood obesity. It is one of the most conserved human obesity genes and it is found in the majority of all brain sites, including the hypothalamus and the brain stem, but it is not regulated in these regions in classical energy homeostatic models.

  13. The ancient Virus World and evolution of cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolja Valerian V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent advances in genomics of viruses and cellular life forms have greatly stimulated interest in the origins and evolution of viruses and, for the first time, offer an opportunity for a data-driven exploration of the deepest roots of viruses. Here we briefly review the current views of virus evolution and propose a new, coherent scenario that appears to be best compatible with comparative-genomic data and is naturally linked to models of cellular evolution that, from independent considerations, seem to be the most parsimonious among the existing ones. Results Several genes coding for key proteins involved in viral replication and morphogenesis as well as the major capsid protein of icosahedral virions are shared by many groups of RNA and DNA viruses but are missing in cellular life forms. On the basis of this key observation and the data on extensive genetic exchange between diverse viruses, we propose the concept of the ancient virus world. The virus world is construed as a distinct contingent of viral genes that continuously retained its identity throughout the entire history of life. Under this concept, the principal lineages of viruses and related selfish agents emerged from the primordial pool of primitive genetic elements, the ancestors of both cellular and viral genes. Thus, notwithstanding the numerous gene exchanges and acquisitions attributed to later stages of evolution, most, if not all, modern viruses and other selfish agents are inferred to descend from elements that belonged to the primordial genetic pool. In this pool, RNA viruses would evolve first, followed by retroid elements, and DNA viruses. The Virus World concept is predicated on a model of early evolution whereby emergence of substantial genetic diversity antedates the advent of full-fledged cells, allowing for extensive gene mixing at this early stage of evolution. We outline a scenario of the origin of the main classes of viruses in conjunction

  14. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  15. Syntax acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Stephen; Thornton, Rosalind

    2012-03-01

    Every normal child acquires a language in just a few years. By 3- or 4-years-old, children have effectively become adults in their abilities to produce and understand endlessly many sentences in a variety of conversational contexts. There are two alternative accounts of the course of children's language development. These different perspectives can be traced back to the nature versus nurture debate about how knowledge is acquired in any cognitive domain. One perspective dates back to Plato's dialog 'The Meno'. In this dialog, the protagonist, Socrates, demonstrates to Meno, an aristocrat in Ancient Greece, that a young slave knows more about geometry than he could have learned from experience. By extension, Plato's Problem refers to any gap between experience and knowledge. How children fill in the gap in the case of language continues to be the subject of much controversy in cognitive science. Any model of language acquisition must address three factors, inter alia: 1. The knowledge children accrue; 2. The input children receive (often called the primary linguistic data); 3. The nonlinguistic capacities of children to form and test generalizations based on the input. According to the famous linguist Noam Chomsky, the main task of linguistics is to explain how children bridge the gap-Chomsky calls it a 'chasm'-between what they come to know about language, and what they could have learned from experience, even given optimistic assumptions about their cognitive abilities. Proponents of the alternative 'nurture' approach accuse nativists like Chomsky of overestimating the complexity of what children learn, underestimating the data children have to work with, and manifesting undue pessimism about children's abilities to extract information based on the input. The modern 'nurture' approach is often referred to as the usage-based account. We discuss the usage-based account first, and then the nativist account. After that, we report and discuss the findings of several

  16. Physiologic cold shock of Moraxella catarrhalis affects the expression of genes involved in the iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schaller André

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Moraxella catarrhalis, a major nasopharyngeal pathogen of the human respiratory tract, is exposed to rapid downshifts of environmental temperature when humans breathe cold air. It was previously shown that the prevalence of pharyngeal colonization and respiratory tract infections caused by M. catarrhalis are greatest in winter. The aim of this study was to investigate how M. catarrhalis uses the physiologic exposure to cold air to upregulate pivotal survival systems in the pharynx that may contribute to M. catarrhalis virulence. Results A 26°C cold shock induces the expression of genes involved in transferrin and lactoferrin acquisition, and enhances binding of these proteins on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Exposure of M. catarrhalis to 26°C upregulates the expression of UspA2, a major outer membrane protein involved in serum resistance, leading to improved binding of vitronectin which neutralizes the lethal effect of human complement. In contrast, cold shock decreases the expression of Hemagglutinin, a major adhesin, which mediates B cell response, and reduces immunoglobulin D-binding on the surface of M. catarrhalis. Conclusion Cold shock of M. catarrhalis induces the expression of genes involved in iron acquisition, serum resistance and immune evasion. Thus, cold shock at a physiologically relevant temperature of 26°C induces in M. catarrhalis a complex of adaptive mechanisms that enables the bacterium to target their host cellular receptors or soluble effectors and may contribute to enhanced growth, colonization and virulence.

  17. Morphology and Gene Sequence of Levicoleps biwae n. gen., n. sp. (Ciliophora, Prostomatida), a Proposed Endemic from the Ancient Lake Biwa, Japan

    OpenAIRE

    FOISSNER, WILHELM; KUSUOKA, YASUSHI; SHIMANO, SATOSHI

    2008-01-01

    Levicoleps biwae n. gen., n. sp. was discovered in organic mud on the shore of Lake Biwa, Japan. Its morphology and small subunit rRNA gene sequence were studied with standard methods. Further, we established a terminology for the colepid armour and selected four features for genus recognition: the number of armour tiers, the structure of the tier plates, the presence/absence of armour spines, and the number of adoral organelles (three or five). The Japanese colepid, a barrel-shaped ciliate w...

  18. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  19. Urology in ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakti Das

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of medical and surgical measures in the management of urological ailments prevailed in ancient India from the Vedic era around 3000 BC. Subsequently in the Samhita period, the two stalwarts - Charaka in medicine and Susruta in surgery elevated the art of medicine in India to unprecedented heights. Their elaboration of the etiopathological hypothesis and the medical and surgical treatments of various urological disorders of unparalleled ingenuity still remain valid to some extent in our contemporary understanding. The new generation of accomplished Indian urologists should humbly venerate the legacy of the illustrious pioneers in urology of our motherland.

  20. [Sexuality in Ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Androutsos, G; Marketos, S

    1994-10-01

    The present article explores the sexuality in ancient Egypt. In particular in this article are presented the ways of concubinage (marriage, concubinage, adultery), the incest, loves of the pharaohs and of the common people, the freedom of choice in garments, the status of the hetairas and of the whores, the sexual perversions (male and female homosexuality, necrophilia, sodomism, bestiality, rape, masturbation, exhibitionism), the operations of the genitals (circumcision, excision, castration) and finally the level of knowledge in gynaecology, fertility, contraception and obstetrics that even today demands our admiration.

  1. Obscuring the ancient artifacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tugrul, B.

    1987-01-01

    Radiography is a non-destructive method which is preferable for ancient artifacts. X-rays, gama rays, beta rays and neutrons can be used for radiography. Differences of them and application materials can be different. In this study, the radiographic techniques are determined with application parameters according to materials of the artifacts, and some interesting examples are given. Therefore, investigation of the artifacts can be realized for definition of physical properties, manufacturing techniques and quality controls of them easily by the application of the radiography. (author)

  2. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  3. Identification of a gene for an ancient cytokine, interleukin 15-like, in mammals; interleukins 2 and 15 co-evolved with this third family member, all sharing binding motifs for IL-15Rα.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkstra, Johannes M; Takizawa, Fumio; Fischer, Uwe; Friedrich, Maik; Soto-Lampe, Veronica; Lefèvre, Christophe; Lenk, Matthias; Karger, Axel; Matsui, Taei; Hashimoto, Keiichiro

    2014-02-01

    Interleukins 2 and 15 (IL-2 and IL-15) are highly differentiated but related cytokines with overlapping, yet also distinct functions, and established benefits for medical drug use. The present study identified a gene for an ancient third IL-2/15 family member in reptiles and mammals, interleukin 15-like (IL-15L), which hitherto was only reported in fish. IL-15L genes with intact open reading frames (ORFs) and evidence of transcription, and a recent past of purifying selection, were found for cattle, horse, sheep, pig and rabbit. In human and mouse the IL-15L ORF is incapacitated. Although deduced IL-15L proteins share only ~21 % overall amino acid identity with IL-15, they share many of the IL-15 residues important for binding to receptor chain IL-15Rα, and recombinant bovine IL-15L was shown to interact with IL-15Rα indeed. Comparison of sequence motifs indicates that capacity for binding IL-15Rα is an ancestral characteristic of the IL-2/15/15L family, in accordance with a recent study which showed that in fish both IL-2 and IL-15 can bind IL-15Rα. Evidence reveals that the species lineage leading to mammals started out with three similar cytokines IL-2, IL-15 and IL-15L, and that later in evolution (1) IL-2 and IL-2Rα receptor chain acquired a new and specific binding mode and (2) IL-15L was lost in several but not all groups of mammals. The present study forms an important step forward in understanding this potent family of cytokines, and may help to improve future strategies for their application in veterinarian and human medicine.

  4. Experimental Evolution of Escherichia coli Harboring an Ancient Translation Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacar, Betül; Ge, Xueliang; Sanyal, Suparna; Gaucher, Eric A

    2017-03-01

    The ability to design synthetic genes and engineer biological systems at the genome scale opens new means by which to characterize phenotypic states and the responses of biological systems to perturbations. One emerging method involves inserting artificial genes into bacterial genomes and examining how the genome and its new genes adapt to each other. Here we report the development and implementation of a modified approach to this method, in which phylogenetically inferred genes are inserted into a microbial genome, and laboratory evolution is then used to examine the adaptive potential of the resulting hybrid genome. Specifically, we engineered an approximately 700-million-year-old inferred ancestral variant of tufB, an essential gene encoding elongation factor Tu, and inserted it in a modern Escherichia coli genome in place of the native tufB gene. While the ancient homolog was not lethal to the cell, it did cause a twofold decrease in organismal fitness, mainly due to reduced protein dosage. We subsequently evolved replicate hybrid bacterial populations for 2000 generations in the laboratory and examined the adaptive response via fitness assays, whole genome sequencing, proteomics, and biochemical assays. Hybrid lineages exhibit a general adaptive strategy in which the fitness cost of the ancient gene was ameliorated in part by upregulation of protein production. Our results suggest that an ancient-modern recombinant method may pave the way for the synthesis of organisms that exhibit ancient phenotypes, and that laboratory evolution of these organisms may prove useful in elucidating insights into historical adaptive processes.

  5. Ancient female philopatry, asymmetric male gene flow, and synchronous population expansion support the influence of climatic oscillations on the evolution of South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehara, Marcelo C. M.; Fraga, Lúcia D.; Lopes, Fernando; Túnez, Juan Ignacio; Cassini, Marcelo H.; Majluf, Patricia; Cárdenas-Alayza, Susana; Pavés, Héctor J.; Crespo, Enrique Alberto; García, Nestor; Loizaga de Castro, Rocío; Hoelzel, A. Rus; Sepúlveda, Maritza; Olavarría, Carlos; Valiati, Victor Hugo; Quiñones, Renato; Pérez-Alvarez, Maria Jose; Ott, Paulo Henrique

    2017-01-01

    The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens) is widely distributed along the southern Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America with a history of significant commercial exploitation. We aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure and the evolutionary history of South American sea lion along its distribution by analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and 10 nuclear microsatellites loci. We analyzed 147 sequences of mtDNA control region and genotyped 111 individuals of South American sea lion for 10 microsatellite loci, representing six populations (Peru, Northern Chile, Southern Chile, Uruguay (Brazil), Argentina and Falkland (Malvinas) Islands) and covering the entire distribution of the species. The mtDNA phylogeny shows that haplotypes from the two oceans comprise two very divergent clades as observed in previous studies, suggesting a long period (>1 million years) of low inter-oceanic female gene flow. Bayesian analysis of bi-parental genetic diversity supports significant (but less pronounced than mitochondrial) genetic structure between Pacific and Atlantic populations, although also suggested some inter-oceanic gene flow mediated by males. Higher male migration rates were found in the intra-oceanic population comparisons, supporting very high female philopatry in the species. Demographic analyses showed that populations from both oceans went through a large population expansion ~10,000 years ago, suggesting a very similar influence of historical environmental factors, such as the last glacial cycle, on both regions. Our results support the proposition that the Pacific and Atlantic populations of the South American sea lion should be considered distinct evolutionarily significant units, with at least two managements units in each ocean. PMID:28654647

  6. Ancient female philopatry, asymmetric male gene flow, and synchronous population expansion support the influence of climatic oscillations on the evolution of South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Rosa de Oliveira

    Full Text Available The South American sea lion (Otaria flavescens is widely distributed along the southern Atlantic and Pacific coasts of South America with a history of significant commercial exploitation. We aimed to evaluate the population genetic structure and the evolutionary history of South American sea lion along its distribution by analyses of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and 10 nuclear microsatellites loci. We analyzed 147 sequences of mtDNA control region and genotyped 111 individuals of South American sea lion for 10 microsatellite loci, representing six populations (Peru, Northern Chile, Southern Chile, Uruguay (Brazil, Argentina and Falkland (Malvinas Islands and covering the entire distribution of the species. The mtDNA phylogeny shows that haplotypes from the two oceans comprise two very divergent clades as observed in previous studies, suggesting a long period (>1 million years of low inter-oceanic female gene flow. Bayesian analysis of bi-parental genetic diversity supports significant (but less pronounced than mitochondrial genetic structure between Pacific and Atlantic populations, although also suggested some inter-oceanic gene flow mediated by males. Higher male migration rates were found in the intra-oceanic population comparisons, supporting very high female philopatry in the species. Demographic analyses showed that populations from both oceans went through a large population expansion ~10,000 years ago, suggesting a very similar influence of historical environmental factors, such as the last glacial cycle, on both regions. Our results support the proposition that the Pacific and Atlantic populations of the South American sea lion should be considered distinct evolutionarily significant units, with at least two managements units in each ocean.

  7. Ancient celtic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  8. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  9. Ethylene and nitric oxide involvement in the up-regulation of key genes related to iron acquisition and homeostasis in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, María J; Lucena, Carlos; Romera, Francisco J; Alcántara, Esteban; Pérez-Vicente, Rafael

    2010-09-01

    In a previous work it was shown that ethylene participates in the up-regulation of several Fe acquisition genes of Arabidopsis, such as AtFIT, AtFRO2, and AtIRT1. In this work the relationship between ethylene and Fe-related genes in Arabidopsis has been looked at in more depth. Genes induced by Fe deficiency regulated by ethylene were searched for. For this, studies were conducted, using microarray analysis and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), to determine which of the genes up-regulated by Fe deficiency are simultaneously suppressed by two different ethylene inhibitors (cobalt and silver thiosulphate), assessing their regulation by ethylene in additional experiments. In a complementary experiment, it was determined that the Fe-related genes up-regulated by ethylene were also responsive to nitric oxide (NO). Further studies were performed to analyse whether Fe deficiency up-regulates the expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis [S-adenosylmethionine synthetase, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) synthase, and ACC oxidase genes] and signalling (AtETR1, AtCTR1, AtEIN2, AtEIN3, AtEIL1, and AtEIL3). The results obtained show that both ethylene and NO are involved in the up-regulation of many important Fe-regulated genes of Arabidopsis, such as AtFIT, AtbHLH38, AtbHLH39, AtFRO2, AtIRT1, AtNAS1, AtNAS2, AtFRD3, AtMYB72, and others. In addition, the results show that Fe deficiency up-regulates genes involved in both ethylene synthesis (AtSAM1, AtSAM2, AtACS4, AtACS6, AtACS9, AtACO1, and AtACO2) and signalling (AtETR1, AtCTR1, AtEIN2, AtEIN3, AtEIL1, and AtEIL3) in the roots.

  10. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  11. Ancient Greek new music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Žužek

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article I use a contextual approach to questions about the revolutionary »new music« in ancient Greece. This view is different from the nowadays most common formalistk view. Rather than analyze textual sources stylistically, I will try to present the available lata in the context of the structure and events of the Athenian society at a tirne when a wave of »new« poetics appeared. In the following discussion it is argued that the »new music« and the phenomena of the destruction of mousiké connected with it are not an esthetical novum, but more a consequence of the change of the discursive practice, where a musical poetry became less important and needless.

  12. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. X. Gong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Tripitaka is the world’s most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC. The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  13. Comparative analysis of complete genomes reveals gene loss, acquisition and acceleration of evolutionary rates in Metazoa, suggests a prevalence of evolution via gene acquisition and indicates that the evolutionary rates in animals tend to be conserved

    OpenAIRE

    Babenko, Vladimir N.; Krylov, Dmitri M.

    2004-01-01

    In this study we systematically examined the differences between the proteomes of Metazoa and other eukaryotes. Metazoans (Homo sapiens, Ceanorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) were compared with a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccaromyces pombe) and Encephalitozoan cuniculi. We identified 159 gene families that were probably lost in the Metazoan branch and 1263 orthologous families that were specific to Metazoa and were likely to have or...

  14. Comparative analysis of complete genomes reveals gene loss, acquisition and acceleration of evolutionary rates in Metazoa, suggests a prevalence of evolution via gene acquisition and indicates that the evolutionary rates in animals tend to be conserved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babenko, Vladimir N; Krylov, Dmitri M

    2004-01-01

    In this study we systematically examined the differences between the proteomes of Metazoa and other eukaryotes. Metazoans (Homo sapiens, Ceanorhabditis elegans and Drosophila melanogaster) were compared with a plant (Arabidopsis thaliana), fungi (Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Schizosaccaromyces pombe) and Encephalitozoan cuniculi. We identified 159 gene families that were probably lost in the Metazoan branch and 1263 orthologous families that were specific to Metazoa and were likely to have originated in their last common ancestor (LCA). We analyzed the evolutionary rates of pan-eukaryotic protein families and identified those with higher rates in animals. The acceleration was shown to occur in: (i) the LCA of Metazoa or (ii) independently in the Metazoan phyla. A high proportion of the accelerated Metazoan protein families was found to participate in translation and ribosome biogenesis, particularly mitochondrial. By functional analysis we show that no metabolic pathway in animals evolved faster than in other organisms. We conclude that evolution in the LCA of Metazoa was extensive and proceeded largely by gene duplication and/or invention rather than by modification of extant proteins. Finally, we show that the rate of evolution of a gene family in animals has a clear, but not absolute, tendency to be conserved.

  15. The effects of a partitioned var gene repertoire of Plasmodium falciparum on antigenic diversity and the acquisition of clinical immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arinaminpathy Nimalan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum exploits antigenic diversity and within-host antigenic variation to evade the host's immune system. Of particular importance are the highly polymorphic var genes that encode the family of cell surface antigens PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum Erythrocyte Membrane Protein 1. It has recently been shown that in spite of their extreme diversity, however, these genes fall into distinct groups according to chromosomal location or sequence similarity, and that recombination may be confined within these groups. Methods This study presents a mathematical analysis of how recombination hierarchies affect diversity, and, by using simple stochastic simulations, investigates how intra- and inter-genic diversity influence the rate at which individuals acquire clinical immunity. Results The analysis demonstrates that the partitioning of the var gene repertoire has a limiting effect on the total diversity attainable through recombination and that the limiting effect is strongly influenced by the respective sizes of each of the partitions. Furthermore, by associating expression of one of the groups with severe malaria it is demonstrated how a small number of infections can be sufficient to protect against disease despite a seemingly limitless number of possible non-identical repertoires. Conclusion Recombination hierarchies within the var gene repertoire of P. falciparum have a severe effect on strain diversity and the process of acquiring immunity against clinical malaria. Future studies will show how the existence of these recombining groups can offer an evolutionary advantage in spite of their restriction on diversity.

  16. Acquisition of useful and high ability genes for acidophilic bacteria; Kosansei saikin ni takai noryoku wo fuyosuru idenshi no kakutoku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senda, T.; Inoue, C.; Shinbori, Y. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan)

    1997-02-01

    This effort aims at the development of high-performance bacteria usable in bio-leaching in metal smelting by acquiring genes capable of realizing such. A method is used of choosing some isolated strains exhibiting high-performance traits and acquiring target genes therefrom by use of genetic engineering. Approximately 200 kinds in the aggregate of acidophilic bacteria are currently available for the study, including isolated iron-oxidizing and sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, standard species acquired for the study, and strains previously isolated by the laboratory. The bacteria are tested with respect to their Fe{sup 2+}-oxidizing rates, sulfur-oxidizing capabilities, and strength to withstand inhibiting substances (Ag{sup +}, Cl{sup -}, Mo{sup 6+}, etc.), which results in the nomination of 8 strains. The study planned to follow includes processes involving the extraction of chromosome DNAs from the 8 strains and their refinement, gene cloning by the Southern hybridization method, determination of their base sequences, determination of the difference between the strains in point of gene expression, and investigations of the relations that the results of these processes bear toward the said high-performance traits. Also under way is a study about the infuence-exerting factors revealed during the evaluation of the abilities of acidphlic bacteria. 2 refs., 2 tabs.

  17. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danchin, Etienne G J; Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Rancurel, Corinne; Thorpe, Peter; Da Rocha, Martine; Bajew, Simon; Neilson, Roy; Guzeeva, Elena Sokolova; Da Silva, Corinne; Guy, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Helder, Johannes; Jones, John T; den Akker, Sebastian Eves-van

    2017-10-23

    Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. We have used ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq) to generate reference transcriptomes for two economically important nematode species, Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus , representative of two genera within the early-branching Clade 2 of the phylum Nematoda. We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. This represents the first in-depth transcriptome analysis from any plant-parasitic nematode of this clade. For each species, we assembled ~30 million Illumina reads into a reference transcriptome. We identified 62 and 104 transcripts, from X. index and L. elongatus , respectively, that were putatively acquired via horizontal gene transfer. By cross-referencing horizontal gene transfer prediction with a phylum-wide analysis of Pfam domains, we identified Clade 2-specific events. Of these, a GH12 cellulase from X. index was analysed phylogenetically and biochemically, revealing a likely bacterial origin and canonical enzymatic function. Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. Our findings underline the importance and the extensiveness of this phenomenon in the evolution of plant-parasitic life styles in this speciose and widespread animal phylum.

  18. Ancient DNA and the tropics: a rodent's tale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Tania A; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; King, Christine; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2014-06-01

    Most genetic studies of Holocene fauna have been performed with ancient samples from dry and cold regions, in which preservation of fossils is facilitated and molecular damage is reduced. Ancient DNA work from tropical regions has been precluded owing to factors that limit DNA preservation (e.g. temperature, hydrolytic damage). We analysed ancient DNA from rodent jawbones identified as Ototylomys phyllotis, found in Holocene and Late Pleistocene stratigraphic layers from Loltún, a humid tropical cave located in the Yucatan peninsula. We extracted DNA and amplified six short overlapping fragments of the cytochrome b gene, totalling 666 bp, which represents an unprecedented success considering tropical ancient DNA samples. We performed genetic, phylogenetic and divergence time analyses, combining sequences from ancient and modern O. phyllotis, in order to assess the ancestry of the Loltún samples. Results show that all ancient samples fall into a unique clade that diverged prior to the divergence of the modern O. phyllotis, supporting it as a distinct Pleistocene form of the Ototylomys genus. Hence, this rodent's tale suggests that the sister group to modern O. phyllotis arose during the Miocene-Pliocene, diversified during the Pleistocene and went extinct in the Holocene. © 2014 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  19. Resource Economics and Institutions in Ancient Athens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Brooks

    economic concerns regarding distance-costs to Athens, but also institutional costs of reliably getting the needed timber. We use orbis.stanford.edu and GIS ecological and topographical information as analytical tools for spatial cost-distance from forests to Piraeus to calculate relative costs of transport......Institutional development in ancient Athens ranged from banking and legally recorded and sustained private ownership of a variety of goods and services that enabled domestic and international trade to liturgical mechanisms for procurement of public goods. These institutions in turn provided...... unencumbered, even when direct force or extraction of tribute was not the main mechanism. But no consistent records or other reliable indications point to steady, enforced markets in timber from a given location to Athens. We use resource economic theory to uncover more about timber acquisition in Athens...

  20. Acquisition of apparent DNA slippage structures during extensive evolutionary divergence of pcaD and catD genes encoding identical catalytic activities in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartnett, G B; Ornston, L N

    1994-05-03

    The pca operon from the Gram- bacterium Acinetobacter calcoaceticus encodes all of the enzymes required for catabolism of protocatechuate to common intermediary metabolites. This report presents the 2754-nucleotide (nt) sequence of a HindIII restriction fragment containing pcaD, the 801-bp gene encoding beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase I. The deduced primary structure of A. calcoaceticus PcaD shares 44% amino acid (aa) sequence identity with the aligned primary structure of CatD (beta-ketoadipate enol-lactone hydrolase II) from the same organism, and the overall nt sequence identity of the two genes is 51.8%. In the 56% of the genes where selection for identical aa residues was not imposed, pcaD and catD have diverged so extensively that nt sequence identity of the aligned segments is only 28.2%; the G+C contents of these segments from the respective genes differ by 8%. Conserved within the aligned PcaD and CatD aa sequences is a Ser residue corresponding to the nucleophile within the alpha/beta-fold of many hydrolytic enzymes. In this region of primary structure, PcaD and CatD appear to have maintained some different aa sequences derived from a common ancestor. Conservation of the different aa sequences during extreme evolutionary divergence suggests that separate segments of primary structure, conserved within either PcaD or CatD, may be functionally incompatible within recombinant enzymes. Consequently, selection for avoidance of genetic exchange between pcaD and catD could account for the thorough nt substitution in regions where identical aa were not selected. Sequence repetitions within pcaD suggest that the multiple mutations required for its extensive divergence from catD were achieved in part by acquisition of a complex DNA slippage structure.

  1. Evolution of the alternative AQP2 gene: Acquisition of a novel protein-coding sequence in dolphins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishida, Takushi; Suzuki, Miwa; Takayama, Asuka

    2018-01-01

    Taxon-specific de novo protein-coding sequences are thought to be important for taxon-specific environmental adaptation. A recent study revealed that bottlenose dolphins acquired a novel isoform of aquaporin 2 generated by alternative splicing (alternative AQP2), which helps dolphins to live in hyperosmotic seawater. The AQP2 gene consists of four exons, but the alternative AQP2 gene lacks the fourth exon and instead has a longer third exon that includes the original third exon and a part of the original third intron. Here, we show that the latter half of the third exon of the alternative AQP2 arose from a non-protein-coding sequence. Intact ORF of this de novo sequence is shared not by all cetaceans, but only by delphinoids. However, this sequence is conservative in all modern cetaceans, implying that this de novo sequence potentially plays important roles for marine adaptation in cetaceans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of ancient silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flament, Christophe; Marchetti, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    Writing from the numismatist point of view, the authors open this paper by reviewing critically the use of scientific methods for the studies of ancient coins. They also report about an application of the PIXE method at low incident proton energy to one of the most celebrated and known coinage in the ancient history: the Athenian silver coins of the fifth century BC. The results of those analyses indicate that the metallic composition of several coins usually taken as ancient imitations of Athenian coins does not differ from that of the genuine ones. Those analyses confirm what the authors have inferred from numismatic sources: These coins are probably genuinely Athenian

  3. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danchin, Etienne G.J.; Perfus-Barbeoch, Laetitia; Rancurel, Corinne; Thorpe, Peter; Rocha, Da Martine; Bajew, Simon; Neilson, Roy; Sokolova, Elena; Silva, Da Corinne; Guy, Julie; Labadie, Karine; Esmenjaud, Daniel; Helder, Hans; Jones, John T.; Eves-van den Akker, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been

  4. The Transcriptomes of Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus Suggest Independent Acquisition of Some Plant Parasitism Genes by Horizontal Gene Transfer in Early-Branching Nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etienne G.J. Danchin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Nematodes have evolved the ability to parasitize plants on at least four independent occasions, with plant parasites present in Clades 1, 2, 10 and 12 of the phylum. In the case of Clades 10 and 12, horizontal gene transfer of plant cell wall degrading enzymes from bacteria and fungi has been implicated in the evolution of plant parasitism. We have used ribonucleic acid sequencing (RNAseq to generate reference transcriptomes for two economically important nematode species, Xiphinema index and Longidorus elongatus, representative of two genera within the early-branching Clade 2 of the phylum Nematoda. We used a transcriptome-wide analysis to identify putative horizontal gene transfer events. This represents the first in-depth transcriptome analysis from any plant-parasitic nematode of this clade. For each species, we assembled ~30 million Illumina reads into a reference transcriptome. We identified 62 and 104 transcripts, from X. index and L. elongatus, respectively, that were putatively acquired via horizontal gene transfer. By cross-referencing horizontal gene transfer prediction with a phylum-wide analysis of Pfam domains, we identified Clade 2-specific events. Of these, a GH12 cellulase from X. index was analysed phylogenetically and biochemically, revealing a likely bacterial origin and canonical enzymatic function. Horizontal gene transfer was previously shown to be a phenomenon that has contributed to the evolution of plant parasitism among nematodes. Our findings underline the importance and the extensiveness of this phenomenon in the evolution of plant-parasitic life styles in this speciose and widespread animal phylum.

  5. Microdiversification of a Pelagic Polynucleobacter Species Is Mainly Driven by Acquisition of Genomic Islands from a Partially Interspecific Gene Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Johanna; Jezberová, Jitka; Koll, Ulrike; Hahn, Martin W.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Microdiversification of a planktonic freshwater bacterium was studied by comparing 37 Polynucleobacter asymbioticus strains obtained from three geographically separated sites in the Austrian Alps. Genome comparison of nine strains revealed a core genome of 1.8 Mb, representing 81% of the average genome size. Seventy-five percent of the remaining flexible genome is clustered in genomic islands (GIs). Twenty-four genomic positions could be identified where GIs are potentially located. These positions are occupied strain specifically from a set of 28 GI variants, classified according to similarities in their gene content. One variant, present in 62% of the isolates, encodes a pathway for the degradation of aromatic compounds, and another, found in 78% of the strains, contains an operon for nitrate assimilation. Both variants were shown in ecophysiological tests to be functional, thus providing the potential for microniche partitioning. In addition, detected interspecific horizontal exchange of GIs indicates a large gene pool accessible to Polynucleobacter species. In contrast to core genes, GIs are spread more successfully across spatially separated freshwater habitats. The mobility and functional diversity of GIs allow for rapid evolution, which may be a key aspect for the ubiquitous occurrence of Polynucleobacter bacteria. IMPORTANCE Assessing the ecological relevance of bacterial diversity is a key challenge for current microbial ecology. The polyphasic approach which was applied in this study, including targeted isolation of strains, genome analysis, and ecophysiological tests, is crucial for the linkage of genetic and ecological knowledge. Particularly great importance is attached to the high number of closely related strains which were investigated, represented by genome-wide average nucleotide identities (ANI) larger than 97%. The extent of functional diversification found on this narrow phylogenetic scale is compelling. Moreover, the transfer of

  6. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  7. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    MERGERS & ACQUISITIONS: Counseling and Choice of Method describes and analyzes the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. The focus is aimed and maintained at application...

  8. Data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clout, P.N.

    1982-01-01

    Data acquisition systems are discussed for molecular biology experiments using synchrotron radiation sources. The data acquisition system requirements are considered. The components of the solution are described including hardwired solutions and computer-based solutions. Finally, the considerations for the choice of the computer-based solution are outlined. (U.K.)

  9. Dual RNA-seq transcriptional analysis of wheat roots colonized by Azospirillum brasilense reveals up-regulation of nutrient acquisition and cell cycle genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camilios-Neto, Doumit; Bonato, Paloma; Wassem, Roseli; Tadra-Sfeir, Michelle Z; Brusamarello-Santos, Liziane C C; Valdameri, Glaucio; Donatti, Lucélia; Faoro, Helisson; Weiss, Vinicius A; Chubatsu, Leda S; Pedrosa, Fábio O; Souza, Emanuel M

    2014-05-16

    The rapid growth of the world's population demands an increase in food production that no longer can be reached by increasing amounts of nitrogenous fertilizers. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) might be an alternative to increase nitrogenous use efficiency (NUE) in important crops such wheat. Azospirillum brasilense is one of the most promising PGPB and wheat roots colonized by A. brasilense is a good model to investigate the molecular basis of plant-PGPB interaction including improvement in plant-NUE promoted by PGPB. We performed a dual RNA-Seq transcriptional profiling of wheat roots colonized by A. brasilense strain FP2. cDNA libraries from biological replicates of colonized and non-inoculated wheat roots were sequenced and mapped to wheat and A. brasilense reference sequences. The unmapped reads were assembled de novo. Overall, we identified 23,215 wheat expressed ESTs and 702 A. brasilense expressed transcripts. Bacterial colonization caused changes in the expression of 776 wheat ESTs belonging to various functional categories, ranging from transport activity to biological regulation as well as defense mechanism, production of phytohormones and phytochemicals. In addition, genes encoding proteins related to bacterial chemotaxi, biofilm formation and nitrogen fixation were highly expressed in the sub-set of A. brasilense expressed genes. PGPB colonization enhanced the expression of plant genes related to nutrient up-take, nitrogen assimilation, DNA replication and regulation of cell division, which is consistent with a higher proportion of colonized root cells in the S-phase. Our data support the use of PGPB as an alternative to improve nutrient acquisition in important crops such as wheat, enhancing plant productivity and sustainability.

  10. Wheat mitogen-activated protein kinase gene TaMPK4 improves plant tolerance to multiple stresses through modifying root growth, ROS metabolism, and nutrient acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Lin; Wen, Yanli; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Lu, Wenjing; Xiao, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Wheat MAPK member TaMPK4 responds to abiotic stresses of Pi and N deprivations and high salinity and is crucial in regulating plant tolerance to aforementioned stresses. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades are important signal transduction modules in regulating plant responses to various environmental stresses. In this study, a wheat MAPK member referred to TaMPK4 was characterized for its roles in mediating plant tolerance to diverse stresses. TaMPK4 shares conserved domains generally identified in plant MAPKs and possesses in vitro kinase activity. Under stresses of Pi and N deprivations and high salinity, TaMPK4 was strongly upregulated and its expressions were restored upon recovery treatments from above stresses. Sense- and antisense-expressing TaMPK4 in tobacco significantly modified plant growth under the stress conditions and dramatically modified the root architecture through transcriptional regulation of the auxin transport-associated genes NtPIN3 and NtPIN9, whose downregulated expressions dramatically reduced the root growth. Compared with wild type (WT), the antioxidant enzymatic activities under the stress conditions, P accumulation under P deprivation, and N amount under N deficiency were altered dramatically in the transgenic plants, showing higher in the TaMPK4-overexpressing and lower in the TaMPK4-knockout plants, which were in concordance with the modified expressions of a set of antioxidant enzyme genes (NtPOD2;1, NtPOD9, NtSOD2, NtFeSOD, and NtCAT), two phosphate transporter genes (NtPT and NtPT2), and two nitrate transporter genes (NtNRT1.1-s and NtNRT1.1-t), respectively. Downregulated expression of above genes in tobacco largely reduced the plant growth, and Pi and N acquisitions under the stress conditions. TaMPK4 also involved regulations of plant K(+) and osmolyte contents under high salinity. Thus, TaMPK4 is functional in regulating plant tolerance to diverse stresses through modifying various biological processes.

  11. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  12. Molecular Analysis of Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Escherichia coli Strain VR50 Reveals Adaptation to the Urinary Tract by Gene Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beatson, Scott A.; Ben Zakour, Nouri L.; Totsika, Makrina

    2015-01-01

    the evolution and molecular mechanisms that underpin ABU, the genome of the ABU E. coli strain VR50 was sequenced. Analysis of the complete genome indicated that it most resembles E. coli K-12, with the addition of a 94-kb genomic island (GI-VR50-pheV), eight prophages, and multiple plasmids. GI-VR50-pheV has...... a mosaic structure and contains genes encoding a number of UTI-associated virulence factors, namely, Afa (afimbrial adhesin), two autotransporter proteins (Ag43 and Sat), and aerobactin. We demonstrated that the presence of this island in VR50 confers its ability to colonize the murine bladder, as a VR50...... mutant with GI-VR50-pheV deleted was attenuated in a mouse model of UTI in vivo. We established that Afa is the island-encoded factor responsible for this phenotype using two independent deletion (Afa operon and AfaE adhesin) mutants. E. coli VR50afa and VR50afaE displayed significantly decreased ability...

  13. Aerobic lineage of the oxidative stress response protein rubrerythrin emerged in an ancient microaerobic, (hyperthermophilic environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Pablo Cardenas

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Rubrerythrins (RBRs are non-heme di-iron proteins belonging to the ferritin-like superfamily (FLSF. They are involved in oxidative stress defense as peroxide scavengers in a wide range of organisms. The vast majority of RBRs, including classical forms of this protein, contain a C-terminal rubredoxin-like domain involved in electron transport that is used during catalysis in anaerobic conditions. Rubredoxin is an ancient and large protein family of short length (<100 residues that contains a Fe-S center involved in electron transfer. However, functional forms of the enzyme lacking the rubredoxin-like domain have been reported (e.g., sulerythrin and ferriperoxin. In this study, phylogenomic evidence is presented that suggests that a complete lineage of rubrerythrins, lacking the rubredoxin-like domain, arose in an ancient microaerobic and (hyperthermophilic environments in the ancestors of the Archaea Thermoproteales and Sulfolobales. This lineage (termed the aerobic-type lineage subsequently evolved to become adapted to environments with progressively lower temperatures and higher oxygen concentrations via the acquisition of two co-localized genes, termed DUF3501 and RFO, encoding a conserved protein of unknown function and a predicted Fe-S oxidoreductase respectively. Proposed Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT events from these archaeal ancestors to Bacteria expanded the opportunities for further evolution of this RBR including adaption to lower temperatures. The second lineage (termed the cyanobacterial lineage is proposed to have evolved in cyanobacterial ancestors, maybe in direct response to the production of oxygen via oxygenic photosynthesis during the Great Oxygen Event (GOE. It is hypothesized that both lineages of RBR emerged in a largely anaerobic world with whiffs of oxygen and that their subsequent independent evolutionary trajectories allowed microorganisms to transition from this anaerobic world to an aerobic one.

  14. Ensifer meliloti overexpressing Escherichia coli phytase gene (appA) improves phosphorus (P) acquisition in maize plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Ajit; Archana, G; Kumar, G Naresh

    2016-10-01

    The Escherichia coli phytase gene appA encoding enzyme AppA was cloned in a broad host range plasmid pBBR1MCS2 (lac promoter), termed pVA1, and transformed into the Ensifer meliloti 1020. Transformation of pVA1 in Ensifer meliloti {E. m (pVA1)} increased its phosphatase and phytase activity by ∼9- and ∼50-fold, respectively, compared to the transformants containing empty plasmid as control {E. m (pBBR1MCS2)}. The western blot experiments using rabbit anti-AppA antibody showed that AppA is translocated into the periplasm of the host after its expression. Ensifer meliloti harboring AppA protein {E. m (pVA1)} and {E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} could acidify the unbuffered phytate minimal media (pH 8.0) containing Ca-phytate or Na-phytate as sole organic P (Po) source to below pH 5.0 and released P. However, both {E. m (pVA1)} and {E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} neither dropped pH of the medium nor released P when the medium was buffered at pH 8.0 using Tris-Cl, indicating that acidification of medium was important for the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate. Further experiments proved that maize plants inoculated with {E. m. (pVA1)} showed increase in growth under sterile semi solid agar (SSA) medium containing Na-phytate as sole P source. The present study could be helpful in generating better transgenic bioinoculants harboring phosphate mineralization properties that ultimately promote plant growth.

  15. Ensifer meliloti overexpressing Escherichia coli phytase gene ( appA) improves phosphorus (P) acquisition in maize plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Vikas; Kumar, Ajit; Archana, G.; Kumar, G. Naresh

    2016-10-01

    The Escherichia coli phytase gene appA encoding enzyme AppA was cloned in a broad host range plasmid pBBR1MCS2 ( lac promoter), termed pVA1, and transformed into the Ensifer meliloti 1020. Transformation of pVA1 in Ensifer meliloti { E. m (pVA1)} increased its phosphatase and phytase activity by ˜9- and ˜50-fold, respectively, compared to the transformants containing empty plasmid as control { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)}. The western blot experiments using rabbit anti-AppA antibody showed that AppA is translocated into the periplasm of the host after its expression. Ensifer meliloti harboring AppA protein { E. m (pVA1)} and { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} could acidify the unbuffered phytate minimal media (pH 8.0) containing Ca-phytate or Na-phytate as sole organic P (Po) source to below pH 5.0 and released P. However, both { E. m (pVA1)} and { E. m (pBBR1MCS2)} neither dropped pH of the medium nor released P when the medium was buffered at pH 8.0 using Tris-Cl, indicating that acidification of medium was important for the enzymatic hydrolysis of phytate. Further experiments proved that maize plants inoculated with { E. m. (pVA1)} showed increase in growth under sterile semi solid agar (SSA) medium containing Na-phytate as sole P source. The present study could be helpful in generating better transgenic bioinoculants harboring phosphate mineralization properties that ultimately promote plant growth.

  16. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Matias Rodrigues, João F.; Vyas, Rounak; Trachsel, Christian; Shved, Natallia; Grossmann, Jonas; Radini, Anita; Hancock, Y.; Tito, Raul Y.; Fiddyment, Sarah; Speller, Camilla; Hendy, Jessica; Charlton, Sophy; Luder, Hans Ulrich; Salazar-García, Domingo C.; Eppler, Elisabeth; Seiler, Roger; Hansen, Lars; Samaniego Castruita, José Alfredo; Barkow-Oesterreicher, Simon; Teoh, Kai Yik; Kelstrup, Christian; Olsen, Jesper V.; Nanni, Paolo; Kawai, Toshihisa; Willerslev, Eske; von Mering, Christian; Lewis, Cecil M.; Collins, Matthew J.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Rühli, Frank; Cappellini, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize: (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) the first evidence of ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction of the periodontal pathogen Tannerella forsythia, (v) 239 bacterial and 43 human proteins, allowing confirmation of a long-term association between host immune factors, “red-complex” pathogens, and periodontal disease, and (vi) DNA sequences matching dietary sources. Directly datable and nearly ubiquitous, dental calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity, and diet, thereby extending the direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past. PMID:24562188

  17. Roots of political corruption in ancient history

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deretić Nataša Lj.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corruption has always been regarded as a special form of enrichment, based on prohibited and unethical grounds. Hence 'political corruption' could be defined as the immorality of the powerful; as the use of political power for the purpose of getting rich without any legal basis. Immorality of the powerful is the root of all the abuses that occur in the society. Those who are at the top of the pyramid of power have been particularly prominent in acquiring as large a fortune as possible. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' has been known in all societies, from the oldest to modern ones. In the ancient civilization of Mesopotamia, there was an established custom of reciprocity between deliberate gifts and requested services. This phenomenon could be observed with Pericles, who is, among other things, attributed the idea of compensation for participation in state affairs. The phenomenon of 'political corruption' is referred to in Cicero's Rome, where bribery as a form of wealth acquisition without legal basis was formally condemned, but also widespread. Even today we can see that there are powerful persons who persist in the violation or circumvention of rules which guide any structured society: their wealth originates from the enormous acquisition of material things, but also the acquisition of various privileges which they are not entitled to, such as titles, promotions, etc. They are the ones who have brought about the demise of the Latin sentence that the basis of any developed society is: 'To live an honest life, hurt no one, and grant everyone their due.'.

  18. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L. A.; Gilbert, Tom; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of ancient DNA is playing an increasingly important role in conservation genetic, phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, as it allows incorporating extinct species into DNA sequence trees and adds time depth to population genetics studies. For many years, these types of DNA...... analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well...

  19. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  20. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist...... as to how reliable the conclusions of many of the published studies are. In this paper we outline first the problems associated with aDNA studies, and secondly present potential guidelines designed so as to enable non-specialist readers the opportunity to critically assess the quality of aDNA publications....

  1. High-resolution analysis of cytosine methylation in ancient DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastien Llamas

    Full Text Available Epigenetic changes to gene expression can result in heritable phenotypic characteristics that are not encoded in the DNA itself, but rather by biochemical modifications to the DNA or associated chromatin proteins. Interposed between genes and environment, these epigenetic modifications can be influenced by environmental factors to affect phenotype for multiple generations. This raises the possibility that epigenetic states provide a substrate for natural selection, with the potential to participate in the rapid adaptation of species to changes in environment. Any direct test of this hypothesis would require the ability to measure epigenetic states over evolutionary timescales. Here we describe the first single-base resolution of cytosine methylation patterns in an ancient mammalian genome, by bisulphite allelic sequencing of loci from late Pleistocene Bison priscus remains. Retrotransposons and the differentially methylated regions of imprinted loci displayed methylation patterns identical to those derived from fresh bovine tissue, indicating that methylation patterns are preserved in the ancient DNA. Our findings establish the biochemical stability of methylated cytosines over extensive time frames, and provide the first direct evidence that cytosine methylation patterns are retained in DNA from ancient specimens. The ability to resolve cytosine methylation in ancient DNA provides a powerful means to study the role of epigenetics in evolution.

  2. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  3. Ancient woodland boundaries in Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Szabó, Péter

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 2 (2010), s. 205-214 ISSN 0305-7488 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA600050812 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : ancient woodland * historical ecology * landscape archaeology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.983, year: 2010

  4. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  5. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  6. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  7. Ancient and Modern Coins Unit Plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    United States Mint (Dept. of Treasury), Washington, DC.

    Ancient times comes to life when a student can hold in his/her hand or read about an artifact, such as a coin of the Greek or Roman era. Students are familiar with coins, and this commonality helps them understand the similarities and differences between their lives and times in ancient Greece or Rome. Many symbols on the ancient coins can be…

  8. Mergers + acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppszallern, Suzanna

    2002-05-01

    The hospital sector in 2001 led the health care field in mergers and acquisitions. Most deals involved a network augmenting its presence within a specific region or in a market adjacent to its primary service area. Analysts expect M&A activity to increase in 2002.

  9. Mergers & Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomcenco, Alex

    This dissertation is a legal dogmatic thesis, the goal of which is to describe and analyze the current state of law in Europe in regard to some relevant selected elements related to mergers and acquisitions, and the adviser’s counsel in this regard. Having regard to the topic of the dissertation...

  10. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae.

  11. Dreams in ancient Greek Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Vasilopoulos, E; Karamanou, M; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2016-01-01

    Dreams preoccupied the Greek and Roman world in antiquity, therefore they had a prominent role in social, philosophical, religious, historical and political life of those times. They were considered as omens and prophetic signs of future events in private and public life, and that was particularly accentuated when elements of actions which took place in the plot of dreams were associated directly or indirectly with real events. This is why it was important to use them in divination, and helped the growth of superstition and folklore believes. Medicine as a science and an anthropocentric art, could not ignore the importance of dreams, having in mind their popularity in antiquity. In ancient Greek medicine dreams can be divided into two basic categories. In the first one -which is related to religious medicine-dreams experienced by religionists are classified, when resorted to great religious sanctuaries such as those of Asclepius (Asclepieia) and Amphiaraos (Amfiaraeia). These dreams were the essential element for healing in this form of religious medicine, because after pilgrims underwent purifications they went to sleep in a special dwelling of the sanctuaries called "enkoimeterion" (Greek: the place to sleep) so that the healing god would come to their dreams either to cure them or to suggest treatment. In ancient Greek literature there are many reports of these experiences, but if there may be phenomena of self-suggestion, or they could be characterized as propaganda messages from the priesthood of each sanctuary for advertising purposes. The other category concerns the references about dreams found in ancient Greek medical literature, where one can find the attempts of ancient Greek physicians to interpret these dreams in a rational way as sings either of a corporal disease or of psychological distress. This second category will be the object of our study. Despite the different ways followed by each ancient Greek physician in order to explain dreams, their

  12. Horizontal acquisition of a hypoxia-responsive molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis pathway contributed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathoadaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levillain, Florence; Poquet, Yannick; Mallet, Ludovic; Mazères, Serge; Marceau, Michael; Brosch, Roland; Bange, Franz-Christoph; Supply, Philip; Magalon, Axel; Neyrolles, Olivier

    2017-11-01

    The unique ability of the tuberculosis (TB) bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, to persist for long periods of time in lung hypoxic lesions chiefly contributes to the global burden of latent TB. We and others previously reported that the M. tuberculosis ancestor underwent massive episodes of horizontal gene transfer (HGT), mostly from environmental species. Here, we sought to explore whether such ancient HGT played a part in M. tuberculosis evolution towards pathogenicity. We were interested by a HGT-acquired M. tuberculosis-specific gene set, namely moaA1-D1, which is involved in the biosynthesis of the molybdenum cofactor. Horizontal acquisition of this gene set was striking because homologues of these moa genes are present all across the Mycobacterium genus, including in M. tuberculosis. Here, we discovered that, unlike their paralogues, the moaA1-D1 genes are strongly induced under hypoxia. In vitro, a M. tuberculosis moaA1-D1-null mutant has an impaired ability to respire nitrate, to enter dormancy and to survive in oxygen-limiting conditions. Conversely, heterologous expression of moaA1-D1 in the phylogenetically closest non-TB mycobacterium, Mycobacterium kansasii, which lacks these genes, improves its capacity to respire nitrate and grants it with a marked ability to survive oxygen depletion. In vivo, the M. tuberculosis moaA1-D1-null mutant shows impaired survival in hypoxic granulomas in C3HeB/FeJ mice, but not in normoxic lesions in C57BL/6 animals. Collectively, our results identify a novel pathway required for M. tuberculosis resistance to host-imposed stress, namely hypoxia, and provide evidence that ancient HGT bolstered M. tuberculosis evolution from an environmental species towards a pervasive human-adapted pathogen.

  13. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A.

    2012-01-01

    discuss studies recon- structing inter- and intra-specific phylogenies from aDNA sequences and discuss how aDNA sequences could be used to estimate mutation rates. Finally, we highlight some of the problems of aDNA studies on marine mammals, such as obtaining sufficient sample sizes and calibrating...... such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...

  14. Colour Perception in Ancient World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesterov, D. I.; Fedorova, M. Yu

    2017-11-01

    How did the human thought form the surrounding color information into the persistent semantic images of a mythological, pseudoscientific and religious nature? The concepts associated with colour perception are suggested. The existence of colour environment does not depend on the human consciousness. The colour culture formation is directly related to the level of the human consciousness development and the possibility to influence the worldview and culture. The colour perception of a person goes through the stages similar to the development of colour vision in a child. Like any development, the colour consciousness has undergone stages of growth and decline, evolution and stagnation. The way of life and difficult conditions for existence made their own adjustments to the development of the human perception of the surrounding world. Wars have been both a powerful engine of progress in all spheres of life and a great destructive force demolishing the already created and preserved heritage. The surrounding world has always been interesting for humans, evoked images and fantasies in the consciousness of ancient people. Unusual and inexplicable natural phenomena spawned numerous legends and myths which was reflected in the ancient art and architecture and, accordingly, in a certain manifestation of colour in the human society. The colour perception of the ancient man, his pragmatic, utilitarian attitude to colour is considered as well as the influence of dependence on external conditions of existence and their reflection in the colour culture of antiquity. “Natural Science” conducts research in the field of the colour nature and their authorial interpretation of the Hellenic period. Several authorial concepts of the ancient world have been considered.

  15. [First language acquisition research and theories of language acquisition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, S; Jungheim, M; Ptok, M

    2014-04-01

    In principle, a child can seemingly easily acquire any given language. First language acquisition follows a certain pattern which to some extent is found to be language independent. Since time immemorial, it has been of interest why children are able to acquire language so easily. Different disciplinary and methodological orientations addressing this question can be identified. A selective literature search in PubMed and Scopus was carried out and relevant monographies were considered. Different, partially overlapping phases can be distinguished in language acquisition research: whereas in ancient times, deprivation experiments were carried out to discover the "original human language", the era of diary studies began in the mid-19th century. From the mid-1920s onwards, behaviouristic paradigms dominated this field of research; interests were focussed on the determination of normal, average language acquisition. The subsequent linguistic period was strongly influenced by the nativist view of Chomsky and the constructivist concepts of Piaget. Speech comprehension, the role of speech input and the relevance of genetic disposition became the centre of attention. The interactionist concept led to a revival of the convergence theory according to Stern. Each of these four major theories--behaviourism, cognitivism, interactionism and nativism--have given valuable and unique impulses, but no single theory is universally accepted to provide an explanation of all aspects of language acquisition. Moreover, it can be critically questioned whether clinicians consciously refer to one of these theories in daily routine work and whether therapies are then based on this concept. It remains to be seen whether or not new theories of grammar, such as the so-called construction grammar (CxG), will eventually change the general concept of language acquisition.

  16. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it.

  17. Acquisition of aluminum tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by expression of the BCB or NtGDI1 gene derived from plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezaki, B; Sivaguru, M; Ezaki, Y; Matsumoto, H; Gardner, R C

    1999-02-15

    Eleven aluminum stress-induced genes derived from plants (wheat, Arabidopsis and tobacco) were introduced into Saccharomyces cerevisiae to test if expression of these genes confers Al tolerance. Al sensitivity tests showed that expression of two genes, either an Arabidopsis gene for blue copper binding protein (BCB), or a tobacco gene for the GDP dissociation inhibitor (NtGDI1), conferred Al tolerance. Determinations of total content and localization of Al ions in these transformants suggested that the BCB gene product functions in restricting Al uptake, while expression of the NtGDI1 gene promotes release of Al ions after uptake.

  18. The conscious of Nightmares in ancient China

    OpenAIRE

    西林, 眞紀子

    2006-01-01

    The analaysis concerns Nightmares in ancient China. People in ancient China were very afraid of Nightmares. Nightmares are described in the『春秋左氏傳』etc. The exocis Nightmares is described in the『周禮』. The ceremony "難" of exocis Nightmares in the『禮記』. In the characters Meng (夢) had the conscious of Nightmares in ancient China. The analaysis is about the characters 'Meng', about the characters of the relationship 'Meng'

  19. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  20. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  1. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  2. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  3. Chlamydial genes shed light on the evolution of photoautotrophic eukaryotes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melkonian Michael

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chlamydiae are obligate intracellular bacteria of protists, invertebrates and vertebrates, but have not been found to date in photosynthetic eukaryotes (algae and embryophytes. Genes of putative chlamydial origin, however, are present in significant numbers in sequenced genomes of photosynthetic eukaryotes. It has been suggested that such genes were acquired by an ancient horizontal gene transfer from Chlamydiae to the ancestor of photosynthetic eukaryotes. To further test this hypothesis, an extensive search for proteins of chlamydial origin was performed using several recently sequenced algal genomes and EST databases, and the proteins subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Results A total of 39 proteins of chlamydial origin were retrieved from the photosynthetic eukaryotes analyzed and their identity verified through phylogenetic analyses. The distribution of the chlamydial proteins among four groups of photosynthetic eukaryotes (Viridiplantae, Rhodoplantae, Glaucoplantae, Bacillariophyta was complex suggesting multiple acquisitions and losses. Evidence is presented that all except one of the chlamydial genes originated from an ancient endosymbiosis of a chlamydial bacterium into the ancestor of the Plantae before their divergence into Viridiplantae, Rhodoplantae and Glaucoplantae, i.e. more than 1.1 BYA. The chlamydial proteins subsequently spread through secondary plastid endosymbioses to other eukaryotes. Of 20 chlamydial proteins recovered from the genomes of two Bacillariophyta, 10 were of rhodoplant, and 10 of viridiplant origin suggesting that they were acquired by two different secondary endosymbioses. Phylogenetic analyses of concatenated sequences demonstrated that the viridiplant secondary endosymbiosis likely occurred before the divergence of Chlorophyta and Streptophyta. Conclusion We identified 39 proteins of chlamydial origin in photosynthetic eukaryotes signaling an ancient invasion of the ancestor of the

  4. Insights into Modern Human Prehistory Using Ancient Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Melinda A; Fu, Qiaomei

    2018-03-01

    The genetic relationship of past modern humans to today's populations and each other was largely unknown until recently, when advances in ancient DNA sequencing allowed for unprecedented analysis of the genomes of these early people. These ancient genomes reveal new insights into human prehistory not always observed studying present-day populations, including greater details on the genetic diversity, population structure, and gene flow that characterized past human populations, particularly in early Eurasia, as well as increased insight on the relationship between archaic and modern humans. Here, we review genetic studies on ∼45000- to 7500-year-old individuals associated with mainly preagricultural cultures found in Eurasia, the Americas, and Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ancient DNA perspectives on American colonization and population history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raff, Jennifer A; Bolnick, Deborah A; Tackney, Justin; O'Rourke, Dennis H

    2011-12-01

    Ancient DNA (aDNA) analyses have proven to be important tools in understanding human population dispersals, settlement patterns, interactions between prehistoric populations, and the development of regional population histories. Here, we review the published results of sixty-three human populations from throughout the Americas and compare the levels of diversity and geographic patterns of variation in the ancient samples with contemporary genetic variation in the Americas in order to investigate the evolution of the Native American gene pool over time. Our analysis of mitochondrial haplogroup frequencies and prehistoric population genetic diversity presents a complex evolutionary picture. Although the broad genetic structure of American prehistoric populations appears to have been established relatively early, we nevertheless identify examples of genetic discontinuity over time in select regions. We discuss the implications this finding may have for our interpretation of the genetic evidence for the initial colonization of the Americas and its subsequent population history. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Application of neutron activation analysis in study of ancient ceramics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Guoxia; Zhao Weijuan; Gao Zhengyao; Xie Jianzhong; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin; Han Song

    2000-01-01

    Trace-elements in ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data are then analyzed by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram is obtained. The raw material sources of ancient ceramics and imitative ancient ceramics are determined. The path for improving quality of imitative ancient ceramics is found

  7. Second Language Syntax Acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Monika

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the acquisition of syntactic properties in a second language. To understand how syntactic properties are acquired, a theoretical approach of Universal Grammar is presented, with an emphasis on the application of the Universal Grammar approach to second language acquisition. Acquisition of the following syntactic properties is being described: acquisition of morphemes, acquisition of negation and verb movement, acquisition of word order, acquisition of questions and acquisi...

  8. Ancient biomolecules: their origins, fossilization, and role in revealing the history of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Derek E G; Summons, Roger E

    2014-05-01

    The discovery of traces of a blood meal in the abdomen of a 50-million-year-old mosquito reminds us of the insights that the chemistry of fossils can provide. Ancient DNA is the best known fossil molecule. It is less well known that new fossil targets and a growing database of ancient gene sequences are paralleled by discoveries on other classes of organic molecules. New analytical tools, such as the synchrotron, reveal traces of the original composition of arthropod cuticles that are more than 400 my old. Pigments such as melanin are readily fossilized, surviving virtually unaltered for ∼200 my. Other biomarkers provide evidence of microbial processes in ancient sediments, and have been used to reveal the presence of demosponges, for example, more than 635 mya, long before their spicules appear in the fossil record. Ancient biomolecules are a powerful complement to fossil remains in revealing the history of life. © 2014 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  10. Chemical compositions of ancient coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mabuchi, Hisao; Notsu, Kenji; Nishimatsu, Shigeyoshi; Fuwa, Keiichiro; Iyama, Hiroyuki.

    1979-01-01

    Chemical composition of ancient coins may be useful to know the provenance of raw ore materials, technique of minting, route of circulation, and governmental policy or economical conditions of the epoch when they were minted. Thirteen elements (major: Cu, Pb, Sn, Zn, minor: Fe, As, Sb, trace: Co, Mn, Ni, Au, Ag, Se) in Chinese and Japanese ancient coins were determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy and instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results show that, in both Chinese and Japanese coins, a transition from Cu-Pb-Sn system to Cu-Zn system occurred in the 15 -- 16 th century in China and in the 18 th century in Japan. Compositional ranges in Cu-Pb-Sn coins extend to 50 -- 80% Cu, 15 -- 35% Pb and 6 -- 15% Sn, respectively, and there seems to be no systematic compositional change with a function of their ages. As to the Cu-Zn coins, the Cu to Zn ratio of Chinese coins is distinctly different from that of Japanese ones, being about unity for Chinese coins and 4 for Japanese ones. In general, Japanese coins are much more abundant in As and Sb than Chinese ones. It is an important problem whether they are impurities of major elements or some components intentionally added in the course of minting. (author)

  11. Ancient Climatic Architectural Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibeh Faghih

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ancient climatic architecture had found out a series of appropriate responses for the best compatibility with the critical climate condition for instance, designing ‘earth sheltered houses’ and ‘courtyard houses’. They could provide human climatic comfort without excessive usage of fossil fuel resources. Owing to the normal thermal conditions in the ground depth, earth sheltered houses can be slightly affected by thermal fluctuations due to being within the earth. In depth further than 6.1 meters, temperature alternation is minute during the year, equaling to average annual temperature of outside. More to the point, courtyard buildings as another traditional design approach, have prepared controlled climatic space based on creating the maximum shade in the summer and maximum solar heat absorption in the winter. The courtyard houses served the multiple functions of lighting to the rooms, acting as a heat absorber in the summer and a radiator in the winter, as well as providing an open space inside for community activities. It must be noted that they divided into summer and winter zones located in south and north of the central courtyard where residents were replaced into them according to changing the seasons. Therefore, Ancient climatic buildings provided better human thermal comfort in comparison with the use contemporary buildings of recent years, except with the air conditioning

  12. The ancient small mobilizable plasmid pALWED1.8 harboring a new variant of the non-cassette streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance gene aadA27.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurakov, Anton; Mindlin, Sofia; Beletsky, Alexey; Shcherbatova, Natalya; Rakitin, Andrey; Ermakova, Aleksandra; Mardanov, Andrey; Petrova, Mayya

    2016-01-01

    The small mobilizable plasmid pALWED1.8 containing a novel variant of the streptomycin/spectinomycin resistance gene aadA27 was isolated from the permafrost strains of Acinetobacter lwoffii. The 4135bp plasmid carries mobА and mobC genes that mediate its mobilization by conjugative plasmids. The nucleotide sequences of mobА and mobC are similar to those of mobilization genes of the modern plasmid pRAY* and its variants, which contain aadB gene, and are widespread among the pathogenic strains of Acinetobacter baumannii. Almost identical pALWED1.8 variants were detected in modern environmental Аcinetobacter strains. A highly similar plasmid was revealed in a strain of Acinetobacter parvus isolated from mouse intestine. Furthermore, we discovered six previously unidentified variants of plasmids related to pALWED1.8 and pRAY* in public databases. In contrast to most known variants of aadA which are cassette genes associated with integrons, the aadA27 variant harbored by pALWED1.8 is a non-cassette, autonomously transcribed gene. Non-cassette aadA genes with 96% sequence identity to aadA27 were detected in the chromosomes of Acinetobacter gyllenbergii and several uncharacterized strains of Аcinetobacter sp. Moreover, we revealed that the autonomous aadA-like genes are present in the chromosomes of many gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The phylogenetic analysis of amino acid sequences of all identified AadA proteins showed the following: (i) cassette aadA genes form a separate monophyletic group and mainly reside on plasmids and (ii) chromosomal non-cassette aadA genes are extremely diverse and can be inherited both vertical and via horizontal gene transfer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A guide to ancient protein studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendy, Jessica; Welker, Frido; Demarchi, Beatrice

    2018-01-01

    the phylogenetic reconstruction of extinct species to the investigation of past human diets and ancient diseases. However, there is no explicit consensus at present regarding standards for data reporting, data validation measures or the use of suitable contamination controls in ancient protein studies...

  14. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Introduction. In an earlier article [1] we had discussed some aspects of ancient Babylonian mathematics as deciphered froIn various clay tablets excavated from modern Iraq, viz. the Pythagoras theorem and also the sexagesimal num- ber system prevalent during the ancient Mesopotamian civilization. In this article, we study ...

  15. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  16. Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptor (KIR) gene profiles modify HIV disease course, not HIV acquisition in South African women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, V; de Assis Rosa, D; Werner, L; Moodley, R; Hong, H; Kharsany, A; Mlisana, K; Sibeko, S; Garrett, N; Chopera, D; Carr, W H; Abdool Karim, Q; Hill, A V S; Abdool Karim, S S; Altfeld, M; Gray, C M; Ndung'u, T

    2016-01-25

    Killer-cell Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIR) interact with Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) to modify natural killer- and T-cell function. KIR are implicated in HIV acquisition by small studies that have not been widely replicated. A role for KIR in HIV disease progression is more widely replicated and supported by functional studies. To assess the role of KIR and KIR ligands in HIV acquisition and disease course, we studied at-risk women in South Africa between 2004-2010. Logistic regression was used for nested case-control analysis of 154 women who acquired vs. 155 who did not acquire HIV, despite high exposure. Linear mixed-effects models were used for cohort analysis of 139 women followed prospectively for a median of 54 months (IQR 31-69) until 2014. Neither KIR repertoires nor HLA alleles were associated with HIV acquisition. However, KIR haplotype BB was associated with lower viral loads (-0.44 log10 copies/ml; SE = 0.18; p = 0.03) and higher CD4+ T-cell counts (+80 cells/μl; SE = 42; p = 0.04). This was largely explained by the protective effect of KIR2DL2/KIR2DS2 on the B haplotype and reciprocal detrimental effect of KIR2DL3 on the A haplotype. Although neither KIR nor HLA appear to have a role in HIV acquisition, our data are consistent with involvement of KIR2DL2 in HIV control. Additional studies to replicate these findings are indicated.

  17. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  18. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth

    2013-01-01

    analyses of ancient DNA. We also investigated the sample size and temporal span of the ancient DNA sequences needed to estimate phylogenetic timescales reliably. Our results show that the range of sample ages plays a crucial role in determining the quality of the results but that accurate and precise......In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...... of the ancient samples, which can be estimated by radiocarbon dating the source material or by dating the layers in which the material was deposited. Both methods involve sources of uncertainty. The performance of Bayesian phylogenetic inference depends on the information content of the data set, which includes...

  19. The UlaG protein family defines novel structural and functional motifs grafted on an ancient RNase fold

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coll Miquel

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacterial populations are highly successful at colonizing new habitats and adapting to changing environmental conditions, partly due to their capacity to evolve novel virulence and metabolic pathways in response to stress conditions and to shuffle them by horizontal gene transfer (HGT. A common theme in the evolution of new functions consists of gene duplication followed by functional divergence. UlaG, a unique manganese-dependent metallo-β-lactamase (MBL enzyme involved in L-ascorbate metabolism by commensal and symbiotic enterobacteria, provides a model for the study of the emergence of new catalytic activities from the modification of an ancient fold. Furthermore, UlaG is the founding member of the so-called UlaG-like (UlaGL protein family, a recently established and poorly characterized family comprising divalent (and perhaps trivalent metal-binding MBLs that catalyze transformations on phosphorylated sugars and nucleotides. Results Here we combined protein structure-guided and sequence-only molecular phylogenetic analyses to dissect the molecular evolution of UlaG and to study its phylogenomic distribution, its relatedness with present-day UlaGL protein sequences and functional conservation. Phylogenetic analyses indicate that UlaGL sequences are present in Bacteria and Archaea, with bona fide orthologs found mainly in mammalian and plant-associated Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. The incongruence between the UlaGL tree and known species trees indicates exchange by HGT and suggests that the UlaGL-encoding genes provided a growth advantage under changing conditions. Our search for more distantly related protein sequences aided by structural homology has uncovered that UlaGL sequences have a common evolutionary origin with present-day RNA processing and metabolizing MBL enzymes widespread in Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya. This observation suggests an ancient origin for the UlaGL family within the broader trunk

  20. 2017 NAIP Acquisition Map

    Data.gov (United States)

    Farm Service Agency, Department of Agriculture — Planned States for 2017 NAIP acquisition and acquisition status layer (updated daily). Updates to the acquisition seasons may be made during the season to...

  1. Inferring the palaeoenvironment of ancient bacteria on the basis of resurrected proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucher, Eric A.; Thomson, J. Michael; Burgan, Michelle F.; Benner, Steven A.

    2003-01-01

    Features of the physical environment surrounding an ancestral organism can be inferred by reconstructing sequences of ancient proteins made by those organisms, resurrecting these proteins in the laboratory, and measuring their properties. Here, we resurrect candidate sequences for elongation factors of the Tu family (EF-Tu) found at ancient nodes in the bacterial evolutionary tree, and measure their activities as a function of temperature. The ancient EF-Tu proteins have temperature optima of 55-65 degrees C. This value seems to be robust with respect to uncertainties in the ancestral reconstruction. This suggests that the ancient bacteria that hosted these particular genes were thermophiles, and neither hyperthermophiles nor mesophiles. This conclusion can be compared and contrasted with inferences drawn from an analysis of the lengths of branches in trees joining proteins from contemporary bacteria, the distribution of thermophily in derived bacterial lineages, the inferred G + C content of ancient ribosomal RNA, and the geological record combined with assumptions concerning molecular clocks. The study illustrates the use of experimental palaeobiochemistry and assumptions about deep phylogenetic relationships between bacteria to explore the character of ancient life.

  2. Ancient symbiosis confers desiccation resistance to stored grain pest beetles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engl, Tobias; Eberl, Nadia; Gorse, Carla; Krüger, Theresa; Schmidt, Thorsten H P; Plarre, Rudy; Adler, Cornel; Kaltenpoth, Martin

    2017-11-08

    Microbial symbionts of insects provide a range of ecological traits to their hosts that are beneficial in the context of biotic interactions. However, little is known about insect symbiont-mediated adaptation to the abiotic environment, for example, temperature and humidity. Here, we report on an ancient clade of intracellular, bacteriome-located Bacteroidetes symbionts that are associated with grain and wood pest beetles of the phylogenetically distant families Silvanidae and Bostrichidae. In the saw-toothed grain beetle Oryzaephilus surinamensis, we demonstrate that the symbionts affect cuticle thickness, melanization and hydrocarbon profile, enhancing desiccation resistance and thereby strongly improving fitness under dry conditions. Together with earlier observations on symbiont contributions to cuticle biosynthesis in weevils, our findings indicate that convergent acquisitions of bacterial mutualists represented key adaptations enabling diverse pest beetle groups to survive and proliferate under the low ambient humidity that characterizes dry grain storage facilities. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A high density of ancient spliceosomal introns in oxymonad excavates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeling Patrick J

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Certain eukaryotic genomes, such as those of the amitochondriate parasites Giardia and Trichomonas, have very low intron densities, so low that canonical spliceosomal introns have only recently been discovered through genome sequencing. These organisms were formerly thought to be ancient eukaryotes that diverged before introns originated, or at least became common. Now however, they are thought to be members of a supergroup known as excavates, whose members generally appear to have low densities of canonical introns. Here we have used environmental expressed sequence tag (EST sequencing to identify 17 genes from the uncultivable oxymonad Streblomastix strix, to survey intron densities in this most poorly studied excavate group. Results We find that Streblomastix genes contain an unexpectedly high intron density of about 1.1 introns per gene. Moreover, over 50% of these are at positions shared between a broad spectrum of eukaryotes, suggesting theyare very ancient introns, potentially present in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes. Conclusion The Streblomastix data show that the genome of the ancestor of excavates likely contained many introns and the subsequent evolution of introns has proceeded very differently in different excavate lineages: in Streblomastix there has been much stasis while in Trichomonas and Giardia most introns have been lost.

  4. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know so...

  5. Evolution of IncA/C blaCMY-₂-carrying plasmids by acquisition of the blaNDM-₁ carbapenemase gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carattoli, Alessandra; Villa, Laura; Poirel, Laurent; Bonnin, Rémy A; Nordmann, Patrice

    2012-02-01

    The bla(NDM-1) gene has been reported to be often located on broad-host-range plasmids of the IncA/C type in clinical but also environmental bacteria recovered from the New Delhi, India, area. IncA/C-type plasmids are the main vehicles for the spread of the cephalosporinase gene bla(CMY-2), frequently identified in the United States, Canada, and Europe. In this study, we completed the sequence of IncA/C plasmid pNDM-KN carrying the bla(NDM-1) gene, recovered from a Klebsiella pneumoniae isolate from Kenya. This sequence was compared with those of three IncA/C-type reference plasmids from Escherichia coli, Yersinia ruckeri, and Photobacterium damselae. Comparative analysis showed that the bla(NDM-1) gene was located on a widely diffused plasmid scaffold known to be responsible for the spread of bla(CMY-2)-like genes and consequently for resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins. Considering that IncA/C plasmids possess a broad host range, this scaffold might support a large-scale diffusion of the bla(NDM-1) gene among Gram-negative rods.

  6. Gene

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Gene integrates information from a wide range of species. A record may include nomenclature, Reference Sequences (RefSeqs), maps, pathways, variations, phenotypes,...

  7. Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the relevance and implications of ancient accounting practices to the contemporary theorizing of accounting. The paper provides a synthesis of the literature on ancient accounting particularly in relation to issues of human accountability, identifies its major achievements and outlines some of the key challenges facing researchers. We argue that far from being an idiosyncratic research field of marginal interest, research in ancient accounting is a rich an...

  8. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca; Sarkissian, Clio Der; Haile, James; Hellstrom, Micaela; Spens, Johan; Thomsen, Philip Francis; Bohmann, Kristine; Cappellini, Enrico; Schnell, Ida Bærholm; Wales, Nathan A.; Carøe, Christian; Campos, Paula F.; Schmidt, Astrid M. Z.; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Hansen, Anders J.; Orlando, Ludovic; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene/Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field. PMID:25487334

  9. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  10. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least...... the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...

  11. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... research on ancient and modern environmental DNA (Paper 1), secondly by setting up a comparative study (Paper 2) to investigate how an ancient plant DNA (mini)-barcode can reflect other traditional methods (e.g. pollen and macrofossils) for reconstructing floristic history. In prolongation of the results...... obtained in paper 2 we developed a holistic metagenomic method combined with shotgun sequencing of ancient DNA in lake sediment samples to reconstruct organismal assemblages in addition to the flora e.g. micro-, meso- and megafauna, fungi and microbial communities (Paper 3). Fundamental processes were...

  12. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  13. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  14. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandran, C K

    1984-04-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  15. On the Glyadenovo culture dwellings and certain aspects of the ancient permians adaptation to natural conditions and economic activity peculiarities (BACK TO THE MID-20TH-CENTURY STUDIES BY V.F. GENING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernykh Elizaveta M.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Typical features of Upper-Kama dwellings characteristic of the final stage of the Early Iron Age, which have become a “calling card” of the Glyadenovo cultural community (the so-called Fedotovo type, are analyzed in the article. In the past half-century, the data on dwellings investigated by V.F. Gening at the Fedotovo fortified settlement have been substantially completed by materials from the newly-excavated settlements. It is suggested that the differences in dwelling construction technology on different Glyadenovo culture sites cannot be invariably regarded as cultural and chronological features but often bear an adaptive character, i.e. depend on the natural environment. The version of the Fedotovo dwellings reconstruction proposed in the early works by V.F. Gening also needs some correction, which is offered by the author in accordance with a number of features.

  16. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  17. Science and Library in the Ancient Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Sacit Keseroğlu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Science assumes its contemporary identity as a result of the stages of magic, religion and reason. The religious stage starts with the invention of writing and this stage leaves its place to reason with Thales in Ancient Greece. Knowledge eludes from religious beliefs. Ways to reach accurate, reliable and realistic knowledge are sought, along with the answer for what knowledge is. Therefore, beginning of the science is taken into consideration together with science and philosophy. The purpose of this study is to approach knowledge and science of the ancient age in Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece in general terms and to determine the relationship between the knowledge produced in those places and libraries established. The hypothesis has been determined as “Egypt and Mesopotamia at the starting point of the history of science and science, and libraries in Ancient Greece have developed parallelly to each other.” The scope of the study has been limited to Mesopotamia, Egypt and Ancient Greece; and Ancient Greece has been explained, with descriptive method, in the frame of the topics of Ionia, Athens, Hellenistic Period and Rome. Many archives and libraries have been established in the ancient age. The difference between an archive and a library has been mentioned first, and then, various libraries have been introduced such as Nineveh in Mesopotamia, Alexandria in Ancient Greece and many others in Egypt. It has been clearly distinguished that there had been a very tight relationship between knowledge production and library, especially with the Library of Alexandria.

  18. Social Norms in the Ancient Athenian Courts

    OpenAIRE

    Lanni, Adriaan M.

    2013-01-01

    Ancient Athens was a remarkably peaceful and well-ordered society by both ancient and contemporary standards. Scholars typically attribute Athens’ success to internalized norms and purely informal enforcement mechanisms. This article argues that the formal Athenian court system played a vital role in maintaining order by enforcing informal norms. This peculiar approach to norm enforcement compensated for apparent weaknesses in the state system of coercion. It mitigated the effects of under-e...

  19. Problems of ancient and modern greek accent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of the article are the accen­ tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob­ lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.

  20. Problems of ancient and modern greek accent

    OpenAIRE

    Jerneja Kavčič

    2000-01-01

    The subject of the article are the accen­ tual features of ancient and modern Greek. The first part discusses the prob­ lems of the position of the Greek accent at the earliest stages of development and the accentual rules of Ionic-Attic, Lesbic and Doric dialect. The second and the third part present the questions of the phonetics of the ancient Greek accent and the process in which the modern Greek accent appeared.

  1. Extensive conservation of ancient microsynteny across metazoans due to cis-regulatory constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimia, Manuel; Tena, Juan J; Alexis, Maria S; Fernandez-Miñan, Ana; Maeso, Ignacio; Bogdanovic, Ozren; de la Calle-Mustienes, Elisa; Roy, Scott W; Gómez-Skarmeta, José L; Fraser, Hunter B

    2012-12-01

    The order of genes in eukaryotic genomes has generally been assumed to be neutral, since gene order is largely scrambled over evolutionary time. Only a handful of exceptional examples are known, typically involving deeply conserved clusters of tandemly duplicated genes (e.g., Hox genes and histones). Here we report the first systematic survey of microsynteny conservation across metazoans, utilizing 17 genome sequences. We identified nearly 600 pairs of unrelated genes that have remained tightly physically linked in diverse lineages across over 600 million years of evolution. Integrating sequence conservation, gene expression data, gene function, epigenetic marks, and other genomic features, we provide extensive evidence that many conserved ancient linkages involve (1) the coordinated transcription of neighboring genes, or (2) genomic regulatory blocks (GRBs) in which transcriptional enhancers controlling developmental genes are contained within nearby bystander genes. In addition, we generated ChIP-seq data for key histone modifications in zebrafish embryos, which provided further evidence of putative GRBs in embryonic development. Finally, using chromosome conformation capture (3C) assays and stable transgenic experiments, we demonstrate that enhancers within bystander genes drive the expression of genes such as Otx and Islet, critical regulators of central nervous system development across bilaterians. These results suggest that ancient genomic functional associations are far more common than previously thought-involving ∼12% of the ancestral bilaterian genome-and that cis-regulatory constraints are crucial in determining metazoan genome architecture.

  2. Effects of subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials on gene acquisition events in Yersinia, Proteus, Shigella, and Salmonella recipient organisms in isolated ligated intestinal loops of swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Matt T; Xiong, Nalee; Anderson, Kristi L; Carlson, Steve A

    2013-08-01

    To assess antimicrobial resistance and transfer of virulence genes facilitated by subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials in swine intestines. 20 anesthetized pigs experimentally inoculated with donor and recipient bacteria. 4 recipient pathogenic bacteria (Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium, Yersinia enterocolitica, Shigella flexneri, or Proteus mirabilis) were incubated with donor bacteria in the presence of subinhibitory concentrations of 1 of 16 antimicrobials in isolated ligated intestinal loops in swine. Donor Escherichia coli contained transferrable antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes. After coincubations, intestinal contents were removed and assessed for pathogens that acquired new antimicrobial resistance or virulence genes following exposure to the subtherapeutic concentrations of antimicrobials. 3 antimicrobials (apramycin, lincomycin, and neomycin) enhanced transfer of an antimicrobial resistance plasmid from commensal E coli organisms to Yersinia and Proteus organisms, whereas 7 antimicrobials (florfenicol, hygromycin, penicillin G, roxarsone, sulfamethazine, tetracycline, and tylosin) exacerbated transfer of an integron (Salmonella genomic island 1) from Salmonella organisms to Yersinia organisms. Sulfamethazine induced the transfer of Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 from pathogenic to nonpathogenic Salmonella organisms. Six antimicrobials (bacitracin, carbadox, erythromycin, sulfathiazole, tiamulin, and virginiamycin) did not mediate any transfer events. Sulfamethazine was the only antimicrobial implicated in 2 types of transfer events. 10 of 16 antimicrobials at subinhibitory or subtherapeutic concentrations augmented specific antimicrobial resistance or transfer of virulence genes into pathogenic bacteria in isolated intestinal loops in swine. Use of subtherapeutic antimicrobials in animal feed may be associated with unwanted collateral effects.

  3. Speed in Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meglio, Olimpia; King, David R.; Risberg, Annette

    2017-01-01

    The advantage of speed is often invoked by academics and practitioners as an essential condition during post-acquisition integration, frequently without consideration of the impact earlier decisions have on acquisition speed. In this article, we examine the role speed plays in acquisitions across...... the acquisition process using research organized around characteristics that display complexity with respect to acquisition speed. We incorporate existing research with a process perspective of acquisitions in order to present trade-offs, and consider the influence of both stakeholders and the pre......-deal-completion context on acquisition speed, as well as the organization’s capabilities to facilitating that speed. Observed trade-offs suggest both that acquisition speed often requires longer planning time before an acquisition and that associated decisions require managerial judgement. A framework for improving...

  4. The properties of the single chicken MHC classical class II alpha chain (B-LA) gene indicate an ancient origin for the DR/E-like isotype of class II molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salomonsen, Jan; Marston, Denise; Avila, David

    2003-01-01

    In mammals, there are MHC class II molecules with distinctive sequence features, such as the classical isotypes DR, DQ and DP. These particular isotypes have not been reported in non-mammalian vertebrates. We have isolated the class II (B-L) alpha chain from outbred chickens as the basis...... DNA, suggesting considerable diversity around the gene. Analysis of a large back-cross family indicates that the class II alpha chain locus ( B-LA) is located roughly 5.6 cM from the MHC locus, which encodes the classical class II beta chains. Thus the chicken class II alpha chain gene is like...... for the cloning and sequencing of the cDNA. We found only one class II alpha chain transcript, which bears the major features of a classical class II alpha sequence, including the critical peptide-binding residues. The chicken sequence is more similar to human DR than to the DQ, DP, DO or DM isotypes, most...

  5. Bayesian phylogeny of sucrose transporters: Ancient origins, differential expansion and convergent evolution in monocots and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duo ePeng

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Sucrose transporters (SUTs are essential for the export and efficient movement of sucrose from source leaves to sink organs in plants. The angiosperm SUT family was previously classified into three or four distinct groups, Types I, II (subgroup IIB and III, with dicot-specific Type I and monocot-specific Type IIB functioning in phloem loading. To shed light on the underlying drivers of SUT evolution, Bayesian phylogenetic inference was undertaken using 41 sequenced plant genomes, including seven basal lineages at key evolutionary junctures. Our analysis supports four phylogenetically and structurally distinct SUT subfamilies, originating from two ancient groups (AG1 and AG2 that diverged early during terrestrial colonization. In both AG1 and AG2, multiple intron acquisition events in the progenitor vascular plant established the gene structures of modern SUTs. Tonoplastic Type III and plasmalemmal Type II represent evolutionarily conserved descendants of AG1 and AG2, respectively. Type I and Type IIB were previously thought to evolve after the dicot-monocot split. We show, however, that divergence of Type I from Type III SUT predated basal angiosperms, likely associated with evolution of vascular cambium and phloem transport. Type I SUT was subsequently lost in monocots along with vascular cambium, and independent evolution of Type IIB coincided with modified monocot vasculature. Both Type I and Type IIB underwent lineage-specific expansion. In multiple unrelated taxa, the newly-derived SUTs exhibit biased expression in reproductive tissues, suggesting a functional link between phloem loading and reproductive fitness. Convergent evolution of Type I and Type IIB for SUT function in phloem loading and reproductive organs supports the idea that differential vascular development in dicots and monocots is a strong driver for SUT family evolution in angiosperms.

  6. Ancient Greek with Thrasymachus: A Web Site for Learning Ancient Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barker, Alison

    2001-01-01

    Discusses a project that was begun as an attempt by two teachers of Ancient Greek to provide supplementary materials to accompany "Thrasymachus," a first-year textbook for learning ancient Greek. Provides a brief history and description of the project, the format of each chapter, a chronology for completion of materials for each chapter in the…

  7. Language Acquisition without an Acquisition Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, William

    2012-01-01

    Most explanatory work on first and second language learning assumes the primacy of the acquisition phenomenon itself, and a good deal of work has been devoted to the search for an "acquisition device" that is specific to humans, and perhaps even to language. I will consider the possibility that this strategy is misguided and that language…

  8. 75 FR 57690 - Acquisition Regulation: Sustainable Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ...: Sustainable Acquisition AGENCY: Department of Energy. ACTION: Interim final rule with request for comments... Performance. The intent of the rule is to leverage agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologies and energy efficient and environmentally sustainable materials, products, and services. DATES...

  9. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  10. Diagnosis and management of retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gusani Niraj J

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ancient schwannomas are degenerate peripheral nerve sheath tumors that very rarely occur in the retroperitoneum. They generally reach large proportions before producing symptoms due to mass effect. We describe three cases of retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas and discuss the diagnosis and management of these tumors. Case presentations Three female patients with retroperitoneal ancient schwannomas were reviewed. One patient presented with several weeks of upper abdominal pain and lower chest discomfort, whereas back pain and leg pain with associated weakness were predominant symptoms in the remaining two. Abdominal imaging findings demonstrated heterogeneous masses in the retroperitoneum with demarcated margins, concerning for malignancy. The patients successfully had radical excision of their tumors. Histological examination showed encapsulated tumors that displayed alternating areas of dense cellularity and areas of myxoid matrix consistent with a diagnosis of ancient schwannoma. Conclusion A diagnosis of ancient schwannoma should be entertained for any heterogeneous, well encapsulated mass in the retroperitoneum. In these cases less radical surgical resection should be considered as malignant transformation of these tumors is extremely rare and recurrence is uncommon following excision.

  11. Calo trigger acquisition system

    CERN Multimedia

    Franchini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Calo trigger acquisition system - Evolution of the acquisition system from a multiple boards system (upper, orange cables) to a single board one (below, light blue cables) where all the channels are collected in a single board.

  12. The importance of studying inherited hematological disorders in ancient Anatolian populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeşim Doğan Alakoç

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Before analysis of DNA from ancient remains was possible, anthropologists studied evolution and migration patterns using data obtained from population genetic studies on modern populations combined with data obtained from morphological evaluations of ancient remains. Currently, DNA analysis of ancient populations is making a valuable contribution to these efforts. Researchers that perform ancient DNA analysis prefer to study polymorphisms on the Y chromosome or mitochondrial DNA because the results are easier to statistically evaluate. To evaluate polymorphisms on diploid genomes, which are more informative, only mutations that have been extensively examined in modern populations should be chosen. The most extensively evaluated mutations are those related to prevalent inherited disorders. As such, beta-thalassemia, sickle cell anemia, FVL mutation of globin and the factor V genes are good candidates for DNA studies in ancient populations. These mutations are common in Anatolia, host to many civilizations since the Paleolithic period. This history makes Anatolia a good place for conducting research that could enhance our understanding of human evolution and migration patterns.

  13. Genomic overview of the phytopathogen Pectobacterium wasabiae strain RNS 08.42.1A suggests horizontal acquisition of quorum-sensing genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khayi, Slimane; Raoul des Essarts, Yannick; Quêtu-Laurent, Angélique; Moumni, Mohieddine; Hélias, Valérie; Faure, Denis

    2015-04-01

    The blackleg and soft-rot diseases caused by pectinolytic enterobacteria such as Pectobacterium and Dickeya are major causes of losses affecting potato crop in the field and upon storage. In this work, we report the isolation, characterization and genome analysis of the Pectobacterium wasabiae (formerly identified as Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum) strain RNS 08.42.1A, that has been isolated from a Solanum tuberosum host plant in France. Comparative genomics with 3 other P. wasabiae strains isolated from potato plants in different areas in North America and Europe, highlighted both a strong similarity at the whole genome level (ANI > 99 %) and a conserved synteny of the virulence genes. In addition, our analyses evidenced a robust separation between these four P. wasabiae strains and the type strain P. wasabiae CFBP 3304(T), isolated from horseradish in Japan. In P. wasabiae RNS 08.42.1A, the expI and expR nucleotidic sequences are more related to those of some Pectobacterium atrosepticum and P. carotovorum strains (90 % of identity) than to those of the other potato P. wasabiae strains (70 to 74 % of identity). This could suggest a recruitment of these genes in the P. wasabiae strain RNS 08.42.1A by an horizontal transfer between pathogens infecting the same potato host plant.

  14. Dacic Ancient Astronomical Research in Sarmizegetuza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel George Oprea

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The actual Romanian territory belongs to Carpatho-Danubian Space and to Ancient Europe. The Ancient European Society was a vast cultural entity based on a theocratic, matriarchal society, peaceful and art creating.Temples of Sarmizegetusa have given rise to several theories over time, proven by historians with the most diverse arguments. The largest complex of temples and sanctuaries was founded in Sarmizegetusa Regia, the Dacian’s main fortress and ancient capital of Dacia in the time of King Decebalus. The mysterious form of settlements has led researchers to the conclusion that the locations were astronomical observation shrines. Among the places of Dacian worship in Orastie Mountains the most impressive is the Great Circular Sanctuary, used to perform some celestial observations, and also as original solar calendar. This paper had the purpose to re-discover the Dacian Civilization and Dacian cosmogony based on the accumulated knowledge upon our country’s past.

  15. Prehistoric polymers: rubber processing in ancient mesoamerica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosler; Burkett; Tarkanian

    1999-06-18

    Ancient Mesoamerican peoples harvested latex from Castilla elastica, processed it using liquid extracted from Ipomoea alba (a species of morning glory vine), and fashioned rubber balls, hollow rubber figurines, and other rubber artifacts from the resulting material. Chemical and mechanical analyses of the latex and of the processed rubber indicate that the enhanced elastic behavior of the rubber relative to the unprocessed latex is due to purification of the polymer component and to an increase in the strength and number of interchain interactions that are induced by organic compounds present in I. alba. These ancient peoples' control over the properties of latex and processed rubber gave rise to the Mesoamerican ball game, a central ritual element in all ancient Mesoamerican societies.

  16. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  17. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  19. Ancient Greek psychotherapy for contemporary nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourkouta, Lambrini

    2002-08-01

    Ancient Greek physicians as well as philosophers were fully cognizant of a human being's psychological function and used their particular art to influence individual or social behavior in accordance with their pursuit. This art or technique favorably compares with several of the methods currently called supportive psychotherapy. This psychotherapy was the first form of care for people with mental health problems. Nurses who base their practice on ancient Greek psychotherapy see the patient as a whole, a person who creates meaning in life. Applying the philosophical principles of ancient Greeks helps nurses understand the behavior of people with mental health problems and recognize and facilitate adaptive satisfaction of these psychological needs. In addition, psychiatric nurses are able to help distressed individuals understand their fears and anxieties, so they are freed from the causes of their symptoms that led them to seek therapy in the first place. Consequently, this understanding can make psychiatric nurses' work a living experience and add meaning to their work.

  20. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  1. Inferring Past Environments from Ancient Epigenomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhman, David; Malul, Anat; Carmel, Liran

    2017-10-01

    Analyzing the conditions in which past individuals lived is key to understanding the environments and cultural transitions to which humans had to adapt. Here, we suggest a methodology to probe into past environments, using reconstructed premortem DNA methylation maps of ancient individuals. We review a large body of research showing that differential DNA methylation is associated with changes in various external and internal factors, and propose that loci whose DNA methylation level is environmentally responsive could serve as markers to infer about ancient daily life, diseases, nutrition, exposure to toxins, and more. We demonstrate this approach by showing that hunger-related DNA methylation changes are found in ancient hunter-gatherers. The strategy we present here opens a window to reconstruct previously inaccessible aspects of the lives of past individuals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  2. Application of the multifactor dimensionality reduction method in evaluation of the roles of multiple genes/enzymes in multidrug-resistant acquisition in Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Z; Peng, Y; Bi, J; Xie, C; Chen, X; Li, Y; Ye, X; Zhou, J

    2016-03-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRPA) infections are major threats to healthcare-associated infection control and the intrinsic molecular mechanisms of MDRPA are also unclear. We examined 348 isolates of P. aeruginosa, including 188 MDRPA and 160 non-MDRPA, obtained from five tertiary-care hospitals in Guangzhou, China. Significant correlations were found between gene/enzyme carriage and increased rates of antimicrobial resistance (P dimensionality reduction approach. The MDRPA rate was also elevated with the increase in positive numbers of those three determinants (P < 0·001). Thus, gyrA mutation, OprD loss and MBL presence may serve as predictors for early screening of MDRPA infections in clinical settings.

  3. The TL dating of ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leung, P.L.; Stokes, M.J.; Wang Weida; Xia Junding; Zhou Zhixin

    1997-01-01

    The age determination of ancient porcelain using the pre-dose technique in TL dating was reported. The variation of beta dose with depth below the surface of the porcelain slice, the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) for 110 degree C peak, the measurement of paleodose and the estimation of annual dose were studied. The results show that this technique is suitable for authenticity testing of ancient porcelain, but both accuracy and precision for porcelain dating are worse than those for pottery, because porcelain differs from pottery on composition, structure and firing temperature. Besides, some complicated factors in the pre-dose technique would be the possible cause of the greater errors

  4. Damage and repair of ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Under certain conditions small amounts of DNA can survive for long periods of time and can be used as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) substrates for the study of phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of extinct plants and animals, including hominids. Because of extensive DNA...... such as extinct horses, cave bears, the marsupial wolf, the moa, and Neanderthal. In the past few years, this technology has been extended to the study of infectious disease in ancient Egyptian and South American mummies, the dietary habits of ancient animals, and agricultural practices and population dynamics...

  5. Acquisition: Acquisition of the Evolved SEASPARROW Missile

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2002-01-01

    .... The Evolved SEASPARROW Missile, a Navy Acquisition Category II program, is an improved version of the RIM-7P SEASPARROW missile that will intercept high-speed maneuvering, anti-ship cruise missiles...

  6. Retroviral DNA Sequences as a Means for Determining Ancient Diets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica I Rivera-Perez

    Full Text Available For ages, specialists from varying fields have studied the diets of the primeval inhabitants of our planet, detecting diet remains in archaeological specimens using a range of morphological and biochemical methods. As of recent, metagenomic ancient DNA studies have allowed for the comparison of the fecal and gut microbiomes associated to archaeological specimens from various regions of the world; however the complex dynamics represented in those microbial communities still remain unclear. Theoretically, similar to eukaryote DNA the presence of genes from key microbes or enzymes, as well as the presence of DNA from viruses specific to key organisms, may suggest the ingestion of specific diet components. In this study we demonstrate that ancient virus DNA obtained from coprolites also provides information reconstructing the host's diet, as inferred from sequences obtained from pre-Columbian coprolites. This depicts a novel and reliable approach to determine new components as well as validate the previously suggested diets of extinct cultures and animals. Furthermore, to our knowledge this represents the first description of the eukaryotic viral diversity found in paleofaeces belonging to pre-Columbian cultures.

  7. Identification of genes that regulate phosphate acquisition and plant performance during arbuscular my corrhizal symbiosis in medicago truncatula and brachypodium distachyon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, Maria J [Boyce Thompson Institute, Ithaca, NY (United States); Hudson, Matthew E [Univ. of Illinois, Champaign, IL (United States)

    2015-11-24

    Most vascular flowering plants have the ability to form symbiotic associations with arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The symbiosis develops in the roots and can have a profound effect on plant productivity, largely through improvements in plant mineral nutrition. Within the root cortical cells, the plant and fungus create novel interfaces specialized for nutrient transfer, while the fungus also develops a network of hyphae in the rhizosphere. Through this hyphal network, the fungus acquires and delivers phosphate and nitrogen to the root. In return, the plant provides the fungus with carbon. In addition, to enhancing plant mineral nutrition, the AM symbiosis has an important role in the carbon cycle, and positive effects on soil health. Here we identified and characterized plant genes involved in the regulation and functioning of the AM symbiosis in Medicago truncatula and Brachypodium distachyon. This included the identification and and characterization of a M. truncatula transcription factors that are required for symbiosis. Additionally, we investigated the molecular basis of functional diversity among AM symbioses in B. distachyon and analysed the transcriptome of Brachypodium distachyon during symbiosis.

  8. Moessbauer studies on ancient Jizhon plain Temmoku porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhengfang; Zheng Yufang; Lin Yongqiang

    1994-01-01

    Three kinds of ancient Jizhou plain Temmoku wares and their several ware-making raw materials were studied by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Moessbauer spectroscopy. The firing technique of ancient Jizhou Temmoku porcelains is discussed. (orig.)

  9. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  10. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  11. A Swarm of Ancient Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    We know of about 150 of the rich collections of old stars called globular clusters that orbit our galaxy, the Milky Way. This sharp new image of Messier 107, captured by the Wide Field Imager on the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, displays the structure of one such globular cluster in exquisite detail. Studying these stellar swarms has revealed much about the history of our galaxy and how stars evolve. The globular cluster Messier 107, also known as NGC 6171, is a compact and ancient family of stars that lies about 21 000 light-years away. Messier 107 is a bustling metropolis: thousands of stars in globular clusters like this one are concentrated into a space that is only about twenty times the distance between our Sun and its nearest stellar neighbour, Alpha Centauri, across. A significant number of these stars have already evolved into red giants, one of the last stages of a star's life, and have a yellowish colour in this image. Globular clusters are among the oldest objects in the Universe. And since the stars within a globular cluster formed from the same cloud of interstellar matter at roughly the same time - typically over 10 billion years ago - they are all low-mass stars, as lightweights burn their hydrogen fuel supply much more slowly than stellar behemoths. Globular clusters formed during the earliest stages in the formation of their host galaxies and therefore studying these objects can give significant insights into how galaxies, and their component stars, evolve. Messier 107 has undergone intensive observations, being one of the 160 stellar fields that was selected for the Pre-FLAMES Survey - a preliminary survey conducted between 1999 and 2002 using the 2.2-metre telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile, to find suitable stars for follow-up observations with the VLT's spectroscopic instrument FLAMES [1]. Using FLAMES, it is possible to observe up to 130 targets at the same time, making it particularly well suited

  12. Analysis of ancient pigments by Raman microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Jian; Xu Cunyi

    1999-01-01

    Raman microscopy can be applied for the spatial resolution, and non-destructive in situ analysis of inorganic pigments in pottery, manuscripts and paintings. Compared with other techniques, it is the best single technique for this purpose. An overview is presented of the applications of Raman microscopy in the analysis of ancient pigments

  13. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  14. Material characterization of ancient Indian copper

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Ancient Indian copper; material characterization; electrochemical behaviour; rust analysis; corrosion rate. Abstract. A chalcolithic (2350–1800 BC) copper chisel from Balathal has been characterized by X-ray diffraction, microstructural and electrochemical methods. The surface patina was composed of sulfates ...

  15. Truth Obviousness in Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halyna I. Budz

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The article examines the features of the axiomatic approach to the truth understanding in ancient Greek philosophy. Truth in the works by ancient philosophers has axiomatic essence, basing on divine origin of truth. As the truth has a divine origin, it is in reality. The reality, created by Gods is the solemn reality. Therefore, understanding of reality by man is the display of divine reality, which is true and clever. In of the context of ancient Greek philosophy, to know truth is to know something, existing in reality, in other words, something, truly existing, eternal reality. Consequently, to know truth is it to know the substantial reality base. That’s why the justification of the reality origin is the axiomatic doctrine of truth at the same time, because only fundamental principle “truly” exists and is the truth itself. The idea of fundamental principle in ancient Greek philosophy is the axiom, universal principle, which is the base of reality as a substance from ontological perspective and is realized as the truth from gnosiological perspective. Fundamental principle, as Greeks understand it, coincides with the truth, in other words, reality and thinking are identical. The idea of reality source is the universal criterion of world perception at the same time, in other words, it is the truth, which is perceived axiomatically.

  16. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  17. Ancient Indian Mathematics – A Conspectus*

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    strikingly close to modern mathematics, repre- sent the various levels of intellectual attainment. There is now increasing awareness around the world that as one of the ancient cultures, India has contributed sub- stantially to the global scientific development in many spheres, and mathematics has been one of the recognized.

  18. Communication Arts in the Ancient World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

    Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

  19. The Ancient stellar population of Leo A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Abhijit; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew

    The primary goal of our proposal is the characterisation of the oldest stellar populations in Leo A using the properties of ancient RR Lyrae variable stars as tracers. Well known and long established correlations exist between the periods and luminosities of RR Lyrae variable stars and their ages

  20. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. LD Students and the Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara L.

    1988-01-01

    Synectics, the making of analogies, was used with learning disabled high school seniors to provide them with a creative process that aids in developing a deeper understanding of literature. After studying Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the students completed a six-step process and produced a short writing assignment. (VW)

  2. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  3. Perry: American renaissance of an ancient beverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgeoning world interest in cider and perry (pear cider, which is an alcoholic beverage) has created a strong demand for unique perry pear (Pyrus L.) cultivars. The history of perry dates to the ancient Romans. This beverage has been very popular through the centuries in Europe. The U.S. Department...

  4. The Ancient African Civilization of Kush.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollet, David; Mollet, Joyce

    1998-01-01

    Argues that early African civilizations should be taught to ameliorate the problem of many African-American students first encountering related peoples in discussions of colonialism and slavery. Observes that the absence of materials for middle grade teachers reinforces this tendency. Promotes the authors' teaching packs on the ancient African…

  5. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures,…

  6. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  7. [Gynecology and obstetrics in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morice, P; Josset, P; Colau, J C

    1994-01-01

    We analyzed scriptural and archeologic sources of information concerning gynaecology and obstetrics as practiced in ancient Egypt. Knowledge of anatomy was rudimentary but precocious diagnosis of pregnancy was practiced. An obstetrical chair had been used since the VIth dynasty. The Egyptians were the first to describe prolapsus of the genital organs. The pessary was a known treatment. Spermicidal mixtures were used for contraception.

  8. Acquisition of C1 inhibitor by Bordetella pertussis virulence associated gene 8 results in C2 and C4 consumption away from the bacterial surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovingh, Elise S.; Kuipers, Betsy; Pinelli, Elena; Rooijakkers, Suzan H. M.

    2017-01-01

    Whooping cough, or pertussis, is a contagious disease of the respiratory tract that is re-emerging worldwide despite high vaccination coverage. The causative agent of this disease is the Gram-negative Bordetella pertussis. Knowledge on complement evasion strategies of this pathogen is limited. However, this is of great importance for future vaccine development as it has become apparent that a novel pertussis vaccine is needed. Here, we unravel the effect of Virulence associated gene 8 (Vag8) of B. pertussis on the human complement system at the molecular level. We show that both recombinant and endogenously secreted Vag8 inhibit complement deposition on the bacterial surface at the level of C4b. We reveal that Vag8 binding to human C1-inhibitor (C1-inh) interferes with the binding of C1-inh to C1s, C1r and MASP-2, resulting in the release of active proteases that subsequently cleave C2 and C4 away from the bacterial surface. We demonstrate that the depletion of these complement components in the bacterial surrounding and subsequent decreased deposition on B. pertussis leads to less complement-mediated bacterial killing. Vag8 is the first protein described that specifically prevents C1s, C1r and MASP-2 binding to C1-inh and thereby mediates complement consumption away from the bacterial surface. Unravelling the mechanism of this unique complement evasion strategy of B. pertussis is one of the first steps towards understanding the interactions between the first line of defense complement and B. pertussis. PMID:28742139

  9. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  10. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  11. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2016-12-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  12. Classification of Ancient Mammal Individuals Using Dental Pulp MALDI-TOF MS Peptide Profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Thi-Nguyen-Ny; Aboudharam, Gérard; Gardeisen, Armelle; Davoust, Bernard; Bocquet-Appel, Jean-Pierre; Flaudrops, Christophe; Belghazi, Maya; Raoult, Didier; Drancourt, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Background The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. Methodology/Principal Findings We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279–modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%). Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56%) collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I) in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. Conclusions/Significance Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals. PMID:21364886

  13. Classification of ancient mammal individuals using dental pulp MALDI-TOF MS peptide profiling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thi-Nguyen-Ny Tran

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The classification of ancient animal corpses at the species level remains a challenging task for forensic scientists and anthropologists. Severe damage and mixed, tiny pieces originating from several skeletons may render morphological classification virtually impossible. Standard approaches are based on sequencing mitochondrial and nuclear targets. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We present a method that can accurately classify mammalian species using dental pulp and mass spectrometry peptide profiling. Our work was organized into three successive steps. First, after extracting proteins from the dental pulp collected from 37 modern individuals representing 13 mammalian species, trypsin-digested peptides were used for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry analysis. The resulting peptide profiles accurately classified every individual at the species level in agreement with parallel cytochrome b gene sequencing gold standard. Second, using a 279-modern spectrum database, we blindly classified 33 of 37 teeth collected in 37 modern individuals (89.1%. Third, we classified 10 of 18 teeth (56% collected in 15 ancient individuals representing five mammal species including human, from five burial sites dating back 8,500 years. Further comparison with an upgraded database comprising ancient specimen profiles yielded 100% classification in ancient teeth. Peptide sequencing yield 4 and 16 different non-keratin proteins including collagen (alpha-1 type I and alpha-2 type I in human ancient and modern dental pulp, respectively. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Mass spectrometry peptide profiling of the dental pulp is a new approach that can be added to the arsenal of species classification tools for forensics and anthropology as a complementary method to DNA sequencing. The dental pulp is a new source for collagen and other proteins for the species classification of modern and ancient mammal individuals.

  14. Excessive Acquisition in Hoarding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Randy O.; Tolin, David F.; Steketee, Gail; Fitch, Kristin E.; Selbo-Bruns, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    Compulsive hoarding (the acquisition of and failure to discard large numbers of possessions) is associated with substantial health risk, impairment, and economic burden. However, little research has examined separate components of this definition, particularly excessive acquisition. The present study examined acquisition in hoarding. Participants, 878 self-identified with hoarding and 665 family informants (not matched to hoarding participants), completed an internet survey. Among hoarding participants who met criteria for clinically significant hoarding, 61% met criteria for a diagnosis of compulsive buying and approximately 85% reported excessive acquisition. Family informants indicated that nearly 95% exhibited excessive acquisition. Those who acquired excessively had more severe hoarding; their hoarding had an earlier onset and resulted in more psychiatric work impairment days; and they experienced more symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, and anxiety. Two forms of excessive acquisition (buying and free things) each contributed independent variance in the prediction of hoarding severity and related symptoms. PMID:19261435

  15. Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Convergent acquisition of antibiotic resistance determinants amongst the Enterobacteriaceae isolates of the Mhlathuze River, KwaZulu-Natal (RSA) ... The possibility of transmission of resistant genes between bacteria (especially pathogenic) which invade human and animal populations within this river poses a health risk ...

  16. Ancient nature of alternative splicing and functions of introns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Kemin; Salamov, Asaf; Kuo, Alan; Aerts, Andrea; Grigoriev, Igor

    2011-03-21

    Using four genomes: Chamydomonas reinhardtii, Agaricus bisporus, Aspergillus carbonarius, and Sporotricum thermophile with EST coverage of 2.9x, 8.9x, 29.5x, and 46.3x respectively, we identified 11 alternative splicing (AS) types that were dominated by intron retention (RI; biased toward short introns) and found 15, 35, 52, and 63percent AS of multiexon genes respectively. Genes with AS were more ancient, and number of AS correlated with number of exons, expression level, and maximum intron length of the gene. Introns with tendency to be retained had either stop codons or length of 3n+1 or 3n+2 presumably triggering nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD), but introns retained in major isoforms (0.2-6percent of all introns) were biased toward 3n length and stop codon free. Stopless introns were biased toward phase 0, but 3n introns favored phase 1 that introduced more flexible and hydrophilic amino acids on both ends of introns which would be less disruptive to protein structure. We proposed a model in which minor RI intron could evolve into major RI that could facilitate intron loss through exonization.

  17. Coal occurrence in ancient sedimentary environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korkmaz, S. [Karadeniz Technical University, Trabzon (Turkey)

    1994-12-31

    Coal is an organic matter and is a product of sedimentary environments. The most favourable areas for coal-forming flora are the shallow-swampy environments which are developed in various parts of sedimentary basins occurring along sea-shores, deltas and lakes. Sedimentary basins contain deposits that may be several hundred kilometers in length and width and a few thousand meters in thickness. Different environments of deposition and associated sediments may develop in a basin through all the periods of geological history, and the deposits may grade into one another both laterally and vertically. Since the environments of coal deposition are known, it is easy to deduce how and where to search for coal occurrences in an ancient sedimentary environment. Large coal deposits of economic interest occur in lacustrine, deltaic and fluvial environments, and lagoons and barrier islands. The most noticeable and characteristic features of the ancient depositional environments in which coal deposits occur are described. 60 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Sportive buildings in the ancient Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela TEJA

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Sport and physical education —in Ancient Rome-, looked back to the physical ideals of the Greeks. In contrast, there was also a specific encouragement of spectacles and performance or general entertainment during the Imperial Era. In order to cater for the diverse shows, sophisticated buildings were constructed in Rome, and reproduced in all the built-up areas throughout the Empire. In fact, besides the important circus network, the most emblematic of these being Maximo's Circus, amphitheatres, arenas and spa resorts were constructed, in addition to the Dominitian Stadium. The author studies the different types of «sporting» installations in Ancient Rome, considering the entertainments which took place in them: chariot races, gladiatorial combat, the hunting of wild beasts, naval combats, the stadium sports and, of course, the Roman passion for spas and hot baths.

  19. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hirotaka; Yoshizawa, Yasukazu; Nakamura, Toshio; Fujita, Keiko

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'

  20. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  1. Lead in ancient Rome's city waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delile, Hugo; Blichert-Toft, Janne; Goiran, Jean-Philippe; Keay, Simon; Albarède, Francis

    2014-05-06

    It is now universally accepted that utilization of lead for domestic purposes and water distribution presents a major health hazard. The ancient Roman world was unaware of these risks. How far the gigantic network of lead pipes used in ancient Rome compromised public health in the city is unknown. Lead isotopes in sediments from the harbor of Imperial Rome register the presence of a strong anthropogenic component during the beginning of the Common Era and the Early Middle Ages. They demonstrate that the lead pipes of the water distribution system increased Pb contents in drinking water of the capital city by up to two orders of magnitude over the natural background. The Pb isotope record shows that the discontinuities in the pollution of the Tiber by lead are intimately entwined with the major issues affecting Late Antique Rome and its water distribution system.

  2. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  3. The Acquisition of Particles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    acquisition. These language specific properties can be divided into two types. First, there are properties that are directly related to UG in the sense that they ... process of language acquisition on the basis of linguistic evidence the child is exposed to. .... general is the definition that takes words to be syntactic atoms. This is ...

  4. Ancient and modern DNA reveal dynamics of domestication and cross-continental dispersal of the dromedary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almathen, Faisal; Charruau, Pauline; Mohandesan, Elmira; Mwacharo, Joram M.; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Pitt, Daniel; Abdussamad, Abdussamad M.; Uerpmann, Margarethe; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; De Cupere, Bea; Magee, Peter; Alnaqeeb, Majed A.; Salim, Bashir; Raziq, Abdul; Dessie, Tadelle; Abdelhadi, Omer M.; Banabazi, Mohammad H.; Al-Eknah, Marzook; Walzer, Chris; Faye, Bernard; Hofreiter, Michael; Peters, Joris; Hanotte, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Dromedaries have been fundamental to the development of human societies in arid landscapes and for long-distance trade across hostile hot terrains for 3,000 y. Today they continue to be an important livestock resource in marginal agro-ecological zones. However, the history of dromedary domestication and the influence of ancient trading networks on their genetic structure have remained elusive. We combined ancient DNA sequences of wild and early-domesticated dromedary samples from arid regions with nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial genotype information from 1,083 extant animals collected across the species’ range. We observe little phylogeographic signal in the modern population, indicative of extensive gene flow and virtually affecting all regions except East Africa, where dromedary populations have remained relatively isolated. In agreement with archaeological findings, we identify wild dromedaries from the southeast Arabian Peninsula among the founders of the domestic dromedary gene pool. Approximate Bayesian computations further support the “restocking from the wild” hypothesis, with an initial domestication followed by introgression from individuals from wild, now-extinct populations. Compared with other livestock, which show a long history of gene flow with their wild ancestors, we find a high initial diversity relative to the native distribution of the wild ancestor on the Arabian Peninsula and to the brief coexistence of early-domesticated and wild individuals. This study also demonstrates the potential to retrieve ancient DNA sequences from osseous remains excavated in hot and dry desert environments. PMID:27162355

  5. Macroculture, Athletics and Democracy in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Kyriazis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In the present essay we examine whether and how sports affected the emergence of democracy as a political phenomenon in Classical Greece. To achieve this we introduce in a model the concept of macroculture as a complex of mutually supporting values, norms and beliefs in various areas of human activity, like athletics, war, politics, etc. Then, we proceed through a historical review on the history of sports in Ancient Greece and we investigate various aspects of how and under which terms athle...

  6. Sportive buildings in the ancient Rome

    OpenAIRE

    Angela TEJA

    2013-01-01

    Sport and physical education —in Ancient Rome-, looked back to the physical ideals of the Greeks. In contrast, there was also a specific encouragement of spectacles and performance or general entertainment during the Imperial Era. In order to cater for the diverse shows, sophisticated buildings were constructed in Rome, and reproduced in all the built-up areas throughout the Empire. In fact, besides the important circus network, the most emblematic of these being Maximo's Circus, amphitheatre...

  7. Penile representations in ancient Greek art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rempelakos, L; Tsiamis, C; Poulakou-Rebelakou, E

    2013-12-01

    The presentation of the cult of phallus in ancient Greece and the artistic appearance of the phenomenon on vase figures and statues, as indicative of the significant role of the male genitalia in all fertility ceremonies. The examination of a great number of penile representations from the ancient Greek pottery and sculpture and the review of the ancient theater plays (satiric dramas and comedies ). Phallus in artistic representation is connected either with gods of fertility, such as the goat-footed and horned Pan or the ugly dwarf Priapus or the semi-animal nailed figures Satyrs, devotees of the god Dionysus accompanying him in all ritual orgiastic celebrations. Phallus also symbolizes good luck, health and sexuality: people bear or wear artificial phalli exactly like the actors as part of their costume or carry huge penises during the festive ritual processions. On the contrary, the Olympic gods or the ordinary mortals are not imaged ithyphallic; the ideal type of male beauty epitomized in classical sculpture, normally depicts genitals of average or less than average size. It is noteworthy that many of these images belong to athletes during or immediately after hard exercise with the penis shrunk. The normal size genitalia may have been simply a convention to distinguish normal people from the gods of sexuality and fertility, protectors of the reproductive process of Nature. The representation of the over-sized and erected genitalia on vase figures or statues of ancient Greek art is related to fertility gods such as Priapus, Pan and Satyrs and there is strong evidence that imagination and legend were replacing the scientific achievements in the field of erectile function for many centuries.

  8. Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    , employee experiences and communication. Mergers and acquisitions remain one of the most common forms of growth, yet they present considerable challenges for the companies and management involved. The effects on stakeholders, including shareholders, managers and employees, must be considered as well......Introduction to the study of mergers and acquisitions. This book provides an understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, how and why they occur, and also the broader implications for organizations. It presents issues including motives and planning, partner selection, integration...... by editorial commentaries and reflects the important organizational and behavioural aspects which have often been ignored in the past. By providing this in-depth understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, the reader understands not only how and why mergers and acquisitions occur, but also...

  9. Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirstea, C.D.; Buda, S.I.; Constantin, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed for a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  10. Data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cirstea, D.C.; Buda, S.I.; Constantin, F.

    2005-01-01

    The topic of this paper deals with a multi parametric acquisition system developed around a four input Analog to Digital Converter working in CAMAC Standard. The acquisition software is built in MS Visual C++ on a standard PC with a USB interface. It has a visual interface which permits Start/Stop of the acquisition, setting the type of acquisition (True/Live time), the time and various menus for primary data acquisition. The spectrum is dynamically visualized with a moving cursor indicating the content and position. The microcontroller PIC16C765 is used for data transfer from ADC to PC; The microcontroller and the software create an embedded system which emulates the CAMAC protocol programming, the 4 input ADC for operating modes ('zero suppression', 'addressed' and 'sequential') and handling the data transfers from ADC to its internal memory. From its memory the data is transferred into the PC by the USB interface. The work is in progress. (authors)

  11. Mergers and Acquisitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risberg, Annette

    Introduction to the study of mergers and acquisitions. This book provides an understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, how and why they occur, and also the broader implications for organizations. It presents issues including motives and planning, partner selection, integration......, employee experiences and communication. Mergers and acquisitions remain one of the most common forms of growth, yet they present considerable challenges for the companies and management involved. The effects on stakeholders, including shareholders, managers and employees, must be considered as well...... by editorial commentaries and reflects the important organizational and behavioural aspects which have often been ignored in the past. By providing this in-depth understanding of the mergers and acquisitions process, the reader understands not only how and why mergers and acquisitions occur, but also...

  12. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.

  13. Homosexuality according to ancient Greek physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Moschos, M M; Koukaki, E; Kontaxaki, M-I; Androutsos, G

    2017-01-01

    Homosexuality and pedophilia in ancient Greece greatly concerned many researchers who were mainly interested in highlighting the social aspect of this phenomenon in ancient Greek society. An important source on the subject was the paintings of a man and his lover in attic black and red figured pottery, up to the end of the 5th century BC. Another main source was the information that derived from the texts of ancient Greek literature, especially poetry. Homosexuality was not only referring to relationships between males, but it was also manifested in lesbian love. It is believed that in the Homeric world homosexuality was not favored. In Greek society of the archaic period, the restriction of women at home, the satisfaction of sexual needs with courtesans, the marriage for the purpose of maintaining and managing the property, put women aside, marginalizing them in terms of social life, impeding the cultivation of emotional relationships between sexes. At the same time, in the society of those times, the aristocratic ideal, the constant communication of men during military training and the war, the male nudity in sports and the promotion of beauty and bravery in athletic contests, as well as the gatherings and the entertainment of men at the symposia, created a suitable substrate in which male homosexuality could develop. In this context, pedophile relationships were developed mainly during the archaic period, as recorded on vase paintings, where a mature man developed a special relationship with a teenager of the same social class. The mature man had the role of mentor for the juvenile, he would look after him and cover his living expenses and education cost. In this relationship, exhibiting predominantly the social dimension of an initiation process and introduction to adult life, the erotic homosexual intercourse could find a place to flourish. The above-mentioned relationship could not last forever, given that this would later transform into an emotional

  14. Urology and the scientific method in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordetsky, Jennifer; O'Brien, Jeanne

    2009-03-01

    To examine the practice of urology in ancient Egypt using various sources, including the Edwin Smith and Ebers Papyri. The sources of knowledge of ancient Egyptian medicine include medical papyri, paleopathology, art, and hieroglyphic carvings. A brief overview of the medical system in ancient Egypt was completed, in addition to an examination of the training and specialization of the physician in the ancient world. Urologic diseases treated in ancient Egypt and some of the first documented urologic surgeries are presented. Finally, we studied the role of the physician-priest and the intertwined use of religion and magic in ancient Egyptian medicine. The same medical conditions urologists treat in the office today were methodically documented thousands of years ago. Medical papyri show evidence that the ancient Egyptians practiced medicine using a scientific method based on the clinical observation of disease. This has been exemplified by the Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus, a collection of surgical cases that gives a diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis for each ailment, and the discovery of medical specialization in ancient Egypt, giving us perhaps the world's first urologists. Intertwined with the scientific method was also the rich mysticism and religion of ancient Egypt, which were integral components of the healing process. We present an overview of the practice of urology in ancient Egypt, in terms of both pharmacologic and surgical intervention, as well as with a look into the religion of medicine practiced at that time.

  15. ANALYSIS OF ANCIENT DNA FROM FOSSIL CORALLINES (CORALLINALES, RHODOPHYTA)(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughey, Jeffery R; Braga, Juan C; Aguirre, Julio; Woelkerling, William J; Webster, Jody M

    2008-04-01

    The field of molecular paleontology has recently made significant contributions to anthropology and biology. Hundreds of ancient DNA studies have been published, but none has targeted fossil coralline algae. Using regions of the SSU gene, we analyzed rDNA from fossil coralline algae of varying ages and states of preservation from Spain, Papua New Guinea (PNG), and the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Specimens from PNG, GBR, and some localities from Spain did not contain endogenous ancient DNA. Reproducible sequence data were obtained from specimens ∼550 years old from near Cadiz, Spain, and from rocky-shore deposits in Carboneras, Almeria Province of Spain (∼78,000 years before present [YBP]). Based on BLAST searches and a phylogenetic analysis of sequences, an undescribed coralline alga belonging to the Melobesioideae was discovered in the Carboneras material as well as the following coralline genera: Jania, Lithophyllum, Lithothamnion, Mesophyllum, and Phymatolithon. DNA from fleshy brown and red macroalgae was also discovered in the specimens from Carboneras. The coralline algae identified using molecular techniques were in agreement with those based on morphological methods. The identified taxa are common in the present-day southeastern Spain littoral zone. Amino acid racemization, concentration ratios, and specific concentrations failed to show a correlation between biomolecular preservation and PCR amplification success. Results suggest that molecular investigations on fossil algae, although limited by technical difficulties, are feasible. Validity of our results was established using authentication criteria and a self-critical approach to compliance. © 2008 Phycological Society of America.

  16. Human target acquisition performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teaney, Brian P.; Du Bosq, Todd W.; Reynolds, Joseph P.; Thompson, Roger; Aghera, Sameer; Moyer, Steven K.; Flug, Eric; Espinola, Richard; Hixson, Jonathan

    2012-06-01

    The battlefield has shifted from armored vehicles to armed insurgents. Target acquisition (identification, recognition, and detection) range performance involving humans as targets is vital for modern warfare. The acquisition and neutralization of armed insurgents while at the same time minimizing fratricide and civilian casualties is a mounting concern. U.S. Army RDECOM CERDEC NVESD has conducted many experiments involving human targets for infrared and reflective band sensors. The target sets include human activities, hand-held objects, uniforms & armament, and other tactically relevant targets. This paper will define a set of standard task difficulty values for identification and recognition associated with human target acquisition performance.

  17. Interactive knowledge acquisition tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudziak, Martin J.; Feinstein, Jerald L.

    1987-01-01

    The problems of designing practical tools to aid the knowledge engineer and general applications used in performing knowledge acquisition tasks are discussed. A particular approach was developed for the class of knowledge acquisition problem characterized by situations where acquisition and transformation of domain expertise are often bottlenecks in systems development. An explanation is given on how the tool and underlying software engineering principles can be extended to provide a flexible set of tools that allow the application specialist to build highly customized knowledge-based applications.

  18. A study on provenance relation between Jiaotanxia ancient Guan porcelain and Qingliangsi ancient Ru porcelain by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Rongwu; Feng Songlin; Huang Zhongxiang; Jia Xiuqin

    2004-01-01

    11 samples of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain from Qingliangsi kiln, 23 samples of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain from Jiaotanxia kiln and 4 samples of modern archaized Guan porcelain were obtained to determine the contents of elements in each of them by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the fuzzy cluster trend diagrams for the bodies' samples and the glazes samples respectively. The analysis shows that the raw material origins of the Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain bodies samples are very concentrated; those of the Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain bodies samples are a little dispersed; those of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are relatively concentrated; those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples are dispersed; and the origins of the raw material of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are obviously different from those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples. The bodies samples and glazes samples of Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain and those of Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain have some difference but can be compared with each other. (authors)

  19. Acquisition Workforce Annual Report 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    General Services Administration — This is the Federal Acquisition Institute's (FAI's) Annual demographic report on the Federal acquisition workforce, showing trends by occupational series, employment...

  20. The characterization of Helicobacter pylori DNA associated with ancient human remains recovered from a Canadian glacier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treena Swanston

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Helicobacter pylori is a gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the stomach of nearly half of the world's population. Genotypic characterization of H. pylori strains involves the analysis of virulence-associated genes, such as vacA, which has multiple alleles. Previous phylogenetic analyses have revealed a connection between modern H. pylori strains and the movement of ancient human populations. In this study, H. pylori DNA was amplified from the stomach tissue of the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual. This ancient individual was recovered from the Samuel Glacier in Tatshenshini-Alsek Park, British Columbia, Canada on the traditional territory of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations and radiocarbon dated to a timeframe of approximately AD 1670 to 1850. This is the first ancient H. pylori strain to be characterized with vacA sequence data. The Tatshenshini H. pylori strain has a potential hybrid vacA m2a/m1d middle (m region allele and a vacA s2 signal (s region allele. A vacA s2 allele is more commonly identified with Western strains, and this suggests that European strains were present in northwestern Canada during the ancient individual's time. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the vacA m1d region of the ancient strain clusters with previously published novel Native American strains that are closely related to Asian strains. This indicates a past connection between the Kwäday Dän Ts'ìnchi individual and the ancestors who arrived in the New World thousands of years ago.

  1. The provenance investigation on ancient chinese Ru porcelains by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Songhua

    1997-01-01

    The 28 samples of glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelains are analyzed by neutron activation. The 36 element contents in each sample are determined. The neutron activation analysis (NAA) data are analyzed by fuzzy cluster. The trend cluster diagram is obtained. The result shows that the ancient Chinese Ru porcelains were most probably from the same raw material source though they were from different time, fired in different kilns and in different colors. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. The two modern Ru porcelains approximate to ancient Ru porcelains, one becomes estranged from ancient Ru porcelains. Jingdezhen porcelain is unconcerned with Ru porcelains

  2. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  3. Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Øhrgaard, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The IT integration of acquisitions consists an important challenge for the many acquiring organizations. Complementing existing research, this paper searches for explanation to differences in acquirers’ abilities for acquisition IT integration in the external of the acquirer, by a study of the use...... of temporary agency workers. Following an analytic induction approach, theoretically grounded in the re-source-based view of the firm, we identify the complimentary and supplementary roles consultants can assume in acquisition IT integration. Through case studies of three acquirers, we investigate how...... the acquirers appropriate the use of agency workers as part of its acquisition strategy. For the investigated acquirers, assigning roles to agency workers is contingent on balancing the needs of knowledge induction and knowledge retention, as well as experience richness and in-depth under-standing. Composition...

  4. High speed data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, P.S.

    1997-07-01

    A general introduction to high speed data acquisition system techniques in modern particle physics experiments is given. Examples are drawn from the SELEX(E78 1) high statistics charmed baryon production and decay experiment now taking data at Fermilab

  5. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.

    1997-01-01

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  6. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative.

  7. Ancient DNA and the tropics: a rodent's tale

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez-García, Tania A.; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; King, Christine; Poinar, Hendrik N.

    2014-01-01

    Most genetic studies of Holocene fauna have been performed with ancient samples from dry and cold regions, in which preservation of fossils is facilitated and molecular damage is reduced. Ancient DNA work from tropical regions has been precluded owing to factors that limit DNA preservation (e.g. temperature, hydrolytic damage). We analysed ancient DNA from rodent jawbones identified as Ototylomys phyllotis, found in Holocene and Late Pleistocene stratigraphic layers from Loltún, a humid tropi...

  8. Evidence of coat color variation sheds new light on ancient canids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgane Ollivier

    Full Text Available We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor and CBD103 (canine-β-defensin, in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age. We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant K(B allele (CBD103, which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r, the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10,000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process.

  9. Evidence of Coat Color Variation Sheds New Light on Ancient Canids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollivier, Morgane; Tresset, Anne; Hitte, Christophe; Petit, Coraline; Hughes, Sandrine; Gillet, Benjamin; Duffraisse, Marilyne; Pionnier-Capitan, Maud; Lagoutte, Laetitia; Arbogast, Rose-Marie; Balasescu, Adrian; Boroneant, Adina; Mashkour, Marjan; Vigne, Jean-Denis; Hänni, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    We have used a paleogenetics approach to investigate the genetic landscape of coat color variation in ancient Eurasian dog and wolf populations. We amplified DNA fragments of two genes controlling coat color, Mc1r (Melanocortin 1 Receptor) and CBD103 (canine-β-defensin), in respectively 15 and 19 ancient canids (dogs and wolf morphotypes) from 14 different archeological sites, throughout Asia and Europe spanning from ca. 12 000 B.P. (end of Upper Palaeolithic) to ca. 4000 B.P. (Bronze Age). We provide evidence of a new variant (R301C) of the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) and highlight the presence of the beta-defensin melanistic mutation (CDB103-K locus) on ancient DNA from dog-and wolf-morphotype specimens. We show that the dominant KB allele (CBD103), which causes melanism, and R301C (Mc1r), the variant that may cause light hair color, are present as early as the beginning of the Holocene, over 10 000 years ago. These results underline the genetic diversity of prehistoric dogs. This diversity may have partly stemmed not only from the wolf gene pool captured by domestication but also from mutations very likely linked to the relaxation of natural selection pressure occurring in-line with this process. PMID:24098367

  10. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  11. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  12. Safety analysis of an ancient iron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kweon, Young Gak; Yoon, Byeng Hyun; Lim, Jae Kyun; Lee, Sung Bum

    2002-01-01

    Safety analysis of an ancient iron structure, Danggan, constructed over than a thousand years ago was performed. The structure is consisted of 24 iron cylinders of which the total height is about 15.4 m. The analysis was done by the ultrasonic test to measure thickness of each cylinder, the radiographic test to investigate the inside of cylinders, the measurement of inclination of the structure and the structural analysis to estimate the stress level applied by the wind. Results showed that Danggan structure was on state being well safe at present, but it could be dangerous when the inclination of the structure becomes severely progressive.

  13. Colchicine: an ancient drug with novel applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgeb, B; Kornreich, D; McGuinn, K; Okon, L; Brownell, I; Sackett, D L

    2018-02-01

    Colchicine is a treatment for gout that has been used for more than a millennium. It is the treatment of choice for familial Mediterranean fever and its associated complication, amyloidosis. The 2009 U.S. Food and Drug Administration approval of colchicine as a new drug had research consequences. Recent investigations with large cohorts of patients with gout who have been taking colchicine for years have demonstrated novel applications within oncology, immunology, cardiology and dermatology. Some emerging dermatological uses include the treatment of epidermolysis bullosa acquisita, leucocytoclastic vasculitis, aphthous stomatitis and others. In this work we relate the history and the new horizon of this ancient medicine. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  14. Suicide and parasuicide in ancient personal testimonies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1993-01-01

    Attitudes toward suicide have not always been the same as they are today, and understanding the ideas of other cultures and times could enable us to reexamine contemporary conceptions of self-killing. Greek and Roman personal testimonies were examined to investigate the thesis that ancients did not see suicide as caused by psychic or emotional forces. Indeed, though the documents of antiquity give us a closer look into personal motives, they demonstrate that even would-be self-killers themselves wished to regard suicide as a rational act of volition.

  15. [Ancient clinical application of massage therapy on navel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xing-Yue; Ma, Yu-Xiao; Tian, Si-Sheng; Gao, Shu-Zhong

    2014-07-01

    To further explore the clinical effect of massage therapy on navel,the related ancient literatures were arranged and analyzed,and several methods in ancient clinical were introduced, including stroking navel, rubbing navel, pushing navel, tapping navel and puffing navel. In addition, the theoretical basis of massage therapy on navel were discussed. The results revealed ancient literatures offered abundant theoretical basis to modern clinical practice, and there were evidences of treating gastroenteric and gynecological diseases with this therapy. Comprehensively, through the study of ancient literatures and modern research, therapy of massage on navel is believed to be promising and will gain popularity in the future.

  16. 78 FR 32214 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-29

    ...; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY... implement this statutory provision, as well as other statutes authorizing the acquisition of land in trust... the decision to acquire land in trust is final for the Department, complete the trust acquisition...

  17. China: A Simulation of Ancient Chung Kuo, the World's Most Ancient Civilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargent, Marcia; Baral, Wanda

    This simulation allows students to participate in the "ways" of ancient Chinese history and culture. The unit is organized into five major phases or "li's." Students may spend about one week on activities in each "li" which focuses on a major aspect of Chinese history, culture, or geography. In each "li"…

  18. History through Art and Architecture: Ancient Greek Architecture [and] Ancient Greek Sculpture. Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Ann

    This document consists of two teaching manuals designed to accompany a commercially-available "multicultural, interdisciplinary video program," consisting of four still videotape programs (72 minutes, 226 frames), one teaching poster, and these two manuals. "Teacher's Manual: Ancient Greek Architecture" covers: "Ancient…

  19. Genetic tests of ancient asexuality in Root Knot Nematodes reveal recent hybrid origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunt David H

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of "ancient asexuals", taxa that have persisted for long periods of evolutionary history without sexual recombination, is both controversial and important for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. A lack of sex has consequences not only for the ecology of the asexual organism but also for its genome. Several genetic signatures are predicted from long-term asexual (apomictic reproduction including (i large "allelic" sequence divergence (ii lack of phylogenetic clustering of "alleles" within morphological species and (iii decay and loss of genes specific to meiosis and sexual reproduction. These genetic signatures can be hard to assess since it is difficult to demonstrate the allelic nature of very divergent sequences, divergence levels may be complicated by processes such as inter-specific hybridization, and genes may have secondary roles unrelated to sexual reproduction. Apomictic species of Meloidogyne root knot nematodes have been suggested previously to be ancient asexuals. Their relatives reproduce by meiotic parthenogenesis or facultative sexuality, which in combination with the abundance of nematode genomic sequence data, makes them a powerful system in which to study the consequences of reproductive mode on genomic divergence. Results Here, sequences from nuclear protein-coding genes are used to demonstrate that the first two predictions of ancient asexuality are found within the apomictic root knot nematodes. Alleles are more divergent in the apomictic taxa than in those species exhibiting recombination and do not group phylogenetically according to recognized species. In contrast some nuclear alleles, and mtDNA, are almost identical across species. Sequencing of Major Sperm Protein, a gamete-specific gene, from both meiotic and ameiotic species reveals no increase in evolutionary rate nor change in substitution pattern in the apomictic taxa, indicating that the locus

  20. Back to the Future - Tapping into Ancient Grains for Food Diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longin, C Friedrich H; Würschum, Tobias

    2016-09-01

    Einkorn, emmer, and spelt are old wheat species that have fed the world for centuries before they have nearly completely been replaced by modern bread wheat. Nowadays, the diversity of these old species lies frozen in gene banks and rare attempts aim to exploit them as a source for genetic diversity in modern wheat breeding. Here, we want to raise a debate on a more holistic exploitation of ancient species via their direct introduction to the consumer market as high quality products. Although exemplified only for ancient wheat species, this innovative self-financing strategy can be directly extended to other species. A central requirement for this concept is intensive communication, coordination, and interdisciplinary research along the entire production chain from farm to fork. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga). Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs) were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya).

  2. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia T Vilstrup

    Full Text Available The genus Equus is richly represented in the fossil record, yet our understanding of taxonomic relationships within this genus remains limited. To estimate the phylogenetic relationships among modern horses, zebras, asses and donkeys, we generated the first data set including complete mitochondrial sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize the complete mitochondrial genomes of three extinct equid lineages (the New World stilt-legged horses, NWSLH; the subgenus Sussemionus; and the Quagga, Equus quagga quagga. Comparisons with extant taxa confirm the NWSLH as being part of the caballines, and the Quagga and Plains zebras as being conspecific. However, the evolutionary relationships among the non-caballine lineages, including the now-extinct subgenus Sussemionus, remain unresolved, most likely due to extremely rapid radiation within this group. The closest living outgroups (rhinos and tapirs were found to be too phylogenetically distant to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far as up to 4 Million years ago (Mya.

  3. [Heat and Fever in ancient Greek physiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeo, In-Sok

    2009-12-01

    This paper aims at clarifying the relationship of physiological heat and pathological heat(fever) using the theoretical scheme of Georges Canguilhem as is argued in his famous book The Normal and the Pathologic. Ancient authors had presented various views on the innate heat and pathological heat. Some argued that there is only pathological heat while others, like Galen, distinguished two different kinds of heat. Galen was the first medial author who had the clear notion of the relationship between the normal heat and the pathological heat. He conceptualized their difference as the heat conforming to nature (kata phusin) and the heat against nature (para phusin). However, the Peripatetic authors, such as ps-Alexander Aphrodisias, who laid more emphasis on physiology tended to regard pathology in continuation with physiology as Claude Bernard attempted to do it. Therefore, Canguilhem's theoretical scheme turns out to be very useful in analysing the relationship of normal heat and pathological heat as is manifested in ancient Greek physiology.

  4. Antikythera Mechanism and the Ancient World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Safronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this historical review, the opinions of Ancient Greece philosophers, astronomers, and poets such as Thales Milesian, Pythagoras, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Archimedes, Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, Iamblichus, Plutarch, Homer, and Aratus about the planet position calculations and about the possibility of predictions of natural phenomena are analyzed. The planet positions were predicted before Eudoxus (probably before Philolaus by a spindle of Ananke and after Eudoxus by Antikythera mechanism. Following Pythagoras and Plato, it is established that the regular seismoacoustic observations were performed. In the Ancient World in the Mediterranean area, there was an extensive network of acoustic stations (~10 pcs, which were located in close proximity to the geologic faults. Also, it is shown that the ship that was carrying Antikythera mechanism (A-Ship was built in 244 BC in Syracuse with direct participation of Archimedes and Archias from Corinthian. Later, the A-Ship was a part of the Roman Republic safety system. The grain volumes, which were delivered to Rome city by large grain vessels, and the population of Rome city in the period 74–71 BC were estimated. Planetary calculator might be used for the chronology of the historical events as a backward prediction in addition to present Radiocarbon dating and Dendrochronology methods.

  5. Ancient eclipses and the Earth's rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, L. V.; Stephenson, F. R.

    Observations of ancient and medieval eclipses are compared with predictions to measure changes in the Earth's rotation over the past 2500 years. The observations are treated in two broad categories: untimed and timed. An untimed observation must have the place and date, but not the time, as the special geometry of the eclipse path essentially supplies this. A timed observation requires the time of day of the eclipse as well as the date and place. In the period 700BC to AD1600 we have found 106 reliable untimed and 343 timed observations of solar and lunar eclipses recorded by the ancient/medieval civilizations of Babylon, China, the Arab Dominions and Europe. Analyses of these two independent datasets lead to the conclusion that the rate of rotation is decreasing, such that the length of the day (lod) is increasing on the average by 1.8 milliseconds per century (ms/cy). This is consistent to within the accuracy of measurement with the resultant sum of a tidal increase of 2.3 ms/cy and a decrease of 0.5 ms/cy due to post-glacial uplift following the end of the last ice-age. Besides these secular changes, there is clear evidence of fluctuations in the lod of several ms on a timescale of centuries.

  6. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Peruvian highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Noboru; Guillen, Sonia; Shimada, Izumi

    2006-09-01

    Ancient DNA recovered from 57 individuals excavated by Hiram Bingham at the rural communities of Paucarcancha, Patallacta, and Huata near the famed Inca royal estate and ritual site of Machu Picchu was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with ancient and modern DNA from various Central Andean areas to test their hypothesized indigenous highland origins. The control and coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 35 individuals in this group were sequenced, and the haplogroups of each individual were determined. The frequency data for the haplogroups of these samples show clear proximity to those of modern Quechua and Aymara populations in the Peruvian and Bolivian highlands, and contrast with those of pre-Hispanic individuals of the north coast of Peru that we defined previously. Our study suggests a strong genetic affinity between sampled late pre-Hispanic individuals and modern Andean highlanders. A previous analysis of the Machu Picchu osteological collection suggests that the residents there were a mixed group of natives from various coastal and highland regions relocated by the Inca state for varied purposes. Overall, our study indicates that the sampled individuals from Paucarcancha and Patallacta were indigenous highlanders who provided supportive roles for nearby Machu Picchu. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda, the evide......The Vindolanda Tablets are rightly famous for the insights they provide into the life of Roman auxiliaries on the province of Britain’s northern frontier around the turn of the first century AD. Various authors over the years have dealt with the archaeological excavations at Vindolanda...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market......, a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study...

  8. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  9. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...... that incorporate toponyms, or place names. However, what interests me here is not so much the geo-political importance of Emblem Glyphs, but the toponyms that are used to form these. Many of the toponyms that are the basis of Emblem Glyphs can now be read and can be matched up with corresponding places. In pairing...... off the Emblem Glyphs with their earthly referents, one is left with a peculiar group of toponyms that are clearly otherworldly. It is these supernatural Emblem Glyphs that I would like to discuss here and the role they played in legitimizing the monarchs that bore these, as titles that hark back...

  10. Post-Acquisition IT Integration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henningsson, Stefan; Yetton, Philip

    2013-01-01

    The extant research on post-acquisition IT integration analyzes how acquirers realize IT-based value in individual acquisitions. However, serial acquirers make 60% of acquisitions. These acquisitions are not isolated events, but are components in growth-by-acquisition programs. To explain how...... serial acquirers realize IT-based value, we develop three propositions on the sequential effects on post-acquisition IT integration in acquisition programs. Their combined explanation is that serial acquirers must have a growth-by-acquisition strategy that includes the capability to improve...... IT integration capabilities, to sustain high alignment across acquisitions and to maintain a scalable IT infrastructure with a flat or decreasing cost structure. We begin the process of validating the three propositions by investigating a longitudinal case study of a growth-by-acquisition program....

  11. Genomic insights into a new Citrobacter koseri strain revealed gene exchanges with the virulence-associated Yersinia pestis pPCP1 plasmid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrice eArmougom

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The history of infectious diseases raised the plague as one of the most devastating for human beings. Far too often considered an ancient disease, the frequent resurgence of the plague has led to consider it as a reemerging disease in Madagascar, Algeria, Libya and Congo. The genetic factors associated with the pathogenicity of Yersinia pestis, the causative agent of the plague, involve the acquisition of the pPCP1 plasmid that promotes host invasion through the expression of the virulence factor Pla. The surveillance of plague foci after the 2003 outbreak in Algeria resulted in a positive detection of the specific pla gene of Y. pestis in rodents. However, the phenotypic characterization of the isolate identified a Citrobacter koseri. The comparative genomics of our sequenced C. koseri URMITE genome revealed a mosaic gene structure resulting from the lifestyle of our isolate and provided evidence for gene exchanges with different enteric bacteria. The most striking was the acquisition of a continuous 2 kb genomic fragment containing the virulence factor Pla of the Y. pestis pPCP1 plasmid; however, the subcutaneous injection of the CKU strain in mice did not produce any pathogenic effect. Our findings demonstrate that fast molecular detection of plague using solely the pla gene is unsuitable and should rather require Y. pestis gene marker combinations. We also suggest that the evolutionary force that might govern the expression of pathogenicity can occur through the acquisition of virulence genes but could also require the loss or the inactivation of resident genes such as antivirulence genes.

  12. The house spider genome reveals an ancient whole-genome duplication during arachnid evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwager, Evelyn E; Sharma, Prashant P; Clarke, Thomas; Leite, Daniel J; Wierschin, Torsten; Pechmann, Matthias; Akiyama-Oda, Yasuko; Esposito, Lauren; Bechsgaard, Jesper; Bilde, Trine; Buffry, Alexandra D; Chao, Hsu; Dinh, Huyen; Doddapaneni, HarshaVardhan; Dugan, Shannon; Eibner, Cornelius; Extavour, Cassandra G; Funch, Peter; Garb, Jessica; Gonzalez, Luis B; Gonzalez, Vanessa L; Griffiths-Jones, Sam; Han, Yi; Hayashi, Cheryl; Hilbrant, Maarten; Hughes, Daniel S T; Janssen, Ralf; Lee, Sandra L; Maeso, Ignacio; Murali, Shwetha C; Muzny, Donna M; Nunes da Fonseca, Rodrigo; Paese, Christian L B; Qu, Jiaxin; Ronshaugen, Matthew; Schomburg, Christoph; Schönauer, Anna; Stollewerk, Angelika; Torres-Oliva, Montserrat; Turetzek, Natascha; Vanthournout, Bram; Werren, John H; Wolff, Carsten; Worley, Kim C; Bucher, Gregor; Gibbs, Richard A; Coddington, Jonathan; Oda, Hiroki; Stanke, Mario; Ayoub, Nadia A; Prpic, Nikola-Michael; Flot, Jean-François; Posnien, Nico; Richards, Stephen; McGregor, Alistair P

    2017-07-31

    The duplication of genes can occur through various mechanisms and is thought to make a major contribution to the evolutionary diversification of organisms. There is increasing evidence for a large-scale duplication of genes in some chelicerate lineages including two rounds of whole genome duplication (WGD) in horseshoe crabs. To investigate this further, we sequenced and analyzed the genome of the common house spider Parasteatoda tepidariorum. We found pervasive duplication of both coding and non-coding genes in this spider, including two clusters of Hox genes. Analysis of synteny conservation across the P. tepidariorum genome suggests that there has been an ancient WGD in spiders. Comparison with the genomes of other chelicerates, including that of the newly sequenced bark scorpion Centruroides sculpturatus, suggests that this event occurred in the common ancestor of spiders and scorpions, and is probably independent of the WGDs in horseshoe crabs. Furthermore, characterization of the sequence and expression of the Hox paralogs in P. tepidariorum suggests that many have been subject to neo-functionalization and/or sub-functionalization since their duplication. Our results reveal that spiders and scorpions are likely the descendants of a polyploid ancestor that lived more than 450 MYA. Given the extensive morphological diversity and ecological adaptations found among these animals, rivaling those of vertebrates, our study of the ancient WGD event in Arachnopulmonata provides a new comparative platform to explore common and divergent evolutionary outcomes of polyploidization events across eukaryotes.

  13. Application of nuclear analysis techniques in ancient chinese porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Songlin; Xu Qing; Feng Xiangqian; Lei Yong; Cheng Lin; Wang Yanqing

    2005-01-01

    Ancient ceramic was fired with porcelain clay. It contains various provenance information and age characteristic. It is the scientific foundation of studying Chinese porcelain to analyze and research the ancient ceramic with modern analysis methods. According to the property of nuclear analysis technique, its function and application are discussed. (authors)

  14. The relationship between ancient trees health and soil properties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2011-12-07

    Dec 7, 2011 ... Full Length Research Paper. The relationship between ancient trees ... chemical properties, and the relationship between the ancient trees health level and their soil physical and chemical properties. ..... situation on soil nutrients and fertilization in eucalyptus plantations in. GuangXi. Soil and Fertilizer Sci.

  15. Criticisms of Segal's Interpretation of the Ancient Greek Pentathlon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barney, Robert Knight

    This paper examines the ancient Greek pentathlon as it was conducted during the Olympic games. The pentathlon was comprised of five sub-exercises: (1) the jump; (2) the discus throw; (3) the javelin throw; (4) the stade run; and (5) wrestling. Using scholarship in the fields of archaeology, ancient poetry and legends, and pictorial evidence such…

  16. Sin, Punishment And Forgiveness In Ancient Greek Religion: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper looks in particular at the special sin of hubris in ancient Greek religious thought. It examines what constitutes hubris and some cases in which hubris has been committed and punished. It demonstrates with examples that hubris is an unforgivable sin in ancient Greek religion and examines the reasons for this ...

  17. Attitudes to Ancient Greek in Three Schools: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Frances

    2018-01-01

    This study comes in response to recent changes in UK policy, whereby Ancient Greek and Latin have been included alongside modern languages as part of the curriculum at Key Stage 2. It aims to understand how Ancient Greek is surviving and thriving in three different types of schools. After a short overview of the history of Greek teaching in the…

  18. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hy...

  19. Translation: an example from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, X; Hoede, C.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, we gave an idea of translation by means of knowledge graph theory from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese, by using an example story. Actually, we give the details of the method of translation from ancient Chinese to modern Chinese step by step as carried out by hand. From the example,

  20. Possible objections to a philosophical approach to ancient Israelite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There exists a certain consensus amongst biblical scholars that involving philosophy in the attempt to understand ancient Israelite religion is hermeneutically fallacious. A philosophical approach to ancient Yahwism is considered out of place, given the non-philosophical nature of the Hebrew Bible, the normative concerns of ...

  1. Notions of "Rhetoric as Epistemic" in Ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoit, William L.

    The notion that rhetoric (and to a lesser extent, argument) is epistemic is an increasingly popular one today, although it can be traced to ancient Greece. The notion holds that rhetoric, or the art of persuasion, creates and shapes knowledge. Two ancient authors--Aristophanes and Plato--provide evidence that others had notions of rhetoric as…

  2. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  3. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation...

  4. Open Source Software Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holck, Jesper; Kühn Pedersen, Mogens; Holm Larsen, Michael

    2005-01-01

    increasingly more important and complex. We present three perspectives organisations canemploy in their decisions: seeing OSS acquisition as a business case, as COTS acquisition, and as architecturalchange within a governance framework. We present case studies of decisions on OSSadoption, and categorise......, in smaller organisations and in small-scale adoption of OSS, the cheapprice of OSS is a major enabler, as it provides a good opportunity for experiments and short-termeconomic benefits. For small organisations these experiments can lead to development of a commonIT-architecture, and in larger organisations...

  5. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  6. Information about Macedonian medicine in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannouli, Vaitsa; Syrmos, Nikolaos

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Greek Macedonians were highly interested in the improvement of their physical and psychological health. At first, they worshiped the mythical god Asclepius and his daughter Hygieia. In at least 24 places in northern Greece, in Halkidiki, Thessaloniki, Kozani, Kavala, Thassos, Serres and other places, archaelogical findings were related to Asclepius. Macedonian kings were also interested in the development of medicine, for the sake of their fellow citizens and their soldiers. Characteristic examples are the close relations of Hippocrates with king Perdikas (5(th) century B.C.) and of Nicomachus (Aristotle's father being a physician) with king Amintas. Alexander the Great had as his personal physician, the famous physician Philippos of Acarnania. An incident between Alexander and Philippos of Acarnania shows the respect of Macedonian kings to their doctors: Alexander became ill after a bath in the frozen river Cydnus (near ancient Tarsus). At this time he received a letter from his general Parmenion for not to trust his physician. Alexander gave this letter to Philippos to read it and while Philippos was reading it and was rather frightened, he saw Alexander drinking the medicine he had given him. We may note that Alexander the Great as a student of Aristotle had a general education about medicine. Archaeological findings revealed two funerary monuments of physicians: a doctor from Thasos, who practiced in Pella as a public physician during the 3rd quarter of the 4(th) century B.C. and a physician named Alexander, who lived in the 1rst half of the 5(th) century A.D. The tomb of a third physician, probably a surgeon, excavated in Pydna, near mount Olympus (3(rd) century BC)also indicates the importance of physicians in Macedonia. Archaeological findings, like surgical knives, from the Hellinistic and Roman periods, found in the city of Veria, also showed the respect of Ancient Greeks to medicine and to their physicians. An example is the skeleton of a young

  7. [Changes of marriage age in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, D

    1991-04-01

    The changes in age of marriage in ancient China can be classified into 3 periods. Around 680 B.C., the government set the age of marriage at 20 for men and at 15 for women. Even though it was written in the works of the Confucian school that men should marry at 30 and women at 20, it was never really followed. The Wei and Jin dynasties provided the longest periods of war and social instability. Large numbers of population died because of war or famine. Because heavy taxes were collected on each member of family, many families did not report marriage or childbirth. In order to encourage childbirth, the government reduced the age of marriage to 15 for men and 13 for women. Administrative and legislative regulation were introduced to force people to marry early, especially women. Incentives were given to families with more women. These policies was enforced due to the imbalance of the sex ratio and reduction of population size. As female infanticides were prevalent because of differential values placed on male and female children, it was difficult for men to find partners to marry. Shortage of women was also the result of the polygamy of the rich and the aristocracy. The imbalance of the sex ratio forced women to marry early. Nevertheless, women getting married too early were not fertile. Infant or child mortality was high among children of young mothers. From the Song to the Ching dynasties, the age of marriage was set at 16 for men and 14 for women. In the ancient times, the population of China was around 60-70 million before the Ching dynasty. Generally speaking, the population size was small. Early marriage was necessary and feasible. Even though fertility in ancient times was high, mortality has high also. Life expectancy ranged form 22 to 35. People needed to marry early and have children early to replace themselves. On the other hand, large land areas and inefficient production tools required a larger labor force. Large population size also represented

  8. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2005-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  9. Fingerprint elements scatter analysis on ancient chinese Ru porcelains samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Zhengyao; Wang Jie; Chen Xiande

    1997-01-01

    Altogether 28 samples, mainly including glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, were analyzed by NAA technique and the contents of 36 elements were compared. The scatter analysis for nine fingerprint-elements indicates that almost all ancient Chinese Ru porcelain samples had nearly identical and long-term stable source of raw materials although they were fired in different kilns, at varying time and with distinct colors, and moreover, the source of raw materials for modern Ru porcelain seems to approach that for ancient one. The close provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is also preliminarily verified. The glaze material of Jingdezhen white porcelain is totally different from all other samples. It shows that the former came from a separate source

  10. [Ancientness and maturity: two complementary qualities of forest ecosystems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cateau, Eugénie; Larrieu, Laurent; Vallauri, Daniel; Savoie, Jean-Marie; Touroult, Julien; Brustel, Hervé

    2015-01-01

    Ancientness and maturity are two major qualities of forest ecosystems. They are components of naturalness and are affected by human impact. These qualities and the associated terms are often mixed up and incorrectly used. We have carried out a synthesis in order to propose an adapted French terminology based on international literature. The topics of ancientness and maturity for biodiversity and soil characteristics are explained. This review leads us to submit different potential thresholds for ancientness and maturity. An analysis on ancientness and maturity on forest data for France leads to the conclusion that about 29% of all forests can be considered "ancient woodland", and less than 3% of the even-age forest is older than the harvesting age. Copyright © 2014 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Trace elements in ancient ceramics: Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou; Sun Yongjun; Zhang Xiangdong

    1987-01-01

    In the last period of Tong Dynasty, Jingdezhen began its production of ceramics. During the Song Dynasty, the ceramic industry greatly developed and produced fine white ware at Hutian. In the Yuan Dynastry, Hutian became the centre of production making the world famous blue and white wares. Here are reported results of analyses of ancient porcelians of Hutian in Jiangdezhen by reactor neutron activation analysis. The results show that the patterns of eight rare earth elements are apparently different for products in different periods, indicating that methods for producing ceramics or kinds of clay used were different. The contents of some other trace elements such as hafnium, tantalum, thorium and uranium show the same regularity in difference of composition also

  12. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare

    2017-01-01

    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  13. Phobias in Poetry: Coleridge's Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satendra; Khetarpal, Abha

    2012-04-01

    The Rime of the Ancient Mariner was written by Coleridge and is a classic poetry about retribution, punishment, guilt, and curse. Religious beliefs and delusions can arise from neurologic lesions and anomalous experiences, suggesting that at least some religious beliefs can be pathological. Looking at the poem through the psychiatric and psychological domain, the symbolism, the narration and the entire setting of the poem represents Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Mariner's reactions are beautifully portrayed from the psychoanalytic point of view and the literary piece shows claustrophobia, stygiophobia, dikephobia, and poinephobia. The mental stress of a person under a crisis situation has remarkably been evoked in this poem. This incredible piece of art expresses how the realization of divine love within oneself has the power to heal pain and suffer.

  14. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Optical spectroscopy of ancient paper and textiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Missori, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ancient paper and textiles represent a striking example of optically inhomogenous materials whose optical responses are strongly governed by scattering effects. In order to recover the absorption coefficient from non-invasive and nondestructive reflectance measurements a specific approach based on Kubelka-Munk two-flux theory must be applied. In this way quantitative chemical information, such as chromophores concentration, can be obtained, as well as quantitative spectra of additional substances such as pigments or dyes. Results on a folio of the Codex on the Flight of Birds by Leonardo da Vinci and a linen cloth dated back to 1653 and called the Shroud of Arquata, a copy of the Shroud of Turin, will be presented.

  16. Were the ancient Romans art forgers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Casemen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A popularly held tenet in the historical record on art is that the practice of forgery began in ancient Rome, where sculptures made by craftsmen of the day were passed off as classical Greek antiquities. However, revisionist scholars in recent decades have challenged this perspective. One line of criticism denies that forgery was present in Rome, asserting that the evidence for it has been misunderstood. A softer line suggests that while the traditional view overstates the case, there is still reason to accept that the culture of Rome harbored art forgery. This article assesses the competing claims in light of literary references by Roman authors, physical evidence including inscriptions on sculptures, the phenomenon of Corinthian bronze, the nature of Roman copying, social and economic conditions necessary for art forgery to arise, and what art forgery consists of by definition.

  17. Mortar alteration: experimental study and ancient analogues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rassineux, Francois

    1987-01-01

    As the durability of cemented matrices is a matter of great importance in numerous domains, notably for the long term reliability of surface storages of radioactive wastes, the objective of this research thesis is to define mechanisms of evolution of cemented matrices when in contact with diluted aqueous solutions. The author notably studied the influence of the lixiviation mode on the evolution of two mortars having different compositions (pH, CO 2 pressure, system containment, and cement mineralogical nature appear to be the main governing parameters), the alteration (dissolution is the prevailing process in the interaction between cemented matrices and a diluted solution such as rain water), and ancient binders (archaeological binders containing mineral phases such as hydrated calcium silicates or hydro-grossulars). The obtained results lead to the definition of alteration mechanisms in modern cements, and highlight factors governing the durability of these materials when submitted to meteoric alteration [fr

  18. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R

    2007-01-01

    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  19. Ancient loons stories Pingree told me

    CERN Document Server

    Davis, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    The book is a collection of short stories, small anecdotes in the life of some historical characters. More concretely, it focuses on the oddities and singularities of some well-known historical figures, not only in science, but also in arts, politics and social sciences. … the book shows the fascination for ancient history, the treasures hidden in original sources and the importance of exploring unusual connections.-Javier Martinez, The European Mathematical Society, January 2013… a rambling, illuminating and thoroughly enjoyable bio/autobiographical and historical sketch, setting Pingree's immense erudition in its professional and intellectual context. Besides a string of amusing and intriguing anecdotes plentifully sprinkled with photos and sketches, this small volume supplies a valuable reminder of how complex, surprising and just plain strange the history of the exact sciences can be.-Kim Plofker, MAA Reviews, October 2012.

  20. Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitelaw, R. Lynn

    Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

  1. Can Digital Computers Support Ancient Mathematical Consciousness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron Sloman

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper poses, discusses, but does not definitively answer, the following questions: What sorts of reasoning machinery could the ancient mathematicians, and other intelligent animals, be using for spatial reasoning, before the discovery of modern logical mechanisms? “Diagrams in minds” perhaps? How and why did natural selection produce such machinery? Is there a single package of biological abilities for spatial reasoning, or did different sorts of mathematical competence evolve at different times, forming a “layered” system? Do the layers develop in individuals at different stages? Which components are shared with other intelligent species? Does some or all of the machinery exist at or before birth in humans and if not how and when does it develop, and what is the role of experience in its development? How do brains implement such machinery? Could similar machines be implemented as virtual machines on digital computers, and if not what sorts of non-digital “Super Turing” mechanisms could replicate the required functionality, including discovery of impossibility and necessity? How are impossibility and necessity represented in brains? Are chemical mechanisms required? How could such mechanisms be specified in a genome? Are some not specified in the genome but products of interaction between genome and environment? Does Turing’s work on chemical morphogenesis published shortly before he died indicate that he was interested in this problem? Will the answers to these questions vindicate Immanuel Kant’s claims about the nature of mathematical knowledge, including his claim that mathematical truths are non-empirical, synthetic and necessary? Perhaps it’s time for discussions of consciousness to return to the nature of ancient mathematical consciousness, and related aspects of everyday human and non-human intelligence, usually ignored by consciousness theorists.

  2. Ancient water supports today's energy needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Natyzak, Jennifer L.; Castner, Elizabeth A.; Davis, Kyle F.; Emery, Kyle A.; Gephart, Jessica A.; Leach, Allison M.; Pace, Michael L.; Galloway, James N.

    2017-05-01

    The water footprint for fossil fuels typically accounts for water utilized in mining and fuel processing, whereas the water footprint of biofuels assesses the agricultural water used by crops through their lifetime. Fossil fuels have an additional water footprint that is not easily accounted for: ancient water that was used by plants millions of years ago, before they were transformed into fossil fuel. How much water is mankind using from the past to sustain current energy needs? We evaluate the link between ancient water virtually embodied in fossil fuels to current global energy demands by determining the water demand required to replace fossil fuels with biomass produced with water from the present. Using equal energy units of wood, bioethanol, and biodiesel to replace coal, natural gas, and crude oil, respectively, the resulting water demand is 7.39 × 1013 m3 y-1, approximately the same as the total annual evaporation from all land masses and transpiration from all terrestrial vegetation. Thus, there are strong hydrologic constraints to a reliance on biofuel energy produced with water from the present because the conversion from fossil fuels to biofuels would have a disproportionate and unsustainable impact on the modern water. By using fossil fuels to meet today's energy needs, we are virtually using water from a geological past. The water cycle is insufficient to sustain the production of the fuel presently consumed by human societies. Thus, non-fuel-based renewable energy sources are needed to decrease mankind's reliance on fossil fuel energy without placing an overwhelming pressure on global freshwater resources.

  3. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia - part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2010-01-01

    The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. Insofar, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of a approximately shipu (clergymanexorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as common healthy individuals or rule leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) that, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for, would give a final decision about the disease or the future. Besides this more occult facet, nourished in religious faiths and in the magic, the medicine of Ancient Mesopotamia included rational knowledge, certainly as the result of systematic patients observation and semiotic interpretation. From those observations and knowledge referred to the Sumerian period, carefully logged, refined and transmitted to the following generations, it was built a valuable group of texts with the description of symptoms, signs, diagnosis and prognostic of the most common diseases, still identifiable in the present.

  4. Surviving mergers & acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Diane L

    2002-01-01

    Mergers and acquisitions are never easy to implement. The health care landscape is a minefield of failed mergers and uneasy alliances generating great turmoil and pain. But some mergers have been successful, creating health systems that benefit the communities they serve. Five prominent leaders offer their advice on minimizing the difficulties of M&As.

  5. The Acquisition of Particles

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    process of language acquisition on the basis of linguistic evidence the child is exposed to. In addition to the positive evidence that allows the child to fill in UG, the child also has to learn language specific ..... particle. In prefixed complex verbs that are not separable the main stress is on the verb, and not on the prefix.' This is ...

  6. MPS Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiseman, S.E.; Miller, W.J.

    1975-01-01

    A description is given of the data acquisition system used with the multiparticle spectrometer facility at Brookhaven. Detailed information is provided on that part of the system which connects the detectors to the data handler; namely, the detector electronics, device controller, and device port optical isolator

  7. [Acquisition of arithmetic knowledge].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayol, Michel

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on contemporary research on the number counting and arithmetical competencies that emerge during infancy, the preschool years, and the elementary school. I provide a brief overview of the evolution of children's conceptual knowledge of arithmetic knowledge, the acquisition and use of counting and how they solve simple arithmetic problems (e.g. 4 + 3).

  8. Defining Acquisition Related Terms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    technical or proprietary data, technical assistance. know-how, or any combination of these, granted by a U.S. finn to a fireign finn or government to...World Affairs , Spring 1985: 29.: 183-212. 56. Office of Management and Budget. Major System Acquisitions. OMB Circular A-I 09. Washington DC. 5 April

  9. 76 FR 31395 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sustainable Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-31

    ...; Item I; Docket 2010-0001, Sequence 1] RIN 9000-AL96 Federal Acquisition Regulation; Sustainable... to leverage agency acquisitions to foster markets for sustainable technologies, materials, products, and services. Federal agencies are additionally required to implement high- performance sustainable...

  10. 'Progress' renders detrimental an ancient mitochondrial DNA genetic variant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheu-Grau, David; Gómez-Durán, Aurora; López-Gallardo, Ester; Pinós, Tomàs; Andreu, Antoni L; López-Pérez, Manuel J; Montoya, Julio; Ruiz-Pesini, Eduardo

    2011-11-01

    A human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) transition, m.1555A>G, in the 12S rRNA gene causes non-syndromic hearing loss. However, this pathological mutation is the wild-type allele in orangutan mtDNA. Here we rule out different genetic factors as the reason for its fixation in orangutans and show that aminoglycosides negatively affect the oxidative phosphorylation function by decreasing the synthesis of mtDNA-encoded proteins and the amount and activity of respiratory complex IV. These drugs also diminish the growth rate of orangutan cells. The m.1555G nucleotide is also the wild-type allele in other mammal species and they might be at risk of suffering a mitochondrial disorder if treated with aminoglycosides. Therefore, pharmacogenomic approaches should be used to confirm this possibility. These observations are important for human health. Due to the fact that old age and high frequency are criteria widely used in mitochondrial medicine to rule out a genetic change as being a pathological mutation, our results prevent against simplistic genetic approaches that do not consider the potential effect of environmental conditions. Hence, these results suggest that some ancient and highly frequent human population polymorphisms, such as those defining mtDNA haplogroups, in mitochondrial rRNA genes can be deleterious in association with new environmental conditions. Therefore, as the discovery of ribosomal antibiotics has allowed to fight infectious diseases and this breakthrough can be considered an important scientific advance or 'progress', our results suggest that 'progress' can also have a negative counterpart and render detrimental many of these mtDNA genotypes.

  11. Ancient DNA provides new insight into the maternal lineages and domestication of Chinese donkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lu; Zhu, Songbiao; Ning, Chao; Cai, Dawei; Wang, Kai; Chen, Quanjia; Hu, Songmei; Yang, Junkai; Shao, Jing; Zhu, Hong; Zhou, Hui

    2014-11-30

    The donkey (Equus asinus) is an important domestic animal that provides a reliable source of protein and method of transportation for many human populations. However, the process of domestication and the dispersal routes of the Chinese donkey are still unclear, as donkey remains are sparse in the archaeological record and often confused with horse remains. To explore the maternal origins and dispersal route of Chinese donkeys, both mitochondrial DNA D-loop and cytochrome b gene fragments of 21 suspected donkey remains from four archaeological sites in China were amplified and sequenced. Molecular methods of species identification show that 17 specimens were donkeys and three samples had the maternal genetic signature of horses. One sample that dates to about 20,000 years before present failed to amplify. In this study, the phylogenetic analysis reveals that ancient Chinese donkeys have high mitochondrial DNA diversity and two distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages, known as the Somali and Nubian lineages. These results indicate that the maternal origin of Chinese domestic donkeys was probably related to the African wild ass, which includes the Nubian wild ass (Equus africanus africanus) and the Somali wild ass (Equus africanus somaliensis). Combined with historical records, the results of this study implied that domestic donkeys spread into west and north China before the emergence of the Han dynasty. The number of Chinese domestic donkeys had increased primarily to meet demand for the expansion of trade, and they were likely used as commodities or for shipping goods along the Silk Road during the Tang Dynasty, when the Silk Road reached its golden age. This study is the first to provide valuable ancient animal DNA evidence for early trade between African and Asian populations. The ancient DNA analysis of Chinese donkeys also sheds light on the dynamic process of the maternal origin, domestication, and dispersal route of ancient Chinese donkeys.

  12. Evidence for restriction of ancient primate gammaretroviruses by APOBEC3 but not TRIM5alpha proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Perez-Caballero

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Because of evolutionary pressures imposed through episodic colonization by retroviruses, many mammals express factors, such as TRIM5alpha and APOBEC3 proteins, that directly restrict retroviral replication. TRIM5 and APOBEC restriction factors are most often studied in the context of modern primate lentiviruses, but it is likely that ancient retroviruses imposed the selective pressure that is evident in primate TRIM5 and APOBEC3 genes. Moreover, these antiretroviral factors have been shown to act against a variety of retroviruses, including gammaretroviruses. Endogenous retroviruses can provide a 'fossil record' of extinct retroviruses and perhaps evidence of ancient TRIM5 and APOBEC3 antiviral activity. Here, we investigate whether TRIM5 and APOBEC3 proteins restricted the replication of two groups of gammaretroviruses that were endogenized in the past few million years. These endogenous retroviruses appear quite widespread in the genomes of old world primates but failed to colonize the human germline. Our analyses suggest that TRIM5alpha proteins did not pose a major barrier to the cross-species transmission of these two families of gammaretroviruses, and did not contribute to their extinction. However, we uncovered extensive evidence for inactivation of ancient gammaretroviruses through the action of APOBEC3 cytidine deaminases. Interestingly, the identities of the cytidine deaminases responsible for inactivation appear to have varied in both a virus and host species-dependent manner. Overall, sequence analyses and reconstitution of ancient retroviruses from remnants that have been preserved in the genomes of modern organisms offer the opportunity to probe and potentially explain the evolutionary history of host defenses against retroviruses.

  13. Lake Tanganyika--a 'melting pot' of ancient and young cichlid lineages (Teleostei: Cichlidae?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane D Weiss

    Full Text Available A long history of research focused on the East Africa cichlid radiations (EAR revealed discrepancies between mtDNA and nuclear phylogenies, suggesting that interspecific hybridisation may have been significant during the radiation of these fishes. The approximately 250 cichlid species of Lake Tanganyika have their roots in a monophyletic African cichlid assemblage, but controversies remain about the precise phylogenetic origin and placement of different lineages and consequently about L. Tanganyika colonization scenarios. 3312 AFLP loci and the mitochondrial ND2 gene were genotyped for 91 species representing almost all major lacustrine and riverine haplotilapiine east African cichlid lineages with a focus on L. Tanganyika endemics. Explicitly testing for the possibility of ancient hybridisation events, a comprehensive phylogenetic network hypothesis is proposed for the origin and diversification of L. Tanganyika cichlids. Inference of discordant phylogenetic signal strongly suggests that the genomes of two endemic L. Tanganyika tribes, Eretmodini and Tropheini, are composed of an ancient mixture of riverine and lacustrine lineages. For the first time a strong monophyly signal of all non-haplochromine mouthbrooding species endemic to L. Tanganyika ("ancient mouthbrooders" was detected. Further, in the genomes of early diverging L. Tanganyika endemics Trematocarini, Bathybatini, Hemibatini and Boulengerochromis genetic components of other lineages belonging to the East African Radiation appear to be present. In combination with recent palaeo-geological results showing that tectonic activity in the L. Tanganyika region resulted in highly dynamic and heterogeneous landscape evolution over the Neogene and Pleistocene, the novel phylogenetic data render a single lacustrine basin as the geographical cradle of the endemic L. Tanganyika cichlid lineages unlikely. Instead a scenario of a pre-rift origin of several independent L. Tanganyika precursor

  14. Ancient Writers’ Motifs in Spanish Golden Age Drama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bojana Tomc

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Spanish Golden Age drama we come across all forms of the reception of ancient writers’ motifs: explicit (direct quotation of an ancient author, where the quotation may be more or less complete, or a clear allusion to it, implicit (where there is no explicit mentioning of the ancient source, however certain ancient elements are mentioned such as persons, places, historical circumstances, hidden (where there is no clear hint about a literary intervention in Antiquity or an imitation of the literary excerpt or motif, as well as direct imitation (aemulatio or adaptation (variatio. In the Renaissance and Baroque there are almost no motifs, which could not be taken over from Antiquity without a transformation or innovation. If there is a close correspondence to the ancient motif, it is generally sufficient simply to mention it or employ a side motif as an illustration of a similar situation without elaborating the motif further or weaving it more deeply into the supporting fabric of the dramatic work. The ancient authors who contribute the motifs are numerous and diverse: Vergil, the Roman elegists Propertius in Tibullus, the lyric poet Horace, the comedian Plautus, the stoic philosopher Seneca, the historian Tacitus, the novelist Apuleius, as well as Greek dramatist Aeschylus and stoic philosopher Epictetus. The genres, which are a source for the surviving ancient motifs in the Golden Age in the selected authors, include literary as well as not-literary forms: epic poetry, lyric, dramatics, philosophy and historiography.

  15. Geomagnetic secular variation from recent lake sediments, ancient fireplaces and historical measurements in southeastern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, C. E.; Barbetti, Mike

    1982-07-01

    Compilations of historical observations, archaeomagnetic data from ancient fireplaces and palaemagetic results from short cores of sediment from lakes in southeastern Australia, particularly Lake Keilambete, provide a detailed record of the geomagnetic secular variation during the last 3000 years. The independent sets of data are in good agreement if the radiocarbon time scale for the lacustrine record is about 450 years too old. The error is attributed to systematic incorporation of ancient carbon into the lake floor sediments, mainly through erosion of sediment on the crater walls at times of low water level. A significant lag between deposition and the acquisition of stable magnetic remanence is ruled out. Inclination has been abnormally steep during the last 500 years but remained fairly close to the axial dipole field value prior to that. During the last 1000 years the predominant sense of looping of the magnetic vector corresponds to westward drift of the nondipole field. Secular variations on a time scale of ˜ 100 years can be resolved by the lacustrine record.

  16. Antimicrobial Functions of Lactoferrin Promote Genetic Conflicts in Ancient Primates and Modern Humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew F Barber

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Lactoferrin is a multifunctional mammalian immunity protein that limits microbial growth through sequestration of nutrient iron. Additionally, lactoferrin possesses cationic protein domains that directly bind and inhibit diverse microbes. The implications for these dual functions on lactoferrin evolution and genetic conflicts with microbes remain unclear. Here we show that lactoferrin has been subject to recurrent episodes of positive selection during primate divergence predominately at antimicrobial peptide surfaces consistent with long-term antagonism by bacteria. An abundant lactoferrin polymorphism in human populations and Neanderthals also exhibits signatures of positive selection across primates, linking ancient host-microbe conflicts to modern human genetic variation. Rapidly evolving sites in lactoferrin further correspond to molecular interfaces with opportunistic bacterial pathogens causing meningitis, pneumonia, and sepsis. Because microbes actively target lactoferrin to acquire iron, we propose that the emergence of antimicrobial activity provided a pivotal mechanism of adaptation sparking evolutionary conflicts via acquisition of new protein functions.

  17. Ancient transposable elements transformed the uterine regulatory landscape and transcriptome during the evolution of mammalian pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Vincent J; Nnamani, Mauris C; Kapusta, Aurélie; Brayer, Kathryn; Plaza, Silvia L; Mazur, Erik C; Emera, Deena; Sheikh, Shehzad Z; Grützner, Frank; Bauersachs, Stefan; Graf, Alexander; Young, Steven L; Lieb, Jason D; DeMayo, Francesco J; Feschotte, Cédric; Wagner, Günter P

    2015-02-03

    A major challenge in biology is determining how evolutionarily novel characters originate; however, mechanistic explanations for the origin of new characters are almost completely unknown. The evolution of pregnancy is an excellent system in which to study the origin of novelties because mammals preserve stages in the transition from egg laying to live birth. To determine the molecular bases of this transition, we characterized the pregnant/gravid uterine transcriptome from tetrapods to trace the evolutionary history of uterine gene expression. We show that thousands of genes evolved endometrial expression during the origins of mammalian pregnancy, including genes that mediate maternal-fetal communication and immunotolerance. Furthermore, thousands of cis-regulatory elements that mediate decidualization and cell-type identity in decidualized stromal cells are derived from ancient mammalian transposable elements (TEs). Our results indicate that one of the defining mammalian novelties evolved from DNA sequences derived from ancient mammalian TEs co-opted into hormone-responsive regulatory elements distributed throughout the genome. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Ancient Transposable Elements Transformed the Uterine Regulatory Landscape and Transcriptome during the Evolution of Mammalian Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent J. Lynch

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in biology is determining how evolutionarily novel characters originate; however, mechanistic explanations for the origin of new characters are almost completely unknown. The evolution of pregnancy is an excellent system in which to study the origin of novelties because mammals preserve stages in the transition from egg laying to live birth. To determine the molecular bases of this transition, we characterized the pregnant/gravid uterine transcriptome from tetrapods to trace the evolutionary history of uterine gene expression. We show that thousands of genes evolved endometrial expression during the origins of mammalian pregnancy, including genes that mediate maternal-fetal communication and immunotolerance. Furthermore, thousands of cis-regulatory elements that mediate decidualization and cell-type identity in decidualized stromal cells are derived from ancient mammalian transposable elements (TEs. Our results indicate that one of the defining mammalian novelties evolved from DNA sequences derived from ancient mammalian TEs co-opted into hormone-responsive regulatory elements distributed throughout the genome.

  19. Ancient mitochondrial DNA analyses of ascaris eggs discovered in coprolites from joseon tomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang Seok; Seo, Min; Hong, Jong Ha; Chai, Jong-Yil; Oh, Seung Whan; Park, Jun Bum; Shin, Dong Hoon

    2015-04-01

    Analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) extracted from Ascaris is very important for understanding the phylogenetic lineage of the parasite species. When aDNAs obtained from a Joseon tomb (SN2-19-1) coprolite in which Ascaris eggs were identified were amplified with primers for cytochrome b (cyt b) and 18S small subunit ribosomal RNA (18S rRNA) gene, the outcome exhibited Ascaris specific amplicon bands. By cloning, sequencing, and analysis of the amplified DNA, we obtained information valuable for comprehending genetic lineage of Ascaris prevalent among pre-modern Joseon peoples.

  20. Horizontal gene transfer of epigenetic machinery and evolution of parasitism in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum and other apicomplexans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishore, Sandeep P; Stiller, John W; Deitsch, Kirk W

    2013-02-11

    The acquisition of complex transcriptional regulatory abilities and epigenetic machinery facilitated the transition of the ancestor of apicomplexans from a free-living organism to an obligate parasite. The ability to control sophisticated gene expression patterns enabled these ancient organisms to evolve several differentiated forms, invade multiple hosts and evade host immunity. How these abilities were acquired remains an outstanding question in protistan biology. In this work, we study SET domain bearing genes that are implicated in mediating immune evasion, invasion and cytoadhesion pathways of modern apicomplexans, including malaria parasites. We provide the first conclusive evidence of a horizontal gene transfer of a Histone H4 Lysine 20 (H4K20) modifier, Set8, from an animal host to the ancestor of apicomplexans. Set8 is known to contribute to the coordinated expression of genes involved in immune evasion in modern apicomplexans. We also show the likely transfer of a H3K36 methyltransferase (Ashr3 from plants), possibly derived from algal endosymbionts. These transfers appear to date to the transition from free-living organisms to parasitism and coincide with the proposed horizontal acquisition of cytoadhesion domains, the O-glycosyltransferase that modifies these domains, and the primary family of transcription factors found in apicomplexan parasites. Notably, phylogenetic support for these conclusions is robust and the genes clearly are dissimilar to SET sequences found in the closely related parasite Perkinsus marinus, and in ciliates, the nearest free-living organisms with complete genome sequences available. Animal and plant sources of epigenetic machinery provide new insights into the evolution of parasitism in apicomplexans. Along with the horizontal transfer of cytoadhesive domains, O-linked glycosylation and key transcription factors, the acquisition of SET domain methyltransferases marks a key transitional event in the evolution to parasitism in

  1. Determination of ancient ceramics reference material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Huhou; Sun Jingxin; Wang Yuqi; Lu Liangcai

    1986-01-01

    Contents of trace elements in the reference material of ancient ceramics (KPS-1) were determined by means of activation analysis, using thermal neutron irradiation produced in nuclear reactor. KPS-1 favoured the analysis of ancient ceramics because it had not only many kinds of element but also appropriate contents of composition. The values presented here are reliable within the experimental precision, and have shown that the reference material had a good homogeneity. So KPS-1 can be used as a suitable reference material for the ancient ceramics analysis

  2. Sex identification of ancient DNA samples using a microfluidic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Kirsty J; Brown, Keri A; Brown, Terence A; Haswell, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Ancient DNA is the name given to the degraded, fragmented, and chemically damaged biomolecules that can be recovered from archaeological remains of plants, animals, and humans. Where ancient human DNA has survived at archaeological sites, it can give valuable information and is especially useful for its potential to identify kinship, population affinities, pathogens, and biological sex. Here, we describe the operation of a microfluidic device for the sex identification of ancient DNA samples using an efficient sample handling process. DNA is extracted from powdered bone samples and abasic sites labeled with biotin. Streptavidin-coated superparamagnetic particles are used to isolate the labeled DNA prior to amplification of the Amelogenin sex marker.

  3. UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-18

    UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500 MHz NMR...valid OMB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ADDRESS. University of California - Merced 5200 North Lake Road Merced , CA 95343...UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition Report Title For the UC Merced NMR Instrumentation Acquisition proposal, a new 400 MHz and an upgraded 500

  4. Data acquisition instruments: Psychopharmacology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartley, D.S. III

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the results of a Direct Assistance Project performed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc., for Dr. K. O. Jobson. The purpose of the project was to perform preliminary analysis of the data acquisition instruments used in the field of psychiatry, with the goal of identifying commonalities of data and strategies for handling and using the data in the most advantageous fashion. Data acquisition instruments from 12 sources were provided by Dr. Jobson. Several commonalities were identified and a potentially useful data strategy is reported here. Analysis of the information collected for utility in performing diagnoses is recommended. In addition, further work is recommended to refine the commonalities into a directly useful computer systems structure.

  5. Amplitudes, acquisition and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloor, Robert

    1998-12-31

    Accurate seismic amplitude information is important for the successful evaluation of many prospects and the importance of such amplitude information is increasing with the advent of time lapse seismic techniques. It is now widely accepted that the proper treatment of amplitudes requires seismic imaging in the form of either time or depth migration. A key factor in seismic imaging is the spatial sampling of the data and its relationship to the imaging algorithms. This presentation demonstrates that acquisition caused spatial sampling irregularity can affect the seismic imaging and perturb amplitudes. Equalization helps to balance the amplitudes, and the dealing strategy improves the imaging further when there are azimuth variations. Equalization and dealiasing can also help with the acquisition irregularities caused by shot and receiver dislocation or missing traces. 2 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Knowledge Transfers following Acquisition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Jens

    2001-01-01

    Prior relations between the acquiring firm and the target company pave the way for knowledge transfers subsequent to the acquisitions. One major reason is that through the market-based relations the two actors build up mutual trust and simultaneously they learn how to communicate. An empirical...... study of 54 Danish acquisitions taking place abroad from 1994 to 1998 demonstrated that when there was a high level of trust between the acquiring firm and the target firm before the take-over, then medium and strong tie-binding knowledge transfer mechanisms, such as project groups and job rotation......, were used more intensively. Further, the degree of stickiness was significantly lower in the case of prior trust-based relations....

  7. First Language Acquisition and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena

    2011-01-01

    "First language acquisition" commonly means the acquisition of a single language in childhood, regardless of the number of languages in a child's natural environment. Language acquisition is variously viewed as predetermined, wondrous, a source of concern, and as developing through formal processes. "First language teaching" concerns schooling in…

  8. Conjoined Constraints and Phonological Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovana Bonilha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the start of Optimality Theory (Prince & Smolensky, 1993, research on phonological acquisition has explored the explanatory potential of constraint theories. This study, also based on Optimality Theory, attempts to analyze the acquisition of CVVC syllable structure by Brazilian Portuguese children and addresses the issue of Local Conjunction (Smolensky, 1995, 1997 in research that deals with problems of phonological acquisition.

  9. Further Evidence on the Effect of Acquisition Policy and Process on Cost Growth of Major Defense Acquisition Programs (Revised)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-01

    two significant findings. First, Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) that entered Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) during...First, Major Defense Acquisition Programs (MDAPs) that entered Engineering and Manufacturing Development (EMD) during “bust” funding climates on...Additionally, a major building block of McNamara’s process began operating in 1959. See William D. O’Neil and Gene H. Porter, “What to Buy ? The Role of

  10. Gakkel Ridge: A window to ancient asthenosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, J.; Hellebrand, E.; Dick, H.; Liu, C.; Stracke, A.

    2008-12-01

    We are accustomed to thinking of the ambient mantle as being a well-stirred reservoir, which contains at most regions of stored subducted slabs and "plums" containing lithophile trace element enrichments. What is forgotten in all of this is that the main process of formation of heterogeneities is a negative one - generating 10x more depleted mantle at any given moment than it does oceanic crust. Because the volume of lithosphere subducted over Earth history is so large, it has always been assumed that the process of subduction and convective mixing re-homogenizes the depleted and enriched reservoirs about as fast as it produces them. What if it doesn't? Our primary means of studying mantle heterogeneity however is basalts. Direct study of the mantle entails observations on xenoliths, ophiolites and orogenic lherzolites, and abyssal peridotites. The latter have the inherent problems of being melting residues, associated with fracture zones, are highly serpentinized and rare. The arctic ridge system gives us a unique perspective on the mantle, and samples we have recovered there are relatively free from these problems. Due to the slow spreading rate, which apparently severely limits the melt productivity, the thickest crust in the Arctic ridge system is approximately "normal". The most common crust is about half thickness and there are large expanses with no crust at all, in the sense of Hess, 1962, exposing mantle peridotite in the floor of extensive rift zones. We have shown Os isotopic evidence for the survival of ancient depletion signatures in Gakkel abyssal peridotites that apparently were not destroyed by subduction, convective stirring or resetting during magma genesis (Liu, et al., 2008). Additionally, preliminary Nd isotopic evidence suggests at least a 400Ma intact prehistory for these samples. Apparently, the low melt productivity on Gakkel Ridge has allowed the Gakkel mantle rocks to escape significant resetting due to melt interaction. This implies a

  11. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2009-01-01

    The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect

  12. Implementing acquisition strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montgomery, G. K.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to address some of the strategies necessary to effect a successful asset or corporate acquisition. Understanding the corporate objective, the full potential of the asset, the specific strategies to be employed, the value of time, and most importantly the interaction of all these are crucial, for missed steps are likely to result in missed opportunities. The amount of factual information that can be obtained and utilized in a timely fashion is the largest single hurdle to the capture of value in the asset or corporate acquisition. Fact, familiarity and experience are key in this context. The importance of the due diligence process prior to title or data transfer cannot be overemphasized. Some of the most important assets acquired in a merger may be the people. To maximize effectiveness, it is essential to merge both existing staff and those that came with the new acquisition as soon as possible. By thinking together as a unit, knowledge and experience can be applied to realize the potential of the asset. Hence team building is one of the challenges, doing it quickly is usually the most effective. Developing new directions for the new enlarged company by combining the strengths of the old and the new creates more value, as well as a more efficient operation. Equally important to maximizing the potential of the new acquisition is the maintenance of the momentum generated by the need to grow that gave the impetus to acquiring new assets in the first place. In brief, the right mix of vision, facts and perceptions, quick enactment of the post-close strategies and keeping the momentum alive, are the principal ingredients of a focused strategy

  13. Modelling live forensic acquisition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, MM

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available and dynamic, volatile data (Forte 2008:13). This technique addresses many of the problems associated with Dead Forensic Acquisition, but brings about some additional problems. The most critical of these problems are data modification and court acceptance... technology (Maat 2004:i). This adds to cyber crime’s threat and complicates the investigation process due to crime’s increased sophistication (Pan & Batten 2005:1). These developments leave Law Enforcement outdated. In some incidents, legal aspects...

  14. Multiprocessor data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haumann, J.R.; Crawford, R.K.

    1987-01-01

    A multiprocessor data acquisition system has been built to replace the single processor systems at the Intense Pulsed Neutron Source (IPNS) at Argonne National Laboratory. The multiprocessor system was needed to accommodate the higher data rates at IPNS brought about by improvements in the source and changes in instrument configurations. This paper describes the hardware configuration of the system and the method of task sharing and compares results to the single processor system

  15. Defense ADP Acquisition Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-11-30

    generates lengthy acquisition times, but rather, the basis for the delays is related to the Air Force acqusition process. -5- (2) The Current Air...increasing technological merger of these two fields. Fragmentation of organiza- tional responsibility among a variety of rela- tively independent...potential solutions. Early considera- tion of one aspect of technology over another constrains the solution. Recognition of the technological merger of ADP

  16. Assessment of language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Villiers, Peter A; de Villiers, Jill G

    2010-03-01

    This review addresses questions of what should be assessed in language acquisition, and how to do it. The design of a language assessment is crucially connected to its purpose, whether for diagnosis, development of an intervention plan, or for research. Precise profiles of language strengths and weaknesses are required for clear definitions of the phenotypes of particular language and neurodevelopmental disorders. The benefits and costs of formal tests versus language sampling assessments are reviewed. Content validity, theoretically and empirically grounded in child language acquisition, is claimed to be centrally important for appropriate assessment. Without this grounding, links between phenomena can be missed, and interpretations of underlying difficulties can be compromised. Sensitivity and specificity of assessment instruments are often assessed using a gold standard of existing tests and diagnostic practices, but problems arise if that standard is biased against particular groups or dialects. The paper addresses the issues raised by the goal of unbiased assessment of children from diverse linguistic and cultural backgrounds, especially speakers of non-mainstream dialects or bilingual children. A variety of new approaches are discussed for language assessment, including dynamic assessment, experimental tools such as intermodal preferential looking, and training studies that assess generalization. Stress is placed on the need for measures of the process of acquisition rather than just levels of achievement. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Data Acquisition System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watwood, D.; Beatty, J.

    1991-01-01

    The Data Acquisition System (DAS) is comprised of a Hewlett-Packard (HP) model 9816, Series 200 Computer System with the appropriate software to acquire, control, and archive data from a Data Acquisition/Control Unit, models HP3497A and HP3498A. The primary storage medium is an HP9153 16-megabyte hard disc. The data is backed-up on three floppy discs. One floppy disc drive is contained in the HP9153 chassis; the other two comprise an HP9122 dual disc drive. An HP82906A line printer supplies hard copy backup. A block diagram of the hardware setup is shown. The HP3497A/3498A Data Acquisition/Control Units read each input channel and transmit the raw voltage reading to the HP9816 CPU via the HPIB bus. The HP9816 converts this voltage to the appropriate engineering units using the calibration curves for the sensor being read. The HP9816 archives both the raw and processed data along with the time and the readings were taken to hard and floppy discs. The processed values and reading time are printed on the line printer. This system is designed to accommodate several types of sensors; each type is discussed in the following sections

  18. Second language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffs, Alan

    2011-05-01

    Second language acquisition (SLA) is a field that investigates child and adult SLA from a variety of theoretical perspectives. This article provides a survey of some key areas of concern including formal generative theory and emergentist theory in the areas of morpho-syntax and phonology. The review details the theoretical stance of the two different approaches to the nature of language: generative linguistics and general cognitive approaches. Some results of key acquisition studies from the two theoretical frameworks are discussed. From a generative perspective, constraints on wh-movement, feature geometry and syllable structure, and morphological development are highlighted. From a general cognitive point of view, the emergence of tense and aspect marking from a prototype account of inherent lexical aspect is reviewed. Reference is made to general cognitive learning theories and to sociocultural theory. The article also reviews individual differences research, specifically debate on the critical period in adult language acquisition, motivation, and memory. Finally, the article discusses the relationship between SLA research and second language pedagogy. Suggestions for further reading from recent handbooks on SLA are provided. WIREs Cogni Sci 2011 2 277-286 DOI: 10.1002/wcs.106 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Complexity in language acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Alexander; Lappin, Shalom

    2013-01-01

    Learning theory has frequently been applied to language acquisition, but discussion has largely focused on information theoretic problems-in particular on the absence of direct negative evidence. Such arguments typically neglect the probabilistic nature of cognition and learning in general. We argue first that these arguments, and analyses based on them, suffer from a major flaw: they systematically conflate the hypothesis class and the learnable concept class. As a result, they do not allow one to draw significant conclusions about the learner. Second, we claim that the real problem for language learning is the computational complexity of constructing a hypothesis from input data. Studying this problem allows for a more direct approach to the object of study--the language acquisition device-rather than the learnable class of languages, which is epiphenomenal and possibly hard to characterize. The learnability results informed by complexity studies are much more insightful. They strongly suggest that target grammars need to be objective, in the sense that the primitive elements of these grammars are based on objectively definable properties of the language itself. These considerations support the view that language acquisition proceeds primarily through data-driven learning of some form. Copyright © 2013 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  20. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiesler, Vera

    2012-01-01

    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  1. Heaven and Earth in Ancient Greek Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couprie, Dirk L.

    The archaic world picture, the picture of a flat earth with the dome of the heaven vaulted above it, on which the celestial bodies are attached, is the basic world picture of many ancient cultures. Here "world picture" means the conception of the visible universe, not including all kinds of mythical or religious representations of what was imagined to be "under the earth." This archaic world picture (and also its penetration by a curious head) is beautifully rendered in a picture that is often thought to belong to the Renaissance period but was actually drawn in 1888 A.D. on the instructions of the famous French astronomer and popularizer Camille Flammarion (Fig. 1.1). The drawing refers to a story about Archytas (428-347 B.C.), who is supposed to have asked whether it would be possible to put a hand or a stick out of the heavens (DK 47A24). We will return to the implications of this question in the last chapter of this book.

  2. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  3. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S

    2010-07-01

    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  4. GENERATION OF GEOMETRIC ORNAMENTS IN ANCIENT MOSAIC ART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SASS Ludmila

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper examines geometrical ornaments from ancient mosaic.We studied the geometric generation by using Computer Aided Graphics for three examples of ancient mosaic: a mosaic of Ancient Corinth, a mosaic of the sacred geometry Flower of Life (exposed in the National Museum of Israel and a mosaic of fortress Masada - Israel. The technique of drawing ancient mosaic is recomposed using computer aided graphics. A program has been developed that can help draw a petal-type arc (semicircle of the mosaic that is the Byzantine church of Masada. Based on these mosaics, other variants of aesthetic images in monochrome or black and white and polychrome were drawn, all of which can be materialized in decorative art to embellish various surfaces: walls, floors, pools, fountains, etc.

  5. In Situ Partial Melt on Venus: Evidence for Ancient Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, V. L.

    2003-03-01

    Shield terrain comprises countless tiny lava flows that coalesced to form an ultra-thin discontinuous regionally extensive mechanically strong layer; lava represents point-source crustal partial melt and may provide evidence for ancient Venus water.

  6. Crustal Plateaus as Ancient Large Impact Features: A Hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, V. L.

    2005-03-01

    An alternate hypothesis of crustal plateau formation through deformation and progressive crystallization of a huge lava pond, that results from massive melting of the mantle due to bolide impact with ancient thin Venus lithosphere is presented.

  7. Second-harmonic generation imaging of collagen in ancient bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, B; McIntosh, D; Fildes, T; Smith, L; Hargrave, F; Islam, M; Thompson, T; Layfield, R; Scott, D; Shaw, B; Burrell, C L; Gonzalez, S; Taylor, S

    2017-12-01

    Second-harmonic generation imaging (SHG) captures triple helical collagen molecules near tissue surfaces. Biomedical research routinely utilizes various imaging software packages to quantify SHG signals for collagen content and distribution estimates in modern tissue samples including bone. For the first time using SHG, samples of modern, medieval, and ice age bones were imaged to test the applicability of SHG to ancient bone from a variety of ages, settings, and taxa. Four independent techniques including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, radiocarbon dating protocols, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing, confirm the presence of protein, consistent with the hypothesis that SHG imaging detects ancient bone collagen. These results suggest that future studies have the potential to use SHG imaging to provide new insights into the composition of ancient bone, to characterize ancient bone disorders, to investigate collagen preservation within and between various taxa, and to monitor collagen decay regimes in different depositional environments.

  8. Second-harmonic generation imaging of collagen in ancient bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thomas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Second-harmonic generation imaging (SHG captures triple helical collagen molecules near tissue surfaces. Biomedical research routinely utilizes various imaging software packages to quantify SHG signals for collagen content and distribution estimates in modern tissue samples including bone. For the first time using SHG, samples of modern, medieval, and ice age bones were imaged to test the applicability of SHG to ancient bone from a variety of ages, settings, and taxa. Four independent techniques including Raman spectroscopy, FTIR spectroscopy, radiocarbon dating protocols, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing, confirm the presence of protein, consistent with the hypothesis that SHG imaging detects ancient bone collagen. These results suggest that future studies have the potential to use SHG imaging to provide new insights into the composition of ancient bone, to characterize ancient bone disorders, to investigate collagen preservation within and between various taxa, and to monitor collagen decay regimes in different depositional environments.

  9. Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Penfield, Steven; Brown, Terence A.; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Montiel, Rafael; Jørgensen, Tina; Odegaard, Nancy; Jacobs, Michael; Arriaza, Bernardo; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited – perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication. PMID:23326310

  10. Ancient and modern women in the "Woman's World".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, Isobel

    2009-01-01

    Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.

  11. Ancient Land Routes On The Paximadhi Peninsula, Karystos, Euboea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, D.; Hom, E.

    Recent regional surface surveys have placed more focus on rural investigations, but the means of transport and communication within those rural surroundings has not always received adequate attention. The Southern Euboea Exploration Project has undertaken a new phase of research in the Karystos area with the goal of developing a methodology that allows for a more detailed record of the pre-modern land routes. On the Paximadhi peninsula it was possible to identify numerous fragments of suspected ancient routes dating to the Classical and Hellenistic periods. In the majority of cases these fragments were closely associated with adjacent datable ancient sites. By taking into consideration the evidence recorded during the survey it was sometimes possible to propose the extension of these ancient segments and to theorize the directions, lengths, and purposes of ancient networks.

  12. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, J. [Shanghai Museum, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gao, M.H. [Department of Cultural Relics and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Feng, S.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago.

  13. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.S.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Song, J.; Gao, M.H.; Zhu, D.; Lin, J.W.; Feng, S.L.

    2006-01-01

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago

  14. Sources and Resources for Teaching about Ancient Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiridakis, John N.; Mantzanas, Theophilos

    1977-01-01

    This article identifies print, non-print, and human sources and resources useful to elementary and secondary teachers of ancient Greek history. A rationale for teaching Greek history is also included. (Author/RM)

  15. The rise and fall of communal responsibility in ancient law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parisi, F.; Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Miller, G.P.

    2010-01-01

    In ancient societies, rules of communal responsibility permitted the imposition of retaliatory sanctions on a wrongdoer's clan. These rules followed the collective ownership structure of early communities. Over time, notions of personal responsibility emerged, terminating the transfer of

  16. Wall paintings facies and their possible genetic correlates in the ancient Pompeii: A bio-anthropologic message from the past?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponti, Giovanni; Manfredini, Marco; Ruini, Cristel

    2016-09-10

    The figurative arts and precisely the ancient Pompeian wall paintings portraits can provide an additional source of information in supplementing bio-anthropological studies. There are several genetic diseases with a wide spectrum of congenital bone stigmata in association to distinctive facial features. Gorlin-Goltz syndrome, also named nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome, is an autosomal dominant syndrome characterized by unusual skeletal changes, such as macrocephaly, facial asymmetry, hypertelorism, frontal and parietal bossing caused by germline mutations of the gene PTCH1. The Gorlin syndrome, clinically defined in 1963, existed during Dynastic Egyptian times, as revealed by a spectrum of skeletal findings compatible with the syndrome in mummies dating back to three thousand years ago and, most likely, in the ancient population of Pompeii. In the present research, we discuss the potential relationship between Pompeian wall paintings portrait and the cranio-metric bone changes revealed among the Pompeian skull collections assuming that the ancient portraits can constitute an important tool that should be strictly integrated with osteologic and biomolecular data in order to argue a syndromic diagnosis in ancient population. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Functional characterization of bacteria isolated from ancient arctic soil exposes diverse resistance mechanisms to modern antibiotics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel G Perron

    Full Text Available Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes.

  18. Functional characterization of bacteria isolated from ancient arctic soil exposes diverse resistance mechanisms to modern antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Gabriel G; Whyte, Lyle; Turnbaugh, Peter J; Goordial, Jacqueline; Hanage, William P; Dantas, Gautam; Desai, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes.

  19. Functional Characterization of Bacteria Isolated from Ancient Arctic Soil Exposes Diverse Resistance Mechanisms to Modern Antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perron, Gabriel G.; Whyte, Lyle; Turnbaugh, Peter J.; Goordial, Jacqueline; Hanage, William P.; Dantas, Gautam; Desai, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Using functional metagenomics to study the resistomes of bacterial communities isolated from different layers of the Canadian high Arctic permafrost, we show that microbial communities harbored diverse resistance mechanisms at least 5,000 years ago. Among bacteria sampled from the ancient layers of a permafrost core, we isolated eight genes conferring clinical levels of resistance against aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline antibiotics that are naturally produced by microorganisms. Among these resistance genes, four also conferred resistance against amikacin, a modern semi-synthetic antibiotic that does not naturally occur in microorganisms. In bacteria sampled from the overlaying active layer, we isolated ten different genes conferring resistance to all six antibiotics tested in this study, including aminoglycoside, β-lactam and tetracycline variants that are naturally produced by microorganisms as well as semi-synthetic variants produced in the laboratory. On average, we found that resistance genes found in permafrost bacteria conferred lower levels of resistance against clinically relevant antibiotics than resistance genes sampled from the active layer. Our results demonstrate that antibiotic resistance genes were functionally diverse prior to the anthropogenic use of antibiotics, contributing to the evolution of natural reservoirs of resistance genes. PMID:25807523

  20. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom; Haile, James; Munch, Kasper; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Froese, Duane G; Sher, Andrei; Holdaway, Richard N; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-01-01

    Udgivelsesdato: 2009-null BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanentl...

  1. The Embodiment of Color in Ancient Mediterranean Art

    OpenAIRE

    Stager, Jennifer Margaret Simmons

    2012-01-01

    AbstractThe Embodiment of Color in Ancient Mediterranean ArtbyJennifer Margaret Simmons StagerDoctor of Philosophy in History of ArtUniversity of California, BerkeleyProfessor Andrew F. Stewart, ChairThe polychromy of ancient Mediterranean art is an issue with which scholars have grappled for centuries. The fugitive nature of many pigments coupled with a classicizing taste for the stripped antique fragment have contributed to a fictional narrative that contradicts the material and textual rec...

  2. Widespread distribution of archaeal reverse gyrase in thermophilic bacteria suggests a complex history of vertical inheritance and lateral gene transfers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline Brochier-Armanet

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Reverse gyrase, an enzyme of uncertain funtion, is present in all hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria. Previous phylogenetic studies have suggested that the gene for reverse gyrase has an archaeal origin and was transferred laterally (LGT to the ancestors of the two bacterial hyperthermophilic phyla, Thermotogales and Aquificales. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of the evolutionary history of reverse gyrase in light of genomic progress. We found genes coding for reverse gyrase in the genomes of several thermophilic bacteria that belong to phyla other than Aquificales and Thermotogales. Several of these bacteria are not, strictly speaking, hyperthermophiles because their reported optimal growth temperatures are below 80 °C. Furthermore, we detected a reverse gyrase gene in the sequence of the large plasmid of Thermus thermophilus strain HB8, suggesting a possible mechanism of transfer to the T. thermophilus strain HB8 involving plasmids and transposases. The archaeal part of the reverse gyrase tree is congruent with recent phylogenies of the archaeal domain based on ribosomal proteins or RNA polymerase subunits. Although poorly resolved, the complete reverse gyrase phylogeny suggests an ancient acquisition of the gene by bacteria via one or two LGT events, followed by its secondary distribution by LGT within bacteria. Finally, several genes of archaeal origin located in proximity to the reverse gyrase gene in bacterial genomes have bacterial homologues mostly in thermophiles or hyperthermophiles, raising the possibility that they were co-transferred with the reverse gyrase gene. Our new analysis of the reverse gyrase history strengthens the hypothesis that the acquisition of reverse gyrase may have been a crucial evolutionary step in the adaptation of bacteria to high-temperature environments. However, it also questions the role of this enzyme in thermophilic bacteria and the selective advantage its presence could provide.

  3. Widespread distribution of archaeal reverse gyrase in thermophilic bacteria suggests a complex history of vertical inheritance and lateral gene transfers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brochier-Armanet, Céline; Forterre, Patrick

    2007-05-01

    Reverse gyrase, an enzyme of uncertain funtion, is present in all hyperthermophilic archaea and bacteria. Previous phylogenetic studies have suggested that the gene for reverse gyrase has an archaeal origin and was transferred laterally (LGT) to the ancestors of the two bacterial hyperthermophilic phyla, Thermotogales and Aquificales. Here, we performed an in-depth analysis of the evolutionary history of reverse gyrase in light of genomic progress. We found genes coding for reverse gyrase in the genomes of several thermophilic bacteria that belong to phyla other than Aquificales and Thermotogales. Several of these bacteria are not, strictly speaking, hyperthermophiles because their reported optimal growth temperatures are below 80 degrees C. Furthermore, we detected a reverse gyrase gene in the sequence of the large plasmid of Thermus thermophilus strain HB8, suggesting a possible mechanism of transfer to the T. thermophilus strain HB8 involving plasmids and transposases. The archaeal part of the reverse gyrase tree is congruent with recent phylogenies of the archaeal domain based on ribosomal proteins or RNA polymerase subunits. Although poorly resolved, the complete reverse gyrase phylogeny suggests an ancient acquisition of the gene by bacteria via one or two LGT events, followed by its secondary distribution by LGT within bacteria. Finally, several genes of archaeal origin located in proximity to the reverse gyrase gene in bacterial genomes have bacterial homologues mostly in thermophiles or hyperthermophiles, raising the possibility that they were co-transferred with the reverse gyrase gene. Our new analysis of the reverse gyrase history strengthens the hypothesis that the acquisition of reverse gyrase may have been a crucial evolutionary step in the adaptation of bacteria to high-temperature environments. However, it also questions the role of this enzyme in thermophilic bacteria and the selective advantage its presence could provide.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosomal diversity in ancient populations of domestic sheep (Ovis aries) in Finland: comparison with contemporary sheep breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemi, Marianna; Bläuer, Auli; Iso-Touru, Terhi; Nyström, Veronica; Harjula, Janne; Taavitsainen, Jussi-Pekka; Storå, Jan; Lidén, Kerstin; Kantanen, Juha

    2013-01-22

    Several molecular and population genetic studies have focused on the native sheep breeds of Finland. In this work, we investigated their ancestral sheep populations from Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval periods by sequencing a partial mitochondrial DNA D-loop and the 5'-promoter region of the SRY gene. We compared the maternal (mitochondrial DNA haplotypes) and paternal (SNP oY1) genetic diversity of ancient sheep in Finland with modern domestic sheep populations in Europe and Asia to study temporal changes in genetic variation and affinities between ancient and modern populations. A 523-bp mitochondrial DNA sequence was successfully amplified for 26 of 36 sheep ancient samples i.e. five, seven and 14 samples representative of Iron Age, Medieval and Post-Medieval sheep, respectively. Genetic diversity was analyzed within the cohorts. This ancient dataset was compared with present-day data consisting of 94 animals from 10 contemporary European breeds and with GenBank DNA sequence data to carry out a haplotype sharing analysis. Among the 18 ancient mitochondrial DNA haplotypes identified, 14 were present in the modern breeds. Ancient haplotypes were assigned to the highly divergent ovine haplogroups A and B, haplogroup B being the major lineage within the cohorts. Only two haplotypes were detected in the Iron Age samples, while the genetic diversity of the Medieval and Post-Medieval cohorts was higher. For three of the ancient DNA samples, Y-chromosome SRY gene sequences were amplified indicating that they originated from rams. The SRY gene of these three ancient ram samples contained SNP G-oY1, which is frequent in modern north-European sheep breeds. Our study did not reveal any sign of major population replacement of native sheep in Finland since the Iron Age. Variations in the availability of archaeological remains may explain differences in genetic diversity estimates and patterns within the cohorts rather than demographic events that occurred in the past

  5. Detection of 400-year-old Yersinia pestis DNA in human dental pulp: an approach to the diagnosis of ancient septicemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drancourt, M; Aboudharam, G; Signoli, M; Dutour, O; Raoult, D

    1998-10-13

    Ancient septicemic plague epidemics were reported to have killed millions of people for 2 millenniums. However, confident diagnosis of ancient septicemia solely on the basis of historical clinical observations is not possible. The lack of suitable infected material has prevented direct demonstration of ancient septicemia; thus, the history of most infections such as plague remains hypothetical. The durability of dental pulp, together with its natural sterility, makes it a suitable material on which to base such research. We hypothesized that it would be a lasting refuge for Yersinia pestis, the plague agent. DNA extracts were made from the dental pulp of 12 unerupted teeth extracted from skeletons excavated from 16th and 18th century French graves of persons thought to have died of plague ("plague teeth") and from 7 ancient negative control teeth. PCRs incorporating ancient DNA extracts and primers specific for the human beta-globin gene demonstrated the absence of inhibitors in these preparations. The incorporation of primers specific for Y. pestis rpoB (the RNA polymerase beta-subunit-encoding gene) and the recognized virulence-associated pla (the plasminogen activator-encoding gene) repeatedly yielded products that had a nucleotide sequence indistinguishable from that of modern day isolates of the bacterium. The specific pla sequence was obtained from 6 of 12 plague skeleton teeth but 0 of 7 negative controls (P plague was achieved for historically identified victims, and we have confirmed the presence of the disease at the end of 16th century in France. Dental pulp is an attractive target in the quest to determine the etiology of septicemic illnesses detected in ancient corpses. Molecular techniques could be applied to this material to resolve historical outbreaks.

  6. Ancient DNA and Forensics Mutual Benefits a Practical Sampling and Laboratory Guide Through a Virtual Ancient DNA Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cemper-Kiesslich

    2014-09-01

    In this review the authors give a general overview on the field of ancient DNA analysis focussing of the potentials and limits, fields of application, requirements for samples, laboratory setup, reaction design and equipment as well as a brief outlook on current developments, future perspectives and potential cross links with associated scientific disciplines. Key words: Human DNA, Ancient DNA, Forensic DNA typing, Molecular archaeology, Application.

  7. Acquisition-Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Don E.; Vann, A. Vernon; Jones, Richard H.; Rew, William E.

    1987-01-01

    NASA Acquisition Management Subsystem (AMS) program integrated NASA-wide standard automated-procurement-system program developed in 1985. Designed to provide each NASA installation with procurement data-base concept with on-line terminals for managing, tracking, reporting, and controlling contractual actions and associated procurement data. Subsystem provides control, status, and reporting for various procurement areas. Purpose of standardization is to decrease costs of procurement and operation of automatic data processing; increases procurement productivity; furnishes accurate, on-line management information and improves customer support. Written in the ADABAS NATURAL.

  8. [Light and blindness in ancient Egypt].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria Rosso, Ana

    2010-01-01

    In Ancient Egypt, light and fire, which were closely related to the Sun God Ra, were the sources of life and well-being, while the dark meant danger and death. Similar to death, darkness drops on human beings in deep sleep and they enter a space inhabited by shadows. Dreams were believed to reveal an unknown world, to give the sleeper a glimpse into the future. Vision attracts distant objects and their light, on the other hand, can hurt the eyes like a burning flame. Eyes were the most important organ in Egyptian thought, as they allowed perception of the real world. Their importance has been immortalised in the myth of the Eye of Horus that explains the role of either eye. One represents the moonlight, which disperses the darkness of the night, and the other represents the sunshine, which creates life, and both could also represents the power of human intellect. Blindness, in turn, congenital or disease-related, was considered a divine punishment. A man, thus handicapped, would sink in a state of uncertainty and darkness. To protect the eyes from blindness, people used drops and ointments, which were believed to chase away all kinds of insects and demons that threatened with a variety of eye infections. Egyptian eye doctors or physicians, carried a special kit that contained green chrysocolla and a black kohl makeup, highly appreciated as prophylaxis because they personified Osiris' humours or body fluids. These products were offered to Gods to restore the brightness of divine glance and incite sun and moon to spread their beneficial light.

  9. PIXE analysis of ancient Indian coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajivaliei, M.; Garg, M.L.; Handa, D.K.; Govil, K.L.; Kakavand, T.; Vijayan, V.; Singh, K.P.; Govil, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    A number of coins of Hindu Shahis Dynasty of Kabul (990-1015 A.D.) have been analysed using proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. The 3 MeV proton beam from the Pelletron Accelerator at the Institute of Physics, Bhubaneswar, India was used for the production of X-rays. The X-rays were detected by Si(Li) detector (FWHM=180 eV at 5.9 keV) placed at 90 deg. to the beam direction. For the reliable calibration of the analytical system, thin foils of Micromatter standards of Fe, CuS, KCl, and RbNO 3 were used. The computer code GUPIX was employed to get concentration of trace elements in these coins. The elements Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, As, Sb, Pb, and Bi were detected in these coins along with the major component of Cu and Ag. The coins were classified in two groups, coins no. 3, 9, 10, 11, 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19 as copper or billon coins having major component of copper, while coins no. 6, 17, 20, 21, 22 as silver coins having the major component of silver. The first group seems to belong to lower denomination while the other group belongs to higher denomination coins. There is a strong positive correlation between lead and zinc and also a strong negative correlation between copper and silver. The weight of coins varied between 3.05 and 3.39 gram. The comparison of our results with that of the ores of various mines indicates that the source of copper in these coins is from Khetri mine in Rajasthan. Silver seems to come from Afghanistan since it is not reported to occur as a primary mineral in ancient India

  10. Continued Data Acquisition Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwellenbach, David [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States)

    2017-11-27

    This task focused on improving techniques for integrating data acquisition of secondary particles correlated in time with detected cosmic-ray muons. Scintillation detectors with Pulse Shape Discrimination (PSD) capability show the most promise as a detector technology based on work in FY13. Typically PSD parameters are determined prior to an experiment and the results are based on these parameters. By saving data in list mode, including the fully digitized waveform, any experiment can effectively be replayed to adjust PSD and other parameters for the best data capture. List mode requires time synchronization of two independent data acquisitions (DAQ) systems: the muon tracker and the particle detector system. Techniques to synchronize these systems were studied. Two basic techniques were identified: real time mode and sequential mode. Real time mode is the preferred system but has proven to be a significant challenge since two FPGA systems with different clocking parameters must be synchronized. Sequential processing is expected to work with virtually any DAQ but requires more post processing to extract the data.

  11. Unsupervised Language Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Marcken, Carl

    1996-11-01

    This thesis presents a computational theory of unsupervised language acquisition, precisely defining procedures for learning language from ordinary spoken or written utterances, with no explicit help from a teacher. The theory is based heavily on concepts borrowed from machine learning and statistical estimation. In particular, learning takes place by fitting a stochastic, generative model of language to the evidence. Much of the thesis is devoted to explaining conditions that must hold for this general learning strategy to arrive at linguistically desirable grammars. The thesis introduces a variety of technical innovations, among them a common representation for evidence and grammars, and a learning strategy that separates the ``content'' of linguistic parameters from their representation. Algorithms based on it suffer from few of the search problems that have plagued other computational approaches to language acquisition. The theory has been tested on problems of learning vocabularies and grammars from unsegmented text and continuous speech, and mappings between sound and representations of meaning. It performs extremely well on various objective criteria, acquiring knowledge that causes it to assign almost exactly the same structure to utterances as humans do. This work has application to data compression, language modeling, speech recognition, machine translation, information retrieval, and other tasks that rely on either structural or stochastic descriptions of language.

  12. Data-acquisition systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cyborski, D.R.; Teh, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    Up to now, DAPHNE, the data-acquisition system developed for ATLAS, was used routinely for experiments at ATLAS and the Dynamitron. More recently, the Division implemented 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems. The MSU/DAPHNE system is a hybrid data-acquisition system which combines the front-end of the Michigan State University (MSU) DA system with the traditional DAPHNE back-end. The MSU front-end is based on commercially available modules. This alleviates the problems encountered with the DAPHNE front-end which is based on custom designed electronics. The first MSU system was obtained for the APEX experiment and was used there successfully. A second MSU front-end, purchased as a backup for the APEX experiment, was installed as a fully-independent second MSU/DAPHNE system with the procurement of a DEC 3000 Alpha host computer, and was used successfully for data-taking in an experiment at ATLAS. Additional hardware for a third system was bought and will be installed. With the availability of 2 MSU/DAPHNE systems in addition to the existing APEX setup, it is planned that the existing DAPHNE front-end will be decommissioned

  13. Ancient Pbx-Hox signatures define hundreds of vertebrate developmental enhancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Hugo J

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene regulation through cis-regulatory elements plays a crucial role in development and disease. A major aim of the post-genomic era is to be able to read the function of cis-regulatory elements through scrutiny of their DNA sequence. Whilst comparative genomics approaches have identified thousands of putative regulatory elements, our knowledge of their mechanism of action is poor and very little progress has been made in systematically de-coding them. Results Here, we identify ancient functional signatures within vertebrate conserved non-coding elements (CNEs through a combination of phylogenetic footprinting and functional assay, using genomic sequence from the sea lamprey as a reference. We uncover a striking enrichment within vertebrate CNEs for conserved binding-site motifs of the Pbx-Hox hetero-dimer. We further show that these predict reporter gene expression in a segment specific manner in the hindbrain and pharyngeal arches during zebrafish development. Conclusions These findings evoke an evolutionary scenario in which many CNEs evolved early in the vertebrate lineage to co-ordinate Hox-dependent gene-regulatory interactions that pattern the vertebrate head. In a broader context, our evolutionary analyses reveal that CNEs are composed of tightly linked transcription-factor binding-sites (TFBSs, which can be systematically identified through phylogenetic footprinting approaches. By placing a large number of ancient vertebrate CNEs into a developmental context, our findings promise to have a significant impact on efforts toward de-coding gene-regulatory elements that underlie vertebrate development, and will facilitate building general models of regulatory element evolution.

  14. Collection assessment and acquisitions budgets

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Sul H

    2013-01-01

    This invaluable new book contains timely information about the assessment of academic library collections and the relationship of collection assessment to acquisition budgets. The rising cost of information significantly influences academic libraries'abilities to acquire the necessary materials for students and faculty, and public libraries'abilities to acquire material for their clientele. Collection Assessment and Acquisitions Budgets examines different aspects of the relationship between the assessment of academic library collections and the management of library acquisition budgets. Librar

  15. ISSR diversity and genetic differentiation of ancient tea (camellia sinensis var. assamica) plantations from China: implications for precious tea germplasm conservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, X.Q.; Ji, P.Z.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Gao, L.Z.; Cheng, Z.Q.

    2011-01-01

    Over 10 centuries, ancient cultivated tea populations (Camellia sinensis var. assamica) are still planted merely in Yunnan province of China. Genetic diversity and differentiation were examined in 10 ancient tea plantations by using ISSR markers. The average genetic diversity within populations, estimated with Nei's genetic diversity (HE), was approximately 0.2809, while Shannon indices (HO) was 0.4179. The percentage of polymorphic loci (P) of the 10 populations ranged from 56.5% to 90.91%. We found a moderate level of genetic differentiation among population as evidenced by the coefficients of gene differentiation (Gst) of 0.3911 and the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) of 39.70%. The result could be explained by the nature of highly out crossing in the tea species as well as serious habitat fragmentation. Finally, conservation strategies were discussed to protect these ancient tea populations, including in situ reserve settings and ex situ germplasm sampling. (author)

  16. Abrasive supply for ancient Egypt revealed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peltz, C.; Bichler, M.

    2008-01-01

    In the framework of the major research scheme 'Synchronization of Civilizations in the Eastern Mediterranean Region in the 2nd Millennium B.C' instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) was used to determine 30 elements in pumice from archaeological excavations to reveal their specific volcanic origin. In ancient time, the widespread pumiceous products of several eruptions in the Aegean region have been used as abrasive tools and were therefore popular trade objects. The correlation of such archaeological findings to a specific eruption of known age would therefore allow to certify a maximum age of the respective stratum ('dating by first appearance'). Pumices from the Aegean region can easily be distinguished by their trace element distribution patterns. This has been shown by previous studies of the group. The elements Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Dy, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Nd, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Ti, U, V, Yb, Zr and Zn were determined in 16 samples of pumice lumps from excavations in Tell-el-Dab'a and Tell-el-Herr (Egypt). Two irradiation cycles and five measurement runs were applied. To show the accuracy of the results obtained, typical samples of the most important pumice sources in the Aegean region, particularly from Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Thera were analyzed together with the Egyptian samples of unknown origin. A reliable identification of the samples is achieved by comparing these results to the database compiled in previous studies. The geographical positions of these islands are shown. Within the error range, most of the elements determined in typical representatives of Milos, Nisyros, Kos and Santorini were in perfect agreement with values from the literature. On the basis of the Cluster graphics presented, it is possible to relate unknown pumice to its primary source, just by comparing the relation of a few elements, like Ta-Eu and Th-Hf. One concludes that all samples except one can be related to the Minoan eruption of Thera

  17. Magnetite Authigenesis and the Ancient Martian Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosca, N. J.; Ahmed, I. A.; Ashpitel, A.; Hurowitz, J.

    2017-12-01

    Although the Curiosity rover has documented lacustrine sediments at Gale Crater, how liquid water became physically stable is unknown. The early Martian atmosphere is thought to have been dominated by CO2 [1], but the Curiosity rover has provided only ambiguous detections of carbonate minerals at abundances significantly less than 1 wt. % [2, 3], and climate models indicate that in the absence of additional components, multi-bar CO2 atmospheres could not have maintained surface temperatures above freezing. To constrain the composition of the ancient Martian atmosphere, we experimentally investigated the nucleation and growth kinetics of authigenic Fe(II)-minerals in Gale Crater mudstones. Experiments show that as basaltic waters experience pH increases above 8.0, a series of anoxic mineral transformations generates magnetite in days. Electrochemical and dissolved gas analyses show that one stage of this process, the conversion of Fe(OH)2 to green rust, generates H2(g). Experiments including dissolved CO2 show that, despite magnetite formation, Fe(II)-carbonate does not nucleate until significant supersaturation is reached, at PCO2 levels far above previous estimates. Our experimental observations imply that Gale Crater lakes could have been in contact with a CO2-rich atmosphere. In addition, geochemical calculations show that groundwater infiltration into lacustrine sediments triggered magnetite and H2(g) generation at Gale Crater (instead of Fe(II)-carbonate cementation). Groundwater infiltration is consistent with data from the Sheepbed member mudstones, and deep-water mudstones of the Murray formation, both of which contain abundant authigenic magnetite [2, 4]. Low temperature H2 production may have provided a globally significant but transient feedback for stabilizing liquid water on early Mars. Data collected to date by the Curiosity rover are consistent with both estimated timescales and climatic shifts associated with H2-induced warming. Low temperature H2

  18. Dating ancient monuments by nuclear radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goedicke, C.

    2000-01-01

    In the fifties and sixties several disciplines dealing with chronologies but lacking precise methods of measurements (geology, biology, archaeology and art history) became aware of the radioactive decay as a tool of measuring elapsed time. Among the disciplines that benefit most from physical methods archaeology has to be named first. So was archaeological work revolutionised by the introduction of the C-14 dating method. A wider selection of material became datable after the introduction of luminescence techniques using the effect of nuclear radiation on semiconductors. These minerals are widespread among archaeological materials. In ancient monuments, the objective of this paper, semiconductors almost exclusively form the material basis. Over the last four millennia wood, stone, mortar and fired bricks have been used for the construction of buildings. After discussing methods taking wood as a dating material, a broader view will be given on the results achieved by luminescence dating of fired bricks, mortar and stone. For many years brick dating was performed by thermoluminescence, the recipes followed those of ceramic dating. Preferably multiple aliquot additive dose protocols were used on polymineral fine grain fractions (1-10 μm). It was expected that the error in dating monuments would be smaller compared to ceramic dating, because of the constancy of the environmental conditions which a brick experiences during its lifetime. However, the variability of firing temperatures in brick kilns overthrows this advantage. Therefore, the demands of art historians to fall short of an error margin of 5% could generally not be fulfilled. Especially in medieval or renaissance times the temporal resolution of thermoluminescence is inferior to traditional stylistic dating as long as specific stylistic forms are present. New optical luminescence techniques and a new philosophy of dose evaluation, based on single aliquot regeneration protocols, produce less scatter, and in

  19. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Francis Thomsen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from non-frozen sediments deposited 3280-1800 years ago -- an alternative approach that also does not involve destruction of valuable material. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The success of the methodological approaches are tested by PCR and sequencing of COI and 16S mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA fragments of 77-204 base pairs (-bp in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost-preserved insect fossil remains tested, where DNA was obtained from samples up to ca. 26,000 years old. The non-frozen sediment DNA approach appears to have great potential for recording the former presence of insect taxa not normally preserved as macrofossils and opens new frontiers in research on ancient biodiversity.

  20. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Haile, James; Munch, Kasper; Kuzmina, Svetlana; Froese, Duane G; Sher, Andrei; Holdaway, Richard N; Willerslev, Eske

    2009-01-01

    A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from non-frozen sediments deposited 3280-1800 years ago -- an alternative approach that also does not involve destruction of valuable material. The success of the methodological approaches are tested by PCR and sequencing of COI and 16S mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) fragments of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost-preserved insect fossil remains tested, where DNA was obtained from samples up to ca. 26,000 years old. The non-frozen sediment DNA approach appears to have great potential for recording the former presence of insect taxa not normally preserved as macrofossils and opens new frontiers in research on ancient biodiversity.

  1. Limb amputations from the ancient times to the present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryła, Wanda; Pogorzała, Adam M; Kasior, Iwona; Nowakowski, Andrzej

    2013-07-26

    Amputations, or the removal of limbs at different levels, have been performed since the ancient times. The first reports of amputations originate from the ancient ruins in Egypt, where primitive prosthetic toes were found in the tombs of the Pharaohs. In Europe, during the period of ancient Greece and Rome, various examples of amputations were described on amphoras and mosaics. During the middle ages, the body was marginalized and replaced by the worship of human spirituality. As a result reports of amputations from that time period are scarce. True development of amputation and prosthetic techniques took place during the Renaissance and centuries that followed. Present-day indications for amputation are similar to those utilized in the ancient times. The greatest development of limb amputation techniques and prosthetic methods began in the 20th century and continues to this day. Despite the development of new techniques in prosthetics, many solutions have their roots in designs originating in the ancient times and differ only in their structural design.

  2. Ancient literature in the teaching of the Ljubljana jesuits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nada Grošelj

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Members of the Jesuit Order came to Ljubljana in 1597, founding a »gymnasium« and later expanding it with a semi-university. In contrast to certain other orders, they fostered the classics, as is evidenced by their teaching, scholarly research, and literary composition. The scholarly work of the Jesuits active in present-day Slovenia was mostly concentrated on ancient philosophy, as is shown in the second section of this paper. Their teaching, on the other hand, included both classroom lessons and more creative activities, such as the writing and staging of school plays. The Jesuit school system with its six gymnasium classes is described in the first section of the paper, and the school curriculum (based almost exclusively on the teaching of Latin literature and methods in the third. The fourth section presents the documents relating to the final gymnasium examinations in ancient literature which took place in Ljubljana, with a survey of the contents of the questions. The fifth section outlines the characteristics of Jesuit school drama. The plays performed in Ljubljana are lost, but, judging by the preserved titles and synopses, ancient themes appear to have been relatively rare. Nevertheless, the paper succeeds in isolating seventeen works (discussed in the sixth section which must have either utilised plots from ancient literature or drawn inspiration from ancient stock characters and rhetoric.

  3. Ancient analogues concerning stability and durability of cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, W.; Roy, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    The history of cementitious materials goes back to ancient times. The Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone and later developed pozzolanic cement by grinding together lime and volcanic ash called open-quotes pozzolanclose quotes which was first found near Port Pozzuoli, Italy. The ancient Chinese used lime-pozzolanic mixes to build the Great Wall. The ancient Egyptians used calcined impure gypsum to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The extraordinary stability and durability of these materials has impressed us, when so much dramatically damaged infrastructure restored by using modern portland cement now requires rebuilding. Stability and durability of cementitious materials have attracted intensive research interest and contractors' concerns, as does immobilization of radioactive and hazardous industrial waste in cementitious materials. Nuclear waste pollution of the environment and an acceptable solution for waste management and disposal constitute among the most important public concerns. The analogy of ancient cementitious materials to modern Portland cement could give us some clues to study their stability and durability. This present study examines selected results of studies of ancient building materials from France, Italy, China, and Egypt, combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cement to evaluate the potential for stability and durability of such materials in nuclear waste forms

  4. The rights of patients as consumers: An ancient view.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barapatre, Nishant Bhimraj; Joglekar, Vishnu Prabhakar

    2016-01-01

    As far as the rights of consumers are concerned, the International Organization of Consumer's Union (IOCU) in 1983 has specified about the eight rights of a consumer. The Consumer Protection Act (CPA), 1986 then prescribed six "Rights of Consumers," which are protected under the act. However, these rights can be observed in the ancient Indian texts such as Brihat-trayee , Narad Smruti , and Kautilya Arthashastra ., in the form of rights given to patients. For the purpose of present study, the implemented methodology includes - (1) study of the consumer rights described by IOCU and CPA, (2) detailed review of literature for observance of replication of these consumer rights in the ancient Indian texts and (3) a comparative study of the present consumer rights with the rights of patients observed in ancient Indian texts. This study shows that the substance of consumer rights is not a recent evolution, but the foundation of these rights has been laid well beforehand in the ancient times, which were provided to the patients by medical profession as well as by the rulers. The current scenario of protection of consumer rights is the replication of this ancient practice only.

  5. Sustainability of Ancient Water Supply Facilities in Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamal M. Barghouth

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an overview on the sustainability of ancient water supply systems in Jerusalem from the Chalcolithic period (4500–3200 B.C. until the present time. Archaeological evidences and landscape settings were applied utilizing all available and accessible literature relevant to ancient water resources management in Jerusalem. Irrigated agriculture was practiced for many centuries in this region, hence sustainable water supply facilities were erected, including well developed aqueducts, water harvesting pools and irrigation channels for water storage and landscaping purposes. To cope with seismic events, soil subsidence and water leakage, ancient water engineers and architects applied innovative construction methods for the erection of water pools, channels and aqueduct systems. Ancient water supply systems in Jerusalem are valuable treasures of past civilizations and crucial urban environmental facilities and their protection is consistent with sustainable development principles. Effective environmental assessment as a decision-making process for sustainable development can be applied to preserve threatened ancient water facilities from major development proposals and urban infrastructure projects in Jerusalem.

  6. Data Acquisition Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will review the main physics and operational requirements on the Trigger and Data Acquisition (DAQ) systems of the LHC experiments. A description of the architecture of the various systems, the motivation of each alternative and the conceptual design of each filtering stage will be discussed. We will then turn to a description of the major elements of the three distinct sub-systems, namely the Level-1 trigger, the DAQ with its event-building and overall control and monitor, and finally the High-Level trigger system and the online processor farms. The thrust of the two lectures will be to provide a "broad brush" picture of the functionality of these systems.

  7. DSPS in data acquisition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirsch, M.; Haeupke, T.; Oelschlaeger, R.; Struck, B.

    1997-01-01

    Off-the-shelf and customized DSP boards in different bus architectures are perfectly suited to act as building blocks for flexible and high performance data acquisition systems. Due to their architecture they can be used to enhance the performance of existing equipment as add ons, as state-of-the-art readout controllers, event builders, on-the-fly data formatters and higher level trigger processors. Applications covering the above mentioned fields with Motorolas 96002 HARC DSP in the DESY HERMES and H1 experiments, at the focal plane polarimeter at KVI and the NIST high flux neutron backscattering spectrometer will be presented. Future possibilities with VME, PCI and PMC boards based on Analog Devices SHARC DSP will be discussed. Systems on the base of Texas Instruments TMS320C6X promise to provide unprecedented performance

  8. Data Acquisition Systems course

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    We will review the main physics and operational requirements on the Trigger and Data Acquisition (DAQ) systems of the LHC experiments. A description of the architecture of the various systems, the motivation of each alternative and the conceptual design of each filtering stage will be discussed. We will then turn to a description of the major elements of the three distinct sub-systems, namely the Level-1 trigger, the DAQ with its event-building and overall control and monitor, and finally the High-Level trigger system and the online processor farms. The thrust of the two lectures will be to provide a "broad brush" picture of the functionality of these systems.

  9. 78 FR 49990 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Part 151 [K00103 12/13 A3A10; 134D0102DR-DS5A300000-DR.5A311.IA000113; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY...

  10. 78 FR 37164 - Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Indian Affairs 25 CFR Part 151 [K00103 12/13 A3A10; 134D0102DR-DS5A300000-DR.5A311.IA000113; Docket ID: BIA-2013-0005] RIN 1076-AF15 Land Acquisitions: Appeals of Land Acquisition Decisions AGENCY...

  11. An evolutionarily young defense metabolite influences the root growth of plants via the ancient TOR signaling pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinovsky, Frederikke Gro; Thomsen, Marie-Louise F; Nintemann, Sebastian J; Jagd, Lea Møller; Bourgine, Baptiste; Burow, Meike; Kliebenstein, Daniel J

    2017-12-12

    To optimize fitness a plant should monitor its metabolism to appropriately control growth and defense. Primary metabolism can be measured by the universally conserved TOR (Target of Rapamycin) pathway to balance growth and development with the available energy and nutrients. Recent work suggests that plants may measure defense metabolites to potentially provide a strategy ensuring fast reallocation of resources to coordinate plant growth and defense. There is little understanding of mechanisms enabling defense metabolite signaling. To identify mechanisms of defense metabolite signaling, we used glucosinolates, an important class of plant defense metabolites. We report novel signaling properties specific to one distinct glucosinolate, 3-hydroxypropylglucosinolate across plants and fungi. This defense metabolite, or derived compounds, reversibly inhibits root growth and development. 3-hydroxypropylglucosinolate signaling functions via genes in the ancient TOR pathway. If this event is not unique, this raises the possibility that other evolutionarily new plant metabolites may link to ancient signaling pathways.

  12. Insights into horizontal acquisition patterns of dormancy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Horizontal Gene Transfer (HGT) events, initially thought to be rare in Mycobacterium tuberculosis, have recentlybeen shown to be involved in the acquisition of virulence operons in M. tuberculosis. We have developed a newpartitioning framework based HGT prediction algorithm, called Grid3M, and applied the same for the ...

  13. Insights into horizontal acquisition patterns of dormancy and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Specific analysis of the genesbelonging to dormancy/reactivation regulons across 14 mycobacterial genomes indicated that horizontal acquisition isspecifically restricted to important accessory proteins. The results also revealed Burkholderia species to be a probablesource of HGT genes belonging to these regulons.

  14. Ancient DNA reveals genetic connections between early Di-Qiang and Han Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiawei; Zeng, Wen; Zhang, Ye; Ko, Albert Min-Shan; Li, Chunxiang; Zhu, Hong; Fu, Qiaomei; Zhou, Hui

    2017-12-04

    Ancient Di-Qiang people once resided in the Ganqing region of China, adjacent to the Central Plain area from where Han Chinese originated. While gene flow between the Di-Qiang and Han Chinese has been proposed, there is no evidence to support this view. Here we analyzed the human remains from an early Di-Qiang site (Mogou site dated ~4000 years old) and compared them to other ancient DNA across China, including an early Han-related site (Hengbei site dated ~3000 years old) to establish the underlying genetic relationship between the Di-Qiang and ancestors of Han Chinese. We found Mogou mtDNA haplogroups were highly diverse, comprising 14 haplogroups: A, B, C, D (D*, D4, D5), F, G, M7, M8, M10, M13, M25, N*, N9a, and Z. In contrast, Mogou males were all Y-DNA haplogroup O3a2/P201; specifically one male was further assigned to O3a2c1a/M117 using targeted unique regions on the non-recombining region of the Y-chromosome. We compared Mogou to 7 other ancient and 38 modern Chinese groups, in a total of 1793 individuals, and found that Mogou shared close genetic distances with Taojiazhai (a more recent Di-Qiang population), Hengbei, and Northern Han. We modeled their interactions using Approximate Bayesian Computation, and support was given to a potential admixture of ~13-18% between the Mogou and Northern Han around 3300-3800 years ago. Mogou harbors the earliest genetically identifiable Di-Qiang, ancestral to the Taojiazhai, and up to ~33% paternal and ~70% of its maternal haplogroups could be found in present-day Northern Han Chinese.

  15. Balancing selection on a regulatory region exhibiting ancient variation that predates human-neandertal divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omer Gokcumen

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Ancient population structure shaping contemporary genetic variation has been recently appreciated and has important implications regarding our understanding of the structure of modern human genomes. We identified a ∼36-kb DNA segment in the human genome that displays an ancient substructure. The variation at this locus exists primarily as two highly divergent haplogroups. One of these haplogroups (the NE1 haplogroup aligns with the Neandertal haplotype and contains a 4.6-kb deletion polymorphism in perfect linkage disequilibrium with 12 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs across diverse populations. The other haplogroup, which does not contain the 4.6-kb deletion, aligns with the chimpanzee haplotype and is likely ancestral. Africans have higher overall pairwise differences with the Neandertal haplotype than Eurasians do for this NE1 locus (p<10⁻¹⁵. Moreover, the nucleotide diversity at this locus is higher in Eurasians than in Africans. These results mimic signatures of recent Neandertal admixture contributing to this locus. However, an in-depth assessment of the variation in this region across multiple populations reveals that African NE1 haplotypes, albeit rare, harbor more sequence variation than NE1 haplotypes found in Europeans, indicating an ancient African origin of this haplogroup and refuting recent Neandertal admixture. Population genetic analyses of the SNPs within each of these haplogroups, along with genome-wide comparisons revealed significant FST (p = 0.00003 and positive Tajima's D (p = 0.00285 statistics, pointing to non-neutral evolution of this locus. The NE1 locus harbors no protein-coding genes, but contains transcribed sequences as well as sequences with putative regulatory function based on bioinformatic predictions and in vitro experiments. We postulate that the variation observed at this locus predates Human-Neandertal divergence and is evolving under balancing selection, especially among European

  16. Acquisition of docetaxel resistance in breast cancer cells reveals upregulation of ABCB1 expression as a key mediator of resistance accompanied by discrete upregulation of other specific genes and pathways

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ninel Hansen, Stine; Westergaard, David; Borg Houlberg Thomsen, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    The microtubule-targeting taxanes are important in breast cancer therapy, but no predictive biomarkers have yet been identified with sufficient scientific evidence to allow clinical routine use. The purposes of the present study were to develop a cell-culture-based discovery platform for docetaxel...... to be prominent at higher docetaxel concentrations (second-phase response). Additional resistance mechanisms were indicated by gene expression profiling, including genes in the interferon-inducible protein family in MCF7RES and cancer testis antigen family in MDARES. Also, upregulated expression of various ABC...

  17. New genetic and linguistic analyses show ancient human influence on baobab evolution and distribution in Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haripriya Rangan

    Full Text Available This study investigates the role of human agency in the gene flow and geographical distribution of the Australian baobab, Adansonia gregorii. The genus Adansonia is a charismatic tree endemic to Africa, Madagascar, and northwest Australia that has long been valued by humans for its multiple uses. The distribution of genetic variation in baobabs in Africa has been partially attributed to human-mediated dispersal over millennia, but this relationship has never been investigated for the Australian species. We combined genetic and linguistic data to analyse geographic patterns of gene flow and movement of word-forms for A. gregorii in the Aboriginal languages of northwest Australia. Comprehensive assessment of genetic diversity showed weak geographic structure and high gene flow. Of potential dispersal vectors, humans were identified as most likely to have enabled gene flow across biogeographic barriers in northwest Australia. Genetic-linguistic analysis demonstrated congruence of gene flow patterns and directional movement of Aboriginal loanwords for A. gregorii. These findings, along with previous archaeobotanical evidence from the Late Pleistocene and Holocene, suggest that ancient humans significantly influenced the geographic distribution of Adansonia in northwest Australia.

  18. Foreign DNA acquisition by invertebrate genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drezen, J-M; Gauthier, J; Josse, T; Bézier, A; Herniou, E; Huguet, E

    2017-07-01

    Recent studies have highlighted that the accidental acquisition of DNA from other species by invertebrate genomes is much more common than originally thought. The transferred DNAs are of bacterial or eukaryote origin and in both cases the receiver species may end up utilising the transferred genes for its own benefit. Frequent contact with prokaryotic DNA from symbiotic endocellular bacteria may predispose invertebrates to incorporate this genetic material into their genomes. Increasing evidence also points to viruses as major players in transferring genes and mobile elements between the species they infect. Unexpectedly a gene flux between Hymenoptera and Lepidoptera mediated by endogenous viruses of parasitic wasps has been recently unravelled, suggesting we are probably just seeing the tip of the iceberg concerning horizontal gene transfers in invertebrates. In the context of insect for feed and food, if the new technology of insect genome editing (such as Crisper/Cas9) were used to modify the genome of reared insects it is important to take into account the risk that an introduced gene can be transferred. More generally, although insects are traditionally consumed in Asia and Africa, knowledge on insect viruses is still limited rendering it difficult to predict the impact they might have in the context of insect rearing at an industrial scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  20. A decision support system for the reading of ancient documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    2011-01-01

    ). The thesis balances between the use of IT tools to aid Humanities research and the understanding that Humanities research must involve human beings. It does not attempt to develop a system that can automate the reading of ancient documents. Instead it seeks to demonstrate and develop tools that can support......The research presented in this thesis is based in the Humanities discipline of Ancient History and begins by attempting to understand the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents and how this process can be aided by computer systems such as Decision Support Systems (DSS...... this process in the five areas: remembering complex reasoning, searching huge datasets, international collaboration, publishing editions, and image enhancement. This research contains a large practical element involving the development of a DSS prototype. The prototype is used to illustrate how a DSS...

  1. Acoustical Masks and sound aspects of Ancient Greek Theatre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Vovolis

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available It is impossible to imagine the ancient Greek theatre without the mask, whether it is tragedy, comedy or satyr plays. All theatrical forms that developed in Athens during the 6th and 5th centuries BC were forms of masked drama. The mask was an organic element in this new form called theatre because the mask is the medium per excellence for the embodiment of the Other and participates in the creation of the stage as a site of the dialogue between the Self andthe Other. But the mask was an organic element of the theatre because in ancient Greek theatre the mask is organically connected through its facial appearance to the ecstatic cries found in the dramatic texts and to the theatre space through its acoustical form. Acoustics permeated all aspects of the ancient Greek theatre and was a way to create even better participation for the audience enhancing its acoustico-visual and synaesthetic experience.

  2. ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND GEOLOGICAL CONCEPTS ON THE TOPIC OF ANCIENT MINING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prentiss de JESUS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Geological and archaeological research on ancient mining and metallurgy are actually targeting the same goals: understanding the nature and value of a mining operation. Geologists are intent on locating and qualifying ores and minerals for future use, whereas archaeologists strive to link ores to relevant historic and prehistoric metal artifacts and activities. This article discusses research into ancient Anatolian metallurgy by underscoring the overlap between geological and archeological practices. The work of archaeologists and geologists can be mutually beneficial through a close collaboration on the collection and analysis of field data. Their accumulated and combined knowledge would accelerate the progress towards placing ancient mining activities in a chronological and meaningful context.

  3. Radiocarbon ages of Sorori ancient rice of Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Ja, E-mail: kjkim@kigam.re.kr [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yung-Jo; Woo, Jong-Yoon [Institute of Korean Prehistory, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Jull, A.J. Timothy [NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-01-15

    Samples of Sorori ancient rice were excavated in 1998 from the Sorori Paleolithic site located at Sorori, Oksan-myeon, Cheong-won County in Chungcheongbuk-do, Korea. We have made new radiocarbon measurements for Sorori samples in 2009 at the NSF Arizona AMS Laboratory. Both ancient rice samples and surrounded peat from the Sorori site were dated. The AMS results confirmed that the ages of the rice and peat soil were 12,520 {+-} 150 and 12,552 {+-} 90 BP, respectively. These radiocarbon ages are consistent with the previously published data of quasi rice measured at Seoul National University and confirm that the Sorori rice is the oldest ancient rice currently reported.

  4. Application of PIXE to study ancient Iranian silver coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Rahighi, J.; Andami, P.; Dilmaghani, J.; Etezadi, M.

    1999-01-01

    Ancient Iranian silver coins minted in various parts of the ancient Iran from Transoxiana to Mesopotamia over a time span of 460 years (247BC-208AD) during Parthians dynasty were analysed by PIXE with a 2.2 MeV proton beam. Forty seven silver coins owned by Tamashagah-e-Pool (museum of money) in Tehran were examined in this study. The possible correlation between the composition of coins and the minting time or the minting location of coins has been the prime objective of the present study. Elemental analysis of ancient coins could also reveal the direct relation with the political and economical situation and also with the metallurgy of the minting time. Results on the contents of principal component elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Br, Ag, Sn, Sb, Ba, Au and Pb) are presented and discussed. (author)

  5. An ancient eye test--using the stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohigian, George M

    2008-01-01

    Vision testing in ancient times was as important as it is today. The predominant vision testing in some cultures was the recognition and identification of constellations and celestial bodies of the night sky. A common ancient naked eye test used the double star of the Big Dipper in the constellation Ursa Major or the Big Bear. The second star from the end of the handle of the Big Dipper is an optical double star. The ability to perceive this separation of these two stars, Mizar and Alcor, was considered a test of good vision and was called the "test" or presently the Arab Eye Test. This article is the first report of the correlation of this ancient eye test to the 20/20 line in the current Snellen visual acuity test. This article describes the astronomy, origin, history, and the practicality of this test and how it correlates with the present day Snellen visual acuity test.

  6. Application of PIXE to study ancient Iranian silver coins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliaiy, P.; Shokouhi, F.; Lamehi-Rachti, M.; Rahighi, J. [Van de Graaff Laboratory, AEOI, Tehran (Iran); Andami, P.; Dilmaghani, J.; Etezadi, M. [Tamashagah-e-Pool, General Office of Museums, MDFIR, Tehran (Iran)

    1999-07-01

    Ancient Iranian silver coins minted in various parts of the ancient Iran from Transoxiana to Mesopotamia over a time span of 460 years (247BC-208AD) during Parthians dynasty were analysed by PIXE with a 2.2 MeV proton beam. Forty seven silver coins owned by Tamashagah-e-Pool (museum of money) in Tehran were examined in this study. The possible correlation between the composition of coins and the minting time or the minting location of coins has been the prime objective of the present study. Elemental analysis of ancient coins could also reveal the direct relation with the political and economical situation and also with the metallurgy of the minting time. Results on the contents of principal component elements (Fe, Ni, Cu, As, Br, Ag, Sn, Sb, Ba, Au and Pb) are presented and discussed. (author)

  7. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  8. Foreign Acquisition, Wages and Productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandick, Roger

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies the effect of foreign acquisition on wages and total factor productivity (TFP) in the years following a takeover by using unique detailed firm-level data for Sweden for the period 1993-2002. The paper takes particular account of the potential endogeneity of the acquisition...

  9. Ancient Chinese literature reveals pathways of eggplant domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Gang; Knapp, Sandra

    2008-12-01

    Changes in key traits occurring during the processes of plant domestication have long been subjects of debate. Only in the case of genetic analysis or with extensive plant remains can specific sets of changes be documented. Historical details of the plant domestication processes are rare and other evidence of morphological change can be difficult to obtain, especially for those vegetables that lack a substantial body of archaeological data. Botanical records chronicled in the ancient literature of established ancient civilizations, such as that of China, are invaluable resources for the study and understanding of the process of plant domestication. Here, the considerable body of ancient Chinese literature is used to explore the domestication process that has occurred with the eggplant (Solanum melongena), an important vegetable in Old World. Information about eggplant domestication in the ancient Chinese literature was retrieved using a variety of methods. The information obtained was then sorted by taxon, examined and taxonomic identifications verified. It was found that the earliest record of the eggplant documented in ancient Chinese literature was in a work from 59 bc. As far as is known, this is the earliest reliable and accurately dated record of eggplant in cultivation. The analysis reveals that the process of domestication of the eggplant in China involved three principal aspects of fruit quality: size, shape and taste. These traits were actively and gradually selected; fruit size changed from small to large, taste changed from not palatable to what was termed at the time sweetish, and that over time, a wider variety of fruit shapes was cultivated. The results indicate that, in addition to data gleaned from archaeology and genetics, evidence as to changes in key traits occurring during the process of plant domestication and selective forces responsible for these changes can be traced through the ancient literature in some civilizations.

  10. Ancient Chinese Literature Reveals Pathways of Eggplant Domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jin-Xiu; Gao, Tian-Gang; Knapp, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Changes in key traits occurring during the processes of plant domestication have long been subjects of debate. Only in the case of genetic analysis or with extensive plant remains can specific sets of changes be documented. Historical details of the plant domestication processes are rare and other evidence of morphological change can be difficult to obtain, especially for those vegetables that lack a substantial body of archaeological data. Botanical records chronicled in the ancient literature of established ancient civilizations, such as that of China, are invaluable resources for the study and understanding of the process of plant domestication. Here, the considerable body of ancient Chinese literature is used to explore the domestication process that has occurred with the eggplant (Solanum melongena), an important vegetable in Old World. Methods Information about eggplant domestication in the ancient Chinese literature was retrieved using a variety of methods. The information obtained was then sorted by taxon, examined and taxonomic identifications verified. Key Results It was found that the earliest record of the eggplant documented in ancient Chinese literature was in a work from 59 bc. As far as is known, this is the earliest reliable and accurately dated record of eggplant in cultivation. The analysis reveals that the process of domestication of the eggplant in China involved three principal aspects of fruit quality: size, shape and taste. These traits were actively and gradually selected; fruit size changed from small to large, taste changed from not palatable to what was termed at the time sweetish, and that over time, a wider variety of fruit shapes was cultivated. Conclusions The results indicate that, in addition to data gleaned from archaeology and genetics, evidence as to changes in key traits occurring during the process of plant domestication and selective forces responsible for these changes can be traced through the ancient

  11. Hedera helix L. and damages in Tlos Ancient City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinç, Z.K.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available There are various plant types in Tlos Ancient City of Fethiye district in the Province of Mugla, a city where different residential ruins of Lycia Civilization starting from Classical Age until Byzantine Period. Tlos is an important city in West-Lycia and is situated right on the control point of Lycia Way. Hedera helix L. is one of the plants living in this area, which attracts the attention as it mostly harms the ancient ruins. One of the most important reasons why Hedera helix L. is growing commonly in this region is the perfect ecological circumstances for the growth of this plant of the location where this ancient city is situated in. Additionally the fact that the ruins of the city are left on their fate, is another perfect circumstance for the Hedera helix L. to grow. Climbing or creeping stems of Hedera helix L. stick easily to the objects it touches and encircle them. Due to this characteristic, the walls of the ancient city are covered by this plant. Nevertheless, Hedera helix L. does not only harm the ancient constructions and natural rocks but also woody plants. The harm caused by dried out or cut Hedera helix L. are more than the harm caused by them when they were untouched. The subject of this study is to prove the shape and level of the harm caused by Hedera helix L. on ancient ruins of Tlos. At the same time, this study will underline the fighting methods against Hedera helix L. by comparing similar studies in other countries. Knowledge collected after this study will offer an insight into the excavation and restoration studies undertaken in all Mediterranean countries.

  12. [On the issue of healers of the Ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarenko, V G

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to the first physicians of the Ancient China--I-Ing (XVII-XVI centuries BC) and I-Ho (VI-V centuries BC). On the basis of the investigation of the ancient sources the significant input of the mentioned physicians into the development of the traditional Chinese medicine, dietetics and diet therapy included is testified. In addition, their scientific approach to the issues of diagnostics and treatment on the basis of applying the natural philosophy principles of Yin-Yan and Y-Sin is demonstrated.

  13. Uxoricide in pregnancy: ancient Greek domestic violence in evolutionary perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacy, Susan; McHardy, Fiona

    2013-10-24

    Previous studies of ancient Greek examples of uxoricide in pregnancy have concluded that the theme is used to suggest tyrannical abuse of power and that the violence is a product of the patriarchal nature of ancient society. This article uses evolutionary analyses of violence during pregnancy to argue that the themes of sexual jealousy and uncertainty over paternity are as crucial as the theme of power to an understanding of these examples and that the examples can be seen as typical instances of spousal abuse as it occurs in all types of society.

  14. Determination BETA Dose In Ancient Pottery By Liquid Scintillation Counting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen Quang Mien; Bui Van Loat

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a method for measuring the gross alpha/beta radioactivity of ancient pottery by using the liquid scintillation analyzer, Tri - carb2770TR/SL in the alpha/beta discrimination counting mode. The beta radioactivity is converted to the annual dose, which can be applied in dating of pottery by thermoluminescence technique. In comparison with the radiocarbon techniques, the preliminary results have shown the liquid scintillation counting technique to be an efficient solution and may be effectively applied for ancient object dating in Vietnam. (author)

  15. Statistical guidelines for detecting past population shifts using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mourier, Tobias; Ho, Simon Y. W.; Gilbert, Tom

    2012-01-01

    post-bottleneck recoveries. In contrast, nuclear SNPs can detect bottlenecks followed by rapid recovery, although bottlenecks involving reduction of less than half the population are generally detected with low power unless extensive genetic information from ancient individuals is available. Our...... results provide useful guidelines for scaling sampling schemes and for optimizing our ability to infer past population dynamics. In addition, our results suggest that many ancient DNA studies may face power issues in detecting moderate demographic collapses and/or highly dynamic demographic shifts when...

  16. Poetic mobility in Ancient Greece. Readings of Simonides’ work

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Luísa de Nazaré

    2013-01-01

    The study Poetic mobility in Ancient Greece. Readings of Simonides’ work fixes the analysis of Simonides’ corpus in a broader investigation on lyric poets’ mobility. At the end of Archaic Age, Simonides of Ceos (c. 556-468 B.C.) already represents the terminus of a long tradition of poetic mobility from which appear certain echoes in the Homeric Poems and in Hesiod’s Works and Days. In the “Introduction”, we discuss these and also other testimonies of the existence, in ancient times, of wa...

  17. A modern appraisal of ancient Etruscan herbal practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Bartels, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    Individualts in antiquity would have been exposed to both cheese and red wine and perhaps as many as 10-40% of the population would have suffered at some time in their life from a migraine headache. Furthermore, individuals in qntiquity would also have been exposed to their fair share of childhoo...... of the combined knowledge of the "Etruscan herbal" and its possible physiological effects, raises the issue of the importance of ancient treatments in today's society, particularly since we are still plagued by many of the same ailments as the ancient Etruscans....

  18. Ancient Dwarka: Study based on recent underwater archaeological investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -1 Migration & Diffusion, Vol. 6, Issue Number 21, 2005 ANCIENT DWARKA: STUDY BASED ON RECENT UNDERWATER ARCHAEOLOGICAL INVESTIGATIONS by A.S. Gaur, Sundaresh and Sila Tripati Summary Dwarka, one of the best-studied underwater sites in India, has...). Dwarka has been the attraction for historians since the beginning of the 20th century. The ancient town Dwarka has been described as 56 Migration & Diffusion, Vol 6, Issue Number 21, 2005 Fig.l: Dwarka is headquarter of the Okhamandal taluka in Jamnagar...

  19. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological......-preserved insect fossil remains tested, where DNA was obtained from samples up to ca. 26,000 years old. The non-frozen sediment DNA approach appears to have great potential for recording the former presence of insect taxa not normally preserved as macrofossils and opens new frontiers in research on ancient...

  20. Correction to 'Ancient DNA and the tropics: a rodent's tale'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-García, Tania A; Vázquez-Domínguez, Ella; Arroyo-Cabrales, Joaquín; Kuch, Melanie; Enk, Jacob; King, Christine; Poinar, Hendrik N

    2015-03-01

    The present erratum is in regards to our article entitled ‘Ancient DNA and the tropics: a rodent's tale’. We were made aware of problems with some of the ancient sequences submitted to GenBank and conducted a systematic review of all the files used in our study. We discovered that, unfortunately, an incorrect file was sent to GenBank and was also used in some of our downstream analyses. We immediately contacted GenBank, explained the situation and corrected the file. We have redone some analyses with the correct file and describe these changes below.

  1. Some geometric models of ancient astronomy with Geogebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Tortosa

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is to review and simulate, with the help of GeoGebra, the most important geometric models used by the ancient astronomers to explain the mechanisms governing the trajectories of celestial bodies in the sky. It is well known that ancient astronomers like Ptolemy, Copernicus, Galileo, invented the same complex geometric systems of circles to explain the motion of the celestial bodies. It was not until Kepler, with the introduction of conics in the geometric models, that it was possible to accurately explain the observations with theoretical models.

  2. Moessbauer study of ancient iron smelting slag in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, A.

    2008-01-01

    For an investigation of the ancient iron manufacturing technique, a reproducing experiment was carried out by archaeologists, where ancient type of iron smelting furnace was built and iron sand with high titanium contents was used as the raw material. During the operation of furnace, a large amount of slag flowed away from the furnace. In order to investigate the possibility for the estimation about the operative condition of furnace and the raw material, 57 Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy was applied for characterizing these slags and it was found that these slags mainly consisted of ferropseudobrookite (FeTi 2 O 5 ).

  3. 48 CFR 34.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 34... CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 34.004 Acquisition strategy. The program manager, as specified in agency procedures, shall develop an acquisition strategy tailored to the particular...

  4. 48 CFR 434.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 434.004 Section 434.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION General 434.004 Acquisition strategy. (a) The program...

  5. 48 CFR 234.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 234..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING MAJOR SYSTEM ACQUISITION 234.004 Acquisition strategy. (1) See 209.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider the use of lead system...

  6. 48 CFR 3034.004 - Acquisition strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition strategy. 3034.004 Section 3034.004 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, HOMELAND... Acquisition strategy. See (HSAR) 48 CFR 3009.570 for policy applicable to acquisition strategies that consider...

  7. 48 CFR 304.7001 - Numbering acquisitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Numbering acquisitions. 304.7001 Section 304.7001 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE MATTERS Acquisition Instrument Identification Numbering System 304.7001 Numbering acquisitions. (a...

  8. 48 CFR 873.105 - Acquisition planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquisition planning. 873.105 Section 873.105 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS DEPARTMENT... planning. (a) Acquisition planning is an indispensable component of the total acquisition process. (b) For...

  9. Ancient host specificity within a single species of brood parasitic bird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spottiswoode, Claire N; Stryjewski, Katherine Faust; Quader, Suhel; Colebrook-Robjent, John F R; Sorenson, Michael D

    2011-10-25

    Parasites that exploit multiple hosts often experience diversifying selection for host-specific adaptations. This can result in multiple strains of host specialists coexisting within a single parasitic species. A long-standing conundrum is how such sympatric host races can be maintained within a single parasitic species in the face of interbreeding among conspecifics specializing on different hosts. Striking examples are seen in certain avian brood parasites such as cuckoos, many of which show host-specific differentiation in traits such as host egg mimicry. Exploiting a Zambian egg collection amassed over several decades and supplemented by recent fieldwork, we show that the brood parasitic Greater Honeyguide Indicator indicator exhibits host-specific differentiation in both egg size and egg shape. Genetic analysis of honeyguide eggs and chicks show that two highly divergent mitochondrial DNA lineages are associated with ground- and tree-nesting hosts, respectively, indicating perfect fidelity to two mutually exclusive sets of host species for millions of years. Despite their age and apparent adaptive diversification, however, these ancient lineages are not cryptic species; a complete lack of differentiation in nuclear genes shows that mating between individuals reared by different hosts is sufficiently frequent to prevent speciation. These results indicate that host specificity is maternally inherited, that host-specific adaptation among conspecifics can be maintained without reproductive isolation, and that host specificity can be remarkably ancient in evolutionary terms.

  10. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum does not distinguish between ancient population structure and hybridization

    KAUST Repository

    Eriksson, Anders

    2014-03-13

    Distinguishing between hybridization and population structure in the ancestral species is a key challenge in our understanding of how permeable species boundaries are to gene flow. The doubly conditioned frequency spectrum (dcfs) has been argued to be a powerful metric to discriminate between these two explanations, and it was used to argue for hybridization between Neandertal and anatomically modern humans. The shape of the observed dcfs for these two species cannot be reproduced by a model that represents ancient population structure in Africa with two populations, while adding hybridization produces realistic shapes. In this letter, we show that this result is a consequence of the spatial coarseness of the demographic model and that a spatially structured stepping stone model can generate realistic dcfs without hybridization. This result highlights how inferences on hybridization between recently diverged species can be strongly affected by the choice of how population structure is represented in the underlying demographic model. We also conclude that the dcfs has limited power in distinguishing between the signals left by hybridization and ancient structure. 2014 The Author.

  11. DATA ACQUISITION (DAQ)

    CERN Multimedia

    Gerry Bauer

    The CMS Storage Manager System The tail-end of the CMS Data Acquisition System is the Storage Manger (SM), which collects output from the HLT and stages the data at Cessy for transfer to its ultimate home in the Tier-0 center. A SM system has been used by CMS for several years with the steadily evolving software within the XDAQ framework, but until relatively recently, only with provisional hardware. The SM is well known to much of the collaboration through the ‘MiniDAQ’ system, which served as the central DAQ system in 2007, and lives on in 2008 for dedicated sub-detector commissioning. Since March of 2008 a first phase of the final hardware was commissioned and used in CMS Global Runs. The system originally planned for 2008 aimed at recording ~1MB events at a few hundred Hz. The building blocks to achieve this are based on Nexsan's SATABeast storage array - a device  housing up to 40 disks of 1TB each, and possessing two controllers each capable of almost 200 MB/sec throughput....

  12. IPNS data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Worlton, T.G.; Crawford, R.K.; Haumann, J.R.; Daly, R.

    1983-01-01

    The IPNS Data Acquisition System (DAS) was designed to be reliable, flexible, and easy to use. It provides unique methods of acquiring Time-of-Flight neutron scattering data and allows collection, storage, display, and analysis of very large data arrays with a minimum of user input. Data can be collected from normal detectors, linear position-sensitive detectors, and/or area detectors. The data can be corrected for time-delays and can be time-focussed before being binned. Corrections to be made to the data and selection of inputs to be summed are entirely software controlled, as are the time ranges and resolutions for each detector element. Each system can be configured to collect data into millions of channels. Maximum continuous data rates are greater than 2000 counts/sec with full corrections, or 16,000 counts/sec for the simpler binning scheme used with area detectors. Live displays of the data may be made as a function of time, wavevector, wavelength, lattice spacing, or energy. In most cases the complete data analysis can be done on the DAS host computer. The IPNS DAS became operational for four neutron scattering instruments in 1981 and has since been expanded to seven instruments

  13. Trigger and data acquisition

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva; Gaspar, C

    2001-01-01

    Past LEP experiments generate data at 0.5 MByte/s from particle detectors with over a quarter of a million readout channels. The process of reading out the electronic channels, treating them, and storing the date produced by each collision for further analysis by the physicists is called "Data Acquisition". Not all beam crossings produce interesting physics "events", picking the interesting ones is the task of the "Trigger" system. In order to make sure that the data is collected in good conditions the experiment's operation has to be constantly verified. In all, at LEP experiments over 100 000 parameters were monitored, controlled, and synchronized by the "Monotoring and control" system. In the future, LHC experiments will produce as much data in a single day as a LEP detector did in a full year's running with a raw data rate of 10 - 100 MBytes/s and will have to cope with some 800 million proton-proton collisions a second of these collisions only one in 100 million million is interesting for new particle se...

  14. Preliminary Study of Ancient Town Protection and Rural Tourism Development of Caoshi Town in Hengdong County, Hunan Province

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tian-zhao; Yang, Zai-tian; Liu Pei-lin

    2012-01-01

    The typical style and features of mountains and waters in Caoshi Ancient Town, have hitherto been well preserved. Caoshi Ancient Town boasts superior base of the natural eco-environment and deep-rooted background of regional culture, where mountains, waters, shoals, towns and other landscape elements are merged harmoniously, the transportation and geographical conditions have been fundamentally changed. Ancient towns, old temples, ancient forests, ancient wells and ancient piers are unique in...

  15. Acquisition: Acquisition of Targets at the Missile Defense Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ugone, Mary L; Meling, John E; James, Harold C; Haynes, Christine L; Heller, Brad M; Pomietto, Kenneth M; Bobbio, Jaime; Chang, Bill; Pugh, Jacqueline

    2005-01-01

    Who Should Read This Report and Why? Missile Defense Agency program managers who are responsible for the acquisition and management of targets used to test the Ballistic Missile Defense System should be interested in this report...

  16. Interpretation of neutron activation analysis data of ancient silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyers, P.; van Zelst, L.; Sayre, E.V.

    1976-01-01

    Results from work on Sasanian silver and objects from related periods and geographic provenances are used to demonstrate that analytical data in combination with other properties can be used with reasonable success in establishing groups of objects of common geographic provenances, in providing information on the production, use, and distribution of silver metal, and on ancient metal working techniques

  17. Theory-of-mind reasoning in Ancient China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emde Boas, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese literature on strategic theory goes back to ideas proposed almost 3000 years ago, but which were first written down during the late Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period (around 500 BC). The most famous work is the Art of War from Sun Tzu. While Sun Tzu extensively

  18. Hands-On Mathematics: Two Cases from Ancient Chinese Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Youjun

    2009-01-01

    In modern mathematical teaching, it has become increasingly emphasized that mathematical knowledge should be taught by problem-solving, hands-on activities, and interactive learning experiences. Comparing the ideas of modern mathematical education with the development of ancient Chinese mathematics, we find that the history of mathematics in…

  19. Archaeological and taxonomic significance of ancient wood samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ancient wood samples from an archaeological excavation, Test Pit II, in Ahanve, near Badagry were analysed to ascertain their identity. Anatomical study of the wood samples revealed oval-circular xylem pores, diffuse apotracheal axial parenchyma, procumbent and homogeneous ray and non-septate fibres, all consistent ...

  20. Power and Gender in Ancient Egypt: The Case of Hatshepsut

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilliard, Kristina; Wurtzel, Kate

    2009-01-01

    Hatshepsut (1479-1458 B.C.E) ruled New Kingdom Egypt for roughly 20 years as one of the few female pharaohs in the history of ancient Egypt. Her rule began when her husband died and her stepson was too young to be pharaoh. To legitimize her role as pharaoh, Hatshepsut began a significant building campaign by constructing numerous images, temples,…