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Sample records for ancient chinese anti-fever

  1. Ancient Chinese Sundials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kehui

    Timekeeping was essential in the agricultural society of ancient China. The use of sundials for timekeeping was associated with the use of the gnomon, which had its origin in remote antiquity. This chapter studies three sundials (guiyi 晷仪) from the Qin and Han dynasties, the shorter shadow plane sundial (duanying ping yi 短影平仪) invented by Yuan Chong in the Sui Dynasty, and the sundial chart (guiyingtu 晷影图) invented by Zeng Minxing in the Southern Song dynasty. This chapter also introduces Guo Shoujing's hemispherical sundial (yang yi 仰仪). A circular stone sundial discovered at the Small Wild Goose Pagoda in Xi'an is also mentioned. It is dated from the Sui and Tang dynasties. A brief survey of sundials from the Qing dynasty shows various types of sundials.

  2. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  3. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  4. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  5. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  6. The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Zwahlen, François; Wang, Yanxin

    2011-08-01

    The ancient Chinese notes on hydrogeology are summarized and interpreted, along with records of some related matters, like groundwater exploration and utilization, karst springs, water circulation, water conservation and saline-land transformation, mine drainage, and environmental hydrogeology. The report focuses only on the earliest recorded notes, mostly up until the Han Dynasty (206 BC - AD 25). Besides the references cited, the discussion in this report is based mainly on archaeological material, the preserved written classic literature, and some assumptions and/or conclusions that have been handed down in legends to later ages. Although most material relates to ancient China, the lessons learned may have practical significance worldwide. Compared to other contemporary parts of the world, ancient China, without doubt, took the lead in the field of groundwater hydrology. The great achievements and experience of the Chinese ancestors should provide motivation and inspiration for hydrogeologists to carry out their scientific research and exploration passionately and actively.

  7. Design and development of an ancient Chinese document recognition system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Liangrui; Xiu, Pingping; Ding, Xiaoqing

    2003-12-01

    The digitization of ancient Chinese documents presents new challenges to OCR (Optical Character Recognition) research field due to the large character set of ancient Chinese characters, variant font types, and versatile document layout styles, as these documents are historical reflections to the thousands of years of Chinese civilization. After analyzing the general characteristics of ancient Chinese documents, we present a solution for recognition of ancient Chinese documents with regular font-types and layout-styles. Based on the previous work on multilingual OCR in TH-OCR system, we focus on the design and development of two key technologies which include character recognition and page segmentation. Experimental results show that the developed character recognition kernel of 19,635 Chinese characters outperforms our original traditional Chinese recognition kernel; Benchmarked test on printed ancient Chinese books proves that the proposed system is effective for regular ancient Chinese documents.

  8. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution in…

  9. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Derui; Lian Haiping

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  10. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  11. Study on Prohibitions of Ancient Chinese Costumes in Black Series

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaomeng Qu

    2013-01-01

    China is a historical country with extensive and profound civilization, in which the Chinese Costume has always been a brilliant feature. Black series occupies an important position in the color institution of ancient Chinese Costumes. The prohibition on black series costumes also has a significant meaning in ancient China. By discussing prohibitions related to black series in ancient Chinese costume institution, this paper studied two typical colors used by people of different classes as the...

  12. Origin of Chinese ancient glasses——study on the earliest Chinese ancient glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Fuxi; CHENG Huansheng; LI Qinghui

    2006-01-01

    The earliest Chinese ancient glasses before the West Han Dynasty (200 BC) from different regions are studied. The glass samples were unearthed from Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Xinjiang of China. The chemical composition of these glasses samples is analyzed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It is shown that the glass chemical compositions belong to barium-lead silicate BaO-PbO-SiO2, potash soda lime silicate K2O (Na2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O>1), soda potash lime silicate Na2O (K2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O<1) and potash silicate K2O-SiO2 glass systems, respectively. The origins of the earliest Chinese ancient glasses are discussed from the archaeological and historical points of view. These four types of Chinese ancient glasses were all made in Chinese territory using local raw materials. The glass preparation technology was related to the Chinese ancient bronze metallurgy and proto-porcelain glaze technology. The glass technology relationship between the East and the West is analyzed at the same time.

  13. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S

    1999-04-02

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  14. Humanities Scholars and Databases for Ancient Chinese Books

    OpenAIRE

    Shih-Chuan Chen; Wen-Chi Huang; Ming-Der Wu

    2006-01-01

    In every field, scholars find an increasing availability of electronic resources. Studies have shown that humanities scholars use and cite fewer electronic resources than their science and technologycounterparts. Moreover, humanities scholars prefer monographs to periodicals or other resources. They continue to use ancient books and documents. In the digital era, many full-text databases of ancient Chinese books and documents have been created. In this study, ten professors of Chinese literat...

  15. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  16. Theory of Traditional Chinese Aesthetic Thoughts Influence on Ancient Chinese Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静

    2014-01-01

    the Chinese tradition of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism thought influence the design style of the building. Confu-cian, Taoist thought of"the doctrine of the mean"of"nature and humanity"ideology, traditional Confucian thought on the forma-tion of the traditional architectural style vital role. Of ancient Chinese architecture is harmonious and peaceful feelings, Confucian, Taoist, buddhist thought deeply, meanwhile, reflect the hand, reasonable aspiration is dependent of the aesthetic, the emotion affects the ancient Chinese architecture planning, layout and construction, formed the ancient Chinese architecture unique architectural style and artistic style and features.

  17. "Uighur's Contributions to the Ancient Chinese Culture"

    OpenAIRE

    SHIMIN, Geng

    2010-01-01

    In this my paper I speak briefly on the contributions made by the Uighurs and their ancestors to the Chinese civilization. Of course, the Chinese people also made great contributions to the civilization of Uighur people

  18. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhwen

    2004-01-01

    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  19. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China. PMID:23552234

  20. Comprehension of the Translated Versions of Ancient Chinese Poems through the Perspective of Language Differences

    OpenAIRE

    Jing Xie

    2014-01-01

    Due to differences in form, style and culture between the original and the translated version of ancient Chinese poetry, the meaning of translated ancient Chinese poems is bound to differ from that of the originals. Therefore, to certain extent some ancient Chinese poems can never be completely translated; but it is possible that they can be better translated so that the reader of the translated poems may see more clearly from different angles the beauty of Chinese poetry.

  1. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis

  2. The colour of Sirius as recorded in ancient Chinese texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiao-yuan

    1993-04-01

    At present, Sirius is white, but in the West there has long existed a succession of records purporting that the star is red, which would mean difficulty for the current theory of stellar evolution. In this paper I have systematically examined the more reliable records regarding the colour of Sirius in extant ancient Chinese texts from B. C. times to the + 7th century and found that, during this period, Sirius was unquestionably white, thus relieving the present theory of stellar evolution of any threat from this direction.

  3. NEW REDUCTIONS OF ORBITSBASED UPON CHINESE ANCIENT COMETARY RECORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hongnan; Zhuang Weifeng; Wang Yu

    2000-01-01

    From 146 B. C. to 1760 A. D., 363 sets of cometary observations for a total 88 different comets were recorded in Chinese Ancient Records of Celestial Phenomena. According to those records, we reduced apparent positions and mean equatorial coordinates (epoch 2000.0)for all more than three times recorded comets. Taking into account the perturbations of all nine planets and using the numerical method of Nbody problem, the orbits of correlative comets were calculated. For thirty different comets, new orbits are presented for the first time.

  4. PIXE analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Lin [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China)]. E-mail: chenglinbnu@hotmail.com; Ding Xunliang [Institute of Low Energy Nuclear Physics, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Cheng Huangsheng [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhang WenJiang [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang 330008 (China); Fan Changsheng [Jiangxi Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, Nanchang 330008 (China)

    2006-03-15

    This paper reports the results about the PIXE analysis of major, minor and trace elements of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain and blue-and-white porcelain produced in Hutian Kiln (Jingdezhen district, Jiangxi province) during 10th-14th centuries. The porcelain body and greenish white glaze from northern Song (AD 960), southern Song (AD 1037-1276), early Yuan (AD 1279-1320), later Yuan (AD 1320-1368) were investigated together with white-and-blue glaze from Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644). The obtained data were further analyzed by factor analysis.

  5. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century

  6. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, X.M. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China); Guo, M.S. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China)

    2005-10-15

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  7. Applied investigation of Moessbauer effect for the famous ancient chinese porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The famous Ru porcelain, Jun porcelain and Guan porcelain of Song Dynasty and Yuan Dynasty are analyzed. The Moessbauer parameters of the ancient porcelains and the imitative ancient porcelains are compared. The firing techniques, coloring mechanism and microstructures of the ancient Chinese porcelains have been discussed. (7 figs., 4 tabs.)

  8. The fingerprint elements analysis on the provenance relation between ancient chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 46 samples of glazes and bodies of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, Jun Porcelain and imitative porcelain were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The contents of 36 elements for each sample were measured, the eight elements were chosen as the fingerprint elements to complete scatter analysis. The result showed that the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain had almost identical and stable sources of raw materials. The close provenance relation between ancient Chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain was preliminarily verified. It is found that most modern Jun porcelain samples were similar to the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain, three modern Ru porcelain samples were similar to the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain. Jingdezhen porcelain has no relation to Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain

  9. Chemical and isotopic fingerprinting of ancient Chinese porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have obtained unequivocal fingerprinting for many Chinese porcelains of utmost significance, based on high-precision multi-element and isotopic analysis by inductively-coupled mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and thermal ionization mass spectrometry (TIMS) in our laboratory. As most ancient Chinese kilns used raw materials mined from local areas, differences in the geochemistry and mineralogy of these raw materials are expected to be preserved as distinctive geochemical and isotopic signatures in finished products and this may be useful for identifying their sources. Production techniques, such as purifying and mixing of different raw materials, may also vary from kiln to kiln, or may even change over time. All of that could also potentially leave a characteristic chemical and isotopic signature in a kiln's finished products. Using a tiny amount (often a few tens milligrams) of porcelain material, more than 40 element concentrations and Sr-Nd isotopic compositions can be rapidly and precisely determined on the ICP-MS and TIMS, respectively. The analytical results show that visibly similar Chinese porcelains made in different places and/or dynasties are strikingly distinctive. The data also allow modern fakes to be readily distinguished from antique porcelains. (author). 4 refs., 7 figs

  10. Ancient Chinese observations of physical phenomena attending solar eclipses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The realization that solar activity probably undergoes changes in qualitative character on time scales greater than the 11 or 22 year cycle but short compared to the duration of recorded history gives renewed importance to historical documents describing the state of solar activity. Modern eclipse observation reveal the presence of solar acitivity through the appearance of coronal structures and prominences. It has been widely remarked that eclipse records prior to the 18th century are uniformly silent on these conspicuous solar eclipse features, raising the possibility, however unlikely, that a change in solar activity has occurred which rendered them only recently noticeable. We present here material from ancient Chinese sources, primarily astrological, that describe phenomena attending solar eclipses that are almost certainly coronal structures and prominences. Thus, these aspects of the present character of solar activity have apparently occurred at other times in history, if not continuously. (orig.)

  11. X AFS analysis of ancient chinese porcelain of honglvcai

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Structure analysis of Honglvcai, an overglaze ploychrome porcelain produced in China from the Song Dynasty to Ming Dynasty, has been a blank in studies on ancient Chinese ceramics. This work was focused on the oxidation state and local environment of colorants in red, yellow and green decorations on Honglvcai by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). The analysis of Fe K-edge XANES and EXAFS spectra of the red-colored samples indicated that Fe3+ was mainly located at a distorted octahedral site in a hematite phase, while that if the yellow-colored samples showed that iron was present as both trivalent and divalent cations coordinated with oxygen atoms in an amorphous phase. And Cu K-edge XAFS analysis of the green-colored samples revealed that Cu2+ was the main constituent coordinated with oxygen atoms in an amorphous phase. (authors)

  12. Moessbauer studies on ancient Chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. - 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Moessbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 11000C in steps of 1000C for 2 h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Moessbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900-10000C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period. (orig.)

  13. The fingerprint element analysis on provenance of ancient chinese Jun porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty-three samples of ancient Jun porcelains and so on were chosen. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) was used to measure the 36 trace elements in every sample. Seven elements were chosen as the 'fingerprint elements'. The provenance of the glazes and bodies of ancient Chinese Jun porcelain were investigated by the fingerprint element analysis method. The result shows that although the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain samples have been leapt over six hundred years, and glaze colors are utterly different and are from many different kilns, there are long term, stable and same mainly raw material source. The near provenance relation between ancient Jun porcelain and ancient Ru porcelain is preliminarily analyzed. A few modern Jun porcelains approximate from ancient Jun porcelains, the majority become estranged from ancient Jun porcelain

  14. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  15. Book review: the history of ancient Chinese economic thought edited by Cheng Lin, Terry Peach and Wang Fang

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Pei

    2014-01-01

    This volume comprises twelve papers written by Chinese scholars on various aspects of the history of ancient Chinese economic thought, with the authors aiming to show that ancient Chinese thought has at least as much to offer to the historian as ancient Western thought. The first such volume of papers to be translated into English, this collection will challenge the most experienced of scholars in economics and Chinese studies. Pei Gao applauds the efforts of the authors, but calls for a more...

  16. The Evolution of Al2O3 Content in Ancient Chinese Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence from museums, collectors, the dug out of the grave, the evolution of Al2O3 content in Chinese glasses from Western Zhou to Qing dynasty was documented in this paper in detail. It was found that Al2O3 contents in ancient Chinese glasses were relatively higher than those of outside of China in the world. This is the character of the ancient Chinese glasses which is caused by not only the high Al contents in the raw materials but also by the Chinese people’s preference of the milky glasses similar to jade

  17. The Creative Reproduction of Chinese Ancient Poetry’s Phonological Beauty in English Translation

    OpenAIRE

    Zhaohui Yan

    2013-01-01

    Phonological beauty is an important aesthetic feature of poetry. Reproduction of Chinese ancient poetry’s phonological beauty in English translation is of great significance. Professor Xu Yuanchong is an accomplished poetry translator who creatively reproduce original Chinese poems’ phonological beauty by employing various techniques such as alliteration, end rhyme, repetition, onomatopoeia, etc. This suggests that Chinese poetry’s phonological beauty can be reproduced in En...

  18. Neutron activation analysis of some ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Up to 43 glaze and body samples of ancient and modern Chinese Jun Porcelain and other porcelain are chosen and contents of 36 elements for each sample are determined by NAA. The NAA data are then analysed by the fuzzy cluster method. The result shows that although the ancient Jun Porcelain samples span leaped 600 years and are from different kilns and their glaze colors are utterly different, they have a long-term, stable and mainly the same supply of raw material. The relation between ancient Jun Porcelain and ancient Ru Porcelain is also preliminarily analysed. It is found that only few modern Jun Porcelain samples are similar to ancient Jun Porcelain but the majority of them are different from ancient ones

  19. Moss Roberts’ Translation of Three Kingdoms and the Inscape of Ancient Chinese Military Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanqing

    2013-01-01

    Three Kingdoms is one of the greatest literary works in China, and has a wide influence on Chinese society. It inherits the excellent ancient Chinese military culture, including the rich culture of the wars, military figures, military books, weaponry, and military system. Military culture in ancient China is the intelligent fruit and a valuable heritage of Chinese people, reflecting their national integrity and character. However, the peculiarity of Chinese military culture always poses probl...

  20. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    OpenAIRE

    Veenhoven, Ruut; Guoqing, Z.

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society. Recommended behaviours found in the ancient texts are compared with conditions for happiness as observed in present day empirical investigations. Classic Confucianism appears to offer the most apt advice for...

  1. Application of INAA in analysis of Chinese ancient greenish white porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the applications of INAA in analysis of Chinese ancient porcelain fired from early Northern Song dynasty (AD 1004-1127) to Late Yuan dynasty (AD 1320-1368) in Hutian Kiln. Minor and trace elements of 168 pieces of ancient porcelain bodies were determined by INAA. The results of factor analysis and some archaeological questions are also discussed in this paper. (author)

  2. Dating ancient Chinese celadon porcelain by neutron activation analysis and bayesian classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dating ancient Chinese porcelain is one of the most important and difficult problems in porcelain archaeological field. Eighteen elements in bodies of ancient celadon porcelains fired in Southern Song to Yuan period (AD 1127-1368) and Ming dynasty (AD 1368-1644), including La, Sm, U, Ce, etc., were determined by neutron activation analysis (NAA). After the outliers of experimental data were excluded and multivariate normal distribution was tested, and Bayesian classification was used for dating of 165 ancient celadon porcelain samples. The results show that 98.2% of total ancient celadon porcelain samples are classified correctly. It means that NAA and Bayesian classification are very useful for dating ancient porcelain. (authors)

  3. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.Q. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Song, J. [Shanghai Museum, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gao, M.H. [Department of Cultural Relics and Museology, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Lin, J.W. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, 220 Handan Road, Shanghai 200433 (China); Feng, S.L. [Laboratory of Nuclear Analytical Techniques, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918, Beijing 100039 (China)

    2006-08-15

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago.

  4. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Shanghai area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanghai is the largest city in China, and it also has a very long history. Archaeologists have found that six thousand yeas ago, there were ancient people living at Songze, Qingpu County, Shanghai. This paper reports the study of ancient potteries unearthed from the Guangfulin site located at Songjiang, Shanghai. The potteries unearthed from Guangfulin site belonged to two different culture types: the Liangzhu culture type (local culture) and a new culture, which might be derived from elsewhere. PIXE has been used to measure the chemical compositions of samples and factor analysis was used. Experimental results show that the compositions of the pottery from the two phases are different from each other. It means that the raw materials used to make the ancient pottery originate from different places. This results support the idea suggested by archaeologists that a group of ancient people migrated to the Shanghai area from some other place 4000 years ago

  5. Elemental analysis of ancient Chinese bronze artifacts with external-beam PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External-beam PIXE has been applied for the determination of the elemental composition of ancient Chinese bronze artifacts. Characteristic x-ray spectra from the samples bombarded with protons of 3 MeV have been measured with a HPGe detector. At each sample three spots were irradiated per run. Results of measurements on three fragments of bronze drinking vessels and helmet of Chinese ancient Chou and Shang dynasties (17th-8th century B.C.) are presented. To check the analytical method, we have also made measurements on the elemental composition of some modern coins. The results are discussed. (author)

  6. Getting Experience through Experiments and Practice: Learning to Translate Ancient Chinese Poetry

    OpenAIRE

    Huifang Tian

    2013-01-01

    The translation of ancient Chinese poetry (TACP) is one important aspect of literature translation, and perhaps even more difficult than the translation of English poetry into Chinese. The difficulty is partly attributed to the gap between the learning of E-C translation and its counterpart, the former still facilitating language acquisition while the latter moving away from it, and partly to the lacking of workable learning activities of TACP in the classroom. This study sheds light on TACP ...

  7. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); Z. Guoqing

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society. Recommende

  8. An Experimental Study on the Sound and Frequency of the Chinese Ancient Variable Bell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dongsheng; Hu, Haining; Xing, Lirong; Liu, Yongsheng

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes an interesting sound phenomenon from a modern copy of the Chinese ancient variable bell which can emit distinctly different sounds at different temperatures. By means of audition--spectrum analyser software--and PC, the sound signals of the variable bell are collected and the fundamental spectra are shown on the PC. The…

  9. Reviving ancient Chinese mathematics mathematics, history and politics in the work of Wu Wen-Tsun

    CERN Document Server

    Hudecek, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Twentieth-century China has been caught between a desire to increase its wealth and power in line with other advanced nations, which, by implication, means copying their institutions, practices and values, whilst simultaneously seeking to preserve China's independence and historically formed identity. Over time, Chinese philosophers, writers, artists and politicians have all sought to reconcile these goals and this book shows how this search for a Chinese way penetrated even the most central, least contested area of modernity: science.Reviving Ancient Chinese Mathematics is a study of the life

  10. The provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze from Shanxi by INAA and factor analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports the results of the provenance study of Chinese ancient color glaze in Shanxi. The minor and trace elements of body of color glaze in different dynasty from Xiyue temper kiln and that of Lidipo kiln in Ming Dynasty determined by INAA, some of ancient porcelain from Lidipo kiln were measured, also. The factor analysis showed that provenances of the ancient color glazes from Xiyue Temple that were produced during Song Dynasty to the early Qing Dynasty were in the place of the Xiyue kiln, and body material of ancient color have little been changed, on the other hand, that of Later Qing Dynasty were-produced from Lidipo kiln. Different color glazes were measured by SRXRF and it proved the colored elements were Fe and Cu.

  11. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Qing dynasty porcelain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huansheng; He, Wenquan; Tang, Jiayong; Yang, Fujia; Wang, Jianhua

    1996-09-01

    The major and minor chemical compositions and trace element content of white glaze made in Qing dynasty at kuan kiln have been determined by PIXE. Experimental results show that trace element contents RbSrZr are useful to distinguish the place of production of ancient porcelain. In the porcelain from different kilns situated in a same province, the trace element contents can be different from each other. Determining and comparing the major and minor compositions and trace elemental concentrations in white glaze by PIXE technique, we can distinguish a precious Qing dynasty porcelain made at kuan kiln from a fake.

  12. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric

    2015-12-01

    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces. PMID:27245044

  13. Research advances on the anti-aging profile of Fructus lycii: An ancient Chinese herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sze, SCW; Chang, RCC; Zhang, KY; Tong, Y; Song, J.; Wong, RNS

    2008-01-01

    Fructus lycii is a common Chinese herbal medicine used in China for nearly 2000 years. It has beneficial effects on eyes, liver and kidneys; and it has long been considered to be an anti-aging herb in ancient Chinese medicine. Modern studies have partially probed the magic anti-aging property of F. lycii. The beneficial effects of F. lycii on aging are largely attributed to its bioactive components such as polysaccharides, carotenoids and flavonoids. This review focuses on the anti-aging aspe...

  14. A possible role of sunrise/sunset azimuth in the planning of ancient Chinese towns

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal north-south direction. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the sunrise/sunset azimuth on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyze the plans of Xi'an, Khanbalik and Dali.

  15. An Ancient Chinese Herb Berberine; New Research in Diabetes Mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Sha, Wenjun; Zhang, Weifei; Huang, Wenjin; Zhou, Mingyue; Niu, Jingjing; Jiang, Haili; Junyan, Li; Li, Fu-Feng; Zhu, Ting; Xia, Xin; Shen, Yuandong; Zhou, Ligang

    2013-01-01

    In recent decades, the incidence and prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) have increased such that it is becoming a major worldwide public health problem. Berberine is a natural product from a Chinese herb, which has been used as anti-diabetic and anti-inflammation medication for centuries. More recently, berberine has also proven its long-term effect on improving patient and animal models with T2DM via several intracellular signal pathways. Here, we summarize its acute and chronic anti-diabe...

  16. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Sanxia area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-nine pieces of Neolithic pottery, made about 4500 years ago, were collected from Maliutuo, Maliuwan and Suheping village sites in Chinese Sanxia area. Nine pieces of pottery in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and ten pieces of pottery in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC) were also collected from Maliutuo. PIXE and factor analysis were used to study interchange of the Neolithic pottery between these three sites. The source of raw material of pottery from Maliutuo was simultaneously studied. The major and trace element contents in pottery were determined by PIXE. Factor analysis was employed to classify these pieces of pottery. The results showed that the trace element contents were more useful to distinguish these pieces of pottery than the major element contents. In about 2500 BC, no interchange of pottery occurred between the three villages. Although Maliutuo was close to Maliuwan, the pottery products used in daily life in the two villages were independently made and not exchanged. In the source of raw material, the Neolithic pottery samples from Maliutuo were identical with those in the Shang Dynasty, but different from those in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty

  17. PIXE study on ancient pottery from Chinese Sanxia area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, B.; Pan, B.H.; Zhang, Z.Q.; Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Gao, M.H.; Yang, F.J.; Peng, X.B

    2004-06-01

    Thirty-nine pieces of Neolithic pottery, made about 4500 years ago, were collected from Maliutuo, Maliuwan and Suheping village sites in Chinese Sanxia area. Nine pieces of pottery in the Shang Dynasty (1600-1100 BC) and ten pieces of pottery in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty (770-256 BC) were also collected from Maliutuo. PIXE and factor analysis were used to study interchange of the Neolithic pottery between these three sites. The source of raw material of pottery from Maliutuo was simultaneously studied. The major and trace element contents in pottery were determined by PIXE. Factor analysis was employed to classify these pieces of pottery. The results showed that the trace element contents were more useful to distinguish these pieces of pottery than the major element contents. In about 2500 BC, no interchange of pottery occurred between the three villages. Although Maliutuo was close to Maliuwan, the pottery products used in daily life in the two villages were independently made and not exchanged. In the source of raw material, the Neolithic pottery samples from Maliutuo were identical with those in the Shang Dynasty, but different from those in the Eastern Zhou Dynasty.

  18. Eight-Points-Acupuncture and Ancient Chinese Contraindications in Acupuncture:Two Methods of Improving Acupuncture Treatment Based upon Ancient Chinese Sources,and Clinical Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SLOPEK, Axel; 冯海涛

    2006-01-01

    According to ancient and present Chinese sources the Eight Confluent Points are essentials of acupuncture and can treat all kinds of diseases. They exert a fundamental influence on the Twelve Regular Meridians and their mobilization can be seen as a necessity for a successful acupuncture treatment. For this they should play a major role in acupuncture. In European acupuncture teachings there is also the opinion that by too much needling of the Eight Confluent Points the qi of the organism might get exhausted which will deteriorate the patient's symptoms and eventually will create new symptoms. Here it will be shown that deterioration as well as the creation of new symptoms due to acupuncture is caused by not observing the contraindications in acupuncture as set up in ancient China provided that syndrome differentiation,point selection and stimulation have been correct. In opposition to this,all of the Eight Extraordinary Channels are to be activated at first and then the Twelve Regular Meridians are to be mobilized in order to achieve therapeutic effects.

  19. Application of computer technique in the reconstruction of Chinese ancient buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Deren; Yang, Jie; Zhu, Yixuan

    2003-01-01

    This paper offers an introduction of computer assemble and simulation of ancient building. A pioneer research work was carried out by investigators of surveying and mapping describing ancient Chinese timber buildings by 3D frame graphs with computers. But users can know the structural layers and the assembly process of these buildings if the frame graphs are processed further with computer. This can be implemented by computer simulation technique. This technique display the raw data on the screen of a computer and interactively manage them by combining technologies from computer graphics and image processing, multi-media technology, artificial intelligence, highly parallel real-time computation technique and human behavior science. This paper presents the implement procedure of simulation for large-sized wooden buildings as well as 3D dynamic assembly of these buildings under the 3DS MAX environment. The results of computer simulation are also shown in the paper.

  20. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively. PMID:24429032

  1. Buddhism and Ancient Chinese Novel%佛教与中国古代小说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艺桦

    2013-01-01

    "Fiction"appeared in the "zhuangzi"at the first time and reached peak in the dynasties of Ming and Qing .Ancient Chinese novels have a history of thousands of years .During this time,we can feel a mysterious force which has been always throughout this period of history.It's the fantastic force that Buddhism affacted Chinese novel .The religion transmitted from foreign countries was accepted because of its own mysterious character .This paper will discuss that ancient Chinese novel was affacted by Buddhism at the three aspect of character shaping , plot and artistic expression.%从《庄子?外物》中首先提出“小说”这个名称,到明清时期的长篇小说的顶峰成就,中国古代小说经历了上千年的发展历史。在这幅历史长卷中,我们可以感受到一股神秘的力量一直贯穿着这段历史的始终,这股带有奇幻色彩的力量就是佛教对中国小说的影响。这个由外域传入的宗教,因其自身的神异特点而被人们接受,小说就从这里开始受到它的作用。本文从小说的人物塑造、情节内容和艺术表现三个方面谈谈佛教对中国古代小说的影响。

  2. 新书籍史对古文献学研究的启示%Reflection and Prospective Symposium of the Centennial Studies of Ancient Chinese Philology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张升

    2013-01-01

    Editor's note:It is both an important task and optimal subject of the 21st century philology to summarize the achievements of centen-nial ancient philology, reflect the current issues, grasp the development trend of ancient literature studies, expand research space, enrich the research contents, and put forward farsighted countermeasures for inhering and innovating Chinese culture, establishing ancient philology, and promoting academic development. To solve these problems, we organized a symposium of three articles. Professor Zhou Shaochuan's article clarifies the significance of centennial Chinese ancient books and ancient philology, pointing out two aspects of China's ancient books in the 20th century and the ancient literature studies: diachronic investigation following two main lines of collection of ancient books and establishment of ancient philology, and synchronic analysis from four aspects, that is, basic historical facts, methodology, basic principles, and scientific theorizing, in order to explore the development law of collection of ancient books and ancient philology, and specify the direction of ancient philology. Professor Wang Jilu's article discusses five urgent issues in ancient philology of the 21st century: theoretical system and research paradigm, philological heritages, the position of philology of ethnic minorities, comparative study of Chinese and Western philology, theories and methods in digitalization of ancient books, etc. Professor Zhang Sheng's article discusses the implication of Western new history of books for ancient philology, and argues that new history of books expands the horizon and scope of ancient philology. The introduction of methodology of social history and cultural history makes it clear that philology has social and cultural significance. Ancient philology should become solid and draw on interdisciplinary methods to enrich the content of its own research.

  3. Reflection and Prospective Symposium of the Centennial Studies of Ancient Chinese Philology%新书籍史对古文献学研究的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张升

    2013-01-01

    Editor's note:It is both an important task and optimal subject of the 21st century philology to summarize the achievements of centen-nial ancient philology, reflect the current issues, grasp the development trend of ancient literature studies, expand research space, enrich the research contents, and put forward farsighted countermeasures for inhering and innovating Chinese culture, establishing ancient philology, and promoting academic development. To solve these problems, we organized a symposium of three articles. Professor Zhou Shaochuan's article clarifies the significance of centennial Chinese ancient books and ancient philology, pointing out two aspects of China's ancient books in the 20th century and the ancient literature studies: diachronic investigation following two main lines of collection of ancient books and establishment of ancient philology, and synchronic analysis from four aspects, that is, basic historical facts, methodology, basic principles, and scientific theorizing, in order to explore the development law of collection of ancient books and ancient philology, and specify the direction of ancient philology. Professor Wang Jilu's article discusses five urgent issues in ancient philology of the 21st century: theoretical system and research paradigm, philological heritages, the position of philology of ethnic minorities, comparative study of Chinese and Western philology, theories and methods in digitalization of ancient books, etc. Professor Zhang Sheng's article discusses the implication of Western new history of books for ancient philology, and argues that new history of books expands the horizon and scope of ancient philology. The introduction of methodology of social history and cultural history makes it clear that philology has social and cultural significance. Ancient philology should become solid and draw on interdisciplinary methods to enrich the content of its own research.

  4. A Stylistic Study into the Musicality of the English Translation of the An-cient Chinese Poem“Jianjia”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qiu-yue

    2014-01-01

    “Jianjia”(“蒹葭”),one of the most famous poems in Shijing (《诗经》), is characterized by balanced sound patterns and euphonious rhythm. Investigation into the stylistic elements in both the source text and the English translation of“Jianjia”shows us the musicality in ancient Chinese poetry and its limits of translatability.

  5. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction and imaging of ancient Chinese bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy synchrotron X-ray diffraction and imaging experiments were performed at the Advanced Photon Source on two ancient Chinese bronzes from the Art Institute of Chicago with the goal to nondestructively study their microstructure. The first object, a bronze fragment from an early Western Zhou dynasty vessel (Hu, 11th/10th century B.C.), was investigated with spatially-resolved diffraction to reveal the depth and composition of the surface corrosion layer as well as the composition and grain size of the underlying bronze core. The second object, a bronze dagger-axe (Ge, 3rd/2nd century B.C.) with a silver-inlaid sheath, was studied under both diffraction and imaging conditions. It was found to have been cast as a single object, answering longstanding scholars' questions on whether the ceremonial object concealed an interior blade. (orig.)

  6. 3D COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR LIGNIFICATION OF ANCIENT CHINESE TIMBER BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pioneer research work was carried out by investigators engaged in surveying and mapping for describing ancient Chinese timber buildings by 3D frame graphs w ith a computer.Users can know the structural layers and the assembly process of the se buildings if the frame graphs are processed further with a computer model.Th is can be implemented by computer simulation technique.This technique display t he raw data on the screen of a computer and interactively manage them by combini ng technologies from computer graphics and image processing,multi-media technol ogy,artificial intelligence,highly parallel real-time computation technique an d human behavior science.This paper presents the implementing procedure of ligni fi cation simulation for large-sized wooden buildings as well as 3D dynamic assembl y of these buildings under the 3DS MAX environment.The results from computer sim ulation are also shown in the paper.

  7. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies. PMID:26087568

  8. Historical development of Chinese dietary patterns and nutrition from the ancient to the modern society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J D; Xu, H

    1996-01-01

    Actually, food, diet and diet therapy germinated together with the change of meal patterns and traditional Chinese medicine from very ancient China; they appeared in an embryonic form till the Shang and Zhou Dynasties and received great importance from the governors who arranged officials to manage their diets and banquets. Moreover, food, diet and meal patterns were replenished through the Zhou, Qin, Han and Jin Dynasties and epitomized and reached thriving and prosperous standards till the Tang Dynasty. They then became perfected, developed, and formed a complete theory in the dynasties of Song, Jin, Yuan, Ming and Qing. The basis of modern nutrition was made up until the end of 19th century and the beginning of 20th century, which was the time when natural science, including microbiology, chemistry, food industry, etc. were extended into China, yet it was not fully formed until the established of the People's Republic of China. Practicing, teaching, training and research activities started regularly in 1950. With a big population and poor economy basis, the first problem that the Chinese people has now been basically solved. Chinese nutritional scientists worked hard to find out the nutritional problems and status of the people. Through the broad-scale 'Nationwide Nutrition Survey', we now understand our main problems. On this basis, RDA, dietary goal and dietary guidance have been put forward. Although the problem of adequate food and clothing has been basically solved, the Chinese are still facing both the problem of nutrition insufficiency and nutrition excess. However, although nutrition insufficiency and deficiency still extensively exist, nutrition excess and imbalance are emerging in other sections of the population. There is still a shortage of qualified nutritional scientists and technicians, and the training of nutritionists is urgent. Food supplies, including milk, beef, green vegetables and fruit should be increased, especially for some rural and

  9. Natural analogue study on backfill materials from ancient Chinese constructions for LILW disposal. Appendix 5: China (b)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The objective of this work was to contribute to the demonstration of the long term safety of low-and-intermediate level radioactive waste (LILW) disposal using information from a natural analogue study on ancient Chinese constructions. The work firstly compared LILW near surface disposal facilities with Chinese ancient tombs in respects of siting, engineering structures, design and construction procedures and indicates that they are both based upon multi-barrier principle. After extensive literature and field survey, three materials were collected from two Chinese ancient tombs and one ancient architectures for further laboratory study. The three materials were studied in laboratories from the point of view of radioactive waste disposal in near surface facilities to obtain information concerning their basic physical and chemical properties, engineering properties and radionuclide adsorption abilities. The results show that the two materials from the ancient tombs have low permeability and strong adsorption for 60Co and 134Cs. The saturated permeabilities of the two ancient materials are in the order of 10-10 m/s and the distribution coefficients for the two radionuclides are all in the order of 101 m3/kg. The conclusion was that the then current LILW disposal option in near-surface would be effective for a long term period of time, and clay materials, as backfill materials for LILW near-surface disposal facilities would very effective in preventing water intrusion and retarding radionuclide release even over a long term of period. Overall the LILW disposal option was considered to be safe in long term. (author)

  10. The Acquirement of the Epoch Time of Chinese Ancient Calendar of Shoushi Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2013-11-01

    The data of solar shadow lengths from 98 meridian observations as recorded in Shoushi Liyi are investigated in this paper. Shoushi Liyi is one thesis to discuss and review the strongpoint of the calendar of Shoushi Li in Yuan dynasty (1271---1368). It points out that the standard error of these shadow observations is only 4.06'. The ancient formula from three days' meridian observations of the solar shadows to obtain the time of solar term is proved and recovered, but it is only a kind of approximate calculation, not accurate enough. And according to this method and these solar shadow lengths, the winter solstice in 1277 is derived, the same as two solstices of 1278, and 1279, and their standard deviations are 38.13 min (winter solstice in 1277), 43.91 min (summer solstice in 1278), 38.03 min (winter solstice in 1278), 34.80 min (summer solstice in 1279), and 23.58 min (winter solstice in 1279), respectively. The value of the epoch time of Shoushi Li obtained directly from the shadow observation (in Chinese Qiying means the time of winter solstice in 1280) is confirmed and directly deduced from the time of solstices, added by several half-tropical-year lengths. By using modern astronomical method, the solar shadow length every day within 400 days to winter solstice in 1280 when the sun transited is calculated, and then the time of this solstice in 1280 is obtained with the ancient method. Their accuracies are obtained and reviewed.

  11. Thermoluminescence dating of the ancient Chinese porcelain using a regression method of saturation exponential in pre-dose technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weida; XIA; Junding; ZHOU; Zhixin

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of the ancient porcelain using a regression method of saturation exponential in the pre-dose technique. The experimental results show that the measured errors are 15% (±1σ) for the paleodose and 17% (±1σ) for the annual dose respectively, and the TL age error is 23% (±1σ) in this method. The larger Chinese porcelains from the museum and the nation-wide collectors have been dated by this method. The results show that the certainty about the authenticity testing is larger than 95%, and the measurable porcelains make up about 95% of the porcelain dated. It is very successful in discrimination for the imitations of ancient Chinese porcelains. This paper describes the measured principle and method for the paleodose of porcelains. The TL ages are dated by this method for the 39 shards and porcelains from past dynasties of China and the detailed data in the measurement are reported.

  12. 中国手语与中国古文字的比较%A Comparison of Chinese Sign Language and Chinese Ancient Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅; 谭中华

    2014-01-01

    Sign language originated from primitive society and it had a close relation with original language;Ancient Chinese characters recorded the original language and they are expressions of written original language. This paper, by comparing Chinese sign language with Chinese ancient characters, shows the similarities and differences between them and discusses the problems between the two and the original language and primitive thought, providing a new perspective for the research on sign language and ancient characters.%手语起源于原始社会,与原始语言有着密切的关系;古文字记录着原始语言,是原始语言书面化的体现者。通过中国手语与中国古文字比较,突出展现了二者的异同点,进而探讨了二者与原始语言、原始思维等方面的问题,为手语研究和古文字研究提供了一个新的角度。

  13. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  14. Study on the elemental features of ancient Chinese white porcelain at Jingdezhen by INAA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie Guoxi [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Graduated University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Feng Songlin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)], E-mail: fengsl@ihep.ac.cn; Feng Xiangqian [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China); Li Yongqiang; Han Hongye [Beijing Institute of Cultural Relics, Beijing 100009 (China); Wang Yanqing; Zhu Jihao; Yan Lingtong; Li Li [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 19 Yu Quan Lu, Beijing 100049 (China)

    2009-03-15

    Shards of ancient Chinese white porcelain, which were excavated at Maojiawan in the city of Beijing, were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). These shards were fired in the period between the Yuan (AD 1271-1368) and Ming (AD 1368-1644) dynasties at Jingdezhen in southern China. According to the analytical results, different raw materials were used for making porcelain body in this period. Fe and Na are the characteristic elements which can be used for identifying the specific date of these porcelains. Furthermore, shards of Hongwu era (AD 1368-1398), Yongle-Xuande era (AD 1403-1435) and Chenghua-Zhengde era (AD 1465-1561) of the Ming dynasty can be clearly distinguished by their elemental body composition. The temporal chemical variation in the porcelain body of these eras is observed. The elemental body composition of Zhengde-Tianshun era (AD 1436-1464) is mainly similar to that of the Hongwu and Yongle-Xuande eras. The temporal chemical feature of Zhengtong-Tianshun era was not found.

  15. [Ancient Indian and Chinese medical oaths and the comparison of their medical rules].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksoy, S

    2001-01-01

    The art of medicine has existed on earth since the existence of mankind. Although the traditions and practices may vary, the mere intention has been to help people remain healthy and restore their health when they get sick. Since health is man's most important fortune, the medical profession has always been open to abuse or misuse. To prevent this, it came to be a tradition to bound health care professionals with oaths and codes. This article examines medical oaths and codes in two different Eastern traditions, namely China and India. Two different medical oaths from two major ancient Indian medical books, Charaka Samhita and Susuruta will be addressed and elaborated. They will be compared and contrasted with each other and their commons and differences from the other medical oaths will be examined. Chinese medical codes, one from the 7th and the other from the 17th century are reviewed in the article. It has appeared from the discussion that although there are some 'unchangeables' in the codes and oaths, like the reference to some sacred or transcendental being or commitment to show respect to the teachers, there are differences due to the time and place. It is also interesting to note how medical practice and its values are influenced by the respective society. PMID:14570011

  16. 国学及其研究方法%Studies of Chinese Ancient Civilization and Research Methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张崇琛

    2015-01-01

    “国学”是中国固有的学术,是研究中国传统的典籍、学术与文化的学问。国学既是文献的学问,又是德性的学问,更是养成完美人格和延续民族文化传统的学问。对待国学,不但要准确理解,大力弘扬;同时也要联系实际,付诸实施,并使其常新。%The studies of Chinese ancient civilization is China's inherent academic. It is the knowledge about Chinese traditional records, academic and culture. It is not only the literature knowledge and the virtue knowledge, but also the knowledge to develop the perfect personality and to continue the traditional ethnic culture. For the studies of Chinese ancient civilization we should not only understand accurately and promote vigorously, at the same time we should practice, implement and keep it fresh.

  17. The Effects and Ways of Employing Traditional Chinese Medicine College Libraries to Implement Ancient Chinese Civilization Education%中医药院校图书馆开展国学教育作用及途径初探

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐好

    2014-01-01

    The traditional ancient Chinese civilization is the soul and foundation of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). From the aspects of definition and connotation of ancient Chinese civilization education, this article analyzed the great role of cultural heritage plays in libraries in colleges and universities of Chinese Medicine, and the favorable factors brought by vigorous implementation of ancient Chinese civilization education. Then, this article reached a preliminary summary of the significance of employing traditional Chinese medicine college libraries to implement ancient Chinese civilization education, gave an introduction of how to carry out ancient Chinese civilization education in libraries, and preliminarily discussed practical ways of carrying out ancient Chinese civilization education in TCM universities and colleges.%传统国学是中医药学的灵魂和根基。本文从国学的定义和内涵出发,对中医药院校图书馆充分发挥文化传承的巨大作用、大力开展国学教育的有利因素进行了分析,初步总结了中医药院校图书馆开展国学教育的重要意义和巨大作用,并对图书馆如何开展国学教育进行了客观介绍,就中医药院校图书馆开展国学教育的实践途径进行了初步探讨。

  18. The Impact of Ancient Chinese Philosophy on Contemporary Leisure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Shih; Card, Jaclyn A.

    Little has been written on the impact of Far East civilization's thought and influence on leisure in China today. A discussion of Chinese history, outlined in three stages, clarifies the development of Chinese philosophy over the past 5,000 years. Chinese civilization and culture rest upon a philosophical basis shaped primarily by the principles…

  19. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-ming; Liang, Feng-xia

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM). This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM), was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications. PMID:25815039

  20. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.

  1. Monotonic and Cyclic Pushover Tests of Wood Beam-Column Connections: Ancient Chinese Tenon joint vs Typical and Simplified US Connections%Monotonic and Cyclic Pushover Tests of Wood Beam-Column Connections: Ancient Chinese Tenon Joint vs Typical and Simplified US Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Wood beam-column frame is a popular structural system in United States and in ancient China.Chinese wood beam-column frame structures showed better seismic resistance properties than the US ones. The tenon joint is one of the reasons. This study performed monotonic and cyclic pushover tests to understand the behavior of Chinese tenon joints versus the behavior of the commonly used US wood beam-column connections.The test results indicate that the typical US wood beam-colunm connection is very strong under monotonic loads. The ancient Chinese tenon joint has the best behavior under cyclic loads.

  2. Neutron activation analysis of bulk samples from Chinese ancient porcelain to provenance research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neutron activation analysis (NAA) is an important technique to determine the provenance of ancient ceramics. The most common technique used for preparing ancient samples for NAA is to grind them into a powder and then encapsulate them before neutron irradiation. Unfortunately, ceramic materials are typically very hard making it a challenge to grind them into a powder. In this study we utilize bulk porcelain samples cut from ancient shards. The bulk samples are irradiated by neutrons alongside samples that have been conventionally ground into a powder. The NAA for both the bulk samples and powders are compared and shown to provide equivalent information regarding their chemical composition. Also, the multivariate statistical have been employed to the analysis data for check the consistency. The findings suggest that NAA results are less dependent on the state of the porcelain sample, and thus bulk samples cut from shards may be used to effectively determine their provenance. (author)

  3. Late Neolithic expansion of ancient Chinese revealed by Y chromosome haplogroup O3a1c-002611

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Chao WANG; Shi YAN; Zhen-Dong QIN; Yan LU; Qi-Liang DING; Lan-Hai WEI; Shi-Lin LI

    2013-01-01

    Y chromosome haplogroup O3-M122 is the most prevalent haplogroup in East Asia,and provides an ideal tool for dissecting primary dispersals of the East Asians.Most of the sub-haplogroups of O3-M122 have been sufficiently investigated except for O3al c-002611,despite its great prevalence and huge population,especially in Han Chinese.In this study,we identified 508 individuals with haplogroup O3 a 1 c-002611 out of 7801 males from 117 East and Southeast Asian populations,typed at two newly discovered downstream Y-SNP markers and ten commonly used Y-STRs.Defined by SNPs IMS-JST002611 (in short,002611),F11,and F238,three lineages internal to haplogroup O3alc-002611 have distinct geographical distributions.Furthermore,Y-STR diversity shows a general south-tonorth decline,which is consistent with the prehistorically northward migration of the other O3-M122 lineages.The northward migration ofhaplogroup O3alc-002611 started about 13 thousand years ago (KYA).The expansions of subclades F11 and F238 in ancient Han Chinese began about 5 and 7 KYA immediately after the separation between the ancestors of the Han Chinese and Tibeto-Burman.

  4. On the characteristics of Chinese ancient physics experiments%中国古代物理学实验的特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑶; 党兴菊; 徐楠

    2015-01-01

    中国古代的物理实验不像古代西方的实验,尤其是古希腊实验那样建立在观察实验和数学演绎的严密逻辑体系基础上。与之相比,中国古代实验具有自己独特的特点,即注重直接观察,注重观赏性、实用性和趣味性。%Chinese ancient physics experiments was not based on the strict logical system of observation and mathematical interpretation of the experiment,which just as western physics experiments especially the ancient Greek experiment.By contrast,the ancient Chinese experiment has its own unique characteristics,such as focusing on direct observation,watch,practicability and fun.

  5. Using Ancient Chinese and Greek Astronomical Data: A Training Sequence in Elementary Astronomy for Pre-Service Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hosson, Cécile; Décamp, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    A great amount of research has been carried out world-wide to promote history of science as a powerful science teaching tool. Because the ways of choosing and using historical elements depend on teachers' or researchers' educational purpose, any attempt to support a single model-to-use seems difficult and probably irrelevant. However, specific purposes may reflect specific and prescriptive terms for using historical materials. Our work aims to show up this aspect. It is an attempt to make elements of the history of astronomy involved in the elaboration of a training session for future primary school teachers. Here, ancients' Greek and Chinese historical elements are chosen and organized according to specific educational and conceptual constraints that include the construction of the quasi-parallelism of solar rays reaching Earths' surface, and the spontaneous modeling of the propagation of Sunlight leaning on divergent rays. This leads to an original teaching sequence were historical elements are mixed with non historical ones. This organization forms the support of a pre-service training session developed for future primary school teachers. This session aims to provide future teachers with elementary cosmological knowledge (parallelism of Sunrays, shape and size of the Earth, Sun-Earth distance…), to provide some reference marks of history of ancient cosmologies (spherical and flat Earth) resulting from two distinct contexts, and to approach some aspects associated with Nature of Science (NOS).

  6. Embodied Cognition in Ancient Chinese Confucianism and Taoism%中国古代儒道思想中的具身认知观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎晓丹; 叶浩生

    2015-01-01

    身心合一论是中国古代思想的基本观念。身是以“气”为根基,并通过“修身-修心”与“修心-修身”可至天人合一的身体。本文选取中国古代思想中最有代表性的儒道两家思想,融合现象学视角来诠释中国古代儒道思想中的身体观对身体主体性的生动凸显,以及从“身-心-世界”三者互为交涉的层次上所建构的特有的认知观。随着国内外学者对具身认知观的日益关注,结合中国古代思想视角开展的具身认知研究可在促进中国心理学发展的同时促进具身认知研究范式的成熟。%Ancient Chinese thought reflected the ontology idea of body and had a construction of mixer of the “body-mind-world” system. The syncretism of body-mind was an essential preset in ancient Chinese thought. “Qi” was regarded as a basic material of universe as well as human being. Ancient Chinese controlled the “Qi” by the practice of self-cultivation. The balanced flow of in and out of “Qi” in the body of human being could make an effort of body figure, physical structure and mind. The body concept of ancient Chinese thought was more propound and diversified than the body concept of modern western embodied cognitive theory. Ancient Chinese reached the state of syncretism between nature and man by approach of cultivating from body to mind and cultivating from mind to body. In Confucianism, Confucius established the traditional practice of kernel. The self-cultivation of practice of kernel which was constituted of ritual studies mainly focused on the transformation of body and mind. In Taoism, Zhuangzi was opposed to the constraint of man’s body and mind so that he put forward a view that human being should use their body subject and kenotic body to make perception of the world and taoism. But Confucianism and Taoism had a common body subject. The perception of body subject was the most important cognitive factor to cognition of

  7. 惠州方言古语词及其用字问题略论%A Discussion on the Ancient Chinese Words in Huizhou Dialect and the Use of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张青松

    2012-01-01

      A lot of ancient Chinese words are still preserved in Hui zhou dialect. It is greatly valuable for Chinese exegetics study. There exist mainly two problems on how to record them in Chinese characters. On one hand, Chinese character variants and Chinese folk characters are randomly used. On the other hand, Chinese characters with the same pronunciation are abused.%  惠州方言词汇中保存了大量的古语词,研究这些古语词对于训诂研究有着不可忽视的价值。惠州方言古语词研究在用字上主要存在两个方面的问题:一是随意使用异体俗字;二是滥用同音字。

  8. Square Culture and the Origin of Ancient Chinese Mathe-matics%方形文化与上古中国数学的起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于星兰

    2014-01-01

    从形与数概念的产生过程入手,研究了方形文化对中国上古数学文化的起源产生的影响。中国上古数学文化是中华古文化的重要组成部分;对抽象的形概念的认识以及对抽象的数概念的认识是抽象思维的产物;上古人类对方形的崇拜促进了方形文化的产生和发展;方形文化促进了形与数的概念的形成和发展;方形文化还通过对《周易》的影响,间接地促进了包括数学文化在内的中国古文化的产生与发展。%Starting with the creation process of the concept of shape and number, this paper has studied the effect of square culture to the origin of Chinese ancient mathematics culture. Chinese ancient mathematics culture is the important component of Chinese ancient culture, and the cognition to the abstract con-cepts of shape and number is the outcome of abstract thinking. The ancients' worship to square culture has promoted square cul-ture creation and development. And the square culture has pro-moted the creation and development of shape and number con-cept. Square culture has affected"the Book of Change"and pro-moted Chinese ancient culture development including mathemat-ics culture indirectly.

  9. A Brief Description of the Historical Relations Between Ancient Tibetan Culture and the Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gelek

    2004-01-01

    All the ethnic groups of China together have created Chinese culture as a whole over its long historical development. This rich and colourful culture now spread before our eyes is the result of the distinctive cultures of various ethnic groups gradually merging.Without cultural exchange and cross influence between

  10. The Accuracy of the Five-planet Locations Calculated by the Chinese Ancient Calendar Named Shoushi Li

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.

    2011-01-01

    The calendar Shoushi Li is one of the most famous calendars in ancient China, which was recorded in the Lizhi (ancient calendar book of China) of Yuanshi (annals of the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 to 1367). There are seven important calculation parts, including solar terms, syzygies, corrections of the sun and the moon, eclipses and so on. The locations of the five-planet are also in the list. Almost every part has a corresponding section in the modern astronomical year book. It is the last calendar formulated only by Chinese astronomers and its period of usage (from 1281 to 1644) is the longest one in ancient China. It was also a new calendar system which cast off the traditional method by which calculations were carried out from the epoch of the distant past. The basic constants were obtained by meticulous observations and then used in calculations. In this paper, the calculation methods of planetary locations in Shoushi Li are investigated and recovered by studying the official texts of Yuanshi. (1) The locations of the ephemeris of Jupiter in 1299 are derived and our recovering method is affirmed by comparing with other studies. (2) The calculated accuracies of celestial longitudes of the five-planet from 1280 to 1650 are obtained. For Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury, the average values of absolute errors are 0.49°, 1.91°, 0.70°, 2.82° and 5.01°. Jupiter and Saturn have comparatively higher accuracies. (3) Zhoulu, Lilu, Dulu, Heying and Liying are used for planetary calculations in Shoushi Li. Their accurate values, instead of those adopted in Shoushi Li, are derived and calculated by modern astronomical methods and then inputted into Shoushi models. It is found that the accuracies of planetary locations are not improved. The errors of Jupiter and Saturn are 1.83°and 1.21°. But the errors of Mercury, Venus and Mars ascend to 30.04°, 54.86°and 10.82°, respectively. It is indicated that the accuracies can not be increased by revising some of the

  11. 古代时期中国地名的英译研究%Studies on English Translation of Chinese Place Names in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈剑

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays,the systematic research in mainland China on the English translation of Chinese place names in ancient times (from Song and Yuan dynasty to early Qing dynasty)is relatively rare.The paper mainly analyzes and studies on Chinese ancient maps in English version existing in China and abroad.The English translation of Chinese place names in ancient times is mainly based on the transliteration of local dialects,while the spelling method is gradually in the transition from copying the translation of other languages to spelling with the language factors and characteristics of English.The relatively full English translation method of Chinese place names in ancient times is initially formed.%现阶段国内对古代时期(宋元时期至清早期)中国地名英译的系统性研究相对较少。通过对国内外现有英文版中国古地图资料进行分析和研究,发现古代时期我国地名的英译以对各地方言的音译为主,拼写方法由最初照搬其他语系、语族语言的译名,逐步向以英语自身的语言因素和特点进行拼写过渡,最终形成了比较完整的古代时期我国地名英文翻译方法。

  12. Cheng Lin, Terry Peach and Wang Fang (eds), The History of Ancient Chinese Economic Thought

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Qunyi

    2015-01-01

    This is the 162nd book in the Routledge Studies in the History of Economics series, and the first to concentrate on the history of Chinese economic thought. It therefore provides a unique look at this topic—in fact, it is not only the subject matter that is unique, but also the framework of the book. In contrast to three earlier books on similar subject areas (Hu, 1984 and 1988; Ma and Trautwein, 2013), this book is described in the introduction as “a collection of papers on the history of Ch...

  13. ON THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND THE PRIMITIVENESS OF ANCIENT CHINESE MYTHOLOGY%古希腊神话的文明性与中国先秦神话的原始性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明霞; 曹萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the narrative form,the framework of Gods and the developing way in ancient Greek myth and ancient Chinese myth,we find that the differences between them are not reflected by types and numbers but by their respective features.One is civilized while the other is still primitive.%通过对古希腊和中国先秦神话的叙事形式、神祗构形和发展路径的对比分析,我们发现造成二者独特的民族特色和相异性的原因,并不在于神话的种类或数量大小等方面,主要表现为古希腊神话的文明性和中国先秦神话的原始性。

  14. [The origin and development of fragrance activity in Chinese ancient times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jie-yun; Jin, Zhi-jun

    2010-05-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China. During the period of pre-Qin, it was mainly used in the therapy and worship. Until the Three Kingdoms, the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials. People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms, prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily. In the worship, the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies. The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines, the formula of spices were used more widely. Then, during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty, the fragrance activities climbed to the peak. The fragrance activities were institutionalized, when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities. Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices. In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty, the fragrance activities spread among the public. The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility, when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities. External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical. In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming. After a long period, the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture. PMID:21029705

  15. Ancient literature research on Chinese medicine formulae of diabetic nephropathy%基于古代文献的糖尿病肾病方药研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 刘旭生

    2012-01-01

    This research was to comb ancient Chinese medicine formulae on diabetic nephropathy by using Chinese Medical Tantras, and analyzing ancient literature. 87 ancient formulae were retrieved, which were recorded begin from the tang dynasty to the republic of China. Pill of Six Ingredients with Rehmannia, Shenqi-pill, Poria Alba Pill and Decoction of Four Drugs were recorded more frequency. However, only a handful of prescription has set up a file in the modern clinical application. It was discovered that two principles could help modem physicians using ancient formulae, that was syndrome differentiation and disease differentiation. But how to guide the clinical application of ancient formulae in modern clinic is still worth further explored.%本研究采用《中华医典》第四版为检索工具,通过检索糖尿病肾病相关古代文献,对其治疗方药进行梳理.共检索到方药87首,方药记载古籍年限起自唐朝止于民国.其中六味地黄丸、加减肾气丸、白茯苓丸、加减四物汤被记载引用较多.然而仅少数方药目前在临床推广应用.初步研究认为,现代医家可根据辨证论治和辨病论治两大原则应用古籍方药,但是如何让古籍方药更好的在现代临床应用仍值得进一步探究.

  16. 中国古代管理思想的形成轨迹和发展路径%The Formation and Evolution of Ancient Chinese Management Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴照云; 李晶

    2012-01-01

    Management, as a science, experienced a long time from theory to actual practice, but it took its real career in China after 1978, which took The Reform and Opening Up Policy and Rapid Industrialization as background. Just 30 years, she broadened herself taking the advantage of The Western Management Theory, in the 1980 1990s, the infant periods of the transformation of The Market Economy took place in China, and the then newly established enterprises once were enlightened and promoted on a large scale by the advanced managerial concepts and methods, but in return for Dogmatism and Empiricism which caused by the pattern of Western Management rooted in Western Values, let alone its blending with the traditional Chinese Values. The modern management guru Drucker remarked: many aspects can be brought in to a developing country like China, capital, machine, and even advanced technology but still there is one exception Managers. China needs its own managers, who are pretty familiar with his country and know his people and deeply rooted in its culture, society and the context. Only China she herself can build the nation. Therefore, in the realm of economic globalization, only by constructing the "Chinese Featured" theory of management and doing the managers' bidding can the home enterprises be competitive. "Chinese Featured" lies in the 5000-year-old Chinese traditional cultures , which propel and accomplish the world most affluent and powerful Empire, form the massive unique Ancient Chinese Thoughts. Before 1919, they were neglected in account of its failing in combination with the Industrial Revolution and Capitalistic Enterprise Operation . After 1919 , in the modern times, the world turned its visions back to Orient and began to study on Ancient Chinese Management Thoughts, as a magnum opus of the Oriental Management Idea's great significance in the contemporary social and economic development, along with China's Reform and Opening Up process

  17. 中国古代公共性园林的历史探析%The Historical Analysis on the Chinese Ancient Public Gardens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗华莉

    2015-01-01

    There is a controversy of the existence of Chinese ancient public gardens. This paper combine with relevant historical information, which include the public garden’s content, title, function, source, prove its existence from the perspective of historical literature research. Through demonstration, we found that ancient public gardens are a special type of Chinese classical gardens, which merge the natural landscape and the profound history culture. Retrospect the history of ancient public gardens, can not only supplements and enriches Chinese ancient gardens system, but also expands the research area of garden history. Understanding the ancient history of garden culture, has a positive meaning on the heritage of traditional culture and regaining the cultural self-confidence, also for reviving national spirit. In addition, the ancient public gardens pursuit a simple life of combined with a high culture and low consumption, both to meet the basic spiritual needs without destroying the environment, which has a reference on nowadays environmental protection and public garden construction.%园林学界对古代是否存在公共性园林一直存有争议,结合古代公共性园林的内涵、称谓、功能、来源等相关史料信息,从历史文献研究角度展开分析。论证得出,古代公共性园林是古典园林中的特殊类型,融合了优美的自然景观与深厚的历史文化。追溯古代公共性园林的历史渊源,能够补充、丰富本土古典园林体系,扩展园林史研究范围。从古代公共性园林历史文化内涵切入,还有助于深入理解公共性园林,对传承传统文化、重拾文化自信、重振民族精神有着积极意义。最后,古代公共性园林追求高文化与低消耗相结合的简朴生活,满足了基本精神需求还不破坏生态环境,对现阶段环境保护和公共园林建设有很大的借鉴作用。

  18. 古代中药掺伪考%Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢晋; 王德群

    2013-01-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages,it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China.The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties,fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty,and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty.By statistics,there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period.The main varieties were precious drugs,animal drugs and artifacts.Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating,dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively.Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis ; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt,Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine,and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey.However,the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist,resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants.Besides,rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.%通过梳理历代主流本草发现,中药掺伪古已有之.南北朝时期以造作为主,唐代始见伪充,明清以后掺伪现象泛滥.据统计,民国以前本草著作记载的掺伪品种达76味,主要集中在贵重药、动物药和人工制品.常用掺伪手法有造作、伪充2种方式.其中涉及造作的中药有11味,而以假乱真的伪充品种高达68味.掺伪现象泛滥,迫使藿香药用部位改变,盐附子、酒制当归和蜜炙黄芪等炮制品的出现均可能与之有关.中药掺伪的根本原因是医药分家,医不识药,而商家职业操守淡漠;

  19. A study of the Chinese organic–inorganic hybrid sealing material used in “Huaguang No.1” ancient wooden ship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. ► The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. ► This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. ► Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic–inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in “Huaguang No.1” ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca2+ from the Ca(OH)2 and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  20. 中国古代图书贸易活动体系探析%On the Ancient Chinese Book Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萃

    2014-01-01

    图书作为一种商品进行交易有着悠久的历史。图书贸易活动是中国图书出版事业的重要组成部分。本文从图书贸易的主体、客体、渠道、对外交流和管理五个方面研究中国古代图书贸易活动,分析中国古代图书贸易活动的发展过程,企图构建中国古代图书贸易活动体系。%In China , book trade has a long history .It was an important component of Chinese book enterprise .This article in-troduced and explored on the subject , the object , the distribution channel , the international trade and administrative management of the ancient Chinese book trade , analysed its history , and established trading system of the ancient Chinese book .

  1. 中国古代文论历史语境还原刍议%Discussion on the Historical Contextual Restoration of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟

    2012-01-01

    Tbere is no satisfactory achievement about the issue of ancient literary theory for years in China. The western theory leaves no space to the theory of the Chinese ancient literary theory. The following two misunderstandings are responsible for this phenomenon. One is ignoring the unique life style of the theory ; the other is neglecting its widely dissimilar purpose. Only by getting rid of the misunderstandings, restoring its historical context, can the theory ' s modem values be dug, and make it become the source of contemporary Chinese cultural creation. The core idea of the ancient literary theory is Tao. Tao can not only baptize the personality and character of present literati, but also enable the wisdom of ancient literary theory to participate in the culture of modem society.%多年的中国古代文论研究中存在着两大误区,即漠视古文论独特的存在方式,失察古文论迥然相异的宗旨。而只有走出误区,还原古文论历史语境,才能开掘其现代价值,使其真正成为当代中国文化创造的智慧源泉。中国古代文论的思想内核是"道"。"道"能够洗礼当今文人的人性和品格,能够使古代文论智慧参与现代社会的文化建构。

  2. 中国古代文明的起源及早期发展国际学术讨论会纪要%Summary of the International Symposium on the Origin and Initial Development of Chinese Ancient Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    本刊记者

    2001-01-01

    In what environments and on what background was the ancient Chinese civilization evolved? What are its characteristic features? And what is the course of its development like? These problems are all of important academic value. Therefore, the Center for the Study of Ancient Civilization, CASS, held the “International Symposium on the Origin and Initial Development of Chinese Civilization”in Beijing from August 1st to 3rd, 2001. The attendants discussed mainly theories of civilization's origin and related concepts, standards of civilization, and the developmental road of ancient Chinese civilization. They also inquired into the questions of how to judge the degree of civilization represented by archaeological remains, how to strengthen the co-operation of archaeology with other disciplines, how to enhance the scientificalness and standardization of the studies of civilization' s origin, and how to deepen these studies.

  3. 复杂性科学视阈下的古汉语起源与演化刍议%A Study on the Origin and Evolution of Ancient Chinese from the Perspective of Complex Adaptive System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高嵩; 张辉

    2015-01-01

    The origin of ancient Chinese has been a hot issue lively discussed in a number of subjects, especially Linguistics. Based on the language facts of ancient Chinese, this paper intends to figure out the origin and the development of ancient Chinese from the per-spective of complex adaptive system, utilizing the theoretical achievement of western computer modeling experiments.%古汉语的起源问题一直是包括语言学在内的众多学科关注的热点问题。本文试从复杂性科学的视角,利用西方计算机建模实验的理论成果,以古汉语中的语言事实为依据,尝试推演古汉语的起源和发展过程。

  4. Ancient Chinese Medicine Men

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIWUZHOU; TANZHEN

    2004-01-01

    SOME 2,500 years ago Duke Huan, ruler of the State of Qi in the Spring and Autumn Period (770-476 B.C.), gave an audience to famous doctor Bian Que who, upon observing the monarch's complexion, told him that he had a potentially fatal illness.

  5. 中国古代主要媒介的归类分期和发展特点%THE CLASSIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE ANCIENT MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈继睿

    2012-01-01

    中国古代媒介承载了深厚的中国文化。一直以来,对传统文化的研究可谓多如繁星,但由于传统思想看不起器物层面的知识,我们对文化要素之一的媒介一直关注不多。即使有所研究也局限于媒介年代的考据分析,更不用说媒介自身发展规律、媒介与社会关系的研究。本文试图从中国古代媒介的发展史人手,找出不同媒介的共同点进行归类,划分某一类媒介对应的时期,从中西媒介发展特点的不同之处展现中国媒介的发展规律。%Ancient media of China carries profound Chinese culture. For a long time, more and more researches of tradition culture have been done. Because our traditional thought has despised the knowledge of physics, we have been short of attention to media which is one of the elements of culture. Even if the study also limited the media~ textual analysis, not to mention the media~ own law of de- velopment, and the relationship between media and society. This paper attempts to start at the history of ancient media of China, clas- sify different media, divide the types of media into different periods, and show the law of Chinese ancient media by comparing Occident and China.

  6. Probing into the Origin of Ancient Chinese Medical Advertising Forms%中国古代传统医药广告形式探源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛涛

    2011-01-01

    中国传统医药行业很早就进入市场并且有自己的广告传播方式,在医药广告时间和空间的历史演进中经历了由动态到静态,从实物到抽象的各种演变过程,其广告形式也有招幌广告、印刷广告等主要方式.图画广告、名人广告、对联广告、市声广告也在其传播过程中发挥了积极的作用和有益的补充。古代中医药广告形式的探究,对深入研究中国古代医药广告文化、医药商业文化,推动现代医药广告的发展会有积极的作用和帮助。%Chinese traditional medicine industry entered the market so early and had their own ways of advertising communication. In the medical advertisement history of time and space evolution, it has gone through a variety of evolution, from dynamic to static, and from physical to abstract. Major advertising forms include Sapporo advertising, print ads and other forms. During its communication process, picture advertising, celebrity advertising, couplet advertising and city sound advertising also played positive roles and acted as useful sup- plement. To explore advertising forms of ancient Chinese medicine is beneficial to the in-depth study of the advertising culture of ancient Chinese medicine, business culture of medicine, and to promote the development of modern medicine advertisements.

  7. A Study on Memes of Culture in Translating Ancient Chinese Poems into English%古汉诗英译的文化模因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃进

    2012-01-01

      从模因理论原理出发,研究汉诗英译的文化模因特征,认为古诗翻译具有形神相似模因、形似神不似模因、形不似神似模因和形神不相似模因等,在诗歌翻译的文化传播过程中,译者要更多地采用形神相似或者形不似神似模因,避免形似神不似或形神不相似模因的出现,只有这样,才能最大限度地将中国文化的精髓传递给外国读者。%  The author will study on memes of culture in translating ancient Chinese poems into English from memetic perspective and holds that translating ancient Chinese poems possess memes of meaning and spiritual conformity, meaning conformity but spiritual inconformity, meaning inconformity but spiritual conformity, as well as meaning and spiritual inconformity. The translator should employ more memes of meaning and spiritual conformity or meaning inconformity but spiritual conformity, avoiding memes of meaning and spiritual inconformity or meaning conformity but spiritual inconformity in the course of poetry translation;only in this way can the essence of Chinese culture be delivered to foreign readers to its full play.

  8. The theory of ancient Chinese music and health Keeping by Traditional Chinese Medicine%中国古代音乐理论与传统中医养生

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄凯妮

    2011-01-01

    China attaches great importance to health keeping with music.There are plenty of health keeping theories in classic Chinese history books,such as Lv Shi Chun Qiu and Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor.Health keeping with ancient Chinese music plays an important role in adjusting our "feeling","mood" and "spirit".%我国是一个非常注重音乐养生的国度,经典著作《吕氏春秋》、《黄帝内经》等对此都有过很多深入的探讨。中国古代音乐养生的作用主要体现在调"情"养生、调"气"养生及调"神"养生等方面。

  9. Opinions on the Reform of Ancient Chinese Literatu re Course Under the Circumstance of Curriculum Standards%新课标背景下古代文学课程改革引发的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李聪亮

    2012-01-01

      古代文学课程是弘扬中国悠久历史与灿烂文化的窗口,是后人领略先贤们智慧结晶和深邃思想的门径。时代飞跃、学生需求、教学现状、教育改革等使得古代文学课程面临诸多严峻的挑战。因此,增强古代文学课程的时代性;师生角色转型;创新教学方法;完善评价体系是进行古代文学教学改革应关注的重要问题。%  Abstrac t:Ancient Chinese literature course is the window to publicize Chinese culture .With the changed ages and the changed need of students , ancient Chinese literature course face a great challenge .So, it is necessary for us to heighten the epochal of ancient Chinese literature course ,to transfer roles of teachers and the students , to creative teaching method and to perfect the system of evaluation etc .All of these problems should be paid much more attention when reforming the ancient Chi -nese literature course.

  10. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  11. 中国古代音乐的文化精神述评%Review of the Cultural Spirit of Ancient Chinese Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安潮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient music shows different artistic characteristics in seven different periods of its development .They reflect the different levels in Chinese cultural spirit of subtlety ,charisma ,charm ,charm and artistic conception ,rhythm .The mystically distant music in ancient times ,music ritual style in Xia and Shang Dynasty ,rites spirit music in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period ,subtle music in the Qin and Han Dynasties ,fusion verve music in Wei and Jin Dynasties ,rich tone music in Sui and Tang Dynasties ,music with folk music rhythm in the Song and Yuan Dynasties ,local music style in the Ming and Qing Dynasties ,all show a diversified spirit of music culture in ancient China which is rich ,fully inclusive and equitable characteristics , and its core is vivid and refined and profound ..%中国古代音乐在其发展的7个不同时期呈现出不同的艺术特征,它们在精微、风采、神韵、气韵、意境、节奏等中国文化精神上有不同层次的体现。远古时期音乐的神秘悠远,夏商时期音乐祭神的风韵,春秋战国时期音乐的仪礼气韵,秦汉时期律学开启精微之风,魏晋时期音乐的融合神韵,隋唐时期音乐的博大气韵,宋元时期俗乐的节奏,明清时期地方戏曲的滥觞等,展现出中国古代音乐文化精神历时性征的多元丰富、兼容并蓄特点,潜藏于内并逐渐形成特色的是气韵生动和清微淡远。

  12. Form and Integrity of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory%论古代文论的形态与整体性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

      古代文论具有多种形态。其学术形态,由理论体系的系统性、讨论问题的反复深入及趋向极致构成,是古代文论的理论基础。其实用形态,以密切联系大众需求而产生,由大量的指导写作的书构成,是大众从事文学创作必不可少的依靠。其资料形态,为有意识地系统化地收集诗史资料、编纂某一时代的文学纪事而构成,为文学史、文论史的资源性材料。其适性生活形态,为文论家自我撰作文论时的精神状态与成果展示,以赏心悦目为其宗旨。完整地把握古代文论的诸种形态,把握其相辅相成的统一性、整体性,才能完整地把握古代文论的真谛所在。%Ancient Chinese literary theory has various forms .Composed by integrated theoretical system , re-peated and profound discussions , its academic form is the theoretical basis of ancient Chinese literary theory .Pro-duced in the demand of ordinary people , its practical form constitutes numerous books of writing guidance and is a necessary reference for the people to go in for literary creation .Constituted with collected poetic and historical ma-terials, its material form is a resource of literary history and literary theory history .Presented by the spiritual condi-tion while literary theory writers create articles, its life form aims at pleasing to both the eye and the mind .To en-tirely understand these forms and grasp their uniformity and integrity will help us to find the essence of ancient Chi -nese literary theory.

  13. 从古中医学论治2型糖尿病%Analysis and Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes with Ancient Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马春玲; 阮永队; 付昕; 朱章志

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of type 2 diabetes is a difficult problem in medical field.Whether western medicine or chinese medicine can not provide a safe and effective way to cure this disease. This article explain the pathogenesis and treatment of type 2 diabetes from the classic theory in “Inner Canon of Yellow Emperor” and ancient Chinese medicine theory of circular motion which was supported by Peng ZiYi,famous doctor in Qing Dynasty,so as to find the theory and method to cure type 2 diabetes mellitus.%2型糖尿病的治疗是目前医学界一个棘手的难题,无论西医、中医都不能提供一个有效安全可以治愈本病的方法。本文从《黄帝内经》及清代名医彭子益先生倡导的圆运动等古中医系统理论探讨2型糖尿病的病因病机与治疗,以期寻找到能治愈2型糖尿病的理论与方法。

  14. The Enlightenment of Ancient Reading Textbooks to Today’s Chinese Language Textbooks’ Compilation%古代阅读教材对当今语文教材编写理念的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    康建琴

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Chinese language education attaches great importance to the selection and compilation of reading textbooks. Self-examing the views and methods related to selection and compilation in our ancient reading textbooks,it could greatly enlighten us in today’s compilation of reading textbooks.%我国古代语文教育十分重视阅读教材的编选,反思古代阅读教材编选的一些观点和做法,对今天语文教材的编写有着深刻的启示。

  15. Confucianism and Taoism's Influences on Ancient Chinese Musical Aesthetics%浅议儒、道思想对中国古代音乐美学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双杰

    2011-01-01

    中国古代音乐美学源远流长,是人类精神财富的重要组成部分,反映了华夏民族独特的审美意识与审美情趣。从儒教与道教对我国古代音乐美学发展的影响以及儒、道两家对音乐美学思想影响的异同入手,探讨中国古代的音乐美学思想。%Ancient Chinese musical aesthetics has a long history, and is an important part of human spiritual wealth.It reflects the unique aesthetic consciousness and aesthetic taste of Chinese nation.From the aspects of Confucianism and Taoism's influences on the development of ancient Chinese music aesthetics and the similarities and differences between them,this article discusses the aesthetic thought of ancient Chinese music.

  16. Fo Shou San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, protects endothelial function through increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy W C Bi

    Full Text Available Fo Shou San (FSS is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca(2+ levels in HUVECs, and the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca(2+ and a reduction of ROS.

  17. 略论中希神话的差异%Brief Comments on Ancient Chinese and Greek Myths

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力宁

    2012-01-01

    Myths have great influence on both Chinese and Greek literature. However, they differ fromeach other for reasons of different location, natural environment, culture and national characteristics. Greek myths reflect personality, power and humanity while Chinese myths advocate general characteristics, virtue and divinity. This paper will probe into the differences between these two kinds of myths so as to facilitate readers' understanding of both Chinese and western cultures.%神话对中国和希腊两国文学皆产生了巨大影响。但由于中希两国地域、自然条件、文化传统及民族个性等各方面的不同,使得两国的古代神话呈现出不同的艺术风貌。希腊神话体现的是个性、力量和人性,中国的神话则崇尚共性、德行和神性。本文将从这三方面简要探讨中国神话和希腊神话之间的差异,以便更深刻地了解中希两国文化。

  18. Investigation of Tongjia words and the ancient and modern words of classical Chinese in middle school%中学文言文中通假字与古今字的考察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈敏祥

    2013-01-01

    The Tongjia words and the ancient and modern words are two different concepts of ancient Chinese, should strictly distinguish between the two sides. This text carries on the analysis of shallow with respect to the middle school writings in classical style of borrowed words and the ancient and modern words, is intended to explore the difference between the two sides, treatment should be standardized, scientific.%通假字和古今字是古书用字的两个不同概念,对两者应严格区分。本文就中学文言文中的通假字和古今字进行粗浅的分析,意在探讨这两者的区别,处理应该规范化、科学化。

  19. Research on the Cultural Value of Ancient Chinese Terracotta Riding Figurine%古代骑像俑的文化价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朝鸿; 陆春莉

    2015-01-01

    Terracotta riding figurine is a mode of artistic expression of people , riding animals like horses or camels , and the organic integration of these subjects into ceramic crafts and sculptures , generally through special firing process .Many aca-demic and educational papers and books have been published nowadays regarding ancient Chinese terracotta figure arts . However , research particularly focus on riding figurine is still rare .The text in this article has demonstrated the historical e-volution of this art form:the emerging during Period of Battle Kingdoms , the booming during the Tang Dynasty , and the de-clining after Yuan Dynasty .The constant changing of political , cultural, and social environment finally leaded to the down-turn of this ancient tradition .The author of this article has been studying the physical characteristics of the art form together with the larger social and cultural background in attempt to provide an invaluable testimony to the rich heritage of ancient craftsmanship and the importance of cultural conservancy .%骑像俑是指把人物骑马、骑骆驼的景象做成泥胎,烧制成陶俑。目前,关于研究陶俑的论述很多,但是把陶俑中的骑像俑单独作为研究对象来分析的文章却很少。文章通过对骑像俑研究表明,这种文化形态开始于战国,兴盛于唐代,直至元代以后逐渐衰落。古代骑像俑文化衰退的主要原因是由于不同历史阶段社会环境的改变所造成的。对于骑像俑的研究,探讨了这类文化背后的社会习俗与风貌,为更好地保护文化遗产提供了重要的理论依据。

  20. Inheritance and Variation: Analysis of Evolutionary Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Architecture through Yuan Architecture%承启·变异——试论元构中反映的部分形制嬗变特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵向东

    2013-01-01

    元代建筑上承宋金,下启明清,是中国古代建筑发展的转折时期.拟以共处同一地域而分属元代前期和后期的两座典型建筑作为契人点,以小见大,力求对中国古代建筑体系形制上的过渡及演变进行客观揭示与综合解读.%Between Song-Jin period and Ming-Qing period. Yuan architecture acts as a turning stage in Chinese ancient architectural history. Based on analysis of two typical Yuan buildings which are located in the same place but belong to different historical stages, this article intends to comprehensively reveal and interpret the general transitional and evolutionary characteristics of Chinese ancient architecture system.

  1. 夏商周青铜器铅同位素示踪研究数据库的构建%A Lead Isotope Ratio Data Base of Ancient Chinese Bronzes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金正耀

    2005-01-01

    A data base of lead isotope ratio of ancient Chinese bronzes is set up. There are 2 888 members, including bronze objects, casting remains, and related ores, etc. in the file. The file contents of data base are made from analysis work on Chinese bronze previously carried out in several laboratories in China, Japan and USA. The main body of the file contents is formed from records, analysis data, reference documents, and images. The data base is designed for sharing information in provenance study on raw metal material for bronze production in China Bronze Age.

  2. Explore the Achievements and Contributions of Chinese Ancient Astronomical Figures%中国古代天文图的主要成就与贡献探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁启章; 王晶

    2016-01-01

    This paper is finished on the purpose of writing an article of astronomical map for“Near-Modern Chinese Map Annals”, and we take a systematically study on the outstanding achievements of Chinese ancient astronomers in founding the "Theory of Sphere-Heavens", manufacturing“Armillary Sphere”, implementing astronomical observation and astronomical geodetic survey, and creating astronomical maps. The earliest recorded“Star table”was created by "Shi Shenfu" during the warring states period before in the 4th century B.C.;then,“Zhang Heng”created"Theory of Sphere-Heavens"and made the first“Turn Leaky Armillary Sphere”in the world during Han Dynasty in the 2nd century;Zhang Sui completed the national astronomical geodetic survey at 13 spots across China and is the first one who calculated the 1° arc length of local meridian at latitude 34° north to be 110.6 kilometers during Tang Dynasty;and Guo Shoujin”implemented"Universal Measurement"and"Leveling"during Yuan Dynasty. The ancient Chinese astronomical map discovered so far including:“the astronomical figure on a paint box cover in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Sui county before the warring states period of China"which is created in 433 B.C.;“the start figure on the tomb murals indicating four quadrant symbols and 28 lunar mansions”which is created in the Western Han Dynasty in Xi’an city, Shaanxi Province;the"DunHuang star map"which contains more than 1350 stars and is created during 705-710 A.D.;the“Suzhou stone carving astronomical map"which contains more than 1440 stars and is created by“Huang Chang”in 1190 A.D.;the"constellation chart of crossing seas”which is created by Zheng He in 1405-1433 A.D.;the"Star Barrier Figure"which contains 1812 stars and is created by“Xu Guangqi”in the early 17th century;and the“total star map on the north and south sides of equator”which contains 1876 stars and is created by“Verbiest”in the mid 17th century. In a word, the ancient

  3. 基于VFP+Word的多文本古籍索引编制实验%An Experiment of Editing Multi - text Chinese Ancient Books Indexes Based on VFP and Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建年

    2011-01-01

    利用VFP与Word编制软件是实现多文本古籍索引的一种较好的选择。通过古籍分词程序实现索引款目词的选择;调用Word的索引词自动标志功能,实现自动标引,产生单一文档的索引文档;通过VFP实现各个不同古籍文本索引的合并与整合,调用Word的编辑、排版功能实现多古籍文本的拼音、笔画以及四角号码索引的输出。%Indexing system based on VFP and Word is a better choice to get editing indexes of multi -text Chinese ancient books. Firstly, the experiment develops the program of word segmentation to select the items of an index. Secondly, it calls the auto - marking function in Word to bring about automatic marking the items of an index and save as an index of an ancient books text. Thirdly, it uses the VFP to realize combination and integration of various indexes of ancient books. Finally, the author makes use of the function of editing and type setting in Word to achieve exporting the Pinyin,stroke and corner index of multi - text Chinese ancient books.

  4. The Infusion of Musical Elements in Ancient Chinese Zither into Chinese Polyphonic Piano Works- Taking # F Shang-noted:Calligraphy and the Flavor of Zither, Fugue, Highly Ancient as Examples%古琴音乐元素在中国复调钢琴作品中的融汇--以《#F商调:书法与琴韵》《赋格》《高古》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王爱国; 翟毅

    2015-01-01

    In piano music creating practice , on the basis of using Western polyphonic music skills for reference , Chinese contemporary musicians infuse musical elements in ancient Chinese zither into creation , thus giving birth to polyphonic piano works with music style of the ancient Chinese zither .Taking the three music works as examples ,which are # F Shang‐noted :Calligraphy and the Flavor of Zither by Wang Lisan ,Fugue by Yu Suxian ,Highly Ancient by Lin Hua ,from aspects of a new explanation of ancient Chinese zither’s tones and characters on the theme of piano music ,the infusion of ancient zither music polyphonic elements with modern polyphonic skills ,and the manifestation of piano music feelings on ancient zither culture spirits , this article will make an analysis on the creating features of piano music ,so as to provide a reference for the exploration and practice on the features of Chinese piano arts .%在钢琴曲的创作实践中,中国现当代作曲家在借鉴西方复调作曲技法的基础上,将古琴音乐元素融入创作,产生出具有古琴音乐风的复调钢琴曲。笔者以汪立三的《# F商调:书法与琴韵》、于苏贤的《赋格》、林华的《高古》3首钢琴作品为例,从古琴音色特性在钢琴曲主题上的新释,古琴音乐中的多声因素与现代复调技法的融汇方面对钢琴曲的创作特色加以解析,以期对中国钢琴艺术的特色探索实践提供参考。

  5. A study on provenance relation between Jiaotanxia ancient Guan porcelain and Qingliangsi ancient Ru porcelain by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    11 samples of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain from Qingliangsi kiln, 23 samples of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain from Jiaotanxia kiln and 4 samples of modern archaized Guan porcelain were obtained to determine the contents of elements in each of them by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The NAA data were further analyzed using fuzzy cluster analysis to obtain the fuzzy cluster trend diagrams for the bodies' samples and the glazes samples respectively. The analysis shows that the raw material origins of the Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain bodies samples are very concentrated; those of the Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain bodies samples are a little dispersed; those of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are relatively concentrated; those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples are dispersed; and the origins of the raw material of ancient Chinese Guan porcelain glazes samples are obviously different from those of ancient Chinese Ru porcelain glazes samples. The bodies samples and glazes samples of Jiaotanxia ancient Chinese Guan porcelain and those of Qingliangsi ancient Chinese Ru porcelain have some difference but can be compared with each other. (authors)

  6. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study. PMID:26813321

  7. Participation in IAEA proficiency test exercise on major, minor and trace elements in ancient Chinese ceramic (IAEA-CU-2006-06) using low power research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A proficiency test (PT) exercise was offered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) for major, minor and trace elements in Chinese ceramic reference material (IAEA-CU-2006-06). Neutron activation analysis (NAA) laboratory at PINSTECH, Pakistan participated in the exercise and submitted the results for 28 elements. The aim of participation was to develop a suitable methodology for accurate measurement of as many elements as possible in ceramic material using a low power reactor (PARR-2) as this would help future investigation in a project on the authenticity of art objects, for provenance, conservation and management of ancient cultural heritage of the country. After receiving the final report of the PT exercise, a critical review of our data and final scoring of each element is made to check the suitability of our methodology and reliability of the acquired data. Most of the reported results passed different statistical evaluation criterion such as relative bias, z-score and u-scores and ratio of our results and IAEA target values. One element (Yb) falls in the unacceptable range of relative bias and z-scores. Hf and Tb showed slightly high z-scores within the questionable range. Ho, Mo and Sn were determined during this study but their results were not submitted to the IAEA. The confidence of accuracy observed for most of the elements in ceramic material has made it mandatory to report their results as information values. (author)

  8. 中国古代音乐的表达要素与社会价值%The Key Expressive Elements of Chinese Ancient Music and its Social Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊

    2009-01-01

    音乐是人类伟大的发明之一.而中国古代音乐更有其自身的特色,中国人对音乐有自己的认识.中华民族从音乐中获得了无穷的智慧,汲取了丰富的营养,并感受到了音乐重要的教育作用和启示.世界各地了解中国的人们都认为"中国是礼义之邦",其实中国也是礼乐之邦.因为中国古人非常注重以礼约束人们的外部行为的同时,也很注重以乐陶冶人们的性情,引导人们去恶从善,所以中国古代音乐在教育方面也具有一定的政治功能和教化功能.%Music is one of the great inventions of humankind.While Chinese ancient music has its own characteristics,Chinese people have their own understanding of music.The Chinese nation gain endless wisdom,absorb nutrition from music and receive its instruction and inspiration.People familiar with China all over the world all agree that "China is a nation of ritual".and in fact a nation of music.Ancient Chinese people pay special attention to disciplining one's behavior with ritual.and meanwhile,nurturing one's temperament with music to discard viciousness and to develop kindness.Therefore,Chinese ancient music plays certain political and instructive role in education.

  9. A Dialogue with the Ancient and Reflection on the Interpretation of History of Bianque and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Youfeng

    2007-01-01

    Based on the description of epidemic diseases in the chapter of "The Story of Bianque" in Records of Historian, the author has analyzed and explored the truthfulness of its background data and the possibility of the plague spreading at that time from both macro and micro angles. The symptoms of plague including chills formation of some doctrines in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) such as exopathic heat disease doctrine, internal injury of spleen and stomach doctrine and epidemic febrile disease doctrine. The course of exogenous phenomena, the author has explored the effect on the initial medical theory, primitive religion and culture due to the spreading of epidemic diseases from the angles of epidemiology, the theory of images and figures, originated from epidemic diseases was proposed. The author also put forward some opinions on the relationship between epidemic diseases spreading and traditional education of TCM, sustained development of TCM.

  10. Report on the IAEA-CU-2006-06 proficiency test on the determination of major, minor and trace elements in ancient Chinese ceramic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ancient Chinese ceramic, to assure that the conclusions of art objects studies are based on reliable and validated nuclear analytical results and to ensure the comparability of the results of different countries. An ancient Chinese ceramic reference material, prepared and characterized for major, minor and trace elements, by the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, was used in the proficiency test. The test material was distributed to the participating laboratories in February 2006 and the deadline for receiving the results was set at 7 August 2006. The participating laboratories were requested to analyse the samples employing the methods used in their routine work, so that their performance on the test samples could be directly related to the real performance of the laboratory. Each laboratory was given a confidential code to assure the anonymity of the evaluation results. 24 laboratories from the 37 initially registered reported their results to the IAEA. The analytical results of the participating laboratories were compared with the reference values assigned to the reference material, and a rating system was applied

  11. 中国古代音乐史撰述相关问题探析%An Approach to the Related Problems of the Composing of Chinese Ancient Music History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏互玖

    2011-01-01

    自20世纪初叶伯和《中国音乐史》问世以来,中国音乐史作为一门学科,即已开始了它的科学化发展进程。这一百年来,中国音乐史的研究取得了骄人的成就,有多本中国古代音乐史著述问世。其著述体例各异,所关注问题的侧重点亦有不同。撰写新的中国古代音乐史从制度作为学术切入点,突出中国传统音乐文化的重要创造者和承载者乐人的主体地位,再结合音乐功能来研究和叙述中国古代音乐史,则能使中国传统音乐研究在许多环节上可以接通。%Since the book "the History of Chinese Music"wasa published in the early 1900s,Chinese music history,as a discipline,had already begun its process of scientific development.During one hundred years,the research on the history of Chinese music has made remarkable achievements and many writings about the history of ancient Chinese music have come out.The writing style varies,and the concerns have different emphases.To write a new history of music in ancient China as an academic from the system entry point,highlighting the importance of traditional Chinese music culture creators and bearers of the dominant position of music,combined with music and narration function to study the history of ancient Chinese music,then the traditional Chinese music research in many areas can be connected.

  12. 品诵·欣赏·感悟——初中语文古诗词教学探讨%Reciting,Appreciation and Perception:An Inquiry into the Teaching of Chinese Ancient Poetry in Junior Schools

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李芳

    2011-01-01

    Ancient poetry is the quintessence of the ancient splendid cultural of China,through the learning of which students can strengthen their literary accomplishment,nurture their mind and improve their writing ability.But the teaching of ancient poetry has become a difficult point for its long ages and the limitation of students' life experience and understanding level. Based on the writer's own teaching practice,this paper discusses the writer's opinion on the teaching of Chinese ancient poetry teaching in junior schools.%古诗词是中国古代灿烂文化的精髓所在,学习古诗词能加强学生的文学素养,陶冶学生情操,提高学生的写作能力。但古诗词产生于久远的年代,再加上学生生活阅历和理解水平的局限,古诗词教学成为初中语文教学中的难点。本文主要结合自身教学实践,就初中语文古诗词教学谈谈自己的看法。

  13. 蒙学对语文教育的启示%On the Ancient Old-style Private School Education’s Enlightenment to the Modern Chinese Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琳

    2015-01-01

    The ancient old-style private school education dates far back and has a profound historical accumula-tion. It provides valuable teaching experiences and rich literature resources for contemporary Chinese education. It sheds lights on areas such as basic learning method,classical Chinese reading ability and composition writing. What’s more,it helps enrich the learner’s necessary knowledge reserve,provide them with good language training and improve their ancient Chinese literacy.%蒙学源远流长,有着深厚的历史积淀,能为当代语文教育提供宝贵的教学经验和丰富的文献资源。尤其在学习的基本方法、文言文阅读能力、作文写作等方面有着重要的启示意义,可以为受教育者补充必要的知识储备,进行良好的语言训练,并提高其国学素养。

  14. 从中西神话人物区别看中西文化差异的根源--以希腊神话和中国上古神话为例%On the Root of Chinese-Western Cultural Differences Based on the Differences between Chinese and Western Mythological Figures:A Case Study on Greek Mythology and Chinese Ancient Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟

    2014-01-01

    中国古代神话和古希腊神话是中西神话的重要代表。通过比较可以发现,中希神话中的人物在外形和性格方面表现出种种不同。而从这种不同,我们可以看出中西文化所体现的差异,并进一步研究造成这种差异的根源是什么。%Chinese ancient mythology and Greek mythology are respectively the important representative of Chinese and Western mythology. Through comparing them, it can be found that there are a variety of differences in the appearances and characters of mythological figures between Chinese and Greek mythology. From the differences, we can find the differences between Chi-nese and Western culture, and further study the root of the differ-ences.

  15. 论大禹对中国古代诏令体式的建构%On Da Yu’s Influence on the Construction of Chinese Ancient Imperial Edict’s Form

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁太勰

    2016-01-01

    Imperial edict, which is used to deliver king's order in ancient China, was firstly found in Xia Dynasty. As the source of Chinese ancient imperial edict, Yu’s Vow which is recorded in The Book of History, and Yu’s Prohibition which is recorded in The Book of Zhou, have a significant influence on the system, structure and style of“The Edict about Punitive Expedition”and“The Edict about Agriculture”. Particular political function in Da Yu’s edict is not only a significant part of Chinese political civilization, but also had a profound influence on edict's culture meaning of system, law and civilization for later generations. Without doubt, Da Yu had a significant influence on the construction of Chinese ancient edict’s form.%诏令,指中国古代社会以帝王命令形式颁布的下行公文。最早的诏令产生于夏朝,《尚书·大禹谟》记载的《禹誓》,以及《周书》所载的《禹禁》,是中国古代诏令的源头,对后世之“征讨诏”、“劝农诏”等在体制、结构、风格方面都产生了深远的影响;而大禹诏令所承载的特殊政治功能,不仅是中国政治文明的一个组成部分,也深刻影响了后代诏令的制度、法律、文化的人文内涵。所以说,大禹对中国古代诏令体式的建构具有重要意义。

  16. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  17. The Correction and Supplement about Tang da zhao ling ji Category in The Catalogue of Chinese Ancient Books%《中国古籍总目》“唐大诏令集”条订补

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李豪

    2016-01-01

    《中国古籍总目》著录《唐大诏令集》版本多达十三种,但仍有遗漏,而且已著录版本,亦有可商榷者,论文试予订补之。%Thirteen versions about Tang da zhao ling ji are cataloged in The Catalogue of Chinese Ancient Books. However, there are still omissions. The cataloged versions, meanwhile, are also open to discussion. This paper attempts to solve these problems.

  18. Chinese Stratgagem And Chinese Business Negotiating Behaviour: An Introduction to Ji

    OpenAIRE

    Fang, T.

    1995-01-01

    The paper aims to arrive at an understanding of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from a Chinese stratagem perspective. The Chinese concept li (stratagem) which has its roots in ancient Chinese military thought is introduced to fill the gap in scholarship. The author has proposed a "S-B Model" which interpretes the strategic patterns of Chinese business negotiating behaviour from The Thirty-Six Stratagems, an ancient Chinese stratagem treatise. The paper argues that Chinese stratagems ha...

  19. Investigating the Connotations of the Genre of Paixie in Ancient Chinese Poetry%“俳谐”考论——以诗词为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅

    2012-01-01

    本文从古代文学(主要是诗词)的批评与创作中,梳理、辨析、论述俳谐的各种涵义。从其本原内涵到后代对俳谐赋予的多层涵义中可以看出,在俳谐诗词中,俳谐不仅指俳优传统中的戏谑娱乐和讽喻谲谏,俳谐还有通俗鄙俚之意,有时又被等同于回文、药名等杂体,而戏作诗词中有很多也可看作俳谐体。尤可注意的是,从杜甫《戏作俳谐体遣闷二首》等一些俳谐诗来看,俳谐并不只有通俗之作,也有文人用自嘲、反讽等手法写出的真情雅作。而俳谐的核心则是一种戏谑的姿态。%This paper analyzes and delineates the different definitions of Paixie as a literary genre through examining the critical and creative works ( mainly poetry) from ancient Chinese literature. Through tracing the original connotation of Paixie and exami- ning the various definitions from later periods, the paper points out that paixie as a genre not only refers to the entertaining forms such as satires and parodies with high - brow and low - brow styles but also includes miscellaneous writing of varied forms and playful writings such as palindromes or names of herbs. From the works by such famous and refined poets as Du Fu, it can be in- ferred that paixie writing is not only meant to be popular and playful but also adopted for self - mockery and irony with refined taste and purpose.

  20. 古代小说“因爱离魂”母题的文化阐释%Cultural Interpretation of the Motif of "Soul Leaving Body for Love" in Ancient Chinese Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡强

    2012-01-01

    "Soul leaving body for love" is a motif in ancient Chinese novels.The developing and spreading of such a motif is closely connected with the concept of soul in ancient Chinese ethnic cultural psychology and is in line with the love psychology unique to humans.It is of rich cultural implication and aesthetic value in that its romantic and fantastic narration of how young people pursue love reflects the suppression of human desires by the feudal ethnics and the writers' acknowledgements of human desires and concern for women's married life.%"因爱离魂"是古代小说创作的一个母题。这种母题的产生和流行,既与中国古代民族文化心理中的魂魄观念有着密切的关系,也与人类特有的爱情心理相契合。它以浪漫奇幻的方式叙写青年男女追求爱情的故事,折射出封建时代礼教伦常对人性的压抑,表现了作家对人性原欲的肯定和对女性婚姻状况的关注,有着丰富的文化蕴涵和审美价值。

  1. Ancient DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    In the past two decades, ancient DNA research has progressed from the retrieval of small fragments of mitochondrial DNA from a few late Holocene specimens, to large-scale studies of ancient populations, phenotypically important nuclear loci, and even whole mitochondrial genome sequences of extinct species. However, the field is still regularly marred by erroneous reports, which underestimate the extent of contamination within laboratories and samples themselves. An improved understanding of t...

  2. 天人合一与合而不一:中国古代服饰的哲学表征%UNITY OF MAN AND HEAVEN AND THEIR DISCREPANCY:THE PHYLOSOPHICAL REPRESENTATIONS OF CHINESE ANCIENT COSTUMES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆平

    2015-01-01

    Chinese ancient costumes are the institution formed by the worship of Chinese ancient people for heaven and earth, and the material manifestation of Chinese philosophy“Unity of Man and Heaven” in costumes. In spite of the changes of dynasties in Chinese history, alterations of costumes and their colors in past dynasty are featured with the philosophy“Unity of Man and Heaven”, which tels that heaven stands for nature, man and heaven are interrelated in essence, and al under the sky should abide by the laws in nature in order to achieve mutual harmony. Simultaneously, however, loose styles of the ancient costumes just conceal the primitive status of mankind as natural beings, and neglect their real existence. In this pattern framed by Unity of Man and Heaven, lives the other form, i.e., being unified but discrepant.%中国古代服饰是一种源于古人对天地崇拜而产生的服装形制,是中国古代哲学思想“天人合一”理念在服装中物化的表现。尽管中国古代历史上朝代更迭频繁,但不同历史时期的改服制、易服色都显现出“天人合一”的哲学表征,即天是自然的代表,人与天在本质上是相通的,一切人、事均应顺乎自然规律,达到人与自然和谐的观念。但与此同时,古代服饰中宽衣博袖的样式恰恰掩盖了人作为自然生物存在的原始形态,忽略了人的真实存在,这种“天人合一”的着衣模式中还存在着另一种“合而不一”的形式。

  3. Breakthrough in the Study of Chinese Ancient Music Literature——On Du Xingmei and Du Yuntong’s“Commentary on Chinese Ancient Musical Literature Elite”%中国古代音乐文学研究的新突破——评杜兴梅、杜运通《中国古代音乐文学精品评注》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王富鹏

    2012-01-01

      In Professor Du Xingmei and Du Yuntong’s“Commentary on Chinese Ancient Musical Litera⁃ture Elite” there is a selection of 418 representative music literature from the early Qin Dynasty to the late Qing Dynasty. One by one from the two sides of music and literature, detailed comments and review are made. The book is rich in content, subject distinctive, combination of commentary, refined and popular tastes, and strongy informative, interesting and readable. It provides a new unknown reader, on ancient Chinese music lit⁃erature, is undoubtedly an innovation and breakthrough.%  杜兴梅、杜运通教授的《中国古代音乐文学精品评注》精选了从先秦到清末有代表性的音乐文学作品418首(篇),从音乐与文学两个侧面逐一作了较为详尽的注释与评介。该书内容丰富、主旨鲜明、评注结合、雅俗共赏,具有较强的知识性、趣味性和可读性。它提供了该领域前所未有的一种新读本,对中国古代音乐文学研究无疑是一次创新与突破。

  4. Qin Music Culture and the Generation of Literary Narrative Mood in Ancient Chinese Fictions%琴乐与古代小说文学叙事的意境生成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚爱华

    2011-01-01

    琴乐作为一种内涵丰富的叙事客体,对于中国古代小说文学叙事的意境生成有着重要的作用。它使文学叙事的情绪节奏、叙事节奏等骤然发生改变,由闹热趋于静冷,由快实趋于慢虚,渐入清微淡远、含蓄静雅的美学境界。古代小说对琴人形象的塑造也多采用意境化笔法。中国古代小说呈现出的这些艺术风貌,与琴乐的文化气质、审美要求等艺术规定性有着紧密的联系,是古典叙事文学受动于琴乐客观自律性的结果。%Qin music culture as a narrative object with rich contents takes an important role in generation of literature narrative mood in ancient Chinese novels. It makes the emotional rhythm and narrative rhythm suddenly changed from excitement tends to quiet cold, from the fast tends to slow virtual reality, getting into a clear micro and subtle aesthetic realm. The image of Qin players in ancient novel is described in the mood of strokes. These ancient novels show that the temperament of Qin music culture, aesthetic requirements and other provisions of the arts are closely linked which is the result of the ancient novel by moving of the Qin music culture.

  5. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yanben; Qiao, Qiyuan

    2009-11-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  6. 中国先秦与古希腊体育的差异性及美学品格探究%On Differences and Aesthetic Character between Chinese Pre-Qin Sport and the Ancient Greek Sporty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 邹丹

    2014-01-01

    中国体育与西方体育从文化根源上就呈现出巨大的差异性。中国先秦体育具有礼仪性、养生性、实用性的特征,古希腊体育体现出宗教性、军事性、娱乐性的特点。中国春秋时期的体育在“礼、乐”中彰显德性的教化,具中庸和合与顺应自然的审美意趣,体现出重视技巧和谋略,偏重于以柔克刚的阴柔之美;古希腊体育则在娱乐性的竞技活动中重人格的培养,具崇尚崇高与不受文明礼仪束缚的自然天成的审美倾向,表现出强调力量和速度,偏重于竞技取胜的阳刚之美。%Chinese sports and western sports show huge differences in their culture roots. Chinese Pre- Qin sports has characteristics of etiquette , nourishing of life , practicability,while the ancient Greek sports shows characteristics of religiousness, military ,entertainment. In the period of the spring and autumn, Chinese sports reveals moral education through "the ritual and music", with the doctrine of the mean and aesthetic interest going with the nature, which attaches importance to skills and strategy, and prefers to the feminine beauty with its softer approach to power. On the other hand ,the ancient Greek sports gives priorities to personality training in the entertaining competitive activities, with the aesthetics tendency out of the etiquette rules bound ,which emphasizes on strength and speed, preferring the competitive masculinity.

  7. 现有世界文化遗产桥梁的核心价值及中国古桥申遗的思考%Core Values of Existing World Cultural Heritage Bridges and Reflection on Making Ancient Chinese Bridges Be Recognized as World Heritages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨艳; 孙潮; 陈宝春

    2015-01-01

    The ancient Chinese bridges have extremely high technical accomplishments .How‐ever ,to date ,there is no ancient Chinese bridge having been listed as a world cultural heritage , therefore ,it is quite necessary to carry out study on the issue of making ancient Chinese bridges be recognized as world cultural heritages .In order to speed up the process of world heritage applica‐tion for ancient Chinese bridges and promote the protection and sustainability of ancient Chinese bridges ,the characteristics of the bridges which have been labeled as world cultural heritages were introduced from the definition of world heritage and the related requirements ,and the values and technical accomplishments of ancient Chinese bridges were discussed .According to the conditions for inclusion in world cultural heritage ,the ancient stone arch bridges and timber arch bridges are the ones with top priority .According to the characteristics of bridges as functional structures and technically complex structures ,it is suggested that the focus of Chinese ancient bridges chosen for inclusion of world cultural heritage be put on the study of core technical contents ,highlighting their core values and technical achievements .%中国古代桥梁具有极高的技术成就,然而迄今为止,我国尚没有古桥被列入世界文化遗产,因此开展中国古桥申报世界文化遗产的研究非常必要。为了加快我国古桥申遗的进程、促进我国古桥的保护与传承,从世界遗产的相关定义与要求出发,介绍被列入世界文化遗产桥梁的特点,对我国古代桥梁的价值与技术成就进行讨论。根据世界文化遗产入选的条件,我国的古代石拱桥和木拱桥最具有申遗实力。依据桥梁作为功能性结构、技术复杂结构的特点,在此基础上提出中国古代桥梁申报世界文化遗产应聚集核心技术内容的研究,突出其核心价值和技术成就。

  8. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a revolution in ancient DNA (aDNA) research. Although the field's focus was previously limited to mitochondrial DNA and a few nuclear markers, whole genome sequences from the deep past can now be retrieved. This breakthrough is tightly connected to the massive sequence...... increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  9. 古建筑木结构叠合梁与组合梁弯曲受力研究%Bending analysis on composite beam and combination beam of Chinese ancient wooden buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乾; 闫维明

    2012-01-01

    采用力学分析方法,研究了古建筑木结构叠合梁与组合梁弯曲受力问题。以工程中常见的矩形木梁为例,讨论了如下3个问题:1)单梁开裂形成叠合梁后的弯曲受力性能;2)叠合梁与组合梁弯曲受力性能的区别;3)古建筑叠合梁"工字形"抗弯截面的合理性。结果表明:1)单梁开裂后形成叠合梁,将导致截面弯应力峰值大幅度增加;2)单梁加固采用组合梁做法比叠合梁做法更能节约材料且效果更好,且采用钢材加固木梁比木材加固木梁所需截面尺寸小;3)古建筑叠合梁"工字形"截面与相应等高度矩形截面相比,受弯承载力变化不大,具有合理性。%By mechanical analysis methods,internal forces of composite beam and combination beam of Chinese ancient wooden buildings under bending loads were studied.A typical rectangular beam was taken as an example to discuss the following problems: 1) variation of bending stress distribution of the beam after it cracked completely to form a composite beam;2) when the beam was considered to be strengthened by composite beam or combination beam,the difference of bending performance between them;3) rationality of "I-section" type of composite beam or combination beam of Chinese ancient buildings.Results show that:1) after a single beam cracks completely to form a composite beam,its peak bending stress value increases greatly,which may make itself destroyed;2) when a single beam is strengthened by an additional beam,the combination beam is better than the composite beam,and steel is better than wood so far as strengthening material is concerned;3) bending capability of "I-section" type of composite beam or combination beam of Chinese ancient buildings changes little compared to that of rectangular section type,which reflects its rationality.

  10. 《亚伯拉罕纪略》与古代章回体小说关系研究%Study on the Relationship Between James Legge's Novel "ABrief Record about Abraham" and ChineseAncient Chapter Fictions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄海霞

    2016-01-01

    晚清时期,基督新教在中国逐渐发展起来,传教士们为新教的发展做出了巨大的贡献。理雅各就是他们中的重要一员,《亚伯拉罕纪略》是理雅各根据《圣经》和中国文学审美和小说接受的实际情况改编的,小说具有显著的中国古代章回体小说的特点。文章对《亚伯拉罕纪略》和中国古代章回体小说做简略介绍,将两者的叙事形式进行对比,并从中国文化叙事学的角度对比两者在叙事视角和意识形态的差异,探索基督教理论著述在晚清汉语语境中的接受与表达,基督教作品与中国文学传统的融合。“从基督教文学作品的内部结构出发,注重其叙事特征的分析和诠释,尝试从一个新的视角考察及基督教与中国文化处境的相遇问题”。[1]%In the late Qing Dynasty,Protestantism developed gradually in Chinese,The missionaries made a great contribution to the development of Protestant.James Legge is one important member of them,"A Brief Record about Abraham" was adapted from the "Bible"the actual situation of Chinese literary aesthetic and novel accepted,this novel has the significant features of Chinese ancient chapter novels.This article does a brief description on the "A Brief Record about Abraham" and Chinese ancient chapter novel ,comparing the two forms of narrative, and compare differences between the narrative angle of view and ideology from the angle of Chinese cultural narrative,exploring of Christian theory works acceptance and expressed in the late Qing Dynasty in the Chinese context, Christian works integrated with Chinese literary tradition."Starting from the internal structure of Christian literature work,pay attention to the analysis and interpretation of narrative features,try to study from a new perspective and the problem of Christianity meet with the Chinese cultural environment".

  11. Advice about Classification of Drama in The Catalog of Chinese Ancient Rare Books%《中国古籍善本书目》集部·曲类分类献疑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李寒光

    2012-01-01

    There is a problem in The Catalog of Chinese Ancient Rare Books,that is the current classification cannot distinguish the series books of drama clearly.This thesis analyzes some specific examples and proves the necessity of regarding series books of drama as a separate class,proposes some advice for future cataloging in libraries.%《中国古籍善本书目》在集部.曲类分类上存在不能将戏曲丛书明确归类的问题,本文通过分析具体条目,说明曲类设汇编之属的必要性,以对今后馆藏书目的编写提出建议。

  12. 古代小说中的民间宗教%Ancient Chinese novels and folk religions——an analysis of the White Lotus and the Eight Trigrams Order

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙逊; 周君文

    2007-01-01

    This article traces the relationship between ancient Chinese novels and folk religions. Also this article will show how folk religions spread using the White Lotus Order and the Eight Trigram Order as two examples. The author draws the following conclusions. Firstly, as "popular literature", ancient novels have a kind of natural connection with folk religions; secondly, the novels involving folk religions featured stories of persecution from feudal rulers; thirdly, when novelists write about the spread of folk religions, they often obscure the tree nature of religions; fourthly, the connection between ancient novels and folk religions is incredibly complex.%以白莲教、八卦教为主要对象,对中国古代小说与民间宗教的关系作了初步考察,兼论民间宗教传播中的某些特征之后,可以得出以下认识:一、作为俗文学的古代小说与民间宗教有着一种天然的联系.二、这些涉及民间宗教的小说大都站在封建统治的立场上,把民间宗教视为"邪教".三、这些小说在写及民间宗教传播过程时,民间宗教的性质反而被模糊和异化了.四、古代小说与民间宗教的联系涉及到很多方面,其中的情形非常复杂.

  13. Cultural Meaning of Plants Described in Chinese Ancient Poetry%植物在中国古诗歌中的文化含义--以梅、柳、荷、菊四种植物为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路彦文

    2013-01-01

    There are many description of plants in Chinese ancient poetry.The external morphology of the plants and the implied emotional metaphor can be taken as important elements of cultural meaning of plants in Chinese ancient poetry.For ex-ample , Nelumbo nucifera, which grow in water, symbolizes the clean elegance, not dyed earth.And october cosmos, which , .%  我国古诗歌中关于植物的创作,一方面是植物本身的外在形态、生活习性及利用植物营造出的独特意境;另一方面是植物暗含的品格或借植物表达隐喻的情感等,这些是植物在中国古诗歌中文化含义的重要组成。以横、斜、倚、曲、古、雅、苍、疏为美的梅花,具有不畏严寒,坚韧顽强的品质,是隐者的意象;人们常用春柳柔弱的枝条寄托离别思绪;生长于水中的荷花象征着清洁高雅、不染尘世;生性耐寒、傲霜的秋菊,象征着隐士及有志者的气节操守。

  14. Mode and Application of Database and the Collection of Ancient Bibliography on Qigong in Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine%南京中医药大学气功古籍文献整理与数据库开发的模式与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雨; 顾宁一; 宋宇

    2011-01-01

    南京中医药大学图书馆是一所专业的中医药古籍图书馆,气功古籍的收藏是其古籍部一大特色.鉴于此,南京中医药大学图书馆于2008年成功申请了国家体育总局的科研项目.经过一年多的文献调查、整理及数据库的开发,现已完成了“气功基本古籍提要库”的开发与应用.“气功基本古籍提要库”的开发与应用以养生类气功古籍文献为特色,开创了气功古籍文献专题库的开发模式.同时,网络设计思想提高了数据库的共享性.总而言之,“气功基本古籍提要库”基本上反映了中国传统气功的经典面貌与文化传承,既对气功古籍研究提供了快捷、方便的检索方式,又实现了对气功古籍的有效保护.%The library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine has many ancient Chinese medical books, and above all, the ancient books of Qigong is its characteristic. Considering this, the library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine had successfully applied for the scientific research projects of General Administration of Sport of China in 2008. After more than one year's research and collection on the bibliographies as well as the- development of the database, the library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine has fulfilled the development and application of the database on basic Qigong ancient books. This database is characterized by Qigong ancient bibliographies on health promotion, which starts the development mode for subject database of Qigong ancient books. Meanwhile the idea of network make the sharing of the database be possible. In a word, the database of Qigong ancient books reflects the classic and cultural heritage of Chinese traditional Qigong. It offers not only one quick and convenient way to search Qigong ancient books, but also protects our Qigong ancient books.

  15. 论中国古代婚恋文化对当代婚姻生活的启示%Chinese Ancient Marriage Culture on Contemporary Marital Life Enlightenment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华

    2014-01-01

    中国古代儒家经典和爱情文学作品等对爱情和婚姻生活做出了规范和描述,展现了历史悠久且特色鲜明的古代婚恋文化,其蕴含的诸多积极有益的元素,对当今社会的爱情婚姻生活都有所裨益。当代社会由于生活方式的转变,人们的婚恋观也出现了变革,“不婚同居”、“闪婚”、“闪离”和婚外情等问题影响着社会的稳定、和谐发展,古代传统婚恋观中对婚姻的谨慎态度、对婚礼的规范、对婚姻长久稳定的要求、对爱情和婚姻的真挚与忠贞的强调,都可以为解决这些矛盾和问题提供参考。同时,古代婚恋文化中对夫妻相守之道和如何处理好婚姻与家庭现实之间的矛盾等问题也给出了有益的启示。%The ancient Chinese Confucian classics and the works of love literature on love and marriage life made a specifica-tion and description,to show the long history and distinctive ancient marriage culture,which contains a lot of useful elements of today’s society,love and marriage life is beneficial.Modern society because of lifestyle changes,people’s concept of mar-riage has changed,“the unmarried cohabitation”,“flash marriage”,“flash off”and an affair affect the stability of the society, the harmonious development,the ancient tradition of marriage in the cautious attitude of marriage,the wedding,sincere and specification of marriage faithful long-term stability requirements,the emphasis on love and marriage,can provide reference for solving these contradictions and problems.At the same time,between the couple together the ancient marriage culture and how to deal with the reality of marriage and family conflicts and other issues also gives a beneficial enlightenment.

  16. 論中國古代「藏書家」的定義:以明代為例 A Discussion on Definitions of Chinese Ancient Book Collectors in Ming Dynasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuan-Chih Chen

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available 藏書史研究的內容極為豐富,包括自古以來各種藏書機構和私人的藏書活動,以及典冊與圖書本身,還有諸如圖書的收集、購求、鑒別、保藏、研究與散佚等專業範疇,藏書思想與方法理論,也囊括與藏書活動關係密切的刻書、書肆、流通與傳播等社會風尚,和因藏書風尚產生的政治、經濟和社會文化背景等等,都是屬於中國文化史的一部份,非常值得深入探究。但是,藏書史研究往往受限於有關古代「藏書家」的定義,因為累朝歷代對於「典籍」的認知略有不同,才會造成藏書史研究上的根本問題。 反觀數十年來的藏書史研究,還沒有專書或專論針對古代藏書家的定義而作,事實上,在定義時也存有很大的困境。本文試圖從史料當中梳理出一條理路,以明代的藏書家為例,為中國古代藏書家的定義作出部份釐清與說明。The book collection research contents are extremely rich, including each kinds of collection agencies and private collections since the ancient times, as well as book itself, and such as the book collection, purchase, identification, preservation, research, loss, thoughts and theoretical methods, and those customs are related closely to book collection activities about publishing, bookmen, circulation and dissemination, and the background of politics, economy, social culture that arise from the customs of book collection, they are all belong to the category of Chinese cultural history, and deserve to study deeply.However, the research of book-collecting history are always limited from the definition of ancient book collector, because of the recognition about the books in each period of time in ancient were different, and became a primary question of research in book-collecting history of ancient China. Surveying the research of the book-collecting, there are no any professional books or essays in definiens of Chinese book

  17. On Synonymous Coupling and Antonymous Coupling in the Categories of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory%中国古代文论范畴的邻界耦合与对待耦合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涌豪

    2011-01-01

    There were many categories of near-synonymy and also many categories of antonym in ancient Chinese literary theory. The former categories were coupled with nearly synonymous popular sayings while the latter categories were coupled with antonymous popular sayings. Ancient people preferred to use these categories of sayings to define and discuss literature, just because they kept such cultural psychology and cognitive habits of thinking carefully and respecting tradition that they were reluctant to create new words and expressions to be criticized for submerging the origin of things and acting rashly, and also because they wanted to ensure that their argumentation was eloquent and profound, so that these categories could fully display the innermost essences of literary creating, and show the law of the universe that all things act mutually and perform reciprocally. This reveals the humanity root of Chinese literature, and forms one of the important characteristics of Chinese traditional literary theory.%中国古代文论中有许多近义范畴,又有许多对待范畴,前者由意义邻近的名言耦合而成,后者则由意义对待的名言耦合而成。古人好用此类名言界定与论说文学,既是出于慎终追远的文化心理和认知习惯,不愿别作新词,以冲冒被人指为汩没本源、鲁莽率意的考虑,也是为了保证立论的周洽与深刻,从而最大程度地开显文学创造的内里机理,并有以体现天地万物相偶相成的运化规律。它在在体现了中国文学的人文根性,也是构成传统文论的重要特点之一。

  18. Comments on the evolution of Chinese ancient official selection and appointment system%我国古代官员选任制度的演进评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张会霞

    2013-01-01

    The selection and appointment system in ancient China is an important part of the ancient official personnel system. It has formed a unique development path, through hereditary system, recommendatory system,Nine-rank system to the imperial examination system over more than two thousand years. Researching the law of its development will help to grasp the history, and provide reference for the perfection of present civil service selection system.%我国古代官员选任制度是古代人事制度的重要组成部分,两千多年来经历了世袭制、察举制、九品中正制、科举制的演变历程,形成了特有的发展轨迹。研究分析其发展规律将有利于把握历史,并为完善现有的公务员选聘制度提供借鉴。

  19. Explore the Key Point of the Ancient Poetry Teaching of Junior Chinese%探究初中语文古诗词教学的关键点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于晓鸽

    2014-01-01

    从古诗词的特点出发,以激发学生学习古诗词为目的,探究古诗词的教学重点。朗读法可以使学生体会诗词的音乐美、意境美、情感美以及运用多媒体营造课堂情趣,有助于提升教师古诗词教学的质量和水平。%Based on the characteristics of the ancient poetry,for stimulating students to learn poetry as the goal,the paper explores the teaching focus of poetry. Loud-speaking enables students to experience the beauty of music,the beauty of artistic conception of poetry,the beauty of emotion and use the multimediel,to create a class interest,help to improve the quality and standard of teachers’ teaching ancient poetry.

  20. 古代波斯的染织艺术及其与中国的关系%Relation between Ancient Persian and Chinese Weaving and Dyeing Arts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    缪良云; 张晓霞

    2001-01-01

    古代波斯的染织业十分兴旺发达,其染织艺术吸收东西方各种艺术成就,形成了自己独特的风格,尤其在与中国的贸易交流中,古波斯的织造技艺和染织物的图案构成都强烈地受到中国的影响,同时中国也从古波斯的染织艺术中得到借鉴,发展了自身。古代波斯的染织艺术与中国有着密切的关系。%Ancient Persia was prosperous in its weaving and dyeing art whichincorporated the eastern and western artist achivements, forming its own unique style. Ancient Persia was deeply affected by China in its weaving techniques and patterns of woven and dyed fabrics during the bilateral trade and exchange, while China also used the experience of Persian weaving and dyeing art for its own development, showing their close relation in this aspect.

  1. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  2. Originating relation studies on ancient porcelains of chines Ru and Jun by NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    50 samples of glazes and bodies of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, Jun porcelain and imitative ancient ceramics were analyzed by neutron activation analysis (NAA). The contents of 36 elements in each sample were measured. The NAA data were statistically treated by fuzzy cluster method and the trend cluster diagram was obtained. Their classes and raw material sources were determined. The results show that although these samples spanned hundreds of years, came from different kilns and had different glazes colors, the bodies of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain belong to the same kind, the glazes of the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain is similar to the glazes of the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain. The originating places of the body raw material were concentrated, and that of the glaze raw materials were scattered, the source of the glaze raw material covered that the body raw material. The ancient Chinese Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain have basically the same raw material sources and the sources of raw material are stable in long time. It is found that most modern Jun porcelain samples are similar to the ancient Chinese Jun porcelain. Two modern Ru porcelain samples are similar to the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain, but another one drifts apart from the ancient Chinese Ru porcelain. Jingdezhen porcelain has no relation to Ru porcelain and Jun porcelain

  3. On Chinese Terms Designating Repeated Actions in Ancient Musical Scores%谈古乐谱中表示反复的汉字术语

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于韵菲

    2012-01-01

    Chinese terms designating repeated actions frequently appear in musical scores of pipa, zither, flute and drums in the period of Tang and Song Dynasties, which are further passed down to scores in the Ming and Qing as well as modern and contemporary times. Those terms reflect the abbreviat- ed notation with Chinese characteristics, generate a conceptual system that match with Chinese music and establish a basis of terminology for traditional Chinese music structure. Therefore, it is necessary to un- derstand the development of those terms and their use, distinguish their similarities and differences and then make a reasonable judgment.%表示反复的汉字术语,集中体现在唐宋时期的琵琶、筝、笛子、鼓等器乐谱中,并传承于明清曲谱与近现代的传统音乐乐谱中。这些汉字术语体现了省略记谱法的中国特色,形成了与中国音乐相匹配的概念体系,奠定了分析我国传统音乐曲式结构的术语基础。在解译时,有必要弄清楚术语及其用法的发展脉络,有机地将术语之间的同异关系区分开来,从而给出合理的判断。

  4. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  5. 我国古代音乐的功用性研究%Study on the function of Chinese ancient music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢玄

    2013-01-01

    The function of ancient music can be classified into the entertainment function and utility function. The utility function is further divided into political function and social function. Conflict between the utility function and entertainment function of music can be witnessed throughout the beginning and end of music development. As time goes by, the entertainment function of music is growing stronger and gradually becoming the mainstream music.%  古代音乐的功用性归纳为娱乐性功用、功利性功用。功利性功用又分为政治性功用、社会性功用。音乐功利性与娱乐性的冲突贯穿了音乐发展的始终。冲突的结果总是娱乐性音乐由弱到强,逐步成为主流音乐。

  6. 中国古代医药文献对外传播及其影响%International Communication and Influence of Chinese Medical Literature in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔卓瑶; 张宗明

    2015-01-01

    文献是人类文明的基本载体。在中医药对外交流的历程中,医药文献传播的重要意义自不待言。医药文献不仅是中医药文化历时传承的重要途径,也是中医药文化共时交流的重要方式。鉴古启今,梳理中医药跨文化传播史,发现凭借着丰富的中医药典籍、先进的造纸术和印刷术、开放的对外政策、发达的海陆交通,通过官方和民间两种途径,中国古代医药文献大量地输出,远播亚洲、欧洲,对汉方医学、韩医学等输入国的传统医学产生了深远的影响。%Literature is the basic carrier of human civilization . In the multi‐cultural exchanges of T raditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) ,there is no need to underscore the fact that the spread of medical literature is significant .Medical literature is not only the key channel to the inheritance of TCM culture ,but also an important way for the communication of TCM culture .It is enlightening to systematically review the intercultural communication history of TCM .The study found that a great deal of Chinese medical classics ,the invention of papermaking and printing ,the open policy and the developed transportation ,plenty Chinese medical classics spread abroad to Asia and Europe by the folk and governmental ways .It exerted profound influence on the traditional medicine of importing countries ,such as Kampo Medicine and Korean M edicine .

  7. 民族医药古籍保护性研究意义及现状%Significance and Present Status of Conservation Research on Ancient Literatures of Chinese Ethnic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 冯岭

    2015-01-01

    -of-mouth might face the danger of failure in finding an eligible heir to inherit them.Therefore,it is urgent and necessary for the whole society to gather strength to carry out emergent investigations of various versions of those ancient literatures of ethnic medicine and afterward specialized and scientific protection,arrangement and research work.Take the protective research of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures for example,with the special attention and financial aids of all different levels of government departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology,a nationwide project of the survey,collection and arrangement of Ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was carried out for the first time.After more than five yearswork,a catalogue was published for the first time by the re-search team as an approach to protect the cultural property right of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures.It was the first time for the catalogue to be translated into Tibetan,Chinese,English and Latin according to international standards as a research result for promotional purposes.It was also the first time for the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures to be permanently preserved,protected and spread in digital form-by way of building an information platform.Besides,the intellectual property right of ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was also protected through registering patents and copyrights,etc.The work experience and scientific research model that the research team gained laid a solid foundation for the scientific protection,inheritance and development of the ancient literatures of ethnic medicine in China;it also established a mature,scientific orientation for further research.

  8. Fast neutron activation analysis of ancient mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    About fifty specimens of ancient Chinese bronze mirror from various dynasties are analysed by fast neutron radiated from neutron generator. The contents of copper, tin and lead in the mirror are listed in this paper. Experimental method and measurement equipment are described too

  9. Precursors of Vocational Psychology in Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumont, Frank; Carson, Andrew D.

    1995-01-01

    Examines philosophical theories produced by two ancient civilizations (Eastern Mediterranean and Chinese) for applications to an applied psychology of work. Includes analysis of Egyptians, Semites, and Greeks, with a special emphasis on Plato. Suggests that many basic elements of vocational psychology were present during the first millennium B.C.…

  10. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  11. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples. PMID:18812066

  12. Searching for events in Chinese ancient records to explain the increase in 14C from AD 774-775 and AD 993-994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ya-Ting; Zou, Yuan-Chuan

    2015-09-01

    According to analysis of the 14C content in two Japanese trees, that grew over a period of approximately 3000 years, with high time resolution, Miyake et al. found a rapid increase at AD 774-775 and another one at AD 993-994. These increases correspond to high-energy events that happened within those years and radiated γ-ray energy of about 7×1024 erg toward the Earth. The origin of these events is a mystery. Such strong events should have an unusual optical counterpart, and have been recorded in historical literatures. We searched Chinese historical materials around AD 744-775 and AD 993-994, but no remarkable event was found except for a violent thunderstorm in AD 775. However, the possibility of a thunderstorm containing so much energy is unlikely. We conclude that the events, which caused the 14C increase, are still unclear. These events most probably had no optical counterpart, and a short gamma-ray burst, giant flare of a soft gamma-ray repeater or a terrestrial γ-ray flash could all be candidates.

  13. Searching Signals in Chinese Ancient Records for the $^{14}$C Increases in AD 774-775 and in AD 992-993

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    According to the analysis of the $^{14}$C content of two Japanese trees over a period of approximately 3000 years at high time resolution, Miyake (2012) found a rapid increase at AD 774-775 and later on at AD 992-993 (Miyake 2013). This corresponds to a high-energy event happened within one year that input $\\gamma$-ray energy about 7$\\times{}$10$^{24}$erg to the Earth, leaving the origin a mystery. Such strong event should have an unusual optical counterpart, and have been recorded in historical literature. We searched Chinese historical materials around AD 744-775 and AD 992-993, but no remarkable event was found except a violent thunderstorm in AD 775. However, the possibility of a thunderstorm containing so much energy is still unlikely. We conclude the event caused the $^{14}$C increase is still unclear. This event most probably has no optical counterpart, and short gamma-ray burst, giant flare of a soft gamma-ray repeater and terrestrial $\\gamma$-ray flash may all be the candidates.

  14. The Accuracy of the Five-planet Locations Calculated by the Chinese Ancient Calendar Named Shoushi Li%《授时历》五星推步的精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2011-01-01

    The calendar Shoushi Li is one of the most famous calendars in ancient China,which was recorded in the Lizhi (ancient calendar book of China) of Yuanshi (annals of the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 to 1367). There are seven important calculation parts, including solar terms, syzygies, corrections of the sun and the moon, eclipses and so on. The locations of the five-planet are also in the list. Almost every part has a corresponding section in the modern astronomical year book. It is the last calendar formulated only by Chinese astronomers and its period of usage (from 1281 to 1644) is the longest one in ancient China.It was also a new calendar system which cast off the traditional method by which calculations were carried out from the epoch of the distant past. The basic constants were obtained by meticulous observations and then used in calculations.In this paper, the calculation methods of planetary locations in Shoushi Li are investigated and recovered by studying the official texts of Yuanshi. (1) The locations of the ephemeris of Jupiter in 1299 are derived and our recovering method is affirmed by comparing with other studies. (2) The calculated accuracies of celestial longitudes of the five-planet from 1280 to 1650 are obtained. For Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury, the average values of absolute errors are 0.49°, 1.91° , 0.70° , 2.82° and 5.01° . Jupiter and Saturn have comparatively higher accuracies. (3) Zhoulu, Lilu, Dulu, Heying and Liying are used for planetary calculations in Shoushi Li. Their accurate values, instead of those adopted in Shoushi Li, are derived and calculated by modern astronomical methods and then inputted into Shoushi models. It is found that the accuracies of planetary locations are not improved.The errors of Jupiter and Saturn are 1.83° and 1.21° . But the errors of Mercury, Venus and Mars ascend to 30.04°, 54.86° and 10.82° , respectively. It is indicated that the accuracies can not be increased by revising some of the

  15. 中国古代香熏活动的缘起与发展%The Origin and Development of Fragrance Activity in Chinese Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁洁韵; 金芷君

    2010-01-01

    It has a long history of the fragrance activities in the ancient China.During the period of pre-Qin,it was mainly used in the therapy and worship.Until the Three Kingdoms,the crowd using the fragrance expanded from the royal to the literati and the general officials.People applied the spices to incense clothes, purify rooms,prevent and treat epidemic diseases in daily.In the worship,the spices were dedicated to Gods and other fairies.The fragrance was developed quickly during the period from Wei Dynasty to South and North Dynasties. People had more experiences of spices used as medicines,the formula of spices were used more widely.Then,during the period from Sui Dynasty to Song Dynasty,the fragrance activities climbed to the peak.The fragrance activities were institutionalized,when nobility matched their spices each other. The Literati made spice products and enjoyed the fragrance activities.Doctors knew more than before in the application experiences and species of spices.In the times of Yuan, Ming and Qing Dynasty,the fragrance activities spread among the public.The spices appeared in each side of the daily life of nobility,when natural fruits appeared in the fragrance activities.External therapy with spices appeared in the clinical.In addition to prevention and therapy, spices should be used in the embalming.After a long period,the fragrance activities had gradually developed into a kind of culture.%中国古代的香熏活动历史悠久,在先秦时期主要用于祭祀和医疗;至秦汉三国时期香熏的使用人群由皇室贵族扩展至士大夫和一般官吏,香熏也逐渐进入日常生活,香熏衣被、清洁居室、防疫治疫成为这一时期的特色,祭祀用香也从最初的祭天转变为燃香供奉;魏晋南北朝是香熏的发展阶段,具有男子熏衣和文人参与的特色,而祭祀用香以及道教斋醮科仪等基本定型,香药的医疗经验不断积累,香方用途逐渐扩大;隋唐两宋是香熏的鼎盛时期,表

  16. ICM和翻译过程中汉语古诗词意义的建构%ICM and the Construction of Meaning in Translating Chinese Ancient Poetry into English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹幸居

    2015-01-01

    The nature of translation is the translation of meaning. Meaning does not exit in language forms, but in the cognitive structures hidden in the readers' minds. The essence of constructing meaning lies in that the readers establish the coherence of the discourse by filling in the default in the text with elements of the cognitive structures. These elements include the ICM (Idealized Cognitive Model) and its "slot fillers" activated by the language forms. The task of Chinese ancient poetry translators is to construct meaning with the proper ICM and seek in the target language(TL) the proper language signs so that equivalent activation of ICM can be achieved and the proper meaning is available to the TL readers.%翻译的本质是意义的翻译. 语言符号本身没有意义,因为意义隐藏在读者脑海里的认知结构中,意义建构的实质是读者调用默认的认知结构成分填补文中缺省、重构语篇的连贯. 这些认知结构成分包括了语言符号激活的 ICM 及其"空位"填充值. 汉语古诗词译者的任务是一方面利用恰当的 ICM建构意义,一方面在译入语中寻找恰当的语言符号达到源语和译入语 ICM 激活对等的效果,让译入语读者建构正确的意义.

  17. A Study on 36 Examples of the Reptile, Fish and Invertebrate Names in the Ancient Chinese Language%古代虫鱼爬行动物名所指考36例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese animal name 瓦剌 was today’s crocodile. 螣蛇 was flying head snake. 纳鼈 was big-headed turtle.锯鲨 was needle tooth shark. 狮刀 was dorab. 含光 was yellow fish. 哲绿鱼 was taimen. 花魿 was some of spotfishes. 松鱼was sea catfish. 赤鬃 was genuine porgy and yellow porgy. 火烧鳊 was suckerfish. 青蚨 was giant water bug. 茭虱 was bedbug.蜭was a worm eating dry meat and furs. 蟛蚏 was fiddler crab. 空豸was pholad. 假猪螺 was trumpet shell whelk. 土笋 was sipunculida. 桃花鱼 was a kind of jelly fish, and so on.%古籍中的动物名瓦剌是鳄鱼。螣蛇是金花蛇。纳鼈是平胸龟。锯鲨是尖齿锯鳐。狮刀鱼是宝刀鱼。含光是黄鱼。哲绿鱼是哲罗鲑。花魿是几种鲾。松鱼是海鲇。赤鬃是黄鲷、真鲷。火烧鳊是胭脂鱼。青蚨是大型昆虫田鳖。茭虱是臭虫。蜭是蠹食毛皮干肉的虫。蟛蚏是招潮蟹。空豸是双壳类的海笋。假猪螺是管角螺。土笋是星虫。桃花鱼是桃花水母。

  18. 从文学特征论看俄国形式主义与中国古代文论之异同%A Contrast of Russian Formalism and Ancient Chinese Literary Theory Based on Literary Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一铎

    2012-01-01

    在对文学特性的探讨及对文学诸特征的研究中,俄国形式主义与中国古代文论不乏相似之处:二者都是对以往文学理论的反动和纠偏;都是通过对文学区别于其他学科的艺术形式的强调和对诗歌技法的探讨,来达到对文学理论的科学性诉求;并都对后世文学理论产生深远影响。但由于时代及文化的差异,俄国形式主义非常明确地表现出对具有科学性文学理论的追求,并同现代语言学理论关系紧密;相反,对文体划分的重视及对诗歌声律也即音乐性的强调则是中国古代文论的两大特点。%It can be seen from the discussion and study of various literary characteristics that Russian formalism and Chinese ancient literary theory have a lot in common in terms of the historical background, the emphasis on form as well as the impact on the future generations. However, there are still some different characteristics between them since they occurred at different times and resulted in different cultures.

  19. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  20. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  1. Chinese Marine Materia Medica

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Proksch

    2014-01-01

    China is one of the first countries to use marine materia medica for treating diseases. Ancient books on Chinese herbology, such as Shennong Bencaojing (Shennong’s Classic of Materia Medica), Xinxiu Bencao (Newly Revised Materia Medica) and Bencao Gangmu (Compendium of Materia Medica), have detailed more than 110 marine herbs and thousands of marine herbal formulas (including those for Chinese food therapy). A great deal of information on marine herbs and their applications in medicine, colle...

  2. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  3. 中国古代通俗文学的多元化研究--赵晓寰教授专访%A Multi-perspective Research on Ancient Chinese Popular Literature---an Interview with Professor ZHAO Xiao-huan of Sydney University

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨正娟; 赵晓寰

    2016-01-01

    跨学科、多元化思考是中国古代通俗文学研究的重要路径。在中国古典小说和戏剧的理论研究、古典小说与文学传统之关系、中日戏剧比较等问题上,受访者赵晓寰教授的观点是:参照普洛普形态学理论,中国古典志怪小说与戏剧可进行叙事特征与结构功能模式等分析;由“原型”、“图式”、“程序”等构建的小说理论框架有助于阐释中国文学传统的形成;中日戏剧在脚色类型、表现方式等方面关系密切。%Interdisciplinary and multi-perspective research is a major approach of the study of ancient Chinese popular literature. The interviewed Prof. ZHAO Xiao-huan touched upon many issues in Chinese literature study, such as the theoretical research on classical Chinese novels and drama, the relationship between classical novels and literary tradition, and comparison between Chinese and Japanese drama. His viewpoints are summarized as follows: with reference to Propp’s morphological theory, analysis can be made of the narrative features and structural function models of classical Chinese supernatural fictions and drama; the theoretical framework of fictions comprised of “prototype”, “schema”, and “procedure” helps explain the formation of Chinese literary tradition; Chinese and Japanese dramas are closely related in many ways such as role types and expressions.

  4. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  5. Traditional Chinese culture in modern Product Design

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes the sources and features of traditional Chinese culture. It also discusses the aesthetic thoughts of Chinese traditional culture. Chinese traditional culture has been illustrated broad and far-reaching impact on design since ancient time. In the context of globalization and the rapid development of science and technology, the difference between traditional design and modern product design should be explored. Chinese traditional culture cannot be totally absorbed. It is im...

  6. Studying Ancient History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Robin

    1982-01-01

    Defends the value and relevance of the study of ancient history and classics in history curricula. The unique homogeneity of the classical period contributes to its instructional manageability. A year-long, secondary-level course on fifth-century Greece and Rome is described to illustrate effective approaches to teaching ancient history. (AM)

  7. Moessbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia Yuanfu; Huang Hongbo [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China)

    2003-09-15

    The Moessbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  8. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  9. Climate changes may lead to the collapse of ancient civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Studies of an international research consortium indicate that severe monsoon changes might have simultaneously accelerated the fall of two great ancient civilizations, the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), one of the most prosperous reigns in Chinese history, and the Maya civilization in Meso-America that ended in 830 AD.

  10. A Tentative Analysis of Gary Snyder's Attitudes towards Chinese Culture in his Translation of Chinese Poems

    OpenAIRE

    Ying Wu; Qi Pan

    2011-01-01

    Gray Snyder was a famous poem translator and writer in America in the 20th century; however, his translation and composition were deeply influenced by the ancient Chinese culture, especially by Han Shan, the famous hermit and poet of the Tang Dynasty. This article attempts to make a tentative analysis of Snyder’s translation of Chinese poems as well as his attitudes towards Chinese culture and Chinese poems.

  11. Esotericism Ancient and Modern

    OpenAIRE

    Frazer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Leo Strauss presents at least two distinct accounts of the idea that the authors in the political-philosophical canon have often masked their true teachings. A weaker account of esotericism, dependent on the contingent fact of persecution, is attributed to the moderns, while a stronger account, stemming from a necessary conflict between philosophy and society, is attributed to the ancients. Although most interpreters agree that Strauss here sides with the ancients, this view fails to consider...

  12. Couplets Translation of Ancient Chinese Verses in View of Harmonizing Differences of Languages and Cultures between East and West%兼顾中西方语言与文化差异的古文骈句英译研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于开颜

    2012-01-01

    从春秋战国时期的诸子散文,到汉代的骈体赋,再到明清八股,都大量地使用了骈句的形式。骈句讲求对仗,重视骈对与音韵的和谐,凸显出我国古典文学的艺术魅力。在中国古典文学对外译介的过程中,骈句的英译既要保留东方古典文化的特色,又要以西方语言的形式体现出我国古典诗文中的语言韵味。因而兼顾中西方语言与文化差异的骈句英译,在整个翻译理论及其实践中有着举足轻重的地位。探讨骈句的形成、发展以及对我国古典文学的影响,结合中外学者的理论实践,从结构、修辞和意象三个方面研究骈句的英译,强调协调中西方文化差异,平衡语言转换过程中的语义流失非常必要。%A large number of couplets were adopted in Chinese classical literature,such as proses written by the philosophers in the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States periods, parallel proses of the Fu litera- ture in the Han Dynasty, and Baguwen or Eight-Part Essay in the Ming and Qing Dynasty. Couplets,with its unique style of centering on antithesis, parallelism and rhythmical harmony, further demonstrate the artistic appeal of Chinese classical literature. In the progress of foreign translation of Chinese classics, cou- plets translation has taken its place in the study of translation theories and practice due to such aspects as retaining cultural features of Chinese classics, displaying the rhythm of ancient Chinese verses. The cou- plets translation of ancient Chinese verses in view of harmonizing differences of languages and cultures be- tween East and West is of great importance in translation theory and practice by introducing how couplets was emerged and developed, and how they influenced Chinese classical literature. Meanwhile, it also takes some theories and related practice of Chinese and foreign scholars as references, and discusses couplets translation in terms of structure

  13. The Sign System in Chinese Landscape Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Cliff G.

    2003-01-01

    Paintings emerge from a culture field and must be interpreted in relation to the net of culture. A given culture will be implicated by the sign system used by the painter. Everyone agrees that in Chinese landscape paintings, the most important cultural bond is to ancient Chinese Taoism, and to a lesser degree, to Confucianism. Obviously, then, the…

  14. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  15. Traditional Chinese biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    2010-01-01

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed. PMID:19888561

  16. Thought and Research on Chinese Sports from the Perspective of Confucian Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Xiuchang Yang

    2014-01-01

    This article conducts a research on Chinese sports under Confucian philosophy from the perspective of social value that ancient sports sought, development limitation for ancient physical morality and legal system, and development direction of Chinese sports. It also makes an analysis of the promotion and restraint of traditional Confusion culture on Chinese sports, and seeks many valuable factors such as the integration of social and class nature deeply contained in Chinese sports, improvemen...

  17. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  18. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  19. Ancient Chinese records of moon/planet-occulting/approaching-star and its application to textual research of traditional star names%中国古代月与行星掩犯恒星记录及其用于传统星名考证

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马莉萍; 孙晓宇; 王晓晗

    2013-01-01

    月与行星掩犯恒星的记录是中国古代天象记录中数量最多的门类,此类记录的可靠性比较高,自北宋开始,月与五星掩犯恒星的错误率平均为10%,而之前的平均错误率也仅有20%。统计分析了这些记录在历代正史中的分布。在用现代天文学计算方法检验的基础上,考证了中西黄道区星名的对应关系。%The quantity of the records of moon/planet-occulting/approaching-star is the largest in the ancient Chinese records of various astronomical phenomena. The reliability of these records is rather high that the average error rates of them are 10%for the records recorded since the Northern Song dynasty and 20%before the Northern Song dynasty. The distribution of these records in the official history is analyzed. The correspondence between the zodiacal stars names given by Chinese and those given by the West is examined with modern astronomical computation.

  20. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  1. [Psychiatry in ancient Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderón Narváez, G

    1992-12-01

    Using studies on prehispanic and early post-conquest documents of Ancient Mexico--such as the Badianus Manuscript, also known as Libellus de Medicinalibus Indorum Herbis, and Brother Bernardino de Sahagún's famous work History of the Things of the New Spain, a description of some existing medical and psychiatric problems, and treatments Ancient Aztecs resorted to, is presented. The structure of the Aztec family, their problems with the excessive ingestion of alcoholic beverages, and the punishments native authorities had implemented in order to check alcoholism up are also described. PMID:1341125

  2. Literature study on fecal class Chinese medicines and their application in the ancient prescriptions%应用文献挖掘及关联规则分析方法挖掘分析古代方剂中粪便类中药的基本特征及其应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏泽琦; 张文君; 张雨珊; 王德辰; 孟祥梅; 王玮鑫; 吴嘉瑞; 李健; 丁霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the basic characteristics of fecal class Chinese medicines in modern clinical practice, and to find out the application of them in ancient prescriptions. Methods Taking“fe-ces”(Chinese:粪便;pinyin:fènbiàn) and “Chinese medicines”(Chinese: 中药; pinyin: zhōngyào) as the keywords, we searched CNKI, Wangfang, CQVIP and CBM databases of relevant articles pub-lished since the time of establishment. Then the fecal class Chinese medicines were screened. What we obtained were where the official names came from, what their alternative names were at different times, which creatures they were excreted from, what property and flavor, meridian tropism, efficacy and indi-cations they had. Furthermore, we searched the ancient prescriptions involving fecal class Chinese medi-cines using the database platform of Dictionary of Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, institute of Chinese Materia Medical of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences to get the common compatibility and po-tential rules of clinical application. Results Total eleven fecal class Chinese were common used in mod-ern clinical practice, which were recorded in various monographs of Chinese medicine by numerous names, and were excreted from birds, mammals and worm. The nature of the medicines were hot or cold;the flavor coved sour, bitter, sweet, bitter, salty; the meridian tropism lied in meridian of liver ( gall bladder) ,heart ( cardiac ) , spleen ( stomach ) , lung ( intestine ) and kidney ( bladder ); the various effects were listed as the following: resolving superficies, clearing heat, dispelling pathogenic wind and removing dampness, resolving stagnation, expelling blood stasisfor removing obstruction in collaterals, re-moving phlegm, relieving cough, calming endogenous wind, inducing resuscitation, removing toxicity, destroying parasites, relieve itching, eliminating necrotic tissues and promoting granulation. In addition, we extracted relevant 1 550 relevant prescriptions

  3. On the Application of Value of Ancient Chinese Poems Art Songs in Vocal Music Teaching%中国古诗词艺术歌曲在声乐教学中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁珺

    2015-01-01

    随着中国古诗词艺术歌曲的不断创作与实践,其越来越多地出现在声乐教学领域,并体现着作为中国特有艺术歌曲体裁的重要价值。学习并演唱中国古诗词艺术歌曲不仅能更好地掌握演唱技巧、提高对音乐的理解和想象能力,还能更深层次地领会中华文化的博大精深,丰富自身的艺术修养。%With the development of Chinese poetry art song creation and practice, more and more of them are used in the field of vocal music teaching, and embodies the unique Chinese art song genre as an important value. Therefore, learn and sing Chinese poetry art song can not only better master singing skills and improve understanding of music and imagination ability, but also understand Chinese culture and profound and rich artistic accomplishment deeply.

  4. Adoption in ancient times

    OpenAIRE

    Bisha Eugena

    2015-01-01

    Since in ancient times, in all human cultures, children transfered from biological parents to parents that want them to create family, for political alliances, for inheritance, for a future marriage, or to care for elderly parents. The practice of adoption was fairly common in different places and periods. Adoption is mention on Bible and Quran. Greeks, Romans, Egyptians and Babylonians had adoption systems.

  5. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work. PMID:20669043

  6. A Vibrant Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGTONG

    2004-01-01

    LIJIANG is a small city onthe Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau in southern Chinawith an 800-year history.Word of its ancient language and music, and unique natural scenery has spread over the decades, and Lijiang is now known throughout the world. It was added

  7. Ancient Egypt: History 380.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Laraine D.

    "Ancient Egypt," an upper-division, non-required history course covering Egypt from pre-dynastic time through the Roman domination is described. General descriptive information is presented first, including the method of grading, expectation of student success rate, long-range course objectives, procedures for revising the course, major course…

  8. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  9. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  10. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    which plied between Kalinga and south east Asian countries. Nanda Raja, is said to have attacked Kalinga with the intention of getting access to the sea for the landlocked Kingdom of Magadha (Bihar). The ancient texa Artha Sastra (3rd-4th century B...

  11. 论中国古诗词中衷怨意象的审美价值%On the Aesthetic Value of the Plaintive Images in Ancient Chinese Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓旭

    2012-01-01

    古代文人抒情往往不是情感的直接流露,也不是直接向读者灌输,而是通过一系列意象来借景抒情、托物言志。哀怨意象既可以作为文人审美创造的结晶和悲伤情感意念的载体,又是现实生活的写照。所以,这些哀怨意象体现了古代文人的离愁别绪之悲、闺怨相思之苦、征人游子之思、忧国忧民之怨等多个方面的审美价值。%Lyric of Ancient scholars is not the direct expression of emotion, and is not the direct outpouring to the readers. On the contrary, they express their feelings through images with special meanings. Plaintive images can be regarded as not only the fruit crea ted by scholars as well as the carrier of sad emotional ideas, but is a portrayal of real life. So these plaintive images reflect various as pects of aesthetic value such as the parting sorrow of ancient scholars, the bitterness of women' s lovesickness, the missing of expeditors and decoys, the enmity of concerning countries and people and so on.

  12. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  13. An Exploration into the Elegant Tastes of Chinese Tea Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Hongliang Du

    2013-01-01

    Abstract China was the first to produce tea and consumed the largest quantities and its craftsmanship was the finest. During the development of Chinese history, Chinese Tea culture came into being. In ancient China, drinking tea is not only a very common phenomenon but also an elegant taste for men of letters and officials. Chinese tea culture is extensive and profound and it is necessary for foreigners to understand Chinese tea culture for the purpose of smooth and deepen the communication w...

  14. Hu Shi's Study of Chinese Medieval intellectual History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Yulie

    2006-01-01

    Hu Shi frequently gave lectures on the history of Chinese philosophy,especially the history of ancient Chinese philosophy,from the year 1919 to 1937.A large number of papers and dissertations published during this period are related to his research on this topic.In his opinion,there are three characteristics of the history of ancient Chinese philosophy:" religionalization of thought," "Indianization of philosophy," and "conflict between Chinese thought and Indian thought." In this paper,I explore Hu Shi's deep insight into the religionalization of Confucianism in Han dynasty and into the thought of Taoism in the medieval times.

  15. Tradition and Enlightenment of Monarchical Power Restriction in Chinese Ancient Political Culture%中国古代政治文化中的君权制约传统及其启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    成云雷

    2014-01-01

    A monarch mastered the supreme power and occupied the top of the power operation in ancient politics. Monarchical power restriction in ancient China was mainly implemented from four aspects, including restraining a monarch by heaven, morality, humanism and public opinions. The study of monarchical power restriction in ancient China has an important practical significance for drawing lessons from the traditional wisdom of managing state affairs, constructing the contemporary advanced political culture in China, and providing reference and enlightenment for the construction of contemporary China anti-corrup-tion. Firstly, anti-corruption can’t be carried out without the restriction of power, whose decisive point lies in the restriction of the most supreme power. Second, the efficiency improvement of power restriction can be guaranteed with the aid of the institute construction by law, and promoted with the assistance of public supervision by law. Last, anti-corruption co-exists with the support of moral power and the faith in value.%君主在古代政治中掌握至高无上的权力,居于权力运行金字塔的顶端。中国古代的君权制约主要从以天制君、以道制君、以民本制君、以舆论制君四个方面展开。研究我国古代的君权制约传统对于借鉴本民族传统的治国智慧和构建当代中国先进政治文化具有重要意义,对于当代中国的反腐倡廉建设有着多方面的借鉴和启示:首先,反腐倡廉离不开权力制约,而权力制约的关键在于最高权力的制约。其次,提高权力制约实效性的保证在于依据法律进行制度建设,而后由公民依法行使权力进行监督。再次,反腐倡廉离不开道德力量和价值信仰的支撑。

  16. On the Influence of Yi-ology on the Ancient Chinese Legal Culture%简论易学对中国古代法律文化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹤薇

    2012-01-01

    I Ching:Book of Changes is the earliest book widespread in ancient China, and recognized as "the best of all the scrip- tures,the origin of all the schools of thought".Its rich content whereas plain wording help reserve historical materials in the ancient time and serve as a channel for later generations to study people's life then.In the text and commentaries of I Ching,plenty of le- gal phenomena and thoughts are recorded. For generations,practitioners of laws spare no efforts in studying the legal culture in it. Research of the legal culture in I Ching experienced a development process from suspicion to confirmation,from annotation to anal- ysis,from sporadic cases to unitary study.In the text of I Ching,many legal issues can be found,like "suit", "imprisonment", "sen- tence", "penalty',etc.The influence of I Ching on the legal society of ancient China will be analyzed by briefly introducing the symbolisms in hexagrams like Shibe,Xie,Bi,Feng and Lv.%《周易》是中国古代流传最早的成体系书,自古被誉为"群经之首,百家之源"。它的内容丰富,文字古朴,保留了许多上古的史料,亦给后人研究上古文化提供了便利。在《周易》经传文本里,记载了大量的法律现象和法律思想,经几代的法律人的共同努力,使《周易》的法律文化经过了"从疑到肯、从注到解、从零到整"的发展过程。在《周易》经传的文本里,记载着大量诸如"讼"、"狱"、"刑"、"罚"等法律现象。本文通过简述《周易》中《噬嗑》、《解》、《贲》、《丰》、《旅》等卦中的象辞,分析了易学文化对中国古代法制社会的影响。

  17. Ancient human microbiomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J.; Lewis, Cecil M.

    2015-01-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and therefore, we lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today. PMID:25559298

  18. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  19. Let's“Feel ”the Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷旵; 珍泉

    2004-01-01

    Betbre “feeling” China, we need to say a few words about the ancient civilization once prevalent in the Tigris-Euphrates river valley, and the ancient lndian, Egyptian and Greek civilizations. These no longer exist though as brilliant as the Chinese civilization. if not more.

  20. Acupuncture in ancient China: how important was it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Although acupuncture theory is a fundamental part of the Huangdi Neijing, the clinical application of the needle therapy in ancient China was always a limited one. From early times there have been warnings that acupuncture might do harm. In books like Zhang Zhongjing's Shanghanlun it plays only a marginal role. Among the 400 emperors in Chinese history, acupuncture was hardly ever applied. After Xu Dachun called acupuncture a "lost tradition" in 1757, the abolition of acupuncture and moxibustion from the Imperial Medical Academy in 1822 was a radical, but consequent act. When traditional Chinese medicine was revived after 1954, the "New Acupuncture" was completely different from what it had been in ancient China. The conclusion, however, is a positive one: The best time acupuncture ever had was not the Song dynasty or Yuan dynasty, but is now - and the future of acupuncture does not lie in old scripts, but in ourselves. PMID:23464646

  1. 中国古代人性理论的嬗变与哲学思考——也谈人性的善与恶、公与私%The Evolvement of Ancient Chinese Theories on Human Nature and Some Philosophical Reflections--On the Goodness and Evilness, Graciousness and Selfishness of Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新科

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of ancient Chinese philosophers about human nature has experienced a long history of evolvement. They realized that human nature is the combination of man's natural attributes and social attributes and devised theories of "original goodness" and "original evil" as the criteria of good and e- vil. Their "knowing and doing" or the "doing and knowing" views as the methodology of interpreting the formation of human nature is meaningful to the modern people in approaching human nature from the phil- osophical level. However, the proposition of "original selfishness" is only the result of private ownership, and human nature is judged ni an isolated, static, one-sided view which is a kind of Metaphysical Value judgment. Some ancient Chinese scholars also opposed the idea, and their proposition of "fulfilling one's de-sires to the full when one is able, containing one's desires when one is poor" is in agreement with the notion of "human nature development", which is meaningful in the modern time.%我国古代哲人对人性的认识经历了一个漫长的岁月和嬗变的过程。明确了人性是人的自然属性和社会属性的总和,并以"性善论"、"性恶论"作为判别是非、善恶的标准;以"知行观"与"行知观"作为人性形成的方法论,对我们从哲学层面认识人性问题有一定的意义。但应看到,"人性本私"是私有制的产物,是用孤立、静止、片面的世界观来看待人性,是一种形而上学的价值判断。而中国古人也是反对这一观点的,提出的"进则近尽,退则节求",是比较符合初期过渡阶段"人性发展"理念的。这在今天仍有一定的借鉴价值。

  2. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  3. A Brief Account of Merge of Ancient and Present Chinese Characters of Confucian Classics in the Eastern Han Dynasty%论东汉今古文经学的融合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小虎

    2013-01-01

      自汉武帝“春秋大一统”后,儒家经典开始在最大范围内成为知识分子共同的经典。或为立功受禄,或为立德立言,总之形成了以儒家经典为对象的统一的经学。然而由于社会政治需要和治学方法的不同,经学截然分化为相互对立的今古文经学,并在以后的几百年岁月里不断因为政治利禄或道统因素发生激烈争斗,最后以东汉末的今古文经学之融合暂告一段落。通过对经学在两汉的四次纷争,尤其是在东汉的三次纷争的梳理,勾勒出经学在两汉的发展轨迹,进而分析东汉末今古文经学走向融合的根本缘由。%Since the “Great Unification between Spring and Autumn,” Confucian classics had started to be ac-cepted by intellectual to the maximum .Or for high official positions and riches , or for virtue and ideology , a great tide of studying about Confucian classics had been produced .However, because of social political requirement and different studying method, the Confucian classics were completely divided into two parties named ancient Confucian classics and contemporary Confucian classics , which fought for political wealth and Confucian orthodoxy continuously in the later hundreds of years , and finally were integrated at the end of the Eastern Han Dynasty .Illustrating the four disputes between study of ancient Confucian classics and contemporary Confucian classics in Han Dynasty , especially to the later three disputes at the period of the Eastern Han , This article is trying to draw the outline of the develop-ment of Confucian classics studying , and further analyzes the deeper reason of integration of the two .

  4. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  5. 中国古代女性贞节观解读——以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例%Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Female Chastity View --Case Study on Virtuous Women Image in Vernacular Short Novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李停停

    2012-01-01

    There were large number of virtuous woman images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. We can see the gender characteristics of female chastity view in feudal period and dominant effect on female thoughts and behaviors from the images, especially those typical images. Taking virtuous women images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties as an example, the chastity view which Chinese ancient women understood reflects some features: the chastity is women's "duty", keeping chastity is bidirectional and chastity is important than filial piety and utilitarian.%明清拟话本小说中存在着大量的贞节烈女形象,从这些形象,尤其是那些典型形象身上,可以透视出封建时代女性贞节观的性别特点及其对女性思想行为的支配作用。以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例,中国古代女性视角所理解的贞节观体现出了贞节是女人的“本分内事”、守贞具有双向性和贞节重于孝道、实利等特点。

  6. Ancient analogues concerning stability and durability of cementitious wasteform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The history of cementitious materials goes back to ancient times. The Greeks and Romans used calcined limestone and later developed pozzolanic cement by grinding together lime and volcanic ash called open-quotes pozzolanclose quotes which was first found near Port Pozzuoli, Italy. The ancient Chinese used lime-pozzolanic mixes to build the Great Wall. The ancient Egyptians used calcined impure gypsum to build the Great Pyramid of Cheops. The extraordinary stability and durability of these materials has impressed us, when so much dramatically damaged infrastructure restored by using modern portland cement now requires rebuilding. Stability and durability of cementitious materials have attracted intensive research interest and contractors' concerns, as does immobilization of radioactive and hazardous industrial waste in cementitious materials. Nuclear waste pollution of the environment and an acceptable solution for waste management and disposal constitute among the most important public concerns. The analogy of ancient cementitious materials to modern Portland cement could give us some clues to study their stability and durability. This present study examines selected results of studies of ancient building materials from France, Italy, China, and Egypt, combined with knowledge obtained from the behavior of modern portland cement to evaluate the potential for stability and durability of such materials in nuclear waste forms

  7. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z.Q.; Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Xia, H.N.; Jiang, J.C.; Gao, M.H.; Yang, F.J

    2002-05-01

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries.

  8. Trace elements measurement by PIXE in the appraisal of the ancient potteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fifty pieces of pottery samples were collected from two domains with different types of ancient Sino-civilization. The concentrations of trace elements Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb, Rb, Sr, Y and Zr were measured by proton-induced X-ray emission technique. Multivariate statistical processing of the results allows us to locate the provenance of the ancient potteries. The experimental results also show that the relative trace element contents Ni-Rb-Zr are useful for distinguishing these two types of Chinese ancient potteries

  9. Ancient Art Form Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    @@ A CHINESE New Year painting exhibition has offered thousands of art lovers a traditional folk art feast in Beijing this past January and February.With the theme of "Door Gods," over 300 works of art were on display, representing various styles in China's different regions.

  10. Gnomons in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Geng

    Gnomon shadow measurement was one of the most fundamental astronomical observations in ancient China. It was crucial for calendar making, which constituted an important aspect of imperial governance. A painted stick discovered from a prehistoric (2300 BC) astronomical site of Taosi (see Chap. 201, "Taosi Observatory", 10.1007/978-1-4614-6141-8_215") is the oldest gnomon known of China. From second century BC onward, gnomon shadow measurements have been essential part of calendrical practice. Various historical measurements are discussed in this chapter.

  11. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  12. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  13. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  14. Ancient celtic horns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  15. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era. PMID:22835605

  16. Cultural Interpretation and Orientation of Translating Chinese Ancient Official Titles in A Dream of Red Mansions%文化阐释与定位视角下评析《红楼梦》官职名称英译

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙李丽

    2016-01-01

    押从文化阐释与文化定位的角度,选取杨宪益《红楼梦》译本中第十三回(《秦可卿死封龙禁尉,王熙凤协理宁国府》),以其中21个官职名称的翻译为对象进行评价.研究发现,其中17个官职翻译能很好的传达中国古代官职文化,但另外4个翻译的比较简单,不能完全表达其中的文化内涵.译者在翻译的过程中,应定位于"源语文化"和"译语文化"的中间地带,并适时加以详细的解释或注释.%21 official titles in the Chapter 13 of A Dream of Red Mansions are studied in the perspective of cultural interpretation and cultural orientation. The results showed that 17 official titles are translated well which would transmit the official title culture in ancient China to the foreign readers; but there are also 4 translations being simple, in which the culture is not well interpreted. To introduce the culture to the world, the translator should orientate in the intermediate zone between original language culture and target language culture in the process of translation. At the same time, footnotes or detailed explanation are needed.

  17. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  18. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  19. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade. PMID:25299580

  20. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  1. A Combination of influence from Confucianism and Taoism upon Chinese culture and literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英华

    2008-01-01

    @@ Preface The mixture of various cultures including those deep rooted in Chinese history and those imported in the ancient time has led to the profoundness,uniqueness and colorfulness of Chinese culture,among which the combination of two of them---Confucianism and Taoism has fundamental influence in the way Chinese think and behave.

  2. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  3. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  4. New Trends in Chinese Diet: Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Del Giudice, Teresa; Caracciolo, Francesco; Cicia, Gianni; Klaus G. Grunert; Krystallis, Athanasios; Zhou, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Although the Chinese market is traditionally characterized by a gastronomic culture which is profoundly different from its Western counterpart, the emerging social classes is expressing a growing demand for processed food, opening up to foreign influences, which are neither accepted with prejudice nor viewed passively. This paper analyzes of the propensity of consumers to include in the ancient Chinese culinary culture food products from other countries. A market segmentation of the Chinese c...

  5. Lianhua Baozhai(Lotus Mountain fortress, Qijing County of Chongqing City): direct evidence of co-ex-isting ancient Chinese and dinosaur tracks%重庆市綦江县莲花保寨:中国古人与恐龙足迹共存的直接证据

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢立达; 陈郁

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes the Lianhua Baozhai (Lotus Mountain Fortress) of the Laoyingshan Mountain in Qijiang County, Chongqing City, where abundant and diverse dinosaur tracks, fortress structures and word carvings of past dynasties are exceptionally preserved. The Lianhua Baozhai historic monuments can be traced back to Baoyou 4th Year of the Southern Song Dynasty (A.D. 1256). The fortress might have been used to repel the attacks of the Mongolian Army from the Yuan Dynasty on Sichuan, which was then still dominated by the Southern Song Dynasty. Many historic monuments were also constructed there during the Qing Dynasty. These historic monuments are found along with an abundance of dinosaur tracks (especially hadrosaurid tracks), representing at least five different preservation types, and constituting direct evidence for the long-term inhabitation of ancient Chinese people at this dinosaur track site (perhaps longer than 700 years). The name of the Lianhua Baozhai reflects their belief that the track site represented lotus leaf veins (the mud cracks) and petals (the hadrosaurid tracks) submerged in water (the ripple marks). This study indicates that dinosaur tracks were taken into account in Chinese folklore and in the formation of partial ancient place names in China, which may therefore constitute important clues for the search of dinosaur tracks.%重庆市綦江县老瀛山莲花保寨除了大量多样化的恐龙足迹之外,还保存了完好的要塞结构及历代题刻.从古迹可知,莲花保寨最早可追溯到南宋宝祐四年(1256年),很可能是当地人躲避蒙元军队对尚属南宋统治下的蜀地的进攻之用.此后,清朝又在此留下多处古迹.这些古迹与大量(至少以5种不同方式保存的)恐龙足迹(尤其是鸭嘴龙类足迹)共存,构成了中国古人在恐龙足迹化石点上长时间生活(可能长达700余年)的直接证据.而莲花保寨的泥裂、鸭嘴龙类足迹和波痕被引申为荷叶叶脉、莲

  6. Astronomy in the Ancient Caucasus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, Irakli; Jijelava, Badri

    This chapter discusses the role of recurrent heavenly phenomena in the formation of ancient cultural traditions. Artifacts bearing witness to astronomical and calendrical practices in the ancient Caucasus are described and we analyze the significance of the "boats of the sun" petroglyphs at Gobustan in Azerbaijan, the solar station at Abuli in Georgia, and the "sky dial" at Carahunge in Armenia. Similarities and differences between the ancient cultures of the region are discussed. Finally, we present the results of the latest field research and new facts and hypotheses.

  7. The Ancient Egyptian Demonology Project

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Felicitas

    2016-01-01

    “The Ancient Egyptian Demonology Project: Second Millennium BCE” was intended and funded as a three-year project (2013-2016) to explore the world of Ancient Egyptian demons in the 2nd millennium BC. It intends to create a classification and ontology of benevolent and malevolent demons. Whereas ancient Egyptians did not use a specific term denoting “demons”, liminal beings known from various other cultures such as δαίμονες, ghosts, angels, Mischwesen, genies, etc., were nevertheless described ...

  8. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    OpenAIRE

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancesto...

  9. The Name and Symbolic Meaning of Ancient Chinese Constellation from The Record of Astronomy in Sui Shu%中国古代的星官命名及其象征意义——以《隋书·天文志》为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贞

    2012-01-01

    The name of constellation from The Record of Astronomy in Sui Shu,fully simulated the whole actual state of the empire on earth,and in the sky world,the heaven kingdom formed corresponding to the human society. In imperial politics as a reference,such as the imperial harem,official mode,name and substance of the system, worship of God, commodity economy, and border ethnic, all of the constellation in the sky world can be implemented in the light of the corresponding officials. In this sense ,the name of constellation and its symbolic meaning highlighted the ancient Chinese harmony concept between the heav- en and the human being,in large extent to meet the need of the emperor communication with God and as- trological divination.%《隋书·天文志》所见星官的命名,完全比照了人间帝国的整体实态,因而在天上的星空世界中也形成了一个对应于人间社会的天上王国。若以帝王政治为参照,举凡帝王后宫、职官系统、名物制度、祭祀神位、商品经济以及边疆民族等方面,都能在天上的星官世界中加以落实和对应。从这个意义上说,星官的命名及其象征意义凸现了中国古代"天人合一"的思想观念,在很大程度上是为帝王"通天"的星占需要而服务的。

  10. The Chinese Pyramids and the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Pyramids are huge ancient burial mounds. In the satellite images we can see some complexes where the main buildings are the pyramidal mounds of an emperor and his empress. Here we discuss a possible sunrise/sunset orientation of these two pyramids on the solstices and equinoxes.

  11. [Ancient Egyptian Odontology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghult, B

    1999-01-01

    In ancient Egypt during the reign of Pharaoh Djoser, circa 2650 BC, the Step Pyramid was constructed by Imhotep. He was later worshiped as the God of Medicine. One of his contemporaries was the powerful writer Hesy who is reproduced on a panel showing a rebus of a swallow, a tusk and an arrow. He is therefore looked upon as being the first depicted odontologist. The art of writing begun in Egypt in about 3100 BC and the medical texts we know from different papyri were copied with hieratic signs around 1900-1100 BC. One of the most famous is the Papyrus Ebers. It was purchased by professor Ebers on a research travel to Luxor in 1873. Two years later a beautiful facsimile in color was published and the best translation came in 1958 in German. The text includes 870 remedies and some of them are related to teeth and oral troubles like pain in the mouth, gingivitis, periodontitis and cavities in the teeth. The most common oral pain was probably pulpitis caused by extreme attrition due to the high consumption of bread contaminated with soil and/or quern minerals. Another text is the Papyrus Edwin Smith with four surgical cases of dental interest. The "toothworms" that were presumed to bring about decayed teeth have not been identified in the medical texts. It was not until 1889 W.D. Miller presented a scientific explanation that cavities were caused by bacteria. In spite of extensive research only a few evidence of prosthetic and invasive treatments have been found and these dental artifacts have probably been made post mortem. Some of the 150 identified doctors were associated with treatments of disorders of the mouth. The stele of Seneb from Sa'is during the 26th dynasty of Psamtik, 664-525 BC, shows a young man who probably was a dental healer well known to Pharaoh and his court. Clement of Alexandria mentions circa 200 AD that the written knowledge of the old Egyptians was gathered in 42 collections of papyri. Number 37-42 contained the medical writings. The

  12. Ancient and Current Chaos Theories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Güngör Gündüz

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Chaos theories developed in the last three decades have made very important contributions to our understanding of dynamical systems and natural phenomena. The meaning of chaos in the current theories and in the past is somewhat different from each other. In this work, the properties of dynamical systems and the evolution of chaotic systems were discussed in terms of the views of ancient philosophers. The meaning of chaos in Anaximenes’ philosophy and its role in the Ancient natural philosophy has been discussed in relation to other natural philosophers such as of Anaximander, Parmenides, Heraclitus, Empedocles, Leucippus (i.e. atomists and Aristotle. In addition, the fundamental concepts of statistical mechanics and the current chaos theories were discussed in relation to the views in Ancient natural philosophy. The roots of the scientific concepts such as randomness, autocatalysis, nonlinear growth, information, pattern, etc. in the Ancient natural philosophy were investigated.

  13. Ancient Astronomical Monuments of Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.

    2010-07-01

    In this work, four ancient monuments of astronomical significance found in Athens and still kept in the same city in good condition are presented. The first one is the conical sundial on the southern slope of the Acropolis. The second one is the Tower of the Winds and its vertical sundials in the Roman Forum of Athens, a small octagonal marble tower with sundials on all 8 of its sides, plus a water-clock inside the tower. The third monument-instrument is the ancient clepsydra of Athens, one of the findings from the Ancient Agora of Athens, a unique water-clock dated from 400 B.C. Finally, the fourth one is the carved ancient Athenian calendar over the main entrance of the small Byzantine temple of the 8th Century, St. Eleftherios, located to the south of the temple of the Annunciation of Virgin Mary, the modern Cathedral of the city of Athens.

  14. Reconstructing ancient genomes and epigenomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-01-01

    DNA studies have now progressed to whole-genome sequencing for an increasing number of ancient individuals and extinct species, as well as to epigenomic characterization. Such advances have enabled the sequencing of specimens of up to 1 million years old, which, owing to their extensive DNA damage and...... contamination, were previously not amenable to genetic analyses. In this Review, we discuss these varied technical challenges and solutions for sequencing ancient genomes and epigenomes....

  15. Orthopedic surgery in ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Blomstedt, Patric

    2014-01-01

    Background — Ancient Egypt might be considered the cradle of medicine. The modern literature is, however, sometimes rather too enthusiastic regarding the procedures that are attributed an Egyptian origin. I briefly present and analyze the claims regarding orthopedic surgery in Egypt, what was actually done by the Egyptians, and what may have been incorrectly ascribed to them. Methods — I reviewed the original sources and also the modern literature regarding surgery in ancient Egypt, concentra...

  16. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride. The traditional Chinese martial arts were unable to defeat the tactics and modern weaponry that China’s enemies had in their arsenal. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Chinese forces made use of their ingenuity and adapted the ancient weapons and fighting skills succeeding to some extent in slowing down the enemy’s advance. This period witnessed the last time cold weapons would play an important role in modern Chinese warfare.

  17. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  18. Leadership insights of the Chinese military classics for physician leaders and healthcare administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenaue, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Trite sayings from Chinese military classics often find their way into after-dinner fortune cookies in many Chinese restaurants in America. However, no one should underestimate the lessons from those Chinese military classics, and they certainly should never be trivialized. Leaders at all levels of healthcare management can learn timeless lessons spanning three millennia from the wisdom of ancient Chinese military writings. PMID:20091948

  19. Thought and Research on Chinese Sports from the Perspective of Confucian Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuchang Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article conducts a research on Chinese sports under Confucian philosophy from the perspective of social value that ancient sports sought, development limitation for ancient physical morality and legal system, and development direction of Chinese sports. It also makes an analysis of the promotion and restraint of traditional Confusion culture on Chinese sports, and seeks many valuable factors such as the integration of social and class nature deeply contained in Chinese sports, improvement of physical supervision mechanism and legal system, as well as personal humanistic quality. This article will provide available ideology resources for sustainable development of modern sports, aiming at settling the current problems therein.

  20. Ancient DNA in Greece. Problems and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The promise associated with early 'ancient DNA' results has not been translated into routine techniques of value to archaeologists. The reasons for this are partly technical - ancient DNA analysis is an extremely difficult technique - and partly practical - ancient DNA analysis is often an 'after thought' to an archaeological project. In this paper ancient human DNA analysis is briefly reviewed paying particular attention to specimens originating from Greek archaeological contexts. Problems commonly encountered during ancient DNA research are summarised and recommendations for future strategies in the application of ancient DNA in archaeology are proposed. (author)

  1. Confucius School, a National Strategy for Chinese Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    Confucius Great educator, thinker, and founder of Confucianism, Confucius(551-479 B.C.) is regarded as having had the greatest innuence on the development of Chinese culture. He is believed to have had 3,000 students and 72 disciples, with whom he traveled the vassal states in ancient China for 14 years. He collated and compiled many ancient books,including the Book of Songs, the Book of History, the Book of Rites,and the Book of Music.

  2. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  3. Ancient Cultural Center Building and Materials Research Numismatic Collection Museum--Ancient COINS by Tibetan cultural center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠利

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Chinese cultural center is located in the ancient COINS hidden city, the city center in Jinan, convenient transportation, beautiful scenery, poured enough, the surrounding environment culture atmosphere, be helpful for cultural centers in the long run. The building area is about 3500 square meters, the whole building is divided into two layer, a layer of main distribution the exhibition hall, second floor mainly by the studio to form. The designer of the coin reference model, through the deepening, evolution techniques such as the characteristics of Chinese coin will, connotation unity emerges into design, show to buildings. Very good carry the historical culture, also captures the pulse of the times lived.

  4. Man and Nature in Chinese and Western Traditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑浩

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese conception of "oneness with man and heaven" and the Western tradition of man's separation from nature accompanied by a subject-object dichotomy are the cores of each culture, which largely decides the discrepancy in various aspects of the Chinese and Western ways. To have an embedded and penetrating idea about the differences between the two cultures, it is necessary to gain sufficient knowledge of man-nature relation in dominant Chinese and Western conceptions. This paper aims to explore this issue from the perspective of Taoism and Confucianism in Chinese context, and ancient Greek and Hebraic heritage and modern mechanical view in Western tradition.

  5. Negative Influence of Confucianism on Chinese Mode of Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊

    2007-01-01

    As the leading ideology of the ancient China, Confucianism has its deep influence on the spirit and behavior of the Chinese people. This paper suggests that among all the influences Confucianism has brought to the Chinese people, those negative ones on the Chinese mode of thinking are barricades of the Chinese social development and should be avoided. The article studies this issue by involving such theories as the Five Constant Virtues[1] of a human being and the Five Cardinal Hierarchical Relations[2] in the Confucian ideology as well as the group mind theory[3] in the psychology.

  6. Understanding Malaria: Fighting an Ancient Scourge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institutes of Health National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Understanding Malaria Fighting an Ancient Scourge U.S. DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH ...

  7. Acupuncture: From Ancient Practice to Modern Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Section CAM Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science Past Issues / Winter 2009 Table of Contents For ... of Progress / Acupuncture From Ancient Practice to Modern Science / Low Back Pain and CAM / Time to Talk / ...

  8. Gold seal and Kyushu dynasty: Unsolved mysteries of ancient Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamimura, Masayasu

    1992-05-01

    A central dogma of the Japanese history is that, throughout the history, there was absolutely no other dynasty or kingdom than the dynasty of the Imperial House of Japan (Yamato dynasty) which continues to exist since some 1500˜2000 years ago. Although much inconsistency has been noted between this dogma and accumulated records of Chinese historical documents on ancient Japan, almost all the Japanese historians have not taken such inconsistency seriously and even attributed it to mistakes or confusion of the Chinese historians who wrote the documents. But, one historian, Takehiko Furuta, who fully believes in the Chinese records, analyzed them recently in a very logical and even scientific manner and reached a surprising conclusion that there was a dynasty in northern Kyushu (Kyushu dynasty) and it was always this dynasty that appeared in the Chinese old records until 648 A.D., whereas the Yamato dynasty which started as a branch of the Kyushu dynasty finally overcame the Kyushu dynasty around 700 A.D. This new theory seems to be supported by many archaeological discoveries in and around the Fukuoka area, one of the most notable examples of which is the Gold Seal that appears in the Symposium poster. These remind us of the famous story that Heinrich Scliemann who believed in Homer's The Iliad as real finally succeeded in excavating the ruins of Troy.

  9. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  10. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  11. Wisdom of an Ancient City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE JIANXIONG

    2010-01-01

    @@ The famous painting,Along the River During Qingming Festival,impresses visitors at the China Pavilion not iust because of the animated figures in the electronic version of the painting but because it shows a prosperous view of Kaifeng,capital of the Northern Song Dynasty (960-1127).It also showcases the wisdom of city planning in ancient China.

  12. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable? PMID:24304762

  13. Discovering the Ancient Temperate Rainforest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Two activities for grades 3 through 8 explore species adaptation and forestry issues in the North American rainforests. In one activity, students create imaginary species of plants or animals that are adapted for life in an ancient temperate rainforest. In the second activity, students role play groups affected by plans to log an area of the…

  14. 双加工发展理论新探——兼及中国一古老推理错觉的跨年级特征%Retesting the Developmental Dual Process Theory——The Developmental Trends of an Ancient Chinese Reasoning Illusion Also Included

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 储美霞

    2011-01-01

    为了检验双加工发展理论及了解中国一古老推理错觉问题的发展特征,从小五至大二各个年级选取被试385名,并将各年龄段被试分成两组,分别施之以涉及相同内容、相同财会关系推断能力的十文钱问题。结果发现:(1)被试在两个问题上的理性行为的发展趋势产生了分离;(2)被试的部分的非理性行为有随年龄增多的趋势;(3)两组被试的理性行为出现的比率在小学五年级便存在差异。上述结果说明,双加工发展理论获得有力支持且至小学五年级始,财会关系推理错觉即存在,表现出跨年级的普遍性。%In this paper,the developmental trend of the Ten Wen problem,an ancient Chinese reasoning illusion,is studied;the important hypothesis of the developmental dual process theory is tested. 83 fifth grade elemental school students(mean age=11.12,SD=.54),66 eighth grade high school students(mean age=14.39, SD=.59),115 eleventh grade high school students(mean age=17.91,SD=.61) and 89 second grade university students(mean age =20.59,SD=1.11) participated in the study.All these participants were recruited from the same region.During the research,participants in each grade were divided into two groups randomly.One of the two groups in each grade solved the Ten Wen problem;the other solved a revised Ten Wen problem which had the same content of the Ten Wen problem but was much easier.Furthermore,the two problems both are hard and confuses our common sense.So the two problems have been regarded as the tasks which involve the same heuristic and analytic process but different confliction of two systems.And it was used in our study to test the hypothesis that deferent developmental trends could be found in such tasks according to he developmental dual process theory. The results show that:(1) the subjects up until the fifth grade of elemental school behaved worse when they tried to solve the Ten Wen problem

  15. Characterization of ancient Chinese pottery decorated with a black pigment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yangshao type pottery, made about 6000 yrs ago, was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and confirmed to be composed of quartz, feldspar, muscovite and calcite. A black pigment on it was assumed to be (Mn, Fe)3O4 from Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and XRD experiments. Firing temperature of the pottery was assumed to be less than 600 deg. C from a heating experiment of the fragment of the pottery

  16. The Chinese ancient building shallow roof form and meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芮

    2014-01-01

    Environmental art design is a kind of spatial art, it not only embodies the natural environment, architectural environment, at the same time also reflected the cultural environment and psychological environment, therefore, have certain social environment art, historic.

  17. New drugs from ancient texts

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Despite the bad press that traditional Chinese medicine sometimes receives, proponents believe it represents an untapped pharmacopeia and are using cutting edge biotechnology to prove it. Gary Humphreys reports.

  18. The teacher-disciple tradition and secret teaching in Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solos, Ioannis; Liang, Yuan; Yue, Guang-xin

    2014-01-01

    The ancient teacher-disciple tradition is regarded as one of the most celebrated practices within the Chinese medicine world. Such traditions of secrecy, private wisdom and honor are deeply rooted in the theories of Confucianism. This paper only explores the surface of this ancient culture, by investigating relevant popular ancient texts and common Chinese proverbs, as well as utilizing personal experiences, in order to reflect on how the ancient Chinese perceived such practices within their own society and how secret teaching was passed on from teacher to student, including the revelation of secret formulas and their importance and how that tradition differs from our modern-day perspectives. Various rare manuscripts from the author's personal library are employed in order to provide relative examples of the importance of secret knowledge, and how these secrets applied in the traditional healing. PMID:24126973

  19. Development of Chinese Lotus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇飞

    2013-01-01

    There is a very long history of lotus culture in China. Lotus has a very high medicinal value. Lotus seed is nutritious food. Lotus has anti-aging, prolong the life of the role. Since ancient time, the image of lotus was recorded in various books and literature works. Lotus is a common and tasty food in China. Chinese people like lotus not only because of its useful value, but al⁃so because of its holy spirit. And people even think highly of soul of lotus.

  20. Learning Text by Heart and Language Education: The Chinese Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Xia Yu

    2013-01-01

    Learning text by heart is a traditional practice in Chinese literacy education. After tracing its development in ancient Chinese literacy education, the article explores how learning text by heart was transferred to foreign language education against the background of the history of English language teaching (ELT) in China. The use of textual memorisation in learning English in recent decades is then surveyed along with a brief discussion of the legendary popularity of New Concept English, a ...

  1. Review on Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine External Use Prescriptions with Skin-whitening, Macula-removing, Stagnation-dissipating and Scar-removing efficacy (Chapter three)——Characteristics of Prescriptions and Medicine in the Ming-Qing Dynasty%中医美白祛斑、散结除疤外用古方溯源(三)——明清时期选方用药特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑛; 宋坪; 王晓旭

    2013-01-01

    In the Ming-Qing dynasty,ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) literature recorded many external use prescriptions and medicine with skin-whitening,macula-removing,stagnation-dissipating and scar-removing efficacy.In the Ming dynasty,the therapeutic methods were dispersing wind,activating blood,dissipating stagnation and removing macula.In the Qing dynasty,the therapeutic methods were clearing heat,removing toxin and smooth skin.According to the TCM thoughts of Qing dynasty,the article reviews these external use prescriptions and medicine,and then analyzes the law of prescription composition and medicine use,in order to help doctors prescribe medicine.%明清时期,中医古籍文献中记载了大量具有美白祛斑、散结除疤功效的外用方药.明代此类方药以祛风活血、散结除斑为法,清代则侧重于清热解毒、爽滑肌肤.本文结合明清时期医学思想特色,对此时期此类外用方药行挖掘整理,深入分析其辨证用药组方规律,旨在拓宽临床诊疗思路,指导临床遣方用药.

  2. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  3. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  4. ANCIENT BREAD STAMPS FROM JORDAN

    OpenAIRE

    Kakish, Randa

    2014-01-01

    Marking bread was an old practice performed in different parts of the old world. It was done for religious, magical, economic and identification purposes. Bread stamps differ from other groups of stamps. Accordingly, the aim of this article is to identify such stamps, displayed or stored, in a number of Jordanian Archaeological Museums. A col-lection of twelve ancient bread stamps were identified and studied. Two of the stamps were of unknown provenance while the others came from al-Shuneh, D...

  5. Ancient Technology in Contemporary Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Buck, Bruce A.

    1982-01-01

    Archaeologists have shown that ancient man developed the ability to produce cutting blades of an extreme degree of sharpness from volcanic glass. The finest of these prismatic blades were produced in Mesoamerica about 2,500 years ago. The technique of production of these blades was rediscovered 12 years ago by Dr. Don Crabtree, who suggested possible uses for the blades in modern surgery. Blades produced by Dr. Crabtree have been used in experimental microsurgery with excellent results. Anima...

  6. English in the Chinese foreign language classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon

  7. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era

    OpenAIRE

    William Acevedo; Mei Cheung

    2012-01-01

    During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride. The traditional Chinese martial arts were unable to defeat the tactics and modern weaponry that China’s enemies had in their arsenal. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Chinese forces made use of their ingenuity and adapted the ancient weapons and fighting skills succeeding to some extent in slowing down the enemy’s advan...

  8. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Tse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.

  9. Examination of Chinese gambling problems through a socio-historical-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Yu, Alex C H; Rossen, Fiona; Wang, Chong-Wen

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions. PMID:20842314

  10. Analysis of Ancient DNA in Microbial Ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorgé, Olivier; Bennett, E Andrew; Massilani, Diyendo; Daligault, Julien; Pruvost, Melanie; Geigl, Eva-Maria; Grange, Thierry

    2016-01-01

    The development of next-generation sequencing has led to a breakthrough in the analysis of ancient genomes, and the subsequent genomic analyses of the skeletal remains of ancient humans have revolutionized the knowledge of the evolution of our species, including the discovery of a new hominin, and demonstrated admixtures with more distantly related archaic populations such as Neandertals and Denisovans. Moreover, it has also yielded novel insights into the evolution of ancient pathogens. The analysis of ancient microbial genomes allows the study of their recent evolution, presently over the last several millennia. These spectacular results have been attained despite the degradation of DNA after the death of the host, which results in very short DNA molecules that become increasingly damaged, only low quantities of which remain. The low quantity of ancient DNA molecules renders their analysis difficult and prone to contamination with modern DNA molecules, in particular via contamination from the reagents used in DNA purification and downstream analysis steps. Finally, the rare ancient molecules are diluted in environmental DNA originating from the soil microorganisms that colonize bones and teeth. Thus, ancient skeletal remains can share DNA profiles with environmental samples and identifying ancient microbial genomes among the more recent, presently poorly characterized, environmental microbiome is particularly challenging. Here, we describe the methods developed and/or in use in our laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible paleogenomic results from ancient skeletal remains that can be used to identify the presence of ancient microbiota. PMID:26791510

  11. 永樂大典數位化相關問題之探討:兼論資訊科技對古籍整理的影響 | Exploration of the Relating Problems in Digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia:the Impact of Information Technology to the Chinese Ancient Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    顧力仁 Li-Jen Ku

    2002-04-01

    ="color: black; font-family: "Times New Roman","serif"; mso-font-kerning: 1.0pt;" lang="EN-US"> Yung Lo Encyclopaedia is a collection all classical, historical, philosophical, and literary works that ever published; covering subjects like astronomy, geography, sciences, medicine, Buddhism, Taoism, and arts. It was mainly compilation of extracts that includes many complete works which had been lost for years.

    This paper explores the relating problems in digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia. The author first introduces several database systems of the Chinese ancient books for example to discuss the impact of information technology to the Chinese ancient books. Then he analyzes the encountered in this process. In conclusion, possible future developments and benefits in digitization of Yung Lo Encyclopaedia are to be discussed further. problems

  12. Lost-Wax Casting in Ancient China: New Discussion on Old Debates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Weirong; Huang, Wei

    2015-07-01

    The possible use of lost-wax casting in China has long been a matter of controversy. Based on the study of pertinent ancient texts concerning the technical origins of lost-wax casting in China, direct examination of questioned ancient Chinese bronzes as well as definite lost-wax castings from both overseas and China, and modern production of objects using piece-mold casting, the authors point out their own conceptual ideas about ancient lost-wax casting as follows. First, the lost-wax casting technique does not have its earliest origins in ancient China but rather from the Sumerians in Mesopotamia, where it was predominantly used to cast small human and animal figures (statuettes). Next, some essential characteristics of the lost-wax casting technique can be identified from the point of view of a distortable soft starting model. The locally deformed shape of lost-wax castings is found to be variable. Finally, it is improper to consider the ease of extraction from the mold as the criterion for distinguishing lost-wax casting from piece-mold casting. It is therefore incorrect to conclude that the three-dimensional openwork decorations present on Chinese bronzes from the Spring and Autumn Period, and the Warring States Period, are fabricated using lost-wax castings.

  13. An investigation into the ancient abortion laws: comparing ancient Persia with ancient Greece and Rome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarmohammadi, Hassan; Zargaran, Arman; Vatanpour, Azadeh; Abedini, Ehsan; Adhami, Siamak

    2013-01-01

    Since the dawn of medicine, medical rights and ethics have always been one of mankind's concerns. In any civilisation, attention paid to medical laws and ethics depends on the progress of human values and the advancement of medical science. The history of various civilisations teaches that each had its own views on medical ethics, but most had something in common. Ancient civilisations such as Greece, Rome, or Assyria did not consider the foetus to be alive and therefore to have human rights. In contrast, ancient Persians valued the foetus as a living person equal to others. Accordingly, they brought laws against abortion, even in cases of sexual abuse. Furthermore, abortion was considered to be a murder and punishments were meted out to the mother, father, and the person performing it. PMID:24304111

  14. Chinese Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Tony

    This unit, intended for secondary level students, is a general introduction to Chinese cooking. It is meant to inform students about the origins of Chinese cooking styles in their various regional manifestations, and it can be used to discuss how and why different cultures develop different styles of cooking. The first part of the unit, adapted…

  15. Italian Textile Industry:Throw an Embroidered Ball in the Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Throwing an embroidered ball is an act of seeking marriage practiced by noble family maidens in ancient China. March 2009, the early spring of Beijing saw Italian textile industry’s passion for a close relationship with the Chinese market after a global shiver in the freezing economic winter. It is a ball of elegance, quality and sincere cooperation, which is to become larger and more attractive with the stable development of Chinese textile industry and the ever expansion of Chinese consumption market.

  16. On Standard Nomenclature of Basic Chinese Medical Terms (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢竹藩

    2002-01-01

    @@ PHILOSOPHICAL TERMS TCM was developed in the light of ancient Chinese natural philosophy, and so a number of philosophical terms are used in medicine. They can be classified into three categories: theory of (essential) qi, theory of yin-yang, and theory of the five elements.

  17. Public Library Systems in Ancient South India

    OpenAIRE

    Raman Nair, R.

    1991-01-01

    The paper puts forward and substantiates the view that the concept of free public library service goes back to ancient times. Governments of those days were aware of their responsibility to provide to all citizens free information service. The study observes with reference to ancient Indian records that educational facilities and libraries were accessible to people of Ancient India without any discrimination based on economic status, caste, religion or geographical boundaries. Scholars handl...

  18. The Ancient Greece's roots of Olimpism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bubka Sergej Nazarovich

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper focused on the phenomena of sport in Ancient Greece along with history, traditions, religion, education, culture and art. Economic and political conditions are analysed which promote or hamper development of Olympic Games in Ancient Greece. Exceptional stability of Ancient Olympic games during more than eleven centuries are noted as well as their influence on the life of Greek polices of those days. Hellenistic period needs of individual consideration.

  19. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding......How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...

  20. The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, James

    1998-01-01

    The History and Practice of Ancient Astronomy combines new scholarship with hands-on science to bring readers into direct contact with the work of ancient astronomers. While tracing ideas from ancient Babylon to sixteenth-century Europe, the book places its greatest emphasis on the Greek period, when astronomers developed the geometric and philosophical ideas that have determined the subsequent character of Western astronomy. The author approaches this history through the concrete details of ancient astronomical practice. Carefully organized and generously illustrated, the book can teach reade

  1. Re-inventing ancient human DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Knapp, Michael; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Hofreiter, M.

    2015-01-01

    For a long time, the analysis of ancient human DNA represented one of the most controversial disciplines in an already controversial field of research. Scepticism in this field was only matched by the long-lasting controversy over the authenticity of ancient pathogen DNA. This ambiguous view on ancient human DNA had a dichotomous root. On the one hand, the interest in ancient human DNA is great because such studies touch on the history and evolution of our own species. On the other hand, beca...

  2. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  3. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism. PMID:21032887

  4. Chinese astronomy

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Standing in the observatory in Beijing, Christopher Cullen discusses the nature and sophistication of Chinese astronomy in the medieval period. The political as well as the intellectual interest in astronomy is outlined.

  5. Chinese Confucianism

    OpenAIRE

    Macfarlane, Alan; Cullen, Christopher

    2004-01-01

    Confucianism has deeply influenced Chinese civilization. Christopher Cullen describes its effect on education, social structure and knowledge over the past centuries, against the backdrop of a Confucian building in Beijing.

  6. Healthy buildings have existed in China since ancient times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qigao; Feng, Ya; Wang, Gonglu [Chongqing Jianzhu Univ., Chongqing, Sichuan (China)

    1997-09-01

    The historical experience in China of constructing healthy buildings over many centuries merits even more attention today. Using the quadrangle as a basic style, buildings have been constructed in this way from ancient China to the present time. It is a style found in all areas of the country. The buildings in which people lived in ancient China were designed according to the doctrine of wind and water (which in Chinese is called feng shui). Today we would describe this as a philosophy for designing the indoor environment for healthy living. The common properties of such buildings are that of having good indoor air quality and easy maintenance of the indoor climate. This paper describes the optimal performance of quadrangle buildings from the perspective of their environment, illumination by natural lighting, infrared absorption and radiation, noise and indoor air quality, insulation properties and gives a mathematical analysis of these features. While this building style is not unique to China it could be developed more in other countries. It is a healthy style of building which can serve mankind worldwide because of its natural energy saving and adopting more widely it would improve standards in building. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  7. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  8. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  9. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  10. An ancient rangefinder for teaching surveying methods

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. Here we propose a discussion of some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to the modern methods. Using an ancient roman artefact as a model, we can pre-pare a rangefinder at no cost for teaching surveying methods to students of engineering and military schools

  11. Archaeological Discoveries in the People’s Republic of China and Their Contribution to the Understanding of Chinese History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available More than eight decades ago, the distinguished Chinese scholar Hu Shi (1891–1962 wrote an essay titled ‘My Views on Ancient History’, in which he said: My outlook regarding ancient history is, for the present, we should shorten the study of ancient history by two or three thousand years, and start our researches from the Book of Odes. When archaeology has become well developed, then we can slowly extend [our understanding of ancient history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty, using excavated historical evidence. Today, over eighty years later, Chinese history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty has been steadily reconstructed, step by step, from archaeological discoveries, without which, even the well-recognized deserved brilliance of ancient history, since the Eastern Zhou dynasty, would be dimmed.

  12. Study of provenance properties on ancient porcelain of Yue Kiln at Si-long-kou with NAA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese ancient porcelain history has lasted about three thousands years from Shang Dynasty (1100∼1600 BC). A large amount of ancient porcelain sherds with accuracy provenance and ages were excavated from a lot of kiln sites in China. Archaeologists and ceramic experts have recognized and researched it with excavated stratum, utensil shape, body quality, glaze color and painting pattern. However, the appearance characteristic of some ancient porcelain manufactured in different kilns is similar. Therefore, it is still difficult to identify the provenance and ages of the samples excavated from some sites using traditional methods. Up, to now, many problems of Chinese ancient porcelain are confused for archaeologist and collecting experts. The elemental composition of ancient porcelain shows certain information of provenance and age. Especially, the sorts and contents of the elements in porcelain didn't change, so it is very useful to determine the provenance of ancient porcelain with elemental composition characteristics. Provenance characteristic is the important scientific information to identify ancient porcelain wares excavated from sites and graves. The porcelain samples of Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln in Zhejiang Province of china have been analyzed with NAA in this paper. The provenance characteristic was compared with it of Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi Province and Yao-Zhou kiln of Shan-Xi Province. The experimental data were studied with statistic methods. The results show that the chemical compositions of porcelain body samples for three kilns were different. The difference was been able identified. The porcelain body materials of both Si-Long-Kou Yue kiln and Hong-Zhou kiln of Jiang-Xi were similar. The samples of Yao-Zhou kiln in north of China existed obvious difference.

  13. The Ginseng Growing District, Taxation and Trade in Ancient Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YANG Jeong-Pil

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The very first record of ginseng in the Korean peninsula dates back to early 6th century A.D., with its concentration in Chinese sources. Regardless of the fact that the Korean ginseng was introduced to China before the birth of Christ, there is no writing about it for 500 years. This is because the Chinese substituted Korean ginseng for the Chinese one, which was cultivated around the Shangdang Area. The ginseng, however, is greatly influenced by natural environment and its native area being Manchuria and the Korean peninsula. It is believed that ginseng range from the northern mountains of Pyongando and Hamkyongdo provinces to the southern Taebaek and Sobaek mountains in Korea. Especially the area of Madasan(Baekdusan? mountain was well-known for ginseng-growing district. The ginseng taxation of the Three Kingdoms period seems to have gone through certain changes along the development stages of the ancient state. The first taxation stage is estimated to be in the form of a tribute. Afterwards, as the governing power of central government was gradually strengthened in the subjugated places, there was a major replacement from tributary form to actual goods levy. The actual areas of such tributary collection is unknown, but the [Sejongshilok Chiriji](geographical records of Sejong chronicles of the early Choson era indicates 113 prefectures and counties as those which submit ginseng to the central government. These administrations provide permissible clues to the historic background of ginseng-taxed regions of the Three Kingdoms. The ginseng trade also is estimated to have flourished in ancient Korea through the Han commanderies of China. However, the writings of Korean ginseng trade is non-existent until 6th century A .D., Such phenomenon can be attributed to few reasons. First, the Chinese took little interest in Korean ginseng as they believed they had their own native ginseng in China. Second, same ignorance resulted from its inflowing but

  14. Can Yin-Yang Guide Chinese Indigenous Management Research?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Xin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I argue that it is misleading to dichotomize the West as being either/or and the East as being both/and. The West has thought dialectically since ancient Greece. I offer a typology to compare and contrast three dialectical or non-either/or logical systems or ways of thinking......: Chinese Yin-Yang philosophy, Hegel's dialectic, and Niels Bohr's complementarity principle, as well as Aristotle's formal (either/or) logic. I show that the four logical systems have differences and similarities and show that Westerners can and do think dialectically. I also argue that Chinese Yin...... promotion of Chinese indigenous management research in general. To that end, I present my opinion on the merits and drawbacks of Yin-Yang and posit that it may inspire but cannot guide Chinese indigenous management research because Chinese philosophy lacks a well-defined methodology and operationalizable...

  15. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca;

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland...... woolly mammoth in Alaska, and pushed back the dates for spruce survival in Scandinavian ice-free refugia during the last glaciation. More recently, eDNA was used to uncover the past 50 000 years of vegetation history in the Arctic, revealing massive vegetation turnover at the Pleistocene....../Holocene transition, with implications for the extinction of megafauna. Furthermore, eDNA can reflect the biodiversity of extant flora and fauna, both qualitatively and quantitatively, allowing detection of rare species. As such, trace studies of plant and vertebrate DNA in the environment have revolutionized our...

  16. Archimedes: Accelerator Reveals Ancient Text

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Archimedes (287-212 BC), who is famous for shouting 'Eureka' (I found it) is considered one of the most brilliant thinkers of all times. The 10th-century parchment document known as the 'Archimedes Palimpsest' is the unique source for two of the great Greek's treatises. Some of the writings, hidden under gold forgeries, have recently been revealed at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory at SLAC. An intense x-ray beam produced in a particle accelerator causes the iron in original ink, which has been partly erased and covered, to send out a fluorescence glow. A detector records the signal and a digital image showing the ancient writings is produced. Please join us in this fascinating journey of a 1,000-year-old parchment from its origin in the Mediterranean city of Constantinople to a particle accelerator in Menlo Park.

  17. 威海古籍与藏书谈--《威海市古籍联合目录》序%On Ancient Books and Book-collecting of Weihai---Preface of Ancient Books Union Catalog of Weihai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承略

    2014-01-01

    There are great ancient book collections in Weihai.Many ancient books have been collected in Wendeng、Rongcheng and Rushan library.Particularly in Wendeng,69 kinds of ancient books have been selected by Chinese Ancient Rare Books Catalogue,such as Shou Wan Yan Ci and Xun Zhang Yan Ci,and 18 kinds of ancient books have been selected by National Precious Ancient Books Directory.A long humanist tradition brings up a great book collection.So many book-collectors appeared in history,such as Liu Bishao,Dong Zuoyuan,Yu Lian,Yu Xixue,Yu Yifa,Bi Yixiu,Sun Fuhai and Sun Baotian.The Ancient Books Union Catalog of Weihai lay a solid foun-dation for the research and the use of ancient books in Weihai.%威海市古籍庋藏宏富,市图书馆及文登、荣成、乳山图书馆均有大量收藏。尤以文登为最,以《守皖谳词》和《巡漳谳词》为代表的69种古籍入选《中国古籍善本书目》,18种入选《国家珍贵古籍名录》。丰厚的藏书源于当地悠久的人文传统,威海历史上先后出现了刘必绍、董祚远、于琏、于熙学、于颐发、毕以绣、孙福海、孙葆田等著名藏书家。如今,《威海市古籍联合目录》完成,为研究利用威海古籍打下了坚实的基础。

  18. Geologically ancient DNA: fact or artefact?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebsgaard, Martin Bay; Phillips, Matthew J.; Willerslev, Eske

    2005-01-01

    Studies continue to report ancient DNA sequences and viable microbial cells that are many millions of years old. In this paper we evaluate some of the most extravagant claims of geologically ancient DNA. We conclude that although exciting, the reports suffer from inadequate experimental setup and...... insufficient authentication of results. Consequently, it remains doubtful whether amplifiable DNA sequences and viable bacteria can survive over geological timescales. To enhance the credibility of future studies and assist in discarding false-positive results, we propose a rigorous set of authentication...... criteria for work with geologically ancient DNA....

  19. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  20. Accounting And Forms Of Accountability In Ancient Civilizations: Mesopotamia And Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    SALVADOR CARMONA

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the relevance and implications of ancient accounting practices to the contemporary theorizing of accounting. The paper provides a synthesis of the literature on ancient accounting particularly in relation to issues of human accountability, identifies its major achievements and outlines some of the key challenges facing researchers. We argue that far from being an idiosyncratic research field of marginal interest, research in ancient accounting is a rich an...

  1. [A comparative study on the ethics of Western and traditional Chinese medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming-xue; Liu, Sheng

    2008-10-01

    The ethics of Western medicine and that of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) developed separately in their own ways. The formation and development of ancient medical ethics of China were extensively and deeply influenced by Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism and other religious thought, while the ancient ethic basis of western society was influenced by traditional Judaism, Christianism, Catholicism and other natural philosophical thinking of ancient Greece and Rome. With the progress of medical and life sciences, the medical ethics begins to transfer into the life ethics, thus giving rise to new questions in the ethics of Western medicine and TCM. PMID:19141202

  2. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  3. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  4. Genetic Diversity among Ancient Nordic Populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R;

    2010-01-01

    locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the...... ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for...

  5. Faience: the ceramic technology of ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Faiences are ancient Egyptian ceramic materials, considered as "high-tech" products. The paper discussed the method by which the faiences were produced and the application of SEM and Raman spectroscopy to their analysis

  6. NIMI TANTRA (Opthalmology of Ancient India)

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, C.K.

    1984-01-01

    The art of opthalmology was well developed in ancient India and was known as Nimi Tantra. In this paper the author presents the main features of Nimi Tantra an authoritative treatises written by Nimi, a prominent opthalmologist of his time.

  7. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  8. Japanese Ancient Tang Music Score and Chinese Court Banquet --Research Review of Mr Liu Chongde on Japanese Tang Music%日本唐乐古谱与中国宫廷燕乐--刘崇德先生日本唐乐研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于广杰

    2014-01-01

    日本唐乐古谱是中国唐代音乐的异域留存,学界对其研究和解译非常关注,限于种种条件,多年来少有突破。词曲学家刘崇德先生此次将日本唐乐古谱十种整理出版,在对其进行基本文献研究和整理的基础上,对日本唐乐与我国唐代宫廷燕乐的直接关系、性质、乐律、曲型和结构等重要问题都做了深入研究。为我们深刻的揭开了日本唐乐古谱的神秘面纱。并借他山之石,为我们唐代宫廷燕乐、词乐、词体研究了、开辟了宽广道路。%Japanese Ancient Tang Music Score is the exotic preservation of music of Tang Dynasty in China. Despite a variety of conditions limited, academic circle paid highly attention to the research and interpretation of Japanese ancient Tang Music score, but has made rare breakthroughs for many years. This time Songwriter Mr Liu Chongde has edited and published 10 kinds of Japanese Ancient Tang Music Score. On the basis of its basic literature research and reduction, he has made a thorough study on character, temperament, type structure, and the direct relationship between the Japanese Tang music and the court banquet music of Tang Dynasty in China. At the same time he uncovers the mysterious veil of Japanese Ancient Tang Music Score for us. He has opened up a broad way to the study of Tang court banquet music, the music of Ci poetry and Ci poetry through the study.

  9. Rethinking the Ancient Sulfur Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fike, David A.; Bradley, Alexander S.; Rose, Catherine V.

    2015-05-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle integrates the metabolic activity of multiple microbial pathways (e.g., sulfate reduction, disproportionation, and sulfide oxidation) along with abiotic reactions and geological processes that cycle sulfur through various reservoirs. The sulfur cycle impacts the global carbon cycle and climate primarily through the remineralization of organic carbon. Over geological timescales, cycling of sulfur is closely tied to the redox state of Earth's exosphere through the burial of oxidized (sulfate) and reduced (sulfide) sulfur species in marine sediments. Biological sulfur cycling is associated with isotopic fractionations that can be used to trace the fluxes through various metabolic pathways. The resulting isotopic data provide insights into sulfur cycling in both modern and ancient environments via isotopic signatures in sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases. Here, we review the deep-time δ34S record of marine sulfates and sulfides in light of recent advances in understanding how isotopic signatures are generated by microbial activity, how these signatures are encoded in marine sediments, and how they may be altered following deposition. The resulting picture shows a sulfur cycle intimately coupled to ambient carbon cycling, where sulfur isotopic records preserved in sedimentary rocks are critically dependent on sedimentological and geochemical conditions (e.g., iron availability) during deposition.

  10. Ancient Admixture in Human History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Nick; Moorjani, Priya; Luo, Yontao; Mallick, Swapan; Rohland, Nadin; Zhan, Yiping; Genschoreck, Teri; Webster, Teresa; Reich, David

    2012-01-01

    Population mixture is an important process in biology. We present a suite of methods for learning about population mixtures, implemented in a software package called ADMIXTOOLS, that support formal tests for whether mixture occurred and make it possible to infer proportions and dates of mixture. We also describe the development of a new single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array consisting of 629,433 sites with clearly documented ascertainment that was specifically designed for population genetic analyses and that we genotyped in 934 individuals from 53 diverse populations. To illustrate the methods, we give a number of examples that provide new insights about the history of human admixture. The most striking finding is a clear signal of admixture into northern Europe, with one ancestral population related to present-day Basques and Sardinians and the other related to present-day populations of northeast Asia and the Americas. This likely reflects a history of admixture between Neolithic migrants and the indigenous Mesolithic population of Europe, consistent with recent analyses of ancient bones from Sweden and the sequencing of the genome of the Tyrolean “Iceman.” PMID:22960212

  11. Ancient history of flatfish research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghahn, Rüdiger; Bennema, Floris Pieter

    2013-01-01

    Owing to both their special appearance and behavior flatfish have attracted the special attention of people since ages. The first records of humans having been in touch with flatfish date back to the Stone Age about 15,000 years B.C. Detailed descriptions were already given in the classical antiquity and were taken up 1400 years later in the Renaissance by the first ichthyologists, encyclopédists, and also by practical men. This was more than 200 years before a number of common flatfish species were given their scientific names by Linnaeus in 1758. Besides morphology, remarkable and sometimes amusing naturalistic observations and figures are bequeathed. Ancient history of flatfish research is still a wide and open array. Examples are presented how the yield of information and interpretation from these times increases with interdisciplinary cooperation including archeologists, zoologists, ichthyologists, historians, art historians, fisheries and fishery biologist. The timeline of this contribution ends with the start of modern fishery research at the end of the 19th century in the course of the rapidly increasing exploitation of fish stocks.

  12. The Language of Ancient Greek Philological Texts

    OpenAIRE

    Brigita Kukjalko

    2011-01-01

    Annotation to the Doctoral Thesis by Brigita Aleksejeva: The Language of Ancient Greek Philological Texts An Ancient Greek philological text often combined the research of various language-related issues, which are nowadays studied by separate branches of linguistics – such as orthography, phonology, morphology, lexicology, syntax, and stylistics. The language of these texts differs from that of the fictional and non-theoretical texts of the period: since they represent the origins of the ...

  13. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  14. Study on Anti-seismic Strengthening of the Ancient Stone Archway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese ancient stone archways are in flat structure. And joints of their members are of half tenons and mortises. Under the influence of the earthquake, the resisting ability of archway’s uneven sides is relatively poor and the relevant members have little reliable joints. This paper is to analyze seismic strengthening feasibility of Tiantai mountain stone archway which is damaged from the earthquake and to research on the aspects of the loading mode, structure layout and soundness. On the premise of guaranteeing the authenticity and beauty, we use earthquake damaging mechanism of stone archways and the modern anti-seismic structure designing theory and modern building materials. We also follow the way of the modern construction technology and ancient construction and strengthen the anti-seismic way of the resisting ability of Tiantai mountain stone archway’s uneven sides and joints of tenons and mortises. The best anti-seismic strengthening schemes are put forward as well.

  15. 中西方古典爱情诗之比较--以李白的《怨情》与勃朗宁夫人的《我怎样爱你》为例%Contrastive Study of Ancient Chinese and Western Love Poems-- Analysis of Li Bai’s Yuanqing and Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s How Do I Love Thee?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚华星; 岳国法

    2014-01-01

    The love poems in both Chinese and Western literature have eulogized the holiest, purest and noblest relationship of all human beings, however, Chinese love poems differ a lot from those of Western owing to the difference between geographical conditions, cultural backgrounds , psychological traits, etc. This paper attempts to probe into the difference between Chinese and Western love poems from three aspects:the creating motivation, themes of the poems and the stylistic features of the poems, and finally the paper reaches a conclusion that Chinese love poems are implicit, subtle and laconic, while Western love poems are explicit, incisive and magnificent. They have their own characteristics in many aspects so we should appreciate them with a broad mind.%中西方爱情诗歌都歌颂了人类情感中最神圣、纯洁和崇高的爱情,然而由于地理环境、文化心理等各种因素的差异,中西爱情诗也各有特色。从创作动机、作品主题及诗风和手法这三个方面探讨中西方爱情诗的差异,可以发现:中诗委婉、微妙、简隽;西诗直率、深刻、铺陈。两方各有千秋,我们应以开放的心态博采众长。

  16. Challenging cavalier perspective: an iconological study of visual perception of depth in Chinese representational space

    OpenAIRE

    Xiao, Jing

    2013-01-01

    Cavalier Perspective has previously been described as merely a pictorial technique of spatial representation within the history of Chinese painting. It is a common belief that this unique visual system is capable of providing an experience of three-dimensional spatial perception in both representational art and actual space, in a manner similar to technique of foreshortening and perspective in post-renaissance western art. However, as Chinese ancient artists have a different understanding of ...

  17. New trends in the Chinese diet: cultural influences on consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Teresa Del Giudice; Gianni Cicia; Klaus G. Grunert; Athanasios K. Krystallis; Yanfeng Zhou; Luigi Cembalo; Fabio Verneau; Francesco Caracciolo

    2016-01-01

    China is one of the most dynamic regions in the world in terms of economic growth and development. Such development has inevitably influenced the structure and habits of Chinese society. Whilst the economic condition of the middle class and high-income segment has steadily improved, cultural changes are also under way: ancient Chinese traditions now include major elements from other cultures, most notably the West. The above scenario is the background to this paper. A structured research-admi...

  18. Chinese Traditional Auspicious Graphics in the Application of Modern Packaging Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    花琳琳

    2013-01-01

    Auspicious in Chinese traditional culture concept, with it’s rich content, a variety of forms, deep content and rich culture, very interesting implication. The ancient ancestors of natural religion, philosophy and traditional Chinese folk is rich in features and so comprehensive annotation of the traditional auspicious patterns out of the aesthetic value of the transmission, so good luck with the concept of traditional art to modern packaging design for impact Discussion.

  19. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinese restaurant syndrome is a set of symptoms that some people have after eating Chinese food. A food additive ... Chinese restaurant syndrome is most often diagnosed based on the symptoms. The health care provider may ask the following ...

  20. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  1. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  2. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    Grant Turner; Nicholas Tan; Dena Sadeghian

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  3. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  4. The Ancient Martian Climate System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberle, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    Today Mars is a cold, dry, desert planet. The atmosphere is thin and liquid water is not stable. But there is evidence that very early in its history it was warmer and wetter. Since Mariner 9 first detected fluvial features on its ancient terrains researchers have been trying to understand what climatic conditions could have permitted liquid water to flow on the surface. Though the evidence is compelling, the problem is not yet solved. The main issue is coping with the faint young sun. During the period when warmer conditions prevailed 3.5-3.8 Gy the sun's luminosity was approximately 25% less than it is today. How can we explain the presence of liquid water on the surface of Mars under such conditions? A similar problem exists for Earth, which would have frozen over under a faint sun even though the evidence suggests otherwise. Attempts to solve the "Faint Young Sun Paradox" rely on greenhouse warming from an atmosphere with a different mass and composition than we see today. This is true for both Mars and Earth. However, it is not a straightforward solution. Any greenhouse theory must (a) produce the warming and rainfall needed, (b) have a plausible source for the gases required, (c) be sustainable, and (d) explain how the atmosphere evolved to its present state. These are challenging requirements and judging from the literature they have yet to be met. In this talk I will review the large and growing body of work on the early Mars climate system. I will take a holistic approach that involves many disciplines since our goal is to present an integrated view that touches on each of the requirements listed in the preceding paragraph. I will begin with the observational evidence, which comes from the geology, mineralogy, and isotopic data. Each of the data sets presents a consistent picture of a warmer and wetter past with a thicker atmosphere. How much warmer and wetter and how much thicker is a matter of debate, but conditions then were certainly different than

  5. 南宁古城园林与城池建设的关系%The Relationship of Ancient Gardens and Ancient Nanning City Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷云黎

    2012-01-01

    In Chinese classical gardens, the ancient public gardens and government office yard are lower than the imperial gardens, temple gardens and private gardens in popularity. But in some particular ancient cities, their functions are obviously higher than other gardens. In ancient Nanning city construction, the ancient public gardens and government office yard occupies an important position, and are the main component of urban construction, endowed with some irreplaceable functions. Analyzing the generality and particularity of their relationship can help the construction of current urban gardens and landscapes become full of local characteristics, and add historical culture connotation to urban landscape, which is of extensive practical significance.%在中国古典园林中,公共园林与衙署园林在知名度上要低于皇家园林和私家宅园,但是在一些特定的古代城市中,它的作用要明显高于其他园林在南宁的古代城市建设中,公共园林与衙署园林占据重要地位,是城市建设的主要组成部分,被赋予了一些不可替代的功能.分析其关系的通用性与特殊性,对于深入认知中国园林传统,建设有地方特色的当前城市园林最观,增加城市园林景观的历史文化内涵具有广泛的现实意义.

  6. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study are......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state of...... research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  7. PIXE analysis on an ancient scroll sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For years, scientists have developed several new techniques to read texts of Herculaneum scrolls without destroying them. Recently, the use of a custom built high-resolution CT scanner was proposed to scan and then virtually unroll the scrolls for reading. Identification of any unique chemical signatures in the ancient ink would allow better calibration of the CT scanner to improve the chances of resolving the ink from the burned papyrus background. To support this effort, we carried out one pilot study to see whether the composition of the ink can be obtained from an ancient scroll sample using PIXE technique. PIXE data were collected and analyzed in two different regions of the ancient scroll sample (ink and blank regions). This preliminary work shows that elemental distributions from the ink used in this scroll mainly contained Al, Fe and Ti as well as minor trace amounts of Cr, Cu and Zn. (author)

  8. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality. PMID:26135766

  9. Did the ancient egyptians discover Algol?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jetsu, L.; Porceddu, S.; Porceddu, S.; Lyytinen, J.; Kajatkari, P.; Markkanen, T.; Toivari-Viitala, J.

    2013-02-01

    Fabritius discovered the first variable star, Mira, in 1596. Holwarda determined the 11 months period of Mira in 1638. Montanari discovered the next variable star, Algol, in 1669. Its period, 2.867 days, was determined by Goodricke (178). Algol was associated with demon-like creatures, "Gorgon" in ancient Greek and "ghoul" in ancient Arab mythology. This indicates that its variability was discovered much before 1669 (Wilk 1996), but this mythological evidence is ambiguous (Davis 1975). For thousands of years, the Ancient Egyptian Scribes (AES) observed stars for timekeeping in a region, where there are nearly 300 clear nights a year. We discovered a significant periodicity of 2.850 days in their calendar for lucky and unlucky days dated to 1224 BC, "the Cairo Calendar". Several astrophysical and astronomical tests supported our conclusion that this was the period of Algol three millennia ago. The "ghoulish habits" of Algol could explain this 0.017 days period increase (Battersby 2012).

  10. The ancient lunar crust, Apollo 17 region

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, O. B.

    1992-01-01

    The Apollo 17 highland collection is dominated by fragment-laden melt rocks, generally thought to represent impact melt from the Serenitatis basin-forming impact. Fortunately for our understanding of the lunar crust, the melt rocks contain unmelted clasts of preexisting rocks. Similar ancient rocks are also found in the regolith; most are probably clasts eroded out of melt rocks. The ancient rocks can be divided into groups by age, composition, and history. Oldest are plutonic igneous rocks, representing the magmatic components of the ancient crust. The younger are granulitic breccias, which are thoroughly recrystallized rocks of diverse parentages. The youngest are KREEPy basalts and felsites, products of relatively evolved magmas. Some characteristics of each group are given.

  11. Computational network pharmacological research of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between drug molecules and target proteins is the basis of pharmacological action.The pharmacodynamic mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease(CKD) was studied by molecular docking and complex network analysis.It was found that the interaction network of components-proteins of Chinese medicinal plants is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of drugs.The action mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants is different from that of drugs.We also found the interaction network of components-proteins of tonifying herbs is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of evil expelling herbs using complex network research approach.It illuminates the ancient classification theory of Chinese medicinal plants.This computational approach could identify the pivotal components of Chinese medicinal plants and their key target proteins rapidly.The results provide data for development of multi-component Chinese medicine.

  12. Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7 th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal′s derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don′t produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s. Particle size (1-2 μ reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.

  13. Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Sahu, Chandan Kumar; Haldar, Arindam

    2014-01-01

    Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7(th) century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal's derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don't produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s). Particle size (1-2 μ) reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters. PMID:24696811

  14. The Connotations and Translations of Words In English and Chinese-Il-lustrated by the examples of“peach”and“moon”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Cen

    2015-01-01

    The thesis is about the connotations and translations in English and Chinese Languages. And the words“peach”and“moon”are mainly discussed. The former part focuses on the diversities between these two languages and the latter, similarities. And translations are discussed according to different cases.The sources of examples related to the topic were English versions by professor Xu Yuanchong, works of the ancient Chinese literary and Center for Chinese Linguistics PKU.

  15. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  16. Ancient neurilemmoma: A rare oral tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Muruganandhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurilemmomas are benign tumors of neural origin composed of Schwann cell proliferation in characteristic patterns. Ancient neurilemmomas are usually longstanding growths that exhibit degenerative features that could be mistaken for malignancy. They are extremely rare in the oral cavity and present in older individuals of long duration. The authors report a case of ancient neurilemmoma in a young patient with short duration of growth. This unique case presented with remarkable histopathological features with respect to vascularity and atypia associated with degenerative change. It is essential to not mistake these features as malignant transformation so as to avoid radical procedures.

  17. The TL dating of ancient porcelain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The age determination of ancient porcelain using the pre-dose technique in TL dating was reported. The variation of beta dose with depth below the surface of the porcelain slice, the thermal activation characteristic (TAC) for 110 degree C peak, the measurement of paleodose and the estimation of annual dose were studied. The results show that this technique is suitable for authenticity testing of ancient porcelain, but both accuracy and precision for porcelain dating are worse than those for pottery, because porcelain differs from pottery on composition, structure and firing temperature. Besides, some complicated factors in the pre-dose technique would be the possible cause of the greater errors

  18. A Jade from Other Mountain:On Stephen Owen’s Translation and Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Literary Theory--Taking Chinese Literary Theory:English Translation with Criticism as Example%他山之石:宇文所安如何译释中国古代文论--以《中国文论:英译与评论》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超

    2012-01-01

      Stephen uses the method of literal translation in Owen Readings in Chinese Literary Thought , which generates a more objective representation of the original style, makes up the accuracy and profundity of the missing translation of the text supplemented by explanations and notes, and lastly quotes, proves and compares one another among the text, the history of the forming of the text and the history of the text interpretation in order to interpret the text with a reasonable imagination of history and comb and discuss the historical changes of traditional Chinese literary theory and literary criticism in the broad context of cultural history.%  宇文所安译释中国古代文论,从文本本身出发,采用直译的笔法,比较客观地再现了原文的风貌,而辅以解说与注释则弥补了翻译所缺失的文本中的那份准确与深刻,同时,宇文所安把文本与文本产生的历史以及文本诠释的历史互相征引,相互比照,以合理的历史想像力去诠释文本,梳理并论述了中国传统文学理论与文学批评在广阔的文化史背景下的历史性变迁

  19. Chinese Calendar and Chinese Telegraphic Code.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    This manual contains: (1) Chinese calendars for the hundred years from 1881 to 1980; and (2) the Chinese telegraphic code. Each page in Part One presents the calendar for each year in both Chinese and English. There are 97 charts in Part Two representing the telegraphic code. (AMH)

  20. Promotion,Overcoming and Creative Transformation-Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy as Ideological Source for Developing Chinese Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junzhe

    2015-01-01

    There are two fundamental factors in the development of modern Chinese philosophy:The first one is the Chinese people’s great social practice. the second one is the rich philosophical thought both at home and abroad. The former one is based upon the experiences in developing mod ̄ern Chinese philosophy, which is an exhaustible source. However,it still needs to absorb or draw on the experience from the excellent philosophies from ancient and modern times and from both Chinese and foreign. Among these, Tibetan Buddhist phi ̄losophy is an important ideological source that is worthy of being absorbed.

  1. Studying the Chinese Rhetorical Tradition in the Present: Re-Presenting the Native's Point of View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, LuMing

    2007-01-01

    The author identifies limitations in various approaches that Westerners have taken to non-Western rhetorical traditions. Focusing on excerpts from the Analects of Confucius, he demonstrates his own proposed approach to ancient Chinese rhetoric, emphasizing that Westerners studying it should seek to identify its discursive fields while also…

  2. The non-destructive identification of early Chinese porcelain by PIXE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, Z.Q.; Zhang, B.; Yang, F.J

    2004-06-01

    PIXE is used for the non-destructive differentiation of early precious Chinese blue and white porcelain made in Yuan (AD 1206-1368), Ming (AD 1368-1644) Dynasty in Jingdezhen from imitations. Also, ancient celadon made in Song Dynasty (AD 960-1279) is identified by measuring the trace elements contained in the glazes.

  3. Stable isotopic analysis on ancient human bones in Jiahu site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YaoWu; S.H.AMBROSE; WANG ChangSui

    2007-01-01

    Palaeodietary analysis is one of important topics in bioarchaeology field and has been paid great attention to by Chinese archaeometrists recently. Ancient human bones in Jiahu Site were analyzed by means of stable isotopes of C, N and 0.13 human bones were excluded from 28 bones for dietary reconstruction due to their unusual collagen contents, C and N contents, and C/N atomic ratios especially.δ13C(-20.37±0.53‰)in collagen of remaining samples showed that C3 food were consumed mainly, which is consistent of the archaeological findings that rice was the staple in Jiahu. According to the difference of δ15N and δ13C values in bone collagen, the samples can be classified into four clusters. The changes of δ15N values in bone collagen and δ13C values in hydroxylapatite through whole cultural phases indicated the transition from hunting to gathering and fishing to rice agriculture and animal domestication ultimately. Meanwhile, the δ18O change in hydroxylapatite showed that palaeoclimate was relatively constant during Jiahu culture.

  4. Stable isotopic analysis on ancient human bones in Jiahu site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.H.AMBROSE

    2007-01-01

    Palaeodietary analysis is one of important topics in bioarchaeology field and has been paid great at- tention to by Chinese archaeometrists recently. Ancient human bones in Jiahu Site were analyzed by means of stable isotopes of C, N and O. 13 human bones were excluded from 28 bones for dietary re- construction due to their unusual collagen contents, C and N contents, and C/N atomic ratios espe- cially. δ 13C (-20.37±0.53‰) in collagen of remaining samples showed that C3 food were consumed mainly, which is consistent of the archaeological findings that rice was the staple in Jiahu. According to the difference of δ 15N and δ 13C values in bone collagen, the samples can be classified into four clusters. The changes of δ 15N values in bone collagen and δ 13C values in hydroxylapatite through whole cultural phases indicated the transition from hunting to gathering and fishing to rice agriculture and animal domestication ultimately. Meanwhile, the δ 18O change in hydroxylapatite showed that pa- laeoclimate was relatively constant during Jiahu culture.

  5. Watermarking ancient documents based on wavelet packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maatouk, Med Neji; Jedidi, Ola; Essoukri Ben Amara, Najoua

    2009-01-01

    The ancient documents present an important part of our individual and collective memory. In addition to their preservation, the digitization of these documents may offer users a great number of services like remote look-up and browsing rare documents. However, the documents, digitally formed, are likely to be modified or pirated. Therefore, we need to develop techniques of protecting images stemming from ancient documents. Watermarking figures to be one of the promising solutions. Nevertheless, the performance of watermarking procedure depends on being neither too robust nor too invisible. Thus, choosing the insertion field or mode as well as the carrier points of the signature is decisive. We propose in this work a method of watermarking images stemming from ancient documents based on wavelet packet decomposition. The insertion is carried out into the maximum amplitude ratio being in the best base of decomposition, which is determined beforehand according to a criterion on entropy. This work is part of a project of digitizing ancient documents in cooperation with the National Library of Tunis (BNT).

  6. Microscopical Examination of Ancient Silver Coins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The microstructure of three silver coins of the IIId century B.C. from the Illyrian king Monounios, the ancient Greek city of Dyrrachion and of Korkyra was studied with XRF and microscopy. From this investigation it turned out that these coins have different chemical composition and microstructure that imply different minting method

  7. LD Students and the Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Barbara L.

    1988-01-01

    Synectics, the making of analogies, was used with learning disabled high school seniors to provide them with a creative process that aids in developing a deeper understanding of literature. After studying Coleridge's "Rime of the Ancient Mariner," the students completed a six-step process and produced a short writing assignment. (VW)

  8. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias; Ginolhac, Aurelien; Raghavan, Maanasa; Nielsen, Sandra C A; Weinstock, Jacobo; Froese, Duane; Vasiliev, Sergei K; Ovodov, Nikolai D; Clary, Joel; Helgen, Kristofer M; Fleischer, Robert C; Cooper, Alan; Shapiro, Beth; Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    sequences from all seven extant lineages within the genus Equus. Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood phylogenetic inference confirms that zebras are monophyletic within the genus, and the Plains and Grevy's zebras form a well-supported monophyletic group. Using ancient DNA techniques, we further characterize...

  9. Ancient science in a digital age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehoux, Daryn

    2013-03-01

    Technology is rapidly changing our understanding of ancient science. New methods of visualization are bringing to light important texts we could not previously read; changes in online publishing are allowing unprecedented access to difficult-to-find materials; and online mapping tools are offering new pictures of lost spaces, connectivities, and physical objects. PMID:23789512

  10. Unlocking the Mysteries of Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riechers, Maggie

    1995-01-01

    Describes the work of Egyptologist William Murnane who is recording the ritual scenes and inscriptions of a great columned hall from the days of the pharaohs. The 134 columns, covered with divine imagery and hieroglyphic inscriptions represent an unpublished religious text. Briefly discusses ancient Egyptian culture. Includes several photographs…

  11. Moessbauer effect study of ancient Egyptian pottery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moessbauer spectroscopy was used in examining ancient Egyptian pottery. From the values of Moessbauer parameters and the differences for the individual samples, conclusions could be drawn as to the temperature of baking and the kind of clay used in various archaeological periods. (A.K.)

  12. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  13. A Roman Dodecahedron as an ancient rangefinder

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Rangefinders are instruments used for ballistics and for surveying in general. I report about some of them, ranging from the ancient Rome to modern methods. In particular, I am discussing the use of Roman Dodecahedra, bronze artifacts of gallo-roman origin, for measuring distance

  14. Planetary science: Traces of ancient lunar water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Erik H.

    2013-03-01

    The presence of water in lunar volcanic rocks has been attributed to delivery after the Moon formed. Water detected in rocks from the ancient lunar highlands suggests that the Moon already contained water early in its history, and poses more challenges for the giant impact theory of Moon formation.

  15. A probabilistic model of Ancient Egyptian writing

    OpenAIRE

    Nederhof, Mark Jan; Rahman, Fahrurrozi

    2015-01-01

    This article investigates a probabilistic model to describe how signs form words in Ancient Egyptian writing. This applies to both hieroglyphic and hieratic texts. The model uses an intermediate layer of sign functions. Experiments are concerned with finding the most likely sequence of sign functions that relates a given sequence of signs and a given sequence of phonemes. Postprint

  16. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  17. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  18. Characteristics of mortars from ancient bridges

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Frankeová, Dita; Slížková, Zuzana; Drdácký, Miloš

    Vol. 7. Dordrecht : Springer, 2012 - (Válek, J.; Hughes, J.; Groot, J.), s. 165-174 ISBN 978-94-007-4634-3 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA103/09/2067; GA MŠk(CZ) LA09008 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : mortars * ancient bridges * analytical methods Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  19. Analysis of some ancient glass samples unearthed in Sichuan area by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is an effective method for the chemical composition analysis of ancient glass samples without destruction. Chemical composition of the ancient glass samples dated from the Warring States Period (770-476 B.C.) to the Six Dynasties Period (220-589 A.D.), which were unearthed in Sichuan area, was quantitatively determined by the PIXE technique. The results show that the glass Bi (disc) and the glass eye beads of the Warring States Period all belong to the PbO-BaO-SiO2 system. According to the composition and shape, we infer that these glass Bi and eye beads were made in China. Whereas, the chemical compositions of the glass ear pendants and beads of the Six Dynasties Period are varied, including K2O-CaO-SiO2, K2O-SiO2 and other glass systems, Based on the obtained results and those from literatures, some questions related to the technical propagation of the ancient Chinese glass are discussed. (authors)

  20. [Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods. PMID:25011281

  1. What caused the changes in the usage of Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma from ancient to current times?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaotong; Li, Linghui; Ran, Xiaoku; Dou, Deqiang; Li, Bin; Yang, Bingyou; Li, Wei; Koike, Kazuo; Kuang, Haixue

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Chinese medicine treatises on Atractylodis Macrocephalae Rhizoma (AMR), the rhizome of Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz, indicated that it possessed an expectorant effect. However, in modern times, it is commonly used as a tocolytic agent. In this study, the components of AMR that are responsible for its expectorant and tocolytic effects were evaluated in order to clarify the differences in its application between ancient and modern times. A decoction of AMR was separated into five fractions, namely, volatile oil (VO), petroleum ether (PE), alcohol eluate from macroporous resin (AE), water eluate from macroporous resin (WE), and polysaccharides (PS), using various separation methods. The expectorant experiment indicated that the VO fraction, which mainly contains atractylone, produced an obvious expectorant effect. The experiment that assessed the irritability of uterine smooth muscle (USM) showed that the PE, which is mainly composed of atractylenolides, and the PS, which is mainly composed of inulin-type polysaccharides, were the active fractions for tocolysis, but the VO fraction had the opposite action. These data suggested that volatile oils are the key components responsible for the usage change of AMR in both ancient and current usage. PMID:26382100

  2. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  3. Outreach Testing of Ancient Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmartin, J. R. S.; Blanco, M. B. M.

    2015-10-01

    fundamental quantity being given by half the difference between solar distances to vertical at winter and summer solstices, with value about 23.5°. Day and year periods greatly differing by about 2 ½ orders of magnitude, 1 day against 365 days, helps students to correctly visualize and interpret the experimental measurements. Since the gnomon serves to observe at night the moon shadow too, students can also determine the inclination of the lunar orbital plane, as about 5 degrees away from the ecliptic, thus explaining why eclipses are infrequent. Independently, earth taking longer between spring and fall equinoxes than from fall to spring (the solar anomaly), as again verified by the students, was explained in ancient Greek science, which posited orbits universally as circles or their combination, by introducing the eccentric circle, with earth placed some distance away from the orbital centre when considering the relative motion of the sun, which would be closer to the earth in winter. In a sense, this can be seen as hint and approximation of the elliptic orbit proposed by Kepler many centuries later. EPSC Abstracts Vol. 10, EPSC2015-40, 2015 European Planetary Science Congress 2015 c Author(s) 2015 EPSC European Planetary Science Congress Secondly, by observing lunar phases and eclipses from the ground, students could also determine, following Aristarchus of Samos in the 3rd century BC, 4 length ratios involving moon and sun distances to earth, and radii of all three, moon, sun, and earth. The angular width of the moon could be first determined with simplest optical devices as about half a degree; this yields the ratio between moon diameter 2RM and distance DM to earth. Next, eclipses of sun prove its angular width, and thus ratio 2RS/DS, similar to the lunar one, though the relatively high lunar orbital eccentricity, 0.055, does result in not quite a full eclipse if at lunar apogee. Further, at a half-moon phase, when the angle sun-moon-earth is a right one, the angle

  4. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  5. Balancing Acts Between Ancient and Modern Cities: The Ancient Greek Cities Project of C. A. Doxiadis

    OpenAIRE

    Zarmakoupi, Mantha

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the inception and development of the Ancient Greek Cities (AGC) research project (1963–77) of Constantinos A. Doxiadis and addresses the novelty of its methodological approach to the study of classical urbanism. With the AGC project, Doxiadis launched a comprehensive study of the ancient Greek built environment to provide an overview of the factors involved in its shaping. The project produced 24 published volumes — the first two laying out the historical and methodologica...

  6. Italian Textile Industry: Throw an Embroidered Ball in the Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Throwing an embroidered ball is an act of seeking marriage practiced by noble family maidens in ancient China.March 2009,the early spring of Beijing saw Italian textile industry's passion for a close relationship with the Chinese market after a global shiver in the freezing economic winter.It is a ball of elegance,quality and sincere cooperation,which is to become larger and more attractive with the stable development of Chinese textile industry and the ever expansion of Chinese consumption market.

  7. Management of Chinese restaurant

    OpenAIRE

    Cui , Longbo

    2009-01-01

    With Chinese economy developing rapidly, the Chinese restaurant is under the spotlight, but the management of Chinese restaurant is weak at the moment, especially on the service management, which is an important part of service management in the Chinese restaurant. On the other hand, the managers of Chinese restaurant should pay more attention on the service management for instance brand, service innovation. Service management is core and essential concept for every service company recently, ...

  8. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  9. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  10. A Study on Chinese and American Cultural Differences--Comparison of the Ode of Mulan and the Mulan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁瑾

    2014-01-01

    Movie, as a form of art, embodying abundant cultural elements, goes beyond pure entertainment and profit and works as an ideal culture vehicle. The culture of a nation can be portrayed vividly in its movie. The Chinese ancient ballad of South-North Dynasty The Ode of Mulan was shot by Walt Disney Company as a cartoon The Mulan, which gained great success in the world. Although the movie was taken from the ancient Chinese story, it was tinted with American culture. Through comparison and analysis of Chinese ballad The Ode of Mulan and the American movie The Mulan, the auther intends to compare the Chinese and American culture from three aspects, tradition and freedom, family-priority and individual priority, and gender discrimination and feminism. Meanwhile, it is hoped that it may arouse their cultural sensitivity and enrich their knowledge of other cultures when people enjoy movies, which would ensure the effectiveness of intercultural communication.

  11. [Acupoints selection rules analysis of ancient acupuncture for urinary incontinence based on data mining technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Zhigao; Cao, Juanshu; Gong, Houwu; Qin, Zuoai; Zhong, Feng; Cao, Yue; Wei, Yanrong

    2015-12-01

    Based on ancient literature of acupuncture in Canon of Chinese Medicine (4th edition), the articles regarding acupuncture for urinary incontinence were retrieved and collected to establish a database. By Weka data mining software, the multi-level association rules analysis method was applied to analyze the acupoints selection characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture for treatment of urinary incontinence. Totally 356 articles of acupuncture for urinary incontinence were collected, involving 41 acupoints with a total frequency of 364. As a result, (1) the acupoints in the yin-meridian of hand and foot were highly valued, as the frequency of acupoints in yin-meridians was 2.6 times than that in yang-meridians, and the frequency of acupoints selected was the most in the liver meridian of foot-jueyin; (2) the acupoints in bladder meridian of foot-taiyang were also highly valued, and among three yang-meridians of foot, the frequency of acupoints in the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang was 54, accounting for 65.85% (54/82); (3) more acupoints selected were located in the lower limbs and abdomen; (4) specific acupoints in above meridians were mostly selected, presenting 73.2% (30/41) to the ratio of number and 79.4% (289/364) to the frequency, respectively; (5) Zhongji (CV 3), the front-mu point of bladder meridian, was seldom selected in the ancient acupuncture literature, which was different from modern literature reports. The results show that urinary incontinence belongs to external genitalia diseases, which should be treated from yin, indicating more yin-meridians be used and special acupoints be focused on. It is essential to focus inheritance and innovation in TCM clinical treatment, and applying data mining technology to ancient literature of acupuncture could provide classic theory basis for TCM clinical treatment. PMID:26964186

  12. Implications of Chinese face reading on the aesthetic sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Frederick T C; Soo, Gordon; Ng, Wai-pok; van Hasselt, C Andrew; Tong, Michael C F

    2010-01-01

    Chinese face reading is an ancient art that has been developed over centuries, not only in China but over the wider area of Asia owing to China's cultural dominance in Asia during its imperial rule. Similar to feng shui, Chinese face reading is based on a philosophy held by Chinese people all over the world that expresses itself in contemporary daily life and practices by coloring people's choices, likes, and dislikes. It is inevitable that the aesthetic sense is also affected by face reading principles, especially among those who are most familiar with them. An understanding of these principles and beliefs would help surgeons better understand their Asian patients' requests and perhaps allow them to better communicate appropriate suggestions accordingly. PMID:20644224

  13. The effects of two Chinese herbal medicinal formulae vs. placebo controls for treatment of allergic rhinitis: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Rose YP; Chien, Wai Tong

    2014-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a chronic illness, affecting 10 to 40% of the worldwide population. Chinese herbal medicines, the treatment of allergic rhinitis, adopted thousands of years in ancient China, has recently raised much attention among researchers globally. This study evaluates the effects of two Chinese herbal formulae [Cure-allergic-rhinitis Syrup (CS) and Yu-ping-feng San (YS)] in treating undergraduate nursing students with allergic rhinitis over a 3-month follow-up, when comp...

  14. Damage and repair of ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders

    2005-01-01

    Under certain conditions small amounts of DNA can survive for long periods of time and can be used as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) substrates for the study of phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of extinct plants and animals, including hominids. Because of extensive DNA...... degradation, these studies are limited to species that lived within the past 10(4)-10(5) years (Late Pleistocene), although DNA sequences from 10(6) years have been reported. Ancient DNA (aDNA) has been used to study phylogenetic relationships of protists, fungi, algae, plants, and higher eukaryotes such as...... early native Americans. Hence, ancient DNA contains information pertinent to numerous fields of study including evolution, population genetics, ecology, climatology, medicine, archeology, and behavior. The major obstacles to the study of aDNA are its extremely low yield, contamination with modern DNA...

  15. Thermal and spectroscopic analysis of ancient potteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present work is focused on the characterization study of ancient pottery shreds excavated recently from Sembiankandiyur in India. The study is intended to identify the firing temperature, firing conditions and morphology of the ancient pottery samples. The samples were analyzed using FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. FTIR and XRD studies were used in mineralogical characterization of potteries. The firing temperature and conditions were interpreted by studying the difference in mineral composition in the samples using FTIR and XRD. TG-DTA is considered the complementary technique to elucidate the firing temperature from the thermal characteristic reactions such as dehydration, decomposition and transformations of minerals in the course of controlled firing of the samples. The results showed that all the samples fired in a oxidizing condition and firing temperature also inferred.(authors)

  16. Dynamic Generation and Editing System for Wrongly Written Chinese Characters Font

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingsheng Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The uniqueness of Chinese makes Chinese language a hotspot in language learning. In view of the problem of wrongly written character teaching in Chinese language teaching, it provides a simple, convenient, and efficient input method of wrongly written characters and realizes a dynamic generation and editing system for wrongly written Chinese character font, which solves the problems of real-time edit, coding, and input of wrongly written character in editing process using dynamic editing technology, and provides a convenient input method of wrongly written character in editing, printing, typesetting, and the research of digital Chinese language teaching. This method can also be used in dynamic editing, generation and processing of ancient variants, Oracle bone inscriptions, Bronze inscription, folk combined characters, and other fonts.

  17. The City-state Civilization Embodied in Ancient Greek Mythology%浅析古希腊神话中的城邦文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙俊宇

    2011-01-01

    古希腊神话具有的人本主义、民主精神、自由思想、享乐主义等特点,体现出城邦文明的特征。本文分析了古希腊神话的特点及其表现出的城邦文明,并对比了东西方文化视野中的古希腊神话和中国神话。%Features like humanism, democracy, liberal thoughts and hedonism in ancient Greek mythology reflect the characteristics of city-state civilization. This paper analyzes the features of ancient Greek mythology and the city-state civilization it embodied, also compares the ancient Greek and Chinese mythology in the view of the Western and Oriental cultures.

  18. Macroculture, Athletics and Democracy in ancient Greece

    OpenAIRE

    Economou, Emmanouel/Marios/Lazaros; Kyriazis, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    In the present essay we examine whether and how sports affected the emergence of democracy as a political phenomenon in Classical Greece. To achieve this we introduce in a model the concept of macroculture as a complex of mutually supporting values, norms and beliefs in various areas of human activity, like athletics, war, politics, etc. Then, we proceed through a historical review on the history of sports in Ancient Greece and we investigate various aspects of how and under which terms athle...

  19. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    OpenAIRE

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-01-01

    Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent ed...

  20. Science in the Study of Ancient Egypt

    OpenAIRE

    Zakrzewski, Sonia; Shortland, Andrew; Rowland, Joanne

    2016-01-01

    Egyptology has been dominated by the large quantity of written and pictorial material available. This amazing archaeology has opened up a wonderful view of the ancient Egyptian world. The importance of hieroglyphics and texts, and their interpretation, has led to other areas of archaeology playing much less prominence in the study of Egypt. Perhaps most notable in this is relative lack of the application of analytical science to answer Egyptian questions. This problem has been compounded by d...

  1. Parallel OCR for Ancient Greek Critical Editions

    OpenAIRE

    Del Grosso, Angelo; Boschetti, Federico

    2012-01-01

    This project is focused on the parallelization of OCR processes applied to Ancient Greek critical editions. Two experiments have been performed. The first experiment is related to parameters differently tuned on the nodes of the grid, in order to identify the best combination that improves the accuracy of the recognition. The second experiment concerns the application of OCR with the best parameters on sample pages by a divide et impera strategy. Results related to the performances of the par...

  2. HTLV-1: ancient virus, new challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Marzieh Rahimzadegan; Farshid Abedi; Seyed Abodolrahim Rezaei; Reza Ghadimi

    2014-01-01

    Human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) is an ancient pathogen for human being but arising and recognized recently. The routes of transmission are vertical (mainly by breastfeeding), unsafe sexual contacts and through contaminated blood components specially in whom need frequent and repeated blood transfusions such as permanent anemia due to blood loss in hemophilia and major thalassemia. Patients who should undergo hemodialysis in their lifelong are another instance for increased risk of HTLV-1 ...

  3. Reading Classic Works and Improving Cultural Literacy ---Discussing the Active Guide of Popular Culture through Ancient Chinese Literature Teaching%经典阅读与人文素养的培养——兼论中国古代文学教学对大众文化的积极引导

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓薇; 甘松

    2012-01-01

    大众文化背景下,我国高等教育面临很多冲击和挑战。在诸多问题中,大学生群体人文精神的缺失成为最突出的问题,其症结之一在于远离文学经典。高校文学教育任重道远。承载传统文化精华的古代文学教学是加强大学生人文素质教育任务的主要阵地,在课程教学中,如何引导学生阅读经典是关键。教师在努力发掘经典本身价值的同时,应该充分调动大众文化内部的积极因素,通过高雅文化对大众文化进行扶持和引导,实现对大学生人文素养的有效提升。%Against the popular cultural context, China's higher education is encountering many impacts and challenges. Among all the problems, university and college students are deficient in the humanistic spirit that has become the most prominent issue. The crux of the problem is that they stay far away from the classic literature. Institutions of higher learning have a long way to go in terms of literary education. Teaching of the ancient literature that carries the essence of the traditional culture is the major bastion to strengthen the task of humanistic education. In the process of teaching, how to guide students to read classic works is the key. Teachers should fully mobilize the positive elements within the popular culture while exploring the innate values of the classic works. Through the support and guidance of high culture to popular culture, we can achieve the goal of promotion of university students' cultural literacy.

  4. Happy (Chinese) New Year!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Georgia G.

    1979-01-01

    Suggestions are made for a classroom celebration of Chinese New Year, including discussion of the Chinese calendar and customs, a short list of appropriate children's stories, and food ideas, including a recipe for fortune cookies. (SJL)

  5. Locating True North in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankenier, D. W.

    2009-08-01

    Archaeological discoveries from the Chinese Bronze Age have demonstrated a dominant concern with achieving cardinal orientation that persisted throughout the Xià, Shāng, and Zhōdu dynasties (ca. 2000 -- 300 BCE). It has long been understood that cardinality is an index of the paradigmatic roles of ``the center'' and ``the four quarters'', both core organizing principles of early Chinese cosmological thinking. Here, however, I focus on a very early practical technique used to identify the location of the pole in the absence of a pole star. This method takes advantage of the unique orientation of the Great Square of Pegasus (known as Ding} in early China) and offers insight into a fundamental mindset that figured importantly in the formation of early Chinese Civilization.

  6. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  7. Chinese varkens in Nederland

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, W.L.; Huiskes, J.H.

    1992-01-01

    In China zijn in totaal 300 miljoen varkens van meer dan 100 rassen. Ze worden voor verschillende soorten productie gebruikt. Sommige Chinese rassen zijn in Frankrijk, Nederland en U.S.A. geomporteerd. De vraag is of Chinese varkens nuttig kunnen zijnvoor de varkensproductie in Nederland en zo ja welke Chinese varkens

  8. New trends in the Chinese diet: cultural influences on consumer behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Del Giudice

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available China is one of the most dynamic regions in the world in terms of economic growth and development. Such development has inevitably influenced the structure and habits of Chinese society. Whilst the economic condition of the middle class and high-income segment has steadily improved, cultural changes are also under way: ancient Chinese traditions now include major elements from other cultures, most notably the West. The above scenario is the background to this paper. A structured research-administered survey was developed to investigate the changes in the Chinese consumer food culture: 500 urban participants were randomly selected from six reference cities, covering geographically almost the whole country. This study aims not only to analyze the propensity of consumers to include food products from other countries in their ancient Chinese culinary culture, but also represents an initial attempt to perform a market segmentation of Chinese consumers according to their degree of cultural openness towards non-Chinese food, taking into account socio-demographic, cognitive and psychographic variables.

  9. Improving access to endogenous DNA in ancient bones and teeth

    OpenAIRE

    Damgaard, Peter B.; Ashot Margaryan; Hannes Schroeder; Ludovic Orlando; Eske Willerslev; Allentoft, Morten E.

    2015-01-01

    Poor DNA preservation is the most limiting factor in ancient genomic research. In the majority of ancient bones and teeth, endogenous DNA molecules represent a minor fraction of the whole DNA extract, rendering shot-gun sequencing inefficient for obtaining genomic data. Based on ancient human bone samples from temperate and tropical environments, we show that an EDTA-based enzymatic ‘pre-digestion’ of powdered bone increases the proportion of endogenous DNA several fold. By performing the pre...

  10. Piracy in the Ancient World: from Minos to Mohammed

    OpenAIRE

    P.C. de Souza

    1992-01-01

    This thesis is an historical analysis of the phenomenon of piracy in the ancient world from the Bronze Age to the Arab conquests. It is based on detailed examination and discussion of the ancient sources. There is a short introduction (Part One) which establishes the scope of the enquiry, defines the subject and surveys modern scholarly literature. Part Two (The Image of Ancient Piracy) consists of a study of the Greek and Latin vocabulary for piracy, and six separate studie...

  11. Unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some examples are given for unriddling of ancient-medieval culture by PIXE. Effectiveness of PIXE to analyze art and archaeological objects is also explained. Objects employed here are 1) red, yellow, blue and white pigments painted on sun-dried bricks excavated in Egypt, 2) ancient glass beads used in the Near East, 3) South American mummy hair, 4) ancient slag excavated from Kansai-district, Japan 5) ink used by Galileo Galilei and 6) Renaissance style enameled gold jewelry. (author)

  12. Connecting Philosophy of Ancient Egyptians to Modern Thinking

    OpenAIRE

    Aminuddin Hassan; Nurul A.A.K. Anuar; Norhasni Z. Abiddin

    2012-01-01

    Problem statement: Associating any knowledge from ancient Egyptians to modern civilization and thinking was important and had its own value. The process of understanding knowledge related to ancient Egyptians is actually based on the nature of philosophical thought. Approach: In the discussion of ancient Egypt philosophy, it is important to look at it from the perspectives of the four branches of philosophy; metaphysics, epistemology, axiology and logic. Metaphysics has two elements, which ar...

  13. Geography, Writing System and History of Ancient Civilizations

    OpenAIRE

    Mo, Pak-Hung

    2013-01-01

    We find an undiscovered effect of geography on the choices of writing system in ancient civilizations that in turn drive their courses of historical evolution. The fates of the ancient civilizations were predetermined by the causation spirals generated by the writing system chosen by their ancient ancestors. Understanding the mechanism can enlighten our present political choices that in turn determine the future course of humankind evolution. It can also inspire us about the clue to build an ...

  14. Re-discovering ancient wheat varieties as functional foods

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, Raymond

    2015-01-01

    With the gluten-free food market worth almost $1.6 bn in 2011, there is every reason for renewed interest in ancient grains. This resurgent interest is expressed in re-discovering ancient varieties as functional foods. In particular, people affected by celiac disease have to avoid all gluten in their diet and several ancient grains may offer an important alternative.

  15. Chinese Food in America

    OpenAIRE

    Jou, Diana T.

    2011-01-01

    How did Chinese food get to look like this? With more than 41,000 Chinese restaurants in America - 3 times the number of McDonald’s restaurants - Chinese food is one of the most accepted and misunderstood cuisines in the United States. From large cities to small towns, locals can always count on an order of orange chicken in a takeout box, with a few fortune cookies thrown in the bag. But what Americans view as Chinese food is far from a traditional Chinese meal, wh...

  16. Danish-accented Chinese

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Lei; Sloos, Marjoleine 莱娜; Zhang, Chun

    In search for a linguistic basis for the education of Chinese as a foreign language CFL in Denmark, we set up a new line of investigation into CFL. This research focuses on the phonetics and phonology of Mandarin Chinese as compared to Danish. Considering the sound systems of both languages, we...... note some differences and similarities. The most remarkable differences are: -Chinese has rhotic sounds (pinyin ch, zh, sh, r) but Danish does not -Chinese has affricates (c z ch zh tɕ j) but Danish does not What Danish shares with Chinese is the contrast between aspirated and plain consonants: pa...

  17. Using Ancient DNA to Understand Evolutionary and Ecological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Cooper, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient DNA provides a unique means to record genetic change through time and directly observe evolutionary and ecological processes. Although mostly based on mitochondrial DNA, the increasing availability of genomic sequences is leading to unprecedented levels of resolution. Temporal studies of...... modern populations. Importantly, the complex series of events revealed by ancient DNA data is seldom reflected in current biogeographic patterns. DNA preserved in ancient sediments and coprolites has been used to characterize a range of paleoenvironments and reconstruct functional relationships in...... paleoecological systems. In the near future, genome-level surveys of ancient populations will play an increasingly important role in revealing, calibrating, and testing evolutionary processes....

  18. Ancient iron and lead isotope analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Little work has been published to date on the subject of lead isotope analysis of ancient iron artefacts. That which has suffers from a lack of understanding of the nature of ancient iron, and of the behavior of lead in relation to iron oxides. This paper examines data from a lead isotope study of 12th-10th Century B.C.E. iron artefacts from Israel and Palestine, and iron ores from these and surrounding areas, focusing on the issues of iron corrosion and lead contamination. The data shows that experimentally produced bloomery iron contains very little lead (less than O. 1 ppm), with most lead in the ore being reduced in the smelting process and lost to the slag. This low quantity of lead raises the question of contamination in samples which have been corroding whilst buried, in this case, for 3000 years. It is proposed that useful lead isotope data may be obtained where analysis of hydrated iron oxides in particular is avoided, as they commonly make up the outer layers of recovered ancient iron objects, formed in direct association with surrounding soil and rock. Lead contamination of these porous oxides- is a constantly observed feature of the material, and the affinity of lead for such oxides is well documented. Where there exists uncorroded iron (a rare event), or where there exists a core of magnetite beneath the outer hydrated oxide layers, it may be possible to obtain useful lead isotope data, which reflect the isotopic composition of the metal as it emerged from the furnace in antiquity. A magnetic separation process and washing in cold 7M HCl are proposed as means of removing contaminated hydrated iron oxides from this more useful material in the laboratory, prior to lead isotope analysis

  19. CASE REPORT: Giant Retroperitoneal Presacral Ancient Schwannoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jiffry, B.O1, 2; Othman,B.S2; Hatem, M1

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Ancient schwannoma, is a rare variant of schwannoma with characterization of degenerative changes and diffuse hypercellularity. Retroperitoneal presacral form is often found incidentally, because they present with vague symptoms or symptomless. Schwannoma occurring in this area occasionally presents with enormous dimensions, known as a giant schwannoma. The tumor removal is a surgical challenge due to the difficult approach and abundant vascularity. In this report we describe a 61 –year old female presented to ER with vaginal bleeding and lower abdominal pain. The case diagnosed on clinical, CT and MRI findings to be a fibroma of the left ovary. Exploration by the gynecology team revealed a huge retroperitoneal presacral tumor compressing the left external iliac vessels and displacing the left ureter; they took a biopsy and closed the abdomen. Histopathological result was benign schwannoma. The patient were referred to our hospital (Al Hada Armed Forces Hospital, Taif, Saudi Arabia to be managed from postoperative DVT when her family asked our department of surgery for further management and signed a high risk consent. We explored the case after insertion of IVC filter and ureteric catheter. A 20x20 cm mass was thoroughly dissected and resected with part of sacrum. The final histopathological result was benign nerve sheath tumor with features consistent with degenerated (ancient schwannoma and the tumor was completely resected. The patient was discharged from the hospital without complications and follow up for three years revealed no recurrence. The clinical, radiological, and pathological features of this disease are discussed in this report. To conclude, retroperitoneal giant ancient schwannomas are a rare variant of the benign schwannoma and often present as unrecognized slow growing masses. Keep in mind potentially severe bleeding and neurological deficit risk of surgical intervention without away from oncologic principle

  20. Manned Spaceflight Ancient Dream, Modern Attempt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China was first in the world to invent rockets, and the first "astronaut" was also Chinese. In the late 14th century a man named Wanhu had himself tied to a special chair, the back of which was fitted with 47 prototype rockets, while he

  1. Conserved intron positions in ancient protein modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Roos Albert DG

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of the origin of introns is of crucial importance for an understanding of early genome architecture. The Exon theory of genes proposed a role for introns in the formation of multi-exon proteins by exon shuffling and predicts the presence of conserved splice sites in ancient genes. In this study, large-scale analysis of potential conserved splice sites was performed using an intron-exon database (ExInt derived from GenBank. Results A set of conserved intron positions was found by matching identical splice sites sequences from distantly-related eukaryotic kingdoms. Most amino acid sequences with conserved introns were homologous to consensus sequences of functional domains from conserved proteins including kinases, phosphatases, small GTPases, transporters and matrix proteins. These included ancient proteins that originated before the eukaryote-prokaryote split, for instance the catalytic domain of protein phosphatase 2A where a total of eleven conserved introns were found. Using an experimental setup in which the relation between a splice site and the ancientness of its surrounding sequence could be studied, it was found that the presence of an intron was positively correlated to the ancientness of its surrounding sequence. Intron phase conservation was linked to the conservation of the gene sequence and not to the splice site sequence itself. However, no apparent differences in phase distribution were found between introns in conserved versus non-conserved sequences. Conclusion The data confirm an origin of introns deep in the eukaryotic branch and is in concordance with the presence of introns in the first functional protein modules in an 'Exon theory of genes' scenario. A model is proposed in which shuffling of primordial short exonic sequences led to the formation of the first functional protein modules, in line with hypotheses that see the formation of introns integral to the origins of genome evolution

  2. On Borders: From Ancient to Postmodern Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellezza, G.

    2013-11-01

    The article deals with the evolution of the concept of borders between human groups and with its slow evolution from the initial no men's land zones to the ideal single-dimension linear borders. In ancient times the first borders were natural, such as mountain ranges or large rivers until, with the development of Geodesy, astronomical borders based on meridians and parallels became a favourite natural base. Actually, Modern States adopted these to fix limits in unknown conquered territories. The postmodern thought led give more importance to cultural borders until, in the most recent times, is becoming rather impossible to fix borders in the virtual cyberspace.

  3. Human Nature Evil in Ancient Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜

    2015-01-01

    Whether man is good or evil by nature is a constant topic tophilosophers and writers. Is a man born virtuous or evil? What onearth is human nature? Is the origin of human nature kind or wicked?People have been debating over this topic for centuries. Theseseemingly simple questions have perplexed those Great Minds forthousands of years in European countries and are the constant themesof literary works as well. The problem of human nature is the deepestof the issues regarding human beings which have long been underdiscussion since ancient time.

  4. The Charm of An Ancient Southern City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AN artistic narrow bridge winds into a place of pavilions, terraces and open halls, all under the pleasant shade of green trees. This is Mist-Water Pavilion Park in Gantang Lake in the city of Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province. When you stand here in the quiet and elegant historic garden and look out over the water on all four sides, you can’t help but think of the ancient war that took place on this very spot 1,700 years ago. During the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280), this was

  5. Buried Alive: Microbes from Ancient Halite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaakkola, Salla T; Ravantti, Janne J; Oksanen, Hanna M; Bamford, Dennis H

    2016-02-01

    Halite is one of the most extreme environments to support life. From the drought of the Atacama Desert to salt deposits up to Permian in age and 2000 meters in burial depth, live microbes have been found. Because halite is geologically stable and impermeable to ground water, the microbes allegedly have a syndepositional origin, making them the oldest organisms known to live on Earth. Recently, our understanding of the microbial diversity inside halite has broadened, and the first genome sequences of ancient halite-buried microbes are now available. The secrets behind prolonged survival in salt are also starting to be revealed. PMID:26796472

  6. Ancient Egypt, Sacred Science, and Transatlantic Romanticism

    OpenAIRE

    Redd, Marques Jerard

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Egyptian culture has been a powerful influence on a major tradition of English literature that runs from Edmund Spenser's The Faerie Queene (1596), one of whose major iconographic centers is the temple of Isis, to John Crowley's four-volume novel Ægypt (2007). My dissertation focuses on the Romantic period - the midpoint of this trajectory - because it is an extremely intense moment of this influence. In addition to the visions of Egypt presented in the Bible, Greco-Roman writers, a...

  7. The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  8. An ancient greek pain remedy for athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bartels, Else M.; Swaddling, Judith; Harrison, Adrian Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Hippocratic writings make no reference to the actual Olympics, there is frequent mention of diet, exercise, and the treatment of injuries sustained by the athletic participants. Indeed, Galen in his Composition of Medicines gives details of a remedy prescribed for the relief of pains and...... swellings, which was reserved for use by the winners of Olympic events, the so-called "Fuscum Olympionico inscriptum"-(ointment) entitled "dark Olympic victor's". In a time when the Olympic games have recently returned to their homeland, we examine the potential efficacy of this ancient remedy in terms of...

  9. Food, dietetics and nutrition in ancient India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyam, B V

    1995-01-01

    In pre-agricultural era, entire mankind consumed meat as early man was a hunter. Possibly he ate from plants sources which grew in the wilderness. With the advent of agriculture as an outcome of civilization, man acquired the ability to cultivate what he wanted, as by now he was influenced to some extent by the selection of the food that he wanted to eat. All this ultimately led to him taking to vegeterianism, which probably did not occur until approximately 1500 B.C. It is tried in this study to examine the concept of nutrition, balanced diet, appetite, food etiquette, food sanitation and food poisoning etc. in ancient India. PMID:11618846

  10. Study of ancient pottery from Slovakia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancient pottery samples collected from south-west Slovakia were studied through subjective observation and by Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method is convenient for determining the provenance and the manufacture of pottery. Transformations, induced by firing the clay and characterized by Moessbauer spectroscopy, give valuable information regarding the manufacture as, for instance, the final temperature of firing in it. The relative abundance of Fe2+ and Fe3+ determines the atmosphere used to fire a pottery. It has been found that the determination of the firing atmosphere obtained through the subjective observation is in good agreement with that obtained using Moessbauer spectroscopy. An unfired and fired clay was also investigated. (orig.)

  11. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James; McLay, Emma;

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful......, evidenced by retrieval of both mitochondrial and nuclear DNA from many of the samples. Using confocal microscopy and quantitative PCR, this study critically evaluates approaches to maximize DNA recovery from powdered eggshell. Our quantitative PCR experiments also demonstrate that moa eggshell has...

  12. National semantic infrastructure for traditional Chinese medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua-jun CHEN

    2012-01-01

    1 Introduction Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is "the traditional medicine that originated in China,and is characterized by holism and treatment based on pattern identification/syndrome differentiation" (WHO,2007).In China,traditional medicine accounts for around 40% of all healthcare delivered;in the West,TCM is increasingly adopted by medical practitioners as a form of complementary and altemative medicine (CAM) (WHO,2002).Both in China and in the West,scientists are attempting to bring the ancient heritage of TCM into line with modem standards,through the scientific development of TCM in the direction of evidence-based medicine (Qiu,2007).There is a pressing need for the digital preservation and global access of TCM knowledge assets.

  13. Nuclear analytical methods on ancient Thai rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For more than half of humanity, rice is life. Rice is a grain which has shaped the history, culture, diet and economy of billions of people in Asia. In Thailand, it is the essence of life. Archaeological evidence revealed that rice had been planted in northeastern area of Thailand more than 5,500 years ago which is earlier than in China and India. The ancient rice grains were found in various archaeological sites in Thailand such as Nakhon Nayok, Suphan Buri and Prachin Buri Provinces. In this work, the ancient black rice from Nakhon Nayok Province was elementally analyzed using scanning electron microscope coupled with energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, proton induced X-ray emission spectroscopy and micro-beam energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. Infrared (IR) spectroscopy was also used to study the chemical composition and bio-molecular structure. The grains were oblique in shape with a rough surface. Three major elements (Si, Ca and Al) and other trace elements were detected. The IR spectra provided some information about the presence of molecular bonds. (author)

  14. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Peruvian highlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinoda, Ken-ichi; Adachi, Noboru; Guillen, Sonia; Shimada, Izumi

    2006-09-01

    Ancient DNA recovered from 57 individuals excavated by Hiram Bingham at the rural communities of Paucarcancha, Patallacta, and Huata near the famed Inca royal estate and ritual site of Machu Picchu was analyzed by polymerase chain reaction, and the results were compared with ancient and modern DNA from various Central Andean areas to test their hypothesized indigenous highland origins. The control and coding regions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) of 35 individuals in this group were sequenced, and the haplogroups of each individual were determined. The frequency data for the haplogroups of these samples show clear proximity to those of modern Quechua and Aymara populations in the Peruvian and Bolivian highlands, and contrast with those of pre-Hispanic individuals of the north coast of Peru that we defined previously. Our study suggests a strong genetic affinity between sampled late pre-Hispanic individuals and modern Andean highlanders. A previous analysis of the Machu Picchu osteological collection suggests that the residents there were a mixed group of natives from various coastal and highland regions relocated by the Inca state for varied purposes. Overall, our study indicates that the sampled individuals from Paucarcancha and Patallacta were indigenous highlanders who provided supportive roles for nearby Machu Picchu. PMID:16485299

  15. Sample Return from Ancient Hydrothermal Springs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Carlton C.; Oehler, Dorothy Z.

    2008-01-01

    Hydrothermal spring deposits on Mars would make excellent candidates for sample return. Molecular phylogeny suggests that that life on Earth may have arisen in hydrothermal settings [1-3], and on Mars, such settings not only would have supplied energy-rich waters in which martian life may have evolved [4-7] but also would have provided warm, liquid water to martian life forms as the climate became colder and drier [8]. Since silica, sulfates, and clays associated with hydrothermal settings are known to preserve geochemical and morphological remains of ancient terrestrial life [9-11], such settings on Mars might similarly preserve evidence of martian life. Finally, because formation of hydrothermal springs includes surface and subsurface processes, martian spring deposits would offer the potential to assess astrobiological potential and hydrological history in a variety of settings, including surface mineralized terraces, associated stream deposits, and subsurface environments where organic remains may have been well protected from oxidation. Previous attempts to identify martian spring deposits from orbit have been general or limited by resolution of available data [12-14]. However, new satellite imagery from HiRISE has a resolution of 28 cm/pixel, and based on these new data, we have interpreted several features in Vernal Crater, Arabia Terra as ancient hydrothermal springs [15, 16].

  16. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.

    2015-07-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  17. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola

    2001-05-01

    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  18. PIXE analysis of western han dynasty ancient glasses unearthed in Yangzhou city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chemical composition analysis is one of the most important research aspects to provide scientific proof for the technical origin and development of Chinese ancient glass. Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique is a kind of multi-element quantitative analysis method with high sensitivity and without destruction of samples. Chemical composition of the Western Han dynasty glass garment flakes, which were excavated from Yangzhou city, was analyzed by PIXE, quantitatively. It was found that these glass flakes were attributed to PbO-BaO-SiO2 glass originated in China. These flakes all consist of a glass core and a corroded outer layer with different thickness. There are relatively higher PbO, P2O5 and CaO, while much lower BaO and SiO2 in the corroded layers than in the glass cores. The experimental results were discussed

  19. Single nucleotide polymorphisms of Kit gene in Chinese indigenous horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Haoyuan; Mao, Chunchun; Chen, Ningbo; Lan, Xianyong; Chen, Hong; Lei, Chuzhao; Dang, Ruihua

    2016-02-01

    Kit gene is a genetic determinant of horse white coat color which has been a highly valued trait in horses for at least 2,000 years. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in Kit are of importance due to their strong associations with melanoblast survival during embryonic development. In this study, a mutation analysis of all 21 Kit exons in 14 Chinese domestic horse breeds revealed six SNPs (g.91214T>G, g.143245T>G, g.164297C>T, g.170189C>T, g.171356C>G, and g.171471G>A), which located in 5'-UTR region, intron 6, exon 15, exon 20, intron 20, and exon 21 of the equine Kit gene, respectively. Subsequently, these six SNPs loci were genotyped in 632 Chinese horses by PCR-RFLP or direct sequencing. The six SNPs together defined 18 haplotypes, demonstrating abundant haplotype diversities in Chinese horses. All the mutant alleles and haplotypes were shared among different breeds. But fewer mutations were detected in horses from China than that from abroad, indicating that Chinese horses belong to a more ancient genetic pool. This study will provide fundamental genetic information for evaluating the genetic diversity of Kit gene in Chinese indigenous horse breeds. PMID:27348891

  20. Macroscopic Biological Characteristics of Individualized Therapy in Chinese Mongolian Osteopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namula, Zhao; Mei, Wang; Li, Xue-en

    Objective: Chinese Mongolian osteopathy has been passed down from ancient times and includes unique practices and favorable efficacy. In this study, we investigate the macroscopic biological characteristics of individualized Chinese Mongolian osteopathy, in order to provide new principle and methods for the treatment of bone fracture. Method: With a view to provide a vital link between nature and humans, the four stages of Chinese Mongolian osteopathy focus on the unity of the mind and body, the limbs and body organs, the body and its functions, and humans and nature. Results: We discuss the merits of individualized osteopathy in terms of the underlying concepts, and evaluate the approaches and principles of traditional medicine, as well as biomechanics. Conclusions: Individualized Mongolian osteopathy targets macroscopic biological components including dynamic reduction, natural fixation, and functional healing. Chinese Mongolian osteopathy is a natural, ecological and non-invasive osteopathy that values the link between nature and humans, including the unity of mind and body. The biological components not only serve as a foundation for Chinese Mongolian osteopathy but are also important for the future development of modern osteopathy, focusing on individualization, actualization and integration.

  1. The Moessbauer experiment on the clays and the imitative ancient porcelains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is analyzed that Moessbauer parameter variations of clays from the famous sites of ancient kilns change with temperature, time and atmosphere in firing process. The variation of the Moessbauer parameters of the imitative ancient Chinese Ru porcelain sky-green glaze with the firing conditions is studied in detail. The Moessbauer spectra show that the sky-green glaze contains three kinds of iron minerals, i.e. the structural iron (Fe2+ and Fe3+); Fe2O3 and Fe3O4; The relative intensity of the paramagnetic peak Fe2+ increases and the magnetic ratio of the magnetic peak decreases with increasing temperature. Based on the variation of the quadrupole splitting (QS) of the paramagnetic peak Fe2+, the phase transformation characteristics of the sky-green glaze in the firing process is discussed. The coloring mechanism of the sky-green glaze and the variation of its magnetism in the firing process are also investigated. The variation of the hyperfine interaction parameters and the variable mechanism of the sky-green glaze at liquid helium temperature is studied. Moessbauer spectra of the imitative ancient blue Jun porcelain indicate that the glaze and boby materials contain Fe2O3, Fe3O4 and structural iron. It is clear that during the firing process, the glaze undergoes dehydration, dehydroxylation, vitrification and recrystallization. The Fe2+ quadrupole splitting value of the paramagnetic peak of the body material is rather high even at low firing temperature. The distinction between dehydration and dehyroxylation is not clear. The changes of magnetism of the glaze and body materials in the firing process and coloring mechanism of the sky-blue Jun porcelain are analyzed

  2. 汉语成语的文史信息%Literature and History Information in Chinese Idiom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    汉语成语是中国语言的一大特色,汉语成语源远流长,蕴含大量的古代文史信息。本文通过汉语成语的出处的分析研究,以数据说话,揭示了中国古代文化发展和文化名人辈出的历史规律。%Chinese idiom is one of the features of Chinese language. It has a long history, which contains a large number of ancient literature and history information. This article through analysis and study of the origin of Chinese idiom, with a lot of data, reveals the historical law of Chinese ancient culture development and cul-tural celebrity men.

  3. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-11-01

    Full Text Available Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  4. A new look at old bread: ancient Egyptian baking

    OpenAIRE

    Delwen Samuel

    1999-01-01

    Despite abundant archaeological, pictorial and textual evidence of ancient Egyptian life and death, we have little detailed information about the staple diet of most of the population. Now experimental work by a postdoctoral Wellcome Research Fellow in Bioarchaeology at the Institute is revealing how the ancient Egyptians made their daily bread.

  5. A modern appraisal of ancient Etruscan herbal practices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Adrian Paul; Bartels, E.M.

    2006-01-01

    that the "Etruscan Herbal" contains such plants as valerian and henbane, which with regard to their hypnotic and delirium-easing effects, respectively, may have been used in a more ritual and magical way by ancient herbalists and societies throughout the ancient Mediterranean. Without a doubt though, the application...

  6. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  7. Evolution of Management Thought in the Ancient Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. L.

    This paper argues that although systematic management thought is a distinctly modern development, the writings of ancient scholars and records of ancient rulers infer that they understood the rudiments of management principles and concepts. To support this thesis, the author reviews the evidence of management practices and concepts in various…

  8. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We...

  9. Design a Book: A Quest in Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, David

    2005-01-01

    This article describes a classroom project that combines creative writing, basic book design, and social studies content. During this project, the authors' seventh grade students research a variety of ancient Egyptian archaeological sites while reviewing course material from a unit of study on ancient Egypt, practice project management skills…

  10. Trade routes and communication pattern of ancient Orissa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Patnaik, S.K.

    attempt has been made for the study of the trade routes and communication pattern of ancient Orissa. Thus an attempt is made to trace out the trade routes and communication pattern of ancient Orissa in the light of available archaeological and literary...

  11. Effects and Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicine in Ameliorating Myocardial Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Liu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (MIR injury is a major contributor to the morbidity and mortality associated with coronary artery disease, which accounts for approximately 450,000 deaths a year in the United States alone. Chinese herbal medicine, especially combined herbal formulations, has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of myocardial infarction for hundreds of years. While the efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine is well documented, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain elusive. In this review, we highlight recent studies which are focused on elucidating the cellular and molecular mechanisms using extracted compounds, single herbs, or herbal formulations in experimental settings. These studies represent recent efforts to bridge the gap between the enigma of ancient Chinese herbal medicine and the concepts of modern cell and molecular biology in the treatment of myocardial infarction.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Sampula population in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The archaeological site of Sampula cemetery was located about 14 km to the southwest of the Luo County in Xinjiang Khotan, China, belonging to the ancient Yutian kingdom. 14C analysis showed that this cemetery was used from 217 B.C. to 283 A.D.Ancient DNA was analyzed by 364 bp of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region Ⅰ (mtDNA HVR-Ⅰ), and by six restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of mtDNA coding region. We successfully extracted and sequenced intact stretches of maternally inherited mtDNA from 13 out of 16 ancient Sampula samples. The analysis of mtDNA haplogroup distribution showed that the ancient Sampula was a complex population with both European and Asian characteristics. Median joining network of U3 sub-haplogroup and multi-dimensional scaling analysis all showed that the ancient Sampula had maternal relationship with Ossetian and Iranian.

  13. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2005-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  14. Ayurveda and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhushan Patwardhan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, the traditional Indian medicine (TIM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM remain the most ancient yet living traditions. There has been increased global interest in traditional medicine. Efforts to monitor and regulate herbal drugs and traditional medicine are underway. China has been successful in promoting its therapies with more research and science-based approach, while Ayurveda still needs more extensive scientific research and evidence base. This review gives an overview of basic principles and commonalities of TIM and TCM and discusses key determinants of success, which these great traditions need to address to compete in global markets.

  15. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  16. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  17. CHINESE OF HUMANITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A discussion of chinese curriculum of primary school under the background of new curriculum reform Mao xinjuan Feng haiying [Abstract] in recent years, Chinese learning received more and more attention by people article mainly from the national studies this course concepts, the curriculum reform of elementary school curriculum requirements and how to effective implementation of primary national studies course several aspects under the background of curriculum reform of Chinese primary curriculum the new school

  18. Studies in Continuity and Change: A Comparative Study of the Mother Goddess in Ancient India and Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardiman, W. J.

    Visiting the Temple of Kali in Calcutta, India, one understands the importance of an Afro-centric methodology in describing the complex nature of the Mother Goddess in ancient India. Discoveries of ancient female figurines indicate an early Indian concept of the female role in the creation of civilization and culture and of the notion of the…

  19. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese calligraphy sheets. Checks with ancient documents of known age and its application to kohitsugire calligraphies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient documents, sutras and books of known age were measured by AMS. The calibrated radiocarbon ages corresponded to the years in which they were written. The result shows that Japanese paper is suitable for radiocarbon dating. Radiocarbon dating on ancient calligraphies of unknown age clarified their historical ages and academic value. (author)

  20. Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, David (Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas)

    2003-02-12

    The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

  1. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R;

    2007-01-01

    geological timescales. There has been no direct evidence in ancient microbes for the most likely mechanism, active DNA repair, or for the metabolic activity necessary to sustain it. In this paper, we couple PCR and enzymatic treatment of DNA with direct respiration measurements to investigate long...... this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability.......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence that...

  2. Ancient asteroids enriched in refractory inclusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunshine, J M; Connolly, H C; McCoy, T J; Bus, S J; La Croix, L M

    2008-04-25

    Calcium- and aluminum-rich inclusions (CAIs) occur in all classes of chondritic meteorites and contain refractory minerals predicted to be the first condensates from the solar nebula. Near-infrared spectra of CAIs have strong 2-micrometer absorptions, attributed to iron oxide-bearing aluminous spinel. Similar absorptions are present in the telescopic spectra of several asteroids; modeling indicates that these contain approximately 30 +/- 10% CAIs (two to three times that of any meteorite). Survival of these undifferentiated, large (50- to 100-kilometer diameter) CAI-rich bodies suggests that they may have formed before the injection of radiogenic 26Al into the solar system. They have also experienced only modest post-accretionary alteration. Thus, these asteroids have higher concentrations of CAI material, appear less altered, and are more ancient than any known sample in our meteorite collection, making them prime candidates for sample return. PMID:18356491

  3. Hydraulic performance of an ancient Spanish watermill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Toni; Sola, Jordi; Montoro, Lino; Pelegri, Marc [Area de Mecanica de Fluids, Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica i de la Construccio Industrial, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Here we analyze the hydraulic performance of an ancient Spanish horizontal watermill. Previous studies of similar devices have focused on qualitative descriptions of their technical functioning, providing efficiency curves based on two-dimensional analytical approximations. In contrast, here we perform three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that allow us to obtain quantitative values for both the hydraulic torque and the power. The results here found reveal how previous studies clearly overestimated the efficiency of these devices. Finally, we make use of the capabilities of CFDs by investigating the performance of a modified blade profile. The new design here proposed successfully increases the energy efficiency (up to 44%) in comparison with the classical one. (author)

  4. Trace elements in ancient ceramics: Pt.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last period of Tong Dynasty, Jingdezhen began its production of ceramics. During the Song Dynasty, the ceramic industry greatly developed and produced fine white ware at Hutian. In the Yuan Dynastry, Hutian became the centre of production making the world famous blue and white wares. Here are reported results of analyses of ancient porcelians of Hutian in Jiangdezhen by reactor neutron activation analysis. The results show that the patterns of eight rare earth elements are apparently different for products in different periods, indicating that methods for producing ceramics or kinds of clay used were different. The contents of some other trace elements such as hafnium, tantalum, thorium and uranium show the same regularity in difference of composition also

  5. Phobias in Poetry: Coleridge's Ancient Mariner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Satendra; Khetarpal, Abha

    2012-04-01

    The Rime of the Ancient Mariner was written by Coleridge and is a classic poetry about retribution, punishment, guilt, and curse. Religious beliefs and delusions can arise from neurologic lesions and anomalous experiences, suggesting that at least some religious beliefs can be pathological. Looking at the poem through the psychiatric and psychological domain, the symbolism, the narration and the entire setting of the poem represents Post Traumatic Stress Disorder. Mariner's reactions are beautifully portrayed from the psychoanalytic point of view and the literary piece shows claustrophobia, stygiophobia, dikephobia, and poinephobia. The mental stress of a person under a crisis situation has remarkably been evoked in this poem. This incredible piece of art expresses how the realization of divine love within oneself has the power to heal pain and suffer. PMID:23162202

  6. Unknown ancient Greek ophthalmological instruments and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaratos, J; Marketos, S

    1997-01-01

    Discoveries of some ancient medical instruments and equipment found in the Hellenic world have been published in magazines of general interest and in a rare Greek medical journal, yet none caught the attention of ophthalmologists. Among these instruments are two forms of the famous 'Kenteterion', dating from the Hellenistic period, used for the couching of cataract. These were found on the island of Milos in the last century. Two magnifying lenses of the Archaic period from the recent Cretan excavations gave us the opportunity to discuss the problem of their medical use. The two drop-bottles from the excavations on Cyprus and at Tanagra, which are also described, seem to be of medical, and possible ophthalmological, use. PMID:9657298

  7. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher B; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Peretti, Alberto; Geoghegan, Eileen M; Tisza, Michael J; An, Ping; Katz, Joshua P; Pipas, James M; McBride, Alison A; Camus, Alvin C; McDermott, Alexa J; Dill, Jennifer A; Delwart, Eric; Ng, Terry F F; Farkas, Kata; Austin, Charlotte; Kraberger, Simona; Davison, William; Pastrana, Diana V; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-04-01

    Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae. PMID:27093155

  8. Panorama of ancient metazoan macromolecular complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Cuihong; Borgeson, Blake; Phanse, Sadhna; Tu, Fan; Drew, Kevin; Clark, Greg; Xiong, Xuejian; Kagan, Olga; Kwan, Julian; Bezginov, Alexandr; Chessman, Kyle; Pal, Swati; Cromar, Graham; Papoulas, Ophelia; Ni, Zuyao; Boutz, Daniel R; Stoilova, Snejana; Havugimana, Pierre C; Guo, Xinghua; Malty, Ramy H; Sarov, Mihail; Greenblatt, Jack; Babu, Mohan; Derry, W Brent; Tillier, Elisabeth R; Wallingford, John B; Parkinson, John; Marcotte, Edward M; Emili, Andrew

    2015-09-17

    Macromolecular complexes are essential to conserved biological processes, but their prevalence across animals is unclear. By combining extensive biochemical fractionation with quantitative mass spectrometry, here we directly examined the composition of soluble multiprotein complexes among diverse metazoan models. Using an integrative approach, we generated a draft conservation map consisting of more than one million putative high-confidence co-complex interactions for species with fully sequenced genomes that encompasses functional modules present broadly across all extant animals. Clustering reveals a spectrum of conservation, ranging from ancient eukaryotic assemblies that have probably served cellular housekeeping roles for at least one billion years, ancestral complexes that have accrued contemporary components, and rarer metazoan innovations linked to multicellularity. We validated these projections by independent co-fractionation experiments in evolutionarily distant species, affinity purification and functional analyses. The comprehensiveness, centrality and modularity of these reconstructed interactomes reflect their fundamental mechanistic importance and adaptive value to animal cell systems. PMID:26344197

  9. The pecked cross symbol in ancient mesoamerica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveni, A F; Hartung, H; Buckingham, B

    1978-10-20

    Attention is directed to a design, possibly of Teotihuacan origin, carved both in rock and in the floors of ceremonial buildings throughout ancient Mesoamerica. Consisting generally of a double circular pattern centered on a set of orthogonal axes, the so-called pecked cross or quartered circle figure is shown to exhibit a remarkable consistency in appearance throughout its 29 reported locations, thus suggesting that it was not perfunctory. The metric properties of the symbols gleaned from field surveys are delineated, and several interpretations of their possible functions are discussed. These symbols may have been intended as astronomical orientational devices, surveyor's bench marks, calendars, or ritual games. Evidence is presented which implies that more than one and perhaps all of these functions were employed simultaneously, a view which is shown to be consistent with the cosmological attitude of the pre-Columbian people. PMID:17817633

  10. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Christopher B.; Van Doorslaer, Koenraad; Peretti, Alberto; Geoghegan, Eileen M.; Tisza, Michael J.; An, Ping; Katz, Joshua P.; Pipas, James M.; McBride, Alison A.; Camus, Alvin C.; McDermott, Alexa J.; Dill, Jennifer A.; Delwart, Eric; Ng, Terry F. F.; Farkas, Kata; Austin, Charlotte; Kraberger, Simona; Davison, William; Pastrana, Diana V.; Varsani, Arvind

    2016-01-01

    Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae. PMID:27093155

  11. Do Not Cry for Me, Confucius: The Reconstruction of Chinese Female Identity During the Cultural Revolution

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Traditional Chinese women were portrayed as delicate and submissive. The most famous proverbs prevailed in imperial China were “A woman without knowledge is a woman of virtue” and “It is the law of nature that woman should be held under the dominance of man.” Indeed, the rule of surviving in a society for any ancient Chinese women was “three obedience and four virtues”: a woman had to be obedient to her father before marriage, to her husband after marriage and to her son after her husband's d...

  12. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia - part 2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2010-01-01

    The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. Insofar, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of a approximately shipu (clergymanexorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as common healthy individuals or rule leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) that, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for, would give a final decision about the disease or the future. Besides this more occult facet, nourished in religious faiths and in the magic, the medicine of Ancient Mesopotamia included rational knowledge, certainly as the result of systematic patients observation and semiotic interpretation. From those observations and knowledge referred to the Sumerian period, carefully logged, refined and transmitted to the following generations, it was built a valuable group of texts with the description of symptoms, signs, diagnosis and prognostic of the most common diseases, still identifiable in the present. PMID:20353716

  13. Rare and endangered plant species of the Chinese Altai Mountains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marina; V.OLONOVA

    2010-01-01

    Altai (also named Altay in China) Mountain Country (Mountain System) is a unique natural region,located on the border between different floristic regimes of the Boreal and ancient Mediterranean sub-kingdoms,where distribution of plant species is actually limited. It is known to have sufficient endemic floral biodiversity in the Northern Asia. Many plants of Altai Mountain System need effective care and proper conservation measures for their survival and longer-term protection. Important Plant Area identified as the IUCN (the International Union for Conservation of Nature),specified criteria attract global attention for protection of floral biodiversity across the world. The records of 71 plant species from the Chinese Altai Mountains attributed to the criterion A and the dark conifer forests of Chinese Altai Mountains satisfied the criterion C,which may help qualify to fulfill the national obligation of the Convention on Biological Diversity.

  14. Interpretation of traditional Chinese thinking using a systems theory approach: Dialectical materialism

    OpenAIRE

    Tsui, WK

    2013-01-01

    This study uses the formulation of systems theory to systematically interpret three ancient Chinese theories – the theory of the five elements, the theory of yin-yang, and the theory of qi. The five elements theory explains the internal structure and linkages of things; the theory of qi explains the change mechanism of materials, energy, and information both internally and externally; and the theory of yin-yang explains the conditions for the harmonious development of things an...

  15. A Dialectic Study of the Structure and Basic Concepts of Traditional Chinese Law and an Analysis of the Relationship Between li (ceremony) and fa (law)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Xianyi; MA Xiaohong

    2006-01-01

    In the course of history,the meaning offa (a Chinese character with an approximate meaning of "law") has not been invariable,and its connotation in modem times has been enriched constantly,so as to incorporate many elements of ancient li (ceremony).If the modem concept of law,already changed and still changing,is to be used to mechanically compare and interpret traditional Chinese law,misunderstandings might arise.Actually,li and fa are indispensable components of traditional Chinese law,and the lack of necessary study of the li will prevent us from understanding and explaining the spirit of traditional Chinese law.In traditional Chinese law,"fa" usually refers to an institutional dimension,especially after Qin and Han dynasties,whereas li,especially li yi (moral basis for rites and ceremonies),is where the value and spirit of traditional Chinese law can be found.

  16. Guo Nian-Chinese New Year

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Zhiyang

    2012-01-01

    The 8th day of the 12th lunar monthis called Laba,the celebration of Chinese Lunar Nev Year starts from Laba on which day people enjoy a congee called Laba Zhou made of glutinous rice,dates and various beans.In ancient China,the main activity during Chinese New Year is to beat the ghosts,no matter royal family or common people.On the 23rd day of the same month,people offer sacrifice to the Kitchen God who decides weal and woe for abundant food and clothes.In the meantime,people do the cleaning to prevent diseases.On the 30th day,people paste pictures of door gods and couplets,put the flag out,make and eat dumplings and play fireworks.On the eve,people all stay up late to welcome the New Year.When the daybreak arrives,people visit each other to make New Year wishes.

  17. Heritage Conservation and Urban Landscaping of Ancient Pan Pool Neighborhood, Qufu: a Historical and Indigenous Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchun Zhang

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Gu Pan Pool neighborhood got its name because of Gu Pan Chi, (古泮池,the ancient Pan Pool, located in the southeastern part of Confucius’ birthplace, Qufu, the birth place of Confucius with a history of 3000 year. Gu Pan Pool has been recently under preservation with the joint efforts of World Bank cultural heritage conservation project and the local municipal government. With disparate interests in mind, the three stakeholders of heritage, the world bank, Qufu municipal government and local residents are contradictory with each other in the regeneration process, in which the local voices are often ignored. The purpose of this paper is to rethink heritage making from a historical and indigenous perspective in the contemporary Chinese urban historic landscape planning process. The author contends that the cultural value and pluralism embedded in the ritual way of thinking in Chinese Classics inherited and transmitted for thousands of years could be an alternative way of thinking for the landscape planning practices in the homogenizing culture of global capitalism. This research aims to reinterpret and re-activate Confucianism as cultural heritage to enrich the understanding and hence the sustainability related to human action in urban spaces with emphasis on planning processes in contemporary China.

  18. Chinese Foods; Teacher's Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Joe, Ed.

    Different styles of Chinese cooking, traditional food items, cooking utensils, serving techniques, and the nutritional value of Chinese cooking are described in this teaching guide. Lesson plans for the preparation of simple dishes are presented. Recipes, a shopping guide to San Francisco's Chinatown, a guide to sources of supplies, and a…

  19. Confucius Teaching Chinese Abroad

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG YUANKAI

    2010-01-01

    @@ On December 1, 2009, the Confucius Institute in Lyon, France, held a plaque-unveiling ceremony. Thomas Boutonnet, a Frenchman who has studied Chinese for 10 years in France and China and who is also an institute supervisor, said the institute would offer courses in Chinese language and culture covering legal, wade and cultural fields.

  20. FROM THE CHINESE PRESS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Equality and harmony are mainstream in Chinese marriage. The conclusion was made by a systematic investigation in 1996 on love and marriage relations between couples in Shanghai, Harbin, Guangdong, Gansu and other regions. Six thousand couples were surveyed in a multi-period, separated level probability sampling; the research was conducted by the study group, "Marriage quality during the period of Chinese social

  1. Say That in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Demand for Chinese language learning is fueling all aspects of the market, most notably the textbook publication industry Alarge-scale series of Chinese lan-guage textbooks are to be pub-lished in the coming years jointly by the China International Publi

  2. On Developing Business Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wei

    1996-01-01

    Examines the significance of foreign languages for business, particularly Business Chinese, in the 1990s; its curriculum requirements; and the impact of business languages on international business. The article proposes a developmental plan for Business Chinese at the college level including goals, course materials, learning activities, and…

  3. Chinese by Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beem, Kate

    2008-01-01

    A 2004 College Board survey revealed that school districts around America wanted to offer Chinese, but finding qualified teachers was a problem, says Selena Cantor, director of Chinese Language and Culture Initiatives for the College Board. So last year, a new College Board program brought guest teachers from China to school districts in 31…

  4. Equilibria of Chinese Auctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Branzei, Simina; Forero, Clara; Larson, Kate;

    Chinese auctions are a combination between a raffle and an auction and are held in practice at charity events or festivals. In a Chinese auction, multiple players compete for several items by buying tickets, which can be used to win the items. In front of each item there is a basket, and the play...

  5. ANCIENT CITY PLANNING SYSTEM OF CHINA IN ZHOU LI%《周礼》中的中国古代城市规划制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙施文

    2012-01-01

    通过对《周礼》文本的解读,在对其记载的与城市规划过程相关的官职及其职责进行整理的基础上,较为全面地揭示了《周礼》所记载的中国古代城市规划制度的基本架构并展示了其中的复杂性.论文提出,要理解中国古代城市规划,不能仅局限于《考工记》的记载,需要有更为广泛的研究,《周礼》提供了其中更为本质性的一部分.%Based on the review of Chinese classic Zhou Li and reorganization of the official positions and their responsibilities relevant to city planning recorded in it, the paper interprets the fundamental framework of city planning system in ancient China and indicates its complexity. The paper also puts forward that another Chinese classic Kao Gong Ji, which was a supplement of Zhou Li and was widely regarded as the fountainhead of city planning in ancient China, just recorded the norm of city form and imposed restrictions on city builders. The study on city planning institution in ancient China needs more adequate research, and the contents in Zhou Li have provided an essential part.

  6. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  7. Georgia, country of ancient medical traditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shengelia, R

    2000-06-01

    Georgian medicine as well as the whole culture of Georgia, is one of the oldest in the world. In more than the 500 medical manuscripts preserved and since described, there are traces of Sumerian medicine. Examples of Chinese, Indian and especially Arabic medicine are also clearly seen. At the same time close relationships with Graeco-Roman medical traditions are beyond doubt. Nursing homes established by Georgian healers, many of whom were canonized by the Orthodox Church are to be found in many churches and monasteries all over the world. They gave fruitful scientific research and practical help. PMID:11624591

  8. Modern Chinese History Studies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Famous Foreign Scholars' Lecture Tours in China Around the May Fourth Movement and Changes in Chinese Intellectual Circles From 1919 to 1924, John Dewey and four other famous foreign scholars came to China on lecture tours. These tours were great cultural undertakings to spread Western learning to the East after the First World War. The lectures these schol- ars gave helped to deepen the thoughts of Chinese people, and at the same time encouraged the diversification and evolution of Chinese intellectual circles. Firstly, the lectures hastened the birth of a contemporary Chinese wave of reflection on mo- dernity, and provided a basis for the theoretical views and cultural appeals of Liang Qichao and other members of the socalled "Orient Culture Faction," thereby increasing the tension intrinsic to the development of the New Culture Movement and to the expansion of intellectual horizons in Chinese intellectual circles.

  9. Chinese Companies in Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Kessler

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, some of China’s leading firms have made headlines with their European expansion, by either opening new facilities or by acquiring or merging with significant enterprises in Europe. The goal of this paper is to contribute to the existing literature by examining Chinese enterprises expanding into Switzerland. The study also allows some conclusions for Chinese companies entering Central and Eastern Europe. We analyze via interviews the motivations of Chinese companies to expand into Switzerland as well as their behavior and the impediments in their internationalization process. Our findings show that Chinese companies fail to take advantage of certain benefits of western economies (such as open information and stable rule of law. To move forward efficiently, they should develop competence in dealing systematically with readily available market information, building professional networks that recognize a separation between business life and personal life, and managing their Chinese and foreign employees in the foreign cultural environment.

  10. On Chinese Parody Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊俊

    2013-01-01

    Chinese parody, as a traditional figure of speech, has captured more and more attention from scholars. The researches conducted up to date are inadequate in theorizing and exploring its translation. This paper, based on the comparative data analysis of Chinese parody translation examples in different types of texts, attempts to probe into the means about how to achieve the clos⁃est function equivalence in rendering Chinese parody under the guidance of Sociosemiotic Approach. It is found that the nature of Chinese parody translation is to achieve the closest natural equivalence or similarity in expressive function, informative func⁃tion, vocative function and aesthetic function in its equivalents in English. And it is suggested that borrowing, imitating, para⁃phrasing and adapting are effective strategies in translating Chinese parody.

  11. Preservation of an ancient passive maker in Kurdish language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    كريمي دوستان ، ویسی كريمي دوستان ، ویسی

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The existence of passive makers in Kurdish language, similar to that of ancient Iranian languages can be very helpful in linguistic studies, language change and finding the nature of passive structures in modern Iranian languages such as Persian. The writers of this article have found a passive maker in Kurdish language and its dialects such as Sorani, Ardalani, Kalhori, Ilami and Horami that like ancient Iranian languages is added to the verb root to form passive structures. This morpheme in Kurdish language appears as /ya/ and /ya^/ which is similar to /ya/ in ancient Iranian languages.

  12. Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma: Review of clinico-radiological features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case is reported here of an ancient schwannoma in the retroperitoneum. The findings of abdominal ultrasound and CT in a patient with a retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma are presented, and the clinical and radiological features of this unusual tumour are reviewed. The presence of a large, well-delineated complex cystic mass in the deep soft tissues should raise the possibility of an ancient schwannoma. It is important to recognize these tumours as benign with excellent prognosis so as to avoid unnecessary radical surgery. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  13. Pathogens and host immunity in the ancient human oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warinner, Christina; Rodrigues, João F Matias; Vyas, Rounak;

    2014-01-01

    Calcified dental plaque (dental calculus) preserves for millennia and entraps biomolecules from all domains of life and viruses. We report the first, to our knowledge, high-resolution taxonomic and protein functional characterization of the ancient oral microbiome and demonstrate that the oral...... cavity has long served as a reservoir for bacteria implicated in both local and systemic disease. We characterize (i) the ancient oral microbiome in a diseased state, (ii) 40 opportunistic pathogens, (iii) ancient human-associated putative antibiotic resistance genes, (iv) a genome reconstruction...... calculus permits the simultaneous investigation of pathogen activity, host immunity and diet, thereby extending direct investigation of common diseases into the human evolutionary past....

  14. Some notes on medical liability in ancient times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somville, F J M P; Broos, P L O; Van Hee, R

    2010-01-01

    Already in ancient times did medical liability occupy mankind. Various civilizations did give their own interpretation on the subject and proposed solutions. Original writings are rare and articles concerning ancient medical liability equally are hard to find. The only relatively trustworthy sources are of legal nature and find their origin in Greek philosophy and Roman Law. At a later stage, Arabic philosophers gave a renewed view on the statements of these previous civilizations and added their own way of thinking. All these influences still reflect in our modern western way of medical acting. Some of these ancient customs concerning medical liability will be discussed in this article. PMID:20690537

  15. 论中医教育重视中国哲学思想熏陶的必要性%Need for the Influence of Chinese Philosophy on Traditional Chinese Medicine Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李德顺

    2011-01-01

    从哲学层面讨论中医教育过程中存在的入门难的问题.作者认为最关键的是中国哲学知识的欠缺.而中国哲学不仅是中医学入门之砖,更是晋阶之法.因此要突破入门的障碍,必须在教学过程中重视中国哲学知识的熏陶,这其中应该首重道家思想.同时为了避免中医教学过程中的消极和悲观思想,还应站在哲学高度进行中西医的比较.%The difficult problem of the existence of the entry in educational process of Chinese medicine,from a philosophical level, were discussed. I think the most critical is the lack of knowledge of ancient Chinese philosophy. The Chinese medical philosophy is not only the entry in the brick, it is also bridging the law. So to break the barriers to entry to the teaching processof TCM, attention must be payed to the influence of ancient Chinese philosophy, in which Chinese philosophy of Taoism should firstly be attached importance to. In order to avoid the negative process of teaching medicine and pessimism, we should compare Western and Chinese medicine standing in the philosophy level.

  16. Study on Translating Chinese into Chinese Sign Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐琳; 高文

    2000-01-01

    Sign language is a visual-gestural language mainly used by hearing impaired people to communicate with each other. Gesture and facial expression are important grammar parts of sign language. In this paper, a text-based transfor mation method of Chinese-Chinese sign language machine translation is proposed.Gesture and facial expression models are created. And a practical system is im plemented. The input of the system is Chinese text. The output of the system is "graphics person" who can gesticulate Chinese sign language accompanied by facial expression that corresponds to the Chinese text entered so as to realize automatic translation from Chinese text to Chinese sign language.

  17. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  18. 叶燮诗歌师古论--以《原诗》为中心%On Ye Xie’s Theory of Learning from the Ancients---Basing on The Origins of Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔花艳

    2014-01-01

    在吸收古往今来优秀诗歌的创作经验和审视前人师古误区的基础上,叶燮提出了他的师古之论。叶燮始终从诗歌发展流变的维度谈“师古”问题,他的诗歌师古论贯穿于其整个诗学体系的建构之中。在“师古”的前提上,他主张“识其升降”;在“师古”的范围上,他倡导兼综百家;在“师古”的方法上,他注重“得其神理”。在总体上,他的师古论是比较通达的。%By absorbing all excellent poems creation experience and judging the common mistakes when learn-ing from the ancients, Ye Xie formed his own opinion on learning from the ancients.Ye Xie always discussed learn-ing from the ancients in the rheological of poetry development.His theory of learning from the ancients ran through his whole system of poetics.On the premise of learning from the ancients, he thought insight of the creator was very important.He advocated identifying the different levels of Chinese ancient poems;in the scope of learning from the ancients, he advocated synthesizing various theories; on the hand, he paid attention to acquiring the essence of spirit.In general, His theory of learning from the ancients is relatively accessible.

  19. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J

    2009-01-01

    The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect

  20. Traditional Chinese materia medica: a retrospect and prospect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Lu Bay

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available For thousands of years, traditional medicine and remedies have been practed and used in the fight against disease in China. They have proved to be valuable and the distillate of vast historical experience based on field-tested human experiments, long-term observations and clinical trials. The Chinese people belive that traditional medicine is consistent with theirown culture. Endowed with a unique theoretical system and provided outstanding clinical results, traditional Chinese medicine continues to play an important role in helping the Chinese nation flourish. The recent study of traditional medicinal plants in Chine has given us confidence that what was recorded in ancient medical literature through empirical observations is indeed still coindicent with the concepts of modern chemistry, pharmacology and medicine. The task of revealing what is valid and efficacious should be retained, and what is mythic and invalid should be discarded in traditional Chinese medicine may require scientific research lasting for several generations. Therfore, multidisciplinary cooperation and international collaboration in this field would be essential. Systematic coordination of work in traditional medicine by word organizations, national governments, private foundations and individual scientists is a requisite as well.