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Sample records for ancient chinese anti-fever

  1. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  2. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  3. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  5. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  6. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LI Ru-long: Huang Diancheng's Great Contributions to Chinese Phonology Abstract: Huang Diancheng inherited the essence of traditional Chinese phonology and the research results of the Zhang and Huang School. On the basis of the analysis on the facts of modern dialects, he put forward the principle that Qiangsheng bi ruoyun,

  7. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  8. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  9. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  10. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  11. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  12. Study on Prohibitions of Ancient Chinese Costumes in Black Series

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomeng Qu

    2013-01-01

    China is a historical country with extensive and profound civilization, in which the Chinese Costume has always been a brilliant feature. Black series occupies an important position in the color institution of ancient Chinese Costumes. The prohibition on black series costumes also has a significant meaning in ancient China. By discussing prohibitions related to black series in ancient Chinese costume institution, this paper studied two typical colors used by people of different classes as the...

  13. Origin of Chinese ancient glasses——study on the earliest Chinese ancient glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Fuxi; CHENG Huansheng; LI Qinghui

    2006-01-01

    The earliest Chinese ancient glasses before the West Han Dynasty (200 BC) from different regions are studied. The glass samples were unearthed from Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Xinjiang of China. The chemical composition of these glasses samples is analyzed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It is shown that the glass chemical compositions belong to barium-lead silicate BaO-PbO-SiO2, potash soda lime silicate K2O (Na2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O>1), soda potash lime silicate Na2O (K2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O<1) and potash silicate K2O-SiO2 glass systems, respectively. The origins of the earliest Chinese ancient glasses are discussed from the archaeological and historical points of view. These four types of Chinese ancient glasses were all made in Chinese territory using local raw materials. The glass preparation technology was related to the Chinese ancient bronze metallurgy and proto-porcelain glaze technology. The glass technology relationship between the East and the West is analyzed at the same time.

  14. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S

    1999-04-02

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  15. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  16. Theory of Traditional Chinese Aesthetic Thoughts Influence on Ancient Chinese Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静

    2014-01-01

    the Chinese tradition of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism thought influence the design style of the building. Confu-cian, Taoist thought of"the doctrine of the mean"of"nature and humanity"ideology, traditional Confucian thought on the forma-tion of the traditional architectural style vital role. Of ancient Chinese architecture is harmonious and peaceful feelings, Confucian, Taoist, buddhist thought deeply, meanwhile, reflect the hand, reasonable aspiration is dependent of the aesthetic, the emotion affects the ancient Chinese architecture planning, layout and construction, formed the ancient Chinese architecture unique architectural style and artistic style and features.

  17. "Uighur's Contributions to the Ancient Chinese Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN, Geng

    2010-01-01

    In this my paper I speak briefly on the contributions made by the Uighurs and their ancestors to the Chinese civilization. Of course, the Chinese people also made great contributions to the civilization of Uighur people

  18. 75 FR 57825 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Chinese Bronzes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Chinese Bronzes From the... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ancient Chinese Bronzes from the Shouyang Studio: The...

  19. Chinese Ancient Coins Academic Exchange Delegation Visits France and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>To further strengthen nongovernmental cultural exchanges,a Chinese delegation visited France and Austria from September 23 to 30for academic exchange on ancient coin.They had fruitful exchanges with coin experts of the two countries at the invitation of the France-China Culture and Art Exchange Centre and the Austria-China Friendship Association for Culture and Art Exchange.

  20. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhwen

    2004-01-01

    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  1. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  2. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis

  3. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: chenglinbnu@hotmail.com; Ding Xunliang [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng Huangsheng [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang WenJiang [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang 330008 (China); Fan Changsheng [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang 330008 (China)

    2006-03-15

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  4. The colour of Sirius as recorded in ancient Chinese texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-yuan

    1993-04-01

    At present, Sirius is white, but in the West there has long existed a succession of records purporting that the star is red, which would mean difficulty for the current theory of stellar evolution. In this paper I have systematically examined the more reliable records regarding the colour of Sirius in extant ancient Chinese texts from B. C. times to the + 7th century and found that, during this period, Sirius was unquestionably white, thus relieving the present theory of stellar evolution of any threat from this direction.

  5. NEW REDUCTIONS OF ORBITSBASED UPON CHINESE ANCIENT COMETARY RECORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hongnan; Zhuang Weifeng; Wang Yu

    2000-01-01

    From 146 B. C. to 1760 A. D., 363 sets of cometary observations for a total 88 different comets were recorded in Chinese Ancient Records of Celestial Phenomena. According to those records, we reduced apparent positions and mean equatorial coordinates (epoch 2000.0)for all more than three times recorded comets. Taking into account the perturbations of all nine planets and using the numerical method of Nbody problem, the orbits of correlative comets were calculated. For thirty different comets, new orbits are presented for the first time.

  6. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century

  7. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, X.M. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China); Guo, M.S. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China)

    2005-10-15

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  8. Applied investigation of Moessbauer effect for the famous ancient chinese porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The famous Ru porcelain, Jun porcelain and Guan porcelain of Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty are analyzed. The Moessbauer parameters of the ancient porcelains and the imitative ancient porcelains are compared. The firing techniques, coloring mechanism and microstructures of the ancient Chinese porcelains have been discussed. (7 figs., 4 tabs.)

  9. X AFS analysis of ancient chinese porcelain of honglvcai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure analysis of Honglvcai, an overglaze ploychrome porcelain produced in China from the Song Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, has been a blank in studies on ancient Chinese ceramics. This work was focused on the oxidation state and local environment of colorants in red, yellow and green decorations on Honglvcai by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The analysis of Fe K-edge XANES and EXAFS spectra of the red-colored samples indicated that Fe3+ was mainly located at a distorted octahedral site in a hematite phase, while that if the yellow-colored samples showed that iron was present as both trivalent and divalent cations coordinated with oxygen atoms in an amorphous phase. And Cu K-edge XAFS analysis of the green-colored samples revealed that Cu2+ was the main constituent coordinated with oxygen atoms in an amorphous phase. (authors)

  10. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 11000C in steps of 1000C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-10000C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period. (orig.)

  11. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  12. The Evolution of Al2O3 Content in Ancient Chinese Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence from museums, collectors, the dug out of the grave, the evolution of Al2O3 content in Chinese glasses from Western Zhou to Qing dynasty was documented in this paper in detail. It was found that Al2O3 contents in ancient Chinese glasses were relatively higher than those of outside of China in the world. This is the character of the ancient Chinese glasses which is caused by not only the high Al contents in the raw materials but also by the Chinese people’s preference of the milky glasses similar to jade

  13. An Analysis of Ancient Chinese Poems in Perspective of Conceptual Metaphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with ancient Chinese poems and gives them a systematic analysis in perspective of conceptual metaphor raised by George Lakoff in his Metaphors We Live By. By using exemplification, il ustration and synthesis, metaphors in ancient Chinese poems are studied in three aspects, i.e. Entity and substance metaphor, container metaphor and personification. By doing so, the paper intends to spread a comparatively complete map of the use of conceptual metaphor in the poems.

  14. Application of INAA in analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the applications of INAA in analysis of Chinese ancient porcelain fired from early Northern Song dynasty (AD 1004-1127) to Late Yuan dynasty (AD 1320-1368) in Hutian Kiln. Minor and trace elements of 168 pieces of ancient porcelain bodies were determined by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  15. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut; Guoqing, Z.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society. Recommended behaviours found in the ancient texts are compared with conditions for happiness as observed in present day empirical investigations. Classic Confucianism appears to offer the most apt advice for...

  16. Dating ancient Chinese celadon porcelain by neutron activation analysis and bayesian classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dating ancient Chinese porcelain is one of the most important and difficult problems in porcelain archaeological field. Eighteen elements in bodies of ancient celadon porcelains fired in Southern Song to Yuan period (AD 1127-1368) and Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644), including La, Sm, U, Ce, etc., were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). After the outliers of experimental data were excluded and multivariate normal distribution was tested, and Bayesian classification was used for dating of 165 ancient celadon porcelain samples. The results show that 98.2% of total ancient celadon porcelain samples are classified correctly. It means that NAA and Bayesian classification are very useful for dating ancient porcelain. (authors)

  17. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, J. [Shanghai Museum, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gao, M.H. [Department of Cultural Relics and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Feng, S.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago.

  18. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago

  19. Elemental analysis of ancient Chinese bronze artifacts with external-beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External-beam PIXE has been applied for the determination of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese bronze artifacts. Characteristic x-ray spectra from the samples bombarded with protons of 3 MeV have been measured with a HPGe detector. At each sample three spots were irradiated per run. Results of measurements on three fragments of bronze drinking vessels and helmet of Chinese ancient Chou and Shang dynasties (17th-8th century B.C.) are presented. To check the analytical method, we have also made measurements on the elemental composition of some modern coins. The results are discussed. (author)

  20. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); Z. Guoqing

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society. Recommende

  1. From an Ancient Tradition to the Present. Chinese Cultural Heritage Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching Fang; Lee, Amy

    This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help promote better understanding of Chinese students in the New York City public schools. China has an ancient history and a rich cultural tradition, and people all over the world have recognized China as one of the world's greatest civilizations. The earliest…

  2. An Experimental Study on the Sound and Frequency of the Chinese Ancient Variable Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Hu, Haining; Xing, Lirong; Liu, Yongsheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an interesting sound phenomenon from a modern copy of the Chinese ancient variable bell which can emit distinctly different sounds at different temperatures. By means of audition--spectrum analyser software--and PC, the sound signals of the variable bell are collected and the fundamental spectra are shown on the PC. The…

  3. ESTIMATION OF THE LENGTH CONSTANT OF A LONG COOLING FIN BY AN ANCIENT CHINESE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ancient Chinese algorithm is used to estimate the length constant of a long cooling fin, and an approximate solution formulation is obtained. The obtained results show that this method is a simple but promising method without any requirement for advanced calculus.

  4. Solitary-Solution Formulation for Differential-Difference Equations Using an Ancient Chinese Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies an ancient Chinese algorithm to differential-difference equations, and a solitary-solution formulation is obtained. The discrete mKdV lattice equation is used as an example to elucidate the solution procedure.

  5. Green Restaurant: An Ancient Touch of Chinese Herbal Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambra Schillirò

    2010-01-01

    @@ The first time Ⅰ entered the restaurant Green,inside the five-star Radegast Lake View Hotel in Chongwen District of Beijing,I was incredibly surprised.All around were red lights,a room reminiscent of the splendor of ancient China and simply delicious herbal cuisine.

  6. Green Restaurant: An Ancient Touch of Chinese Herbal Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambra; Schilliro

    2010-01-01

    The first time I entered the restaurant Green, inside the five-star Radegast Lake View Hotel in Chongwen District of Beijing, I was incredibly surprised. All around were red lights, a room reminiscent of the splendor of ancient China and simply delicious herbal cuisine.

  7. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  8. Reviving ancient Chinese mathematics mathematics, history and politics in the work of Wu Wen-Tsun

    CERN Document Server

    Hudecek, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Twentieth-century China has been caught between a desire to increase its wealth and power in line with other advanced nations, which, by implication, means copying their institutions, practices and values, whilst simultaneously seeking to preserve China's independence and historically formed identity. Over time, Chinese philosophers, writers, artists and politicians have all sought to reconcile these goals and this book shows how this search for a Chinese way penetrated even the most central, least contested area of modernity: science.Reviving Ancient Chinese Mathematics is a study of the life

  9. Examining Literary Warrant in Ancient Chinese Book Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chen Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the application of literary warrant—a key principle in modern classification theory—in traditional Chinese bibliographic classifications for the purpose of improving the understanding of classification theory in the Chinese tradition. The concept of literary warrant is first briefly discussed. Next, the author analyzes a number of selected book classification systems from premodern China to determine whether literary warrant is a factor in their design and how it is applied. This paper concludes with a summary of the findings. [Article content in Chinese

  10. The Origin and Dispersal of the Domesticated Chinese Oak Silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, in China: A Reconstruction Based on Ancient Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Yanqun; Li, Yuping; Li, Xisheng; Qin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the ancient Chinese. Besides the mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori), Chinese farmers developed rearing of the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) about 400 years ago. In this paper, the historic records of the origins and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm in China are summarized. The first document with clearly recorded oak silkworm artificial rearing appeared in 1651, although Chinese oak silkworm was documented in about 270 AD....

  11. Ancient Chinese medicine and mechanistic evidence of acupuncture physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Edward S; Li, Pei-Wen; Nilius, Bernd; Li, Geng

    2011-11-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used in China for three millennia as an art of healing. Yet, its physiology is not yet understood. The current interest in acupuncture started in 1971. Soon afterward, extensive research led to the concept of neural signaling with possible involvement of opioid peptides, glutamate, adenosine and identifying responsive parts in the central nervous system. In the last decade scientists began investigating the subject with anatomical and molecular imaging. It was found that mechanical movements of the needle, ignored in the past, appear to be central to the method and intracellular calcium ions may play a pivotal role. In this review, we trace the technique of clinical treatment from the first written record about 2,200 years ago to the modern time. The ancient texts have been used to introduce the concepts of yin, yang, qi, de qi, and meridians, the traditional foundation of acupuncture. We explore the sequence of the physiological process, from the turning of the needle, the mechanical wave activation of calcium ion channel to beta-endorphin secretion. By using modern terminology to re-interpret the ancient texts, we have found that the 2nd century B.C.: physiologists were meticulous investigators and their explanation fits well with the mechanistic model derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy. In conclusion, the ancient model appears to have withstood the test of time surprisingly well confirming the popular axiom that the old wine is better than the new.

  12. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Qing dynasty porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huansheng; He, Wenquan; Tang, Jiayong; Yang, Fujia; Wang, Jianhua

    1996-09-01

    The major and minor chemical compositions and trace element content of white glaze made in Qing dynasty at kuan kiln have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that trace element contents RbSrZr are useful to distinguish the place of production of ancient porcelain. In the porcelain from different kilns situated in a same province, the trace element contents can be different from each other. Determining and comparing the major and minor compositions and trace elemental concentrations in white glaze by PIXE technique, we can distinguish a precious Qing dynasty porcelain made at kuan kiln from a fake.

  13. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric

    2015-12-01

    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces.

  14. Research advances on the anti-aging profile of Fructus lycii: An ancient Chinese herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, SCW; Chang, RCC; Zhang, KY; Tong, Y; Song, J.; Wong, RNS

    2008-01-01

    Fructus lycii is a common Chinese herbal medicine used in China for nearly 2000 years. It has beneficial effects on eyes, liver and kidneys; and it has long been considered to be an anti-aging herb in ancient Chinese medicine. Modern studies have partially probed the magic anti-aging property of F. lycii. The beneficial effects of F. lycii on aging are largely attributed to its bioactive components such as polysaccharides, carotenoids and flavonoids. This review focuses on the anti-aging aspe...

  15. A possible role of sunrise/sunset azimuth in the planning of ancient Chinese towns

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal north-south direction. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the sunrise/sunset azimuth on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyze the plans of Xi'an, Khanbalik and Dali.

  16. Application of an ancient Chinese algorithm to stab performance of woven fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stab damage is a common failure mode for textile products, especially for the geotextiles and geotextile-related products which are widely used in the road, airport, pipeline, and so on. In this paper, an ancient Chinese algorithm is applied to predict the stab area and stab energy of woven fabrics under stabbing load according to the load-displacement performance of the single yarn. This research proposes a novel method to analyze the stab property of the textile products.

  17. An Ancient Chinese Herb Berberine; New Research in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Wenjun; Zhang, Weifei; Huang, Wenjin; Zhou, Mingyue; Niu, Jingjing; Jiang, Haili; Junyan, Li; Li, Fu-Feng; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Xin; Shen, Yuandong; Zhou, Ligang

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have increased such that it is becoming a major worldwide public health problem. Berberine is a natural product from a Chinese herb, which has been used as anti-diabetic and anti-inflammation medication for centuries. More recently, berberine has also proven its long-term effect on improving patient and animal models with T2DM via several intracellular signal pathways. Here, we summarize its acute and chronic anti-diabe...

  18. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Sanxia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-nine pieces of Neolithic pottery, made about 4500 years ago, were collected from Maliutuo, Maliuwan and Suheping village sites in Chinese Sanxia area. Nine pieces of pottery in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and ten pieces of pottery in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC) were also collected from Maliutuo. PIXE and factor analysis were used to study interchange of the Neolithic pottery between these three sites. The source of raw material of pottery from Maliutuo was simultaneously studied. The major and trace element contents in pottery were determined by PIXE. Factor analysis was employed to classify these pieces of pottery. The results showed that the trace element contents were more useful to distinguish these pieces of pottery than the major element contents. In about 2500 BC, no interchange of pottery occurred between the three villages. Although Maliutuo was close to Maliuwan, the pottery products used in daily life in the two villages were independently made and not exchanged. In the source of raw material, the Neolithic pottery samples from Maliutuo were identical with those in the Shang Dynasty, but different from those in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty

  19. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Sanxia area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Pan, B.H.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Gao, M.H.; Yang, F.J.; Peng, X.B

    2004-06-01

    Thirty-nine pieces of Neolithic pottery, made about 4500 years ago, were collected from Maliutuo, Maliuwan and Suheping village sites in Chinese Sanxia area. Nine pieces of pottery in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and ten pieces of pottery in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC) were also collected from Maliutuo. PIXE and factor analysis were used to study interchange of the Neolithic pottery between these three sites. The source of raw material of pottery from Maliutuo was simultaneously studied. The major and trace element contents in pottery were determined by PIXE. Factor analysis was employed to classify these pieces of pottery. The results showed that the trace element contents were more useful to distinguish these pieces of pottery than the major element contents. In about 2500 BC, no interchange of pottery occurred between the three villages. Although Maliutuo was close to Maliuwan, the pottery products used in daily life in the two villages were independently made and not exchanged. In the source of raw material, the Neolithic pottery samples from Maliutuo were identical with those in the Shang Dynasty, but different from those in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

  20. Eight-Points-Acupuncture and Ancient Chinese Contraindications in Acupuncture:Two Methods of Improving Acupuncture Treatment Based upon Ancient Chinese Sources,and Clinical Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SLOPEK, Axel; 冯海涛

    2006-01-01

    According to ancient and present Chinese sources the Eight Confluent Points are essentials of acupuncture and can treat all kinds of diseases. They exert a fundamental influence on the Twelve Regular Meridians and their mobilization can be seen as a necessity for a successful acupuncture treatment. For this they should play a major role in acupuncture. In European acupuncture teachings there is also the opinion that by too much needling of the Eight Confluent Points the qi of the organism might get exhausted which will deteriorate the patient's symptoms and eventually will create new symptoms. Here it will be shown that deterioration as well as the creation of new symptoms due to acupuncture is caused by not observing the contraindications in acupuncture as set up in ancient China provided that syndrome differentiation,point selection and stimulation have been correct. In opposition to this,all of the Eight Extraordinary Channels are to be activated at first and then the Twelve Regular Meridians are to be mobilized in order to achieve therapeutic effects.

  1. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  2. Application of computer technique in the reconstruction of Chinese ancient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deren; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Yixuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction of computer assemble and simulation of ancient building. A pioneer research work was carried out by investigators of surveying and mapping describing ancient Chinese timber buildings by 3D frame graphs with computers. But users can know the structural layers and the assembly process of these buildings if the frame graphs are processed further with computer. This can be implemented by computer simulation technique. This technique display the raw data on the screen of a computer and interactively manage them by combining technologies from computer graphics and image processing, multi-media technology, artificial intelligence, highly parallel real-time computation technique and human behavior science. This paper presents the implement procedure of simulation for large-sized wooden buildings as well as 3D dynamic assembly of these buildings under the 3DS MAX environment. The results of computer simulation are also shown in the paper.

  3. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  4. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively. PMID:24429032

  5. The origin and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, in China: a reconstruction based on ancient texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqun; Li, Yuping; Li, Xisheng; Qin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the ancient Chinese. Besides the mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori), Chinese farmers developed rearing of the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) about 400 years ago. In this paper, the historic records of the origins and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm in China are summarized. The first document with clearly recorded oak silkworm artificial rearing appeared in 1651, although Chinese oak silkworm was documented in about 270 AD. All of the evidence in the available historic records suggests that the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm originated in central and southern areas of Shandong Province in China around the 16th century, and then was introduced directly and indirectly by human commerce into the present habitations in China after the late 17th century. The results strongly support the hypothesis that only one geographically distinct event occurred in domestication of the modern Chinese oak silkworm.

  6. Textual Research on the Ancient Chinese Fables%中国古代寓言故事考辨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴祥云; 常业安

    2013-01-01

    由于在中国古代一直没有"寓言"这一专门文体的称谓,且别称较多,同时也没有一部寓言专史、一部寓言专论或者寓言专集,大多散见于或寄生于其它文类作品中,因此从寓言故事的界定、中国古代寓言故事历史概述、中国古代寓言故事今考和中国古代寓言故事的收集现状四个方面对中国古代寓言故事进行考辨,希望能对中国古代寓言故事的收集、整理提供一些参考价值。%In ancient China ,there was no such a stylistic name as “fable” but with a lot of alternative names ,and there was neither a history book nor a monograph nor a classified collection on ancient Chinese fables .Most of the ancient Chinese fables are scattered or parasitized in the other categories of literary works .Thus ,the textual research on ancient Chinese fables deals with the four aspects :the definition of fable ,the brief introduction ,the textual research and the col-lection status of ancient Chinese fables ,in hopes of its reference value for the work of collecting and collating ancient Chi-nese fables .

  7. Buddhism and Ancient Chinese Novel%佛教与中国古代小说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艺桦

    2013-01-01

    "Fiction"appeared in the "zhuangzi"at the first time and reached peak in the dynasties of Ming and Qing .Ancient Chinese novels have a history of thousands of years .During this time,we can feel a mysterious force which has been always throughout this period of history.It's the fantastic force that Buddhism affacted Chinese novel .The religion transmitted from foreign countries was accepted because of its own mysterious character .This paper will discuss that ancient Chinese novel was affacted by Buddhism at the three aspect of character shaping , plot and artistic expression.%从《庄子?外物》中首先提出“小说”这个名称,到明清时期的长篇小说的顶峰成就,中国古代小说经历了上千年的发展历史。在这幅历史长卷中,我们可以感受到一股神秘的力量一直贯穿着这段历史的始终,这股带有奇幻色彩的力量就是佛教对中国小说的影响。这个由外域传入的宗教,因其自身的神异特点而被人们接受,小说就从这里开始受到它的作用。本文从小说的人物塑造、情节内容和艺术表现三个方面谈谈佛教对中国古代小说的影响。

  8. Reflection and Prospective Symposium of the Centennial Studies of Ancient Chinese Philology%新书籍史对古文献学研究的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张升

    2013-01-01

    Editor's note:It is both an important task and optimal subject of the 21st century philology to summarize the achievements of centen-nial ancient philology, reflect the current issues, grasp the development trend of ancient literature studies, expand research space, enrich the research contents, and put forward farsighted countermeasures for inhering and innovating Chinese culture, establishing ancient philology, and promoting academic development. To solve these problems, we organized a symposium of three articles. Professor Zhou Shaochuan's article clarifies the significance of centennial Chinese ancient books and ancient philology, pointing out two aspects of China's ancient books in the 20th century and the ancient literature studies: diachronic investigation following two main lines of collection of ancient books and establishment of ancient philology, and synchronic analysis from four aspects, that is, basic historical facts, methodology, basic principles, and scientific theorizing, in order to explore the development law of collection of ancient books and ancient philology, and specify the direction of ancient philology. Professor Wang Jilu's article discusses five urgent issues in ancient philology of the 21st century: theoretical system and research paradigm, philological heritages, the position of philology of ethnic minorities, comparative study of Chinese and Western philology, theories and methods in digitalization of ancient books, etc. Professor Zhang Sheng's article discusses the implication of Western new history of books for ancient philology, and argues that new history of books expands the horizon and scope of ancient philology. The introduction of methodology of social history and cultural history makes it clear that philology has social and cultural significance. Ancient philology should become solid and draw on interdisciplinary methods to enrich the content of its own research.

  9. 新书籍史对古文献学研究的启示%Reflection and Prospective Symposium of the Centennial Studies of Ancient Chinese Philology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张升

    2013-01-01

    Editor's note:It is both an important task and optimal subject of the 21st century philology to summarize the achievements of centen-nial ancient philology, reflect the current issues, grasp the development trend of ancient literature studies, expand research space, enrich the research contents, and put forward farsighted countermeasures for inhering and innovating Chinese culture, establishing ancient philology, and promoting academic development. To solve these problems, we organized a symposium of three articles. Professor Zhou Shaochuan's article clarifies the significance of centennial Chinese ancient books and ancient philology, pointing out two aspects of China's ancient books in the 20th century and the ancient literature studies: diachronic investigation following two main lines of collection of ancient books and establishment of ancient philology, and synchronic analysis from four aspects, that is, basic historical facts, methodology, basic principles, and scientific theorizing, in order to explore the development law of collection of ancient books and ancient philology, and specify the direction of ancient philology. Professor Wang Jilu's article discusses five urgent issues in ancient philology of the 21st century: theoretical system and research paradigm, philological heritages, the position of philology of ethnic minorities, comparative study of Chinese and Western philology, theories and methods in digitalization of ancient books, etc. Professor Zhang Sheng's article discusses the implication of Western new history of books for ancient philology, and argues that new history of books expands the horizon and scope of ancient philology. The introduction of methodology of social history and cultural history makes it clear that philology has social and cultural significance. Ancient philology should become solid and draw on interdisciplinary methods to enrich the content of its own research.

  10. Was Pythagoras Chinese? An Examination of Right Triangle Theory in Ancient China. The Pennsylvania State University Studies No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.; Kao, T. I.

    This book is primarily a scholarly monograph on ancient Chinese theory and application concerning the right triangle, based on evidence contained in classical mathematics texts and scrolls. It is also the first complete English translation of the ninth chapter of the Chiu chang suan chu, the richest source of problems from antiquity dealing with…

  11. A Stylistic Study into the Musicality of the English Translation of the An-cient Chinese Poem“Jianjia”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qiu-yue

    2014-01-01

    “Jianjia”(“蒹葭”),one of the most famous poems in Shijing (《诗经》), is characterized by balanced sound patterns and euphonious rhythm. Investigation into the stylistic elements in both the source text and the English translation of“Jianjia”shows us the musicality in ancient Chinese poetry and its limits of translatability.

  12. 关于古籍数字化性质及开发的思考%Some Thoughts on the Nature and Function of Chinese Ancient Book Digitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛红广

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient book digitization is digitization to collation of Chinese ancient book, based on analysis of con-notation and level about Chinese ancient book digitization, collation of Chinese ancient book method and Chinese ancient book digiti-zation of comparison.The essence of digitization is to use computer information technology to complete the compilation, index, emendation, punctuation, annotation and modern translation of ancient books, and finish achievements into digital media database. Through ancient books digitization development motivation, achievement status and utilization review, The article finds that current Chinese ancient book digitization do not provide quality service to the academic research, also pay insufficient attention to the quality of education and the mass reading services.%文章对古籍数字化与古籍整理传统方法进行了比较,通过对古籍数字化开发群体、动机、成果及利用的分析,指出当前古籍数字化开发中存在学术研究服务质量不佳,素质教育和对大众阅读服务重视程度不够等问题。

  13. 3D COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR LIGNIFICATION OF ANCIENT CHINESE TIMBER BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pioneer research work was carried out by investigators engaged in surveying and mapping for describing ancient Chinese timber buildings by 3D frame graphs w ith a computer.Users can know the structural layers and the assembly process of the se buildings if the frame graphs are processed further with a computer model.Th is can be implemented by computer simulation technique.This technique display t he raw data on the screen of a computer and interactively manage them by combini ng technologies from computer graphics and image processing,multi-media technol ogy,artificial intelligence,highly parallel real-time computation technique an d human behavior science.This paper presents the implementing procedure of ligni fi cation simulation for large-sized wooden buildings as well as 3D dynamic assembl y of these buildings under the 3DS MAX environment.The results from computer sim ulation are also shown in the paper.

  14. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies. PMID:26087568

  15. Application of ICP-MS trace element analysis in study of ancient Chinese ceramics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-nine trace elements of the Song-Yuan period (960-1368 AD) porcelain bodies from Cizhou, Jizhou and Longquanwu kilns were analyzed with ICP-MS, a technique rarely used in Chinese archaeometry, to investigate its potential application in such studies. Trace element compositions clearly reflect the distinctive raw materials and their mineralogy at the three kilns and allow their products to be distinguished. Significant chemical variations are also observed between Yuan and Song-Jing dynasties samples from Cizhou as well as fine and coarse porcelain bodies from Longquanwu. In Cizhou, porcelains of better quality which imitate the famous Ding kiln have trace element features distinctive from ordinary Cizhou products, that indicates geochemically distinctive raw materials were used and which possibly also underwent extra refining prior to use. The distinct trace element features of different kilns and the various types of porcelains from an individual kiln can be interpreted from a geochemical perspective. ICP-MS can provide a large amount of valuable information about ancient Chinese ceramics as it is capable of analyzing >40 elements with a typical of precision < 2%.

  16. Dens invaginatus in ancient Chinese teeth of 2,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sasa; Duan, Xiaohong; Shao, Jinling; Duan, Qingbo; Peng, Shaobin

    2013-10-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly of teeth. Here we observed the characteristics of DI in 517 permanent teeth from 67 ancient Chinese people using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning techniques. The individuals were excavated from Shaanxi province of China and identified to be about 2,000 years old. Four DI categories are proposed to distinguish the different types of DI. The invaginated lingual fossa is classified into three classes. The overall prevalence of DI in 67 individuals was 31.34% (21 of 67). DI was found in 25 of 517 teeth (4.83%). All affected teeth were maxillary lateral incisors. The invaginated lingual fossa (Type I DI) occurred most frequently (84%), followed by radicular grooves (Type II; 16%), while Type III and Type IV were not found in the present study. Some of fossae correspond with radicular grooves (8 of 21; 3 located at mesial, 5 were distal). The bilateral incidence of DI was 19.05%. Comparing our results to those of a retrospective survey of DI from 1873 to present, we found a higher rate of DI in the excavated teeth of Chinese individuals 2,000 years ago. The use of the micro-CT technique and ethnic origin might have contributed to the higher incidence of DI.

  17. On the creation of Chinese ancient attractions%论景点的营造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻学才

    2014-01-01

    总结了影响中国数千年的景点设立原则,即:只有瑰伟奇特的自然物和对族群国家有重大贡献的人物才能成为景点纪念内涵并得到开发和保护。文章还根据古代文献提炼出中国古代景点设计的四大要领,即:重视景点所在环境的整体美,非名胜不宜选址;重视建筑与所在环境的协调美,非建筑不足显胜;重视建筑文化氛围营造的意境美,非文字不能醒目;重视诗词书法艺术境界的装饰美,非名篇不能垂远。文章认为当代中国旅游景点营造应该减少模仿,彰显地方文化特色;与时俱进,充分利用科技手段;营造意境,突出诗情画意韵味。%This paper summarizes the principles having been impacting the construction of Chinese attractions for thousands of years. Only the wonderful nature and those figures who did significant contributions to their ethnic groups and countries can become memorial connotation of the attractions and should then be developed and pro-tected. This paper also sums up four essentials of Chinese ancient landscape design from the ancient literature. First, take the location seriously. It must be a scenic spot with the integral beauty. Second, pay attention to the harmonious beauty between the architecture and the environment around it. Third, think highly of the beauty of artistic conception of architectural culture atmosphere. Fourth, value the decorative beauty of artistic taste with famous poems, calligraphy and paintings. Besides, this paper argues that the construction of contemporary Chi-nese tourist attractions should reduce the imitation, highlight the local cultural characteristics, keep pace with the times, and make full use of technology to create the atmosphere of the artistic conception.

  18. The Acquirement of the Epoch Time of Chinese Ancient Calendar of Shoushi Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2013-11-01

    The data of solar shadow lengths from 98 meridian observations as recorded in Shoushi Liyi are investigated in this paper. Shoushi Liyi is one thesis to discuss and review the strongpoint of the calendar of Shoushi Li in Yuan dynasty (1271---1368). It points out that the standard error of these shadow observations is only 4.06'. The ancient formula from three days' meridian observations of the solar shadows to obtain the time of solar term is proved and recovered, but it is only a kind of approximate calculation, not accurate enough. And according to this method and these solar shadow lengths, the winter solstice in 1277 is derived, the same as two solstices of 1278, and 1279, and their standard deviations are 38.13 min (winter solstice in 1277), 43.91 min (summer solstice in 1278), 38.03 min (winter solstice in 1278), 34.80 min (summer solstice in 1279), and 23.58 min (winter solstice in 1279), respectively. The value of the epoch time of Shoushi Li obtained directly from the shadow observation (in Chinese Qiying means the time of winter solstice in 1280) is confirmed and directly deduced from the time of solstices, added by several half-tropical-year lengths. By using modern astronomical method, the solar shadow length every day within 400 days to winter solstice in 1280 when the sun transited is calculated, and then the time of this solstice in 1280 is obtained with the ancient method. Their accuracies are obtained and reviewed.

  19. Thermoluminescence dating of the ancient Chinese porcelain using a regression method of saturation exponential in pre-dose technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weida; XIA; Junding; ZHOU; Zhixin

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of the ancient porcelain using a regression method of saturation exponential in the pre-dose technique. The experimental results show that the measured errors are 15% (±1σ) for the paleodose and 17% (±1σ) for the annual dose respectively, and the TL age error is 23% (±1σ) in this method. The larger Chinese porcelains from the museum and the nation-wide collectors have been dated by this method. The results show that the certainty about the authenticity testing is larger than 95%, and the measurable porcelains make up about 95% of the porcelain dated. It is very successful in discrimination for the imitations of ancient Chinese porcelains. This paper describes the measured principle and method for the paleodose of porcelains. The TL ages are dated by this method for the 39 shards and porcelains from past dynasties of China and the detailed data in the measurement are reported.

  20. “苍梧”入诗考%The“Cangwu” Imagery in Chinese Ancient Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江鹏

    2014-01-01

    意象,是古今学人耳熟能详的审美观照和欣赏对象。作为诗美传统的重要元素之一,意象探微近些年来受到广泛关注。作者借鉴前人研究成果,在收集、整理大量现存资料的基础上,对“苍梧”这一诗歌意象追根溯源,分析其生成过程及影响因素,内容涉及“苍梧”地理名称及相关神话传说,“苍梧”意象的生成机制(包括与“潇湘”题材联姻、与“梧桐”意象纠合以及“云”的加入等)及其内在的惝恍悲愁情调等,以达致“管中窥豹,可见一斑”的效果。%Imagery is a familiar aesthetic and admirable object observed by Chinese scholars in both ancient and modern times. As one of the important elements of traditional poetic beauty, imagery analysis has drawn extensive attention in the recent years. By drawing on the findings of the predecessors, collecting and processing lots of existing materials, the author has traced the “Cangwu” imagery back to its ancient source to analyze its developing process and influencing factors, which involves the geographic name of “Cangwu” , the correlative myths and legends, the formation mechanism of “Cangwu” imagery, including its marriage with “Xiaoxiang” theme, its coupling with “Chinese parasol” imagery and its combining with “Cloud” imagery along with its inherently bewildering, sad mood and so on, so as to conjure up the whole thing through observing a part of it.

  1. [Herbological study of the botanical origin of Chinese crude drugs "Du-hua" and "Qiang-hua" in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikage, Masayuki; Ochimori, Akane

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese crude drug Qiang-hua was listed as an alias of Du-hua in Shen-nong-ben-cao-jing, an herbal journal written during the Han Dynasty, China. Du-hua and Qiang-hua are recognized as different herbs in China these days; the main botanical origin of Du-hua is Angelica spp. and that of Qiang-hua is Notopterygium spp., of the family Umbelliferae. To make clear the botanical origins of Du-hua and Qiang-hua in ancient China, the authors made a herbological study. The findings were as follows: the name of Qiang-hua was given to the genuine Du-hua, which is produced in Qiang Province, an ancient province located in northwest China; the botanical origin of Qiang-hua is presumed to be Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H.T. Chang and N. forbesii Boissieu based on both the morphology and habitat written in ancient herbal journals. Both species are prescribed as having the plant origin of Qiang-hua in the present Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Therefore, we concluded that Du-hua and Qiang-hua were essentially the same drug, and were originally derived from the Notopterygium species in ancient China.

  2. [Application of Raman spectroscopic technique to the identification and investigation of Chinese ancient jades and jade artifacts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Xia; Gan, Fu-Xi

    2009-11-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopic technique is one of the essential methods in scientific archaeological research, which belongs to the nondestructive analysis. As a very good nondestructive analysis approach, it has not been widely applied in the research of the Chinese ancient jade artifacts. First of all in the present paper the fundamentals of laser Raman spectroscopic technique and the new research progress in this field were reviewed. Secondly, the Raman spectra of five familiar jades including nephrite (mainly composed of tremolite), Xiuyan Jade (mainly composed of serpentine), Dushan Jade (mainly composed of anorthite and Zoisite), turquoise and lapis lazuli were summarized respectively. As for an example, the Raman spectra of the four Chinese ancient jade artifacts excavated from Liangzhu Site of Zhejiang Province and Yinxu Site of Anyang in Henan Province were compared with that of the nephrite sample in Hetian of Xinjiang Province. It was shown that the Raman spectroscopic technique is a good nondestructive approach to the identification and investigation of the structures and mineral composition of Chinese ancient jade artifacts. Finally, the limitations and the foreground of this technique were discussed.

  3. 中国手语与中国古文字的比较%A Comparison of Chinese Sign Language and Chinese Ancient Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅; 谭中华

    2014-01-01

    Sign language originated from primitive society and it had a close relation with original language;Ancient Chinese characters recorded the original language and they are expressions of written original language. This paper, by comparing Chinese sign language with Chinese ancient characters, shows the similarities and differences between them and discusses the problems between the two and the original language and primitive thought, providing a new perspective for the research on sign language and ancient characters.%手语起源于原始社会,与原始语言有着密切的关系;古文字记录着原始语言,是原始语言书面化的体现者。通过中国手语与中国古文字比较,突出展现了二者的异同点,进而探讨了二者与原始语言、原始思维等方面的问题,为手语研究和古文字研究提供了一个新的角度。

  4. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  5. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoxi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduated University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn; Feng Xiangqian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye [Beijing Institute of Cultural Relics, Beijing 100009 (China); Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong; Li Li [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  6. 中国古代管理思想的形成轨迹和发展路径%The Formation and Evolution of Ancient Chinese Management Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴照云; 李晶

    2012-01-01

    Management, as a science, experienced a long time from theory to actual practice, but it took its real career in China after 1978, which took The Reform and Opening Up Policy and Rapid Industrialization as background. Just 30 years, she broadened herself taking the advantage of The Western Management Theory, in the 1980 1990s, the infant periods of the transformation of The Market Economy took place in China, and the then newly established enterprises once were enlightened and promoted on a large scale by the advanced managerial concepts and methods, but in return for Dogmatism and Empiricism which caused by the pattern of Western Management rooted in Western Values, let alone its blending with the traditional Chinese Values. The modern management guru Drucker remarked: many aspects can be brought in to a developing country like China, capital, machine, and even advanced technology but still there is one exception Managers. China needs its own managers, who are pretty familiar with his country and know his people and deeply rooted in its culture, society and the context. Only China she herself can build the nation. Therefore, in the realm of economic globalization, only by constructing the "Chinese Featured" theory of management and doing the managers' bidding can the home enterprises be competitive. "Chinese Featured" lies in the 5000-year-old Chinese traditional cultures , which propel and accomplish the world most affluent and powerful Empire, form the massive unique Ancient Chinese Thoughts. Before 1919, they were neglected in account of its failing in combination with the Industrial Revolution and Capitalistic Enterprise Operation . After 1919 , in the modern times, the world turned its visions back to Orient and began to study on Ancient Chinese Management Thoughts, as a magnum opus of the Oriental Management Idea's great significance in the contemporary social and economic development, along with China's Reform and Opening Up process

  7. 国学及其研究方法%Studies of Chinese Ancient Civilization and Research Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崇琛

    2015-01-01

    “国学”是中国固有的学术,是研究中国传统的典籍、学术与文化的学问。国学既是文献的学问,又是德性的学问,更是养成完美人格和延续民族文化传统的学问。对待国学,不但要准确理解,大力弘扬;同时也要联系实际,付诸实施,并使其常新。%The studies of Chinese ancient civilization is China's inherent academic. It is the knowledge about Chinese traditional records, academic and culture. It is not only the literature knowledge and the virtue knowledge, but also the knowledge to develop the perfect personality and to continue the traditional ethnic culture. For the studies of Chinese ancient civilization we should not only understand accurately and promote vigorously, at the same time we should practice, implement and keep it fresh.

  8. The Effects and Ways of Employing Traditional Chinese Medicine College Libraries to Implement Ancient Chinese Civilization Education%中医药院校图书馆开展国学教育作用及途径初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐好

    2014-01-01

    The traditional ancient Chinese civilization is the soul and foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). From the aspects of definition and connotation of ancient Chinese civilization education, this article analyzed the great role of cultural heritage plays in libraries in colleges and universities of Chinese Medicine, and the favorable factors brought by vigorous implementation of ancient Chinese civilization education. Then, this article reached a preliminary summary of the significance of employing traditional Chinese medicine college libraries to implement ancient Chinese civilization education, gave an introduction of how to carry out ancient Chinese civilization education in libraries, and preliminarily discussed practical ways of carrying out ancient Chinese civilization education in TCM universities and colleges.%传统国学是中医药学的灵魂和根基。本文从国学的定义和内涵出发,对中医药院校图书馆充分发挥文化传承的巨大作用、大力开展国学教育的有利因素进行了分析,初步总结了中医药院校图书馆开展国学教育的重要意义和巨大作用,并对图书馆如何开展国学教育进行了客观介绍,就中医药院校图书馆开展国学教育的实践途径进行了初步探讨。

  9. 谈古代文论中的"文气"说%On the spirit of the ancient Chinese literary theories

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖梦云

    2009-01-01

    The spirit is an important category of the ancient Chinese literary theories. And it is different from the western modern literary theories. Cao Pi initializes,citing literary spirit to establish the literary theory. The Chinese classical aesthetics literature and art system are greatly improved through the communal efforts.%"文气"说是中国古代文论中的一个重要范畴,也是中国古代文论异于西方文论及现代文论的重要理论之一.曹丕首开先河,引"气"而入文论,建立文学主体论.以"气"贯通的中国古典文艺美学体系,经过许多代人的努力不断加以完善.

  10. The Impact of Ancient Chinese Philosophy on Contemporary Leisure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Shih; Card, Jaclyn A.

    Little has been written on the impact of Far East civilization's thought and influence on leisure in China today. A discussion of Chinese history, outlined in three stages, clarifies the development of Chinese philosophy over the past 5,000 years. Chinese civilization and culture rest upon a philosophical basis shaped primarily by the principles…

  11. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.

  12. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-ming; Liang, Feng-xia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications. PMID:25815039

  13. Monotonic and Cyclic Pushover Tests of Wood Beam-Column Connections: Ancient Chinese Tenon joint vs Typical and Simplified US Connections%Monotonic and Cyclic Pushover Tests of Wood Beam-Column Connections: Ancient Chinese Tenon Joint vs Typical and Simplified US Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Wood beam-column frame is a popular structural system in United States and in ancient China.Chinese wood beam-column frame structures showed better seismic resistance properties than the US ones. The tenon joint is one of the reasons. This study performed monotonic and cyclic pushover tests to understand the behavior of Chinese tenon joints versus the behavior of the commonly used US wood beam-column connections.The test results indicate that the typical US wood beam-colunm connection is very strong under monotonic loads. The ancient Chinese tenon joint has the best behavior under cyclic loads.

  14. Neutron activation analysis of bulk samples from Chinese ancient porcelain to provenance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an important technique to determine the provenance of ancient ceramics. The most common technique used for preparing ancient samples for NAA is to grind them into a powder and then encapsulate them before neutron irradiation. Unfortunately, ceramic materials are typically very hard making it a challenge to grind them into a powder. In this study we utilize bulk porcelain samples cut from ancient shards. The bulk samples are irradiated by neutrons alongside samples that have been conventionally ground into a powder. The NAA for both the bulk samples and powders are compared and shown to provide equivalent information regarding their chemical composition. Also, the multivariate statistical have been employed to the analysis data for check the consistency. The findings suggest that NAA results are less dependent on the state of the porcelain sample, and thus bulk samples cut from shards may be used to effectively determine their provenance. (author)

  15. Late Neolithic expansion of ancient Chinese revealed by Y chromosome haplogroup O3a1c-002611

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Chao WANG; Shi YAN; Zhen-Dong QIN; Yan LU; Qi-Liang DING; Lan-Hai WEI; Shi-Lin LI

    2013-01-01

    Y chromosome haplogroup O3-M122 is the most prevalent haplogroup in East Asia,and provides an ideal tool for dissecting primary dispersals of the East Asians.Most of the sub-haplogroups of O3-M122 have been sufficiently investigated except for O3al c-002611,despite its great prevalence and huge population,especially in Han Chinese.In this study,we identified 508 individuals with haplogroup O3 a 1 c-002611 out of 7801 males from 117 East and Southeast Asian populations,typed at two newly discovered downstream Y-SNP markers and ten commonly used Y-STRs.Defined by SNPs IMS-JST002611 (in short,002611),F11,and F238,three lineages internal to haplogroup O3alc-002611 have distinct geographical distributions.Furthermore,Y-STR diversity shows a general south-tonorth decline,which is consistent with the prehistorically northward migration of the other O3-M122 lineages.The northward migration ofhaplogroup O3alc-002611 started about 13 thousand years ago (KYA).The expansions of subclades F11 and F238 in ancient Han Chinese began about 5 and 7 KYA immediately after the separation between the ancestors of the Han Chinese and Tibeto-Burman.

  16. On the characteristics of Chinese ancient physics experiments%中国古代物理学实验的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑶; 党兴菊; 徐楠

    2015-01-01

    中国古代的物理实验不像古代西方的实验,尤其是古希腊实验那样建立在观察实验和数学演绎的严密逻辑体系基础上。与之相比,中国古代实验具有自己独特的特点,即注重直接观察,注重观赏性、实用性和趣味性。%Chinese ancient physics experiments was not based on the strict logical system of observation and mathematical interpretation of the experiment,which just as western physics experiments especially the ancient Greek experiment.By contrast,the ancient Chinese experiment has its own unique characteristics,such as focusing on direct observation,watch,practicability and fun.

  17. 'Reversing' the Flow of the Ancient Chinese Calendrical Subseasonal Phases Jie Qi in Australia: The Construction of a Chinese Medical & Agricultural Lunisolar Calendar (Northern and Southern Hemispheres )( Continued )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rey Tiquia

    2008-01-01

    Jie qi(subseasonal phases or solar qi)eonstitutes the solar component of the ancient Chinese lunisolar calendar.It divides the year into twenty-four suhseasonal phases i.e. li chun (beginning of spring) ,chun fen (spring equinox),etc.From the premodern perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM ),normal climate change(q/hou b/an q/an)moves inharmony with the temporal flow of the qi(qi yun)and is thus beneficial to human health.However,abnonnal,abrupt weatheror climatic changes like those weather features of being too cold or too hot,too windy,too humid,too dry or a combination oftwo or more of these weather/climatic features which occur out of season can lead to 'seasonal diseases' (shi bing)or'diseases brought about by external influences' (wai gan zhi bing)or by the'six excessive climatic qi etiological factors' (liuBut the temporal flow of the subseasonal qi (qi yun) in Australia is the reverse of that of the northern hemisphericalregions of China,United States and Europe.This situation thus leads to a temporal desynchronisation of TCM practice andsouthern hemisphere.Having this calendrical tool, Chinese medicine practitioners in Australia can 'reverse'their clinical ac-tivities in accordance with the natural rhythm of the seasons here.

  18. Using Ancient Chinese and Greek Astronomical Data: A Training Sequence in Elementary Astronomy for Pre-Service Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hosson, Cécile; Décamp, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    A great amount of research has been carried out world-wide to promote history of science as a powerful science teaching tool. Because the ways of choosing and using historical elements depend on teachers' or researchers' educational purpose, any attempt to support a single model-to-use seems difficult and probably irrelevant. However, specific purposes may reflect specific and prescriptive terms for using historical materials. Our work aims to show up this aspect. It is an attempt to make elements of the history of astronomy involved in the elaboration of a training session for future primary school teachers. Here, ancients' Greek and Chinese historical elements are chosen and organized according to specific educational and conceptual constraints that include the construction of the quasi-parallelism of solar rays reaching Earths' surface, and the spontaneous modeling of the propagation of Sunlight leaning on divergent rays. This leads to an original teaching sequence were historical elements are mixed with non historical ones. This organization forms the support of a pre-service training session developed for future primary school teachers. This session aims to provide future teachers with elementary cosmological knowledge (parallelism of Sunrays, shape and size of the Earth, Sun-Earth distance…), to provide some reference marks of history of ancient cosmologies (spherical and flat Earth) resulting from two distinct contexts, and to approach some aspects associated with Nature of Science (NOS).

  19. Embodied Cognition in Ancient Chinese Confucianism and Taoism%中国古代儒道思想中的具身认知观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎晓丹; 叶浩生

    2015-01-01

    身心合一论是中国古代思想的基本观念。身是以“气”为根基,并通过“修身-修心”与“修心-修身”可至天人合一的身体。本文选取中国古代思想中最有代表性的儒道两家思想,融合现象学视角来诠释中国古代儒道思想中的身体观对身体主体性的生动凸显,以及从“身-心-世界”三者互为交涉的层次上所建构的特有的认知观。随着国内外学者对具身认知观的日益关注,结合中国古代思想视角开展的具身认知研究可在促进中国心理学发展的同时促进具身认知研究范式的成熟。%Ancient Chinese thought reflected the ontology idea of body and had a construction of mixer of the “body-mind-world” system. The syncretism of body-mind was an essential preset in ancient Chinese thought. “Qi” was regarded as a basic material of universe as well as human being. Ancient Chinese controlled the “Qi” by the practice of self-cultivation. The balanced flow of in and out of “Qi” in the body of human being could make an effort of body figure, physical structure and mind. The body concept of ancient Chinese thought was more propound and diversified than the body concept of modern western embodied cognitive theory. Ancient Chinese reached the state of syncretism between nature and man by approach of cultivating from body to mind and cultivating from mind to body. In Confucianism, Confucius established the traditional practice of kernel. The self-cultivation of practice of kernel which was constituted of ritual studies mainly focused on the transformation of body and mind. In Taoism, Zhuangzi was opposed to the constraint of man’s body and mind so that he put forward a view that human being should use their body subject and kenotic body to make perception of the world and taoism. But Confucianism and Taoism had a common body subject. The perception of body subject was the most important cognitive factor to cognition of

  20. TheSurveyofChineseAncientBureaucracy--AComparison of the Chinese Ancient and Modern Bureaucracy%中国古代官僚制审视--兼与现代官僚制的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽

    2013-01-01

      马克斯·韦伯提出的理性官僚制理论适应并促进了资本主义的工业文明,在很长的历史时期,官僚制组织成为西方社会的基本组织形态。中国在秦朝时期就建立了中央集权制的封建国家,其行政组织体系具有自己独特的组织规则和运作过程,具备现代官僚制组织的某些特征。但是,中国传统官僚制度是建立在以家长制形式组织起来的家族制度基础之上的,与马克斯·韦伯所倡导的现代理性官僚制存在着根本的区别。对二者的差异进行分析和比较,有助于加深对现代官僚制的理解,从而为现阶段我国行政管理体制改革提供借鉴和启示。%The theory of rational bureaucracy proposed by Max., Weber adapted to and promoted the capitalist industrial civilization. The structure of bureaucracy became the main organization form in western society for a long time. China had established feu-dal state of central authority in the Qin Dynasty whose administrative organization system had its special rules and operating process, which had some characteristics of modern bu-reaucracy. But there is some fundamental distinction between Chinese ancient bureaucra-cy based on the family system in paternalism and rational bureaucracy proposed by Max. Weber. The analysis and comparison of Chinese ancient bureaucracy and modern bureau-cracy contribute to deepening the understanding of the modern bureaucracy. All these will afford lessons and enlightenment for our Chinese administrative reform at present.

  1. 惠州方言古语词及其用字问题略论%A Discussion on the Ancient Chinese Words in Huizhou Dialect and the Use of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青松

    2012-01-01

      A lot of ancient Chinese words are still preserved in Hui zhou dialect. It is greatly valuable for Chinese exegetics study. There exist mainly two problems on how to record them in Chinese characters. On one hand, Chinese character variants and Chinese folk characters are randomly used. On the other hand, Chinese characters with the same pronunciation are abused.%  惠州方言词汇中保存了大量的古语词,研究这些古语词对于训诂研究有着不可忽视的价值。惠州方言古语词研究在用字上主要存在两个方面的问题:一是随意使用异体俗字;二是滥用同音字。

  2. Square Culture and the Origin of Ancient Chinese Mathe-matics%方形文化与上古中国数学的起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于星兰

    2014-01-01

    从形与数概念的产生过程入手,研究了方形文化对中国上古数学文化的起源产生的影响。中国上古数学文化是中华古文化的重要组成部分;对抽象的形概念的认识以及对抽象的数概念的认识是抽象思维的产物;上古人类对方形的崇拜促进了方形文化的产生和发展;方形文化促进了形与数的概念的形成和发展;方形文化还通过对《周易》的影响,间接地促进了包括数学文化在内的中国古文化的产生与发展。%Starting with the creation process of the concept of shape and number, this paper has studied the effect of square culture to the origin of Chinese ancient mathematics culture. Chinese ancient mathematics culture is the important component of Chinese ancient culture, and the cognition to the abstract con-cepts of shape and number is the outcome of abstract thinking. The ancients' worship to square culture has promoted square cul-ture creation and development. And the square culture has pro-moted the creation and development of shape and number con-cept. Square culture has affected"the Book of Change"and pro-moted Chinese ancient culture development including mathemat-ics culture indirectly.

  3. [Brief analysis on the transmission mode of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Liu, Yan-jiao

    2008-07-01

    The transmission route of TCM knowledge in ancient China primarily included doctor's transmission and non-doctor's transmission. The doctor's transmission mode included lineage-teaching system, elementary study system, transmission between schools and the clinical effects on the society etc. Non-doctor's transmission mode included literati's interests, literati's sickness, literati's health cultivation, the interests of top society, literati's recoding etc. Different transmission modes played an important role in the transmission and conservation of TCM knowledge as well as a reference to developing the transmission of present-day TCM knowledge.

  4. A Brief Description of the Historical Relations Between Ancient Tibetan Culture and the Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gelek

    2004-01-01

    All the ethnic groups of China together have created Chinese culture as a whole over its long historical development. This rich and colourful culture now spread before our eyes is the result of the distinctive cultures of various ethnic groups gradually merging.Without cultural exchange and cross influence between

  5. The Accuracy of the Five-planet Locations Calculated by the Chinese Ancient Calendar Named Shoushi Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The calendar Shoushi Li is one of the most famous calendars in ancient China, which was recorded in the Lizhi (ancient calendar book of China) of Yuanshi (annals of the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 to 1367). There are seven important calculation parts, including solar terms, syzygies, corrections of the sun and the moon, eclipses and so on. The locations of the five-planet are also in the list. Almost every part has a corresponding section in the modern astronomical year book. It is the last calendar formulated only by Chinese astronomers and its period of usage (from 1281 to 1644) is the longest one in ancient China. It was also a new calendar system which cast off the traditional method by which calculations were carried out from the epoch of the distant past. The basic constants were obtained by meticulous observations and then used in calculations. In this paper, the calculation methods of planetary locations in Shoushi Li are investigated and recovered by studying the official texts of Yuanshi. (1) The locations of the ephemeris of Jupiter in 1299 are derived and our recovering method is affirmed by comparing with other studies. (2) The calculated accuracies of celestial longitudes of the five-planet from 1280 to 1650 are obtained. For Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury, the average values of absolute errors are 0.49°, 1.91°, 0.70°, 2.82° and 5.01°. Jupiter and Saturn have comparatively higher accuracies. (3) Zhoulu, Lilu, Dulu, Heying and Liying are used for planetary calculations in Shoushi Li. Their accurate values, instead of those adopted in Shoushi Li, are derived and calculated by modern astronomical methods and then inputted into Shoushi models. It is found that the accuracies of planetary locations are not improved. The errors of Jupiter and Saturn are 1.83°and 1.21°. But the errors of Mercury, Venus and Mars ascend to 30.04°, 54.86°and 10.82°, respectively. It is indicated that the accuracies can not be increased by revising some of the

  6. 我国古琉璃的品种与鉴定(1)%The Varieties and Identification of Ancient Chinese LIULI (Colored Glaze) (part 1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承遇

    2013-01-01

    琉璃是具有中国特色的传统玻璃艺术品和工艺品,也是中国古代玻璃的称谓之一.本文阐述了古琉璃的品种,包括首饰、礼仪品、供奉品、祭祀品、随葬品、陈设品、文化用品和生活用品、鼻烟壶及料器.%Liuli is traditional glass arts and crafts with Chinese characteristics and that is one of Chinese ancient glass appellation.This paper illustrated the ancient LIULI varieties including jewelry,etiquette articles,offerings,sacrificial vessels,funerary objects,display products,treasures,supplies,daily necessities,snuff bottle and glassware,etc.

  7. 古代时期中国地名的英译研究%Studies on English Translation of Chinese Place Names in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays,the systematic research in mainland China on the English translation of Chinese place names in ancient times (from Song and Yuan dynasty to early Qing dynasty)is relatively rare.The paper mainly analyzes and studies on Chinese ancient maps in English version existing in China and abroad.The English translation of Chinese place names in ancient times is mainly based on the transliteration of local dialects,while the spelling method is gradually in the transition from copying the translation of other languages to spelling with the language factors and characteristics of English.The relatively full English translation method of Chinese place names in ancient times is initially formed.%现阶段国内对古代时期(宋元时期至清早期)中国地名英译的系统性研究相对较少。通过对国内外现有英文版中国古地图资料进行分析和研究,发现古代时期我国地名的英译以对各地方言的音译为主,拼写方法由最初照搬其他语系、语族语言的译名,逐步向以英语自身的语言因素和特点进行拼写过渡,最终形成了比较完整的古代时期我国地名英文翻译方法。

  8. ON THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND THE PRIMITIVENESS OF ANCIENT CHINESE MYTHOLOGY%古希腊神话的文明性与中国先秦神话的原始性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明霞; 曹萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the narrative form,the framework of Gods and the developing way in ancient Greek myth and ancient Chinese myth,we find that the differences between them are not reflected by types and numbers but by their respective features.One is civilized while the other is still primitive.%通过对古希腊和中国先秦神话的叙事形式、神祗构形和发展路径的对比分析,我们发现造成二者独特的民族特色和相异性的原因,并不在于神话的种类或数量大小等方面,主要表现为古希腊神话的文明性和中国先秦神话的原始性。

  9. [The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie-yun; Jin, Zhi-jun

    2010-05-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture. PMID:21029705

  10. Noninvasive methods for the investigation of ancient Chinese jades: an integrated analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Francesca; Douglas, Janet G; Faber, Katherine T

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on an integrated analytical approach for the noninvasive characterization of Chinese nephrite samples, encompassing both geological reference specimens and museum objects. Natural variations induced by cationic substitutions, as well as human-induced alterations such as heating, which both affect color, are the focus of this contribution. Totally noninvasive methods of analysis were used, including X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman microspectroscopy, visible reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; moreover, the feasibility of using a portable Raman spectrometer for the in-field identification of jades has been demonstrated. Fe/Fe+Mg (% p.f.u.) ratios of the jades have been calculated based on hydroxyl stretching Raman bands, which will provide an important addition to similar data that are being collected at major museums in the Western and Eastern hemispheres.

  11. A Study on Chinese Ancient Theories of Painting and Easel Painting%中国古代画论与架上绘画研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王军; 宋力

    2011-01-01

    To extend the spirit of modern art,it is necessary to have a clear knowledge and a proper understanding of traditional spirit,for the spirit of modern art is the inheritance and development of the spirit of classical art.This article summarizes the development course of Chinese ancient theories of painting and points out its most valuable part.Through the study of Chinese ancient theories of painting,artist is able to make Chinese artistic spirit and Chinese profound tradition of aesthetics embodied in their paintings.%现代艺术精神是古典艺术精神的承传与发展,要拓展现代艺术精神,需要对传统精神有一个清晰的认识和正确的理解。本文概述中国古代画论的发展历程,并指出其中最具价值的部分。艺术家通过对中国古代画论的学习,将有助于在绘画中体现中国艺术的精神、反映中国美学的深厚传统。

  12. Ancient literature research on Chinese medicine formulae of diabetic nephropathy%基于古代文献的糖尿病肾病方药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 刘旭生

    2012-01-01

    This research was to comb ancient Chinese medicine formulae on diabetic nephropathy by using Chinese Medical Tantras, and analyzing ancient literature. 87 ancient formulae were retrieved, which were recorded begin from the tang dynasty to the republic of China. Pill of Six Ingredients with Rehmannia, Shenqi-pill, Poria Alba Pill and Decoction of Four Drugs were recorded more frequency. However, only a handful of prescription has set up a file in the modern clinical application. It was discovered that two principles could help modem physicians using ancient formulae, that was syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation. But how to guide the clinical application of ancient formulae in modern clinic is still worth further explored.%本研究采用《中华医典》第四版为检索工具,通过检索糖尿病肾病相关古代文献,对其治疗方药进行梳理.共检索到方药87首,方药记载古籍年限起自唐朝止于民国.其中六味地黄丸、加减肾气丸、白茯苓丸、加减四物汤被记载引用较多.然而仅少数方药目前在临床推广应用.初步研究认为,现代医家可根据辨证论治和辨病论治两大原则应用古籍方药,但是如何让古籍方药更好的在现代临床应用仍值得进一步探究.

  13. 中国古代管理思想的形成轨迹和发展路径%The Formation and Evolution of Ancient Chinese Management Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴照云; 李晶

    2012-01-01

    Management, as a science, experienced a long time from theory to actual practice, but it took its real career in China after 1978, which took The Reform and Opening Up Policy and Rapid Industrialization as background. Just 30 years, she broadened herself taking the advantage of The Western Management Theory, in the 1980 1990s, the infant periods of the transformation of The Market Economy took place in China, and the then newly established enterprises once were enlightened and promoted on a large scale by the advanced managerial concepts and methods, but in return for Dogmatism and Empiricism which caused by the pattern of Western Management rooted in Western Values, let alone its blending with the traditional Chinese Values. The modern management guru Drucker remarked: many aspects can be brought in to a developing country like China, capital, machine, and even advanced technology but still there is one exception Managers. China needs its own managers, who are pretty familiar with his country and know his people and deeply rooted in its culture, society and the context. Only China she herself can build the nation. Therefore, in the realm of economic globalization, only by constructing the "Chinese Featured" theory of management and doing the managers' bidding can the home enterprises be competitive. "Chinese Featured" lies in the 5000-year-old Chinese traditional cultures , which propel and accomplish the world most affluent and powerful Empire, form the massive unique Ancient Chinese Thoughts. Before 1919, they were neglected in account of its failing in combination with the Industrial Revolution and Capitalistic Enterprise Operation . After 1919 , in the modern times, the world turned its visions back to Orient and began to study on Ancient Chinese Management Thoughts, as a magnum opus of the Oriental Management Idea's great significance in the contemporary social and economic development, along with China's Reform and Opening Up process

  14. 中国古代公共性园林的历史探析%The Historical Analysis on the Chinese Ancient Public Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗华莉

    2015-01-01

    There is a controversy of the existence of Chinese ancient public gardens. This paper combine with relevant historical information, which include the public garden’s content, title, function, source, prove its existence from the perspective of historical literature research. Through demonstration, we found that ancient public gardens are a special type of Chinese classical gardens, which merge the natural landscape and the profound history culture. Retrospect the history of ancient public gardens, can not only supplements and enriches Chinese ancient gardens system, but also expands the research area of garden history. Understanding the ancient history of garden culture, has a positive meaning on the heritage of traditional culture and regaining the cultural self-confidence, also for reviving national spirit. In addition, the ancient public gardens pursuit a simple life of combined with a high culture and low consumption, both to meet the basic spiritual needs without destroying the environment, which has a reference on nowadays environmental protection and public garden construction.%园林学界对古代是否存在公共性园林一直存有争议,结合古代公共性园林的内涵、称谓、功能、来源等相关史料信息,从历史文献研究角度展开分析。论证得出,古代公共性园林是古典园林中的特殊类型,融合了优美的自然景观与深厚的历史文化。追溯古代公共性园林的历史渊源,能够补充、丰富本土古典园林体系,扩展园林史研究范围。从古代公共性园林历史文化内涵切入,还有助于深入理解公共性园林,对传承传统文化、重拾文化自信、重振民族精神有着积极意义。最后,古代公共性园林追求高文化与低消耗相结合的简朴生活,满足了基本精神需求还不破坏生态环境,对现阶段环境保护和公共园林建设有很大的借鉴作用。

  15. CHINESE ANCIENT COINS IN TODAY'S DEVELOPMENT AND APPLICATION DESIGN%中国古钱币发展及在当今设计中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于欣

    2015-01-01

    作为一种商业活动的载体,钱币由来久矣,中国传统钱币在也随着时代的变迁,在不同时代呈现出截然不同的形体及图案特征,且其造型深入人心。文章以古钱币的发展为脉络,分析中国古钱币的图案特征,并以此为基础,探讨古钱币图案及造型在当今设计中的运用。%As a commercial activity of the carrier, the coins have been a very long time. With the changing times, traditional Chinese coins have been different physical design characteristics at different times, and its shape is popular. Taking the development of ancient coins as a context, the article analyzes the patterns of ancient Chinese coins levy, and on this basis, the article explores their uses about patterns and shapes of ancient coins in today's design.

  16. 中国古建筑简化分析研究%Simplified analytical reresearch on ancient Chinese timber structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高大峰; 曹鹏男; 丁新建

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the inherent characteristics and the seismic characteristics of Chinese ancient buildings,according to the rehbilitation engineering data of embrasured watchtower of southgate of Xi’an City,two finite element models oflocal and global oflarge wooden frame of embrasured watchtower are obtained by applying gemi-rigid spring element to simnlate thejoint of mortise-tenon,dou-gong and column-foundation in the real wooden structure.The first l 0 inherent frequencies and vibrations of models are obtained by analysing the finite element model,using the method of Block Lanczos withfull transient analysis,considering two models subjected to El Centro ground motion,Taft ground motion and Lanzhou artificial ground motion excitation,got the model displacement and acceleration time history curves.Comparing the two model’s basic parameters and the relative errors offrequencies,vibrations and the excitation effects under the three ground motion to discuss the feasibility of analysis of seismic performance using the local model instead of the whole model,drew the conclusions that the local model can be used instead of the overall model of Chinege ancient buildings for dynamic characteristics analysis and regearch.Based on the results,the analysis method and conclusions coUld be referenced to other ancient strueture protection and rehabilitation.%为研究中国古建筑的固有特性和抗震性能,根据西安城南门箭楼复原工程资料,采用半刚性弹簧单元来模拟实体结构的榫卯、斗拱和柱础连接,建立箭楼大木作构架的局部和整体两种有限元模型.采用Block Lanczos方法,分别进行模态分析,得出模型的前10阶频率和振型;采用瞬态分析方法,在El Centro波、Taft波和兰州人工波三种地震激励下分别进行时程分析,得到模型的位移和加速度时程曲线.通过比较两种模型的基本参数和频率、振型以及地震激励响应三者的相对

  17. 古代中药掺伪考%Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晋; 王德群

    2013-01-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages,it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China.The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties,fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty,and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty.By statistics,there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period.The main varieties were precious drugs,animal drugs and artifacts.Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating,dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively.Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis ; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt,Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine,and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey.However,the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist,resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants.Besides,rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.%通过梳理历代主流本草发现,中药掺伪古已有之.南北朝时期以造作为主,唐代始见伪充,明清以后掺伪现象泛滥.据统计,民国以前本草著作记载的掺伪品种达76味,主要集中在贵重药、动物药和人工制品.常用掺伪手法有造作、伪充2种方式.其中涉及造作的中药有11味,而以假乱真的伪充品种高达68味.掺伪现象泛滥,迫使藿香药用部位改变,盐附子、酒制当归和蜜炙黄芪等炮制品的出现均可能与之有关.中药掺伪的根本原因是医药分家,医不识药,而商家职业操守淡漠;

  18. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  19. A study of the Chinese organic–inorganic hybrid sealing material used in “Huaguang No.1” ancient wooden ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. ► The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. ► This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. ► Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic–inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in “Huaguang No.1” ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca2+ from the Ca(OH)2 and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  20. 我国古代诗歌节日文化探微%The exploration on Chinese ancient poetry festival culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀娟

    2012-01-01

    中华民族的传统节日有春节、元宵、清明、端午、七夕、中秋、重阳等等,在这些有特色的传统节日里,蕴含着民族生活中的风土人情、伦理道德、愿望信仰等文化因素。因为诗歌是现实的反映,透过古代优美的节日诗歌,可以大致了解到古时的一些风俗以及古人的社会生活,体会到古代诗歌中的节日文化内蕴。%The Chinese traditional festival are the Spring Festival, Lantern Festival, Tomb Sweeping Day, Dragon Boat Festival, Tanabata, the Mid-Autumn Festival, Double Ninth Festival. These festival reflect the customs, ethics, aspirations, beliefs and cultural factors in national life. Because poetry is a reflection of reality, Through the ancient and beautiful holiday poetry, we can roughly understand the ancient customs and social life of the ancients and appreciate the cultural connotation of ancient poetry festival.

  1. 中国古代图书贸易活动体系探析%On the Ancient Chinese Book Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萃

    2014-01-01

    图书作为一种商品进行交易有着悠久的历史。图书贸易活动是中国图书出版事业的重要组成部分。本文从图书贸易的主体、客体、渠道、对外交流和管理五个方面研究中国古代图书贸易活动,分析中国古代图书贸易活动的发展过程,企图构建中国古代图书贸易活动体系。%In China , book trade has a long history .It was an important component of Chinese book enterprise .This article in-troduced and explored on the subject , the object , the distribution channel , the international trade and administrative management of the ancient Chinese book trade , analysed its history , and established trading system of the ancient Chinese book .

  2. Ancient Chinese Methods Are Remarkably Effective for the Preparation of Artemisinin-Rich Extracts of Qing Hao with Potent Antimalarial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Hsu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Ancient Chinese herbal texts as far back as the 4th Century Zhou hou bei ji fang describe methods for the use of Qing Hao (Artemisia annua for the treatment of intermittent fevers. Today, the A. annua constituent artemisinin is an important antimalarial drug and the herb itself is being grown and used locally for malaria treatment although this practice is controversial. Here we show that the ancient Chinese methods that involved either soaking, (followed by wringing or pounding, (followed by squeezing the fresh herb are more effective in producing artemisinin-rich extracts than the usual current method of preparing herbal teas from the dried herb. The concentrations of artemisinin in the extracts was up to 20-fold higher than that in a herbal tea prepared from the dried herb, but the amount of total artemisinin extracted by the Chinese methods was much less than that removed in the herbal tea. While both extracts exhibited potent in vitro activities against Plasmodium falciparum, only the pounded juice contained sufficient artemisinin to suppress parasitaemia in P. berghei infected mice. The implications of these results are discussed in the context of malaria treatment using A. annua infusions.

  3. 中国古代文论历史语境还原刍议%Discussion on the Historical Contextual Restoration of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    Tbere is no satisfactory achievement about the issue of ancient literary theory for years in China. The western theory leaves no space to the theory of the Chinese ancient literary theory. The following two misunderstandings are responsible for this phenomenon. One is ignoring the unique life style of the theory ; the other is neglecting its widely dissimilar purpose. Only by getting rid of the misunderstandings, restoring its historical context, can the theory ' s modem values be dug, and make it become the source of contemporary Chinese cultural creation. The core idea of the ancient literary theory is Tao. Tao can not only baptize the personality and character of present literati, but also enable the wisdom of ancient literary theory to participate in the culture of modem society.%多年的中国古代文论研究中存在着两大误区,即漠视古文论独特的存在方式,失察古文论迥然相异的宗旨。而只有走出误区,还原古文论历史语境,才能开掘其现代价值,使其真正成为当代中国文化创造的智慧源泉。中国古代文论的思想内核是"道"。"道"能够洗礼当今文人的人性和品格,能够使古代文论智慧参与现代社会的文化建构。

  4. 中国古诗中引述成分的英译%On the Translation of the Quotation Contents in the Ancient Chinese Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏霞

    2015-01-01

    中国古诗以抒发个人情感的抒情诗居多,但也有不少诗歌涉及交流情境,隐含提问、回答、对话、转述等引述成分。由于中国古诗严格的音韵格律、含蓄尚简的审美传统,以及诗歌本身的开放性,不少古诗中说话人等引述信息并不明确。翻译这类古诗时,译者应根据上下文语境和暗示交流情境的动词正确地理解原诗中的引述成分,并适当地补译原诗中所隐匿或缺省的引述成分,使之更加符合英文的句法习惯与西方读者的逻辑思维和审美取向。对于古诗中的引述成分,译者在英译过程中面临直接引语与间接引语的选择,不同的处理对于译诗意境的构建起着重要的作用。%Although a great number of ancient Chinese poems are lyrics expressing poets’personal emo-tions,there are still not a few involving communication context and entailing question,reply,dialogue, reported speech and other quotation contents. Owing to the strict meter of ancient Chinese poems,Chi-nese aesthetic pursuit of brevity,and the openness of poems,the speaker and other quotation contents in the ancient Chinese poems are often implicit. While translating this kind of poems into English,the trans-lator should discern and comprehend the involved quotation contents on the basis of poem context and the verbs implying communication. To fit English grammar and meet western readers ’logical thinking and aesthetic tradition,the implicit or omitted quotation contents in the original poems could be supplemented in the translated version. The quotation contents in the ancient Chinese poems could be translated into di-rect speech or indirect speech;different disposals are of great importance to the construction of the artistic conception of the translated version.

  5. 复杂性科学视阈下的古汉语起源与演化刍议%A Study on the Origin and Evolution of Ancient Chinese from the Perspective of Complex Adaptive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高嵩; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    The origin of ancient Chinese has been a hot issue lively discussed in a number of subjects, especially Linguistics. Based on the language facts of ancient Chinese, this paper intends to figure out the origin and the development of ancient Chinese from the per-spective of complex adaptive system, utilizing the theoretical achievement of western computer modeling experiments.%古汉语的起源问题一直是包括语言学在内的众多学科关注的热点问题。本文试从复杂性科学的视角,利用西方计算机建模实验的理论成果,以古汉语中的语言事实为依据,尝试推演古汉语的起源和发展过程。

  6. 中国古代文明的起源及早期发展国际学术讨论会纪要%Summary of the International Symposium on the Origin and Initial Development of Chinese Ancient Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    本刊记者

    2001-01-01

    In what environments and on what background was the ancient Chinese civilization evolved? What are its characteristic features? And what is the course of its development like? These problems are all of important academic value. Therefore, the Center for the Study of Ancient Civilization, CASS, held the “International Symposium on the Origin and Initial Development of Chinese Civilization”in Beijing from August 1st to 3rd, 2001. The attendants discussed mainly theories of civilization's origin and related concepts, standards of civilization, and the developmental road of ancient Chinese civilization. They also inquired into the questions of how to judge the degree of civilization represented by archaeological remains, how to strengthen the co-operation of archaeology with other disciplines, how to enhance the scientificalness and standardization of the studies of civilization' s origin, and how to deepen these studies.

  7. Ancient Chinese Medicine Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU; TANZHEN

    2004-01-01

    SOME 2,500 years ago Duke Huan, ruler of the State of Qi in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.), gave an audience to famous doctor Bian Que who, upon observing the monarch's complexion, told him that he had a potentially fatal illness.

  8. 中国古代主要媒介的归类分期和发展特点%THE CLASSIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE ANCIENT MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈继睿

    2012-01-01

    中国古代媒介承载了深厚的中国文化。一直以来,对传统文化的研究可谓多如繁星,但由于传统思想看不起器物层面的知识,我们对文化要素之一的媒介一直关注不多。即使有所研究也局限于媒介年代的考据分析,更不用说媒介自身发展规律、媒介与社会关系的研究。本文试图从中国古代媒介的发展史人手,找出不同媒介的共同点进行归类,划分某一类媒介对应的时期,从中西媒介发展特点的不同之处展现中国媒介的发展规律。%Ancient media of China carries profound Chinese culture. For a long time, more and more researches of tradition culture have been done. Because our traditional thought has despised the knowledge of physics, we have been short of attention to media which is one of the elements of culture. Even if the study also limited the media~ textual analysis, not to mention the media~ own law of de- velopment, and the relationship between media and society. This paper attempts to start at the history of ancient media of China, clas- sify different media, divide the types of media into different periods, and show the law of Chinese ancient media by comparing Occident and China.

  9. 皮肤病中医古籍数据库的构建%Construction of ancient Chinese medical books database in skin diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈维文; 丁侃; 邓丙戌; 周冬梅; 张苍; 张广中; 曲剑华; 孙丽蕴; 王萍

    2013-01-01

    Objective Aiming at efficient access to skin disease knowledge from ancient Chinese medical books for the dermatologists of Chinese medicine,which can be used in clinic,teaching and research.Methods The plan of Construction of ancient Chinese medical books database is determined by two groups of people,one group is doctors from dermatology department of Chinese medicine,the other group is literature researchers.They put forward the plan at a different angle,from which it can get inspiration of clinical use experience and literature research methods to keep the plan.The specific content including the selection of bibliographies and contents of ancient books,collations of those books,deep processing indexing based on knowledge element,the application function the database to be achieved,the operation and maintenance of the database system,and so on.Under the scheduled program objectives,with people's cooperation and division of labour,we will complete the database building together.Results Construct a database system platform based on web which has powerful search function (the search function is centered on diseases and based on knowledge element) and many other features,such as:managing ancient books information,inquiring and browsing dermatologic knowledge,directing the content of literature to research and exchange,and so on.Conclusion It is a practical plan that constructing a thematic database of ancient Chinese medical books centered on diseases,they can meet the challenge of knowledge discovery and knowledge expanding function.%目的 实现中医皮肤科人员在临床、教学与科研工作中,高效获取中医古籍中记载的皮肤病知识.方法 中医皮肤科临床医生与文献学研究者分别从临床使用经验和文献学角度入手,共同商定古籍专题数据库建设方案,包括:选定古籍书目、内容;对选中古籍进行校勘整理;基于知识元的深度加工标引;数据库所要实现的应用功能;数据库的运行

  10. Probing into the Origin of Ancient Chinese Medical Advertising Forms%中国古代传统医药广告形式探源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛涛

    2011-01-01

    中国传统医药行业很早就进入市场并且有自己的广告传播方式,在医药广告时间和空间的历史演进中经历了由动态到静态,从实物到抽象的各种演变过程,其广告形式也有招幌广告、印刷广告等主要方式.图画广告、名人广告、对联广告、市声广告也在其传播过程中发挥了积极的作用和有益的补充。古代中医药广告形式的探究,对深入研究中国古代医药广告文化、医药商业文化,推动现代医药广告的发展会有积极的作用和帮助。%Chinese traditional medicine industry entered the market so early and had their own ways of advertising communication. In the medical advertisement history of time and space evolution, it has gone through a variety of evolution, from dynamic to static, and from physical to abstract. Major advertising forms include Sapporo advertising, print ads and other forms. During its communication process, picture advertising, celebrity advertising, couplet advertising and city sound advertising also played positive roles and acted as useful sup- plement. To explore advertising forms of ancient Chinese medicine is beneficial to the in-depth study of the advertising culture of ancient Chinese medicine, business culture of medicine, and to promote the development of modern medicine advertisements.

  11. A Study on Memes of Culture in Translating Ancient Chinese Poems into English%古汉诗英译的文化模因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃进

    2012-01-01

      从模因理论原理出发,研究汉诗英译的文化模因特征,认为古诗翻译具有形神相似模因、形似神不似模因、形不似神似模因和形神不相似模因等,在诗歌翻译的文化传播过程中,译者要更多地采用形神相似或者形不似神似模因,避免形似神不似或形神不相似模因的出现,只有这样,才能最大限度地将中国文化的精髓传递给外国读者。%  The author will study on memes of culture in translating ancient Chinese poems into English from memetic perspective and holds that translating ancient Chinese poems possess memes of meaning and spiritual conformity, meaning conformity but spiritual inconformity, meaning inconformity but spiritual conformity, as well as meaning and spiritual inconformity. The translator should employ more memes of meaning and spiritual conformity or meaning inconformity but spiritual conformity, avoiding memes of meaning and spiritual inconformity or meaning conformity but spiritual inconformity in the course of poetry translation;only in this way can the essence of Chinese culture be delivered to foreign readers to its full play.

  12. The theory of ancient Chinese music and health Keeping by Traditional Chinese Medicine%中国古代音乐理论与传统中医养生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯妮

    2011-01-01

    China attaches great importance to health keeping with music.There are plenty of health keeping theories in classic Chinese history books,such as Lv Shi Chun Qiu and Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor.Health keeping with ancient Chinese music plays an important role in adjusting our "feeling","mood" and "spirit".%我国是一个非常注重音乐养生的国度,经典著作《吕氏春秋》、《黄帝内经》等对此都有过很多深入的探讨。中国古代音乐养生的作用主要体现在调"情"养生、调"气"养生及调"神"养生等方面。

  13. 大学古代汉语教学改革的必要性及要点探析%On the Necessity of the Reform of University of Ancient Chinese Teaching and Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静珊

    2014-01-01

    汉语是中华民族五千年文化的积淀,更是文化的结晶所在,因此,具有很强的传承性。古代汉语直接体现了古代人的思想和文化理念。古代汉语具有很强的文化气息,它包括很多方面的知识。例如,文学、历史、哲学等一些看似并不相关的知识,它的学习能够丰富大学生的知识面,也能够让更多人了解到中国的历史文化,但是随着社会的不断进步,教学方式也会随着它逐步进行改革,因此,古代汉语教学也要进行改革。针对大学古代汉语教学必须改革的原因进行深入分析。%Chinese is five thousand years of Chinese culture,is the crystallization of a culture is,therefore,has a strong heritage. Ancient Chinese directly reflects the ancient people's thoughts and cultural ideas. The ancient Chinese has a strong cultural atmosphere,it includes many aspects of knowledge. For example,literature,history,philosophy and other seemingly not related knowledge,the study can enrich students’ knowledge,also can let more people understand that China history and culture,but with the development of society,the teaching way is as it gradually reform,therefore,the ancient Chinese teaching should be reformed. An in-depth analysis for the causes of University of ancient Chinese teaching must reform.

  14. Borrowing Ancient Thought to Build Contemporary Strategy: Reflections on Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power%借鉴古代思想 研究崛起战略——读《古代中国思想与当代中国实力》之感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丽

    2011-01-01

    阎学通教授英文新著Ancient Chinese Thought,Modern Chinese Power通过研究中国先秦诸子与先秦典籍中蕴含的国家间政治思想,丰富和发展了当代国际关系理论,并以此为当前中国的和平崛起提供理论支持,推动了中国古代国家间政治思想向世界的传播。笔者首先从国家崛起的战略新模式与中国的和平发展道路、国际关系中的政治实力论、道德与国际安全论这三个部分阐述了中国古代国家间政治思想的新启迪。其次,对关涉"传统主义学派"与"中国学派"之争、分析层次、国际规范这三个有争议的问题进行辩证分析,认为无论是"传统主义学派"还是"中国学派",都是中国学者对当今国际关系理论的学术思考、学术探索与学术贡献的宏观与综合体现;从理论维度上看,都是个性与共性、特殊性与普遍性的统一;从实践维度上看,都是国际社会理论的多样性与统一性的集中表现;尽管他们的表现形式或说法不一,但本质是相似、甚至是一致的;他们推动与繁荣了中国的国际关系理论研究,在世界舞台上展现了中国学者的风采。最后,做出中国古代国家间政治思想的研究将会向体系化方向演进的判断。%Yan Xuetong's new book Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power borrows from pre-Qin thinkers and Pre-Qin classics on the political relations between states to enrich and develop contemporary international relations theory, and on the basis of this provides support for China's peaceful rise. This has functioned to promote the spread of ancient Chinese political thinking on relations between states internationally. The author would first like to offer strong support for Yan's application of ancient Chinese political thinking to China's new strategy for its rise and its peaceful economic development; to the theory of realism in international relations, and to theories of ethics

  15. Opinions on the Reform of Ancient Chinese Literatu re Course Under the Circumstance of Curriculum Standards%新课标背景下古代文学课程改革引发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李聪亮

    2012-01-01

      古代文学课程是弘扬中国悠久历史与灿烂文化的窗口,是后人领略先贤们智慧结晶和深邃思想的门径。时代飞跃、学生需求、教学现状、教育改革等使得古代文学课程面临诸多严峻的挑战。因此,增强古代文学课程的时代性;师生角色转型;创新教学方法;完善评价体系是进行古代文学教学改革应关注的重要问题。%  Abstrac t:Ancient Chinese literature course is the window to publicize Chinese culture .With the changed ages and the changed need of students , ancient Chinese literature course face a great challenge .So, it is necessary for us to heighten the epochal of ancient Chinese literature course ,to transfer roles of teachers and the students , to creative teaching method and to perfect the system of evaluation etc .All of these problems should be paid much more attention when reforming the ancient Chi -nese literature course.

  16. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  17. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  18. [Regularity of drugs compatibility of anti-hepatoma traditional Chinese medicine ancient prescriptions and risk evaluation of anti-hepatoma new drug research and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Hong-Fa; Fan, Wei; Liu, Zhen; Man, Shu-Li; Si, Shu-Yong; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Traditional Chinese ancient prescriptions have been used for treatment of liver cancer for a long history and the scientific and rational compatibility is a great wealth for modern research and development (R&D) of new drugs. The research and development of new drugs are often accompanied with a large investment, a long cycle and a high risk, especially for the anti-tumor drugs R&D which are facing more risks and lower successful rate. In this research, the regularity of compatibility of drugs was analyzed from 124 anti-hepatoma ancient prescriptions by computer program. The results can offer help to the R&D of anti-hepatoma new drugs and reduce the risk of drug screening. In addition, we surveyed 22 companies in this field from six provinces such as Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and so on and obtained 240 risk assessment questionaires. Then we used qualitative analysis method to interpret the greatest impacts for the risks in the process of R&D, production and sales of anti-hepatoma new drugs. The study provides a basis for anti-liver cancer drugs R&D researchers, who can take effective measures to reduce the R&D risks and improve successful rate.

  19. 论中国古代盟誓法律制度及其当代变形%Ancient Chinese Vows Legal System and Its Contemporary Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任汝平; 李卓彧

    2016-01-01

    Chinese ancient vows system originated in the Yellow Emperor times,and formed in the Western Zhou Dynasty.It is a kind of political system and the worship of gods in essence.It is also a kind of special legal acts and legal facts with great value;Ancient oath is still using its deformation and restricts the national,inter-national and interpersonal relationship,which displayed both positive and negative values.%中国古代盟誓制度起源于黄帝时代,定型于西周时期,它在本质上是一种政治制度和神灵崇拜,更是一种特殊的法律制度、法律行为和法律事实,因而具有重大的法律价值;古代盟誓至今仍以其变形存在并制约着国家、国际与人际等关系,具有正负两面价值。

  20. 古文字发展义化原因浅析%On the Reasons of Meaning Development of Ancient Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娴

    2014-01-01

    义化是古文字形体结构发展演变过程中的一种重要现象。文字是记录语言的符号,导致义化的一个重要原因是文字为了更好地记录语言。文字除受语言的制约之外,它自己本身就是一套成系统的符号,古文字阶段的字符为了融入汉字系统就必然会发生义化。%The justice is a Very important phenomenon in the body structure deVelopment of ancient writing. The character is a symbol to record language. An important cause of justice is to record language better. In addition to restrict from the language,the character itself is a set of systematic symbol. The ancient writing stage character will ineVitably occur justice in order to integrate into the Chinese system.

  1. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  2. 中国古代音乐的文化精神述评%Review of the Cultural Spirit of Ancient Chinese Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安潮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient music shows different artistic characteristics in seven different periods of its development .They reflect the different levels in Chinese cultural spirit of subtlety ,charisma ,charm ,charm and artistic conception ,rhythm .The mystically distant music in ancient times ,music ritual style in Xia and Shang Dynasty ,rites spirit music in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period ,subtle music in the Qin and Han Dynasties ,fusion verve music in Wei and Jin Dynasties ,rich tone music in Sui and Tang Dynasties ,music with folk music rhythm in the Song and Yuan Dynasties ,local music style in the Ming and Qing Dynasties ,all show a diversified spirit of music culture in ancient China which is rich ,fully inclusive and equitable characteristics , and its core is vivid and refined and profound ..%中国古代音乐在其发展的7个不同时期呈现出不同的艺术特征,它们在精微、风采、神韵、气韵、意境、节奏等中国文化精神上有不同层次的体现。远古时期音乐的神秘悠远,夏商时期音乐祭神的风韵,春秋战国时期音乐的仪礼气韵,秦汉时期律学开启精微之风,魏晋时期音乐的融合神韵,隋唐时期音乐的博大气韵,宋元时期俗乐的节奏,明清时期地方戏曲的滥觞等,展现出中国古代音乐文化精神历时性征的多元丰富、兼容并蓄特点,潜藏于内并逐渐形成特色的是气韵生动和清微淡远。

  3. Form and Integrity of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory%论古代文论的形态与整体性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      古代文论具有多种形态。其学术形态,由理论体系的系统性、讨论问题的反复深入及趋向极致构成,是古代文论的理论基础。其实用形态,以密切联系大众需求而产生,由大量的指导写作的书构成,是大众从事文学创作必不可少的依靠。其资料形态,为有意识地系统化地收集诗史资料、编纂某一时代的文学纪事而构成,为文学史、文论史的资源性材料。其适性生活形态,为文论家自我撰作文论时的精神状态与成果展示,以赏心悦目为其宗旨。完整地把握古代文论的诸种形态,把握其相辅相成的统一性、整体性,才能完整地把握古代文论的真谛所在。%Ancient Chinese literary theory has various forms .Composed by integrated theoretical system , re-peated and profound discussions , its academic form is the theoretical basis of ancient Chinese literary theory .Pro-duced in the demand of ordinary people , its practical form constitutes numerous books of writing guidance and is a necessary reference for the people to go in for literary creation .Constituted with collected poetic and historical ma-terials, its material form is a resource of literary history and literary theory history .Presented by the spiritual condi-tion while literary theory writers create articles, its life form aims at pleasing to both the eye and the mind .To en-tirely understand these forms and grasp their uniformity and integrity will help us to find the essence of ancient Chi -nese literary theory.

  4. 从古中医学论治2型糖尿病%Analysis and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes with Ancient Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春玲; 阮永队; 付昕; 朱章志

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes is a difficult problem in medical field.Whether western medicine or chinese medicine can not provide a safe and effective way to cure this disease. This article explain the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes from the classic theory in “Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor” and ancient Chinese medicine theory of circular motion which was supported by Peng ZiYi,famous doctor in Qing Dynasty,so as to find the theory and method to cure type 2 diabetes mellitus.%2型糖尿病的治疗是目前医学界一个棘手的难题,无论西医、中医都不能提供一个有效安全可以治愈本病的方法。本文从《黄帝内经》及清代名医彭子益先生倡导的圆运动等古中医系统理论探讨2型糖尿病的病因病机与治疗,以期寻找到能治愈2型糖尿病的理论与方法。

  5. 铁件加固技术在古建筑木结构中应用研究%Application of Iron-strengthening Techniques in Chinese Ancient Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乾; 闫维明

    2011-01-01

    采用归纳分析及力学计算相结合的方法,研究了我国古建筑木结构工程中普遍采用的铁件加固技术.基于对数座占建筑的实际勘查及分析结果,研究了古建筑木结构采用铁件加固技术的分类及特点,客观地评价了加固效果,对不足之处提出了改进建议.结果表明:铁件加同技术可有效提高占建筑木结构的承载能力及刚度,但也存在加吲件易锈蚀、不易更换且破坏木材的问题;另一方面,采取合理的铁件加固方式或者使用新的加固材料,将实现木结构有效保护.%To protect Chinese ancient buildings, the iron-strengthening techniques in Chinese ancient wooden buildings were studied by the classified and mechanical analysis. Based on the survey and analysis results on several ancient builings, the classification and characters of strengthening techniques by iron were discussed, the strengthening results were evaluated and the feasible advices were proposed. The results show that the iron-strengthening techniques would be helpful for enhancing the strength as well as rigidity of Chinese ancient wood buildings, however, there also exist some shortcomings such as the corrosion of iron, the destruction of wood, the inconvenient maintenance for strengthening components and so on; On the other hand, the rational strengthening techniques by iron or new strengthening materials applied in Chinese ancient wooden buildings could solve the problems as mentioned above.

  6. General---a Basic Method of Teaching in Chinese Ancient History%通--古代史教学的一个基本方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文武

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient history is an important part of Chinese brief history courses in Children Teachers’ School. The key of accomplishing teaching,task of Chinese ancient history is to build a sense of connection about thousands of years’ history among students,to hold the relationships between transverse and longitudinal, concrete features of each dynasty and their connections , the most important part is to emphasize one word“general”.In history textbooks, it only monotonously talk about politics, economic,cultures and class struggle severally. And there are no summaries on general properties and historical status of each dynasty, the connections among each dynasty , period, system and culture are still ambiguous.“General Theory”should be taught at the beginning of each dynasty,try to guide students to establish the sense of“general”by applying exams.%中国古代史是幼儿师范学校中国通史课程的重要组成部分。要完成古代史教学任务,关键在于培养学生对几千年历史的贯通联系感,把握好横向与纵向、各代具体特点与前后联系之间的关系,其最主要的还是要突出一个“通”字。历史教科书中每个朝代都是千篇一律的单层面的政治、经济、文化、阶级斗争的分别叙述,不见各代综合特点和历史地位的概述,各朝代之间、各时代之间、各种制度、各种文化之间的联系却仍然不清。在每个朝代开始前都要先讲“通论”,用考试这根指挥棒引导学生树立“通”的观念。

  7. The Enlightenment of Ancient Reading Textbooks to Today’s Chinese Language Textbooks’ Compilation%古代阅读教材对当今语文教材编写理念的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康建琴

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Chinese language education attaches great importance to the selection and compilation of reading textbooks. Self-examing the views and methods related to selection and compilation in our ancient reading textbooks,it could greatly enlighten us in today’s compilation of reading textbooks.%我国古代语文教育十分重视阅读教材的编选,反思古代阅读教材编选的一些观点和做法,对今天语文教材的编写有着深刻的启示。

  8. Exploration on Translation of Chinese Ancient Poetry:Taking The River-Merchant’s Wife:A Letter as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚敏; 孔燕然

    2013-01-01

    Based on social linguistics and semiotics, sociosemiotics is a renewed perspective to clarify meaning and function of cer-tain signs in a specified social situation and identify correspondence in another culture through the creation and interpretation of texts as“encoding”and“decoding”. This study attempts to make a comparative analysis of the similarities and dissimilarities of the realization of the sentimental resources of the ancient poem“The River-Merchant’s Wife:A Letter”and its English version, from the perspective of sociosemiotics and Appraisal Theory from systemic functional linguistics.

  9. Confucianism and Taoism's Influences on Ancient Chinese Musical Aesthetics%浅议儒、道思想对中国古代音乐美学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双杰

    2011-01-01

    中国古代音乐美学源远流长,是人类精神财富的重要组成部分,反映了华夏民族独特的审美意识与审美情趣。从儒教与道教对我国古代音乐美学发展的影响以及儒、道两家对音乐美学思想影响的异同入手,探讨中国古代的音乐美学思想。%Ancient Chinese musical aesthetics has a long history, and is an important part of human spiritual wealth.It reflects the unique aesthetic consciousness and aesthetic taste of Chinese nation.From the aspects of Confucianism and Taoism's influences on the development of ancient Chinese music aesthetics and the similarities and differences between them,this article discusses the aesthetic thought of ancient Chinese music.

  10. Ancient Chinese Teaching Reform for the Secondary Language Teaching in Normal Universities%面向中学语文教学的高师院校古汉语教改探索1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永凤

    2013-01-01

    Normal University Department of Chinese ancient Chinese courses and secondary language classi-cal teaching have failed to keep pace with the aduance of the realty .The present paper aims to affer some re-form measures of the ancient Chinese language courses in the teaching content and teaching methods;First, adjust the Ancient Chinese course content, appropriate to compress the originalGeneral Theory, culture and common sense, and in close connection with the classical content of the secondary language, add new educa-tional content; secondly, to take a three-pronged teaching mode in teaching methods, combining traditional lectures with multimedia courseware showcase,classroom learning andexercises combined, the actual combi-nation of ancient Chinese knowledge and modern languages.%针对高师院校中文系古代汉语课程和中学语文文言文教学相脱节的现状,提出了古代汉语课程在教学内容和教学方法方面的改革措施;首先是调整古代汉语课程内容,适当压缩原有的通论、文化常识等内容,同时紧密结合当前中学语文文言文内容,补充新的教学内容;其次,是在教学方法上采取三结合的教学模式,即传统讲授与多媒体课件展示相结合、课上学习与课后练习相结合、古代汉语知识与现代语言实际相结合。

  11. Fo Shou San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, protects endothelial function through increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy W C Bi

    Full Text Available Fo Shou San (FSS is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca(2+ levels in HUVECs, and the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca(2+ and a reduction of ROS.

  12. How to Teach Vietnamese via the Stable Effect of Ancient Chinese Word on Chinese-vietnamese%通过中古汉词对汉越词影响的稳定性进行越南语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄缨焱

    2012-01-01

      It can be see that Chinese ancient regardless of Chinese names, place names, slang, idioms or some fixed document format have great influence on modern vietnamese words. The Vietnamese font has changed because of the historical development, but is almost identical in pronunciation. In modern Vietnamese teaching process, according to the characteristics of vietnamese word was long-term affected by archaic language, and new Chinese-vietnamese were formed via translating new words constantly through the bridge of Chinese language.%  中国古汉语无论从人名、地名还是俗语、成语或者是一些固定的公文格式都可以看出对现今越南语词语,尤其是越汉语有一种不可轻易打破的稳定影响,虽然越南字体由于历史发展而改变了,但是在发音上几乎完全相同。在现代越南语教学过程中,我们可以根据越语词由于受到长期古语的语言基础影响的特点,通过中国语言这个的桥梁不断地对新词进行转译,从而形成新的汉越词。

  13. On the Political Connotation of Ancient Chinese Dress Color%简述中国历代服色的政治内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乙全

    2011-01-01

    中国古代等级制度森严,受这种等级制度“礼”的影响,服饰颜色也受到很大的影响,这一点集中体现在服饰颜色与官员等级、改朝换代以及社会生活的关系中,从而使服饰颜色逐步具有尊卑高下的文化特性,成为阶级社会的形象代言人。探讨了不同时期皇室与官员阶层的服色变化,而且还分析了民间普通百姓的服色变化,力图全面展示历代服饰颜色与等级政治之间的关系,以期加深对中国古代政治制度和社会的理解。%In ancient China, the caste system is severe. Under the influence of this kind of caste system, "the ritual", the dress color is greatly affected. It is embodied in the relationship between the clothing color and the official grade, dynastic change, and social life. Thus the dross color gradually has the cultural characteristic of high or low superiority. The color of dress becomes the spokesman of class society. This article focuses on not only the clothing color changes of the royal and official classes, but also the clothing color changes of the folk ordinary people. It attempts to analyze the relation between the dress color and grade politics in the past dynasties in order to deepen the understanding of Chinese ancient political system and society.

  14. Investigation of Tongjia words and the ancient and modern words of classical Chinese in middle school%中学文言文中通假字与古今字的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏祥

    2013-01-01

    The Tongjia words and the ancient and modern words are two different concepts of ancient Chinese, should strictly distinguish between the two sides. This text carries on the analysis of shallow with respect to the middle school writings in classical style of borrowed words and the ancient and modern words, is intended to explore the difference between the two sides, treatment should be standardized, scientific.%通假字和古今字是古书用字的两个不同概念,对两者应严格区分。本文就中学文言文中的通假字和古今字进行粗浅的分析,意在探讨这两者的区别,处理应该规范化、科学化。

  15. Research on the Cultural Value of Ancient Chinese Terracotta Riding Figurine%古代骑像俑的文化价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朝鸿; 陆春莉

    2015-01-01

    Terracotta riding figurine is a mode of artistic expression of people , riding animals like horses or camels , and the organic integration of these subjects into ceramic crafts and sculptures , generally through special firing process .Many aca-demic and educational papers and books have been published nowadays regarding ancient Chinese terracotta figure arts . However , research particularly focus on riding figurine is still rare .The text in this article has demonstrated the historical e-volution of this art form:the emerging during Period of Battle Kingdoms , the booming during the Tang Dynasty , and the de-clining after Yuan Dynasty .The constant changing of political , cultural, and social environment finally leaded to the down-turn of this ancient tradition .The author of this article has been studying the physical characteristics of the art form together with the larger social and cultural background in attempt to provide an invaluable testimony to the rich heritage of ancient craftsmanship and the importance of cultural conservancy .%骑像俑是指把人物骑马、骑骆驼的景象做成泥胎,烧制成陶俑。目前,关于研究陶俑的论述很多,但是把陶俑中的骑像俑单独作为研究对象来分析的文章却很少。文章通过对骑像俑研究表明,这种文化形态开始于战国,兴盛于唐代,直至元代以后逐渐衰落。古代骑像俑文化衰退的主要原因是由于不同历史阶段社会环境的改变所造成的。对于骑像俑的研究,探讨了这类文化背后的社会习俗与风貌,为更好地保护文化遗产提供了重要的理论依据。

  16. 略论中希神话的差异%Brief Comments on Ancient Chinese and Greek Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力宁

    2012-01-01

    Myths have great influence on both Chinese and Greek literature. However, they differ fromeach other for reasons of different location, natural environment, culture and national characteristics. Greek myths reflect personality, power and humanity while Chinese myths advocate general characteristics, virtue and divinity. This paper will probe into the differences between these two kinds of myths so as to facilitate readers' understanding of both Chinese and western cultures.%神话对中国和希腊两国文学皆产生了巨大影响。但由于中希两国地域、自然条件、文化传统及民族个性等各方面的不同,使得两国的古代神话呈现出不同的艺术风貌。希腊神话体现的是个性、力量和人性,中国的神话则崇尚共性、德行和神性。本文将从这三方面简要探讨中国神话和希腊神话之间的差异,以便更深刻地了解中希两国文化。

  17. Inheritance and Variation: Analysis of Evolutionary Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Architecture through Yuan Architecture%承启·变异——试论元构中反映的部分形制嬗变特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵向东

    2013-01-01

    元代建筑上承宋金,下启明清,是中国古代建筑发展的转折时期.拟以共处同一地域而分属元代前期和后期的两座典型建筑作为契人点,以小见大,力求对中国古代建筑体系形制上的过渡及演变进行客观揭示与综合解读.%Between Song-Jin period and Ming-Qing period. Yuan architecture acts as a turning stage in Chinese ancient architectural history. Based on analysis of two typical Yuan buildings which are located in the same place but belong to different historical stages, this article intends to comprehensively reveal and interpret the general transitional and evolutionary characteristics of Chinese ancient architecture system.

  18. Research on Ancient Books Protection System and Standard for Special Library of Traditional Chinese Medicine%中医专业图书馆古籍保护体系及规范的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿涛; 裘俭; 张伟娜; 符永驰; 李兵; 周崇润; 刘国正

    2009-01-01

    本文在对中医古籍保护现状进行调研和分析的基础上,提出了适合中医专业图书馆古籍保护体系的构建模式.通过本馆在中医古籍保护的工作与实践,对古籍保护技术体系和组织体系进行了研究,列出了中医专业图书馆古籍保护技术体系的各项规范和中医专业图书馆古籍保护组织体系的组建内容,形成一套技术科学、方法先进、管理有效、运行有序、保护得力的中医古籍保护体系.在行业内推广应用,以促进中医行业古籍保护工作的良性、可持续发展.%This paper put forward a construction mode of ancient books protection system for special library of traditional Chinese medicine based on the survey and analysis of ancient books protecting status. With the working experience of protecting ancient books in our library, we studied the technical system and organization system for ancient books protection, listed out the standard of technical system and content of organization system, and formed an ancient books protection system for special library of traditional Chinese medicine. This system included scientific technology, advanced methods, effective management, orderly operation and right-hand protection, which can be widely applied in our industry to promote benign and sustainable development of work in ancient books protection.

  19. 夏商周青铜器铅同位素示踪研究数据库的构建%A Lead Isotope Ratio Data Base of Ancient Chinese Bronzes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金正耀

    2005-01-01

    A data base of lead isotope ratio of ancient Chinese bronzes is set up. There are 2 888 members, including bronze objects, casting remains, and related ores, etc. in the file. The file contents of data base are made from analysis work on Chinese bronze previously carried out in several laboratories in China, Japan and USA. The main body of the file contents is formed from records, analysis data, reference documents, and images. The data base is designed for sharing information in provenance study on raw metal material for bronze production in China Bronze Age.

  20. Explore the Achievements and Contributions of Chinese Ancient Astronomical Figures%中国古代天文图的主要成就与贡献探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁启章; 王晶

    2016-01-01

    This paper is finished on the purpose of writing an article of astronomical map for“Near-Modern Chinese Map Annals”, and we take a systematically study on the outstanding achievements of Chinese ancient astronomers in founding the "Theory of Sphere-Heavens", manufacturing“Armillary Sphere”, implementing astronomical observation and astronomical geodetic survey, and creating astronomical maps. The earliest recorded“Star table”was created by "Shi Shenfu" during the warring states period before in the 4th century B.C.;then,“Zhang Heng”created"Theory of Sphere-Heavens"and made the first“Turn Leaky Armillary Sphere”in the world during Han Dynasty in the 2nd century;Zhang Sui completed the national astronomical geodetic survey at 13 spots across China and is the first one who calculated the 1° arc length of local meridian at latitude 34° north to be 110.6 kilometers during Tang Dynasty;and Guo Shoujin”implemented"Universal Measurement"and"Leveling"during Yuan Dynasty. The ancient Chinese astronomical map discovered so far including:“the astronomical figure on a paint box cover in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Sui county before the warring states period of China"which is created in 433 B.C.;“the start figure on the tomb murals indicating four quadrant symbols and 28 lunar mansions”which is created in the Western Han Dynasty in Xi’an city, Shaanxi Province;the"DunHuang star map"which contains more than 1350 stars and is created during 705-710 A.D.;the“Suzhou stone carving astronomical map"which contains more than 1440 stars and is created by“Huang Chang”in 1190 A.D.;the"constellation chart of crossing seas”which is created by Zheng He in 1405-1433 A.D.;the"Star Barrier Figure"which contains 1812 stars and is created by“Xu Guangqi”in the early 17th century;and the“total star map on the north and south sides of equator”which contains 1876 stars and is created by“Verbiest”in the mid 17th century. In a word, the ancient

  1. 基于VFP+Word的多文本古籍索引编制实验%An Experiment of Editing Multi - text Chinese Ancient Books Indexes Based on VFP and Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建年

    2011-01-01

    利用VFP与Word编制软件是实现多文本古籍索引的一种较好的选择。通过古籍分词程序实现索引款目词的选择;调用Word的索引词自动标志功能,实现自动标引,产生单一文档的索引文档;通过VFP实现各个不同古籍文本索引的合并与整合,调用Word的编辑、排版功能实现多古籍文本的拼音、笔画以及四角号码索引的输出。%Indexing system based on VFP and Word is a better choice to get editing indexes of multi -text Chinese ancient books. Firstly, the experiment develops the program of word segmentation to select the items of an index. Secondly, it calls the auto - marking function in Word to bring about automatic marking the items of an index and save as an index of an ancient books text. Thirdly, it uses the VFP to realize combination and integration of various indexes of ancient books. Finally, the author makes use of the function of editing and type setting in Word to achieve exporting the Pinyin,stroke and corner index of multi - text Chinese ancient books.

  2. On the Thought of Valuing People of Chinese Ancient Time%我国传统重民思想评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鸿林; 李墨

    2016-01-01

    旨在基于文本及其实现程度探析我国传统人民群众观核心范畴是重民思想而非民本思想。我国传统重民思想的理论形态在三大相互联系的层面展开,即政治哲学和政治伦理层面,政治治理和国家治理层面,经济社会和民生层面,这三大层面的重民思想包含诸多具体的见解主张。以民本为极致表达、以三大层面为基本架构、以诸多具体见解主张为主要内容,构成我国传统重民思想整体理论面相。我国传统重民思想的主要缺欠在于其所持圣人史观、愚民主张和王权主义等,其有益成分主要有重民力、重民心、重民生、重为民、重教民等。做好我国传统重民思想有益成分的现代转化是弘扬中华优秀传统文化的题中之意。%The purpose of this paper is to analyze the core category of Chinese traditional mass view is the valuing people thought rather than the people-oriented thought based on the text and its realization degree. The theoretical form of tradition-al valuing people thought developed in three interrelated aspects:political philosophy and political ethics, political govern-ance and state governance, economic society and people’ s livelihood. There are many particular thoughts viewpoints in them. The thought of valuing people of Chinese ancient time take the people-based thought as its core category, and take the three aspects as its basic frame, take a lot of particular thought viewpoints as its main contents. The main defects about the thought of valuing people of Chinese ancient time are that sage’ s historical views, making a fool of the people, emperor-powerism, and so on. The thought of valuing people ’ s main useful elements contain the thought of valuing people’ s pow-er, people’ s will, people’ s livelihood, people’ s transformation by instruction ,and so on. It is true meaning of carrying forward the excellent traditional culture of China to do

  3. The Infusion of Musical Elements in Ancient Chinese Zither into Chinese Polyphonic Piano Works- Taking # F Shang-noted:Calligraphy and the Flavor of Zither, Fugue, Highly Ancient as Examples%古琴音乐元素在中国复调钢琴作品中的融汇--以《#F商调:书法与琴韵》《赋格》《高古》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱国; 翟毅

    2015-01-01

    In piano music creating practice , on the basis of using Western polyphonic music skills for reference , Chinese contemporary musicians infuse musical elements in ancient Chinese zither into creation , thus giving birth to polyphonic piano works with music style of the ancient Chinese zither .Taking the three music works as examples ,which are # F Shang‐noted :Calligraphy and the Flavor of Zither by Wang Lisan ,Fugue by Yu Suxian ,Highly Ancient by Lin Hua ,from aspects of a new explanation of ancient Chinese zither’s tones and characters on the theme of piano music ,the infusion of ancient zither music polyphonic elements with modern polyphonic skills ,and the manifestation of piano music feelings on ancient zither culture spirits , this article will make an analysis on the creating features of piano music ,so as to provide a reference for the exploration and practice on the features of Chinese piano arts .%在钢琴曲的创作实践中,中国现当代作曲家在借鉴西方复调作曲技法的基础上,将古琴音乐元素融入创作,产生出具有古琴音乐风的复调钢琴曲。笔者以汪立三的《# F商调:书法与琴韵》、于苏贤的《赋格》、林华的《高古》3首钢琴作品为例,从古琴音色特性在钢琴曲主题上的新释,古琴音乐中的多声因素与现代复调技法的融汇方面对钢琴曲的创作特色加以解析,以期对中国钢琴艺术的特色探索实践提供参考。

  4. On Review of Chinese Grammar in Middle Ancient Times Scince 2009%2009年以来中古汉语语法研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小庆

    2015-01-01

    2009年以来,中古汉语语法研究主要继承穷尽统计与分类描写相结合,共时描写与历史溯源相结合的研究方法;研究类型多为专书语法研究;研究语料仍以汉译佛经、宗教文献、出0土文献等为主;研究生逐渐称为专书语法研究的重要群体,贡献颇大.词类研究中个别词语的考释及专书专类词语的研究较多,而探讨词汇发展规律的研究成果较少,对构词法、复句的研究等有待深入.%Since 2009, the middle ancient Chinese grammar research mainly inherited the research method of the combination of end statistics and classification description, synchronic description and the historical roots. The research type is mainly the special book gram?mar research;The research corpus are Chinese Buddhist scriptures, religious literature, excavated documents, etc.. Graduate students grad?ually become important group researching book syntax. They have made great contributions. There are more researches on the study of in?dividual words and books than the research achievements of vocabulary development rule. The research on word formation and complex sentences is expected to explore.

  5. 顺应理论视角下的汉语古诗词翻译标准的探讨%Chinese Ancient Poetry Translation Criteria Research from the Perspective of Adaptation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力源; 刘奕彤

    2012-01-01

    从顺应理论的角度出发,皆在探析翻译中顺应理论对汉语古诗词翻译标准研究的启示。在顺应理论的视角下,翻译是一个对原来语言的语境和语言结构之间作出的动态的顺应过程。汉语古诗词翻译标准,放在不同的理论框架中具有不同的含义,将这些不同的含义具体化,既有利于翻译实践,也有利于汉语古诗词翻译标准研究的进一步深入。%This paper attempts to conform to the perspective of Adaptation Theory,in order to analysis the enlightenment of Adaptation Theory to Chinese ancient poetry translation criteria research.Under the perspective of Adaptation Theory,translation is the dynamic adaptation process between the original language context and language structures.Chinese ancient poetry translation criteria,which have the different meanings under different theoretical framework.To make these different meanings specific,which are conducive to the practice of translation,also conducive to Chinese ancient poetry translation criteria research further.

  6. 中国古代美学中言、象、意三者的关系%Relationship between Words,Image and Meaning in Chinese Ancient Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严天武

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between words,image and meaning plays an important role in the Chinese ancient aesthetics,it relates to the linguistic knowledge,aesthetic knowledge as well as the knowledge of philosophy.The ancients realized that “word fails in conveying meaning”,so they “set up image to express meaning”,and finally they could “grasp the meaning and forget the image”.The different thoughts on the relationship between words,image and meaning have led to the difference in Chinese ancient literary theory and western literary theory,and Chinese and western aesthetics have formed their own characteristics as well.%言、象、意三者的关系在中国古代美学中占有重要地位,既涉及语言学知识,也涉及美学知识,更涉及哲学知识。古人早就意识到“言不尽意”,于是“立象以尽意”,最后达到“得意忘象”。对言、象、意三者关系的不同认识,导致中国古代文学理论与西方的有所不同,中西美学也形成了各自的特点。

  7. Study on Coloration Mechanism of Chinese Ancient Ceramics by X-ray Absorption Near-edge Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Y. H.; Xie, Z.; He, J. F.; Liu, Q. H.; Pan, Z. Y.; Cheng, W. R.; Wei, S. Q.

    2013-04-01

    The Fe K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra of a series of ceramic shards were measured by fluorescence mode to reveal the color-generating techniques of Chinese porcelain. The analysis disclosed relationships among the chemical form of the iron, the firing conditions and the colors of the ceramics. The results indicate that the coloration for different ceramics depend on the valence states of iron as the main color element in glaze and the proportion of Fe2+ and Fe3+ was attributed to the baking technology. The findings provide important information for archaeologist on the coloration researches.

  8. 中国古代文学编辑活动的特点%The Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature Editing Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达科

    2012-01-01

    中国古代文学编辑活动的特点十分突出。它在编、刊、售三位一体的格局中起着重要的主导作用,与收藏、访书、宣传、娱情互为因果、多元一体,与文学风气乃至文化思潮关联互动、相互呼应。这些特点为当今信息化社会的文学活动提供了许多启迪性因素和可资借鉴的文化资源。%The characteristics of Chinese ancient literature editing activities was very outstanding. It played an important leading role in the trinity situation of of edition, printing and saling, and became cause each other and pluralism with collection, visiting books, propaganda, entertainment, association interactions and mutual e- cho with Literature ethos even cultural ideological trend. These characteristics provided many enlightenment sexual factors and culture resources that can be referenced for the literature activities in the current information society.

  9. Participation in IAEA proficiency test exercise on major, minor and trace elements in ancient Chinese ceramic (IAEA-CU-2006-06) using low power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proficiency test (PT) exercise was offered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for major, minor and trace elements in Chinese ceramic reference material (IAEA-CU-2006-06). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory at PINSTECH, Pakistan participated in the exercise and submitted the results for 28 elements. The aim of participation was to develop a suitable methodology for accurate measurement of as many elements as possible in ceramic material using a low power reactor (PARR-2) as this would help future investigation in a project on the authenticity of art objects, for provenance, conservation and management of ancient cultural heritage of the country. After receiving the final report of the PT exercise, a critical review of our data and final scoring of each element is made to check the suitability of our methodology and reliability of the acquired data. Most of the reported results passed different statistical evaluation criterion such as relative bias, z-score and u-scores and ratio of our results and IAEA target values. One element (Yb) falls in the unacceptable range of relative bias and z-scores. Hf and Tb showed slightly high z-scores within the questionable range. Ho, Mo and Sn were determined during this study but their results were not submitted to the IAEA. The confidence of accuracy observed for most of the elements in ceramic material has made it mandatory to report their results as information values. (author)

  10. A Review of the Research on Special Word Order in Ancient Chinese%古代汉语特殊语序研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2015-01-01

    特殊语序是指在线性序列的句法层面上,主语与谓语、谓语与宾语、定语、状语与中心语的位置发生变化,这是先秦时期常见的语法现象,研究者给予了高度关注,研究范围不断扩大,研究成果丰硕。我们拟对古代汉语特殊语序研究做一概述,了解当前的研究水平,为进一步的研究奠定基础。%Special word order refers to position changes between subject and predicate,predicate and object,attribute,adverbi-al and central word on the linear sequence of syntactic level.This is a common grammatical phenomenon in the pre -Qin period and has received high attention from the researchers,with expanding scope and rich achievements.This paper makes a summary of research on special word order in ancient Chinese,which will help us understand the present situation and lay the foundation for its further research.

  11. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study. PMID:26813321

  12. 中国古汉语中隐喻象似性的分析%The analysis of metaphorical iconicity in ancient Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史岩

    2015-01-01

    隐喻不只是一种表达方式,隐喻象似将隐喻视为象似的范畴,是人类基本的思维方式和认知工具,对语义的衍生和发展具有一定作用。本文以中国古汉语为研究对象,通过象似性理论,认知隐喻学等来探讨隐喻象似性在在中国古汉语中的应用。%metaphor is not only a kind of expression, metaphorical iconicity regards metaphor as a part of iconicity. It’s human being’s basic thinking mode and cognitive tool and it plays a dominant role in the development of semantics. This paper aims to study the metaphorical iconicity in the ancient Chinese based on iconicity theory and cognitive metaphor.

  13. 中国古代实用主义文论的语言观基础%View of Language Foundation about Chinese Ancient Pragmatism Literary Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文哲

    2012-01-01

    中国古代诗论的实用主义倾向发端于孔子评《诗》,后世儒家批评诗文时,主要是把文学看成达到政治、道德或教育目的的手段。这种实用主义文论的语言观基础是实在中心论,将语言之实等同于客观之实,把语词当作工具性认识,在根本上取消了诗文的实质性存在价值。%The pragmatist tendency of ancient Chinese Poetics began from Confucius~ comment on the book of songs, when Confucianism criticized poems, they mainly regarded literature as a means of achieving their goals of politics, sociology, morality or education. This view of language foundation about pragmatism literary theory is reality - centredness theory, make the language reality equat to the objective reality, regard the words as instrumental understanding, cancelled the substantial existence value of poems fundamentally.

  14. Introspection of ancient Chinese literature research in the 20th century%中国古代文学研究百年反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄霖

    2008-01-01

    在反思近百年来中国古代文学研究的基础上,就当前学界认识颇有分歧而重要的一些问题,诸如研究的价值取向、基本理论、课题选择、理论指导、基本方法、对象界定、主要视点、视域覆盖及立场追求等提出了自己的看法,希望能有助于21世纪中国古代文学研究健康地展开.%This paper aims at an introspection of the ancient Chinese literature research in the past hundred years.Then the author put forward his opinions about some impoant divergences of the present research,such as the value tropism of the research,the basic methods for study,the choice of research topics,the theory guidelines of the research,the basic methodologies for research,defining the research objects,the major viewpoints,the areas of research and the viewpoints of the scholars.

  15. 水芹的本草考证%Textual study on Oenanthe javanica documented in ancient Chinese medicinal literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正明; 杨新波; 曹文斌

    2001-01-01

    Object To obtain a deeper understanding of the origin andvarieties of Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC. for therapeutic use. Methods Literatures documented through generations of practical experiences were retrieved with simultaneous field study and laboratory identification of chemical constituents and pharmacological actions for comparison. Results The growth pattern and its therapeutic efficacy in different indications as recorded in the ancient literatures were found to be basically identical to that obtained by modern scientific research. Conclusion Only Oenanthe javanica (BL.) DC. of the Umbelliferae family can be considered as the orthodox product for therapeutic use.%目的 通过对水芹的本草学研究,考证其基源及药用品种。方法 查阅有关历代文献,实地考察和应用现代科学技术对水芹的化学成分和药理作用等进行研究。结果 表明历代本草文献中所记载水芹的生长特征及其功能主治与现代研究结果基本一致。结论 水芹基源仅伞形科水芹属植物水芹Oenanthejavanica(B1.)DC.为药用正品。

  16. 中国古代音乐的表达要素与社会价值%The Key Expressive Elements of Chinese Ancient Music and its Social Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊

    2009-01-01

    音乐是人类伟大的发明之一.而中国古代音乐更有其自身的特色,中国人对音乐有自己的认识.中华民族从音乐中获得了无穷的智慧,汲取了丰富的营养,并感受到了音乐重要的教育作用和启示.世界各地了解中国的人们都认为"中国是礼义之邦",其实中国也是礼乐之邦.因为中国古人非常注重以礼约束人们的外部行为的同时,也很注重以乐陶冶人们的性情,引导人们去恶从善,所以中国古代音乐在教育方面也具有一定的政治功能和教化功能.%Music is one of the great inventions of humankind.While Chinese ancient music has its own characteristics,Chinese people have their own understanding of music.The Chinese nation gain endless wisdom,absorb nutrition from music and receive its instruction and inspiration.People familiar with China all over the world all agree that "China is a nation of ritual".and in fact a nation of music.Ancient Chinese people pay special attention to disciplining one's behavior with ritual.and meanwhile,nurturing one's temperament with music to discard viciousness and to develop kindness.Therefore,Chinese ancient music plays certain political and instructive role in education.

  17. The Inspiration of Ancient Chinese Repeated Patterns%中国古代图案艺术中的重复图案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋漾

    2015-01-01

    This paper adopts the method of general phenomenology and semiotics to re-investigate and comprehend the art of traditional Chinese pattern designs and proposes the new concept of “repeated patterns”. In semiotic deconstruc-tion, the concept of repeated patterns as signs means that absence constructs presence———the repeated patterns construct-ed in the real order———any patterns with semiotic features are inherently structured as repeated patterns; the prevalent two-sided continual and quadrilateral continual patterns in ancient Chinese designs manifest the nature of repeating in pattern art as semiotic art and practical art. Traditional Chinese pattern art has a symbolic nature which can not be re-placed and transcended by painting, and a synthetic value of practicability, artistry, quasi-textuality and cultural originality.%以符号学方法重新勘察中国传统图案艺术,有利于廓清重复图案的内涵。在符号解构观中,作为符号的重复图案意味着不在场构成在场的原本境域构成,任何有符号特征的图案都是内在结构性的重复图案;中国古代图案艺术中大量的二方连续、四方连续等外观形式上的重复图案,体现的是作为符号艺术、实用艺术的图案艺术的重复本性。中国传统图案艺术具有绘画艺术不可替代和超越的符号性、实用性、艺术性、类文字性、文化源头性的综合价值。

  18. A Dialogue with the Ancient and Reflection on the Interpretation of History of Bianque and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Youfeng

    2007-01-01

    Based on the description of epidemic diseases in the chapter of "The Story of Bianque" in Records of Historian, the author has analyzed and explored the truthfulness of its background data and the possibility of the plague spreading at that time from both macro and micro angles. The symptoms of plague including chills formation of some doctrines in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) such as exopathic heat disease doctrine, internal injury of spleen and stomach doctrine and epidemic febrile disease doctrine. The course of exogenous phenomena, the author has explored the effect on the initial medical theory, primitive religion and culture due to the spreading of epidemic diseases from the angles of epidemiology, the theory of images and figures, originated from epidemic diseases was proposed. The author also put forward some opinions on the relationship between epidemic diseases spreading and traditional education of TCM, sustained development of TCM.

  19. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  20. 中国古代音乐史撰述相关问题探析%An Approach to the Related Problems of the Composing of Chinese Ancient Music History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏互玖

    2011-01-01

    自20世纪初叶伯和《中国音乐史》问世以来,中国音乐史作为一门学科,即已开始了它的科学化发展进程。这一百年来,中国音乐史的研究取得了骄人的成就,有多本中国古代音乐史著述问世。其著述体例各异,所关注问题的侧重点亦有不同。撰写新的中国古代音乐史从制度作为学术切入点,突出中国传统音乐文化的重要创造者和承载者乐人的主体地位,再结合音乐功能来研究和叙述中国古代音乐史,则能使中国传统音乐研究在许多环节上可以接通。%Since the book "the History of Chinese Music"wasa published in the early 1900s,Chinese music history,as a discipline,had already begun its process of scientific development.During one hundred years,the research on the history of Chinese music has made remarkable achievements and many writings about the history of ancient Chinese music have come out.The writing style varies,and the concerns have different emphases.To write a new history of music in ancient China as an academic from the system entry point,highlighting the importance of traditional Chinese music culture creators and bearers of the dominant position of music,combined with music and narration function to study the history of ancient Chinese music,then the traditional Chinese music research in many areas can be connected.

  1. 品诵·欣赏·感悟——初中语文古诗词教学探讨%Reciting,Appreciation and Perception:An Inquiry into the Teaching of Chinese Ancient Poetry in Junior Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2011-01-01

    Ancient poetry is the quintessence of the ancient splendid cultural of China,through the learning of which students can strengthen their literary accomplishment,nurture their mind and improve their writing ability.But the teaching of ancient poetry has become a difficult point for its long ages and the limitation of students' life experience and understanding level. Based on the writer's own teaching practice,this paper discusses the writer's opinion on the teaching of Chinese ancient poetry teaching in junior schools.%古诗词是中国古代灿烂文化的精髓所在,学习古诗词能加强学生的文学素养,陶冶学生情操,提高学生的写作能力。但古诗词产生于久远的年代,再加上学生生活阅历和理解水平的局限,古诗词教学成为初中语文教学中的难点。本文主要结合自身教学实践,就初中语文古诗词教学谈谈自己的看法。

  2. The Recognition of the Features of Ancient Chinese Literature%中国古代文学的特征再认识

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董相升

    2011-01-01

    Ten features of ancient Chinese literature are generalized in the aspects of historical and cultural background,the ideological connotation,the literacy forms,genres and writing techniques:(1)developing with the national convergence;(2) changing with the cultural backgrounds;(3) bearing a sign of times;(4) highlighting ideological connotation;(5) presenting national character;(6) stressing the public and giving prominence to the individual;(7) advocating poetry and prose writing,multy types of poetry coexisting;(8) sentiment being the tratidion;(9)focusing on beauty of rhythsm and beauty of language;(10) realism and romanticism taking the lead.%从发展变化的历史文化大背景的"外因",从思想精神内涵的"内容",从体裁、样式、创作方法的"形式"等多方面探索研究,概括了中国古代文学的十大特征:随民族融合的历史发展而发展;受大文化环境的影响发展变化;具有时代特征;重视思想性;重视民族精神;重视群体又个性鲜明;诗词为正宗、散文为大宗,多种体裁互促互进;具有抒情传统;具有音乐美、语言美;具有现实主义、浪漫主义两种主要创作倾向。

  3. Priori Narrative of Ancient Chinese Fiction%中国古代小说的先验性叙事研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔庆庆

    2011-01-01

    先验性叙事是中国古代小说中存在的一种独特叙事方式,它具有预叙与元叙事的特征,作者一般通过说书人语气、人物言行、小说人物的姓名或别号、情节的设置等方式暗示情节的下一步发展或者小说人物的某种结局。先验性叙事不同于元叙事对虚构的明确而彻底地暴露,而是有意识地试图告知读者故事的真实性。叙述者通过虚拟的说书人来完成先验性叙事,但是并不充当作品中人物形象。先验的预见性因素在中国古代小说中随处可见,这与中国特定的文化土壤分不开,也具有史书的叙事特征。%Priori narrative fiction is a unique narrative style of ancient Chinese fiction.It has the features of prolepsis and meta-narrative.Through the tone of the storyteller,the characters' speech and behavior,names or nicknames,plot arrangement,the author sugg

  4. 蒙学对语文教育的启示%On the Ancient Old-style Private School Education’s Enlightenment to the Modern Chinese Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琳

    2015-01-01

    The ancient old-style private school education dates far back and has a profound historical accumula-tion. It provides valuable teaching experiences and rich literature resources for contemporary Chinese education. It sheds lights on areas such as basic learning method,classical Chinese reading ability and composition writing. What’s more,it helps enrich the learner’s necessary knowledge reserve,provide them with good language training and improve their ancient Chinese literacy.%蒙学源远流长,有着深厚的历史积淀,能为当代语文教育提供宝贵的教学经验和丰富的文献资源。尤其在学习的基本方法、文言文阅读能力、作文写作等方面有着重要的启示意义,可以为受教育者补充必要的知识储备,进行良好的语言训练,并提高其国学素养。

  5. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  6. 从中西神话人物区别看中西文化差异的根源--以希腊神话和中国上古神话为例%On the Root of Chinese-Western Cultural Differences Based on the Differences between Chinese and Western Mythological Figures:A Case Study on Greek Mythology and Chinese Ancient Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟

    2014-01-01

    中国古代神话和古希腊神话是中西神话的重要代表。通过比较可以发现,中希神话中的人物在外形和性格方面表现出种种不同。而从这种不同,我们可以看出中西文化所体现的差异,并进一步研究造成这种差异的根源是什么。%Chinese ancient mythology and Greek mythology are respectively the important representative of Chinese and Western mythology. Through comparing them, it can be found that there are a variety of differences in the appearances and characters of mythological figures between Chinese and Greek mythology. From the differences, we can find the differences between Chi-nese and Western culture, and further study the root of the differ-ences.

  7. 论大禹对中国古代诏令体式的建构%On Da Yu’s Influence on the Construction of Chinese Ancient Imperial Edict’s Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁太勰

    2016-01-01

    Imperial edict, which is used to deliver king's order in ancient China, was firstly found in Xia Dynasty. As the source of Chinese ancient imperial edict, Yu’s Vow which is recorded in The Book of History, and Yu’s Prohibition which is recorded in The Book of Zhou, have a significant influence on the system, structure and style of“The Edict about Punitive Expedition”and“The Edict about Agriculture”. Particular political function in Da Yu’s edict is not only a significant part of Chinese political civilization, but also had a profound influence on edict's culture meaning of system, law and civilization for later generations. Without doubt, Da Yu had a significant influence on the construction of Chinese ancient edict’s form.%诏令,指中国古代社会以帝王命令形式颁布的下行公文。最早的诏令产生于夏朝,《尚书·大禹谟》记载的《禹誓》,以及《周书》所载的《禹禁》,是中国古代诏令的源头,对后世之“征讨诏”、“劝农诏”等在体制、结构、风格方面都产生了深远的影响;而大禹诏令所承载的特殊政治功能,不仅是中国政治文明的一个组成部分,也深刻影响了后代诏令的制度、法律、文化的人文内涵。所以说,大禹对中国古代诏令体式的建构具有重要意义。

  8. Dialogue Between the History and Present:Thinking about How to Teach Chinese Ancient Literature%历史与现代的对话——中国古代文学教学断想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2012-01-01

    Chinese ancient literature has both diachronic and synchronic.It is necessary to think about from two aspects in teaching the ancient literature:on the one hand,the literature should be returned to the historical environment and the original ancient culture in order to interpret its true meaning as much as possible.On the other hand,from the perspective of humanistic care and spirit,we should look for meeting point between the ancient civilization and modern life,helping us build ideal personality.The previous aspect is basis and the latter aspect is goal.If we have cognized of the significance of ancient literature,our national spirit can be carried forward.%古代文学既具有历时性,又具有共时性,因此必须从这两个层面去构建其教学:一方面把文学还原在历史的场境中去解读,尽可能还原古代文学以本来面目,解读其真情真意。另一方面从人文关怀的角度,从中寻找古代文明与现代人生的契合点,力求为当代大学生的人格构建提供可资借鉴的东西。前一个层面是基础,后一个层面是目的,在认知古代文学的基础上,架通历史与现代的桥梁,让历史与现代对话,以古鉴今,弘扬民族精神。

  9. 从“娶”看中国古代汉族的婚姻形态%On the Marriage Status of the Ancient Han from the Chinese Character "wive"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓玲

    2011-01-01

    From the Chinese character "wive",it can be seen that women must obey men,live in men's homes and have the obligation to give birth to babies in the marriage status of the ancient Han.In the meantime,there also exist marriage by capture and dowry marriage.%从"娶"字可以看出中国古代汉族男主女从、女依男居的婚姻关系,女人在婚姻关系中有生育义务,中国古代汉族存在抢婚制和陪嫁婚制。

  10. The Correction and Supplement about Tang da zhao ling ji Category in The Catalogue of Chinese Ancient Books%《中国古籍总目》“唐大诏令集”条订补

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李豪

    2016-01-01

    《中国古籍总目》著录《唐大诏令集》版本多达十三种,但仍有遗漏,而且已著录版本,亦有可商榷者,论文试予订补之。%Thirteen versions about Tang da zhao ling ji are cataloged in The Catalogue of Chinese Ancient Books. However, there are still omissions. The cataloged versions, meanwhile, are also open to discussion. This paper attempts to solve these problems.

  11. Investigating the Connotations of the Genre of Paixie in Ancient Chinese Poetry%“俳谐”考论——以诗词为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅

    2012-01-01

    本文从古代文学(主要是诗词)的批评与创作中,梳理、辨析、论述俳谐的各种涵义。从其本原内涵到后代对俳谐赋予的多层涵义中可以看出,在俳谐诗词中,俳谐不仅指俳优传统中的戏谑娱乐和讽喻谲谏,俳谐还有通俗鄙俚之意,有时又被等同于回文、药名等杂体,而戏作诗词中有很多也可看作俳谐体。尤可注意的是,从杜甫《戏作俳谐体遣闷二首》等一些俳谐诗来看,俳谐并不只有通俗之作,也有文人用自嘲、反讽等手法写出的真情雅作。而俳谐的核心则是一种戏谑的姿态。%This paper analyzes and delineates the different definitions of Paixie as a literary genre through examining the critical and creative works ( mainly poetry) from ancient Chinese literature. Through tracing the original connotation of Paixie and exami- ning the various definitions from later periods, the paper points out that paixie as a genre not only refers to the entertaining forms such as satires and parodies with high - brow and low - brow styles but also includes miscellaneous writing of varied forms and playful writings such as palindromes or names of herbs. From the works by such famous and refined poets as Du Fu, it can be in- ferred that paixie writing is not only meant to be popular and playful but also adopted for self - mockery and irony with refined taste and purpose.

  12. 从《说文解字》建筑词看古人的宇宙观及美学意识%Look at the ancient Chinese Cosmology and aesthetic consciousness from"Shuowen Jiezi"building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳华

    2013-01-01

    "Shuowen Jiezi"contained in building word what is reflected both ancient Chinese vocabulary system, it contains the ancients in the social life, thoughts and the understanding of the universe and life and cultural information. To sort through the construction and analysis of ancient China, the concept of the universe contains these buildings in words and aesthetic culture consciousness.%《说文解字》中所包含的建筑词既是上古汉语词汇系统的反映,同时也蕴含着古人在社会生活、思想观念及对宇宙人生的认识等文化方面的信息。通过对建筑词进行整理并分析,从中探讨这些建筑词中所蕴含的中国古人的宇宙观念及审美文化意识。

  13. 论大学世界古代史课程中有关中国史内容的教学——以《世界史·古代史编》为中心%On the Teaching of Contents about Chinese History in College World Ancient History Course --Taking the Ancient History Part of World History as the Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爽

    2012-01-01

    《]世界史.古代史编》是按照世界古代史的时间断限,以全球史观的视野,来选择对世界历史和世界文明发展产生重要影响的中国史内容。对于《古代史编》中编写的中国史内容教授要详略得当,充分利用现有研究成果,才能使学生深刻认识中国在世界历史中的位置和作用,从而使学生具备全球史观。%From the view of global history and according to the time boundary of world ancient history, Ancient History Part of World History selects teaching contents about Chinese history which have important influences on world history and the development of world civilization. In the teaching of contents about Chinese history in An- cient History Part of World History, teachers should make full use of existing research results with proper details and summaries, in order to make college students deeply understand the position and action of China in world his- tory, thus to improve the students' global view of history.

  14. Reinterpretation of Ancient Chinese Story in The Woman Warrior%“岳母刺字”典故在《女勇士》中的“移位”探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊

    2016-01-01

    Many Chinese American writers tend to reinterpret some ancient Chinese stories in their works .This paper mainly analyzes the reinterpretation of the famous Chinese story YUE Fei Tattooed by His Mother in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior ,comparing their similarities and differences as well as probing into the reasons of the re-interpretation ,in hope of revealing the psychological course of Chinese American’s pursuing their identities and the psy-chological characteristics under the dual cultural shocks .%许多华裔美国文学作品存在对中国古代故事原型进行挪用,并在新语境下重新诠释的现象。采用比较分析的方法,分析“岳母刺字”的历史典故在《女勇士》中挪用和变形的“移位”情况,探究它们之间的异同及其“移位”产生的原因,可更深刻地揭示华裔美国人寻找身份的心理历程和在双重文化冲击下的心理特征。

  15. 古代小说“因爱离魂”母题的文化阐释%Cultural Interpretation of the Motif of "Soul Leaving Body for Love" in Ancient Chinese Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡强

    2012-01-01

    "Soul leaving body for love" is a motif in ancient Chinese novels.The developing and spreading of such a motif is closely connected with the concept of soul in ancient Chinese ethnic cultural psychology and is in line with the love psychology unique to humans.It is of rich cultural implication and aesthetic value in that its romantic and fantastic narration of how young people pursue love reflects the suppression of human desires by the feudal ethnics and the writers' acknowledgements of human desires and concern for women's married life.%"因爱离魂"是古代小说创作的一个母题。这种母题的产生和流行,既与中国古代民族文化心理中的魂魄观念有着密切的关系,也与人类特有的爱情心理相契合。它以浪漫奇幻的方式叙写青年男女追求爱情的故事,折射出封建时代礼教伦常对人性的压抑,表现了作家对人性原欲的肯定和对女性婚姻状况的关注,有着丰富的文化蕴涵和审美价值。

  16. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  17. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; QIAO OiYuan

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astro-nomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors re-garded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Conse-quently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  18. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  19. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LU Guo-yao, A Comprehensive Study of Muhua's Haifu in Linguistic and Aesthetic Perspective Abstract: The distinguished scholar Qian Zhongshu once highly praised Muhua's Haifu. As a complement of his saying, this paper appraises it in linguistic and aesthetic perspective. When combined with Longinus' On Sublime, it seems more practical while the latter is more theoretical. In phonological perspective,

  20. Qin Music Culture and the Generation of Literary Narrative Mood in Ancient Chinese Fictions%琴乐与古代小说文学叙事的意境生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚爱华

    2011-01-01

    琴乐作为一种内涵丰富的叙事客体,对于中国古代小说文学叙事的意境生成有着重要的作用。它使文学叙事的情绪节奏、叙事节奏等骤然发生改变,由闹热趋于静冷,由快实趋于慢虚,渐入清微淡远、含蓄静雅的美学境界。古代小说对琴人形象的塑造也多采用意境化笔法。中国古代小说呈现出的这些艺术风貌,与琴乐的文化气质、审美要求等艺术规定性有着紧密的联系,是古典叙事文学受动于琴乐客观自律性的结果。%Qin music culture as a narrative object with rich contents takes an important role in generation of literature narrative mood in ancient Chinese novels. It makes the emotional rhythm and narrative rhythm suddenly changed from excitement tends to quiet cold, from the fast tends to slow virtual reality, getting into a clear micro and subtle aesthetic realm. The image of Qin players in ancient novel is described in the mood of strokes. These ancient novels show that the temperament of Qin music culture, aesthetic requirements and other provisions of the arts are closely linked which is the result of the ancient novel by moving of the Qin music culture.

  1. 天人合一与合而不一:中国古代服饰的哲学表征%UNITY OF MAN AND HEAVEN AND THEIR DISCREPANCY:THE PHYLOSOPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF CHINESE ANCIENT COSTUMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆平

    2015-01-01

    Chinese ancient costumes are the institution formed by the worship of Chinese ancient people for heaven and earth, and the material manifestation of Chinese philosophy“Unity of Man and Heaven” in costumes. In spite of the changes of dynasties in Chinese history, alterations of costumes and their colors in past dynasty are featured with the philosophy“Unity of Man and Heaven”, which tels that heaven stands for nature, man and heaven are interrelated in essence, and al under the sky should abide by the laws in nature in order to achieve mutual harmony. Simultaneously, however, loose styles of the ancient costumes just conceal the primitive status of mankind as natural beings, and neglect their real existence. In this pattern framed by Unity of Man and Heaven, lives the other form, i.e., being unified but discrepant.%中国古代服饰是一种源于古人对天地崇拜而产生的服装形制,是中国古代哲学思想“天人合一”理念在服装中物化的表现。尽管中国古代历史上朝代更迭频繁,但不同历史时期的改服制、易服色都显现出“天人合一”的哲学表征,即天是自然的代表,人与天在本质上是相通的,一切人、事均应顺乎自然规律,达到人与自然和谐的观念。但与此同时,古代服饰中宽衣博袖的样式恰恰掩盖了人作为自然生物存在的原始形态,忽略了人的真实存在,这种“天人合一”的着衣模式中还存在着另一种“合而不一”的形式。

  2. Breakthrough in the Study of Chinese Ancient Music Literature——On Du Xingmei and Du Yuntong’s“Commentary on Chinese Ancient Musical Literature Elite”%中国古代音乐文学研究的新突破——评杜兴梅、杜运通《中国古代音乐文学精品评注》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富鹏

    2012-01-01

      In Professor Du Xingmei and Du Yuntong’s“Commentary on Chinese Ancient Musical Litera⁃ture Elite” there is a selection of 418 representative music literature from the early Qin Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty. One by one from the two sides of music and literature, detailed comments and review are made. The book is rich in content, subject distinctive, combination of commentary, refined and popular tastes, and strongy informative, interesting and readable. It provides a new unknown reader, on ancient Chinese music lit⁃erature, is undoubtedly an innovation and breakthrough.%  杜兴梅、杜运通教授的《中国古代音乐文学精品评注》精选了从先秦到清末有代表性的音乐文学作品418首(篇),从音乐与文学两个侧面逐一作了较为详尽的注释与评介。该书内容丰富、主旨鲜明、评注结合、雅俗共赏,具有较强的知识性、趣味性和可读性。它提供了该领域前所未有的一种新读本,对中国古代音乐文学研究无疑是一次创新与突破。

  3. 现有世界文化遗产桥梁的核心价值及中国古桥申遗的思考%Core Values of Existing World Cultural Heritage Bridges and Reflection on Making Ancient Chinese Bridges Be Recognized as World Heritages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 孙潮; 陈宝春

    2015-01-01

    The ancient Chinese bridges have extremely high technical accomplishments .How‐ever ,to date ,there is no ancient Chinese bridge having been listed as a world cultural heritage , therefore ,it is quite necessary to carry out study on the issue of making ancient Chinese bridges be recognized as world cultural heritages .In order to speed up the process of world heritage applica‐tion for ancient Chinese bridges and promote the protection and sustainability of ancient Chinese bridges ,the characteristics of the bridges which have been labeled as world cultural heritages were introduced from the definition of world heritage and the related requirements ,and the values and technical accomplishments of ancient Chinese bridges were discussed .According to the conditions for inclusion in world cultural heritage ,the ancient stone arch bridges and timber arch bridges are the ones with top priority .According to the characteristics of bridges as functional structures and technically complex structures ,it is suggested that the focus of Chinese ancient bridges chosen for inclusion of world cultural heritage be put on the study of core technical contents ,highlighting their core values and technical achievements .%中国古代桥梁具有极高的技术成就,然而迄今为止,我国尚没有古桥被列入世界文化遗产,因此开展中国古桥申报世界文化遗产的研究非常必要。为了加快我国古桥申遗的进程、促进我国古桥的保护与传承,从世界遗产的相关定义与要求出发,介绍被列入世界文化遗产桥梁的特点,对我国古代桥梁的价值与技术成就进行讨论。根据世界文化遗产入选的条件,我国的古代石拱桥和木拱桥最具有申遗实力。依据桥梁作为功能性结构、技术复杂结构的特点,在此基础上提出中国古代桥梁申报世界文化遗产应聚集核心技术内容的研究,突出其核心价值和技术成就。

  4. 中国先秦与古希腊体育的差异性及美学品格探究%On Differences and Aesthetic Character between Chinese Pre-Qin Sport and the Ancient Greek Sporty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 邹丹

    2014-01-01

    中国体育与西方体育从文化根源上就呈现出巨大的差异性。中国先秦体育具有礼仪性、养生性、实用性的特征,古希腊体育体现出宗教性、军事性、娱乐性的特点。中国春秋时期的体育在“礼、乐”中彰显德性的教化,具中庸和合与顺应自然的审美意趣,体现出重视技巧和谋略,偏重于以柔克刚的阴柔之美;古希腊体育则在娱乐性的竞技活动中重人格的培养,具崇尚崇高与不受文明礼仪束缚的自然天成的审美倾向,表现出强调力量和速度,偏重于竞技取胜的阳刚之美。%Chinese sports and western sports show huge differences in their culture roots. Chinese Pre- Qin sports has characteristics of etiquette , nourishing of life , practicability,while the ancient Greek sports shows characteristics of religiousness, military ,entertainment. In the period of the spring and autumn, Chinese sports reveals moral education through "the ritual and music", with the doctrine of the mean and aesthetic interest going with the nature, which attaches importance to skills and strategy, and prefers to the feminine beauty with its softer approach to power. On the other hand ,the ancient Greek sports gives priorities to personality training in the entertaining competitive activities, with the aesthetics tendency out of the etiquette rules bound ,which emphasizes on strength and speed, preferring the competitive masculinity.

  5. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  6. Ancient mitogenomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ho, Simon Y W; Gilbert, M Thomas P

    2010-01-01

    the technical challenges that face researchers in the field. We catalogue the diverse sequencing methods and source materials used to obtain ancient mitogenomic sequences, summarise the associated genetic and phylogenetic studies that have been conducted, and evaluate the future prospects of the field....

  7. 关于中华古建筑专用名词翻译风格的思考%Reflections on the Translation Style of Specific Terms in Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑张敏

    2011-01-01

    中华古建筑自古以来沿革了"以丽为美,以势为尚"的美学标准.建筑术语"飞动之美"的渊源,可追溯到诗经时代.无论是"雕梁画栋"式的高雅建筑艺术,还是"灰墙黛瓦"式的民间草根建筑艺术的文本翻译均遵循了忠实于汉语语言习惯的翻译方法.虽然中西文化存在差异,但应尽力表现汉语原有的深厚文化底蕴.%The aesthetic principle of ancient Chinese architecture emphasizes "the beauty of elegance and magnificence",which is derived from the era of "Book of Odes".As to the translation of specific architectural terms,whether it is elegant architectural art of "carved beams and painted rafters" or folk grassroots architectural art of "gray walls and black tiles",the basic rule is focused on seeking their proper equivalences in the target language despite the difference between Chinese and Western cultures,so as to convey the profound Chinese cultural heritage.

  8. On the Relationship between “Big Happy Reunion” of Chinese Ancient Opera and the Tragic Nature of Literary Works%论中国戏曲“大团圆”与作品悲剧性之关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高晨; 田婷婷

    2014-01-01

    What is the relationship between the “Big Happy Reunion” of Chinese ancient opera and tragic of literary works? What influence the former can cast on the latter? These questions are still academically controversial yet to be discussed. The article can be divided into two parts: the first part is “Big Happy Reunion” strengthens the tragic connotation; the second part is "Big Happy Reunion" weakens and damages tragic implication. This paper discusses them from two aspects: there is a tragic nature behind the “Big Happy Reunion” of Chinese ancient opera; and there is an anti-tragic nature behind the “Big Happy Reunion” of Chinese ancient opera. Those “Big Happy Reunions” complying with the artistic logics will increase the tragic nature of some tragic works while those “Big Happy Reunions” that go against the objective reality and logics will hurt the tragic connotations, even can utterly destroy the artistry of literary works.%中国古代戏曲独具特色的“大团圆”结局,与作品的悲剧性之间具何种关系,其对作品的悲剧性具有什么样的影响。这个问题,目前在学术界还是悬而未决,并需要深入辨析探讨的。文章对此问题的浅析主要从两个方面展开:一是“大团圆”背后的悲剧性;二是“大团圆”背后的反悲剧性。认为符合艺术逻辑的大团圆结局会增强带有悲剧内容作品的悲剧性,而不顾现实和艺术的客观事实和逻辑的大团圆结局,会损害带有悲剧内容作品的悲剧内涵,甚至完全毁掉作品的艺术价值。

  9. 古建筑木结构叠合梁与组合梁弯曲受力研究%Bending analysis on composite beam and combination beam of Chinese ancient wooden buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乾; 闫维明

    2012-01-01

    采用力学分析方法,研究了古建筑木结构叠合梁与组合梁弯曲受力问题。以工程中常见的矩形木梁为例,讨论了如下3个问题:1)单梁开裂形成叠合梁后的弯曲受力性能;2)叠合梁与组合梁弯曲受力性能的区别;3)古建筑叠合梁"工字形"抗弯截面的合理性。结果表明:1)单梁开裂后形成叠合梁,将导致截面弯应力峰值大幅度增加;2)单梁加固采用组合梁做法比叠合梁做法更能节约材料且效果更好,且采用钢材加固木梁比木材加固木梁所需截面尺寸小;3)古建筑叠合梁"工字形"截面与相应等高度矩形截面相比,受弯承载力变化不大,具有合理性。%By mechanical analysis methods,internal forces of composite beam and combination beam of Chinese ancient wooden buildings under bending loads were studied.A typical rectangular beam was taken as an example to discuss the following problems: 1) variation of bending stress distribution of the beam after it cracked completely to form a composite beam;2) when the beam was considered to be strengthened by composite beam or combination beam,the difference of bending performance between them;3) rationality of "I-section" type of composite beam or combination beam of Chinese ancient buildings.Results show that:1) after a single beam cracks completely to form a composite beam,its peak bending stress value increases greatly,which may make itself destroyed;2) when a single beam is strengthened by an additional beam,the combination beam is better than the composite beam,and steel is better than wood so far as strengthening material is concerned;3) bending capability of "I-section" type of composite beam or combination beam of Chinese ancient buildings changes little compared to that of rectangular section type,which reflects its rationality.

  10. Chinese ancient government running higher education---Luoyang imperial college teaching content and teaching form%中国古代官办高等教育--洛阳太学的教学内容和教学形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢留枝

    2014-01-01

    培养高级人才是高等教育的重要职责,高等教育教学内容和教学形式是高等教育的重要内容,更与人才质量的高低息息相关,因此,探究高等教育教学内容与教学形式是研究高等教育发展状况及未来人才培养方向的必然选择。我国古代高等教育按性质分为官办高等教育和私立高等教育两种形式。古代官办高等教育是我国当代公立高等教育的雏形,而古代官办高等教育中的洛阳太学是我国古代官办高等教育的典型代表,因此,研究我国古代的洛阳太学及其概况,对我国当代的公立高等教育具有及其重要的作用。%Is the important role of higher education to train talents of higher education,the teaching content and form is an important part of higher education,more and personnel quality is closely linked,therefore,the content of inquiry teaching in higher education and teaching is an inevitable choice for the development of higher education and the future direction of personnel training.Higher education in ancient China are divided into government run higher education and private higher education in two forms.The ancient official higher education is the embryonic form of China's contemporary public higher education,while the ancient official in higher education,Luoyang university is a typical representative of Chinese ancient government run higher education,therefore,study on China's ancient Luoyang Taixue and situation,to contemporary China Public Higher Education and its important role.

  11. 《亚伯拉罕纪略》与古代章回体小说关系研究%Study on the Relationship Between James Legge's Novel "ABrief Record about Abraham" and ChineseAncient Chapter Fictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海霞

    2016-01-01

    晚清时期,基督新教在中国逐渐发展起来,传教士们为新教的发展做出了巨大的贡献。理雅各就是他们中的重要一员,《亚伯拉罕纪略》是理雅各根据《圣经》和中国文学审美和小说接受的实际情况改编的,小说具有显著的中国古代章回体小说的特点。文章对《亚伯拉罕纪略》和中国古代章回体小说做简略介绍,将两者的叙事形式进行对比,并从中国文化叙事学的角度对比两者在叙事视角和意识形态的差异,探索基督教理论著述在晚清汉语语境中的接受与表达,基督教作品与中国文学传统的融合。“从基督教文学作品的内部结构出发,注重其叙事特征的分析和诠释,尝试从一个新的视角考察及基督教与中国文化处境的相遇问题”。[1]%In the late Qing Dynasty,Protestantism developed gradually in Chinese,The missionaries made a great contribution to the development of Protestant.James Legge is one important member of them,"A Brief Record about Abraham" was adapted from the "Bible"the actual situation of Chinese literary aesthetic and novel accepted,this novel has the significant features of Chinese ancient chapter novels.This article does a brief description on the "A Brief Record about Abraham" and Chinese ancient chapter novel ,comparing the two forms of narrative, and compare differences between the narrative angle of view and ideology from the angle of Chinese cultural narrative,exploring of Christian theory works acceptance and expressed in the late Qing Dynasty in the Chinese context, Christian works integrated with Chinese literary tradition."Starting from the internal structure of Christian literature work,pay attention to the analysis and interpretation of narrative features,try to study from a new perspective and the problem of Christianity meet with the Chinese cultural environment".

  12. Comparison and Reflection on Chinese Language Teaching Materials between Prevailing Elementary School and Ancient Enlightenment Education%现行小学语文教材对古代蒙学教材的借鉴与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方海带

    2014-01-01

    21世纪以来,小学语文教材对古代蒙学教材的精华进行了继承与发扬。然而,无论是对蒙学教材的认识还是对其的借鉴都存在着不足,我们对其进行重新审视和反思,是十分必要的。%In the 21st century, Chinese language teaching materials used in elementary schools have inherited and carried forward the essence of ancient enlightenment teaching materials. However, either the understanding or the reference to those teaching materials is insufficient, therefore, it is very necessary to carry on the review and reflection on it.

  13. Advice about Classification of Drama in The Catalog of Chinese Ancient Rare Books%《中国古籍善本书目》集部·曲类分类献疑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒光

    2012-01-01

    There is a problem in The Catalog of Chinese Ancient Rare Books,that is the current classification cannot distinguish the series books of drama clearly.This thesis analyzes some specific examples and proves the necessity of regarding series books of drama as a separate class,proposes some advice for future cataloging in libraries.%《中国古籍善本书目》在集部.曲类分类上存在不能将戏曲丛书明确归类的问题,本文通过分析具体条目,说明曲类设汇编之属的必要性,以对今后馆藏书目的编写提出建议。

  14. 格式塔意象视角下古诗《行宫》的英译%Translation of the Chinese Ancient Poem Ancient Palace in Perspective of Image-Gestalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车志红

    2012-01-01

    The theory of integrity,closure,heterogeneous isomorphism principle of Gestalt psychology have been applied in literature writing,literary appreciation and literary translation.In literary translation,translators should process the dual activities of language cognition and aesthetic experience,construct image-Gestalt,then recreate image-G by using the target language.Based on the theory of image-G,this article analyses the upper and lower image-G of Ancient Palace and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the translation of 4 English version of Ancient Palace in Perspective of Image-Gestalt recreation.%格式塔心理学理论的整体性,闭合性,异质同构性原则在文学创作,文学鉴赏及文学翻译中都可得到运用。在文学翻译中要对原文进行语言认知和美感体验的双重活动,构建格式塔意象,而后用目的语进行格式塔意象再造。本文运用格式塔意象基本理论,分析古诗《行宫》的上层格式塔意象和下层格式塔意象,并对《行宫》四个译文在格式塔意象的再造上的得失进行对比。

  15. 古代小说中的民间宗教%Ancient Chinese novels and folk religions——an analysis of the White Lotus and the Eight Trigrams Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逊; 周君文

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the relationship between ancient Chinese novels and folk religions. Also this article will show how folk religions spread using the White Lotus Order and the Eight Trigram Order as two examples. The author draws the following conclusions. Firstly, as "popular literature", ancient novels have a kind of natural connection with folk religions; secondly, the novels involving folk religions featured stories of persecution from feudal rulers; thirdly, when novelists write about the spread of folk religions, they often obscure the tree nature of religions; fourthly, the connection between ancient novels and folk religions is incredibly complex.%以白莲教、八卦教为主要对象,对中国古代小说与民间宗教的关系作了初步考察,兼论民间宗教传播中的某些特征之后,可以得出以下认识:一、作为俗文学的古代小说与民间宗教有着一种天然的联系.二、这些涉及民间宗教的小说大都站在封建统治的立场上,把民间宗教视为"邪教".三、这些小说在写及民间宗教传播过程时,民间宗教的性质反而被模糊和异化了.四、古代小说与民间宗教的联系涉及到很多方面,其中的情形非常复杂.

  16. A Brief Discussion on the Ancient Chinese System of Se-lecting Officials and Its Realistic Meaning%浅谈中国古代选官制度及其现实意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诗玉

    2013-01-01

      China is a country with a long history, so its profound traditional culture left us endless spiritual wealth. In ancient Chi-nese political culture, official selection system is of profound sig-nificance to bother certain dynasties and the world. To research theses systems of selecting officials can not only help us know about ancient political ideology, but also provide references for contemporary civil servant system.%  中国是一个有着悠久历史的国家,博大精深的传统文化留给了我们无尽的精神财富。在中国古代政治文化中,各个朝代的选官制度不仅对朝代自身也对中国乃至世界都产生了十分深远的影响,研究这些选官制度不仅能对古代的政治思想有所了解,同时也对当代的公务员等现存制度有着可以借鉴的现实意义。

  17. 中医古籍语言系统中的语义类型分析研究%Analytical Study on the Semantic Types of Language Systems in Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 崔蒙; 贾李蓉; 于琦; 杨峰

    2012-01-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine language system (TCMLS), the language system of ancient traditional medicine books is aimed at constructing semantic network for traditional medicine books to enable its retrieval and search with TCMLS. With bibliometrics and documentary analysis, it analyzed and discussed an important category in language system, semantic type, to lay the foundation for language system of ancient traditional medicine books.%中医古籍语言系统是以中医药学语言系统(TCMLS)为依托建立的,旨在初步建立中医古籍的语义网络,从而实现与中医药学语言系统(TCMLS)的兼容检索与查询.使用文献计量学及文献分析方法,对语言系统的一个重要类目一语义类型进行简要分析和论述,为中医古籍语言系统的构建奠定基础.

  18. Cultural Meaning of Plants Described in Chinese Ancient Poetry%植物在中国古诗歌中的文化含义--以梅、柳、荷、菊四种植物为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路彦文

    2013-01-01

    There are many description of plants in Chinese ancient poetry.The external morphology of the plants and the implied emotional metaphor can be taken as important elements of cultural meaning of plants in Chinese ancient poetry.For ex-ample , Nelumbo nucifera, which grow in water, symbolizes the clean elegance, not dyed earth.And october cosmos, which , .%  我国古诗歌中关于植物的创作,一方面是植物本身的外在形态、生活习性及利用植物营造出的独特意境;另一方面是植物暗含的品格或借植物表达隐喻的情感等,这些是植物在中国古诗歌中文化含义的重要组成。以横、斜、倚、曲、古、雅、苍、疏为美的梅花,具有不畏严寒,坚韧顽强的品质,是隐者的意象;人们常用春柳柔弱的枝条寄托离别思绪;生长于水中的荷花象征着清洁高雅、不染尘世;生性耐寒、傲霜的秋菊,象征着隐士及有志者的气节操守。

  19. The Phenomen on of the Initial′s Palatalization of the Ancient Jian(见系) in the Modern Chinese Dialects%现代汉语方言中的“见系声母腭化现象”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of the initials′palatalization of the ancient Jian (见系) refers to the fact that the ancient Jian which was not palatalized and pronounced as [k] group with thebroad vowels in modern Putonghua ,is palatalized ,pronounced as [t¢] group or [t∫] group ,with the front -open vowels in the modern Chinese dialects .In the modern Chinese dialects ,the initials′palatalization of Hui Dialect remains relatively complete ,with that of Xiang Dialect ,Wu Dialect ,and Gan Dialect being secondary ,and that of the Hakka Dialect ,Jin Group and Mandarin is very rare .The palatalized phonemes mentioned in the previous dialects belong to the colloquial layer which were evolved from [k] group with the front -openVowels .%  “见系声母腭化现象”指中古见系字在今普通话中未腭化读[k]组拼洪音的,在现代汉语方言中腭化读[t礰]组拼细音或[t礏]组的现象。现代汉语方言中,徽语的腭化现象保存比较完整,湘语吴语赣语次之,客家话晋语官话极少。腭化音在上述方言中属于白读层,由曾经存在过的[k]组拼细音演变而来。

  20. 中国古代艺徒制对构建现代学徒制的启示%Revelation on Chinese Ancient Apprenticeship to the Establishment of Modern Apprentice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀丽

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of Chinese modern apprenticeship not only learns from foreign experiences, but also learns from the history and development of itself. There were many useful experiences of Chinese ancient apprentice-ship. Ancient apprentice is an all -around talents training mode that combines skills operation and moral attain-ment. The features like “career practice”,“words and deeds”,“ability assessment”,“moral concept”which express in the process of feudal government marco-control makes a great influence and revelation on the es-tablishment of modern apprenticeship with China characteristics.%建立中国现代学徒制不仅要借鉴外国的经验,更多的是要从其自身的历史与嬗变中寻找能够借鉴的东西。中国古代艺徒制中就有许多值得借鉴之处。艺徒制作为集技能操作和德育素养于一体的全方位人才培养方式。其在官府宏观控制地实施过程中体现出来的“职业实践”、“言传身教”、“能力考评”、“德育观念”等特点至今有深刻的教育意义,对建立中国特色的现代学徒制有着重要的启示。

  1. Mode and Application of Database and the Collection of Ancient Bibliography on Qigong in Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine%南京中医药大学气功古籍文献整理与数据库开发的模式与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雨; 顾宁一; 宋宇

    2011-01-01

    南京中医药大学图书馆是一所专业的中医药古籍图书馆,气功古籍的收藏是其古籍部一大特色.鉴于此,南京中医药大学图书馆于2008年成功申请了国家体育总局的科研项目.经过一年多的文献调查、整理及数据库的开发,现已完成了“气功基本古籍提要库”的开发与应用.“气功基本古籍提要库”的开发与应用以养生类气功古籍文献为特色,开创了气功古籍文献专题库的开发模式.同时,网络设计思想提高了数据库的共享性.总而言之,“气功基本古籍提要库”基本上反映了中国传统气功的经典面貌与文化传承,既对气功古籍研究提供了快捷、方便的检索方式,又实现了对气功古籍的有效保护.%The library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine has many ancient Chinese medical books, and above all, the ancient books of Qigong is its characteristic. Considering this, the library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine had successfully applied for the scientific research projects of General Administration of Sport of China in 2008. After more than one year's research and collection on the bibliographies as well as the- development of the database, the library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine has fulfilled the development and application of the database on basic Qigong ancient books. This database is characterized by Qigong ancient bibliographies on health promotion, which starts the development mode for subject database of Qigong ancient books. Meanwhile the idea of network make the sharing of the database be possible. In a word, the database of Qigong ancient books reflects the classic and cultural heritage of Chinese traditional Qigong. It offers not only one quick and convenient way to search Qigong ancient books, but also protects our Qigong ancient books.

  2. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  3. Chinese Ancient Marriage Culture on Contemporary Marital Life Enlightenment%论中国古代婚恋文化对当代婚姻生活的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Chinese Confucian classics and the works of love literature on love and marriage life made a specifica-tion and description,to show the long history and distinctive ancient marriage culture,which contains a lot of useful elements of today’s society,love and marriage life is beneficial.Modern society because of lifestyle changes,people’s concept of mar-riage has changed,“the unmarried cohabitation”,“flash marriage”,“flash off”and an affair affect the stability of the society, the harmonious development,the ancient tradition of marriage in the cautious attitude of marriage,the wedding,sincere and specification of marriage faithful long-term stability requirements,the emphasis on love and marriage,can provide reference for solving these contradictions and problems.At the same time,between the couple together the ancient marriage culture and how to deal with the reality of marriage and family conflicts and other issues also gives a beneficial enlightenment.%中国古代儒家经典和爱情文学作品等对爱情和婚姻生活做出了规范和描述,展现了历史悠久且特色鲜明的古代婚恋文化,其蕴含的诸多积极有益的元素,对当今社会的爱情婚姻生活都有所裨益。当代社会由于生活方式的转变,人们的婚恋观也出现了变革,“不婚同居”、“闪婚”、“闪离”和婚外情等问题影响着社会的稳定、和谐发展,古代传统婚恋观中对婚姻的谨慎态度、对婚礼的规范、对婚姻长久稳定的要求、对爱情和婚姻的真挚与忠贞的强调,都可以为解决这些矛盾和问题提供参考。同时,古代婚恋文化中对夫妻相守之道和如何处理好婚姻与家庭现实之间的矛盾等问题也给出了有益的启示。

  4. 論中國古代「藏書家」的定義:以明代為例 A Discussion on Definitions of Chinese Ancient Book Collectors in Ming Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chih Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available 藏書史研究的內容極為豐富,包括自古以來各種藏書機構和私人的藏書活動,以及典冊與圖書本身,還有諸如圖書的收集、購求、鑒別、保藏、研究與散佚等專業範疇,藏書思想與方法理論,也囊括與藏書活動關係密切的刻書、書肆、流通與傳播等社會風尚,和因藏書風尚產生的政治、經濟和社會文化背景等等,都是屬於中國文化史的一部份,非常值得深入探究。但是,藏書史研究往往受限於有關古代「藏書家」的定義,因為累朝歷代對於「典籍」的認知略有不同,才會造成藏書史研究上的根本問題。 反觀數十年來的藏書史研究,還沒有專書或專論針對古代藏書家的定義而作,事實上,在定義時也存有很大的困境。本文試圖從史料當中梳理出一條理路,以明代的藏書家為例,為中國古代藏書家的定義作出部份釐清與說明。The book collection research contents are extremely rich, including each kinds of collection agencies and private collections since the ancient times, as well as book itself, and such as the book collection, purchase, identification, preservation, research, loss, thoughts and theoretical methods, and those customs are related closely to book collection activities about publishing, bookmen, circulation and dissemination, and the background of politics, economy, social culture that arise from the customs of book collection, they are all belong to the category of Chinese cultural history, and deserve to study deeply.However, the research of book-collecting history are always limited from the definition of ancient book collector, because of the recognition about the books in each period of time in ancient were different, and became a primary question of research in book-collecting history of ancient China. Surveying the research of the book-collecting, there are no any professional books or essays in definiens of Chinese book

  5. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  6. On the Translation of the Allusions in Ancient Chinese Poems%汉诗英译中典故的翻译方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福珍

    2016-01-01

    汉语诗歌的翻译已是不易,而汉语诗歌中常用的典故的翻译尤为不易。典故的文字虽然简洁凝练,但却包含着丰富的内容,蕴含着深刻的寓意和文化内涵。翻译典故时,首先要探寻清楚其文化渊源,然后理解其文化内涵。在此基础上,采用恰当的翻译方法,灵活地翻译,在译入语读者可接受的范围内,向译入语读者传播汉语文化。%Chinese poem is a unique literature form in Chinese treasure house of literature. It is not easy to translate Chinese poems into English. In translating Chinese poems, translation of allusions is one of the most difficult part because allusions are full of stories and meanings and cultural contents. When translating allusions,at first,the translator must find out the related information about the allusion such as the origin and the content,the historical background and try to understand the cultural contents. Then proper translating methods can be adopted flexibly to transfer Chinese culture to the target language readers within their acceptable scope.

  7. On Ancient Chinese Regimen:Following Natural Laws and Adapting to Season Changes%顺天应时:中国古代饮食养生原则初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李明晨

    2014-01-01

    “以养为目的”是中餐的民族化特征,由古至今的中医学家都十分重视饮食养生。当今时代,健康养生成为人们的饮食追求。把传统的食疗保健与现代的营养保健相结合成为饮食养生者普遍采取的折衷办法。纵观代代传承的养生理论与实践经验,“顺天应时”是饮食养生的重要原则。%Dietary regimen has been an important part of Chinese food culture since ancient times. It is now a widely accepted practice to combine traditional food therapy with modern nutrition theories. Following natural laws and adapting to Season Changes is a significant principle of traditional Chinese dietary regimen.

  8. On Synonymous Coupling and Antonymous Coupling in the Categories of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory%中国古代文论范畴的邻界耦合与对待耦合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涌豪

    2011-01-01

    There were many categories of near-synonymy and also many categories of antonym in ancient Chinese literary theory. The former categories were coupled with nearly synonymous popular sayings while the latter categories were coupled with antonymous popular sayings. Ancient people preferred to use these categories of sayings to define and discuss literature, just because they kept such cultural psychology and cognitive habits of thinking carefully and respecting tradition that they were reluctant to create new words and expressions to be criticized for submerging the origin of things and acting rashly, and also because they wanted to ensure that their argumentation was eloquent and profound, so that these categories could fully display the innermost essences of literary creating, and show the law of the universe that all things act mutually and perform reciprocally. This reveals the humanity root of Chinese literature, and forms one of the important characteristics of Chinese traditional literary theory.%中国古代文论中有许多近义范畴,又有许多对待范畴,前者由意义邻近的名言耦合而成,后者则由意义对待的名言耦合而成。古人好用此类名言界定与论说文学,既是出于慎终追远的文化心理和认知习惯,不愿别作新词,以冲冒被人指为汩没本源、鲁莽率意的考虑,也是为了保证立论的周洽与深刻,从而最大程度地开显文学创造的内里机理,并有以体现天地万物相偶相成的运化规律。它在在体现了中国文学的人文根性,也是构成传统文论的重要特点之一。

  9. 中国古代死刑制度的本体论解析%Chinese Ontological Analysis of Ancient Death Penalty System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高吉见

    2014-01-01

    死刑在本体论上的含义是掌握公权力的主体以公共利益或他人的利益受到损害为名义,而利用其掌握的公权力实施的、对造成公权力主体自认为除行为人本人以外的其他客体具有严重威胁和破坏的人剥夺其生命的一种极端的手段。中国死刑制度在静态、动态上各具特色。中国古代死刑制度“经久不衰”的原因是生产力发展水平低下,阶级斗争的残酷性,中国古代对“人性”认识的局限性,自原始社会末期至今的血族复仇思想的影响。%Meaning of the death penalty in the ontology is to master the subject of public authority or in the name of public interest damage, and also make use of the implementation of public power. Meanwhile, the death penalty is an extreme means of depriving and destroying humans’ lives, including public authority except the perpetrator himself objects. There are several characteristic feature for ancient death penalty system of both in static and dynamic. The cause of “Enduring”on the death penalty system in ancient China is the low level of development of productivity,class struggle cruelty, limitations of ancient China,“human”understanding, since the end of primitive society kinship Revenge ideas have lasted till now.

  10. Frugality of Chinese Ancient Architecture and its Value of Times%中国古代建筑俭德及其时代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦红岭

    2014-01-01

    俭德既是中国古代建筑活动的重要道德观念,也是中国传统建筑审美风尚的重要特征,对于廉政治国、富国裕民有重要作用。古代典籍中有关宫室营建方面的建筑俭德,主要体现在“卑宫室”与“宫室有度”两个方面,倡导宫室营建“务以节俭”,不求高大和华美,反对过度追求物质欲望,主张以礼来节制消费,反对费财劳力的建筑奢侈之风。古代建筑俭德观是一笔宝贵的思想财富,在可持续发展成为全球共识的背景下,具有不可低估的时代价值。%Virtue of frugality is not only China’s important moral values of ancient building, but also an important feature of traditional architectural aesthetic fashion. It plays an important role in the integrity of governance and enriches the state and the people. Virtue of frugality of palace construction mentioned in ancient books is mainly reflected in two aspects, namely, “ mean palace” and “ moderation palace”. Both aspects advocate that palace construction is “services to frugal”, does not seek tall and gorgeous, against excessive pursuit of material desires, and advocate control spending by etiquette, against labor architectural extravagance. The ancient virtue of frugality is precious thoughts of wealth and has value of times which can’t be underestimated under the backdrop of sustainable development to become a global consensus.

  11. 古代波斯的染织艺术及其与中国的关系%Relation between Ancient Persian and Chinese Weaving and Dyeing Arts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪良云; 张晓霞

    2001-01-01

    古代波斯的染织业十分兴旺发达,其染织艺术吸收东西方各种艺术成就,形成了自己独特的风格,尤其在与中国的贸易交流中,古波斯的织造技艺和染织物的图案构成都强烈地受到中国的影响,同时中国也从古波斯的染织艺术中得到借鉴,发展了自身。古代波斯的染织艺术与中国有着密切的关系。%Ancient Persia was prosperous in its weaving and dyeing art whichincorporated the eastern and western artist achivements, forming its own unique style. Ancient Persia was deeply affected by China in its weaving techniques and patterns of woven and dyed fabrics during the bilateral trade and exchange, while China also used the experience of Persian weaving and dyeing art for its own development, showing their close relation in this aspect.

  12. Explore the Key Point of the Ancient Poetry Teaching of Junior Chinese%探究初中语文古诗词教学的关键点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓鸽

    2014-01-01

    从古诗词的特点出发,以激发学生学习古诗词为目的,探究古诗词的教学重点。朗读法可以使学生体会诗词的音乐美、意境美、情感美以及运用多媒体营造课堂情趣,有助于提升教师古诗词教学的质量和水平。%Based on the characteristics of the ancient poetry,for stimulating students to learn poetry as the goal,the paper explores the teaching focus of poetry. Loud-speaking enables students to experience the beauty of music,the beauty of artistic conception of poetry,the beauty of emotion and use the multimediel,to create a class interest,help to improve the quality and standard of teachers’ teaching ancient poetry.

  13. Comments on the evolution of Chinese ancient official selection and appointment system%我国古代官员选任制度的演进评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会霞

    2013-01-01

    The selection and appointment system in ancient China is an important part of the ancient official personnel system. It has formed a unique development path, through hereditary system, recommendatory system,Nine-rank system to the imperial examination system over more than two thousand years. Researching the law of its development will help to grasp the history, and provide reference for the perfection of present civil service selection system.%我国古代官员选任制度是古代人事制度的重要组成部分,两千多年来经历了世袭制、察举制、九品中正制、科举制的演变历程,形成了特有的发展轨迹。研究分析其发展规律将有利于把握历史,并为完善现有的公务员选聘制度提供借鉴。

  14. The Ancient City of Pinqyao:Where the Time Stops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is a common night in May, I found myself wandering in the Ancient City of Pingyao.If not those neon light, I would even doubt that I had gone back to the ancient times.Located on the eastern banks of the Fen River, and in the southwestern edge of the Taiyuan basin, Pingyao Ancient City is the outstanding example of Chinese Han nationality cities during Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  15. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  16. On Chinese Terms Designating Repeated Actions in Ancient Musical Scores%谈古乐谱中表示反复的汉字术语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于韵菲

    2012-01-01

    Chinese terms designating repeated actions frequently appear in musical scores of pipa, zither, flute and drums in the period of Tang and Song Dynasties, which are further passed down to scores in the Ming and Qing as well as modern and contemporary times. Those terms reflect the abbreviat- ed notation with Chinese characteristics, generate a conceptual system that match with Chinese music and establish a basis of terminology for traditional Chinese music structure. Therefore, it is necessary to un- derstand the development of those terms and their use, distinguish their similarities and differences and then make a reasonable judgment.%表示反复的汉字术语,集中体现在唐宋时期的琵琶、筝、笛子、鼓等器乐谱中,并传承于明清曲谱与近现代的传统音乐乐谱中。这些汉字术语体现了省略记谱法的中国特色,形成了与中国音乐相匹配的概念体系,奠定了分析我国传统音乐曲式结构的术语基础。在解译时,有必要弄清楚术语及其用法的发展脉络,有机地将术语之间的同异关系区分开来,从而给出合理的判断。

  17. Review of Database about Ancient Traditional Chinese Medical Books%中医古籍数据库建设研究进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高程熙; 赵博

    2012-01-01

    综合了近十年中医药类数据库的发展状况,发现在数据库的建设过程中,选择图文结合方式构建的数据库是目前中医古籍数据库的主流.在数据库建设标准的制定上应该注意中医古籍版本的选择.在依托平台方面清华同方TPI系统在构建特色数据库方面有很大优势.元数据加工方面一般按中医古籍的分类、题名、责任者、出版年代、出版者、版本项、版式、卷数、馆藏地、书籍特征、保存状况、复制状况等进行著录.为方便检索,在原文的标引上可统一采用规范字标引.%Based on the synthesis of nearly ten years of Traditional Chinese Medicine database, Found in the database construction process, the choice of graphic combining ways of building up the database is the classics database of the mainstream of the traditional Chinese medicine. In the database construction standards on traditional Chinese medicine should pay attention to the choice of the classics edition. Relying on platform aspects in Tsinghua Tongfang TPI in constructing the characteristic database system has great advantage. Yuan data processing according to the classification of Chinese classics general, title, responsible, publishing, publishers, version, format, volume number, collection, books, save situation, features state of the copy for description. For the convenience of retrieval, in the version of the standard on can unite made regulating the use of lead.

  18. 我国古代音乐的功用性研究%Study on the function of Chinese ancient music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢玄

    2013-01-01

    The function of ancient music can be classified into the entertainment function and utility function. The utility function is further divided into political function and social function. Conflict between the utility function and entertainment function of music can be witnessed throughout the beginning and end of music development. As time goes by, the entertainment function of music is growing stronger and gradually becoming the mainstream music.%  古代音乐的功用性归纳为娱乐性功用、功利性功用。功利性功用又分为政治性功用、社会性功用。音乐功利性与娱乐性的冲突贯穿了音乐发展的始终。冲突的结果总是娱乐性音乐由弱到强,逐步成为主流音乐。

  19. The Peacocks Flying to the Southeast and Ancient Chinese Marriage Customs of“Chu Fu”%«孔雀东南飞»与中国古代“出妇”婚俗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰建霞

    2015-01-01

    通过文献研究阐述了中国古代出妇婚俗,并从出妇婚俗的角度对中国古代文学史上著名的叙事长诗«孔雀东南飞»进行了解读。出妇礼俗是古代婚姻礼俗制度的构成部分,其内容包括“七出之制”即出妻的七种规定,出妇行为遵循特定的礼仪程式进行,出妇享有一定的尊严和财产所有权。«孔雀东南飞»是一首出妇(妻)诗。兰芝被遣属“子甚宜其妻,父母不悦,出。”的情形,诗歌叙写了兰芝被遣的过程,反映了她对自己私物拥有处置权的事实。%The purpose of current study is to produce a detailed account of how “Chu Fu”works as ancient Chinese marriage custom through the review of literature,and the writer interprets The Peacocks Flying to the Southeast ———the well-known long narrative poem in China's history of litera-ture from the perspective of the customs.“Chu Fu”is a component of the ancient Chinese marriage customs.It included “The Seven Dispossession”which refers to seven stipulations when man repudi-ates his wife.The ceremony of“Chu Fu”follows specified procedures,and reserves a certain degree of dignity and property ownership to the repudiated wives.The Peacocks Flying to the Southeast is a po-em for “Chu Fu”.Lanzhi's dispossession can be categorized as the case “the son loves his wife very much,but the parents don't,then dispossesses her from the family”.The poem describes the process of Lanzhi's dispossession,and reflects the fact that Lanzhi has right to dispose her personal belong-ings.

  20. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  1. Fast neutron activation analysis of ancient mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About fifty specimens of ancient Chinese bronze mirror from various dynasties are analysed by fast neutron radiated from neutron generator. The contents of copper, tin and lead in the mirror are listed in this paper. Experimental method and measurement equipment are described too

  2. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  3. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  4. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  5. 民族医药古籍保护性研究意义及现状%Significance and Present Status of Conservation Research on Ancient Literatures of Chinese Ethnic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 冯岭

    2015-01-01

    -of-mouth might face the danger of failure in finding an eligible heir to inherit them.Therefore,it is urgent and necessary for the whole society to gather strength to carry out emergent investigations of various versions of those ancient literatures of ethnic medicine and afterward specialized and scientific protection,arrangement and research work.Take the protective research of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures for example,with the special attention and financial aids of all different levels of government departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology,a nationwide project of the survey,collection and arrangement of Ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was carried out for the first time.After more than five yearswork,a catalogue was published for the first time by the re-search team as an approach to protect the cultural property right of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures.It was the first time for the catalogue to be translated into Tibetan,Chinese,English and Latin according to international standards as a research result for promotional purposes.It was also the first time for the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures to be permanently preserved,protected and spread in digital form-by way of building an information platform.Besides,the intellectual property right of ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was also protected through registering patents and copyrights,etc.The work experience and scientific research model that the research team gained laid a solid foundation for the scientific protection,inheritance and development of the ancient literatures of ethnic medicine in China;it also established a mature,scientific orientation for further research.

  6. 生存与守望--试论中国古代女性尺牍的创作心态%Survival and Watch- -Ancient Chinese Women’s Letter Writing Creation Mentality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈宏

    2014-01-01

    在中国尺牍文学史上,女性尺牍颇为寂寥。试从女性作家尺牍的创作心态考察入手,就文本中体现出来的守望、寻觅等生存姿态和心理进行分析,揭示了守望情结对中国古代女性的情感体验和尺牍创作心态中所起的作用。同时以男性作家创作心态为参照,认为中国古代女性尺牍创作既是出于自我心理平衡的需要,也是为了满足男性的需要,归根到底是因为她们缺乏生存的自主意识。%The amount for women’s letter writing is fewer in the history of Chinese literature. This article tries to analyze female writer’s letter writing mentality,studies the text in aspects of watch,seeking and psychology,points out influence of watch complex on letter writing. Different with male writers’creation mentality,ancient Chinese women’s letter writing expresses their psychological balance and meeting men’s needs,in other words they don’t have consciousness of survival.

  7. “六维精讲”与“经典习读”相结合古代汉语教学改革模式实践报告%A practice report on the ancient Chinese teaching mode“six dimension intensive lecture” combined with “classic learning”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏飞; 代伟

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the effect of teaching on the ancient Chinese,we explore and practice a new mode of Teaching Reform———“six dimension intensive lecture” combined with“classic learning” of the ancient Chinese teaching mode.“Six dimension” refers to the common words, the phenomenon of using Chinese characters, lexical and syntactic, rhetoric, cul-ture, ancient notes.Teachers teach the text carefully according to the six aspects, students also read the text carefully from the six aspects, to study the method and develop the ability of reading the classical text.%为了使古代汉语教学更高效,探索践行了一种新的教改模式———“六维精讲”与“经典习读”相结合的古代汉语教学模式。“六维”指常用字词、用字现象、词法句法、修辞、文化、古注。教师“六维”讲课、学生“六维”习读,培养阅读经典古籍的方法和能力。

  8. 中国古代医药文献对外传播及其影响%International Communication and Influence of Chinese Medical Literature in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔卓瑶; 张宗明

    2015-01-01

    文献是人类文明的基本载体。在中医药对外交流的历程中,医药文献传播的重要意义自不待言。医药文献不仅是中医药文化历时传承的重要途径,也是中医药文化共时交流的重要方式。鉴古启今,梳理中医药跨文化传播史,发现凭借着丰富的中医药典籍、先进的造纸术和印刷术、开放的对外政策、发达的海陆交通,通过官方和民间两种途径,中国古代医药文献大量地输出,远播亚洲、欧洲,对汉方医学、韩医学等输入国的传统医学产生了深远的影响。%Literature is the basic carrier of human civilization . In the multi‐cultural exchanges of T raditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ,there is no need to underscore the fact that the spread of medical literature is significant .Medical literature is not only the key channel to the inheritance of TCM culture ,but also an important way for the communication of TCM culture .It is enlightening to systematically review the intercultural communication history of TCM .The study found that a great deal of Chinese medical classics ,the invention of papermaking and printing ,the open policy and the developed transportation ,plenty Chinese medical classics spread abroad to Asia and Europe by the folk and governmental ways .It exerted profound influence on the traditional medicine of importing countries ,such as Kampo Medicine and Korean M edicine .

  9. [Herbological studies on Chinese crude drug Ma-huang. Part 1-On the botanical origin of Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Chieko; Kitade, Makiko; Mikage, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    The botanical origin of a Chinese crude drug Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang were herbologically studied. The results showed that the plants of Ephedra sinica Stapf, E. intermedia Schrenk & C. A. Meyer and E. equisetina Bunge were used as Ma-huang in China, and the first species was considered to be of high quality. The characters of Mao-zhou Ma-huang and Tong-zhou Ma-huang printed in Tu-jing-ben-cao, published in the Song Dynasty in China, were identified as E. likiangensis Florin and E. intermedia, respectively, and both species were recognized as excellent Ma-huang in the Ming Dynasty. The word origin of Katsune-kusa, the Japanese name for Ma-huang in the Heian Era, was etymologically considered as meaning the plant having reddish brown roots. In Japan, the plant of Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. var.japonicum Milde, of the family Equisetaceae, was substituted for Ma-huang in the middle of Edo Era, and it was designated that this action was based on the confusion of Ephedra plants and Equisetum plants those days in China.

  10. 在文化语境中阐释中国古代文学%Interpretation of Ancient Chinese Literature in Cultural Context

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽红

    2015-01-01

    提出把古代文学作品还原到文化语境中,才能真正阐明其意义和价值,从而突破传统的讲解模式。可以在各时代的文化语境中把握作品的主题,在各种文化信息中阐释作品的内涵,突破传统的雅俗文化界限,在民间文化的立场上解读民间特色鲜明的作品。%In the present ancient literature teaching and research, teachers often concentrate on the review of literature history and the analysis of literary works. To break through such tradi-tional interpretation mode, teachers should restore the works to their cultural contexts and inter-pret every profound meaning of the works in a larger cultural context so as to clarify their signifi-cance and value. Therefore, teachers should take the cultural contexts of different eras into con-sideration for the correct understanding of the theme of literary works, make full use of pictures for the better understanding of literary works, and break the boundary between elegance and vul-garity in culture and interpret the strikingly unique folk literary works from the standpoint of folk culture.

  11. Ferulic acid enhances the chemical and biological properties of astragali radix: a stimulator for danggui buxue tang, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Ken Y Z; Zhang, Zhen X; Du, Crystal Y Q; Zhang, Wendy L; Bi, Cathy W C; Choi, Roy C Y; Dong, Tina T X; Tsim, Karl W K

    2014-02-01

    Danggui buxue tang, an ancient formula composed of astragali radix and Angelicae sinensis radix, has been used for treating menopausal irregularity in women for more than 800 years in China. In danggui buxue tang, the complete functions of astragali radix require the assistance of Angelicae sinensis radix, and both herbs have to work harmoniously in order to achieve the maximal therapeutic purposes. In order to analyze the relationship of the two herbs, the role of ferulic acid, a major chemical within Angelicae sinensis radix, in chemical and biological properties of astragali radix was determined. Using ferulic acid in the extraction of astragali radix, the amounts of astragaloside IV, calycosin, and formononetin were increased in the final extract; however, the astragali radix polysaccharide showed a minor increase. The chemical-enriched astragali radix extract showed robust induction in osteogenic and estrogenic activities in cultured osteosarcoma MG-63 and breast MCF-7 cells. However, ferulic acid itself did not show such biological responses. The current results strongly suggest that Angelicae sinensis radix-derived ferulic acid is a positive regulator for danggui buxue tang, which enhanced the solubilities of active ingredients derived from astragali radix, and which therefore increased the biological efficacies of danggui buxue tang. PMID:24488720

  12. Absorbing the Essence of Chinese Ancient Academy Education to Bring Up the College Students to Practice the"Chinese Dream"%汲取古代书院教育精华造就勇于实践“中国梦”的一代大学生∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨钟; 王思文

    2014-01-01

    当代部分大学生中突出存在自我主义和集体主义、自由精神和自律意识、自私功利和无私奉献、自信心态与自卑情绪等“自冲突”现象。为了培养勇于实践梦想的一代大学生,我们有必要汲取古代书院教育精华,从严肃教学制度、“智育伦理化”教学方法、重视劳动素质培养、提高自我管理能力、重视仪式教育和特色环境育人等方面建立书院精神和大学制度相结合的高职特色教育模式。%The contemporary College students have the prominent "self conflict phenomenon"such as egoism and collectivism,the spirit of freedom and self-discipline consciousness,selfishness and utilitarianism and selfless dedication,confident attitude and feelings of inferiority,and so on.In order to cultivate college students having the courage to ptractice the"Chinese Dream",it is necessary for us to learn the essence of Ancient Academy education,to establish the higher vocational education mode combining the chinese ancient academy spirit and the modern university system from strict teaching system,"the intellectual education ethicalization" teaching method,paying attention to the importance of labor quality training,improving the ability of self management and paying attention to ceremony education and environmental education.

  13. Therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease: the ancient meets the future--traditional Chinese herbal medicine, electroacupuncture, gene therapy and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Liang, Xi-Bin; Li, Feng-Qiao; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Liu, Xian-Yu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2008-10-01

    In China, it has been estimated that there are more than 2.0 million people suffering from Parkinson's disease, which is currently becoming one of the most common chronic neurodegenerative disorders during recent years. For many years, scientists have struggled to find new therapeutic approaches for this disease. Since 1994, our research group led by Drs. Ji-Sheng Han and Xiao-Min Wang of Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University has developed several prospective treatment strategies for the disease. These studies cover the traditional Chinese medicine-herbal formula or acupuncture, and modern technologies such as gene therapy or stem cell replacement therapy, and have achieved some original results. It hopes that these data may be beneficial for the research development and for the future clinical utility for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  14. The Volume of a Sphere: A Chinese Derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how ancient Chinese mathematicians attempted to correct an error concerning the volume of a sphere in the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, a compendium of the mathematics known and used in China in ancient times. (MKR)

  15. Searching Signals in Chinese Ancient Records for the $^{14}$C Increases in AD 774-775 and in AD 992-993

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    According to the analysis of the $^{14}$C content of two Japanese trees over a period of approximately 3000 years at high time resolution, Miyake (2012) found a rapid increase at AD 774-775 and later on at AD 992-993 (Miyake 2013). This corresponds to a high-energy event happened within one year that input $\\gamma$-ray energy about 7$\\times{}$10$^{24}$erg to the Earth, leaving the origin a mystery. Such strong event should have an unusual optical counterpart, and have been recorded in historical literature. We searched Chinese historical materials around AD 744-775 and AD 992-993, but no remarkable event was found except a violent thunderstorm in AD 775. However, the possibility of a thunderstorm containing so much energy is still unlikely. We conclude the event caused the $^{14}$C increase is still unclear. This event most probably has no optical counterpart, and short gamma-ray burst, giant flare of a soft gamma-ray repeater and terrestrial $\\gamma$-ray flash may all be the candidates.

  16. Searching for events in Chinese ancient records to explain the increase in 14C from AD 774-775 and AD 993-994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ya-Ting; Zou, Yuan-Chuan

    2015-09-01

    According to analysis of the 14C content in two Japanese trees, that grew over a period of approximately 3000 years, with high time resolution, Miyake et al. found a rapid increase at AD 774-775 and another one at AD 993-994. These increases correspond to high-energy events that happened within those years and radiated γ-ray energy of about 7×1024 erg toward the Earth. The origin of these events is a mystery. Such strong events should have an unusual optical counterpart, and have been recorded in historical literatures. We searched Chinese historical materials around AD 744-775 and AD 993-994, but no remarkable event was found except for a violent thunderstorm in AD 775. However, the possibility of a thunderstorm containing so much energy is unlikely. We conclude that the events, which caused the 14C increase, are still unclear. These events most probably had no optical counterpart, and a short gamma-ray burst, giant flare of a soft gamma-ray repeater or a terrestrial γ-ray flash could all be candidates.

  17. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  18. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  19. "Fractal Expression" in Chinese Calligraphy

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Yuelin

    2008-01-01

    We show that from historical record and mathematic analysis, "fractal expressions" may have been a conscious pursuit at least one thousand years ago as an element of beauty in ancient Chinese calligraphy.

  20. The Accuracy of the Five-planet Locations Calculated by the Chinese Ancient Calendar Named Shoushi Li%《授时历》五星推步的精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2011-01-01

    The calendar Shoushi Li is one of the most famous calendars in ancient China,which was recorded in the Lizhi (ancient calendar book of China) of Yuanshi (annals of the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 to 1367). There are seven important calculation parts, including solar terms, syzygies, corrections of the sun and the moon, eclipses and so on. The locations of the five-planet are also in the list. Almost every part has a corresponding section in the modern astronomical year book. It is the last calendar formulated only by Chinese astronomers and its period of usage (from 1281 to 1644) is the longest one in ancient China.It was also a new calendar system which cast off the traditional method by which calculations were carried out from the epoch of the distant past. The basic constants were obtained by meticulous observations and then used in calculations.In this paper, the calculation methods of planetary locations in Shoushi Li are investigated and recovered by studying the official texts of Yuanshi. (1) The locations of the ephemeris of Jupiter in 1299 are derived and our recovering method is affirmed by comparing with other studies. (2) The calculated accuracies of celestial longitudes of the five-planet from 1280 to 1650 are obtained. For Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury, the average values of absolute errors are 0.49°, 1.91° , 0.70° , 2.82° and 5.01° . Jupiter and Saturn have comparatively higher accuracies. (3) Zhoulu, Lilu, Dulu, Heying and Liying are used for planetary calculations in Shoushi Li. Their accurate values, instead of those adopted in Shoushi Li, are derived and calculated by modern astronomical methods and then inputted into Shoushi models. It is found that the accuracies of planetary locations are not improved.The errors of Jupiter and Saturn are 1.83° and 1.21° . But the errors of Mercury, Venus and Mars ascend to 30.04°, 54.86° and 10.82° , respectively. It is indicated that the accuracies can not be increased by revising some of the

  1. 归有光古文非唐宋派论--兼论归有光古文创作特征%GUI You-guang’s Studies of Ancient Chinese Different from Tang and Song School:On Features of His Creation in Classical Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣刚

    2016-01-01

    Tang and Song School was the one of ancient Chinese in the period of Emperor Jiajing.Its literary view was characterized by advocating the classical Chinese of Tang and Song Dynasties.GUI You-guang was a master of classical Chinese in Ming Dynasty.In terms of literary views,he was quite different from Qin and Han School.It is generally believed that GUI You-guang played a role of connection in the history of classical Chinese from Tang and Song to Qing.That is,he inherited eight masters of Tang and Song Dynasties,and laid a foundation for the Tongcheng School of Qing Dynasty.For this reason, he has been considered as a member of Tang and Song School.However,through analysis of GUI’s advocation of classical Chi-nese and the features of his creation,we can find that it is not in accordance with the fact to do so.%唐宋派是明代嘉靖年间的一个古文流派,其为文观点以宗尚唐宋古文为显著特征。归有光是明代古文大家,在持论方面与“秦汉派”龃龉不合。一般认为归有光在自唐宋至清代的古文发展史上起着承上启下的作用,即上承唐宋八大家而下开清代桐城派,因此文学史上一般将其归入唐宋派之中。然而,通过对归有光古文宗尚、创作特征等的分析,可知将其归入于古文中的唐宋派并不符合客观事实。

  2. 中国古代香熏活动的缘起与发展%The Origin and Development of Fragrance Activity in Chinese Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁韵; 金芷君

    2010-01-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China.During the period of pre-Qin,it was mainly used in the therapy and worship.Until the Three Kingdoms,the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials.People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms,prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily.In the worship,the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies.The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines,the formula of spices were used more widely.Then,during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty,the fragrance activities climbed to the peak.The fragrance activities were institutionalized,when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities.Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices.In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty,the fragrance activities spread among the public.The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility,when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities.External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical.In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming.After a long period,the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture.%中国古代的香熏活动历史悠久,在先秦时期主要用于祭祀和医疗;至秦汉三国时期香熏的使用人群由皇室贵族扩展至士大夫和一般官吏,香熏也逐渐进入日常生活,香熏衣被、清洁居室、防疫治疫成为这一时期的特色,祭祀用香也从最初的祭天转变为燃香供奉;魏晋南北朝是香熏的发展阶段,具有男子熏衣和文人参与的特色,而祭祀用香以及道教斋醮科仪等基本定型,香药的医疗经验不断积累,香方用途逐渐扩大;隋唐两宋是香熏的鼎盛时期,表

  3. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  4. ICM和翻译过程中汉语古诗词意义的建构%ICM and the Construction of Meaning in Translating Chinese Ancient Poetry into English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹幸居

    2015-01-01

    The nature of translation is the translation of meaning. Meaning does not exit in language forms, but in the cognitive structures hidden in the readers' minds. The essence of constructing meaning lies in that the readers establish the coherence of the discourse by filling in the default in the text with elements of the cognitive structures. These elements include the ICM (Idealized Cognitive Model) and its "slot fillers" activated by the language forms. The task of Chinese ancient poetry translators is to construct meaning with the proper ICM and seek in the target language(TL) the proper language signs so that equivalent activation of ICM can be achieved and the proper meaning is available to the TL readers.%翻译的本质是意义的翻译. 语言符号本身没有意义,因为意义隐藏在读者脑海里的认知结构中,意义建构的实质是读者调用默认的认知结构成分填补文中缺省、重构语篇的连贯. 这些认知结构成分包括了语言符号激活的 ICM 及其"空位"填充值. 汉语古诗词译者的任务是一方面利用恰当的 ICM建构意义,一方面在译入语中寻找恰当的语言符号达到源语和译入语 ICM 激活对等的效果,让译入语读者建构正确的意义.

  5. A Study on 36 Examples of the Reptile, Fish and Invertebrate Names in the Ancient Chinese Language%古代虫鱼爬行动物名所指考36例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese animal name 瓦剌 was today’s crocodile. 螣蛇 was flying head snake. 纳鼈 was big-headed turtle.锯鲨 was needle tooth shark. 狮刀 was dorab. 含光 was yellow fish. 哲绿鱼 was taimen. 花魿 was some of spotfishes. 松鱼was sea catfish. 赤鬃 was genuine porgy and yellow porgy. 火烧鳊 was suckerfish. 青蚨 was giant water bug. 茭虱 was bedbug.蜭was a worm eating dry meat and furs. 蟛蚏 was fiddler crab. 空豸was pholad. 假猪螺 was trumpet shell whelk. 土笋 was sipunculida. 桃花鱼 was a kind of jelly fish, and so on.%古籍中的动物名瓦剌是鳄鱼。螣蛇是金花蛇。纳鼈是平胸龟。锯鲨是尖齿锯鳐。狮刀鱼是宝刀鱼。含光是黄鱼。哲绿鱼是哲罗鲑。花魿是几种鲾。松鱼是海鲇。赤鬃是黄鲷、真鲷。火烧鳊是胭脂鱼。青蚨是大型昆虫田鳖。茭虱是臭虫。蜭是蠹食毛皮干肉的虫。蟛蚏是招潮蟹。空豸是双壳类的海笋。假猪螺是管角螺。土笋是星虫。桃花鱼是桃花水母。

  6. 从文学特征论看俄国形式主义与中国古代文论之异同%A Contrast of Russian Formalism and Ancient Chinese Literary Theory Based on Literary Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一铎

    2012-01-01

    在对文学特性的探讨及对文学诸特征的研究中,俄国形式主义与中国古代文论不乏相似之处:二者都是对以往文学理论的反动和纠偏;都是通过对文学区别于其他学科的艺术形式的强调和对诗歌技法的探讨,来达到对文学理论的科学性诉求;并都对后世文学理论产生深远影响。但由于时代及文化的差异,俄国形式主义非常明确地表现出对具有科学性文学理论的追求,并同现代语言学理论关系紧密;相反,对文体划分的重视及对诗歌声律也即音乐性的强调则是中国古代文论的两大特点。%It can be seen from the discussion and study of various literary characteristics that Russian formalism and Chinese ancient literary theory have a lot in common in terms of the historical background, the emphasis on form as well as the impact on the future generations. However, there are still some different characteristics between them since they occurred at different times and resulted in different cultures.

  7. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  8. 新课改背景下高师古代文学课程与教学改革刍议%On Reform of Chinese Ancient Literature Course and Teaching in Normal Colleges under the Background of New Curriculum Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丹

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the new curriculum reform puts forward a series of requirements for teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normM colleges such as the teaching aim, teaching content, teaching concepts and teaching methods. These requirements, however, are not met in the teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normal colle- ges. Under the background of new curriculum reform, to explore the approach for the reform of the Chinese ancient literature in normal colleges, it is suggested to reestablish course system, improve teaching objectives, strengthen literary theory and culture history teaching, change the teaching concept, teaching method, attach importance not only to basic teaching, but also to academic research ability training. Only in this way, earl Chinese ancient literature teaching in normal colleges radiates new vitality to meet the the requirement of new curriculum reform and to realize the training objectives of normal colleges and universities.%新课改的推行对高师古代文学教学提出了教学目标、教材内容、教师教学观念及教学方法上的一系列要求。面对这些要求,高师古代文学教学却无法对接,其现状不尽如人意。因而要在新课改背景下寻求高师古代文学的改革路径,可重新设置课程体系、改进教学目标、增强文论、文化史等内容的教学,改变教学观念、教学方法,既要重视基础教学,也要重视学术研究能力的培养。只有这样,才能使高师古代文学教学焕发新的生机,适应新课改的需求,实现高师院校的培养目标。

  9. 中国古代通俗文学的多元化研究--赵晓寰教授专访%A Multi-perspective Research on Ancient Chinese Popular Literature---an Interview with Professor ZHAO Xiao-huan of Sydney University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正娟; 赵晓寰

    2016-01-01

    跨学科、多元化思考是中国古代通俗文学研究的重要路径。在中国古典小说和戏剧的理论研究、古典小说与文学传统之关系、中日戏剧比较等问题上,受访者赵晓寰教授的观点是:参照普洛普形态学理论,中国古典志怪小说与戏剧可进行叙事特征与结构功能模式等分析;由“原型”、“图式”、“程序”等构建的小说理论框架有助于阐释中国文学传统的形成;中日戏剧在脚色类型、表现方式等方面关系密切。%Interdisciplinary and multi-perspective research is a major approach of the study of ancient Chinese popular literature. The interviewed Prof. ZHAO Xiao-huan touched upon many issues in Chinese literature study, such as the theoretical research on classical Chinese novels and drama, the relationship between classical novels and literary tradition, and comparison between Chinese and Japanese drama. His viewpoints are summarized as follows: with reference to Propp’s morphological theory, analysis can be made of the narrative features and structural function models of classical Chinese supernatural fictions and drama; the theoretical framework of fictions comprised of “prototype”, “schema”, and “procedure” helps explain the formation of Chinese literary tradition; Chinese and Japanese dramas are closely related in many ways such as role types and expressions.

  10. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  11. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  12. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  13. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  14. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  15. Chinese Women Soldiers: A History of 5,000 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    Describes the role of women in the Chinese military during four eras: (1) the ancient period; (2) the post Opium War period; (3) 1949-present; and (4) today's women in the Chinese military. Includes a full-page chart indicating women warriors in ancient China. (CFR)

  16. 试论中国古村的旅游开发和利用--以湖北黄陂大余湾为例%A Discussion on Exploration and Utilization of Tourist Resources in Chinese Ancient Villages-Dayuwan Village in Huangpi District in Hubei Province as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星辰; 孙君恒

    2015-01-01

    结合分析武汉黄陂大余湾古村旅游开发和利用中存在的具有代表性的问题,对中国古村旅游开发和利用提出的建议和对策主要是:一是加强同居民的沟通,树立居民的自信心和自豪感,提高村民的“觉悟”。二是注意根据古村实际情况选择合适的开发模式,注意维护古村居民的切身利益。三是借鉴上海世博会枫泾古村的开发经验,精心打造一流的旅游品牌。四是创建古村文化数据库,更好地保护和开发我国的古村文化。五是打造一流的管理队伍,加强旅游景区的管理。%Combined with analysis of the typical issues in the exploration and utilization of tourist resources of Dayuwan ancient village in Huangpi District in Hubei Province, the following proposals and countermeasures are brought about, concerning exploration and utilization of Chi-nese ancient villages. First, enhance communications with local people, help them establish confidence and a sense of pride, and raise their awareness;Second, select an appropriate development model in accordance with the actual conditions of the ancient village, and safeguard vital interests of local residences;Third, draw on the exploration experience of Fengjing ancient village displayed in the Shanghai World Expo, and elaborately build a first class brand of tourism; Fourth, set up a cultural database of ancient villages to better protect and explore the culture of ancient villages in our country;Fifth, build a first class management team to improve the management in tourist spots.

  17. An Exploration of the Digital Library and the Organization of Ancient Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-jen Ku

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the digital library and the organization of ancient books. The author first discusses the digitization and organization of ancient books collected in the libraries, and then analyzes the problems encountered in this process. In conclusion, possible future developments are discussed.[Article content in Chinese

  18. Esotericism Ancient and Modern

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Leo Strauss presents at least two distinct accounts of the idea that the authors in the political-philosophical canon have often masked their true teachings. A weaker account of esotericism, dependent on the contingent fact of persecution, is attributed to the moderns, while a stronger account, stemming from a necessary conflict between philosophy and society, is attributed to the ancients. Although most interpreters agree that Strauss here sides with the ancients, this view fails to consider...

  19. 近20年中国古代文学报恩母题研究综述%An Overview of Studies on the Gratitude Motif in Chinese Ancient Literature in Recent 20 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王立; 王莉莉

    2016-01-01

    The literary works of gratitude themes in Chinese ancient literature are very abundant, which have attracted more and more academic attention in recent 20years. In the research contents,it changed and developed from the research of structure types to the cultural connotation of the story, the source and the research of gratitude way;In the research themes,it showed a research trend of gradual transplantation from folklore literature study to literati literature and popular literature;In the research object,it gradually expanded from“animal gratitude type”research to plant gratitude,fe-male gratitude,monsters gratitude,ghosts gratitude,beggar gratitude and many other types. It revealed a profound impact of Buddhist culture,local grace gratitude ethics,as well as the ideal and pursuit of writer literati’s gratitude practice of literary history. The approach of folklore and sociological in grat-itude theme often obscured using more theoretical approach,and losing in the simplification and com-planation. As a motif of highly interdisciplinary nature,its comprehensive,integrated research is still relatively weak.%中国古代文学中的报恩题材十分丰富,近20年中国古代文学报恩母题日益引起学界的关注。研究内容上,从报恩故事的结构类型研究向报恩故事的文化内涵、来源及报恩方式研究纵深拓展;研究领域上,呈现出由民间文学逐渐向文人文学、通俗文学研究移植的趋势;研究对象上,由民间故事的“动物报恩型”研究逐渐扩展到植物报恩、女性报恩、精怪报恩、鬼魂报恩、乞丐报恩等多个类型,注意揭示佛教文化、本土恩报伦理等深刻影响,以及作家文人的理想追求的报恩文学史实践。报恩主题的民俗学、社会学方法往往遮蔽了更多理论方法的运用,失之于简单化与平面化。作为一个跨学科性质很强的母题,其全面的、综合性的研究仍相对薄弱。

  20. Theory-of-mind reasoning in Ancient China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. van Emde Boas

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese literature on strategic theory goes back to ideas proposed almost 3000 years ago, but which were first written down during the late Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period (around 500 BC). The most famous work is the Art of War from Sun Tzu. While Sun Tzu extensively r

  1. Climate changes may lead to the collapse of ancient civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Studies of an international research consortium indicate that severe monsoon changes might have simultaneously accelerated the fall of two great ancient civilizations, the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), one of the most prosperous reigns in Chinese history, and the Maya civilization in Meso-America that ended in 830 AD.

  2. Governance,Communication and Mood Projection---On the Dialectical Relationship Between Literary Works and History in Chinese Ancient Literature Teaching%统摄沟通观照--古代文学教学中“文”与“史”关系的辩证思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓苇

    2016-01-01

    The in-class teaching of ancient Chinese literature has gradually shifted its focus back on lit-erary works analysis,which doesn't mean literary history will be rejected or abolished. The essence of litera-ture education draws the concentration of ancient literature teaching on literary works comprehension and appreciation,while literary history and its methodological significance on teaching and learning should never be underestimated in works-centered teaching activities. In the macroscopic aspect,teaching literature with literary history construction may help students systematically take in literary knowledge. In microscopic as-pect,studying writers and their works under the complex history background may help deepen students' com-prehension and extend their reflection. Only by balancing and integrating literary works and history in ancient literature teaching activity may allow students to grasp the essence and beauty of Chinese ancient literature.%如今高校的中国古代文学教学逐渐向讲授文学作品回归,但并不意味着对文学史的摒弃以至于取消。文学教育的性质,决定了古代文学课程的教学理当立足于文学作品的阅读与理解,但以文学作品为中心的教学活动,亦不可看轻文学史对于文学作品的教与学所具有的方法论上的价值意义。从宏观层面上,教学内容需要有文学史的统摄,便于学生将所学知识条理化、系统化;从微观层面上,将作家作品放在文学纵横交错的历史坐标轴上加以考察,有助于学生理解的深化与融会,延伸与拓展其思考。既重“文”亦不忽视“史”,唯有二者的交相融合,才能使学生真正把握住中国古代文学的思想精髓与艺术特质。

  3. Moessbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia Yuanfu; Huang Hongbo [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China)

    2003-09-15

    The Moessbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  4. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  5. 中国古代文论当代性如何可能——评党圣元《返本与开新》%On the Possibility of the Contemporaneity of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory--A Review of Returning to the Origin and Opening Up the New of Dang Shengyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅青

    2012-01-01

    当下,我们学者借用西方理论与观念时,可能忽视了中国文学理论必须要建立在中国文学史与批评史基础上,而西方文学理论的局限性就表现在中西文学史与批评史发展的差异上,而一味地以其为方法来衡诸于中国文学,就显得背道而驰、南辕北辙?党圣元《返本与开新一一中国传统文论的当代阐释》在当代文论陷入困境之时,思考的焦点问题是还原中国古代文论的本来面目,目的则是立足于中国文论的“当代性”,实是一部别开生面的力作。%t present, we use the western theories and ideas, but perhaps ignore that the Chinese literary theory should be built on the basis of the history of Chinese literature and criticism history, while the limitation of the western literary the ory on the difference between the development of Chinese and Western literary history and criticism history. Does it ap- pear to draw further apart, apart to judge Chinese literature with the method of the western? The focus of the problem in Dang Shengyuan's Returning to the Origin and Opening the New---- The Interpretation to the Contemporary of Chinese Traditional Literary Theory is to restore the true face of ancient Chinese literary theory when the contemporary literary theory is in trouble, aiming at being on the basis of the Contemporaneity of Chinese literary theory, which is real a entire- ly new work.

  6. Couplets Translation of Ancient Chinese Verses in View of Harmonizing Differences of Languages and Cultures between East and West%兼顾中西方语言与文化差异的古文骈句英译研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于开颜

    2012-01-01

    从春秋战国时期的诸子散文,到汉代的骈体赋,再到明清八股,都大量地使用了骈句的形式。骈句讲求对仗,重视骈对与音韵的和谐,凸显出我国古典文学的艺术魅力。在中国古典文学对外译介的过程中,骈句的英译既要保留东方古典文化的特色,又要以西方语言的形式体现出我国古典诗文中的语言韵味。因而兼顾中西方语言与文化差异的骈句英译,在整个翻译理论及其实践中有着举足轻重的地位。探讨骈句的形成、发展以及对我国古典文学的影响,结合中外学者的理论实践,从结构、修辞和意象三个方面研究骈句的英译,强调协调中西方文化差异,平衡语言转换过程中的语义流失非常必要。%A large number of couplets were adopted in Chinese classical literature,such as proses written by the philosophers in the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods, parallel proses of the Fu litera- ture in the Han Dynasty, and Baguwen or Eight-Part Essay in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. Couplets,with its unique style of centering on antithesis, parallelism and rhythmical harmony, further demonstrate the artistic appeal of Chinese classical literature. In the progress of foreign translation of Chinese classics, cou- plets translation has taken its place in the study of translation theories and practice due to such aspects as retaining cultural features of Chinese classics, displaying the rhythm of ancient Chinese verses. The cou- plets translation of ancient Chinese verses in view of harmonizing differences of languages and cultures be- tween East and West is of great importance in translation theory and practice by introducing how couplets was emerged and developed, and how they influenced Chinese classical literature. Meanwhile, it also takes some theories and related practice of Chinese and foreign scholars as references, and discusses couplets translation in terms of structure

  7. 论元南戏中的“贪淫破家”悲剧——《小孙屠》解读%Tragedy of Adultery in Southern Ancient Chinese Opera of Yuan Dynasty——A Study on Xiao Sun Tu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑传寅

    2001-01-01

    元南戏《小孙屠》是以从良妓女贪淫破家的故事为主要表现对象的悲剧性作品,旨在劝诫世人:妓女性淫,不可娶以为妇。但剧作的意义不仅在此,她揭示了妓女制度对“良人女”心灵的扭曲与毒害,把奸情与官府的昏庸腐败联系起来,概括了丰富的社会生活内容,提升了剧作的思想意义和认识价值。剧中有清官出现,但她与旨在颂扬清官断案的公案剧和清官戏有所不同。《小孙屠》观察生活的视角和评价生活的尺度具有东方特色,反映了东方劳动群众的婚姻家庭观念和社会理想。%Xiao Sun Tu, Southern ancient Chinese opera of Yuan Dynasty, warns people that whores are lewd and are not suitable to become wives by telling us a story of how a married woman ruins her family by unchaste conduct. The play suggests ancient prostitute system distort and poison “gentlewoman's soul”, mirrors the harsh reality and the corruption of officials of Yuan Dynasty. The play contains rich portraits and description of ancient society, which highlight the ideal value.

  8. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  9. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  10. Adoption in ancient times

    OpenAIRE

    Bisha Eugena

    2015-01-01

    Since in ancient times, in all human cultures, children transfered from biological parents to parents that want them to create family, for political alliances, for inheritance, for a future marriage, or to care for elderly parents. The practice of adoption was fairly common in different places and periods. Adoption is mention on Bible and Quran. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Babylonians had adoption systems.

  11. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  12. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  13. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  14. Ancient Egyptian surgical heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saber, Aly

    2010-12-01

    Egyptian medicine influenced the medicine of neighboring cultures, including the culture of ancient Greece. From Greece, its influence spread onward, thereby affecting Western civilization significantly. The oldest extant Egyptian medical texts are six papyri: The Edwin Smith Surgical Papyrus and the Ebers Medical Papyrus are famous. PMID:21208098

  15. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  16. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  17. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  18. Thought and Research on Chinese Sports from the Perspective of Confucian Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuchang Yang

    2014-01-01

    This article conducts a research on Chinese sports under Confucian philosophy from the perspective of social value that ancient sports sought, development limitation for ancient physical morality and legal system, and development direction of Chinese sports. It also makes an analysis of the promotion and restraint of traditional Confusion culture on Chinese sports, and seeks many valuable factors such as the integration of social and class nature deeply contained in Chinese sports, improvemen...

  19. [On the issue of healers of the Ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarenko, V G

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to the first physicians of the Ancient China--I-Ing (XVII-XVI centuries BC) and I-Ho (VI-V centuries BC). On the basis of the investigation of the ancient sources the significant input of the mentioned physicians into the development of the traditional Chinese medicine, dietetics and diet therapy included is testified. In addition, their scientific approach to the issues of diagnostics and treatment on the basis of applying the natural philosophy principles of Yin-Yan and Y-Sin is demonstrated.

  20. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  1. 禅宗的“不立文字”与中国古代诗学领域中的“重意轻言”%Zen's thought of independence of words of and regarding meaning as superiority to words in ancient Chinese poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐腾腾

    2012-01-01

    Zen is a religious sect,which is based on the India Zen and integrated the China's Taoism and metaphysics in the Wei and Jin Dynasties.It has injected fresh blood into the Chinese rational culture,and the thinking way of "Independence of words;Beside Buddhism deliver a sermon;Straight give direction to human heart;Sight of nature to achieve Buddha" has produced influence on Chinese ancient poetry.One important aspect is that China' s classical poetry pays more and attention to the "meaning",so the art situation of "regarding meaning as superiority to word" is reflected in the theory of poetry,creation and appreciation.%禅宗标榜的"不立文字,教外别传,直指人心,见性成佛"的思维方式渗入到我国古代诗歌领域,产生了广泛而深远的影响,其中一个重要方面即是使我国古典诗歌越来越强调"意",使中国古典诗歌在诗歌理论、创作与欣赏方面都体现出一种"重意轻言"的艺术态势。

  2. Ancient Chinese records of moon/planet-occulting/approaching-star and its application to textual research of traditional star names%中国古代月与行星掩犯恒星记录及其用于传统星名考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉萍; 孙晓宇; 王晓晗

    2013-01-01

    月与行星掩犯恒星的记录是中国古代天象记录中数量最多的门类,此类记录的可靠性比较高,自北宋开始,月与五星掩犯恒星的错误率平均为10%,而之前的平均错误率也仅有20%。统计分析了这些记录在历代正史中的分布。在用现代天文学计算方法检验的基础上,考证了中西黄道区星名的对应关系。%The quantity of the records of moon/planet-occulting/approaching-star is the largest in the ancient Chinese records of various astronomical phenomena. The reliability of these records is rather high that the average error rates of them are 10%for the records recorded since the Northern Song dynasty and 20%before the Northern Song dynasty. The distribution of these records in the official history is analyzed. The correspondence between the zodiacal stars names given by Chinese and those given by the West is examined with modern astronomical computation.

  3. From Philosophy Research Object and the Way of Thinking to See the Differences between Ancient Chinese and Western Philosophy%从哲学研究对象和思维方式看古代中西方哲学差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史彦虎; 乔利丽

    2012-01-01

    Philosophy research ability and results is an important part of cultural strength,and is the essence of the spirit of the times.However,poverty of philosophy is the fact that does not dispute.To boost the philosophy and social science,we can neither worship everything foreign,nor blindly prize the ancient.We should be dialectical analysis the Chinese and Western philosophy,and be based on the classical philosophy resources and social reality to solve the existing problems.We should not only know the differences between Chinese and western philosophy,but also analyse their characteristics and causes of formation.In learning and referencing inheritance and innovation,we prosper philosophy and the social sciences.The differences between Chinese and Western ancient philosophy,are not only embody in the research object,but also root in the way of thinking differences.The differences have both advantages and disadvantages for national science and culture development.%哲学的研究能力和成果是文化实力的重要部分,是时代精神的精华,然而哲学资源的贫困是不争的事实。要振兴哲学社会科学,我们既不能崇洋媚外,也不能一味崇古尚古,而必须对中西哲学进行辩证分析,基于古典哲学资源和社会现实解决现存的问题;我们既要了解中西哲学的差异,又要分析各自的特点及形成原因,在学习与借鉴、传承与创新中繁荣哲学社会科学。中西古代哲学的差异性不仅体现在研究对象上,而且根源于思维方式的本质差异,这些差异性对民族科学文化的影响有利有弊。

  4. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  5. A Monograph on An Ancient History in Southeast Asia with Chinese Characteristics---Review on Ancient History of Southeast Asia%一部具有中国特色的东南亚古史专著--评梁志明等主编的《东南亚古代史》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余定邦

    2013-01-01

    A History of Ancient Southeast Asia, edited by Liang Zhim-ing, has some academic value features, which include emphasis on aca-demic review of the Southeast Asia history; more detailed describe of the region prehistoric culture; emphasis ancient social and cultural develop-ment in Southeast Asia from early 1 century to 16 century;response to the argues of ancient history in Southeast Asia and put forward his own aca-demic insights;paying more attention to the research materials in original languages.comprehensive discussion about the ancient politics, economy culture in this region;the relationship between Southeast Asia and India. The downside of this book in some aspects of historical studies in South-east Asia is relatively simple.%梁志明等主编的《东南亚古代史》具有一些有学术价值的特点是:重视介绍东南亚古代史研究的学术史;较详尽地论述了该地区的史前文化;重视对公元初至16世纪初东南亚古国社会文化发展的研究;回应了东南亚古史研究中的不少热点问题并提出自己的学术见解;用中外史料互相补充,全面论述东南亚古代史和东南亚古国的政治、经济和历史文化情况以及它们之间、它们与中印两大文明古国的关系。《东南亚古代史》的不足之处是对东南亚古代史研究方面某些争议问题如:蒲甘阿奴律陀王到中国迎取佛牙、素可泰兰甘亨王入访中国、中国古籍中的暹国是否就是素可泰、“十三世纪危机”、东南亚古国土地所有制等作出回应时,论述过于简单,没有明确提出自己的考证结论。

  6. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  7. 面向文学事实本身——英伽登现象学文论与中国古代文论比较初探%Facing the Literary Facts of Their Own: the Comparison between Ingarden's Phenomenology Literary Theory and the Ancient Chinese Literary Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛志信

    2012-01-01

    While the contemporary Chinese literary theory has made some achievements by mostly absorbing the results of Western literary theory, it also exposes its drawbacks emphasizing on "external research" and devia- ting from the literary facts of their own. However, "facing the literary facts of their own", the literary theory re- search can pose valuable questions, not leading itself to be a vassal of other disciplines. "Facing the literary facts of their own", Ingarden's phenomenological literary theory and the ancient Chinese literary theory provide rich re- sources for us to rethink and construct the contemporary Chinese literary theory. In short, the comparison and dis- crimination of the two theories have an important theoretical value.%中国当代文学理论研究多吸收西方文学理论的成果,取得了一定成就的同时,也暴露出其研究重视"外部研究",偏离文学事实本身的弊端,文学理论研究只有"面向文学事实本身",才能提出真正有价值的问题,才能不致成为别的学科的附庸。英伽登的现象学文论和中国古代文论直面文学本身,为我们反思和建设中国当代文学理论提供了丰富的资源,对两者"面向文学事实本身"的方式进行比较辨析,具有重要的理论价值。

  8. Literature study on fecal class Chinese medicines and their application in the ancient prescriptions%应用文献挖掘及关联规则分析方法挖掘分析古代方剂中粪便类中药的基本特征及其应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏泽琦; 张文君; 张雨珊; 王德辰; 孟祥梅; 王玮鑫; 吴嘉瑞; 李健; 丁霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the basic characteristics of fecal class Chinese medicines in modern clinical practice, and to find out the application of them in ancient prescriptions. Methods Taking“fe-ces”(Chinese:粪便;pinyin:fènbiàn) and “Chinese medicines”(Chinese: 中药; pinyin: zhōngyào) as the keywords, we searched CNKI, Wangfang, CQVIP and CBM databases of relevant articles pub-lished since the time of establishment. Then the fecal class Chinese medicines were screened. What we obtained were where the official names came from, what their alternative names were at different times, which creatures they were excreted from, what property and flavor, meridian tropism, efficacy and indi-cations they had. Furthermore, we searched the ancient prescriptions involving fecal class Chinese medi-cines using the database platform of Dictionary of Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, institute of Chinese Materia Medical of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences to get the common compatibility and po-tential rules of clinical application. Results Total eleven fecal class Chinese were common used in mod-ern clinical practice, which were recorded in various monographs of Chinese medicine by numerous names, and were excreted from birds, mammals and worm. The nature of the medicines were hot or cold;the flavor coved sour, bitter, sweet, bitter, salty; the meridian tropism lied in meridian of liver ( gall bladder) ,heart ( cardiac ) , spleen ( stomach ) , lung ( intestine ) and kidney ( bladder ); the various effects were listed as the following: resolving superficies, clearing heat, dispelling pathogenic wind and removing dampness, resolving stagnation, expelling blood stasisfor removing obstruction in collaterals, re-moving phlegm, relieving cough, calming endogenous wind, inducing resuscitation, removing toxicity, destroying parasites, relieve itching, eliminating necrotic tissues and promoting granulation. In addition, we extracted relevant 1 550 relevant prescriptions

  9. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  10. Ancient human microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  11. On the Application of Value of Ancient Chinese Poems Art Songs in Vocal Music Teaching%中国古诗词艺术歌曲在声乐教学中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁珺

    2015-01-01

    随着中国古诗词艺术歌曲的不断创作与实践,其越来越多地出现在声乐教学领域,并体现着作为中国特有艺术歌曲体裁的重要价值。学习并演唱中国古诗词艺术歌曲不仅能更好地掌握演唱技巧、提高对音乐的理解和想象能力,还能更深层次地领会中华文化的博大精深,丰富自身的艺术修养。%With the development of Chinese poetry art song creation and practice, more and more of them are used in the field of vocal music teaching, and embodies the unique Chinese art song genre as an important value. Therefore, learn and sing Chinese poetry art song can not only better master singing skills and improve understanding of music and imagination ability, but also understand Chinese culture and profound and rich artistic accomplishment deeply.

  12. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  13. Leadership insights of the Chinese military classics for physician leaders and healthcare administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenaue, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Trite sayings from Chinese military classics often find their way into after-dinner fortune cookies in many Chinese restaurants in America. However, no one should underestimate the lessons from those Chinese military classics, and they certainly should never be trivialized. Leaders at all levels of healthcare management can learn timeless lessons spanning three millennia from the wisdom of ancient Chinese military writings.

  14. 论中国古诗词中衷怨意象的审美价值%On the Aesthetic Value of the Plaintive Images in Ancient Chinese Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓旭

    2012-01-01

    古代文人抒情往往不是情感的直接流露,也不是直接向读者灌输,而是通过一系列意象来借景抒情、托物言志。哀怨意象既可以作为文人审美创造的结晶和悲伤情感意念的载体,又是现实生活的写照。所以,这些哀怨意象体现了古代文人的离愁别绪之悲、闺怨相思之苦、征人游子之思、忧国忧民之怨等多个方面的审美价值。%Lyric of Ancient scholars is not the direct expression of emotion, and is not the direct outpouring to the readers. On the contrary, they express their feelings through images with special meanings. Plaintive images can be regarded as not only the fruit crea ted by scholars as well as the carrier of sad emotional ideas, but is a portrayal of real life. So these plaintive images reflect various as pects of aesthetic value such as the parting sorrow of ancient scholars, the bitterness of women' s lovesickness, the missing of expeditors and decoys, the enmity of concerning countries and people and so on.

  15. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between

  16. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  17. The Application of Auspicious Ornaments in Ancient Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦宇

    2012-01-01

      The application of auspicious ornaments is common in ancient architecture. Their accumulation is profound and implication is ingenious. They have great expression and infection on the art of architecture. All kinds of the architecture have their own auspicious ornaments which can reflect the style and character. In an-cient Chinese palace and temple, usually there are some little animal ornaments which are arranged in different number and pattern. These animals are regarded as divine animals. They all have special meanings. It contains the feudal thoughts of ancient China and its culture connotation. This paper studies the specific application of auspicious ornaments through the study of the divine animals on the ridge.

  18. 中华古文化中的“超越”哲思:“轴心”与“转轴”%Philosophical Thinking of "Transcendence" "Axis" in Ancient Chinese Culture: and "Axial"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈启云

    2011-01-01

    In recent years, the Chinese scholars are discussing the so-called "the Axial Age of Transcendence", but it is often mistranslated for the meaning of Axis. The former means, as it were, the higher civilizations in the ancient world occurred at the same time a "breakthrough turning of transcendence" around 800 B.C. and 200 B.C. The civilizations which experienced the turning could revive their vitality and extend into modern ones. Unlike the Western civilizations, there could not be an Axial Time in ancient China. The classical studies and the mythology before it constituted an Axis in ancient China, which is not only a foundation for the transcendental Axial Age of philosophical thinking, but also an influence on its "multi-stratum" feature of the Axial Age. The ideas of Confucius and Laozi which can best represent the "transcendence" of ancient Chinese philosophy are far beyond the Western "transcendence" which had stopped at "God".%近年来,国内在讨论思想文化的“超越”与“突破”问题时,常常关联到所谓“轴心时代”。其实,这是对德国学者雅斯贝尔斯提出人类文明史有决定性的“转轴时代”(The Axial Age of Transcendence)论题的一种误译。他的本意是,在古代世界中,各地的高等文明在公元前800一前200年间不约而同地发生了“超越性的突破转变”,凡经历过此转变的古代文明则能更新其生命力,延续成为现代的文明;否则,便成“明日黄花”,被历史所埋葬。中文把应该译为“转轴时代”的“the axial age”,误译为“轴心时代”。古代中华的“经书、经学、经术”(“王官之学”)以及之前的神话传说构成的“轴心”,不但是其后诸子哲思腾跃“转轴”的基础,更影响了其“多元多层次”的“转轴”特性。最能表达中华古哲对“超越”理念论说的是孔子“吾十五而有志于学,三十而立,四十

  19. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  20. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  1. Acupuncture in ancient China: how important was it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Although acupuncture theory is a fundamental part of the Huangdi Neijing, the clinical application of the needle therapy in ancient China was always a limited one. From early times there have been warnings that acupuncture might do harm. In books like Zhang Zhongjing's Shanghanlun it plays only a marginal role. Among the 400 emperors in Chinese history, acupuncture was hardly ever applied. After Xu Dachun called acupuncture a "lost tradition" in 1757, the abolition of acupuncture and moxibustion from the Imperial Medical Academy in 1822 was a radical, but consequent act. When traditional Chinese medicine was revived after 1954, the "New Acupuncture" was completely different from what it had been in ancient China. The conclusion, however, is a positive one: The best time acupuncture ever had was not the Song dynasty or Yuan dynasty, but is now - and the future of acupuncture does not lie in old scripts, but in ourselves.

  2. Acupuncture in ancient China: how important was it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Although acupuncture theory is a fundamental part of the Huangdi Neijing, the clinical application of the needle therapy in ancient China was always a limited one. From early times there have been warnings that acupuncture might do harm. In books like Zhang Zhongjing's Shanghanlun it plays only a marginal role. Among the 400 emperors in Chinese history, acupuncture was hardly ever applied. After Xu Dachun called acupuncture a "lost tradition" in 1757, the abolition of acupuncture and moxibustion from the Imperial Medical Academy in 1822 was a radical, but consequent act. When traditional Chinese medicine was revived after 1954, the "New Acupuncture" was completely different from what it had been in ancient China. The conclusion, however, is a positive one: The best time acupuncture ever had was not the Song dynasty or Yuan dynasty, but is now - and the future of acupuncture does not lie in old scripts, but in ourselves. PMID:23464646

  3. On the Influence of Yi-ology on the Ancient Chinese Legal Culture%简论易学对中国古代法律文化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹤薇

    2012-01-01

    I Ching:Book of Changes is the earliest book widespread in ancient China, and recognized as "the best of all the scrip- tures,the origin of all the schools of thought".Its rich content whereas plain wording help reserve historical materials in the ancient time and serve as a channel for later generations to study people's life then.In the text and commentaries of I Ching,plenty of le- gal phenomena and thoughts are recorded. For generations,practitioners of laws spare no efforts in studying the legal culture in it. Research of the legal culture in I Ching experienced a development process from suspicion to confirmation,from annotation to anal- ysis,from sporadic cases to unitary study.In the text of I Ching,many legal issues can be found,like "suit", "imprisonment", "sen- tence", "penalty',etc.The influence of I Ching on the legal society of ancient China will be analyzed by briefly introducing the symbolisms in hexagrams like Shibe,Xie,Bi,Feng and Lv.%《周易》是中国古代流传最早的成体系书,自古被誉为"群经之首,百家之源"。它的内容丰富,文字古朴,保留了许多上古的史料,亦给后人研究上古文化提供了便利。在《周易》经传文本里,记载了大量的法律现象和法律思想,经几代的法律人的共同努力,使《周易》的法律文化经过了"从疑到肯、从注到解、从零到整"的发展过程。在《周易》经传的文本里,记载着大量诸如"讼"、"狱"、"刑"、"罚"等法律现象。本文通过简述《周易》中《噬嗑》、《解》、《贲》、《丰》、《旅》等卦中的象辞,分析了易学文化对中国古代法制社会的影响。

  4. Tradition and Enlightenment of Monarchical Power Restriction in Chinese Ancient Political Culture%中国古代政治文化中的君权制约传统及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成云雷

    2014-01-01

    A monarch mastered the supreme power and occupied the top of the power operation in ancient politics. Monarchical power restriction in ancient China was mainly implemented from four aspects, including restraining a monarch by heaven, morality, humanism and public opinions. The study of monarchical power restriction in ancient China has an important practical significance for drawing lessons from the traditional wisdom of managing state affairs, constructing the contemporary advanced political culture in China, and providing reference and enlightenment for the construction of contemporary China anti-corrup-tion. Firstly, anti-corruption can’t be carried out without the restriction of power, whose decisive point lies in the restriction of the most supreme power. Second, the efficiency improvement of power restriction can be guaranteed with the aid of the institute construction by law, and promoted with the assistance of public supervision by law. Last, anti-corruption co-exists with the support of moral power and the faith in value.%君主在古代政治中掌握至高无上的权力,居于权力运行金字塔的顶端。中国古代的君权制约主要从以天制君、以道制君、以民本制君、以舆论制君四个方面展开。研究我国古代的君权制约传统对于借鉴本民族传统的治国智慧和构建当代中国先进政治文化具有重要意义,对于当代中国的反腐倡廉建设有着多方面的借鉴和启示:首先,反腐倡廉离不开权力制约,而权力制约的关键在于最高权力的制约。其次,提高权力制约实效性的保证在于依据法律进行制度建设,而后由公民依法行使权力进行监督。再次,反腐倡廉离不开道德力量和价值信仰的支撑。

  5. A Brief Discussion on the Medical Communication Between China and Vietnam in the Ancient Times%简论古代中越医药交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未醉; 余罗玉

    2004-01-01

    In ancient China and Vietnam, cultural exchanges were frequent. In medicine, Chinese medicine was trans-ported into Vietnam or vice versa. Chinese doctors resided there and Chinese medical books were read. The practice of these exchanges helped promote the medical development and the international relations.

  6. 古代服装十二章纹的文化精神与美学蕴涵%The cultural spirit and aesthetic implication of the twelve-stamp pattern of ancient Chinese clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰宇

    2011-01-01

    The restrictive functions of political factors and cultural perceptions are investigated on the clothing design in Chinese clothing development. Based on historical evidence and theoretical reasoning, combined with Chinese culture and traditional aesthetic concepts, the origin and development of the twelve-stamp pattern are illustrated. It is concluded that the patterns of traditional Chinese clothing are the combination of the concept of patriarchal clan system and cultural and aesthetic factors.%讨论中国服装发展中政治因素和文化观念对服装设计和制作所起的制约作用,以史料论证和理论逻辑推理的方法,结合中国文化和美学传统观念,论述十二章纹图案的历史成因与发展,得出中国服装图案是以宗法礼制观念为主导,文化与美学因素客观显现的结论.

  7. 从文学作品看中国古代女性地位的变化%Exploring Changes of Ancient Chinese Women's Statue from the Perspective of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁广雪; 张士昌

    2012-01-01

    我国古代文学作品中不乏有描写妇女生活的篇章,考察这些文学作品可以了解我国古代妇女地位的变化情况。先秦时期,妇女受礼教约束比较少,地位比较高;秦汉之后随着以男性为主导的封建统治地位的逐渐巩固,妇女地位逐渐下降。明清时期由于妇女生活的极其黑暗,引发了妇女解放运动的产生。封建社会解体之后我国妇女解放运动得到了蓬勃的发展。%There is no shortage of literary works of ancient China to describe the women's lives, from which we can know the changes of the statue of women in ancient times. In the Pre-Qin Dynasty, women seldom subjected to the Confucianism constraints, and had a relatively high position. With the male-dominated feudal dominance gradually consolidated after the Qin and Hart, the statue of women gradually decreased. But in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, women lived an extremely dark life, which resulted in the women' s liberation movement, and the movement in China got a vigorous development after the disintegration of the feudal society.

  8. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  9. 中国古代人性理论的嬗变与哲学思考——也谈人性的善与恶、公与私%The Evolvement of Ancient Chinese Theories on Human Nature and Some Philosophical Reflections--On the Goodness and Evilness, Graciousness and Selfishness of Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新科

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of ancient Chinese philosophers about human nature has experienced a long history of evolvement. They realized that human nature is the combination of man's natural attributes and social attributes and devised theories of "original goodness" and "original evil" as the criteria of good and e- vil. Their "knowing and doing" or the "doing and knowing" views as the methodology of interpreting the formation of human nature is meaningful to the modern people in approaching human nature from the phil- osophical level. However, the proposition of "original selfishness" is only the result of private ownership, and human nature is judged ni an isolated, static, one-sided view which is a kind of Metaphysical Value judgment. Some ancient Chinese scholars also opposed the idea, and their proposition of "fulfilling one's de-sires to the full when one is able, containing one's desires when one is poor" is in agreement with the notion of "human nature development", which is meaningful in the modern time.%我国古代哲人对人性的认识经历了一个漫长的岁月和嬗变的过程。明确了人性是人的自然属性和社会属性的总和,并以"性善论"、"性恶论"作为判别是非、善恶的标准;以"知行观"与"行知观"作为人性形成的方法论,对我们从哲学层面认识人性问题有一定的意义。但应看到,"人性本私"是私有制的产物,是用孤立、静止、片面的世界观来看待人性,是一种形而上学的价值判断。而中国古人也是反对这一观点的,提出的"进则近尽,退则节求",是比较符合初期过渡阶段"人性发展"理念的。这在今天仍有一定的借鉴价值。

  10. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques. PMID:23888738

  11. Burns treatment in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pećanac, Marija; Janjić, Zlata; Komarcević, Aleksandar; Pajić, Milos; Dobanovacki, Dusanka; Misković, Sanja Skeledzija

    2013-01-01

    Discovery of fire at the dawn of prehistoric time brought not only the benefits to human beings offering the light and heat, but also misfortune due to burns; and that was the beginning of burns treatment. Egyptian doctors made medicines from plants, animal products and minerals, which they combined with magic and religious procedures. The earliest records described burns dressings with milk from mothers of male babies. Goddess Isis was called upon to help. Some remedies and procedures proved so successful that their application continued for centuries. The Edwin Smith papyrus (1500 BC) mentioned the treatment of burns with honey and grease. Ebers Papyrus (1500 BC) contains descriptions of application of mud, excrement, oil and plant extracts. They also used honey, Aloe and tannic acid to heal burns. Ancient Egyptians did not know about microorganisms but they knew that honey, moldy bread and copper salts could prevent infections from dirt in burns healing. Thyme, opium and belladona were used for pain relief. In the 4th century BC, Hippocrates recorded that Greek and Roman doctors used rendered pig fat, resin and bitumen to treat burns. Mixture of honey and bran, or lotion of wine and myrrh were used by Celsus. Honey was also known in Ayurveda (Indian medicine) time. Ayurvedic records Characa and Sushruta included honey in their dressing aids to purify sores and promote the healing. Burn treatment in Chinese medicine was traditional. It was a compilation of philosophy, knowledge and herbal medicine. The successful treatment of burns started in recent time and it has been made possible by better knowledge of the pathophysiology of thermal injuries and their consequences, medical technology advances and improved surgical techniques.

  12. Ancient Art Form Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese New Year painting exhibition reveals the beauty of folk art A CHINESE New Year painting exhibition has offered thousands of art lovers a traditional folk art feast in Beijing this past January and February.With the theme of "Door Gods," over 300 works of art were on display,representing various styles in China’s different regions. Woodcut prints,each a piece of special handmade folk art featuring auspicious subjects,are characterized by their concise lines, bright colors,and joyful scenes embodying people’s best wishes for the New Year.

  13. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  14. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  15. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  16. Hu Shi's Study of Chinese Medieval intellectual History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Yulie

    2006-01-01

    Hu Shi frequently gave lectures on the history of Chinese philosophy,especially the history of ancient Chinese philosophy,from the year 1919 to 1937.A large number of papers and dissertations published during this period are related to his research on this topic.In his opinion,there are three characteristics of the history of ancient Chinese philosophy:" religionalization of thought," "Indianization of philosophy," and "conflict between Chinese thought and Indian thought." In this paper,I explore Hu Shi's deep insight into the religionalization of Confucianism in Han dynasty and into the thought of Taoism in the medieval times.

  17. Ancient analogues concerning stability and durability of cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of cementitious materials goes back to ancient times. The Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone and later developed pozzolanic cement by grinding together lime and volcanic ash called open-quotes pozzolanclose quotes which was first found near Port Pozzuoli, Italy. The ancient Chinese used lime-pozzolanic mixes to build the Great Wall. The ancient Egyptians used calcined impure gypsum to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The extraordinary stability and durability of these materials has impressed us, when so much dramatically damaged infrastructure restored by using modern portland cement now requires rebuilding. Stability and durability of cementitious materials have attracted intensive research interest and contractors' concerns, as does immobilization of radioactive and hazardous industrial waste in cementitious materials. Nuclear waste pollution of the environment and an acceptable solution for waste management and disposal constitute among the most important public concerns. The analogy of ancient cementitious materials to modern Portland cement could give us some clues to study their stability and durability. This present study examines selected results of studies of ancient building materials from France, Italy, China, and Egypt, combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cement to evaluate the potential for stability and durability of such materials in nuclear waste forms

  18. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  19. Let's“Feel ”the Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷旵; 珍泉

    2004-01-01

    Betbre “feeling” China, we need to say a few words about the ancient civilization once prevalent in the Tigris-Euphrates river valley, and the ancient lndian, Egyptian and Greek civilizations. These no longer exist though as brilliant as the Chinese civilization. if not more.

  20. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.Q.; Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Xia, H.N.; Jiang, J.C.; Gao, M.H.; Yang, F.J

    2002-05-01

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries.

  1. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries

  2. Ancient Art Form Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    @@ A CHINESE New Year painting exhibition has offered thousands of art lovers a traditional folk art feast in Beijing this past January and February.With the theme of "Door Gods," over 300 works of art were on display, representing various styles in China's different regions.

  3. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  4. The concept of primes and the algorithm for counting the greatest common divisor in Ancient China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua

    2009-01-01

    When people mention the number theoretical achievements in Ancient China, the famous Chinese Remainder Theorem always springs to mind. But, two more of them--the concept of primes and the algorithm for counting the greatest common divisor, are rarely spoken. Some scholars even think that Ancient China has not the concept of primes. The aim of this paper is to show that the concept of primes in Ancient China can be traced back to the time of Confuciusor (about 500 B.C.) or more ago. This implies that the concept of primes in Ancient China is much earlier than the concept of primes in Euclid's \\emph{Elements}(about 300 B.C.) of Ancient Greece. We also shows that the algorithm for counting the greatest common divisor in Ancient China is essentially the Euclidean algorithm or the binary gcd algorithm. Donald E. Knuth said that "the binary gcd algorithm was discovered by J. Stein in 1961". Nevertheless, Knuth was wrong. The ancient Chinese algorithm is clearly much earlier than J. Stein's algorithm.

  5. A Brief Account of Merge of Ancient and Present Chinese Characters of Confucian Classics in the Eastern Han Dynasty%论东汉今古文经学的融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小虎

    2013-01-01

      自汉武帝“春秋大一统”后,儒家经典开始在最大范围内成为知识分子共同的经典。或为立功受禄,或为立德立言,总之形成了以儒家经典为对象的统一的经学。然而由于社会政治需要和治学方法的不同,经学截然分化为相互对立的今古文经学,并在以后的几百年岁月里不断因为政治利禄或道统因素发生激烈争斗,最后以东汉末的今古文经学之融合暂告一段落。通过对经学在两汉的四次纷争,尤其是在东汉的三次纷争的梳理,勾勒出经学在两汉的发展轨迹,进而分析东汉末今古文经学走向融合的根本缘由。%Since the “Great Unification between Spring and Autumn,” Confucian classics had started to be ac-cepted by intellectual to the maximum .Or for high official positions and riches , or for virtue and ideology , a great tide of studying about Confucian classics had been produced .However, because of social political requirement and different studying method, the Confucian classics were completely divided into two parties named ancient Confucian classics and contemporary Confucian classics , which fought for political wealth and Confucian orthodoxy continuously in the later hundreds of years , and finally were integrated at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty .Illustrating the four disputes between study of ancient Confucian classics and contemporary Confucian classics in Han Dynasty , especially to the later three disputes at the period of the Eastern Han , This article is trying to draw the outline of the develop-ment of Confucian classics studying , and further analyzes the deeper reason of integration of the two .

  6. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  7. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era.

  8. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. PMID:22835605

  9. 新世纪小说史研究的新气象--刘勇强先生《中国古代小说史叙论》述评%New Atmosphere of Novel History Research in New Century-A Review of Mr.LIU Yong-qiang’s Narrative Comments on Chinese Ancient Novel History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章琦

    2015-01-01

    上世纪初,小说史著作开始登上学术舞台,在不同历史时期里表现出各自的特色。本世纪初,刘勇强先生的《中国古代小说史叙论》在结构、内质及学术问题的处理等方面均有独到之处,体现了新世纪小说史研究的新气象。%In the early years of the last century,the works of novel history began to appear in the academic circle.And they have different features in different times.At the beginning of this century,Mr.LIU Yong-qiang’s Narrative Comments on Chinese Ancient Novel History has its unique features in either its structure,content or tackling of some academic issues. This shows the new atmosphere of the novel history study in new century.

  10. 中医美白祛斑、散结除疤外用古方溯源(一)——唐以前选方用药特点%Review on Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine External Use Prescriptions with Skin-whitening,Macularemoving,Stagnation-dissipating and Scar-removing Efficacy Chapter One——Characteristics of Prescriptions and Medicine before Tang Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑛; 宋坪

    2012-01-01

    从先秦至清代,众多中医古籍文献中均记载了具有美白祛斑、散结除疤功效的外用方药.这些方药可被用于治疗各种色素沉着类皮肤疾病以及痤疮后皮肤养护.本文按历史时间顺序进行整理,并结合不同时期中医学思想及著作特点分析其方剂组成及药物使用规律,旨在指导临床遣方用药.%From pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty, many ancient traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) literature records external use prescriptions and medicine with skin-whitening, macula-removing, stagnation-dissipating and scar-removing efficacy. These prescriptions and medicine can be used to treat various skin pigmentary disorders and conserve skin suffered from acne. The author reviews literature in historical order and analyzes the law of prescription composition and medicine use according to TCM thoughts and writings characteristics of different periods, in order to help doctors prescribe medicine.

  11. 中国古代女性贞节观解读——以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例%Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Female Chastity View --Case Study on Virtuous Women Image in Vernacular Short Novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李停停

    2012-01-01

    There were large number of virtuous woman images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. We can see the gender characteristics of female chastity view in feudal period and dominant effect on female thoughts and behaviors from the images, especially those typical images. Taking virtuous women images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties as an example, the chastity view which Chinese ancient women understood reflects some features: the chastity is women's "duty", keeping chastity is bidirectional and chastity is important than filial piety and utilitarian.%明清拟话本小说中存在着大量的贞节烈女形象,从这些形象,尤其是那些典型形象身上,可以透视出封建时代女性贞节观的性别特点及其对女性思想行为的支配作用。以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例,中国古代女性视角所理解的贞节观体现出了贞节是女人的“本分内事”、守贞具有双向性和贞节重于孝道、实利等特点。

  12. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  13. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  14. Countermeasures to Enhance the Teaching Effectiveness of Ancient Chinese Literature in Normal Universities under the Credit System%学分制下增强高师院校中国古代文学史教学实效性的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房厚信

    2012-01-01

    中国古代文学史课程作为高等师范院校汉语言文学专业必修的一门专业主干课程,对于培养优秀的中学语文师资具有重要作用。学分制下,由于学年制思想观念、管理制度和客观条件等的障碍性因素制约,致使高师院校中国古代文学史课程教学实效性不强。本文设想从更新教学观念、改进课堂教学,注重过程评价、完善教学评价模式,突出学生主体、强化课外辅导和教学与科研相结合,提高课堂教学效果等四个方面来增强中国古代文学史教学实效性,以实现大学教育和基础教育的有效互动。%As a main course of Chinese literature courses in Normal Colleges and Universities, Chinese Language and Lit- erature compulsory plays an important role in training outstanding secondary school language teachers. Under the credit sys- tem, institutions of Ancient Chinese Literature teaching obstacles constraints of the ideas of the academic year, the manage- ment system and the objeetive conditions, resulting in high teacher effectiveness is not strong. This article envisages to update teaching concepts, improving classroom teaching, focusing on the evaluation of the process, improving the teaching evalua- tion model, and outstanding student body, strengthen the combination of tutoring and teaching and research to improve clas- sroom instruction effects to enhance teaching effectiveness, in order to achieve effective interaction of university education and basic education.

  15. Connecting Ancient and Modern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2012-01-01

    Beijing has a history of over 1,000 years.There were once many renowned readitional Chinese opera theaters in the capital city.But now these vintage theaters are being swallowed up in the glitz of modernization and urbanization.Nevertheless,people can still make unexpected discoveries of traditional Chinese culture when wandering through Beijing's hutongs,or alleys.The Zheng Yi Ci Theater is one such surprise.It is a historical relic with over 300 years of history,poised to reinvigorate the traditional Chinese opera.Xinhuayaji International Cultural Communication Co.Ltd.produced the 2011Winter Drama Season at the Zheng Yi Ci Theater from November 23 to December 25,2011,reigniting the fame of the oldest theater in Beijing.The Zheng Yi Ci served as the venue for the 100th production of the Mei Lanfang Classics,a six-part production by the eponymous Peking Opera master.This year will mark the 300th anniversary of the theater's reconstruction.

  16. Cultural Interpretation and Orientation of Translating Chinese Ancient Official Titles in A Dream of Red Mansions%文化阐释与定位视角下评析《红楼梦》官职名称英译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙李丽

    2016-01-01

    押从文化阐释与文化定位的角度,选取杨宪益《红楼梦》译本中第十三回(《秦可卿死封龙禁尉,王熙凤协理宁国府》),以其中21个官职名称的翻译为对象进行评价.研究发现,其中17个官职翻译能很好的传达中国古代官职文化,但另外4个翻译的比较简单,不能完全表达其中的文化内涵.译者在翻译的过程中,应定位于"源语文化"和"译语文化"的中间地带,并适时加以详细的解释或注释.%21 official titles in the Chapter 13 of A Dream of Red Mansions are studied in the perspective of cultural interpretation and cultural orientation. The results showed that 17 official titles are translated well which would transmit the official title culture in ancient China to the foreign readers; but there are also 4 translations being simple, in which the culture is not well interpreted. To introduce the culture to the world, the translator should orientate in the intermediate zone between original language culture and target language culture in the process of translation. At the same time, footnotes or detailed explanation are needed.

  17. Summary of“Spectrum”of Style in Chinese Fiction and Academic Strategy--Also on Interpretation of Glossary of Style and Method in Ancient Chinese Fiction by TAN Fan%中国小说文体之“谱系”梳理及其学理化战略--兼评谭帆《中国古代小说文体文法术语考释》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂奎; 黄霖

    2015-01-01

    中国小说文体研究以往通常被纳入“小说学”框架下进行,着力于阐释“小说”命名及其类型。近年,在文体学研究的热潮下,“小说文体学”研究不仅获得了独立,而且其研究规模和层次也有大的突破,日趋“谱系”化。其中,谭帆等积数年之功推出的《中国古代小说文体文法术语考释》通过对中国古代小说文体及文法术语的多维度考释,对中国小说文体谱系进行了较为系统的梳理,使小说文体研究达到了学理化的高度。沿着这一路向,我们应进一步发扬“辨性质”、“明角度”的学术传统,理出错综复杂的传统小说文体谱系的脉络与头绪,并注重“跨学科”发掘和文化探寻,强化各个小说文体术语之间的逻辑关联研究,既注重叙事术语考释,又兼顾写人术语考释,使传统小说文体“谱系”梳理全面开花,进而使中国小说文体谱系学建构水到渠成。%Study of style of Chinese fiction is included in“fictional studies”frequently in the past, which focus on the appellation of“fiction”and its types. Recently, due to the upsurge of stylistics,“stylistics of fiction”becomes an independent subject and undergoes a breakthrough of scale and lev⁃el of study, leading to a“spectrum”. Among them, Interpretation of Glossary of Style and Method in An⁃cient Chinese Fiction by TAN Fan investigates style, method and glossary of ancient Chinese fiction and summarizes stylistic spectrum of Chinese fiction, which reaches an academic level. Along with that, we should develop academic tradition such as“knowing the nature”and“knowing the perspec⁃tive”so as to sort out the vein and main thread in the complicated stylistic spectrum of traditional fiction, and have an“interdisciplinary”exploration and cultural quest so as to strengthen the logic connection among each stylistic term. The focus on investigation into

  18. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancesto...

  19. Thoughts on Strengthening the Cultivation of College Students' Socialist Core Values: From the Perspective of the"Moralization towards Folk" in Ancient Chinese Life%加强大学生社会主义核心价值观培育的思考——以古代中国"化民成俗"生活教化实践为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毓雯

    2015-01-01

    "Moralization towards Folk" in ancient China is achieved through a life education practice which can cultivate the social spirit that meets the will of the feudal ruling class by changing the material lifestyle. Its characteristics of comprehensive cultivation,which shows that life,progressiveness and comprehensiveness are not only the core of our traditional education,but also the necessity for modern education. Socialist core values, as a mainstream value compatible with Chinese current situations,need acceptance and identity of the society. The research on "Moralization towards Folk" provides a new perspective for the construction of new social spirits,especially for the college students' acceptance and identity of the mainstream value. The purpose of this research is to achieve the synergy of socialist core values through connecting with the college students' life comprehensively on the basis of following the law of college students ' cognitive development. In fact,"Moralization towards Folk" in ancient China indicates the idea of the cultivation of college students' socialist core values.%古代中国"化民成俗"是通过改变物质生活方式从而达到构建满足封建统治阶级意愿的社会精神秩序的生活教化实践. 其体现出来生活化、渐进性、综合性的教化特征不仅是我国传统教育的要义,也是现代教育的应有之义. 社会主义核心价值观作为符合中国具体国情的主流价值需要社会的接受和认同,对"化民成俗"的研究为新的社会精神秩序的构建特别是对大学生对主流价值的接受和认同提供了新的视角. 在遵循大学生认知发展规律的基础上,通过与大学生生活的全面对接,实现社会主义核心价值观的协同培育. 古代中国"化民成俗"生活教化实践为大学生社会主义核心价值观培育点明了思路.

  20. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  1. 王阳明心学与通俗小说的崛起%Wang Yangming's neo-Confucian school of mind and the growth of ancient Chinese popular novel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石昌渝; Yao Zhenjun

    2009-01-01

    通俗小说的崛起,王阳明心学是重要条件之一.它一改鄙视通俗小说的传统观念,为士人参与小说创作和批评铺平了道路,使通俗小说的作者成分发生了历史性变化.它为小说题材描叙市井小民的间巷俗事提供了理论根据,并推动了小说从讲故事到写性格的演进.%Wang Yangming's theory of mind serves as the pre-condition for the rise of the Chinese popular novel. Wang's theory helps to change the traditional ideal of despising the popular novels and encourages the scholars to get involved in the creation and criticism of this fictional art. Wang's theory also provides the theoretical basis for the novelists to record the town talks of the common people. In addition, with the influence of Wang's theory, the emphasis of the novel shifts from the story-telling tO the character-portrayal.

  2. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  3. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  4. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage and...... contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  5. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentra...

  6. Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui's Commentary on "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Man-Keung

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the pedagogical implications embodied in Liu Hui's discussion on the ancient Chinese mathematical classic "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU" (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art) with respect to aspects of proof and, more generally, the role of proof in mathematics. Provides examples involving area and volume. (Contains 25 references.) (MDH)

  7. Special Section: Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM): Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Special Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For an enhanced version of this page please turn Javascript on. Adeline Ge, M.D., O.M.D. Senior Chinese Medicine Acupuncture Consultant NIH Photo: NCCAM Acupuncture intrigued Charles ...

  8. A Combination of influence from Confucianism and Taoism upon Chinese culture and literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英华

    2008-01-01

    @@ Preface The mixture of various cultures including those deep rooted in Chinese history and those imported in the ancient time has led to the profoundness,uniqueness and colorfulness of Chinese culture,among which the combination of two of them---Confucianism and Taoism has fundamental influence in the way Chinese think and behave.

  9. 古诗教学与文化教育%Ancient Poetry Teaching and Cultural Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    在世界文学史上古诗堪称一绝。古诗以意境清新,含义深刻,语言生动,韵律优美而著称,是中华文化传统教育的一座宝库。古诗自然成为语文教学内容的重要组成部分。%In the history of world literature, ancient poetry is a must. Ancient poetry with a fresh artistic conception, profound meaning, language, vivid, beautiful and famous, is the treasure of Chinese culture and traditional education. Ancient poetry has become an important part of Chinese teaching content.

  10. 童心哲学史论--古代中国人对儿童的发现%A Historical Treatise on Philosophy of the Heart of the Newborn:“Discovery of the Child” by Ancient Chinese Thinkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东

    2015-01-01

    中国的童心主义哲学有悠远的历史。从先秦老子、孟子,经由宋明心学,到泰州学派的罗汝芳,尤其是到李贽那里,童心主义成熟起来,而成为具有现代气息的学说。李贽的下狱自戕,标志着童心主义所肩负的中国思想现代转型的使命在中国遭遇挫败。童心主义与西方现代学说多有可会通之处,例如,童心、赤子概念与卢梭的“自然人”概念是相通的,童心主义与卢梭教育学是相通的,与马克思主义亦多有可通约之处。“童心”(或“赤子之心”)比其他概念能更好地体现彻底的自然主义和彻底的人本主义。童心主义主张,社会、文化、政治、伦理、教育等领域的建设应当彻底回归人之自然规定性,这为人解脱异化、获得解放奠定了理论基础,为中国文化乃至全球文明的发展指明了方向。%The philosophy of the heart of the newborn has a long history in China. Due to the contribu-tions made by the scholars ranging from Lao Zi and Mencius in the pre-Qin period, via the School of Mind in the Song and Ming dynasties, to Luo Rufang and in particular to Li Zhi of the Taizhou School, the philosophy of the heart of the newborn became mature with modern features. Li Zhi’s imprisonment and suicide marked a great setback in the modern transformation of traditional Chinese thoughts, which had been the mission for the philosophy of the heart of the newborn. There are many similarities be-tween the philosophy of the heart of the newborn and modern western theories. For example, the con-cept of“the new born” or“the heart of the newborn” is similar to Rousseau’s“natural man”, and the philosophy of the heart of the newborn is somewhat commensurate with Rousseau’s pedagogy as well as Marxism. The concept of “the heart of the newborn” can better reflect the thoroughgoing naturalism and thoroughgoing humanism than other concepts. The philosophy of

  11. Chinese Foundry Industry Tour-Shanxi Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    @@ Shanxi Province is one of the important birthplaces of the Chinese nation and has the famous names of the "Cradle of ancient Chinese civilization" and the "Hometown of the foundry industry". To report on the foundry industry development of Shanxi province, journalists of Foundry Journal Agency came to Shanxi from 14-22 of August 2009. We visited cities of Taiyuan, Wutai, Xiangfen,Linfen and Hukou, and interviewed the local foundry people.

  12. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  13. Lianhua Baozhai(Lotus Mountain fortress, Qijing County of Chongqing City): direct evidence of co-ex-isting ancient Chinese and dinosaur tracks%重庆市綦江县莲花保寨:中国古人与恐龙足迹共存的直接证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢立达; 陈郁

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Lianhua Baozhai (Lotus Mountain Fortress) of the Laoyingshan Mountain in Qijiang County, Chongqing City, where abundant and diverse dinosaur tracks, fortress structures and word carvings of past dynasties are exceptionally preserved. The Lianhua Baozhai historic monuments can be traced back to Baoyou 4th Year of the Southern Song Dynasty (A.D. 1256). The fortress might have been used to repel the attacks of the Mongolian Army from the Yuan Dynasty on Sichuan, which was then still dominated by the Southern Song Dynasty. Many historic monuments were also constructed there during the Qing Dynasty. These historic monuments are found along with an abundance of dinosaur tracks (especially hadrosaurid tracks), representing at least five different preservation types, and constituting direct evidence for the long-term inhabitation of ancient Chinese people at this dinosaur track site (perhaps longer than 700 years). The name of the Lianhua Baozhai reflects their belief that the track site represented lotus leaf veins (the mud cracks) and petals (the hadrosaurid tracks) submerged in water (the ripple marks). This study indicates that dinosaur tracks were taken into account in Chinese folklore and in the formation of partial ancient place names in China, which may therefore constitute important clues for the search of dinosaur tracks.%重庆市綦江县老瀛山莲花保寨除了大量多样化的恐龙足迹之外,还保存了完好的要塞结构及历代题刻.从古迹可知,莲花保寨最早可追溯到南宋宝祐四年(1256年),很可能是当地人躲避蒙元军队对尚属南宋统治下的蜀地的进攻之用.此后,清朝又在此留下多处古迹.这些古迹与大量(至少以5种不同方式保存的)恐龙足迹(尤其是鸭嘴龙类足迹)共存,构成了中国古人在恐龙足迹化石点上长时间生活(可能长达700余年)的直接证据.而莲花保寨的泥裂、鸭嘴龙类足迹和波痕被引申为荷叶叶脉、莲

  14. The Name and Symbolic Meaning of Ancient Chinese Constellation from The Record of Astronomy in Sui Shu%中国古代的星官命名及其象征意义——以《隋书·天文志》为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贞

    2012-01-01

    The name of constellation from The Record of Astronomy in Sui Shu,fully simulated the whole actual state of the empire on earth,and in the sky world,the heaven kingdom formed corresponding to the human society. In imperial politics as a reference,such as the imperial harem,official mode,name and substance of the system, worship of God, commodity economy, and border ethnic, all of the constellation in the sky world can be implemented in the light of the corresponding officials. In this sense ,the name of constellation and its symbolic meaning highlighted the ancient Chinese harmony concept between the heav- en and the human being,in large extent to meet the need of the emperor communication with God and as- trological divination.%《隋书·天文志》所见星官的命名,完全比照了人间帝国的整体实态,因而在天上的星空世界中也形成了一个对应于人间社会的天上王国。若以帝王政治为参照,举凡帝王后宫、职官系统、名物制度、祭祀神位、商品经济以及边疆民族等方面,都能在天上的星官世界中加以落实和对应。从这个意义上说,星官的命名及其象征意义凸现了中国古代"天人合一"的思想观念,在很大程度上是为帝王"通天"的星占需要而服务的。

  15. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  16. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  17. New Trends in Chinese Diet: Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Del Giudice, Teresa; Caracciolo, Francesco; Cicia, Gianni; Klaus G. Grunert; Krystallis, Athanasios; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Although the Chinese market is traditionally characterized by a gastronomic culture which is profoundly different from its Western counterpart, the emerging social classes is expressing a growing demand for processed food, opening up to foreign influences, which are neither accepted with prejudice nor viewed passively. This paper analyzes of the propensity of consumers to include in the ancient Chinese culinary culture food products from other countries. A market segmentation of the Chinese c...

  18. The Chinese Pyramids and the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Pyramids are huge ancient burial mounds. In the satellite images we can see some complexes where the main buildings are the pyramidal mounds of an emperor and his empress. Here we discuss a possible sunrise/sunset orientation of these two pyramids on the solstices and equinoxes.

  19. Studies on Chinese Early Knowledge of Latin America Based on Chinese Ancient Documents in the Ming and Qing Dynasties%试论中国人对拉丁美洲的早期认知——基于明清中国史籍的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贯之; 袁艳

    2012-01-01

    With the frequent exchanges between China and the foreign countries, the records of Latin A- merica in Chinese documents gradually increased between the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including books of world history and geography, the accounts written by Chinese diplomatic envoys and overseas travellers and the works translated from foreign newspapers and books. The increasing record of Latin America re- flected that Chinese knowledge of Latin America was deepening. It developed from indirect knowledge through introduction by foreign missionaries to direct knowledge from Chinese diplomatic envoys and overseas travellers, from a summary knowledge of history and geography to a comprehensive understanding of politics, economics and society.%随着中外交流日益频繁,明清时期中国有关拉丁美洲的记述逐渐增多,主要包括世界史地著作、驻外使节和海外游历使的记述以及译自外国报刊书籍的译作等。有关拉丁美洲记述的增多,反映出中国人对拉丁美洲的认识不断深化:从经由外国人介绍而获得的间接认识到亲赴拉丁美洲各国常驻或游历得到直接认识,由概要的地理历史知识到对政治经济社会的全面了解。

  20. Ancient DNA in Greece. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise associated with early 'ancient DNA' results has not been translated into routine techniques of value to archaeologists. The reasons for this are partly technical - ancient DNA analysis is an extremely difficult technique - and partly practical - ancient DNA analysis is often an 'after thought' to an archaeological project. In this paper ancient human DNA analysis is briefly reviewed paying particular attention to specimens originating from Greek archaeological contexts. Problems commonly encountered during ancient DNA research are summarised and recommendations for future strategies in the application of ancient DNA in archaeology are proposed. (author)

  1. Prophylaxis of Chinese ancient presciription Yupingfeng Powder reduces histopathologic changes and viral replication in mouse lungs caused by human metapneumovirus%玉屏风散预防人偏肺病毒感染的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李荣培; 余春梅; 陈昕; 刘平; 陆彪; 赵晓东

    2011-01-01

    Objective: HMPV has been clearly demonstrated to be the syncytial virus (RSV). However, there has been no vaccine and validated therapeutics available by far for this important virus. This study investigated the prophylactic effects of a Chinese traditional prescription, Yupingfeng Powder, in mice from infection of hMPV. Methods: Forty BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 5 groups. All the mice except those in mock-infection group were inoculated intranasally with hMPV after being orally lavaged with various doses of Yupingfeng Powder for 2 weeks. The animals were sacrificed on day 5 post inoculation. Left lungs were harvested for pulmonary histopathology and detection of hMPV infection by PCR. Right Lungs were used for viral isolation and titration by a modified plaque assay. Results: ①The prophylactic use of high dose Yupingfeng Powder dramatically reduced pulmonary histopathology[pathological score(5.13±0.84)vs(15.25±1.49), P<0.01]. The pathological scores were well paralleled by viral titers in the lungs. ②High dose Yupingfeng Powder was capable of reducing lung viral tiler as much as 3 logs (2.33±0.98)×l05、(2.08±0.11)×l05、(5.08±1.46)×l04、(2.17±0.75)×l02PFU/g. Conclusion: Yupingfeng Powder appears to be potent inhibitor for hMPV replication in mouse lungs. Whether Yupingfeng Powder has direct antivirus or immune regulatory effects, however, is unclear at this point.%目的:人偏肺病毒( human metapneumovirus,hMPV)是婴幼儿呼吸道感染重要的病毒病原,目前尚无有效预防和治疗药物.本研究探讨玉屏风散对小鼠感染hMPV的保护作用.方法:将40只BALB/c小鼠随机分为5组,实验组经不同剂量玉屏风散灌胃14d后,滴鼻感染荧光标记的重组hMPV.感染后第5天处死小鼠,无菌状态下取肺组织,左肺用于病理切片,RT-PCR法检测hMPV感染;右肺称重,按每克肺组织加入10mL鼠肺组织缓冲液,4℃匀浆,通过改良噬斑形成法检测肺组织匀浆中hMPV滴度.结

  2. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  3. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride. The traditional Chinese martial arts were unable to defeat the tactics and modern weaponry that China’s enemies had in their arsenal. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Chinese forces made use of their ingenuity and adapted the ancient weapons and fighting skills succeeding to some extent in slowing down the enemy’s advance. This period witnessed the last time cold weapons would play an important role in modern Chinese warfare.

  4. Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  5. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  6. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  7. Analysis of Chinese Ancient and Modern Thought on Income Distribution:Inspiration on the Contemporary Distribution Reform%中国古代及近代收入分配思想评析--兼论对当代分配改革的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩进

    2014-01-01

    China ancient and modern thinkers have put forward a view of fair income distribution , but has not formed the system theory .The ancient thinkers on the maintenance of the feudal ruling class standpoint think in-come allocation problem , and not from the change status , giving people the power angle to solve the issue of unfair distribution of income;the modern thinker only from the western thought and experience to solve .Their views and then reality and characteristics of Chinese society is not consistent .But in these thinkers ,“benevolence”,“not to compete with the people”,“people”,“reduced to”,“from the people , but also from the people”,“regulation of capital” in the income distribution of attention to people's livelihood , Guan Zhao vulnerable groups thought es-sence , is to construct the the socialist harmonious society and building a well -off society in an all -round way . The eighteen Party's proposed “the important concept of income distribution fair”, the practice of the history of the fair distribution of income and China thought of economic and social development together , get rid of the limitations of the old times , meaning the new era , to promote the China distribution field of fair .%中国古代和近代的思想家都提出过关于收入分配公平的观点,但未形成系统的理论。古代的思想家是站在维护封建统治阶级的立场上来思考收入分配问题的,并没有从改变民众地位,赋予民众权力的角度来解决收入分配不公平的问题;近代的思想家仅从西方的思想和经验来寻求问题的解决的。他们的见解与当时中国社会的现实与特点并不相符。但在这些思想家的观点中,“仁政”、“不与民争利”、“恤民”、“减少分利者”、“取之于民、还之于民”、“节制资本”等在收入分配上重视民生、关照弱势群体的思想精华,都值得为构建社会主义和谐社

  8. Thought and Research on Chinese Sports from the Perspective of Confucian Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchang Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article conducts a research on Chinese sports under Confucian philosophy from the perspective of social value that ancient sports sought, development limitation for ancient physical morality and legal system, and development direction of Chinese sports. It also makes an analysis of the promotion and restraint of traditional Confusion culture on Chinese sports, and seeks many valuable factors such as the integration of social and class nature deeply contained in Chinese sports, improvement of physical supervision mechanism and legal system, as well as personal humanistic quality. This article will provide available ideology resources for sustainable development of modern sports, aiming at settling the current problems therein.

  9. Ancient Cultural Center Building and Materials Research Numismatic Collection Museum--Ancient COINS by Tibetan cultural center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠利

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Chinese cultural center is located in the ancient COINS hidden city, the city center in Jinan, convenient transportation, beautiful scenery, poured enough, the surrounding environment culture atmosphere, be helpful for cultural centers in the long run. The building area is about 3500 square meters, the whole building is divided into two layer, a layer of main distribution the exhibition hall, second floor mainly by the studio to form. The designer of the coin reference model, through the deepening, evolution techniques such as the characteristics of Chinese coin will, connotation unity emerges into design, show to buildings. Very good carry the historical culture, also captures the pulse of the times lived.

  10. Wisdom of an Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The famous painting,Along the River During Qingming Festival,impresses visitors at the China Pavilion not iust because of the animated figures in the electronic version of the painting but because it shows a prosperous view of Kaifeng,capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127).It also showcases the wisdom of city planning in ancient China.

  11. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  12. The Echoes of Ancient Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watzman, Haim

    2006-01-01

    Several artifacts found at the Gesher Benot Ya'aqov, or Daughters of Jacob Bridge, archaeological site in Israel provide a picture of ancient human ancestors that is different from the once accepted by most scholars. The discoveries by Israeli archaeologist Naama Goren-Inbar suggest that humans developed language and other key abilities far…

  13. Adult Reading of Ancient Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casler, Frederick H.

    Traditionally, students of ancient languages have been taught to translate rather than read. The four most popular current approaches to language instruction--the grammar-translation method, the direct-reading or inductive approach, the audiolingual method, and the structural approach--all have inherent deficiencies that are magnified when applied…

  14. Leadership insights of the Chinese military classics for physician leaders and healthcare administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenaue, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Trite sayings from Chinese military classics often find their way into after-dinner fortune cookies in many Chinese restaurants in America. However, no one should underestimate the lessons from those Chinese military classics, and they certainly should never be trivialized. Leaders at all levels of healthcare management can learn timeless lessons spanning three millennia from the wisdom of ancient Chinese military writings. PMID:20091948

  15. Confucius School, a National Strategy for Chinese Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    Confucius Great educator, thinker, and founder of Confucianism, Confucius(551-479 B.C.) is regarded as having had the greatest innuence on the development of Chinese culture. He is believed to have had 3,000 students and 72 disciples, with whom he traveled the vassal states in ancient China for 14 years. He collated and compiled many ancient books,including the Book of Songs, the Book of History, the Book of Rites,and the Book of Music.

  16. 双加工发展理论新探——兼及中国一古老推理错觉的跨年级特征%Retesting the Developmental Dual Process Theory——The Developmental Trends of an Ancient Chinese Reasoning Illusion Also Included

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 储美霞

    2011-01-01

    为了检验双加工发展理论及了解中国一古老推理错觉问题的发展特征,从小五至大二各个年级选取被试385名,并将各年龄段被试分成两组,分别施之以涉及相同内容、相同财会关系推断能力的十文钱问题。结果发现:(1)被试在两个问题上的理性行为的发展趋势产生了分离;(2)被试的部分的非理性行为有随年龄增多的趋势;(3)两组被试的理性行为出现的比率在小学五年级便存在差异。上述结果说明,双加工发展理论获得有力支持且至小学五年级始,财会关系推理错觉即存在,表现出跨年级的普遍性。%In this paper,the developmental trend of the Ten Wen problem,an ancient Chinese reasoning illusion,is studied;the important hypothesis of the developmental dual process theory is tested. 83 fifth grade elemental school students(mean age=11.12,SD=.54),66 eighth grade high school students(mean age=14.39, SD=.59),115 eleventh grade high school students(mean age=17.91,SD=.61) and 89 second grade university students(mean age =20.59,SD=1.11) participated in the study.All these participants were recruited from the same region.During the research,participants in each grade were divided into two groups randomly.One of the two groups in each grade solved the Ten Wen problem;the other solved a revised Ten Wen problem which had the same content of the Ten Wen problem but was much easier.Furthermore,the two problems both are hard and confuses our common sense.So the two problems have been regarded as the tasks which involve the same heuristic and analytic process but different confliction of two systems.And it was used in our study to test the hypothesis that deferent developmental trends could be found in such tasks according to he developmental dual process theory. The results show that:(1) the subjects up until the fifth grade of elemental school behaved worse when they tried to solve the Ten Wen problem

  17. New drugs from ancient texts

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Despite the bad press that traditional Chinese medicine sometimes receives, proponents believe it represents an untapped pharmacopeia and are using cutting edge biotechnology to prove it. Gary Humphreys reports.

  18. The Chinese ancient building shallow roof form and meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芮

    2014-01-01

    Environmental art design is a kind of spatial art, it not only embodies the natural environment, architectural environment, at the same time also reflected the cultural environment and psychological environment, therefore, have certain social environment art, historic.

  19. Characterization of ancient Chinese pottery decorated with a black pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yangshao type pottery, made about 6000 yrs ago, was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and confirmed to be composed of quartz, feldspar, muscovite and calcite. A black pigment on it was assumed to be (Mn, Fe)3O4 from Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and XRD experiments. Firing temperature of the pottery was assumed to be less than 600 deg. C from a heating experiment of the fragment of the pottery

  20. Models of ancient sound vases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Per V.

    2002-11-01

    Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

  1. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well....... To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...

  2. Molecular analysis of ancient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains.

  3. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  4. Ancient Technology in Contemporary Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Bruce A.

    1982-01-01

    Archaeologists have shown that ancient man developed the ability to produce cutting blades of an extreme degree of sharpness from volcanic glass. The finest of these prismatic blades were produced in Mesoamerica about 2,500 years ago. The technique of production of these blades was rediscovered 12 years ago by Dr. Don Crabtree, who suggested possible uses for the blades in modern surgery. Blades produced by Dr. Crabtree have been used in experimental microsurgery with excellent results. Anima...

  5. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  6. Negative Influence of Confucianism on Chinese Mode of Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊

    2007-01-01

    As the leading ideology of the ancient China, Confucianism has its deep influence on the spirit and behavior of the Chinese people. This paper suggests that among all the influences Confucianism has brought to the Chinese people, those negative ones on the Chinese mode of thinking are barricades of the Chinese social development and should be avoided. The article studies this issue by involving such theories as the Five Constant Virtues[1] of a human being and the Five Cardinal Hierarchical Relations[2] in the Confucian ideology as well as the group mind theory[3] in the psychology.

  7. Man and Nature in Chinese and Western Traditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑浩

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese conception of "oneness with man and heaven" and the Western tradition of man's separation from nature accompanied by a subject-object dichotomy are the cores of each culture, which largely decides the discrepancy in various aspects of the Chinese and Western ways. To have an embedded and penetrating idea about the differences between the two cultures, it is necessary to gain sufficient knowledge of man-nature relation in dominant Chinese and Western conceptions. This paper aims to explore this issue from the perspective of Taoism and Confucianism in Chinese context, and ancient Greek and Hebraic heritage and modern mechanical view in Western tradition.

  8. Analysis of Ancient DNA in Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgé, Olivier; Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Melanie; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has led to a breakthrough in the analysis of ancient genomes, and the subsequent genomic analyses of the skeletal remains of ancient humans have revolutionized the knowledge of the evolution of our species, including the discovery of a new hominin, and demonstrated admixtures with more distantly related archaic populations such as Neandertals and Denisovans. Moreover, it has also yielded novel insights into the evolution of ancient pathogens. The analysis of ancient microbial genomes allows the study of their recent evolution, presently over the last several millennia. These spectacular results have been attained despite the degradation of DNA after the death of the host, which results in very short DNA molecules that become increasingly damaged, only low quantities of which remain. The low quantity of ancient DNA molecules renders their analysis difficult and prone to contamination with modern DNA molecules, in particular via contamination from the reagents used in DNA purification and downstream analysis steps. Finally, the rare ancient molecules are diluted in environmental DNA originating from the soil microorganisms that colonize bones and teeth. Thus, ancient skeletal remains can share DNA profiles with environmental samples and identifying ancient microbial genomes among the more recent, presently poorly characterized, environmental microbiome is particularly challenging. Here, we describe the methods developed and/or in use in our laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible paleogenomic results from ancient skeletal remains that can be used to identify the presence of ancient microbiota. PMID:26791510

  9. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  10. Multiple maternal origins of native modern and ancient horse populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C Z; Su, R; Bower, M A; Edwards, C J; Wang, X B; Weining, S; Liu, L; Xie, W M; Li, F; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, C M; Chen, H

    2009-12-01

    To obtain more knowledge of the origin and genetic diversity of domestic horses in China, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence diversity from nine horse breeds in China in conjunction with ancient DNA data and evidence from archaeological and historical records. A 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequence from 182 modern samples revealed a total of 70 haplotypes with a high level of genetic diversity. Seven major mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) and 16 clusters were identified for the 182 Chinese modern horses. In the present study, nine 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequences of ancient remains of Bronze Age horse from the Chifeng region of Inner Mongolia in China (c. 4000-2000a bp) were used to explore the origin and diversity of Chinese modern horses and the phylogenetic relationship between ancient and modern horses. The nine ancient horses carried seven haplotypes with rich genetic diversity, which were clustered together with modern individuals among haplogroups A, E and F. Modern domestic horse and ancient horse data support the multiple origins of domestic horses in China. This study supports the argument that multiple successful events of horse domestication, including separate introductions of wild mares into the domestic herds, may have occurred in antiquity, and that China cannot be excluded from these events. Indeed, the association of Far Eastern mtDNA types to haplogroup F was highly significant using Fisher's exact test of independence (P = 0.00002), lending support for Chinese domestication of this haplogroup. High diversity and all seven mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) with 16 clusters also suggest that further work is necessary to shed more light on horse domestication in China.

  11. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. PMID:24304111

  12. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  13. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  14. Lost-Wax Casting in Ancient China: New Discussion on Old Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weirong; Huang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The possible use of lost-wax casting in China has long been a matter of controversy. Based on the study of pertinent ancient texts concerning the technical origins of lost-wax casting in China, direct examination of questioned ancient Chinese bronzes as well as definite lost-wax castings from both overseas and China, and modern production of objects using piece-mold casting, the authors point out their own conceptual ideas about ancient lost-wax casting as follows. First, the lost-wax casting technique does not have its earliest origins in ancient China but rather from the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, where it was predominantly used to cast small human and animal figures (statuettes). Next, some essential characteristics of the lost-wax casting technique can be identified from the point of view of a distortable soft starting model. The locally deformed shape of lost-wax castings is found to be variable. Finally, it is improper to consider the ease of extraction from the mold as the criterion for distinguishing lost-wax casting from piece-mold casting. It is therefore incorrect to conclude that the three-dimensional openwork decorations present on Chinese bronzes from the Spring and Autumn Period, and the Warring States Period, are fabricated using lost-wax castings.

  15. Review on Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine External Use Prescriptions with Skin-whitening, Macula-removing, Stagnation-dissipating and Scar-removing efficacy (Chapter three)——Characteristics of Prescriptions and Medicine in the Ming-Qing Dynasty%中医美白祛斑、散结除疤外用古方溯源(三)——明清时期选方用药特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑛; 宋坪; 王晓旭

    2013-01-01

    In the Ming-Qing dynasty,ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) literature recorded many external use prescriptions and medicine with skin-whitening,macula-removing,stagnation-dissipating and scar-removing efficacy.In the Ming dynasty,the therapeutic methods were dispersing wind,activating blood,dissipating stagnation and removing macula.In the Qing dynasty,the therapeutic methods were clearing heat,removing toxin and smooth skin.According to the TCM thoughts of Qing dynasty,the article reviews these external use prescriptions and medicine,and then analyzes the law of prescription composition and medicine use,in order to help doctors prescribe medicine.%明清时期,中医古籍文献中记载了大量具有美白祛斑、散结除疤功效的外用方药.明代此类方药以祛风活血、散结除斑为法,清代则侧重于清热解毒、爽滑肌肤.本文结合明清时期医学思想特色,对此时期此类外用方药行挖掘整理,深入分析其辨证用药组方规律,旨在拓宽临床诊疗思路,指导临床遣方用药.

  16. The teacher-disciple tradition and secret teaching in Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solos, Ioannis; Liang, Yuan; Yue, Guang-xin

    2014-01-01

    The ancient teacher-disciple tradition is regarded as one of the most celebrated practices within the Chinese medicine world. Such traditions of secrecy, private wisdom and honor are deeply rooted in the theories of Confucianism. This paper only explores the surface of this ancient culture, by investigating relevant popular ancient texts and common Chinese proverbs, as well as utilizing personal experiences, in order to reflect on how the ancient Chinese perceived such practices within their own society and how secret teaching was passed on from teacher to student, including the revelation of secret formulas and their importance and how that tradition differs from our modern-day perspectives. Various rare manuscripts from the author's personal library are employed in order to provide relative examples of the importance of secret knowledge, and how these secrets applied in the traditional healing. PMID:24126973

  17. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  18. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  19. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  20. Re-inventing ancient human DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Michael; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Hofreiter, M.

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, the analysis of ancient human DNA represented one of the most controversial disciplines in an already controversial field of research. Scepticism in this field was only matched by the long-lasting controversy over the authenticity of ancient pathogen DNA. This ambiguous view on ancient human DNA had a dichotomous root. On the one hand, the interest in ancient human DNA is great because such studies touch on the history and evolution of our own species. On the other hand, beca...

  1. Ancient Ethics and Contemporary Ethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Lobo

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine a few doctrines in the history of ancient ethics which can still be considered valuable and even perhaps valid today. Moral motivation for the Stoics and for Socratesis based on self-interest with the further assumption that the moral virtues are the true goods. But the Stoic and Socratic justification strategies are different. Attention is then called to the Protagorean brand ofrelativism underlying contemporary libertarian claims. The paper end swith the suggestion that only a theory of objective human goods can resolve the problem of moral motivation and of the indeterminacy of the harm principie in modern liberalism.

  2. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  3. 永樂大典數位化相關問題之探討:兼論資訊科技對古籍整理的影響 | Exploration of the Relating Problems in Digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia:the Impact of Information Technology to the Chinese Ancient Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    顧力仁 Li-Jen Ku

    2002-04-01

    ="color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt;" lang="EN-US"> Yung Lo Encyclopaedia is a collection all classical, historical, philosophical, and literary works that ever published; covering subjects like astronomy, geography, sciences, medicine, Buddhism, Taoism, and arts. It was mainly compilation of extracts that includes many complete works which had been lost for years.

    This paper explores the relating problems in digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia. The author first introduces several database systems of the Chinese ancient books for example to discuss the impact of information technology to the Chinese ancient books. Then he analyzes the encountered in this process. In conclusion, possible future developments and benefits in digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia are to be discussed further. problems

  4. Reflect on Ancient Books Protection in College Libraries%基于高校图书馆古籍保护工作的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金钟; 唐玉斌

    2011-01-01

    古籍是传承中华民族传统文化的瑰宝.因而加强对古籍保护、开发与利用具有十分重要的意义,文章通过对高校图书馆古籍保护工作存在的问题进行分析,并就高校图书馆在古籍保护、开发和利用方面提出建议.%The ancient books is the treasure of tradition Chinese traditional culture. It is very important to emphasize the protection and exploitation of the ancient books. There are some problems existed in the protection and exploitation of the ancient books in college libraries at the present. The author protects to work an existent question to the ancient books and made further analysis. It put forward some suggestions to scientific protecting ancient books.

  5. Development of Chinese Lotus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇飞

    2013-01-01

    There is a very long history of lotus culture in China. Lotus has a very high medicinal value. Lotus seed is nutritious food. Lotus has anti-aging, prolong the life of the role. Since ancient time, the image of lotus was recorded in various books and literature works. Lotus is a common and tasty food in China. Chinese people like lotus not only because of its useful value, but al⁃so because of its holy spirit. And people even think highly of soul of lotus.

  6. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  7. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  8. [Chinese phytotherapy: the power of synergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Chinese pharmacology is ancient and very extensive. In reality, Chinese pharmacology is composed of matter having vegetable, animal and mineral origins; however, the dominance of vegetable and the exclusive restriction to vegetable matter which European legislation obliges us to follow makes the use of the term phyto-therapy which means curing via plants, as is reported in another article, "Phyto-therapy, a choice based on science and tradition" by Dr. Josep AlluPéCreus. (Rev ROL Enf 8(3):179-182).

  9. English in the Chinese foreign language classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon

  10. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era

    OpenAIRE

    William Acevedo; Mei Cheung

    2012-01-01

    During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride. The traditional Chinese martial arts were unable to defeat the tactics and modern weaponry that China’s enemies had in their arsenal. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Chinese forces made use of their ingenuity and adapted the ancient weapons and fighting skills succeeding to some extent in slowing down the enemy’s advan...

  11. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Tse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.

  12. Examination of Chinese gambling problems through a socio-historical-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Yu, Alex C H; Rossen, Fiona; Wang, Chong-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions. PMID:20842314

  13. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  14. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  15. An ancient rangefinder for teaching surveying methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. Here we propose a discussion of some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to the modern methods. Using an ancient roman artefact as a model, we can pre-pare a rangefinder at no cost for teaching surveying methods to students of engineering and military schools

  16. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  17. Italian Textile Industry:Throw an Embroidered Ball in the Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Throwing an embroidered ball is an act of seeking marriage practiced by noble family maidens in ancient China. March 2009, the early spring of Beijing saw Italian textile industry’s passion for a close relationship with the Chinese market after a global shiver in the freezing economic winter. It is a ball of elegance, quality and sincere cooperation, which is to become larger and more attractive with the stable development of Chinese textile industry and the ever expansion of Chinese consumption market.

  18. Healthy buildings have existed in China since ancient times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qigao; Feng, Ya; Wang, Gonglu [Chongqing Jianzhu Univ., Chongqing, Sichuan (China)

    1997-09-01

    The historical experience in China of constructing healthy buildings over many centuries merits even more attention today. Using the quadrangle as a basic style, buildings have been constructed in this way from ancient China to the present time. It is a style found in all areas of the country. The buildings in which people lived in ancient China were designed according to the doctrine of wind and water (which in Chinese is called feng shui). Today we would describe this as a philosophy for designing the indoor environment for healthy living. The common properties of such buildings are that of having good indoor air quality and easy maintenance of the indoor climate. This paper describes the optimal performance of quadrangle buildings from the perspective of their environment, illumination by natural lighting, infrared absorption and radiation, noise and indoor air quality, insulation properties and gives a mathematical analysis of these features. While this building style is not unique to China it could be developed more in other countries. It is a healthy style of building which can serve mankind worldwide because of its natural energy saving and adopting more widely it would improve standards in building. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  19. On Standard Nomenclature of Basic Chinese Medical Terms (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢竹藩

    2002-01-01

    @@ PHILOSOPHICAL TERMS TCM was developed in the light of ancient Chinese natural philosophy, and so a number of philosophical terms are used in medicine. They can be classified into three categories: theory of (essential) qi, theory of yin-yang, and theory of the five elements.

  20. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland...... woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene...... knowledge of biogeography. However, the approach remains marred by biases related to DNA behaviour in environmental settings, incomplete reference databases and false positive results due to contamination. We provide a review of the field....

  1. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  2. [Being old in ancient Hellas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1983-08-01

    There is room for a more balanced view of old age among the ancient Greeks than is furnished by De Beauvoir's la Vieillesse and other more or less one-sided publications. The old body was despised by the Greeks of classical times; especially walking with three legs (tripous) was stressed as a mark of old age. The Hippocratic writings show some interest in the infirmities of elderly people. Specific psychic and intellectual qualities were not attributed to senescence: old age brought out good and bad qualities of a person more sharply than before. The share of old people in the population cannot be established with any certainty, but there was always a group of men in their sixties who had specific tasks in society. Old age was not an autonomous theme in art, it was solely accidental. The position of the elderly was challenged occasionally in democratic Athens, but it was never undermined. Old people were never marginated in classical Greece.

  3. Study of provenance properties on ancient porcelain of Yue Kiln at Si-long-kou with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese ancient porcelain history has lasted about three thousands years from Shang Dynasty (1100∼1600 BC). A large amount of ancient porcelain sherds with accuracy provenance and ages were excavated from a lot of kiln sites in China. Archaeologists and ceramic experts have recognized and researched it with excavated stratum, utensil shape, body quality, glaze color and painting pattern. However, the appearance characteristic of some ancient porcelain manufactured in different kilns is similar. Therefore, it is still difficult to identify the provenance and ages of the samples excavated from some sites using traditional methods. Up, to now, many problems of Chinese ancient porcelain are confused for archaeologist and collecting experts. The elemental composition of ancient porcelain shows certain information of provenance and age. Especially, the sorts and contents of the elements in porcelain didn't change, so it is very useful to determine the provenance of ancient porcelain with elemental composition characteristics. Provenance characteristic is the important scientific information to identify ancient porcelain wares excavated from sites and graves. The porcelain samples of Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln in Zhejiang Province of china have been analyzed with NAA in this paper. The provenance characteristic was compared with it of Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi Province and Yao-Zhou kiln of Shan-Xi Province. The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results show that the chemical compositions of porcelain body samples for three kilns were different. The difference was been able identified. The porcelain body materials of both Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln and Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi were similar. The samples of Yao-Zhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference.

  4. 诵读古诗 乐在其中%Happiness in Reading and Reciting Ancient Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    买晓英

    2011-01-01

    古诗是我国古典文化的精华,高中学生背诵、学习古诗,可以进一步积累丰富的语言,提高对语言的感悟能力,提高对文学的审美情趣。%Ancient poems are the cream of the Chinese classical literature and senior high school students can accumulate rich language, improving language appreciation ability and literature aesthetics sentiment by reciting and learning ancient poems.

  5. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  6. The Ginseng Growing District, Taxation and Trade in Ancient Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeong-Pil

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The very first record of ginseng in the Korean peninsula dates back to early 6th century A.D., with its concentration in Chinese sources. Regardless of the fact that the Korean ginseng was introduced to China before the birth of Christ, there is no writing about it for 500 years. This is because the Chinese substituted Korean ginseng for the Chinese one, which was cultivated around the Shangdang Area. The ginseng, however, is greatly influenced by natural environment and its native area being Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. It is believed that ginseng range from the northern mountains of Pyongando and Hamkyongdo provinces to the southern Taebaek and Sobaek mountains in Korea. Especially the area of Madasan(Baekdusan? mountain was well-known for ginseng-growing district. The ginseng taxation of the Three Kingdoms period seems to have gone through certain changes along the development stages of the ancient state. The first taxation stage is estimated to be in the form of a tribute. Afterwards, as the governing power of central government was gradually strengthened in the subjugated places, there was a major replacement from tributary form to actual goods levy. The actual areas of such tributary collection is unknown, but the [Sejongshilok Chiriji](geographical records of Sejong chronicles of the early Choson era indicates 113 prefectures and counties as those which submit ginseng to the central government. These administrations provide permissible clues to the historic background of ginseng-taxed regions of the Three Kingdoms. The ginseng trade also is estimated to have flourished in ancient Korea through the Han commanderies of China. However, the writings of Korean ginseng trade is non-existent until 6th century A .D., Such phenomenon can be attributed to few reasons. First, the Chinese took little interest in Korean ginseng as they believed they had their own native ginseng in China. Second, same ignorance resulted from its inflowing but

  7. Review on Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine External Use Prescriptions with Skin-whitening, Macularemoving, Stagnation-dissipating and Scar-removing Efficacy (Chapter Two)——Characteristics of Prescriptions and Medicine in the Song-Jin-Yuan Dynasty%中医美白祛斑、散结除疤外用古方溯源(二)——宋金元时期选方用药特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑛; 宋坪; 王天怡

    2012-01-01

    In the Song-Jin-Yuan dynasty, ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) literature recorded many external use prescriptions and medicine with skin-whitening, macula-removing, stagnation-dissipating and scar-removing efficacy. In the Song dynasty, the therapeutic methods were dispersing wind, inducing diuresis and using aromatic herhs to dredge the meridians. In the Jin-Yuan dynasty, the therapeutic methods were regulating qi, activating blood and using white herbs to whiten skin. According to the theoretical basis of TCM and the law of prescription composition, as well as TCM thoughts and writings characteristics of different periods, the article reviews and analyzes these external use prescriptions and medicine in order to help doctors prescribe medicine.%目的 宋金元时期,中医古籍文献中记载了大量具有美白祛斑、散结除疤功效的外用方药.宋代此类方药以祛风利水、芳香通络为法,金元时期则侧重于理气活血、以白养白.本文根据中医药学的理论基础和辨证用药组方规律,结合不同时期中医学思想及著作特点,对此类外用方药进行挖掘、整理及分析,旨在指导临床遣方用药.

  8. Archaeological Discoveries in the People’s Republic of China and Their Contribution to the Understanding of Chinese History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available More than eight decades ago, the distinguished Chinese scholar Hu Shi (1891–1962 wrote an essay titled ‘My Views on Ancient History’, in which he said: My outlook regarding ancient history is, for the present, we should shorten the study of ancient history by two or three thousand years, and start our researches from the Book of Odes. When archaeology has become well developed, then we can slowly extend [our understanding of ancient history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty, using excavated historical evidence. Today, over eighty years later, Chinese history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty has been steadily reconstructed, step by step, from archaeological discoveries, without which, even the well-recognized deserved brilliance of ancient history, since the Eastern Zhou dynasty, would be dimmed.

  9. Experimental study on seismic behavior of fork-column “Dougong” joints in timber structures of Chinese ancient buildings%古建筑木结构叉柱造式斗栱节点抗震性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢启芳; 向伟; 杜彬; 郑培君; 吴波

    2015-01-01

    斗栱是中国古建筑特有的形制,具有建筑装饰、传递荷载和耗能减震等综合作用。为研究叉柱造式斗栱节点的抗震性能,以独乐寺观音阁平座层叉柱造式斗栱为研究对象,参照宋《营造法式》三等材的营造方法,制作5个叉柱造式斗栱节点。通过低周反复荷载试验,研究叉柱造式斗栱节点的破坏形态、滞回特性、抗转动承载力、转动刚度、刚度退化和耗能等抗震性能,分析不同营造形式、不同竖向荷载等因素对斗栱节点抗震性能的影响以及双朵斗栱协同工作效应。试验结果表明:叉柱造式斗栱节点主要破坏形态是柱叉、散斗的劈裂,栌斗的开裂和受压屈服,枋弯曲断裂以及构件的分离与滑移。斗栱节点的弯矩-转角滞回曲线呈“S”形,滞回环“捏缩”效应明显;双枋斗栱节点的滞回曲线对称性好,而单枋斗栱节点的正、负向滞回曲线显著不对称。斗栱节点弯矩-转角骨架曲线的发展过程可划分为基本弹性阶段、弹塑性上升阶段和平稳破坏阶段三个阶段,并根据试验结果建立斗栱节点的弯矩-转角简化计算模型。竖向荷载越大,节点抗转动承载力和转动刚度越大,根据试验结果建立斗栱节点转动刚度的竖向荷载影响系数计算公式。研究成果对我国叉柱造式古建筑木结构的保护具有重要参考价值。%As a peculiar shape in Chinese buildings,“Dougong” has the functions of building decoration, load transfer and seismic energy dissipation. The“Dougong” joints of Guan Yin Pavilion of Dule Temple are selected as investigation objects. Based on the dimensional requirements in the Fabrication Methods of Song Dynasty′s third-class material system, five “Dougong” joint models were made. Their seismic behaviors and changing laws, such as failure characteristics, hysteretic behaviors, bearing capacity, degeneration of

  10. 威海古籍与藏书谈--《威海市古籍联合目录》序%On Ancient Books and Book-collecting of Weihai---Preface of Ancient Books Union Catalog of Weihai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承略

    2014-01-01

    There are great ancient book collections in Weihai.Many ancient books have been collected in Wendeng、Rongcheng and Rushan library.Particularly in Wendeng,69 kinds of ancient books have been selected by Chinese Ancient Rare Books Catalogue,such as Shou Wan Yan Ci and Xun Zhang Yan Ci,and 18 kinds of ancient books have been selected by National Precious Ancient Books Directory.A long humanist tradition brings up a great book collection.So many book-collectors appeared in history,such as Liu Bishao,Dong Zuoyuan,Yu Lian,Yu Xixue,Yu Yifa,Bi Yixiu,Sun Fuhai and Sun Baotian.The Ancient Books Union Catalog of Weihai lay a solid foun-dation for the research and the use of ancient books in Weihai.%威海市古籍庋藏宏富,市图书馆及文登、荣成、乳山图书馆均有大量收藏。尤以文登为最,以《守皖谳词》和《巡漳谳词》为代表的69种古籍入选《中国古籍善本书目》,18种入选《国家珍贵古籍名录》。丰厚的藏书源于当地悠久的人文传统,威海历史上先后出现了刘必绍、董祚远、于琏、于熙学、于颐发、毕以绣、孙福海、孙葆田等著名藏书家。如今,《威海市古籍联合目录》完成,为研究利用威海古籍打下了坚实的基础。

  11. The Festivals of Ancient Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    FOR hundreds of thonsands of years, Chinese folk festivals were formed based on the demand of farmers who offered their sacrifices to the gods and on the influence of historical legends and religious belief. Because some folk festivals had a close connection with women’s lives, they were called "Daughters’ Festivals." The Dragon Boat Festival (the 5th day of the 5th lunar month) and Qiqiao Festival (the seventh day of the seventh luna? month) are both Daughters’ Festivals. For two thousand years, these

  12. Rise and fall of Kantu: A historical study of an ancient Tibeto-Burmese speaking group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Ping

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of Chinese records and previous academic achievements in and outside China,the author makes a deeper study on the history of Kantu.As an ancient Tibeto-Burmese speaking group,Kantu was likely to have developed from the Qiongdu(Kontu)of Xinan yi(ancient ethnic groups in southwestern China).During the 12th-13th centuries,the Kantu group resided in an extensive area expanding from the border area between present Sichuan and Yunnan provinces of China to Burma.In the late 13th century,the Yuan troops occupied the area of Kantu.Since then,there have been no more record about Kantu in Chinese annals,and they were likely merged into the groups of"Luoluo"(Lolo).In Burma,most of the Kantu people had been merged into the local peoples,with only a few remaining in remote mountain forests of northern Burma and still keeping their own name and customs.Thus,these people ale lust the living sources for our studies on ancient Kantu.

  13. Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the relevance and implications of ancient accounting practices to the contemporary theorizing of accounting. The paper provides a synthesis of the literature on ancient accounting particularly in relation to issues of human accountability, identifies its major achievements and outlines some of the key challenges facing researchers. We argue that far from being an idiosyncratic research field of marginal interest, research in ancient accounting is a rich an...

  14. Faience: the ceramic technology of ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Faiences are ancient Egyptian ceramic materials, considered as "high-tech" products. The paper discussed the method by which the faiences were produced and the application of SEM and Raman spectroscopy to their analysis

  15. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  16. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  17. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  18. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

  19. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  20. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  1. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  2. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  3. A case study and mechanism investigation of typical mortars used on ancient architecture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yuyao [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhang Bingjian [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: zbj@mail.hz.zj.cn; Liang Xiaolin [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2008-07-10

    Mortars sampled from Dutifulness Monument, where typical ancient China mortar formulas and manufacturing processes were used, were analyzed by starch-iodine test, FTIR, DSC-TG, SEM and XRD methods. Several modeling samples were then made according to historical records of Chinese ancient mortar formulas and analyzed with the same techniques. The modeling formulas also were used to consolidate loose specimens. The results show that sticky rice plays a crucial role in the microstructure and the consolidation properties of lime mortars. A possible mechanism was suggested that biomineralization may occur during the carbonation of calcium hydroxide, where the sticky rice functions as a template and controls the growth of calcium carbonate crystal. The organic-inorganic materials formed based on this mechanism will be more favorable for consolidating the loose samples both in strength improvement and durability.

  4. Study on Anti-seismic Strengthening of the Ancient Stone Archway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese ancient stone archways are in flat structure. And joints of their members are of half tenons and mortises. Under the influence of the earthquake, the resisting ability of archway’s uneven sides is relatively poor and the relevant members have little reliable joints. This paper is to analyze seismic strengthening feasibility of Tiantai mountain stone archway which is damaged from the earthquake and to research on the aspects of the loading mode, structure layout and soundness. On the premise of guaranteeing the authenticity and beauty, we use earthquake damaging mechanism of stone archways and the modern anti-seismic structure designing theory and modern building materials. We also follow the way of the modern construction technology and ancient construction and strengthen the anti-seismic way of the resisting ability of Tiantai mountain stone archway’s uneven sides and joints of tenons and mortises. The best anti-seismic strengthening schemes are put forward as well.

  5. Japanese Ancient Tang Music Score and Chinese Court Banquet --Research Review of Mr Liu Chongde on Japanese Tang Music%日本唐乐古谱与中国宫廷燕乐--刘崇德先生日本唐乐研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广杰

    2014-01-01

    日本唐乐古谱是中国唐代音乐的异域留存,学界对其研究和解译非常关注,限于种种条件,多年来少有突破。词曲学家刘崇德先生此次将日本唐乐古谱十种整理出版,在对其进行基本文献研究和整理的基础上,对日本唐乐与我国唐代宫廷燕乐的直接关系、性质、乐律、曲型和结构等重要问题都做了深入研究。为我们深刻的揭开了日本唐乐古谱的神秘面纱。并借他山之石,为我们唐代宫廷燕乐、词乐、词体研究了、开辟了宽广道路。%Japanese Ancient Tang Music Score is the exotic preservation of music of Tang Dynasty in China. Despite a variety of conditions limited, academic circle paid highly attention to the research and interpretation of Japanese ancient Tang Music score, but has made rare breakthroughs for many years. This time Songwriter Mr Liu Chongde has edited and published 10 kinds of Japanese Ancient Tang Music Score. On the basis of its basic literature research and reduction, he has made a thorough study on character, temperament, type structure, and the direct relationship between the Japanese Tang music and the court banquet music of Tang Dynasty in China. At the same time he uncovers the mysterious veil of Japanese Ancient Tang Music Score for us. He has opened up a broad way to the study of Tang court banquet music, the music of Ci poetry and Ci poetry through the study.

  6. "Chi-Fang-Qi": Is it the aureole of an ancient supernova?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fuyuan; JIANG Shiyang

    2005-01-01

    An annotation for the statement about JingXing (Great Star) in the most famous Chinese ancient historical book Shi Ji (Historical Records) authored by Sima Qian reads as follows: "There was a red aureole ("Chi-Fang-Qi") which connected with a deep-color aureole ("Qing-Fang-Qi"). Two yellow stars were in the red aureole,one yellow star was in the deep-color aureole". The author of the annotation was Meng Kang, an officer as well as a scholar of the Wei State in the Three Kingdoms period. The same records are to be found in two other Chinese historical books compiled by the authors of later ages in Tang Dynasty --Jin History and Sui History. The scene illustrated by the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi" is very similar to the pictures of SN1987A taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Let it be noted that although the ancient authors were often with serious wrong understandings of some astronomical phenomena such as supernovae, their depictions about natural phenomena they witnessed were mostly objective, and it was unlikely that they fictionally made the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi". We infer that the ancient observers might have ever watched a very bright supernova with an aureole structure in its remnant and then left such a record. Meng Kang perhaps was the first to give the record about "Chi-Fang-Qi", and he might have lived in the period from about AD 180 to AD250, very near to AD 185, so, here the supernova the ancient people watched was most likely the one in the year of AD 185. This supposition is consistent with the distance parameter of the most possible remnant of SN185 derived by some modern measurements. If the correlation between the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi" and the supernova remnant can be further proven true, it would be an important verification of the modern theory about stellarevolution.

  7. [A comparative study on the ethics of Western and traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-xue; Liu, Sheng

    2008-10-01

    The ethics of Western medicine and that of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) developed separately in their own ways. The formation and development of ancient medical ethics of China were extensively and deeply influenced by Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and other religious thought, while the ancient ethic basis of western society was influenced by traditional Judaism, Christianism, Catholicism and other natural philosophical thinking of ancient Greece and Rome. With the progress of medical and life sciences, the medical ethics begins to transfer into the life ethics, thus giving rise to new questions in the ethics of Western medicine and TCM. PMID:19141202

  8. Observations of comets from 611 B.C. to A.D. 1640. Extracted from theChinese Annals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J.

    Reprint of a work first published in 1871.The texts were extracted from the Chinese Annals and translated from the original language by John Williams F.S.A. The book presents descriptions of 372 observations, the first being July 611 B.C. and the last May A.D. 1621. An introductory section comments on the original sources and describes ancient Chinese observational techniques and the Chinese nomenclature for the celestial sphere. The appendix consists oftables for reducing Chinese time to European reckoning and a Chinese celestial atlas of 16 plates.

  9. Linxia:Chinese Mecca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture is located in the northwest Gansu Province. Linxia used to be a strategically important town on the conjunction of ancient Silk Road, Tang Dynasty-Ancient Tibet Passage and Gansu-Sichuan Official

  10. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  11. On Functional Discourse Analysis Applied in Translation of Chinese Tea Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔艳君; 李洋

    2012-01-01

      In this article, the author aims to analyze some English translations of ancient Chinese tea poems in a functional lin⁃guistic point of view based mainly on Halliday’s functional linguistic theory. First of all, there is a general introduction of Halli⁃day’s functional linguistic theory, secondly we will look into the features of ancient Chinese tea poetry, such as the grammar, the language and the context, and then the author picks out two typical examples for detail analyzing, at last there is a brief conclusion of the whole article.

  12. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  13. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  14. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  15. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  16. PIXE ANALYSIS ON AN ANCIENT SCROLL SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shutthanandan, V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Iuliano, Edward M.; Seales, William B.

    2008-12-01

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn.

  17. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  18. 南宁古城园林与城池建设的关系%The Relationship of Ancient Gardens and Ancient Nanning City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷云黎

    2012-01-01

    In Chinese classical gardens, the ancient public gardens and government office yard are lower than the imperial gardens, temple gardens and private gardens in popularity. But in some particular ancient cities, their functions are obviously higher than other gardens. In ancient Nanning city construction, the ancient public gardens and government office yard occupies an important position, and are the main component of urban construction, endowed with some irreplaceable functions. Analyzing the generality and particularity of their relationship can help the construction of current urban gardens and landscapes become full of local characteristics, and add historical culture connotation to urban landscape, which is of extensive practical significance.%在中国古典园林中,公共园林与衙署园林在知名度上要低于皇家园林和私家宅园,但是在一些特定的古代城市中,它的作用要明显高于其他园林在南宁的古代城市建设中,公共园林与衙署园林占据重要地位,是城市建设的主要组成部分,被赋予了一些不可替代的功能.分析其关系的通用性与特殊性,对于深入认知中国园林传统,建设有地方特色的当前城市园林最观,增加城市园林景观的历史文化内涵具有广泛的现实意义.

  19. Ancient neurilemmoma: A rare oral tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muruganandhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurilemmomas are benign tumors of neural origin composed of Schwann cell proliferation in characteristic patterns. Ancient neurilemmomas are usually longstanding growths that exhibit degenerative features that could be mistaken for malignancy. They are extremely rare in the oral cavity and present in older individuals of long duration. The authors report a case of ancient neurilemmoma in a young patient with short duration of growth. This unique case presented with remarkable histopathological features with respect to vascularity and atypia associated with degenerative change. It is essential to not mistake these features as malignant transformation so as to avoid radical procedures.

  20. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...

  1. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  2. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  3. Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7 th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal′s derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don′t produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s. Particle size (1-2 μ reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.

  4. Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Sahu, Chandan Kumar; Haldar, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7(th) century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal's derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don't produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s). Particle size (1-2 μ) reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters. PMID:24696811

  5. 中西方古典爱情诗之比较--以李白的《怨情》与勃朗宁夫人的《我怎样爱你》为例%Contrastive Study of Ancient Chinese and Western Love Poems-- Analysis of Li Bai’s Yuanqing and Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s How Do I Love Thee?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚华星; 岳国法

    2014-01-01

    The love poems in both Chinese and Western literature have eulogized the holiest, purest and noblest relationship of all human beings, however, Chinese love poems differ a lot from those of Western owing to the difference between geographical conditions, cultural backgrounds , psychological traits, etc. This paper attempts to probe into the difference between Chinese and Western love poems from three aspects:the creating motivation, themes of the poems and the stylistic features of the poems, and finally the paper reaches a conclusion that Chinese love poems are implicit, subtle and laconic, while Western love poems are explicit, incisive and magnificent. They have their own characteristics in many aspects so we should appreciate them with a broad mind.%中西方爱情诗歌都歌颂了人类情感中最神圣、纯洁和崇高的爱情,然而由于地理环境、文化心理等各种因素的差异,中西爱情诗也各有特色。从创作动机、作品主题及诗风和手法这三个方面探讨中西方爱情诗的差异,可以发现:中诗委婉、微妙、简隽;西诗直率、深刻、铺陈。两方各有千秋,我们应以开放的心态博采众长。

  6. A Date Recovery System launched for chronological studies in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Benefited from the performance of the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project (XSZP) in China and our new astronomical chronology method designed and processed for Chinese particular 60-day-cycle Ganzhi (the heavenly stems and earthly branches) date records, we launch a Date Recovery System (DRS) for ancient China. Of high analysis function, this software can recover and convert the complete or incomplete date information originally from Ganzhi style in the historical period of China to the Gregorian Calendar System, which may have wide applications in the area of literary history, archaeology and cultural relic, etc., and solve the Goldbach Puzzles of Chinese nations. As an example, we give the detailed process for the sculptures on four bronze wares with the Ganzhi data and afterwards employ this software and provide their possible dates corresponding to Gregorian system.

  7. A Date Recovery System launched for chronological studies in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Benefited from the performance of the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project(XSZP) in China and our new astronomical chronology method designed and processed for Chinese particular 60-day-cycle Ganzhi(the heavenly stems and earthly branches)date records,we launch a Date Recovery System(DRS)for ancient China. Of high analysis function,this software can recover and convert the complete or incomplete date information originally from Ganzhi style in the historical period of China to the Gregorian Calendar System,which may have wide applications in the area of literary history,archaeology and cultural relic,etc.,and solve the Goldbach Puzzles of Chinese nations.As an example,we give the detailed process for the sculptures on four bronze wares with the Ganzhi data and afterwards employ this software and provide their possible dates corresponding to Gregorian system.

  8. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  9. Neural Strategies for Reading Japanese and Chinese Sentences: A Cross-Linguistic fMRI Study of Character-Decoding and Morphosyntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Koongliang; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L.; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Japanese and Chinese share virtually identical morphographic characters invented in ancient China. Whereas modern Chinese retained the original morphographic functionality of these characters (hanzi), modern Japanese utilizes these characters (kanji) as complex syllabograms. This divergence provides a unique opportunity to systematically…

  10. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  11. LD Students and the Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara L.

    1988-01-01

    Synectics, the making of analogies, was used with learning disabled high school seniors to provide them with a creative process that aids in developing a deeper understanding of literature. After studying Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the students completed a six-step process and produced a short writing assignment. (VW)

  12. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  13. Paragons of Education in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MOTHERS contributed greatly to children’s education in ancient China long before schools took shape. Behind many prominent figures lay greatmothers whose personal example and verbal instruction benefited their children throughout life. There is an old sayingabout the "stern father and compassionate mother."However, you will always

  14. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  15. A probabilistic model of Ancient Egyptian writing

    OpenAIRE

    Nederhof, Mark Jan; Rahman, Fahrurrozi

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a probabilistic model to describe how signs form words in Ancient Egyptian writing. This applies to both hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. The model uses an intermediate layer of sign functions. Experiments are concerned with finding the most likely sequence of sign functions that relates a given sequence of signs and a given sequence of phonemes. Postprint

  16. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases.

  17. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  18. Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method

  19. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  20. Unlocking the Mysteries of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    Describes the work of Egyptologist William Murnane who is recording the ritual scenes and inscriptions of a great columned hall from the days of the pharaohs. The 134 columns, covered with divine imagery and hieroglyphic inscriptions represent an unpublished religious text. Briefly discusses ancient Egyptian culture. Includes several photographs…