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Sample records for ancient chinese anti-fever

  1. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  2. Ancient Chinese Dress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    Chinese archaeologists discov- ered in Zhoukoudian on theoutskirts of Beijing the firstneedle made by Chinese about 18,000years ago.It was about 82 mm longand 3.3 mm in diameter,polishedcarefully and had a hole,showing thatthe Chinese of that time had masteredthe skill of polishing and drilling andcould make clothes ont of animalskins.It Is recorded in The Book of Rites(one of the Confucian classics,includ- ing essays on rites and etiquette of theQin and Han dynasties),compiled byDai Sheng of the Western Han Dy- nasty(206 B.C.-A.D.24),that therehad been no flax or silk in the pastand people wore animal skins or feathers as clothes.That proves that appa-rel appeared earlier than textiles in theChinese culture.

  3. Ancient Chinese Landscape Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    IN the past decade,the worldhas suddenly discovered thewonders of Chinese landscapegardening and garden architecture,and places like New York,Singaporeand London have all built Chinese-style gardens.The architectural stylespecial to Chinese gardens has,infact,developed·a“school”of itsown.In China,the landscaped gardenhas long been a part of culture,andliterature,painting,philosophy,cal-ligraphy and folk customs have alldealt with it at one time or another.Two categories of garden architec-ture exist:the imperial garden andthe private garden.The former is,ofcourse,grand and palatial and occu-pies large tracts of land,while the

  4. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤

    2004-01-01

    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  5. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  6. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  7. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    JIANG Ji-cheng, A Brief Study of Arabian-Chinese Diaphone in Huihui Prescription Abstract: Based on meterials of Arabian- Chinese diaphone in Huihui Prescription, this paper studies all Chinese phonetic initials and finals in Yuan dynasty, including 21 initials and 34 finals. Key Words: Huihui Prescription, Arabian- Chinese diaphone, transferred sound, International Phonetic Alphabet

  8. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.

    2016-01-01

    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113

  9. Ancient Chinese Bronzes: Teacher's Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithsonian Institution, Washington, DC. Arthur M. Sackler Gallery.

    The focus of this teacher's packet is the bronze vessels made for the kings and great families of the early Chinese dynasties between 1700 B.C. and 200 A.D. The materials in the guide are intended for use by teachers and students visiting the exhibition, "The Arts of China," at the Arthur M. Sackler Gallery of the Smithsonian Institution…

  10. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast ir...

  11. The ancient Chinese casting techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Derui

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the course of Chinese civilization, which lasted more than 5,000 years, casting production has made a huge contribution. In this paper, some representative metal castings were presented. According to their forming techniques, they can be grouped into stone mould casting, clay mould casting, ablation casting, lost wax casting, stack casting, permanent mould casting, sand casting, etc. According to their materials, they can be categorized into tin bronze, bimetallic bronze, malleable cast iron, ductile cast iron, brass, cupronickel alloy (Packtong, etc. According to their surface decorative techniques they can be devided into gem inlay, gilding, gold and silver inlay, copper inlay, engraved decoration, surface tin-enrichment, mother-of-pearl inlay, burnished works with gold or silver inlay, surface coloring and cloisonné enamel, etc.

  12. Origin of Chinese ancient glasses——study on the earliest Chinese ancient glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Fuxi; CHENG Huansheng; LI Qinghui

    2006-01-01

    The earliest Chinese ancient glasses before the West Han Dynasty (200 BC) from different regions are studied. The glass samples were unearthed from Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Xinjiang of China. The chemical composition of these glasses samples is analyzed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It is shown that the glass chemical compositions belong to barium-lead silicate BaO-PbO-SiO2, potash soda lime silicate K2O (Na2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O>1), soda potash lime silicate Na2O (K2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O<1) and potash silicate K2O-SiO2 glass systems, respectively. The origins of the earliest Chinese ancient glasses are discussed from the archaeological and historical points of view. These four types of Chinese ancient glasses were all made in Chinese territory using local raw materials. The glass preparation technology was related to the Chinese ancient bronze metallurgy and proto-porcelain glaze technology. The glass technology relationship between the East and the West is analyzed at the same time.

  13. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S

    1999-04-02

    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  14. Study on the structures and illumination characteristics of Chinese ancient oil lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Qingxuan

    2006-01-01

    Chinese ancient firelight lighting had a long history in which developed technologies were applied. The paper concerns itself with a study of Chinese ancient firelight lighting lamps, including the structures and illuminating characteristics of ancient oil lamps.

  15. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO

    2008-01-01

    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  16. Theory of Traditional Chinese Aesthetic Thoughts Influence on Ancient Chinese Architectural Style

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴静

    2014-01-01

    the Chinese tradition of Confucianism, Taoism and Buddhism thought influence the design style of the building. Confu-cian, Taoist thought of"the doctrine of the mean"of"nature and humanity"ideology, traditional Confucian thought on the forma-tion of the traditional architectural style vital role. Of ancient Chinese architecture is harmonious and peaceful feelings, Confucian, Taoist, buddhist thought deeply, meanwhile, reflect the hand, reasonable aspiration is dependent of the aesthetic, the emotion affects the ancient Chinese architecture planning, layout and construction, formed the ancient Chinese architecture unique architectural style and artistic style and features.

  17. 75 FR 57825 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Ancient Chinese Bronzes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Ancient Chinese Bronzes From the... objects to be included in the exhibition ``Ancient Chinese Bronzes from the Shouyang Studio: The...

  18. Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy Exhibition of Bronze Inscriptions——Origin of Ancient Chinese Writing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To commemorate the 35th anniversary of the normalization of diplomatic relations between China and Japan, and carry forward the traditional culture of the Chinese nation, the Chinese and Japanese Calligraphy Exhibition of Bronze Inscriptions-Origin of Ancient Chinese Writing jointly sponsored by the CPAFFC, the Shaanxi Provincial People’s Association for

  19. Enlightenment from ancient Chinese urban and rural stormwater management practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che; Qiao, Mengxi; Wang, Sisi

    2013-01-01

    Hundreds of years ago, the ancient Chinese implemented several outstanding projects to cope with the changing climate and violent floods. Some of these projects are still in use today. These projects evolved from the experience and knowledge accumulated through the long coexistence of people with nature. The concepts behind these ancient stormwater management practices, such as low-impact development and sustainable drainage systems, are similar to the technology applied in modern stormwater management. This paper presents the cases of the Hani Terrace in Yunnan and the Fushou drainage system of Ganzhou in Jiangxi. The ancient Chinese knowledge behind these cases is seen in the design concepts and the features of these projects. These features help us to understand better their applications in the contemporary environment. In today's more complex environment, integrating traditional and advanced philosophy with modern technologies is extremely useful in building urban and rural stormwater management systems in China.

  20. Exhibition of Origin of Ancient Chinese Characters Held in Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>It was rainy season in Kanazawa, the seat of the government of Ishikawa Prefecture, Japan in the latter half of June. The flowers on both sides of the street were blossoming brightly in the drizzling rain. The exhibition "Origin of Ancient Chinese Characters" was mounted in the Ishikawa Pre-fectural Museum of Art in downtown Kanazawa on June 25.

  1. Chinese Ancient Coins Academic Exchange Delegation Visits France and Austria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zuo; Fengqiang

    2014-01-01

    <正>To further strengthen nongovernmental cultural exchanges,a Chinese delegation visited France and Austria from September 23 to 30for academic exchange on ancient coin.They had fruitful exchanges with coin experts of the two countries at the invitation of the France-China Culture and Art Exchange Centre and the Austria-China Friendship Association for Culture and Art Exchange.

  2. The Ethical Power of Music: Ancient Greek and Chinese Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuhwen

    2004-01-01

    Both the ancient Chinese and Greeks from around the fifth century B.C. to around third century A.D. recognized the immense impact that music has on the development of one's personality, and both regarded it as crucial in the cultivation of proper disposition in youth. Music's power over one's ethos--that is, human disposition--was emphasized by…

  3. NEW REDUCTIONS OF ORBITSBASED UPON CHINESE ANCIENT COMETARY RECORDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Hongnan; Zhuang Weifeng; Wang Yu

    2000-01-01

    From 146 B. C. to 1760 A. D., 363 sets of cometary observations for a total 88 different comets were recorded in Chinese Ancient Records of Celestial Phenomena. According to those records, we reduced apparent positions and mean equatorial coordinates (epoch 2000.0)for all more than three times recorded comets. Taking into account the perturbations of all nine planets and using the numerical method of Nbody problem, the orbits of correlative comets were calculated. For thirty different comets, new orbits are presented for the first time.

  4. Some new results of PIXE study on Chinese ancient porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H.S. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)]. E-mail: hscheng@fudan.edu.cn; Zhang, B. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Zhu, D. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Yang, F.J. [Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Sun, X.M. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China); Guo, M.S. [Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute of Henan Province, Zheng Zhou 450000 (China)

    2005-10-15

    This paper reports some new results obtained by PIXE on Chinese ancient porcelain. The first results concern the provenance of blue and white porcelain made during the Tang Dynasty (AD618-907), which are the earliest products found in China. The PIXE experimental results show that they were fired in Huangye Kiln, Gongyi, Henan Province. The chemical composition of the body, white glaze and of the cobalt pigment will be reported. This paper also reports the results for early Chinese blue and white porcelain made under the Yuan dynasty (AD1206-1368) in Jingdezhen, Jiangxi Province. Experimental results show that the chemical composition of the cobalt pigment used by officers and popular are similar. These materials were imported from another country. The local asbolite was used as cobalt pigment material since the early Ming Dynasty (AD1368-1644) in Jingdezhen at folk kiln, and it was used at official kiln until the 16th century.

  5. Application of PIXE for elemental analysis of ancient Chinese artifacts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.K. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Phys.; Wang, C.W. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Phys.; Yu, Y.C. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Phys.; Cheng, W.C. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Phys.; Chang, C.H. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Phys.; Yang, Y.C. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Phys.; Chang, C.Y. [Academia Sinica, Taipei (Taiwan). Inst. of Phys.

    1995-05-01

    Proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) is a well-known method for elemental analysis in many different specimens for various applied studies. In this paper, we report an application of PIXE analysis for a series of ancient Chinese coins from the Tang Dynasty to the Ming Dynasty (AD 618-1679). Ninety-six PIXE spectra were obtained from forty-eight samples of the ancient coins with the use of a Ge(Li) X-ray detector. On each sample two spots at different positions on the flat surface were irradiated per run by 3 MeV protons from a NEC 9SDH-2 pelletron tandem accelerator. The principal component elements (Cu, Pb, Sn and Zn) and others (Fe, Sb, Ni and As) were determined for the analyzed coins. Variations in composition with a time span of about one thousand years for the examined coins were observed. The results are presented and aspects of the evolution of Chinese metallurgy in casting coins are discussed. (orig.).

  6. The classics of ancient Chinese literature%中国古代文学的经典

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴承学

    2007-01-01

    This essay discusses the ancient Chinese literary classics by borrowingthe prospective of "canon" from the studies of Western literature.Studying thecentral issues of establishment,quality,type,and influence of ancient classics,the authors attempt to present their ancient history,decadent practices,and theircentral position in ancient literature and literary criticism.Moreover,from abroader perspective of modem theory,this essay argues that ancient classics arepart of the important resources to release the tension between the traditional andthe modem world.

  7. The Evolution of Al2O3 Content in Ancient Chinese Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Cheng-yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence from museums, collectors, the dug out of the grave, the evolution of Al2O3 content in Chinese glasses from Western Zhou to Qing dynasty was documented in this paper in detail. It was found that Al2O3 contents in ancient Chinese glasses were relatively higher than those of outside of China in the world. This is the character of the ancient Chinese glasses which is caused by not only the high Al contents in the raw materials but also by the Chinese people’s preference of the milky glasses similar to jade

  8. A theoretical study of the vibration and acoustics of ancient Chinese bells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, M

    2003-09-01

    In this paper, the acoustics of an ancient Chinese bell, which was made some 3000 years B.C., is studied theoretically. In ancient times, a set of the bells was used as a musical instrument. Unlike a western church bell and an ancient Indian bell, an ancient Chinese bell has two interesting acoustics. First, two tones can be heard separately as the bell is struck at two special points. The interval between the two pitches is always a minor or major third. Second, tones of the bell attenuate quickly, which is necessary for a musical instrument. So, an ancient Chinese bell is sometimes called a two-tone bell or a music bell. Although a three-dimensional model should be used to simulate the acoustics of the bell, a simplified model proposed in this paper does give some insight. Based on the lens-shaped cross section of an ancient Chinese bell, two tones of an ancient Chinese bell can be simulated by the vibration of a double-circular arch and the quick attenuation of tones can be simulated by acoustics of a cylinder with the lens-shaped cross section like a double-circular arch. Numerical results on the vibration and acoustics of the models are presented.

  9. An Analysis of Ancient Chinese Poems in Perspective of Conceptual Metaphors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘媛

    2014-01-01

    This paper mainly deals with ancient Chinese poems and gives them a systematic analysis in perspective of conceptual metaphor raised by George Lakoff in his Metaphors We Live By. By using exemplification, il ustration and synthesis, metaphors in ancient Chinese poems are studied in three aspects, i.e. Entity and substance metaphor, container metaphor and personification. By doing so, the paper intends to spread a comparatively complete map of the use of conceptual metaphor in the poems.

  10. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods) Therapy for Premature Ejaculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Chen, Qiang; Gu, Yuexing; Yue, Jin; Zeng, Qingqi

    2016-12-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple's relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods), which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE.

  11. Ancient Chinese Fangzhongshu (Sexual Skills and Methods) Therapy for Premature Ejaculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yong; Chen, Qiang; Gu, Yuexing; Yue, Jin

    2016-01-01

    Premature ejaculation (PE) is a common male sexual dysfunction that can have significant effects on a couple's relationship. Behavioral therapy and psychotherapy are both safe and effective methods of treating PE. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu (sexual skills and methods), which reflects a summary of expert experiences in sexology, contains many therapies for sexual dysfunction that are similar to those used in behavioral therapy or psychotherapy. A brief introduction dealing with the latest definitions of PE and treatment strategies drawn from behavioral therapy and psychotherapy is provided. Typical therapies for PE from ancient Chinese fangzhongshu are listed and briefly analyzed in order to define their domain of applicability and instructions for use. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu contains many effective and safe therapies for PE. It should be incorporated into modern medical practice after critical analysis, and its scientific aspects should be promoted as a way of improving reproductive health, both to benefit individuals affected by PE and to promote traditional Chinese culture. Based on an analysis of the condition of the individual patient, one or multiple therapies guided by fangzhongshu can be expected to have an effect on the patient. Ancient Chinese fangzhongshu is of great value and should to be popularized and applied as a remedy for PE. PMID:28053946

  12. Green Restaurant: An Ancient Touch of Chinese Herbal Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambra Schillirò

    2010-01-01

    @@ The first time Ⅰ entered the restaurant Green,inside the five-star Radegast Lake View Hotel in Chongwen District of Beijing,I was incredibly surprised.All around were red lights,a room reminiscent of the splendor of ancient China and simply delicious herbal cuisine.

  13. Green Restaurant: An Ancient Touch of Chinese Herbal Food

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ambra; Schilliro

    2010-01-01

    The first time I entered the restaurant Green, inside the five-star Radegast Lake View Hotel in Chongwen District of Beijing, I was incredibly surprised. All around were red lights, a room reminiscent of the splendor of ancient China and simply delicious herbal cuisine.

  14. Cannabis in Chinese Medicine: Are Some Traditional Indications Referenced in Ancient Literature Related to Cannabinoids?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, E. Joseph; Zhao, Zhongzhen

    2017-01-01

    Cannabis sativa L. (Cannabaceae) has a long history of utilization as a fiber and seed crop in China, and its achenes (“seeds”) as well as other plant parts have been recorded in Chinese medical texts for nearly 2000 years. While the primary applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine center around the use of the achenes, ancient indications for the female inflorescence, and other plant parts include conditions such as pain and mental illness that are the subject of current research into cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). However, little previous research has been conducted to analyze the Chinese medical literature in light of recent advances in the pharmacology and taxonomy of cannabis, and most of the relevant Chinese historical records have not yet been translated into Western languages to facilitate textual research. Furthermore, many key questions remain unresolved in the Chinese literature, including how various traditional drug names precisely correspond to different plant parts, as well as the implications of long-term selection for fiber-rich cultivars on the medical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine. In this article, prominent historical applications of cannabis in Chinese medicine are chronologically reviewed, and indications found in ancient Chinese literature that may relate to cannabinoids such as CBD and Δ9-THC are investigated. PMID:28344554

  15. Ancient Chinese Philosophical Advice: Can it help us find happiness today?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Veenhoven (Ruut); Z. Guoqing

    2009-01-01

    textabstractConfucianism, Buddhism and Taoism are three main classic Chinese philosophy schools, which all deal with the question of how one should live. In this paper we first review these ancient recommendations and next consider whether they promise a happy life in present day society. Recommende

  16. ESTIMATION OF THE LENGTH CONSTANT OF A LONG COOLING FIN BY AN ANCIENT CHINESE ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Xu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an ancient Chinese algorithm is used to estimate the length constant of a long cooling fin, and an approximate solution formulation is obtained. The obtained results show that this method is a simple but promising method without any requirement for advanced calculus.

  17. From an Ancient Tradition to the Present. Chinese Cultural Heritage Resource Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ching Fang; Lee, Amy

    This cultural heritage resource guide has been prepared as a tool for teachers to help promote better understanding of Chinese students in the New York City public schools. China has an ancient history and a rich cultural tradition, and people all over the world have recognized China as one of the world's greatest civilizations. The earliest…

  18. Solitary-Solution Formulation for Differential-Difference Equations Using an Ancient Chinese Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji-Huan He

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper applies an ancient Chinese algorithm to differential-difference equations, and a solitary-solution formulation is obtained. The discrete mKdV lattice equation is used as an example to elucidate the solution procedure.

  19. Examining Literary Warrant in Ancient Chinese Book Classification Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Chen Cheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the application of literary warrant—a key principle in modern classification theory—in traditional Chinese bibliographic classifications for the purpose of improving the understanding of classification theory in the Chinese tradition. The concept of literary warrant is first briefly discussed. Next, the author analyzes a number of selected book classification systems from premodern China to determine whether literary warrant is a factor in their design and how it is applied. This paper concludes with a summary of the findings. [Article content in Chinese

  20. Reviving ancient Chinese mathematics mathematics, history and politics in the work of Wu Wen-Tsun

    CERN Document Server

    Hudecek, Jiri

    2014-01-01

    Twentieth-century China has been caught between a desire to increase its wealth and power in line with other advanced nations, which, by implication, means copying their institutions, practices and values, whilst simultaneously seeking to preserve China's independence and historically formed identity. Over time, Chinese philosophers, writers, artists and politicians have all sought to reconcile these goals and this book shows how this search for a Chinese way penetrated even the most central, least contested area of modernity: science.Reviving Ancient Chinese Mathematics is a study of the life

  1. Ancient Chinese medicine and mechanistic evidence of acupuncture physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Edward S; Li, Pei-Wen; Nilius, Bernd; Li, Geng

    2011-11-01

    Acupuncture has been widely used in China for three millennia as an art of healing. Yet, its physiology is not yet understood. The current interest in acupuncture started in 1971. Soon afterward, extensive research led to the concept of neural signaling with possible involvement of opioid peptides, glutamate, adenosine and identifying responsive parts in the central nervous system. In the last decade scientists began investigating the subject with anatomical and molecular imaging. It was found that mechanical movements of the needle, ignored in the past, appear to be central to the method and intracellular calcium ions may play a pivotal role. In this review, we trace the technique of clinical treatment from the first written record about 2,200 years ago to the modern time. The ancient texts have been used to introduce the concepts of yin, yang, qi, de qi, and meridians, the traditional foundation of acupuncture. We explore the sequence of the physiological process, from the turning of the needle, the mechanical wave activation of calcium ion channel to beta-endorphin secretion. By using modern terminology to re-interpret the ancient texts, we have found that the 2nd century B.C.: physiologists were meticulous investigators and their explanation fits well with the mechanistic model derived from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and confocal microscopy. In conclusion, the ancient model appears to have withstood the test of time surprisingly well confirming the popular axiom that the old wine is better than the new.

  2. [Identification of ancient Chinese medicinal specimens preserved at Natural History Museum in London].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zhong-zhen; Zhao, Kai-cun; Brand, Eric

    2015-12-01

    On-site field investigation was conducted to authenticate a batch of ancient Chinese medicinal decoction pieces that have been preserved in a rare collection at the Natural History Museum in London. These treasured artifacts comprise a portion of the Sloane Collection, and the nearly one hundred Chinese medicinal specimens examined within provide an objective record of the real situation regarding the Chinese medicinal materials in commercial circulation three hundred years ago. The precious data from this collection pro-vides an extremely valuable reference for the research into the history of medicinal exchange between China and the West during the Age of Exploration, shedding light on the evolution and historical changes in the species used in Chinese medicine, as well as the history of medicinal processing and decoction pieces.

  3. An experimental study on the sound and frequency of the Chinese ancient variable bell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Dongsheng; Hu Haining; Xing Lirong; Liu Yongsheng [Department of Maths and Physics, Shanghai University of Electric Power, 200090 Shanghai (China)], E-mail: cds781@hotmail.com

    2009-05-15

    This paper describes an interesting sound phenomenon from a modern copy of the Chinese ancient variable bell which can emit distinctly different sounds at different temperatures. By means of audition-spectrum analyser software-and PC, the sound signals of the variable bell are collected and the fundamental spectra are shown on the PC. The configuration is simple and cheap, suitable for demonstration and laboratory exercises.

  4. A possible role of sunrise/sunset azimuth in the planning of ancient Chinese towns

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal north-south direction. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the sunrise/sunset azimuth on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyze the plans of Xi'an, Khanbalik and Dali.

  5. Application of an ancient Chinese algorithm to stab performance of woven fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Stab damage is a common failure mode for textile products, especially for the geotextiles and geotextile-related products which are widely used in the road, airport, pipeline, and so on. In this paper, an ancient Chinese algorithm is applied to predict the stab area and stab energy of woven fabrics under stabbing load according to the load-displacement performance of the single yarn. This research proposes a novel method to analyze the stab property of the textile products.

  6. Sunrise and Sunset Azimuths in the Planning of Ancient Chinese Towns

    OpenAIRE

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2013-01-01

    Abstract: In the planning of some Chinese towns we can see an evident orientation with the cardinal direction north-south. However, other features reveal a possible orientation with the directions of sunrise and sunset on solstices too, as in the case of Shangdu (Xanadu), the summer capital of Kublai Khan. Here we discuss some other examples of a possible solar orientation in the planning of ancient towns. We will analyse the plans of Xi'an, Khanbalik and Dali

  7. [Spectral analysis of green pigments of painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Qin; Yan, Jing; Fan, Xiao-Lei; Ma, Tao

    2010-02-01

    It is important to identify pigments of painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures in order to restore and conserve them. The components of green pigments were detected with X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX). Twenty-seven samples were collected from painting and colored drawing in northern Chinese ancient architectures in Beijing, Shanxi province and Gansu province. The experiment results showed that emerald green [CuCH3COO]2 x Cu(AsO2)2], a complex of copper aceto-arsenite pigment, had been used as the colored component in fifteen samples, whereas organic materials synthesized in the rest. However, in all samples there were no malachite and atacamite, green pigments commonly used in ancient time a long time ago. These two pigments have been found in Qin Shihuang's Terracotta Army and the wall paintings at Mogao Grettoes, Dunhuang, and some other famous wall paintings and color pottery figurines. However, emerald green was used many years later. It was reported that emerald green was synthesized by Germany in 1814 and had been widely used in China as watercolor on pith paper works and on scroll paintings since the 1850s. Because painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures stands outside, under sunlight and rain, it must be repaired and repainted in less than fifty years. Therefore, it is not surprising that emerald green was used in them. In recent years, artificial organic materials are increasingly used in painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures. From experiments it was also showed that in the same recolored painting and colored drawing, organic materials are usually in the later layers, but emerald green is in the earlier layers. This work supplies a lot of data for the purpose of selecting restoration materials and identifying painting and colored drawing in ancient architectures with a new method.

  8. Eight-Points-Acupuncture and Ancient Chinese Contraindications in Acupuncture:Two Methods of Improving Acupuncture Treatment Based upon Ancient Chinese Sources,and Clinical Experiences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SLOPEK, Axel; 冯海涛

    2006-01-01

    According to ancient and present Chinese sources the Eight Confluent Points are essentials of acupuncture and can treat all kinds of diseases. They exert a fundamental influence on the Twelve Regular Meridians and their mobilization can be seen as a necessity for a successful acupuncture treatment. For this they should play a major role in acupuncture. In European acupuncture teachings there is also the opinion that by too much needling of the Eight Confluent Points the qi of the organism might get exhausted which will deteriorate the patient's symptoms and eventually will create new symptoms. Here it will be shown that deterioration as well as the creation of new symptoms due to acupuncture is caused by not observing the contraindications in acupuncture as set up in ancient China provided that syndrome differentiation,point selection and stimulation have been correct. In opposition to this,all of the Eight Extraordinary Channels are to be activated at first and then the Twelve Regular Meridians are to be mobilized in order to achieve therapeutic effects.

  9. [Safety and risk factor analysis on Polygoni Multiflori Radix base on ancient traditional Chinese medicine literatures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-bo; Du, Xiao-xi; Guo, Xiao-xin; Ren, Jing-tian; Yang, Le; Pang, Yu

    2015-03-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine Polygoni Multiflori Radix is dried roots of Polygonaceae Polygortum multiflorum Thunb. Its clinical application records were first discovered in literatures of the Tang dynasty. The origins, efficacy, toxicity, processing and taboos of Polygoni Multiflori Radix have been discussed in many ancient herb literatures. In recent years, with the increase in the public awareness in health, Polygoni Multiflori Radix admits preparations have been more widely applied in the treatment and prevention of diseases. However, there have been more and more reports about Polygoni Multiflori Radix induced liver injury, the safety of Polygoni Multiflori Radix has increasingly attracted attention of the society. In this paper, the authors summarized and analyzed the toxicity and medication risk factors of Polygoni Multiflori Radix recorded in ancient herb literatures, and proposed that more attention shall be given to the effect of the planting and processing methods on the components and toxicity of Polygoni Multiflori Radix in safety studies, which provides clues for the further studies.

  10. Autocratic Bureacratism: Han Fei's Ancient Chinese Strategies of Governance as Contrasted with Machiavelli's Political Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the political philosophies of the ancient Chinese thinker Han Fei (ca. 280-233 BC) and the Western Renaissance thinker Niccolò Machiavelli (AD 1469-1527). In the thought of these pioneers of strategic political thought – both notorious for their hardheaded and “realist” approach to political life – the special problems of power maintenance and political stability are focused. The strong focus on these issues in the two thinkers must be seen in the l...

  11. [Textual research on adulteration of Chinese materia medica in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jin; Wang, De-Qun

    2013-09-01

    By investigating the mainstream works of herbal classics of successive ages, it is found that adulteration of Chinese materia medica appeared early in ancient China. The main methods of adulteration was producing fraud medicines in the Northern-Southern Dynasties, fake medicines began to appear in the Tang Dynasty, and status of adulteration of Chinese materia medica ran unchecked since the Ming and Qing Dynasty. By statistics, there were 76 kinds of adulteration varieties before the Republican period. The main varieties were precious drugs, animal drugs and artifacts. Commonly methods used in the process included forging and adulterating, dealing with 11 kinds and 68 kinds respectively. Adulteration probably lead to the result of imposing the changes of the used medicinal parts of Herba Pogostemonis; Radix Aconiti Lateralis prepared by adding salt, Radix Angelica Sinensis processed by wine, and Radix Astragalis seu Hedysaris processed with bee honey. However, the root cause of adulteration in Chinese materia medica was the dissociation of professional physician and pharmacist, resulting in the ignorance of medical practitioners became unable to recognize Chinese materia medica; and the immorality of medicinal merchants. Besides, rating the quality of materia medica based on its producing areas without differentiating the false from the genuine may also contribute to this result passively.

  12. The origin and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm, Antheraea pernyi, in China: a reconstruction based on ancient texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yanqun; Li, Yuping; Li, Xisheng; Qin, Li

    2010-01-01

    Sericulture is one of the great inventions of the ancient Chinese. Besides the mulberry silkworm (Bombyx mori), Chinese farmers developed rearing of the Chinese oak silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) about 400 years ago. In this paper, the historic records of the origins and dispersal of the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm in China are summarized. The first document with clearly recorded oak silkworm artificial rearing appeared in 1651, although Chinese oak silkworm was documented in about 270 AD. All of the evidence in the available historic records suggests that the domesticated Chinese oak silkworm originated in central and southern areas of Shandong Province in China around the 16th century, and then was introduced directly and indirectly by human commerce into the present habitations in China after the late 17th century. The results strongly support the hypothesis that only one geographically distinct event occurred in domestication of the modern Chinese oak silkworm.

  13. Buddhism and Ancient Chinese Novel%佛教与中国古代小说

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹艺桦

    2013-01-01

    "Fiction"appeared in the "zhuangzi"at the first time and reached peak in the dynasties of Ming and Qing .Ancient Chinese novels have a history of thousands of years .During this time,we can feel a mysterious force which has been always throughout this period of history.It's the fantastic force that Buddhism affacted Chinese novel .The religion transmitted from foreign countries was accepted because of its own mysterious character .This paper will discuss that ancient Chinese novel was affacted by Buddhism at the three aspect of character shaping , plot and artistic expression.%从《庄子?外物》中首先提出“小说”这个名称,到明清时期的长篇小说的顶峰成就,中国古代小说经历了上千年的发展历史。在这幅历史长卷中,我们可以感受到一股神秘的力量一直贯穿着这段历史的始终,这股带有奇幻色彩的力量就是佛教对中国小说的影响。这个由外域传入的宗教,因其自身的神异特点而被人们接受,小说就从这里开始受到它的作用。本文从小说的人物塑造、情节内容和艺术表现三个方面谈谈佛教对中国古代小说的影响。

  14. 新书籍史对古文献学研究的启示%Reflection and Prospective Symposium of the Centennial Studies of Ancient Chinese Philology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张升

    2013-01-01

    Editor's note:It is both an important task and optimal subject of the 21st century philology to summarize the achievements of centen-nial ancient philology, reflect the current issues, grasp the development trend of ancient literature studies, expand research space, enrich the research contents, and put forward farsighted countermeasures for inhering and innovating Chinese culture, establishing ancient philology, and promoting academic development. To solve these problems, we organized a symposium of three articles. Professor Zhou Shaochuan's article clarifies the significance of centennial Chinese ancient books and ancient philology, pointing out two aspects of China's ancient books in the 20th century and the ancient literature studies: diachronic investigation following two main lines of collection of ancient books and establishment of ancient philology, and synchronic analysis from four aspects, that is, basic historical facts, methodology, basic principles, and scientific theorizing, in order to explore the development law of collection of ancient books and ancient philology, and specify the direction of ancient philology. Professor Wang Jilu's article discusses five urgent issues in ancient philology of the 21st century: theoretical system and research paradigm, philological heritages, the position of philology of ethnic minorities, comparative study of Chinese and Western philology, theories and methods in digitalization of ancient books, etc. Professor Zhang Sheng's article discusses the implication of Western new history of books for ancient philology, and argues that new history of books expands the horizon and scope of ancient philology. The introduction of methodology of social history and cultural history makes it clear that philology has social and cultural significance. Ancient philology should become solid and draw on interdisciplinary methods to enrich the content of its own research.

  15. Ancient DNA reveals that the genetic structure of the northern Han Chinese was shaped prior to 3,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yong-Bin; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Quan-Chao; Li, Hong-Jie; Cui, Ying-Qiu; Xu, Zhi; Jin, Li; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2015-01-01

    The Han Chinese are the largest ethnic group in the world, and their origins, development, and expansion are complex. Many genetic studies have shown that Han Chinese can be divided into two distinct groups: northern Han Chinese and southern Han Chinese. The genetic history of the southern Han Chinese has been well studied. However, the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese is still obscure. In order to gain insight into the genetic history of the northern Han Chinese, 89 human remains were sampled from the Hengbei site which is located in the Central Plain and dates back to a key transitional period during the rise of the Han Chinese (approximately 3,000 years ago). We used 64 authentic mtDNA data obtained in this study, 27 Y chromosome SNP data profiles from previously studied Hengbei samples, and genetic datasets of the current Chinese populations and two ancient northern Chinese populations to analyze the relationship between the ancient people of Hengbei and present-day northern Han Chinese. We used a wide range of population genetic analyses, including principal component analyses, shared mtDNA haplotype analyses, and geographic mapping of maternal genetic distances. The results show that the ancient people of Hengbei bore a strong genetic resemblance to present-day northern Han Chinese and were genetically distinct from other present-day Chinese populations and two ancient populations. These findings suggest that the genetic structure of northern Han Chinese was already shaped 3,000 years ago in the Central Plain area.

  16. A Stylistic Study into the Musicality of the English Translation of the An-cient Chinese Poem“Jianjia”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qiu-yue

    2014-01-01

    “Jianjia”(“蒹葭”),one of the most famous poems in Shijing (《诗经》), is characterized by balanced sound patterns and euphonious rhythm. Investigation into the stylistic elements in both the source text and the English translation of“Jianjia”shows us the musicality in ancient Chinese poetry and its limits of translatability.

  17. Was Pythagoras Chinese? An Examination of Right Triangle Theory in Ancient China. The Pennsylvania State University Studies No. 40.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.; Kao, T. I.

    This book is primarily a scholarly monograph on ancient Chinese theory and application concerning the right triangle, based on evidence contained in classical mathematics texts and scrolls. It is also the first complete English translation of the ninth chapter of the Chiu chang suan chu, the richest source of problems from antiquity dealing with…

  18. 关于古籍数字化性质及开发的思考%Some Thoughts on the Nature and Function of Chinese Ancient Book Digitization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛红广

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient book digitization is digitization to collation of Chinese ancient book, based on analysis of con-notation and level about Chinese ancient book digitization, collation of Chinese ancient book method and Chinese ancient book digiti-zation of comparison.The essence of digitization is to use computer information technology to complete the compilation, index, emendation, punctuation, annotation and modern translation of ancient books, and finish achievements into digital media database. Through ancient books digitization development motivation, achievement status and utilization review, The article finds that current Chinese ancient book digitization do not provide quality service to the academic research, also pay insufficient attention to the quality of education and the mass reading services.%文章对古籍数字化与古籍整理传统方法进行了比较,通过对古籍数字化开发群体、动机、成果及利用的分析,指出当前古籍数字化开发中存在学术研究服务质量不佳,素质教育和对大众阅读服务重视程度不够等问题。

  19. Virtual restoration of ancient Chinese paintings using color contrast enhancement and lacuna texture synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Soo-Chang; Zeng, Yi-Chong; Chang, Ching-Hua

    2004-03-01

    This work presents a novel algorithm using color contrast enhancement and lacuna texture synthesis is proposed for the virtual restoration of ancient Chinese paintings. Color contrast enhancement based on saturation and de-saturation is performed in the u'v'Y color space, to change the saturation value in the chromaticity diagram, and adaptive histogram equalization then is adopted to adjust the luminance component. Additionally, this work presents a new patching method using the Markov Random Field (MRF) model of texture synthesis. Eliminating undesirable aged painting patterns, such as stains, crevices, and artifacts, and then filling the lacuna regions with the appropriate textures is simple and efficient. The synthesization procedure integrates three key approaches, weighted mask, annular scan and auxiliary, with neighborhood searching. These approaches can maintain a complete shape and prevent edge disconnection in the final results. Moreover, the boundary between original and synthesized paintings is seamless, and unable to distinguish in which the undesirable pattern appears.

  20. 3D COMPUTER SIMULATION FOR LIGNIFICATION OF ANCIENT CHINESE TIMBER BUILDINGS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A pioneer research work was carried out by investigators engaged in surveying and mapping for describing ancient Chinese timber buildings by 3D frame graphs w ith a computer.Users can know the structural layers and the assembly process of the se buildings if the frame graphs are processed further with a computer model.Th is can be implemented by computer simulation technique.This technique display t he raw data on the screen of a computer and interactively manage them by combini ng technologies from computer graphics and image processing,multi-media technol ogy,artificial intelligence,highly parallel real-time computation technique an d human behavior science.This paper presents the implementing procedure of ligni fi cation simulation for large-sized wooden buildings as well as 3D dynamic assembl y of these buildings under the 3DS MAX environment.The results from computer sim ulation are also shown in the paper.

  1. Mössbauer studies on ancient chinese pottery of Yangshao Culture Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Zhengfang; Zheng, Qi; Zheng, Yufang

    1988-12-01

    Eleven pieces of ancient Chinese pottery (4770 B.C. 2960 B.C.) of Yangshao Culture Period collected from the Xi'an area have been studied by means of Mössbauer spectroscopy. The samples were refired up to 1100°C in steps of 100°C for 2h in air. The highest temperature up to which the Mössbauer pattern remains basically unchanged can be identified with the original firing temperature. The result indicates that the firing temperatures for most of the sherds were between 900 1000°C. The function of the grit contained in the pottery has been discussed. The crimson and reddish painted materials on the surface of sherds have been studied, respectively. The first appearance of pottery can probably be traced back to an even earlier period.

  2. Dens invaginatus in ancient Chinese teeth of 2,000 years ago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Sasa; Duan, Xiaohong; Shao, Jinling; Duan, Qingbo; Peng, Shaobin

    2013-10-01

    Dens invaginatus (DI) is a developmental anomaly of teeth. Here we observed the characteristics of DI in 517 permanent teeth from 67 ancient Chinese people using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) scanning techniques. The individuals were excavated from Shaanxi province of China and identified to be about 2,000 years old. Four DI categories are proposed to distinguish the different types of DI. The invaginated lingual fossa is classified into three classes. The overall prevalence of DI in 67 individuals was 31.34% (21 of 67). DI was found in 25 of 517 teeth (4.83%). All affected teeth were maxillary lateral incisors. The invaginated lingual fossa (Type I DI) occurred most frequently (84%), followed by radicular grooves (Type II; 16%), while Type III and Type IV were not found in the present study. Some of fossae correspond with radicular grooves (8 of 21; 3 located at mesial, 5 were distal). The bilateral incidence of DI was 19.05%. Comparing our results to those of a retrospective survey of DI from 1873 to present, we found a higher rate of DI in the excavated teeth of Chinese individuals 2,000 years ago. The use of the micro-CT technique and ethnic origin might have contributed to the higher incidence of DI.

  3. On the creation of Chinese ancient attractions%论景点的营造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻学才

    2014-01-01

    总结了影响中国数千年的景点设立原则,即:只有瑰伟奇特的自然物和对族群国家有重大贡献的人物才能成为景点纪念内涵并得到开发和保护。文章还根据古代文献提炼出中国古代景点设计的四大要领,即:重视景点所在环境的整体美,非名胜不宜选址;重视建筑与所在环境的协调美,非建筑不足显胜;重视建筑文化氛围营造的意境美,非文字不能醒目;重视诗词书法艺术境界的装饰美,非名篇不能垂远。文章认为当代中国旅游景点营造应该减少模仿,彰显地方文化特色;与时俱进,充分利用科技手段;营造意境,突出诗情画意韵味。%This paper summarizes the principles having been impacting the construction of Chinese attractions for thousands of years. Only the wonderful nature and those figures who did significant contributions to their ethnic groups and countries can become memorial connotation of the attractions and should then be developed and pro-tected. This paper also sums up four essentials of Chinese ancient landscape design from the ancient literature. First, take the location seriously. It must be a scenic spot with the integral beauty. Second, pay attention to the harmonious beauty between the architecture and the environment around it. Third, think highly of the beauty of artistic conception of architectural culture atmosphere. Fourth, value the decorative beauty of artistic taste with famous poems, calligraphy and paintings. Besides, this paper argues that the construction of contemporary Chi-nese tourist attractions should reduce the imitation, highlight the local cultural characteristics, keep pace with the times, and make full use of technology to create the atmosphere of the artistic conception.

  4. On Ancient Chinese Chinese-date Classification Plant Words Nomenclature%古汉语枣类植物词命名研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建莉; 任晓彤

    2014-01-01

    Chinese-date classification words have three situations :Express Chinese-date .Chinese-date expressed general term ,whose nomenclatures were Chinese-date branchs with pricks .Chinese-date classi-fication words Refered in particular to were much more .Ancient times Chinese-date classification words grounds included form , colour , taste , job operation , function .Express non Chinese-date .The words formed by “Chinese-date” expressed non Chinese-date classification plants .Nomenclature depended on near relation between other plants and Chinese-dates ,shapes .Fabricate Chinese-date .The words formed by“Chinese-date” expressed legendary Chinese-dates .Some depended on fruit colour or place of production , some depended on theory about yinyang and wuxing .%枣类词分三种情况:枣类实指枣。表示泛称的“枣”,命名在于枣树枝有刺。表示特称的枣名很多,上古枣名理据包括形状、颜色、味道、加工方式、功用等类;枣类非指枣。以“枣”构成的词表示非枣类植物,命名取于他类植物与枣形有一定的近似关系;枣类虚指枣。以“枣”构成的词表示传说中的枣,或从果实之色、产地等取名;或从阴阳五行之说取名。

  5. “苍梧”入诗考%The“Cangwu” Imagery in Chinese Ancient Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江鹏

    2014-01-01

    意象,是古今学人耳熟能详的审美观照和欣赏对象。作为诗美传统的重要元素之一,意象探微近些年来受到广泛关注。作者借鉴前人研究成果,在收集、整理大量现存资料的基础上,对“苍梧”这一诗歌意象追根溯源,分析其生成过程及影响因素,内容涉及“苍梧”地理名称及相关神话传说,“苍梧”意象的生成机制(包括与“潇湘”题材联姻、与“梧桐”意象纠合以及“云”的加入等)及其内在的惝恍悲愁情调等,以达致“管中窥豹,可见一斑”的效果。%Imagery is a familiar aesthetic and admirable object observed by Chinese scholars in both ancient and modern times. As one of the important elements of traditional poetic beauty, imagery analysis has drawn extensive attention in the recent years. By drawing on the findings of the predecessors, collecting and processing lots of existing materials, the author has traced the “Cangwu” imagery back to its ancient source to analyze its developing process and influencing factors, which involves the geographic name of “Cangwu” , the correlative myths and legends, the formation mechanism of “Cangwu” imagery, including its marriage with “Xiaoxiang” theme, its coupling with “Chinese parasol” imagery and its combining with “Cloud” imagery along with its inherently bewildering, sad mood and so on, so as to conjure up the whole thing through observing a part of it.

  6. Researches on Tic Disorder in Chinese Ancient Literatures%抽动障碍古代文献研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮铭; 吴敏

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the name, causes, pathology and the treatment of the tic disorders in ancient Chinese literatures through the database of Ancient Chinese Literature on Pediatric, and reveals the previous treatment for the disease by statistics for medication. It supplies the theoretical basis for clinical treatment.%通过查阅《中医儿科古代文献数据库》中与抽动障碍疾病相关的古代文献,综述抽动障碍的病名、病因病机以及治法;并通过对治疗药物的统计,揭示了历代医家对该病认识的总体规律,为临床治疗抽动障碍提供理论基础.

  7. Thermoluminescence dating of the ancient Chinese porcelain using a regression method of saturation exponential in pre-dose technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    This paper studies the thermoluminescence (TL) dating of the ancient porcelain using a regression method of saturation exponential in the pre-dose technique. The experimental results show that the measured errors are 15% (±1σ) for the paleodose and 17% (±1σ) for the annual dose respectively, and the TL age error is 23% (±1σ) in this method. The larger Chinese porcelains from the museum and the nation-wide collectors have been dated by this method. The results show that the certainty about the authenticity testing is larger than 95%, and the measurable porcelains make up about 95% of the porcelain dated. It is very successful in discrimination for the imitations of ancient Chinese porcelains. This paper describes the measured principle and method for the paleodose of porcelains. The TL ages are dated by this method for the 39 shards and porcelains from past dynasties of China and the detailed data in the measurement are reported.

  8. [Herbological study of the botanical origin of Chinese crude drugs "Du-hua" and "Qiang-hua" in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikage, Masayuki; Ochimori, Akane

    2007-01-01

    The Chinese crude drug Qiang-hua was listed as an alias of Du-hua in Shen-nong-ben-cao-jing, an herbal journal written during the Han Dynasty, China. Du-hua and Qiang-hua are recognized as different herbs in China these days; the main botanical origin of Du-hua is Angelica spp. and that of Qiang-hua is Notopterygium spp., of the family Umbelliferae. To make clear the botanical origins of Du-hua and Qiang-hua in ancient China, the authors made a herbological study. The findings were as follows: the name of Qiang-hua was given to the genuine Du-hua, which is produced in Qiang Province, an ancient province located in northwest China; the botanical origin of Qiang-hua is presumed to be Notopterygium incisum Ting ex H.T. Chang and N. forbesii Boissieu based on both the morphology and habitat written in ancient herbal journals. Both species are prescribed as having the plant origin of Qiang-hua in the present Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Therefore, we concluded that Du-hua and Qiang-hua were essentially the same drug, and were originally derived from the Notopterygium species in ancient China.

  9. [Application of Raman spectroscopic technique to the identification and investigation of Chinese ancient jades and jade artifacts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Xia; Gan, Fu-Xi

    2009-11-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopic technique is one of the essential methods in scientific archaeological research, which belongs to the nondestructive analysis. As a very good nondestructive analysis approach, it has not been widely applied in the research of the Chinese ancient jade artifacts. First of all in the present paper the fundamentals of laser Raman spectroscopic technique and the new research progress in this field were reviewed. Secondly, the Raman spectra of five familiar jades including nephrite (mainly composed of tremolite), Xiuyan Jade (mainly composed of serpentine), Dushan Jade (mainly composed of anorthite and Zoisite), turquoise and lapis lazuli were summarized respectively. As for an example, the Raman spectra of the four Chinese ancient jade artifacts excavated from Liangzhu Site of Zhejiang Province and Yinxu Site of Anyang in Henan Province were compared with that of the nephrite sample in Hetian of Xinjiang Province. It was shown that the Raman spectroscopic technique is a good nondestructive approach to the identification and investigation of the structures and mineral composition of Chinese ancient jade artifacts. Finally, the limitations and the foreground of this technique were discussed.

  10. 中国手语与中国古文字的比较%A Comparison of Chinese Sign Language and Chinese Ancient Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓梅; 谭中华

    2014-01-01

    Sign language originated from primitive society and it had a close relation with original language;Ancient Chinese characters recorded the original language and they are expressions of written original language. This paper, by comparing Chinese sign language with Chinese ancient characters, shows the similarities and differences between them and discusses the problems between the two and the original language and primitive thought, providing a new perspective for the research on sign language and ancient characters.%手语起源于原始社会,与原始语言有着密切的关系;古文字记录着原始语言,是原始语言书面化的体现者。通过中国手语与中国古文字比较,突出展现了二者的异同点,进而探讨了二者与原始语言、原始思维等方面的问题,为手语研究和古文字研究提供了一个新的角度。

  11. 中国古代“体操”发展研究%Study on the Development of Chinese Ancient"Gymnastics"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺新成

    2016-01-01

    Using the methods of literature data, survey interviews and other methods, the origin of ancient Chinese gymnastics, development and evolution, form and content are summarized, collation, analysis, to carry forward the an-cient Chinese gymnastics culture accumulation. The results showed that:Ancient Chinese gymnastics form early in the spring and autumn and the Warring States period has appeared;Ancient Chinese Gymnastics in different histori-cal periods of the development and evolution of ancient Chinese gymnastics;rich contents, various forms of. Sugges-tions:further excavation, consolidation of ancient Chinese gymnastics connotation, characteristic, make full use of the resources of gymnastics, carry forward Chinese ancient culture to modern gymnastics, provide the basis for the study.%采用文献资料、调查访谈等方法,对中国古代体操的起源、发展与演变、内容与形式进行了归纳、整理、分析,旨在弘扬中国古代体操文化的积淀。结果表明:中国古代体操的雏形早在春秋战国时期就已经出现了;中国古代体操在不同历史时期的发展与演变;中国古代体操的内容丰富、形式多样。建议:进一步挖掘、整理中国古代体操的内涵、特征,充分利用体操的资源,弘扬中国古代文化,为现代体操研究提供依据。

  12. 国学与高校学生人文素质教育%Studies of Chinese Ancient Civilization and the Humanis-tic Quality Education of College Students

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周悦

    2013-01-01

    国学作为中国五千年文化的传承,对过去、现在以及未来有着深远的影响。本文以国学的基本内容为对照,分析了当代高校一些学生的行为习惯,介绍国学中所蕴含的人生道理怎样对学生形成正面的素质教育。%Chinese ancient civilization, as the inheritance of Chi-nese five thousand years' civilization, influences the past, present and future profoundly. In accordance with the basic contents of Chinese ancient civilization, this paper analyzes the behavior and habit of some contemporary college students, introduces the wis-dom of life in Chinese ancient civilization and how it can play a positive role in the quality education of students.

  13. 幼儿国学教育点滴谈%View on Ancient Chinese Literature Search Education on Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾艳

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese Literature Search education should educated from baby”has become a social common voice. From an early age children learn Ancient Chinese Literature Search classic can not only cultivate children elegant personality, inspire children’s intelligence, the development of children’s memory and understanding, but also let the children become more confident, creative, but also more filial piety. Using various ways,meanstry to combine Ancient Chinese Literature Search classical education with kindergarten day activities, harmonious family, love friends, all-round development of children’s heart are expected to cultivated.%“国学教育要从娃娃抓起”已经成为社会大众普遍的呼声。从小让孩子学习国学经典不仅能培养孩子优雅的人格,启迪孩子的智慧,开发儿童的记忆力和理解力,还能让孩子变得更加自信、有创造力,同时也更懂得孝顺。利用各种方式、手段,尝试将国学经典教育融入到幼儿园的一日活动中,培养具有尊长尊师、好学重道、和睦家庭、友爱朋友等身心全面发展的幼儿。

  14. The Impact of Ancient Chinese Philosophy on Contemporary Leisure in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Shih; Card, Jaclyn A.

    Little has been written on the impact of Far East civilization's thought and influence on leisure in China today. A discussion of Chinese history, outlined in three stages, clarifies the development of Chinese philosophy over the past 5,000 years. Chinese civilization and culture rest upon a philosophical basis shaped primarily by the principles…

  15. Ancient Records and Modern Research on the Mechanisms of Chinese Herbal Medicines in the Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ming Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decades, Chinese herbal medicines (CHM have been extensively and intensively studied through from both clinical and experimental perspectives and CHM have been proved to be effective in the treatment of diabetes mellitus (DM. This study, by searching ancient records and modern research papers, reviewed CHM in terms of their clinical application and principal mechanism in the treatment of DM. We summarized the use of CHM mentioned in 54 famous ancient materia medica monographs and searched papers on the hypoglycemic effect of several representative CHM. Main mechanisms and limitations of CHM and further research direction for DM were discussed. On the basis of the study, we were led to conclude that TCM, as a main form of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM, was well recorded in ancient literatures and has less adverse effects as shown by modern studies. The mechanisms of CHM treatment of DM are complex, multilink, and multitarget, so we should find main hypoglycemic mechanism through doing research on CHM monomer active constituents. Many CHM monomer constituents possess noteworthy hypoglycemic effects. Therefore, developing a novel natural product for DM and its complications is of much significance. It is strongly significant to pay close attention to CHM for treatment of DM and its complications.

  16. 我国古代语文教育的文化返观%The cultural meditation on ancient Chinese language education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张志刚

    2011-01-01

    Ancient Chinese education mainly is to spread the Confucian culture, and promote the Confucian cultural values to humanize become main body culture dissemination in Chinese ancient Chinese education has been are hidden behind the MingXian evangelize write wiring. Based on cultural point of view, meditation in ancient China culture dissemination and education, Chinese ancient Chinese language education in the cultural dissemination means, social value orientation and personal value orientation, dynamic form - static cultural content, language education and cultural aspects of the relationship between shows unique characteristics.%我国古代教育主要是传播儒家文化、弘扬儒家的文化价值观,以人文化成为主体的文化传播在我国古代语文教育中一直是隐藏并处在教化明线后面的暗线。立足文化的视角,返观我国古代的文化传播和语文教育,我国古代语文教育在文化传播方式、社会价值取向和个人价值取向、动态形式和静态的文化内容、语文教育和文化的关系等方面呈现出独具的特点。

  17. 从汉字看中国古代婚俗%On Chinese Ancient Marriage Customs from the Perspective of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜礼立

    2015-01-01

    语言是文化的载体,而汉字又是记录语言的符号系统,可见汉字与文化之间有着密切的关系。通过对“姓、姜、姬、姚、家、婚、妻、姑、嫁、媒、妁”等字字形、结构、意义演变的分析,探讨这些汉字背后蕴含的古代婚俗文化。%Language is the carrier of culture, and Chinese characters are the record of the language symbol system, showing that it has a close relationship between Chinese characters and culture. This paper, based on the Chinese characters such as Xing(姓), Jiang(姜), Ji(姬), Yao(姚), Jia(家), Hun(婚), Qi(妻), Gu(姑), Jia (嫁), Mei (媒), Shuo (妁), analyses the word shape, structure, and meaning evolution to explore the ancient marriage customs and culture contained by Chinese characters.

  18. Monotonic and Cyclic Pushover Tests of Wood Beam-Column Connections: Ancient Chinese Tenon joint vs Typical and Simplified US Connections%Monotonic and Cyclic Pushover Tests of Wood Beam-Column Connections: Ancient Chinese Tenon Joint vs Typical and Simplified US Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Wood beam-column frame is a popular structural system in United States and in ancient China.Chinese wood beam-column frame structures showed better seismic resistance properties than the US ones. The tenon joint is one of the reasons. This study performed monotonic and cyclic pushover tests to understand the behavior of Chinese tenon joints versus the behavior of the commonly used US wood beam-column connections.The test results indicate that the typical US wood beam-colunm connection is very strong under monotonic loads. The ancient Chinese tenon joint has the best behavior under cyclic loads.

  19. The Earth's palaeorotation, postglacial rebound and lower mantle viscosity from analysis of ancient Chinese eclipse records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Kevin D.; Yau, Kevin; Chou, Hung-Hsiang

    1995-09-01

    Of the forces changing the Earth's rotation, tidal braking and postglacial rebound predominate at a timescale≥102 yr ( Hide and Dickey, 1991; Dickey, 1992). Analysis of ancient eclipse records has given values for the clock error Δ T and the time derivative of the Earth's dynamic oblatenessdot J_2 for the past 3,300 yr. Since Δ T=AT-UT=ct 2 , where AT is Atomic (cesium clock) Time, UT is Universal (Earth rotation) Time, and t is the number of centuries before 1800, the oldest data have the most weight. Sunrise and sunset eclipses are especially valuable, as they can be retrospectively timed. The Bamboo Annals, entombed in 299 B.C. and unearthed in A.D. 281, states that “in the first year of King Yi of the Western Zhou dynasty the day dawned twice at Zheng (34.5°N, 109.8°E)”. Kaiyuan zhanjing (Siddhartha, A.D. 724) cites this passage and adds that “in the 2nd (actually 12th) year of Sheng Ping reign period of King Shang (actually King Xi) the day began twice at Zheng”. Matching these records with the April 21, 899 B.C. and April 4, A.D. 368 sunrise eclipses (Oppolzer eclipse Nos. 732 and 3747) gave Δ T values of 5.8±0.15 and 1.7±0.1 hr, respectively. The recurrence of a central solar eclipse at the same site under almost identical circumstances accurately links up an ancient Δ T value with a more precise medieval one, and makes the statistics of such early data more robust. The brightness changes for the magnitudes 0.95 0.97 and 0.991 0.998 eclipses were greater than those for the January 4, 1992 “double sunset” over Southern California, U.S.A. (magnitude 0.91 0.92). David H. Levy noted that “... as annularity ended. Sunset had come and gone, but the sky began to brighten not darken. For almost 15 minutes it continued to brighten until the onrushing shadow of Earth took over and darkness fell again ...” (Sky Telesc. 83, 694). We have analyzed even earlier records from the Shang dynasty. Six solar eclipse records have been identified among

  20. Late Neolithic expansion of ancient Chinese revealed by Y chromosome haplogroup O3a1c-002611

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan-Chao WANG; Shi YAN; Zhen-Dong QIN; Yan LU; Qi-Liang DING; Lan-Hai WEI; Shi-Lin LI

    2013-01-01

    Y chromosome haplogroup O3-M122 is the most prevalent haplogroup in East Asia,and provides an ideal tool for dissecting primary dispersals of the East Asians.Most of the sub-haplogroups of O3-M122 have been sufficiently investigated except for O3al c-002611,despite its great prevalence and huge population,especially in Han Chinese.In this study,we identified 508 individuals with haplogroup O3 a 1 c-002611 out of 7801 males from 117 East and Southeast Asian populations,typed at two newly discovered downstream Y-SNP markers and ten commonly used Y-STRs.Defined by SNPs IMS-JST002611 (in short,002611),F11,and F238,three lineages internal to haplogroup O3alc-002611 have distinct geographical distributions.Furthermore,Y-STR diversity shows a general south-tonorth decline,which is consistent with the prehistorically northward migration of the other O3-M122 lineages.The northward migration ofhaplogroup O3alc-002611 started about 13 thousand years ago (KYA).The expansions of subclades F11 and F238 in ancient Han Chinese began about 5 and 7 KYA immediately after the separation between the ancestors of the Han Chinese and Tibeto-Burman.

  1. 'Reversing' the Flow of the Ancient Chinese Calendrical Subseasonal Phases Jie Qi in Australia: The Construction of a Chinese Medical & Agricultural Lunisolar Calendar (Northern and Southern Hemispheres )( Continued )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rey Tiquia

    2008-01-01

    Jie qi(subseasonal phases or solar qi)eonstitutes the solar component of the ancient Chinese lunisolar calendar.It divides the year into twenty-four suhseasonal phases i.e. li chun (beginning of spring) ,chun fen (spring equinox),etc.From the premodern perspective of Traditional Chinese Medicine(TCM ),normal climate change(q/hou b/an q/an)moves inharmony with the temporal flow of the qi(qi yun)and is thus beneficial to human health.However,abnonnal,abrupt weatheror climatic changes like those weather features of being too cold or too hot,too windy,too humid,too dry or a combination oftwo or more of these weather/climatic features which occur out of season can lead to 'seasonal diseases' (shi bing)or'diseases brought about by external influences' (wai gan zhi bing)or by the'six excessive climatic qi etiological factors' (liuBut the temporal flow of the subseasonal qi (qi yun) in Australia is the reverse of that of the northern hemisphericalregions of China,United States and Europe.This situation thus leads to a temporal desynchronisation of TCM practice andsouthern hemisphere.Having this calendrical tool, Chinese medicine practitioners in Australia can 'reverse'their clinical ac-tivities in accordance with the natural rhythm of the seasons here.

  2. Using Ancient Chinese and Greek Astronomical Data: A Training Sequence in Elementary Astronomy for Pre-Service Primary School Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hosson, Cécile; Décamp, Nicolas

    2014-04-01

    A great amount of research has been carried out world-wide to promote history of science as a powerful science teaching tool. Because the ways of choosing and using historical elements depend on teachers' or researchers' educational purpose, any attempt to support a single model-to-use seems difficult and probably irrelevant. However, specific purposes may reflect specific and prescriptive terms for using historical materials. Our work aims to show up this aspect. It is an attempt to make elements of the history of astronomy involved in the elaboration of a training session for future primary school teachers. Here, ancients' Greek and Chinese historical elements are chosen and organized according to specific educational and conceptual constraints that include the construction of the quasi-parallelism of solar rays reaching Earths' surface, and the spontaneous modeling of the propagation of Sunlight leaning on divergent rays. This leads to an original teaching sequence were historical elements are mixed with non historical ones. This organization forms the support of a pre-service training session developed for future primary school teachers. This session aims to provide future teachers with elementary cosmological knowledge (parallelism of Sunrays, shape and size of the Earth, Sun-Earth distance…), to provide some reference marks of history of ancient cosmologies (spherical and flat Earth) resulting from two distinct contexts, and to approach some aspects associated with Nature of Science (NOS).

  3. Identification of the man-made barium copper silicate pigments among some ancient Chinese artifacts through spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Q H; Yang, J C; Li, L; Dong, J Q; Zhao, H X; Liu, S

    2015-03-05

    This article describes the complementary application of non-invasive micro-Raman spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry to the characterization of some ancient Chinese silicate artifacts. A total of 28 samples dated from fourth century BC to third century AD were analyzed. The results of chemical analysis showed that the vitreous PbO-BaO-SiO2 material was used to sinter these silicate artifacts. The barium copper silicate pigments including BaCuSi4O10, BaCuSi2O6 and BaCu2Si2O7 were widely identified from colorful areas of the samples by Raman spectroscopy. In addition, other crystalline phases such as Fe2O3, BaSi2O5, BaSO4, PbCO3 and quartz were also identified. The present study provides very valuable information to trace the technical evolution of man-made barium copper silicate pigments and their close relationship with the making of ancient PbO-BaO-SiO2 glaze and glass.

  4. [The invention and improvement of ancient needle tools of traditional Chinese medicine TCM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Fang; Liang, Fan-rong; He, Zhong-jun; Liu, Mai-lan

    2008-10-01

    The development of needle tools in ancient China underwent a process of from stone through bamboo, bone, ceramic to metal materials, from rough to delicate manufacture, from multiple uses of a single one to diversified structure and shapes with different functions. Making research on the developing history of needle tools from Stone Age to the Ming and Qing dynasties in its materials, craftsmanship and applications can reveal the inventive values.

  5. TheSurveyofChineseAncientBureaucracy--AComparison of the Chinese Ancient and Modern Bureaucracy%中国古代官僚制审视--兼与现代官僚制的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽丽

    2013-01-01

      马克斯·韦伯提出的理性官僚制理论适应并促进了资本主义的工业文明,在很长的历史时期,官僚制组织成为西方社会的基本组织形态。中国在秦朝时期就建立了中央集权制的封建国家,其行政组织体系具有自己独特的组织规则和运作过程,具备现代官僚制组织的某些特征。但是,中国传统官僚制度是建立在以家长制形式组织起来的家族制度基础之上的,与马克斯·韦伯所倡导的现代理性官僚制存在着根本的区别。对二者的差异进行分析和比较,有助于加深对现代官僚制的理解,从而为现阶段我国行政管理体制改革提供借鉴和启示。%The theory of rational bureaucracy proposed by Max., Weber adapted to and promoted the capitalist industrial civilization. The structure of bureaucracy became the main organization form in western society for a long time. China had established feu-dal state of central authority in the Qin Dynasty whose administrative organization system had its special rules and operating process, which had some characteristics of modern bu-reaucracy. But there is some fundamental distinction between Chinese ancient bureaucra-cy based on the family system in paternalism and rational bureaucracy proposed by Max. Weber. The analysis and comparison of Chinese ancient bureaucracy and modern bureau-cracy contribute to deepening the understanding of the modern bureaucracy. All these will afford lessons and enlightenment for our Chinese administrative reform at present.

  6. Embodied Cognition in Ancient Chinese Confucianism and Taoism%中国古代儒道思想中的具身认知观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎晓丹; 叶浩生

    2015-01-01

    身心合一论是中国古代思想的基本观念。身是以“气”为根基,并通过“修身-修心”与“修心-修身”可至天人合一的身体。本文选取中国古代思想中最有代表性的儒道两家思想,融合现象学视角来诠释中国古代儒道思想中的身体观对身体主体性的生动凸显,以及从“身-心-世界”三者互为交涉的层次上所建构的特有的认知观。随着国内外学者对具身认知观的日益关注,结合中国古代思想视角开展的具身认知研究可在促进中国心理学发展的同时促进具身认知研究范式的成熟。%Ancient Chinese thought reflected the ontology idea of body and had a construction of mixer of the “body-mind-world” system. The syncretism of body-mind was an essential preset in ancient Chinese thought. “Qi” was regarded as a basic material of universe as well as human being. Ancient Chinese controlled the “Qi” by the practice of self-cultivation. The balanced flow of in and out of “Qi” in the body of human being could make an effort of body figure, physical structure and mind. The body concept of ancient Chinese thought was more propound and diversified than the body concept of modern western embodied cognitive theory. Ancient Chinese reached the state of syncretism between nature and man by approach of cultivating from body to mind and cultivating from mind to body. In Confucianism, Confucius established the traditional practice of kernel. The self-cultivation of practice of kernel which was constituted of ritual studies mainly focused on the transformation of body and mind. In Taoism, Zhuangzi was opposed to the constraint of man’s body and mind so that he put forward a view that human being should use their body subject and kenotic body to make perception of the world and taoism. But Confucianism and Taoism had a common body subject. The perception of body subject was the most important cognitive factor to cognition of

  7. Chinese Ancient Logistic Thoughts and Practices%中国古代物流思想与实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王之泰

    2015-01-01

    Chinese ancient logistic thoughts are quite different from modern logistic thoughts. In terms of cognition,“keeping in reserve”is the focus of ancient logistics,and“flowing”is the focus of modern logistics;in terms of thoughts,the subject of ancient logistics is“the thoughts paying more attention to keeping in reserve”,and that of modern logistics is“the systematic thoughts”;in terms of concept,ancient logistics takes static concept as the leading one,and modern logistics takes dynamic concept as the leading one. Based on this,there existed a series of policies,propositions,operations,projects, equipment and technology,such as“the thoughts paying more attention to keeping in reserve”in the pre-Qin period,the proposition of“fluent logistics network”of Xunzi,the positive role of the Great Wall,Kongming's Contraptions,the role of the Grand Canal in connecting South China with North China,the glory created by“water transport of grain to the capital (in feudal times)”,and“the Maritime Silk Road”explored by Zhenghe. With the help of research on Chinese ancient logistic thoughts and practices,we can find out some more references for today.%我国古代物流和现代物流存在很大区别,在认识上,古代物流重“储”,而现代物流重“流”;在思想上,古代物流主要是“重储思想”,现代物流主要是“系统思想”;在观念上,古代是以静态的观念为主导,现代是以动态的观念为主导。基于此,一系列派生的政策、主张、运行、工程、装备、技术等随之而来,如先秦时期的“重储思想”,荀子“物畅其流”的主张,万里长城对物流集中化、规模化、规范化、法制化、快速化等方面的积极作用,诸葛亮发明木牛流马造就的历史辉煌,大运河对南北沟通的重要作用,漕运直抵北京的辉煌,郑和开辟的海上丝绸之路等,呈现出一幅丰富多彩的画卷。研究我国古

  8. Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis: a modern interpretation of an ancient and traditional method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilton, Karen; Hammer, Leon; Zaslawski, Chris

    2013-10-01

    Contemporary Chinese pulse diagnosis™ (CCPD) is a system of pulse diagnosis utilized by Dr. John He Feng Shen, OMD, and documented by Dr. Leon Hammer, MD, in the book Chinese Pulse Diagnosis, A Contemporary Approach. It is the traditional method of the Ding medical lineage from the Shanghai region and dates to the 15th century in Chinese language texts. The fundamentals of this system are, however, much older and can be directly traced to the Neijing Suwen. Having been passed from the last direct inheritor of Ding knowledge (Dr. Shen) to modern practitioners of Chinese medicine by way of Dr. Hammer and his students, it represents an important system of advanced diagnosis. Although modern diagnostic technology provides very sophisticated diagnoses, for these instruments to be effective, the disease process must already have a physical manifestation. CCPD, on the other hand, provides the earliest warnings of physiological processes, which if left unchecked may result in the subsequent appearance of a disease. This article describes the derivation and the principles of this system of pulse diagnosis and explores its successful integration into the modern practice of Chinese medicine.

  9. Square Culture and the Origin of Ancient Chinese Mathe-matics%方形文化与上古中国数学的起源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于星兰

    2014-01-01

    从形与数概念的产生过程入手,研究了方形文化对中国上古数学文化的起源产生的影响。中国上古数学文化是中华古文化的重要组成部分;对抽象的形概念的认识以及对抽象的数概念的认识是抽象思维的产物;上古人类对方形的崇拜促进了方形文化的产生和发展;方形文化促进了形与数的概念的形成和发展;方形文化还通过对《周易》的影响,间接地促进了包括数学文化在内的中国古文化的产生与发展。%Starting with the creation process of the concept of shape and number, this paper has studied the effect of square culture to the origin of Chinese ancient mathematics culture. Chinese ancient mathematics culture is the important component of Chinese ancient culture, and the cognition to the abstract con-cepts of shape and number is the outcome of abstract thinking. The ancients' worship to square culture has promoted square cul-ture creation and development. And the square culture has pro-moted the creation and development of shape and number con-cept. Square culture has affected"the Book of Change"and pro-moted Chinese ancient culture development including mathemat-ics culture indirectly.

  10. [Brief analysis on the transmission mode of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) in ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yin; Liu, Yan-jiao

    2008-07-01

    The transmission route of TCM knowledge in ancient China primarily included doctor's transmission and non-doctor's transmission. The doctor's transmission mode included lineage-teaching system, elementary study system, transmission between schools and the clinical effects on the society etc. Non-doctor's transmission mode included literati's interests, literati's sickness, literati's health cultivation, the interests of top society, literati's recoding etc. Different transmission modes played an important role in the transmission and conservation of TCM knowledge as well as a reference to developing the transmission of present-day TCM knowledge.

  11. A Brief Description of the Historical Relations Between Ancient Tibetan Culture and the Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gelek

    2004-01-01

    All the ethnic groups of China together have created Chinese culture as a whole over its long historical development. This rich and colourful culture now spread before our eyes is the result of the distinctive cultures of various ethnic groups gradually merging.Without cultural exchange and cross influence between

  12. On the Orientation of Chinese Ancient Fictions%中国古代小说观念论略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    Being related with the ancient fictions and effected by the national culture hierarchical distribution , values,habit of thought,aesthetic taste and so on,the ancient Chinese fiction orientation can be divided into miscellaneous fiction and polite fiction ,which are communicated and related .The Connotative meaning of the former has changed and been allocated to the History .As a system constructed by contemporary but the ancients,the later was debased but it has been revered since the Ming Dynasty .Represented as the boom of comment on fiction,the reversion included ontology,characters,and techniques,and it’s necessary to analyze and value realistically.%  中国古代小说观念与古代小说的复杂演变相联系,又受制于本土文化等级秩序、价值理念、思维习惯、审美趣味等,可析为杂小说观念与文学小说观念两个系列,二者相通而又相对独立。前者的内涵有一个位移的过程,并得到了文化等级秩序上的史志学分类。后者作为一个系统主要由今人而非古人建构,历史上对其所作的阐释有限且多为负面,但于明后期出现了价值判断上的巨大扭转。这种扭转表现为前所未有的小说评点大繁荣,具体而言有本体论、人物论、技巧论三方面,而对其进行实事求是的分析与评估又十分必要。

  13. 我国古琉璃的品种与鉴定(1)%The Varieties and Identification of Ancient Chinese LIULI (Colored Glaze) (part 1)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王承遇

    2013-01-01

    琉璃是具有中国特色的传统玻璃艺术品和工艺品,也是中国古代玻璃的称谓之一.本文阐述了古琉璃的品种,包括首饰、礼仪品、供奉品、祭祀品、随葬品、陈设品、文化用品和生活用品、鼻烟壶及料器.%Liuli is traditional glass arts and crafts with Chinese characteristics and that is one of Chinese ancient glass appellation.This paper illustrated the ancient LIULI varieties including jewelry,etiquette articles,offerings,sacrificial vessels,funerary objects,display products,treasures,supplies,daily necessities,snuff bottle and glassware,etc.

  14. ON THE CIVILIZATION OF ANCIENT GREEK MYTHOLOGY AND THE PRIMITIVENESS OF ANCIENT CHINESE MYTHOLOGY%古希腊神话的文明性与中国先秦神话的原始性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘明霞; 曹萍

    2011-01-01

    Based on the analysis of the narrative form,the framework of Gods and the developing way in ancient Greek myth and ancient Chinese myth,we find that the differences between them are not reflected by types and numbers but by their respective features.One is civilized while the other is still primitive.%通过对古希腊和中国先秦神话的叙事形式、神祗构形和发展路径的对比分析,我们发现造成二者独特的民族特色和相异性的原因,并不在于神话的种类或数量大小等方面,主要表现为古希腊神话的文明性和中国先秦神话的原始性。

  15. Ancient Marital Rites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Clearly defined rites governing speech and actions dominated both the social and domestic activities of ancient Chinese people. Rites not only dominated the lives of men, but were also prominent in the lives of women.

  16. Traditional Chinese medicine formulas for irritable bowel syndrome: from ancient wisdoms to scientific understandings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hai-Tao; Zhong, Linda; Tsang, Siu-Wai; Lin, Ze-Si; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) serves as the most common alternative therapeutic approach for Western medicine and benefits IBS patients globally. Due to the lack of scientific evidence in the past, TCM formulas were not internationally well recognized as promising IBS remedies. In this review, firstly, we present the etiology and therapy of IBS in terms of traditional Chinese medical theory. Secondly, we summarize the clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TCM formulas for IBS patients that are available in the literature (from 1998 to September 2013), in which 14 RCTs conducted of high quality were discussed in detail. Of the 14 selected trials, 12 of those concluded that TCM formulas provided superior improvement in the global symptoms of IBS patients over the placebo or conventional medicines. As well, all 14 RCTs suggested that TCM formulas have good safety and tolerability. Last but not least, we explore the pharmacological mechanisms of the anti-IBS TCM formulas available in the literature (from 1994 to September, 2013). Collectively, in combating IBS symptoms, most TCM formulas exert multi-targeting actions including the regulation of neurotransmitters and hormones in the enteric nervous system (ENS), modulation of smooth muscle motility in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, modulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, attenuation of intestinal inflammation and restoration of intestinal flora, etc. In conclusion, TCM formulas appear to be promising for IBS treatment. This review provides a useful reference for the public in furthering a better understanding and acceptance of TCM formulas as IBS remedies.

  17. Noninvasive methods for the investigation of ancient Chinese jades: an integrated analytical approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casadio, Francesca; Douglas, Janet G; Faber, Katherine T

    2007-02-01

    This paper reports on an integrated analytical approach for the noninvasive characterization of Chinese nephrite samples, encompassing both geological reference specimens and museum objects. Natural variations induced by cationic substitutions, as well as human-induced alterations such as heating, which both affect color, are the focus of this contribution. Totally noninvasive methods of analysis were used, including X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, Raman microspectroscopy, visible reflectance spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction; moreover, the feasibility of using a portable Raman spectrometer for the in-field identification of jades has been demonstrated. Fe/Fe+Mg (% p.f.u.) ratios of the jades have been calculated based on hydroxyl stretching Raman bands, which will provide an important addition to similar data that are being collected at major museums in the Western and Eastern hemispheres.

  18. 基于CRF的古汉语分词标注模型研究%Research on Word Segmentation and Tagging for Ancient Chinese Based on CRF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严顺

    2016-01-01

    中文分词是自然语言处理的重要研究范畴,当前关于古汉语的分词研究尚有待探索。文章基于条件随机场(CRF)模型探究了古汉语文献的自动分词,并设计了2组对比实验,对包含有27部经典先秦典籍的古汉语语料库进行了词性标注模型研究。%Chinese word segmentation is an important research area of Natural Language Processing (NLP). Current research on ancient Chinese words has yet to be explored. Article based on CRF model explores the automatic word segmentation of ancient Chinese literature, and designs two comparative experiments; 27 classic books of Pre-Qin Chinese corpus is part of speech (POS) tagging study model.

  19. 中国古代管理思想的形成轨迹和发展路径%The Formation and Evolution of Ancient Chinese Management Thought

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴照云; 李晶

    2012-01-01

    Management, as a science, experienced a long time from theory to actual practice, but it took its real career in China after 1978, which took The Reform and Opening Up Policy and Rapid Industrialization as background. Just 30 years, she broadened herself taking the advantage of The Western Management Theory, in the 1980 1990s, the infant periods of the transformation of The Market Economy took place in China, and the then newly established enterprises once were enlightened and promoted on a large scale by the advanced managerial concepts and methods, but in return for Dogmatism and Empiricism which caused by the pattern of Western Management rooted in Western Values, let alone its blending with the traditional Chinese Values. The modern management guru Drucker remarked: many aspects can be brought in to a developing country like China, capital, machine, and even advanced technology but still there is one exception Managers. China needs its own managers, who are pretty familiar with his country and know his people and deeply rooted in its culture, society and the context. Only China she herself can build the nation. Therefore, in the realm of economic globalization, only by constructing the "Chinese Featured" theory of management and doing the managers' bidding can the home enterprises be competitive. "Chinese Featured" lies in the 5000-year-old Chinese traditional cultures , which propel and accomplish the world most affluent and powerful Empire, form the massive unique Ancient Chinese Thoughts. Before 1919, they were neglected in account of its failing in combination with the Industrial Revolution and Capitalistic Enterprise Operation . After 1919 , in the modern times, the world turned its visions back to Orient and began to study on Ancient Chinese Management Thoughts, as a magnum opus of the Oriental Management Idea's great significance in the contemporary social and economic development, along with China's Reform and Opening Up process

  20. 中国古代军事地理禁忌略论%A Study of Taboo of the Ancient Chinese Military Geography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光华; 李秀茹

    2016-01-01

    传世与出土兵家文献保留了大量军事地理禁忌的内容,表明军事地理禁忌是中国古代军事理论的重要组成部分.观念形态的地理禁忌表现为阴阳基础上衍生的系列成对概念,与兵阴阳学说有密切关系.在实战过程中,要求对一些特殊地形加以避忌.军事地理禁忌既有古代军事经验总结的合理成分,又包含很多的迷信思想,是一定历史时期的特殊文化现象.古代军事地理禁忌研究是古代军事与文化研究的有益补充.%The military documents handed down from ancient times and from excavation reserve a lot of military geography taboos, which shows that geography taboo is a very important part of the ancient Chinese military theories.The geography taboo on ideology shows concepts in pairs generated on the basis on yin-yang and is closely related with the military yin-yang theory.In the process of battles, some special terrain should be avoided.The ancient military taboo has both the reasonable summary of the ancient military experience and some superstitious ideas.It is the special cultural phenomenon during some historical period.The study of the ancient military geography taboo is beneficial to the research of the ancient military and culture.

  1. Returning of Overseas Chinese Ancient Books in the Digital Age%数字时代海外中华古籍的回归

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 董强

    2011-01-01

    古籍作为中华民族的优秀文化遗产,历来受到政府与民间团体的珍视。传统的古籍回归形式,如实物回归、出版形式回归、影性式回归,在数字时代得到了更好的传承。此外,海内外各收藏机构通过创建古籍数据库采取信息共享等方式,形成了迥异于传统的新回归模式,为新时期古籍整理与保护工作提供了有益的借鉴。%As Chinese outstanding cultural heritage, Chinese ancient books have always been cherished by governments and civic groups. Traditional returning forms of ancient books such as the material object returning, the published returning and the shade type returning obtain a better inheritance in the digital age. In addition, collection mechanisms at home and abroad form the new returning model are different from traditional ones by creating a database to share information. It provides a useful reference for arrangement and protection works of ancient books.

  2. 我国古代诗歌节日文化探微%The exploration on Chinese ancient poetry festival culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘秀娟

    2012-01-01

    中华民族的传统节日有春节、元宵、清明、端午、七夕、中秋、重阳等等,在这些有特色的传统节日里,蕴含着民族生活中的风土人情、伦理道德、愿望信仰等文化因素。因为诗歌是现实的反映,透过古代优美的节日诗歌,可以大致了解到古时的一些风俗以及古人的社会生活,体会到古代诗歌中的节日文化内蕴。%The Chinese traditional festival are the Spring Festival, Lantern Festival, Tomb Sweeping Day, Dragon Boat Festival, Tanabata, the Mid-Autumn Festival, Double Ninth Festival. These festival reflect the customs, ethics, aspirations, beliefs and cultural factors in national life. Because poetry is a reflection of reality, Through the ancient and beautiful holiday poetry, we can roughly understand the ancient customs and social life of the ancients and appreciate the cultural connotation of ancient poetry festival.

  3. A study of the Chinese organic-inorganic hybrid sealing material used in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient wooden ship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Shiqiang [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); College of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou 310014 (China); Zhang, Hui [Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Zhang, Bingjian, E-mail: zhangbiji@zju.edu.cn [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Department of Cultural Heritage and Museology, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310028 (China); Wei, Guofeng [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Li, Guoqing [Museum of Overseas Communication History Quanzhou, Fujian 362000 (China); Zhou, Yang [China National Silk Museum, Hangzhou 310002 (China)

    2013-01-10

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The composition of ancient sealing material was analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The excellent performance of this sealing material comes from the compact structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This structure is established through coordination and oxidative polymerization. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Conservation of ancient relies to a knowledge on their materials and crafts. - Abstracts: Chu-nam putty is a special organic-inorganic hybrid material invented by ancient Chinese people. It was prepared by mixing tung-oil, lime and oakum (plant fibers like jute, ramie and so on) with excellent sealing performance. The invention and application of Chu-nam putty in wooden ship lead to improvement in sailing technology and ship safety issue. In this paper, the analytical results of a piece of chu-nam putty which was discovered in 'Huaguang No.1' ancient ship are presented. The results show that the components of chu-nam putty are calcite, carboxylate and unsaturated esters by means of FT-IR, XRD and TGA/DSC. And the FT-IR and cross-section microscopic analysis confirm that the oakum was from jute. Comparing with the modeling putty samples it is found that the outstanding sealing performance of chu-nam putty comes from the coordination reaction of Ca{sup 2+} from the Ca(OH){sub 2} and the oxidation aggregation reaction of C=C double bonds in unsaturated fatty acid.

  4. 中国古代图书贸易活动体系探析%On the Ancient Chinese Book Trade

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄萃

    2014-01-01

    图书作为一种商品进行交易有着悠久的历史。图书贸易活动是中国图书出版事业的重要组成部分。本文从图书贸易的主体、客体、渠道、对外交流和管理五个方面研究中国古代图书贸易活动,分析中国古代图书贸易活动的发展过程,企图构建中国古代图书贸易活动体系。%In China , book trade has a long history .It was an important component of Chinese book enterprise .This article in-troduced and explored on the subject , the object , the distribution channel , the international trade and administrative management of the ancient Chinese book trade , analysed its history , and established trading system of the ancient Chinese book .

  5. 中国古诗中引述成分的英译%On the Translation of the Quotation Contents in the Ancient Chinese Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏霞

    2015-01-01

    中国古诗以抒发个人情感的抒情诗居多,但也有不少诗歌涉及交流情境,隐含提问、回答、对话、转述等引述成分。由于中国古诗严格的音韵格律、含蓄尚简的审美传统,以及诗歌本身的开放性,不少古诗中说话人等引述信息并不明确。翻译这类古诗时,译者应根据上下文语境和暗示交流情境的动词正确地理解原诗中的引述成分,并适当地补译原诗中所隐匿或缺省的引述成分,使之更加符合英文的句法习惯与西方读者的逻辑思维和审美取向。对于古诗中的引述成分,译者在英译过程中面临直接引语与间接引语的选择,不同的处理对于译诗意境的构建起着重要的作用。%Although a great number of ancient Chinese poems are lyrics expressing poets’personal emo-tions,there are still not a few involving communication context and entailing question,reply,dialogue, reported speech and other quotation contents. Owing to the strict meter of ancient Chinese poems,Chi-nese aesthetic pursuit of brevity,and the openness of poems,the speaker and other quotation contents in the ancient Chinese poems are often implicit. While translating this kind of poems into English,the trans-lator should discern and comprehend the involved quotation contents on the basis of poem context and the verbs implying communication. To fit English grammar and meet western readers ’logical thinking and aesthetic tradition,the implicit or omitted quotation contents in the original poems could be supplemented in the translated version. The quotation contents in the ancient Chinese poems could be translated into di-rect speech or indirect speech;different disposals are of great importance to the construction of the artistic conception of the translated version.

  6. 基于古音系统的汉语方言语音合成%Speech synthesis for Chinese dialects based on the phonological system of ancient Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小明; 熊子瑜

    2013-01-01

    采用HTS语音训练合成工具和STRAIGHT语音合成器,尝试在未知某方言(或土语)的实际语音系统的条件下开展相应的语音训练合成工作.采用古音系统来转写汉语字音,并在此基础上设计相应的问题集以实现语音训练合成.设计了一套面向汉语方言语音合成的通用发音文本;录制了一些汉语方言点的合成语音语料库;搭建了基于古音系统的汉语方言语音合成平台.普通话的合成实验结果表明:基于古音系统训练合成出来的语音,在可懂度和音质上跟基于普通话拼音系统训练合成出来的语音非常接近.这表明基于古音系统进行汉语方言语音合成的方法是有效的、可行的.%The HTS speech training synthesis tools and STRAIGHT speech synthesizer are used for speech training synthesis of an unknown dialect phonetic system.This study applies these methods to various Chinese dialects by designing a set of universal pronunciation texts for Chinese dialect speech synthesis with recording of a synthesized speech corpus for some Chinese dialects.A Chinese dialect speech synthesis platform is then built based on the phonological system of ancient Chinese.Results for Mandarin speech synthesis show that the synthesized sound based on the phonological system of ancient Chinese is quite close in terms of intelligibility and quality to the synthesized sound based on the pinyin system.Thus,the speech synthesis based on the phonological system of ancient Chinese for Chinese dialects is effective and feasible.

  7. 中国古代文明的起源及早期发展国际学术讨论会纪要%Summary of the International Symposium on the Origin and Initial Development of Chinese Ancient Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    本刊记者

    2001-01-01

    In what environments and on what background was the ancient Chinese civilization evolved? What are its characteristic features? And what is the course of its development like? These problems are all of important academic value. Therefore, the Center for the Study of Ancient Civilization, CASS, held the “International Symposium on the Origin and Initial Development of Chinese Civilization”in Beijing from August 1st to 3rd, 2001. The attendants discussed mainly theories of civilization's origin and related concepts, standards of civilization, and the developmental road of ancient Chinese civilization. They also inquired into the questions of how to judge the degree of civilization represented by archaeological remains, how to strengthen the co-operation of archaeology with other disciplines, how to enhance the scientificalness and standardization of the studies of civilization' s origin, and how to deepen these studies.

  8. Advertising Aesthetic Creation Referenced to Chinese Ancient Literature%论广告创作对中国古代文学的审美借鉴

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜婷婷

    2014-01-01

    当今我国广告业的发展面临着摆脱西方模式、创作具有中国美学特色作品的挑战。中国古代文学是中国传统文化的重要组成部分,又与中国古典美学相表里,可为之提供借鉴,具体可在以下三个方面入手:寻求情感切入点,凸显“在心为志,发言为诗”的表现之美;注重意境创造,展现“温柔敦厚”的含蓄之美;引用和借鉴古诗文,彰显“文抽丽锦”“拍按香檀”的形式之美。%The development of advertising industry in China is facing challenges that break away from the Western model, possessing chinese aesthetics features in works. Chinese ancient literature is an important part of Chinese traditional culture, associated with Chinese classical aesthetics, which can provide reference for them. There are the following three aspects: seeking emotional point that can outstand performance beauty of“ the heart as ambition , speak as the poem";paying attention to the artistic conception creation that can show implicit beauty of"gentle and sincere”; quoting and referencing the ancient poetry that can highlight form beauty of "the pumping Lijin""shoot at Xiang Tan".

  9. 中国古代主要媒介的归类分期和发展特点%THE CLASSIFICATION AND DEVELOPMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS OF CHINESE ANCIENT MEDIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈继睿

    2012-01-01

    中国古代媒介承载了深厚的中国文化。一直以来,对传统文化的研究可谓多如繁星,但由于传统思想看不起器物层面的知识,我们对文化要素之一的媒介一直关注不多。即使有所研究也局限于媒介年代的考据分析,更不用说媒介自身发展规律、媒介与社会关系的研究。本文试图从中国古代媒介的发展史人手,找出不同媒介的共同点进行归类,划分某一类媒介对应的时期,从中西媒介发展特点的不同之处展现中国媒介的发展规律。%Ancient media of China carries profound Chinese culture. For a long time, more and more researches of tradition culture have been done. Because our traditional thought has despised the knowledge of physics, we have been short of attention to media which is one of the elements of culture. Even if the study also limited the media~ textual analysis, not to mention the media~ own law of de- velopment, and the relationship between media and society. This paper attempts to start at the history of ancient media of China, clas- sify different media, divide the types of media into different periods, and show the law of Chinese ancient media by comparing Occident and China.

  10. 中国古代文论的审美主体间性特征研究%Research on the Aesthetic Intersubjectivity Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙根

    2015-01-01

    当前的世界,是全球化的思潮逐渐蔓延的时代,同时,现代性的思潮危机也是我们必须反思的内容,在两者相互碰撞的时代危机之下,我们可以从审美主体间性这一全新的角度来对中国古代文论进行全新的考察。我们认为,中国古代文论的审美主体间性主要体现在浑融的艺术感知性、双向对举的艺术张力以及艺类渗透的文本融合性。中国古代文论的这种审美主体间性是与西方文论有着截然不同的特质的,是具有中国特色的古典文论,它对世界美学都会产生极为重要的影响,而且也应该成为世界美学中的重要组成部分。%The current world is the era in which the current of globalization is gradually spreading, while at the same time, the crisis of modernity of thought is what we must reflect on. Under the age of crisis in which the contents of the two colliding, we can carry out a new study on Chinese Ancient Literature from a new perspective of aesthetic intersubjectivity. The writer believes that the aesthetic intersubjectivity of Chinese Ancient Literature is mainly reflected in the artistic perception of oneness, two-way artistic tension and text fusion of art class penetration. The aesthetic intersubjectivity of Chinese Ancient Literature has distinct traits compared with western literary theory, which is classical literary theory with Chinese characteristics and is an important part and will have a very important impact on aesthetics in the world.

  11. A Study on Memes of Culture in Translating Ancient Chinese Poems into English%古汉诗英译的文化模因研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄跃进

    2012-01-01

      从模因理论原理出发,研究汉诗英译的文化模因特征,认为古诗翻译具有形神相似模因、形似神不似模因、形不似神似模因和形神不相似模因等,在诗歌翻译的文化传播过程中,译者要更多地采用形神相似或者形不似神似模因,避免形似神不似或形神不相似模因的出现,只有这样,才能最大限度地将中国文化的精髓传递给外国读者。%  The author will study on memes of culture in translating ancient Chinese poems into English from memetic perspective and holds that translating ancient Chinese poems possess memes of meaning and spiritual conformity, meaning conformity but spiritual inconformity, meaning inconformity but spiritual conformity, as well as meaning and spiritual inconformity. The translator should employ more memes of meaning and spiritual conformity or meaning inconformity but spiritual conformity, avoiding memes of meaning and spiritual inconformity or meaning conformity but spiritual inconformity in the course of poetry translation;only in this way can the essence of Chinese culture be delivered to foreign readers to its full play.

  12. Commentary on Lexicology of Modern and Middle Ancient Chinese%《中古近代汉语词汇学》解析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵家栋; 王中强

    2015-01-01

    《中古近代汉语词汇学》是一部对中古近代汉语词汇做出全面评述的通论性著作. 该书内容详实,引征语料丰富,全面概述了中古和近代汉语词汇的研究情况,揭示词汇构成方式和词义考释方法,并介绍语料类型和鉴别语料的方法.该书不仅汇集释义,而且阐发新词新义,并补充辨析其它学者的论述.该书重视白话语料,对佛经和敦煌文献有专门介绍.%Lexicology of Modern and Middle Ancient Chinese is a work about the well-rounded summary of the study on the middle and modern ancient Chinese in recent years. The works has a detailed content analysis,abundance of linguistic data and examples,and a brief account of the research situation of them. It offers a theoretical discussion of the way that the word was formed and the methods that the word meaning was interpretted,furthermore,an introduction to the types of language sources and the methods of identifying them. The works not only collects the interpretation of words and expressions,but also illustrates new words and new meanings with supplementing and discriminating predecessors'discussions. The book pays great attention to the vernacular Chinese, special Buddhist scriptures and Dunhuang manuscripts. Certainly,there are a few shortcomings in the work.

  13. Probing into the Origin of Ancient Chinese Medical Advertising Forms%中国古代传统医药广告形式探源

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛涛

    2011-01-01

    中国传统医药行业很早就进入市场并且有自己的广告传播方式,在医药广告时间和空间的历史演进中经历了由动态到静态,从实物到抽象的各种演变过程,其广告形式也有招幌广告、印刷广告等主要方式.图画广告、名人广告、对联广告、市声广告也在其传播过程中发挥了积极的作用和有益的补充。古代中医药广告形式的探究,对深入研究中国古代医药广告文化、医药商业文化,推动现代医药广告的发展会有积极的作用和帮助。%Chinese traditional medicine industry entered the market so early and had their own ways of advertising communication. In the medical advertisement history of time and space evolution, it has gone through a variety of evolution, from dynamic to static, and from physical to abstract. Major advertising forms include Sapporo advertising, print ads and other forms. During its communication process, picture advertising, celebrity advertising, couplet advertising and city sound advertising also played positive roles and acted as useful sup- plement. To explore advertising forms of ancient Chinese medicine is beneficial to the in-depth study of the advertising culture of ancient Chinese medicine, business culture of medicine, and to promote the development of modern medicine advertisements.

  14. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan

    2004-01-01

    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  15. 大学古代汉语教学改革的必要性及要点探析%On the Necessity of the Reform of University of Ancient Chinese Teaching and Points

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静珊

    2014-01-01

    汉语是中华民族五千年文化的积淀,更是文化的结晶所在,因此,具有很强的传承性。古代汉语直接体现了古代人的思想和文化理念。古代汉语具有很强的文化气息,它包括很多方面的知识。例如,文学、历史、哲学等一些看似并不相关的知识,它的学习能够丰富大学生的知识面,也能够让更多人了解到中国的历史文化,但是随着社会的不断进步,教学方式也会随着它逐步进行改革,因此,古代汉语教学也要进行改革。针对大学古代汉语教学必须改革的原因进行深入分析。%Chinese is five thousand years of Chinese culture,is the crystallization of a culture is,therefore,has a strong heritage. Ancient Chinese directly reflects the ancient people's thoughts and cultural ideas. The ancient Chinese has a strong cultural atmosphere,it includes many aspects of knowledge. For example,literature,history,philosophy and other seemingly not related knowledge,the study can enrich students’ knowledge,also can let more people understand that China history and culture,but with the development of society,the teaching way is as it gradually reform,therefore,the ancient Chinese teaching should be reformed. An in-depth analysis for the causes of University of ancient Chinese teaching must reform.

  16. Borrowing Ancient Thought to Build Contemporary Strategy: Reflections on Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power%借鉴古代思想 研究崛起战略——读《古代中国思想与当代中国实力》之感

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余丽

    2011-01-01

    阎学通教授英文新著Ancient Chinese Thought,Modern Chinese Power通过研究中国先秦诸子与先秦典籍中蕴含的国家间政治思想,丰富和发展了当代国际关系理论,并以此为当前中国的和平崛起提供理论支持,推动了中国古代国家间政治思想向世界的传播。笔者首先从国家崛起的战略新模式与中国的和平发展道路、国际关系中的政治实力论、道德与国际安全论这三个部分阐述了中国古代国家间政治思想的新启迪。其次,对关涉"传统主义学派"与"中国学派"之争、分析层次、国际规范这三个有争议的问题进行辩证分析,认为无论是"传统主义学派"还是"中国学派",都是中国学者对当今国际关系理论的学术思考、学术探索与学术贡献的宏观与综合体现;从理论维度上看,都是个性与共性、特殊性与普遍性的统一;从实践维度上看,都是国际社会理论的多样性与统一性的集中表现;尽管他们的表现形式或说法不一,但本质是相似、甚至是一致的;他们推动与繁荣了中国的国际关系理论研究,在世界舞台上展现了中国学者的风采。最后,做出中国古代国家间政治思想的研究将会向体系化方向演进的判断。%Yan Xuetong's new book Ancient Chinese Thought, Modern Chinese Power borrows from pre-Qin thinkers and Pre-Qin classics on the political relations between states to enrich and develop contemporary international relations theory, and on the basis of this provides support for China's peaceful rise. This has functioned to promote the spread of ancient Chinese political thinking on relations between states internationally. The author would first like to offer strong support for Yan's application of ancient Chinese political thinking to China's new strategy for its rise and its peaceful economic development; to the theory of realism in international relations, and to theories of ethics

  17. 中医药行业古籍数据库的建设与服务%The Construction and Service of Ancient Books Database in the Trade of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兵; 符永驰; 张华敏; 李斌; 王蕊; 孙海舒

    2014-01-01

    The author has investigated and analyzed the current situation of ancient books database in the trade of traditional Chinese medicine, introduced the existing main ancient books database in the trade of traditional Chinese medicine briefly and raised the suggestions on the existing issues in the database construction and ancient TCM books digitization.%对中医药行业古籍数据库的建设现状进行调查和分析,并对现有主要的中医药行业古籍数据库进行简要介绍,针对目前中医古籍数字化和数据库建设存在的问题提出建议。

  18. The Space-Time Nature of Phonetics Change in Ancient Chinese Phonology from its Early Stage to Late Satge%中古音早期到晚期音变的时空性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋文华

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of the changing characteristics of ancient Chinese phonology,more and more scholars believe that it should be divided into two stages in ancient Chinese phonology:the early one and the late one. One of the important proofs in demonstrating the theory of two stages in ancient Chinese phonology is the space-time nature of phonetics change from the early stage to the late stage. There are two kinds of changes in phonetics change in ancient Chinese phonology:allophone change and assonance change. The phonetics change can be either proved on the basis of documents or be supported on the grounds of the dialects in the Tang dynasty.%根据中古音的变化特征,越来越多的学者认为中古音分早晚两期,论证中古音早晚两期说,一个重要的依据就是中古音早期到晚期音变的时空性。中古音变包括音值音变跟音类音变两类,音变或以文献为依据,或从唐代方言得到支持。

  19. Ambrosia of Ancients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUOJIANYING

    2004-01-01

    IN 196 B.C. a Chinese philosopher observedto his ruler: "A lord's to ppriority is the welfare of his subjects; to the peopie, eating is foremost." Chinese ancients perceived clearly the essentiality of grain cultivation to the survival of the population and country as a whole. This is apparent in the premillennial term for "country" -sheji literally translated as god of land and grain.

  20. [My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Kewei; Wang, Zhaohui; Li, Naiqi; Li, Pengliu

    2015-11-01

    In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books, there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog, some of them are rare and precious ones. In 1933, the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China, 35 issues were published at that time, with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column". Meanwhile, other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education. In a word, the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents, but also combined with regional characteristics. Therefore, it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  1. 略论中国古代诗歌注释学的分期和特点%The Different Stages and Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Poetry Annotation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周金标

    2015-01-01

    The ancient Chinese poetry annotation theory has a long history which is an important branch of the ancient academic system. In accordance with its evolution, it can be divided into five stages, namely the origin stage before the Tang Dynasty, the beginning of prosperous period in Tang Dynasty, the thriving period in Song Dynasty transformation period in Jin-Yuan-Ming Dynasties and the most flouring period in Qing Dynasty. Each period has different academic characteristics. For example, the poetry annotation in ante Tang Dynasty is char-acterized by strong indoctrination and that of Song Dynasty is featured by strengthened historicism.%中国古代诗歌注释学源远流长,是古代学术系统的重要分支。按照其演变轨迹,可分为五个时期,即唐前的滥觞期、唐代的初兴期、宋代的兴盛期、金元明的转型期、清代的鼎盛期,每个时期具有不同的学术特点,如唐前诗歌注释教化色彩浓厚,宋代注释历史主义得到加强等。

  2. [Regularity of drugs compatibility of anti-hepatoma traditional Chinese medicine ancient prescriptions and risk evaluation of anti-hepatoma new drug research and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Hong-Fa; Fan, Wei; Liu, Zhen; Man, Shu-Li; Si, Shu-Yong; Gao, Wen-Yuan

    2014-10-01

    Traditional Chinese ancient prescriptions have been used for treatment of liver cancer for a long history and the scientific and rational compatibility is a great wealth for modern research and development (R&D) of new drugs. The research and development of new drugs are often accompanied with a large investment, a long cycle and a high risk, especially for the anti-tumor drugs R&D which are facing more risks and lower successful rate. In this research, the regularity of compatibility of drugs was analyzed from 124 anti-hepatoma ancient prescriptions by computer program. The results can offer help to the R&D of anti-hepatoma new drugs and reduce the risk of drug screening. In addition, we surveyed 22 companies in this field from six provinces such as Beijing, Shanghai, Tianjin and so on and obtained 240 risk assessment questionaires. Then we used qualitative analysis method to interpret the greatest impacts for the risks in the process of R&D, production and sales of anti-hepatoma new drugs. The study provides a basis for anti-liver cancer drugs R&D researchers, who can take effective measures to reduce the R&D risks and improve successful rate.

  3. 古文字发展义化原因浅析%On the Reasons of Meaning Development of Ancient Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娴

    2014-01-01

    义化是古文字形体结构发展演变过程中的一种重要现象。文字是记录语言的符号,导致义化的一个重要原因是文字为了更好地记录语言。文字除受语言的制约之外,它自己本身就是一套成系统的符号,古文字阶段的字符为了融入汉字系统就必然会发生义化。%The justice is a Very important phenomenon in the body structure deVelopment of ancient writing. The character is a symbol to record language. An important cause of justice is to record language better. In addition to restrict from the language,the character itself is a set of systematic symbol. The ancient writing stage character will ineVitably occur justice in order to integrate into the Chinese system.

  4. Analysis on Chinese Ancient Family and Its Legal System%试论中国古代家庭及其法律制度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯世才; 白丽云

    2014-01-01

    In Chinese ancient society ,“home”was a small community which was organized according to certain ethi-cal rules.Family members must obey the principle of “pecking order according to social status and age”.The con-cepts of home,family,and household in ancient China are certain distinct .Among the family members,the eleder have the parent rights and property rights ,thus,resulting in revenge,toleration and concealment,cohabitation with common property and other family legal system .%在中国古代社会里,“家”乃是根据一定的伦理规则组织起来的小社会,在家庭内部的秩序必须遵循“尊卑有序,长幼有别”的原则。中国古代家与家族或户的概念是有一定区别的,家庭内部成员之间有家长权、财产权等权利分配,从而产生了复仇、容隐、同居共产等家庭法律制度。

  5. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.

    2010-01-01

    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  6. 中国古代音乐的文化精神述评%Review of the Cultural Spirit of Ancient Chinese Music

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安潮

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient music shows different artistic characteristics in seven different periods of its development .They reflect the different levels in Chinese cultural spirit of subtlety ,charisma ,charm ,charm and artistic conception ,rhythm .The mystically distant music in ancient times ,music ritual style in Xia and Shang Dynasty ,rites spirit music in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Period ,subtle music in the Qin and Han Dynasties ,fusion verve music in Wei and Jin Dynasties ,rich tone music in Sui and Tang Dynasties ,music with folk music rhythm in the Song and Yuan Dynasties ,local music style in the Ming and Qing Dynasties ,all show a diversified spirit of music culture in ancient China which is rich ,fully inclusive and equitable characteristics , and its core is vivid and refined and profound ..%中国古代音乐在其发展的7个不同时期呈现出不同的艺术特征,它们在精微、风采、神韵、气韵、意境、节奏等中国文化精神上有不同层次的体现。远古时期音乐的神秘悠远,夏商时期音乐祭神的风韵,春秋战国时期音乐的仪礼气韵,秦汉时期律学开启精微之风,魏晋时期音乐的融合神韵,隋唐时期音乐的博大气韵,宋元时期俗乐的节奏,明清时期地方戏曲的滥觞等,展现出中国古代音乐文化精神历时性征的多元丰富、兼容并蓄特点,潜藏于内并逐渐形成特色的是气韵生动和清微淡远。

  7. On the Relationship between Apocryphal Sutras and the Ancient Chinese Literature%疑伪经与中国古代文学关系之检讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小荣

    2012-01-01

    在国际汉学领域之佛教文学研究中,学人对重要的单部疑伪经或同类型的疑伪经较为关注,故相关成果也相对突出,但对疑伪经总体性质的认识却较有欠缺。有鉴于此,有必要从宏观角度来讨论疑伪经与中国古代文学之关系。它主要表现在四大层面:一者从文学史言,疑伪经本身就是古代宗教文学不可分割的组成部分之一;二者从思想史言,疑伪经是印度佛教中国化最直接的文本体现;三者从欣赏趣味言,疑伪经塑造的人物形象更符合中土民众的审美心理;四者从影响言,疑伪经既为后世作家提供了大量的文学创作素材,进而形成固定的母题,同时,又促成了某些佛教法会仪式的形成与流播。当然,中土固有的文学作品,也对疑伪经的撰作产生过相当的影响。%In the academic circle of internaitonal sinology, shcolars pay more attention to single Apocry- phal or Apocryphals of same kind in terms of Buddhist literature. Therefore, it is productive in this field of re- search with abundant achievements. However, there lacks recognition concerning the overall quality of all A- pocryphals. This article discussed relationship between Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras and ancient Chinese litera- ture from a macro point of view. It is mainly manifested in the four levels: ( 1 ) from ancient Chinese literary history, the Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras itself is an integral part of the ancient religious literature; (2) from the history of ideas, the Apocryphal Sutras reflects the most direct Indian Buddhism's process in China; (3) from the Chinese people's appreciating tastes, the characters shaped by the Buddhist Apocryphal Sutras have more national aesthetic psychology than those original Buddhist scriptures; (4) from the impacts, the Bud- dhist apocryphal sutras have not only provided a great deal of literary creation materials, thus forming a fixed motif, but also led to

  8. Naito Konan's Misjudgement of Ancient Chinese History Note%内藤湖南对中国古代史注的误断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘治立

    2012-01-01

    Japanese scholars Naito Konan in its Chinese history in a book on ancient Chinese history note put forward many views, but many knowledge such as history note in the catalog work position, Liu Zhiji's history view, history of note in the history of injection, injection history since the relationship between the origin and history of the end of his note issues and history note the actual develop- ment inconsistent, it is necessary to clarify.%日本学者内藤湖南在其《中国史学史》一书中对中国古代史注提出了许多见解,但是许多认识如史注在目录著作中的地位、刘知几的史注观、史注与史评的关系、史书自注的肇始及史书他注的终结等问题与史注发展的实际不一致,很有必要予以澄清。

  9. 中国古代悲秋文学中的生命意识%Life Consciousness in Ancient Chinese Sentimental Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪萍

    2001-01-01

    与西方在宗教安慰中消除对死亡的恐惧不同,中国古代文人士子以建功立业达到对死亡的超越。悲秋文学以人生价值实现过程中的苦难为核心,以忧惧生命短暂为外在形式表达了古代文人的生命观,反映了中国文化天人合一的宇宙观和伦理价值观念对文人生命意识的深刻影响。%In the west, people's fear toward death can be erased with religious comfort. Yet it is quite different from that in ancient Chinese works. The men of letters surpassed death with the meritorious deeds performed. Sentimental literature focused upon the tribulation experienced in the process of value accomplishment. The extrinsic form of the works is the scholars' worry and apprehension about life's transience. Those works reflect the universe outlook of unique combination between heaven and human in Chinese culture. The moral values' great influence upon scholars' life conscious-ness is also mirrored out.

  10. Sanskrit- Chinese Transliteration and the Pronunciation of Voiced Initials in Middle Ancient Chinese%梵汉对音与中古汉语全浊声母的音读问题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红生

    2012-01-01

    中古音或《切韵》音系的全浊声母的实际音读是否送气是汉语音韵学里一个有争论的问题。要推求中古时期全浊声母的实际音读,仅靠历史比较法是有一定局限的,梵汉对音研究弥补了这一缺陷。梵汉对音的事实告诉我们,中古音或《切韵》音系的全浊声母在当时的实际口语中应有送气、不送气两种读法,而送气、不送气这两种读法并不具有辨义功能。中古音或《切韵》音系的全浊声母送气、不送气这两种读法的特点在今天的吴方言中依然保留,应是语音发展的历史遗留。%It is still a controversial issue in Chinese phonology whether the actual pronunciation of voiced initials in the middle ancient Chinese and the phonetic system of Qie Yun is aspirated or not. Historical comparative method, as the only way, has its limitations in order to find out their actual pronunciation, the study of Sanskrit - Chinese transliteration makes up this defect. The fact of Sanskrit - Chinese transliteration tells us: in actual spoken lan- guage, voiced initials in the middle ancient Chinese and the phonetic system of Qie Yun does have two kinds of pro- nunciation: aspiration and not aspiration, besides, they don't any function of differentiation of meaning. Moreover, this characteristic still retains in today's Wu dialect, which belongs to a historical problem of phonetic develop- ment.

  11. 铁件加固技术在古建筑木结构中应用研究%Application of Iron-strengthening Techniques in Chinese Ancient Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周乾; 闫维明

    2011-01-01

    采用归纳分析及力学计算相结合的方法,研究了我国古建筑木结构工程中普遍采用的铁件加固技术.基于对数座占建筑的实际勘查及分析结果,研究了古建筑木结构采用铁件加固技术的分类及特点,客观地评价了加固效果,对不足之处提出了改进建议.结果表明:铁件加同技术可有效提高占建筑木结构的承载能力及刚度,但也存在加吲件易锈蚀、不易更换且破坏木材的问题;另一方面,采取合理的铁件加固方式或者使用新的加固材料,将实现木结构有效保护.%To protect Chinese ancient buildings, the iron-strengthening techniques in Chinese ancient wooden buildings were studied by the classified and mechanical analysis. Based on the survey and analysis results on several ancient builings, the classification and characters of strengthening techniques by iron were discussed, the strengthening results were evaluated and the feasible advices were proposed. The results show that the iron-strengthening techniques would be helpful for enhancing the strength as well as rigidity of Chinese ancient wood buildings, however, there also exist some shortcomings such as the corrosion of iron, the destruction of wood, the inconvenient maintenance for strengthening components and so on; On the other hand, the rational strengthening techniques by iron or new strengthening materials applied in Chinese ancient wooden buildings could solve the problems as mentioned above.

  12. General---a Basic Method of Teaching in Chinese Ancient History%通--古代史教学的一个基本方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文武

    2014-01-01

    Chinese ancient history is an important part of Chinese brief history courses in Children Teachers’ School. The key of accomplishing teaching,task of Chinese ancient history is to build a sense of connection about thousands of years’ history among students,to hold the relationships between transverse and longitudinal, concrete features of each dynasty and their connections , the most important part is to emphasize one word“general”.In history textbooks, it only monotonously talk about politics, economic,cultures and class struggle severally. And there are no summaries on general properties and historical status of each dynasty, the connections among each dynasty , period, system and culture are still ambiguous.“General Theory”should be taught at the beginning of each dynasty,try to guide students to establish the sense of“general”by applying exams.%中国古代史是幼儿师范学校中国通史课程的重要组成部分。要完成古代史教学任务,关键在于培养学生对几千年历史的贯通联系感,把握好横向与纵向、各代具体特点与前后联系之间的关系,其最主要的还是要突出一个“通”字。历史教科书中每个朝代都是千篇一律的单层面的政治、经济、文化、阶级斗争的分别叙述,不见各代综合特点和历史地位的概述,各朝代之间、各时代之间、各种制度、各种文化之间的联系却仍然不清。在每个朝代开始前都要先讲“通论”,用考试这根指挥棒引导学生树立“通”的观念。

  13. Confucianism and Taoism's Influences on Ancient Chinese Musical Aesthetics%浅议儒、道思想对中国古代音乐美学的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王双杰

    2011-01-01

    中国古代音乐美学源远流长,是人类精神财富的重要组成部分,反映了华夏民族独特的审美意识与审美情趣。从儒教与道教对我国古代音乐美学发展的影响以及儒、道两家对音乐美学思想影响的异同入手,探讨中国古代的音乐美学思想。%Ancient Chinese musical aesthetics has a long history, and is an important part of human spiritual wealth.It reflects the unique aesthetic consciousness and aesthetic taste of Chinese nation.From the aspects of Confucianism and Taoism's influences on the development of ancient Chinese music aesthetics and the similarities and differences between them,this article discusses the aesthetic thought of ancient Chinese music.

  14. Ancient Chinese Teaching Reform for the Secondary Language Teaching in Normal Universities%面向中学语文教学的高师院校古汉语教改探索1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖永凤

    2013-01-01

    Normal University Department of Chinese ancient Chinese courses and secondary language classi-cal teaching have failed to keep pace with the aduance of the realty .The present paper aims to affer some re-form measures of the ancient Chinese language courses in the teaching content and teaching methods;First, adjust the Ancient Chinese course content, appropriate to compress the originalGeneral Theory, culture and common sense, and in close connection with the classical content of the secondary language, add new educa-tional content; secondly, to take a three-pronged teaching mode in teaching methods, combining traditional lectures with multimedia courseware showcase,classroom learning andexercises combined, the actual combi-nation of ancient Chinese knowledge and modern languages.%针对高师院校中文系古代汉语课程和中学语文文言文教学相脱节的现状,提出了古代汉语课程在教学内容和教学方法方面的改革措施;首先是调整古代汉语课程内容,适当压缩原有的通论、文化常识等内容,同时紧密结合当前中学语文文言文内容,补充新的教学内容;其次,是在教学方法上采取三结合的教学模式,即传统讲授与多媒体课件展示相结合、课上学习与课后练习相结合、古代汉语知识与现代语言实际相结合。

  15. Fo Shou San, an ancient Chinese herbal decoction, protects endothelial function through increasing endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathy W C Bi

    Full Text Available Fo Shou San (FSS is an ancient herbal decoction comprised of Chuanxiong Rhizoma (CR; Chuanxiong and Angelicae Sinensis Radix (ASR; Danggui in a ratio of 2:3. Previous studies indicate that FSS promotes blood circulation and dissipates blood stasis, thus which is being used widely to treat vascular diseases. Here, we aim to determine the cellular mechanism for the vascular benefit of FSS. The treatment of FSS reversed homocysteine-induced impairment of acetylcholine (ACh-evoked endothelium-dependent relaxation in aortic rings, isolated from rats. Like radical oxygen species (ROS scavenger tempol, FSS attenuated homocysteine-stimulated ROS generation in cultured human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs, and it also stimulated the production of nitric oxide (NO as measured by fluorescence dye and biochemical assay. In addition, the phosphorylation levels of both Akt kinase and endothelial NO synthases (eNOS were markedly increased by FSS treatment, which was abolished by an Akt inhibitor triciribine. Likewise, triciribine reversed FSS-induced NO production in HUVECs. Finally, FSS elevated intracellular Ca(2+ levels in HUVECs, and the Ca(2+ chelator BAPTA-AM inhibited the FSS-stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. The present results show that this ancient herbal decoction benefits endothelial function through increased activity of Akt kinase and eNOS; this effect is causally via a rise of intracellular Ca(2+ and a reduction of ROS.

  16. How to Teach Vietnamese via the Stable Effect of Ancient Chinese Word on Chinese-vietnamese%通过中古汉词对汉越词影响的稳定性进行越南语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄缨焱

    2012-01-01

      It can be see that Chinese ancient regardless of Chinese names, place names, slang, idioms or some fixed document format have great influence on modern vietnamese words. The Vietnamese font has changed because of the historical development, but is almost identical in pronunciation. In modern Vietnamese teaching process, according to the characteristics of vietnamese word was long-term affected by archaic language, and new Chinese-vietnamese were formed via translating new words constantly through the bridge of Chinese language.%  中国古汉语无论从人名、地名还是俗语、成语或者是一些固定的公文格式都可以看出对现今越南语词语,尤其是越汉语有一种不可轻易打破的稳定影响,虽然越南字体由于历史发展而改变了,但是在发音上几乎完全相同。在现代越南语教学过程中,我们可以根据越语词由于受到长期古语的语言基础影响的特点,通过中国语言这个的桥梁不断地对新词进行转译,从而形成新的汉越词。

  17. On the Political Connotation of Ancient Chinese Dress Color%简述中国历代服色的政治内涵

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王乙全

    2011-01-01

    中国古代等级制度森严,受这种等级制度“礼”的影响,服饰颜色也受到很大的影响,这一点集中体现在服饰颜色与官员等级、改朝换代以及社会生活的关系中,从而使服饰颜色逐步具有尊卑高下的文化特性,成为阶级社会的形象代言人。探讨了不同时期皇室与官员阶层的服色变化,而且还分析了民间普通百姓的服色变化,力图全面展示历代服饰颜色与等级政治之间的关系,以期加深对中国古代政治制度和社会的理解。%In ancient China, the caste system is severe. Under the influence of this kind of caste system, "the ritual", the dress color is greatly affected. It is embodied in the relationship between the clothing color and the official grade, dynastic change, and social life. Thus the dross color gradually has the cultural characteristic of high or low superiority. The color of dress becomes the spokesman of class society. This article focuses on not only the clothing color changes of the royal and official classes, but also the clothing color changes of the folk ordinary people. It attempts to analyze the relation between the dress color and grade politics in the past dynasties in order to deepen the understanding of Chinese ancient political system and society.

  18. Nondestructive identification of ancient Chinese glasses by Raman and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxia Zhao; Huansheng Cheng; Qinghui Li; Fuxi Gan

    2011-01-01

    @@ Nondestructive Raman spectroscopy and external-beam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to analyze eight ancient glasses unearthed from the provinces of Henan, Hubei, and Jiangsu, which allowes for a good characterization of the glass matrix and chemical compositions, is carried out.The results indicate that all the eight glass samples could be typically divided into three systems: faience (sample No.SZWG-4), PbO-BaO-SiO2 (sample Nos.NYWKI-5-1, HNWKII-88, and HNWKII-84), and Na2O-CaO-SiO2 (sample Nos.HBWKI-16, HBWKI-17, HBWKI-18, and SZWG-1).Additional relationships between the Rarnan spectra and parameters, such as residues of raw materials and opacifying agent, are also discussed by respectively comparing them with similar glass samples excavated from other historical sites.%Nondestructive Raman spectroscopy and external-beam proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique to analyze eight ancient glasses unearthed from the provinces of Henan, Hubei, and Jiangsu, which allowes for a good characterization of the glass matrix and chemical compositions, is carried out.The results indicate that all the eight glass samples could be typically divided into three systems: faience (sample No.SZWG-4), PbO-BaO-SiO2 (sample Nos.NYWKⅠ-5-1, HNWKⅡ-88, and HNWKⅡ-84), and Na2OCaO-SiO2 (sample Nos.HBWKⅠ-16, HBWKⅠ-17, HBWKⅠ-18, and SZWG-1).Additional relationships between the Raman spectra and parameters, such as residues of raw materials and opacifying agent, are also discussed by respectively comparing them with similar glass samples excavated from other historical sites.

  19. Research on the Cultural Value of Ancient Chinese Terracotta Riding Figurine%古代骑像俑的文化价值研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朝鸿; 陆春莉

    2015-01-01

    Terracotta riding figurine is a mode of artistic expression of people , riding animals like horses or camels , and the organic integration of these subjects into ceramic crafts and sculptures , generally through special firing process .Many aca-demic and educational papers and books have been published nowadays regarding ancient Chinese terracotta figure arts . However , research particularly focus on riding figurine is still rare .The text in this article has demonstrated the historical e-volution of this art form:the emerging during Period of Battle Kingdoms , the booming during the Tang Dynasty , and the de-clining after Yuan Dynasty .The constant changing of political , cultural, and social environment finally leaded to the down-turn of this ancient tradition .The author of this article has been studying the physical characteristics of the art form together with the larger social and cultural background in attempt to provide an invaluable testimony to the rich heritage of ancient craftsmanship and the importance of cultural conservancy .%骑像俑是指把人物骑马、骑骆驼的景象做成泥胎,烧制成陶俑。目前,关于研究陶俑的论述很多,但是把陶俑中的骑像俑单独作为研究对象来分析的文章却很少。文章通过对骑像俑研究表明,这种文化形态开始于战国,兴盛于唐代,直至元代以后逐渐衰落。古代骑像俑文化衰退的主要原因是由于不同历史阶段社会环境的改变所造成的。对于骑像俑的研究,探讨了这类文化背后的社会习俗与风貌,为更好地保护文化遗产提供了重要的理论依据。

  20. Simulation Synthesis of Ancient Chinese Artificial Barium Copper Silicate Pigments%中国古代人造硅酸铜钡颜料模拟制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张治国; 马清林; 梅建军; 海因茨·贝克[德

    2012-01-01

    中国古代人造硅酸铜钡颜料主要包括三种,紫色的中国紫(BaCuSi2O6)、浅蓝色的中国蓝(BaCuShO10)和蓝色的中国深蓝(BaCu2Si2O7),这三种颜料在战国晚期至东汉晚期的中国大量使用。本文在对大量古代硅酸铜钡颜料样品分析研究的基础上,探讨了该类颜料的原料、烧制温度以及坩埚对模拟制备的影响。用石英粉作为硅源,铜绿和氧化铜作为铜源,硫酸钡、碳酸钡和氧化钡作为钡源,氧化铅作为铅源,模拟制备出了三种古代人造硅酸铜钡颜料,即中国紫(BaCuSi2O7)、中国蓝(BaCuShO10)和中国深蓝(BaCu2Si2O7)。%Ancient Chinese barium copper silicate pigments mainly comprise Chinese Purple (BaCuSi2O6), Chinese Blue (BaCuSi4O10) and Chinese Dark Blue (BaCu2Si2O7). They were widely used from the late Warring States period to the late Eastern Han Dynasty. Based on the analysis of large amounts of samples, this paper discusses the raw materials, firing temperature and crucible' s influence on the synthesis. The three pigments - BaeuSi2O6, BaCuSi4O10 and BaCu2Si2O7 - have been simulated by using quartz powder as silicon source, malachite and copper oxide as copper source, barium sulfate, barium carbonate and barium oxide as barium source, and lead oxide as lead source.

  1. 中国古代诗人骑驴的文化解读%Cultural Interpretation of Ancient Chinese Poets’Donkey Riding

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晟

    2014-01-01

    Compared with oxen and horses, donkeys are smaller, slower and cheaper. Therefore quite a few Chinese poets in ancient China have anecdotes or experiences of riding donkeys, which is not limited to be defined as a conduct for it possesses of an unique spectacle and different connotations distinguished from riding oxen and horses which superficially composes of a particular humanity scenery as well as cultural phenomena. Generally speaking, there are four connotations for ancient Chinese poets’donkey riding: bitter reciting, dissolute lifestyle, indulgence and meditation of Chan. Certain internal relevancies are among the four: Reciting bitterly on a donkeyback, for one thing, is to brew new verses and capture inspiration, for the other, is the magnificence of poverty and frustration. Indulgence and meditation of Chan are respectively relevant to Taoism and Buddhism. If the covering of indulgence is underappreciated, then, the persistent determination of moaning is indeed similar to the meditation of Chan.%驴与牛马相比,体形矮小,行速迟缓,其价位亦较牛马低廉,故中国古代不少诗人都有骑驴的故事或经历,它不只是一种行为,它与骑马骑牛属于不同的景观,有不同的意义指向,表明它已构成独特的人文景观和文化现象。概括起来,中国古代诗人骑驴主要有四种文化内涵:苦吟、落拓、任诞与参禅。四者之间又有着某种内在关联:骑驴苦吟,既为酝酿诗思、捕捉灵感,又是生活贫困、落拓失意之写照;骑驴任诞与参禅则分别与道教、道家思想、佛教有关;如果说任诞的外衣下寄寓的是被褐怀玉、怀才不遇,那么苦吟的执著坚毅与参禅的境界确乎类似。

  2. The Role and impact in the Development of Chinese Buddhism of Ancient Biology%中国佛教对古代生物学发展的作用和影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘学礼

    2011-01-01

    Because of its spirit of involvement in the world , chinese buddhism participated in some sci- ence and technology activities in ancient china, such as biology. In aspects of life form, species variation, plants and animals, human body and ecology, chinese buddhism has played a certain role and impact in the development of ancient biology.%中国佛教由于其积极入世的精神而主动参与了包括生物学在内的科技活动,在生命形态与物种变化、动植物、人体以及生态等方面,中国佛教对古代生物学发展起到了一定的作用和影响.

  3. Research on Ancient Books Protection System and Standard for Special Library of Traditional Chinese Medicine%中医专业图书馆古籍保护体系及规范的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鸿涛; 裘俭; 张伟娜; 符永驰; 李兵; 周崇润; 刘国正

    2009-01-01

    本文在对中医古籍保护现状进行调研和分析的基础上,提出了适合中医专业图书馆古籍保护体系的构建模式.通过本馆在中医古籍保护的工作与实践,对古籍保护技术体系和组织体系进行了研究,列出了中医专业图书馆古籍保护技术体系的各项规范和中医专业图书馆古籍保护组织体系的组建内容,形成一套技术科学、方法先进、管理有效、运行有序、保护得力的中医古籍保护体系.在行业内推广应用,以促进中医行业古籍保护工作的良性、可持续发展.%This paper put forward a construction mode of ancient books protection system for special library of traditional Chinese medicine based on the survey and analysis of ancient books protecting status. With the working experience of protecting ancient books in our library, we studied the technical system and organization system for ancient books protection, listed out the standard of technical system and content of organization system, and formed an ancient books protection system for special library of traditional Chinese medicine. This system included scientific technology, advanced methods, effective management, orderly operation and right-hand protection, which can be widely applied in our industry to promote benign and sustainable development of work in ancient books protection.

  4. Explore the Achievements and Contributions of Chinese Ancient Astronomical Figures%中国古代天文图的主要成就与贡献探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁启章; 王晶

    2016-01-01

    This paper is finished on the purpose of writing an article of astronomical map for“Near-Modern Chinese Map Annals”, and we take a systematically study on the outstanding achievements of Chinese ancient astronomers in founding the "Theory of Sphere-Heavens", manufacturing“Armillary Sphere”, implementing astronomical observation and astronomical geodetic survey, and creating astronomical maps. The earliest recorded“Star table”was created by "Shi Shenfu" during the warring states period before in the 4th century B.C.;then,“Zhang Heng”created"Theory of Sphere-Heavens"and made the first“Turn Leaky Armillary Sphere”in the world during Han Dynasty in the 2nd century;Zhang Sui completed the national astronomical geodetic survey at 13 spots across China and is the first one who calculated the 1° arc length of local meridian at latitude 34° north to be 110.6 kilometers during Tang Dynasty;and Guo Shoujin”implemented"Universal Measurement"and"Leveling"during Yuan Dynasty. The ancient Chinese astronomical map discovered so far including:“the astronomical figure on a paint box cover in the Tomb of Marquis Yi of Zeng in Sui county before the warring states period of China"which is created in 433 B.C.;“the start figure on the tomb murals indicating four quadrant symbols and 28 lunar mansions”which is created in the Western Han Dynasty in Xi’an city, Shaanxi Province;the"DunHuang star map"which contains more than 1350 stars and is created during 705-710 A.D.;the“Suzhou stone carving astronomical map"which contains more than 1440 stars and is created by“Huang Chang”in 1190 A.D.;the"constellation chart of crossing seas”which is created by Zheng He in 1405-1433 A.D.;the"Star Barrier Figure"which contains 1812 stars and is created by“Xu Guangqi”in the early 17th century;and the“total star map on the north and south sides of equator”which contains 1876 stars and is created by“Verbiest”in the mid 17th century. In a word, the ancient

  5. 夏商周青铜器铅同位素示踪研究数据库的构建%A Lead Isotope Ratio Data Base of Ancient Chinese Bronzes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    金正耀

    2005-01-01

    A data base of lead isotope ratio of ancient Chinese bronzes is set up. There are 2 888 members, including bronze objects, casting remains, and related ores, etc. in the file. The file contents of data base are made from analysis work on Chinese bronze previously carried out in several laboratories in China, Japan and USA. The main body of the file contents is formed from records, analysis data, reference documents, and images. The data base is designed for sharing information in provenance study on raw metal material for bronze production in China Bronze Age.

  6. 彰往察来--中国古代灯具的文化传承与再设计1%Review and Reference--Cultural Inheritance and Redesign of Ancient Chinese Lamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王强; 王坤; 赵娅清

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Chinese lamps, vary in variety and function, develop in a relatively more distinct and complete manner, relfect changes in lifestyle, social system, craft technology and aesthetic taste of ancient China. On the basis of research on design of ancient Chinese lamps,the thesis explore the designing concept of ancient lamp, analyzes the instructive signiifcance of traditional designing thought of lamp towards contemporary lamp design with practical designing cases and probes into means and approaches to cultural inheritance and redesign of traditional design.%我国古代灯具种类繁多、功能多样,有着较为清晰完整的发展脉络,其反映了古代社会的生活方式、社会制度、工艺技术、审美情趣的变化。本文在对古代灯具的设计研究的基础上,探讨古代灯具中的设计理念,结合设计实践案例,分析传统灯具设计思想对现代灯具设计的指导性意义,探索传统设计文化传承与再设计的方法与路径。

  7. On the Thought of Valuing People of Chinese Ancient Time%我国传统重民思想评析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜鸿林; 李墨

    2016-01-01

    旨在基于文本及其实现程度探析我国传统人民群众观核心范畴是重民思想而非民本思想。我国传统重民思想的理论形态在三大相互联系的层面展开,即政治哲学和政治伦理层面,政治治理和国家治理层面,经济社会和民生层面,这三大层面的重民思想包含诸多具体的见解主张。以民本为极致表达、以三大层面为基本架构、以诸多具体见解主张为主要内容,构成我国传统重民思想整体理论面相。我国传统重民思想的主要缺欠在于其所持圣人史观、愚民主张和王权主义等,其有益成分主要有重民力、重民心、重民生、重为民、重教民等。做好我国传统重民思想有益成分的现代转化是弘扬中华优秀传统文化的题中之意。%The purpose of this paper is to analyze the core category of Chinese traditional mass view is the valuing people thought rather than the people-oriented thought based on the text and its realization degree. The theoretical form of tradition-al valuing people thought developed in three interrelated aspects:political philosophy and political ethics, political govern-ance and state governance, economic society and people’ s livelihood. There are many particular thoughts viewpoints in them. The thought of valuing people of Chinese ancient time take the people-based thought as its core category, and take the three aspects as its basic frame, take a lot of particular thought viewpoints as its main contents. The main defects about the thought of valuing people of Chinese ancient time are that sage’ s historical views, making a fool of the people, emperor-powerism, and so on. The thought of valuing people ’ s main useful elements contain the thought of valuing people’ s pow-er, people’ s will, people’ s livelihood, people’ s transformation by instruction ,and so on. It is true meaning of carrying forward the excellent traditional culture of China to do

  8. On Review of Chinese Grammar in Middle Ancient Times Scince 2009%2009年以来中古汉语语法研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余小庆

    2015-01-01

    2009年以来,中古汉语语法研究主要继承穷尽统计与分类描写相结合,共时描写与历史溯源相结合的研究方法;研究类型多为专书语法研究;研究语料仍以汉译佛经、宗教文献、出0土文献等为主;研究生逐渐称为专书语法研究的重要群体,贡献颇大.词类研究中个别词语的考释及专书专类词语的研究较多,而探讨词汇发展规律的研究成果较少,对构词法、复句的研究等有待深入.%Since 2009, the middle ancient Chinese grammar research mainly inherited the research method of the combination of end statistics and classification description, synchronic description and the historical roots. The research type is mainly the special book gram?mar research;The research corpus are Chinese Buddhist scriptures, religious literature, excavated documents, etc.. Graduate students grad?ually become important group researching book syntax. They have made great contributions. There are more researches on the study of in?dividual words and books than the research achievements of vocabulary development rule. The research on word formation and complex sentences is expected to explore.

  9. “入声非声”说献疑%Discussion of the Entering Tone is Not a Type of Tone in Ancient and Modern Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕小雷

    2015-01-01

    “入声”是中古韵书以及到现代方言研究中的一个重要概念。关于入声的性质,主要有“入声为声”和“入声非声”两种观点。夏中易在前人基础上对入声的性质做了较全面的研究,认为入声的内涵是指塞音韵尾,入声韵的声调是平上去调位的变体。但结合音位学“区别特征”的理论,发现夏先生的音位归纳存在一些问题。中古汉语音节可以分为舒声调系和促声调系,入声作为促声调系和平上去形成的舒声调系相并立。%Entering tone is an important concept in ancient and modern Chinese dialect,which has always been taken as a type of tone Some scholars argue that entering tone is not a type of tone, only a glottal stop.XiaZhongyi emphasized that more.However, some others thought that the entering tone is an independent tone category, which co-exists as the “Cu-tone System” and the“Shu-tone System” in modern Chinese.

  10. 顺应理论视角下的汉语古诗词翻译标准的探讨%Chinese Ancient Poetry Translation Criteria Research from the Perspective of Adaptation Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘力源; 刘奕彤

    2012-01-01

    从顺应理论的角度出发,皆在探析翻译中顺应理论对汉语古诗词翻译标准研究的启示。在顺应理论的视角下,翻译是一个对原来语言的语境和语言结构之间作出的动态的顺应过程。汉语古诗词翻译标准,放在不同的理论框架中具有不同的含义,将这些不同的含义具体化,既有利于翻译实践,也有利于汉语古诗词翻译标准研究的进一步深入。%This paper attempts to conform to the perspective of Adaptation Theory,in order to analysis the enlightenment of Adaptation Theory to Chinese ancient poetry translation criteria research.Under the perspective of Adaptation Theory,translation is the dynamic adaptation process between the original language context and language structures.Chinese ancient poetry translation criteria,which have the different meanings under different theoretical framework.To make these different meanings specific,which are conducive to the practice of translation,also conducive to Chinese ancient poetry translation criteria research further.

  11. 中国古代美学中言、象、意三者的关系%Relationship between Words,Image and Meaning in Chinese Ancient Aesthetics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严天武

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between words,image and meaning plays an important role in the Chinese ancient aesthetics,it relates to the linguistic knowledge,aesthetic knowledge as well as the knowledge of philosophy.The ancients realized that “word fails in conveying meaning”,so they “set up image to express meaning”,and finally they could “grasp the meaning and forget the image”.The different thoughts on the relationship between words,image and meaning have led to the difference in Chinese ancient literary theory and western literary theory,and Chinese and western aesthetics have formed their own characteristics as well.%言、象、意三者的关系在中国古代美学中占有重要地位,既涉及语言学知识,也涉及美学知识,更涉及哲学知识。古人早就意识到“言不尽意”,于是“立象以尽意”,最后达到“得意忘象”。对言、象、意三者关系的不同认识,导致中国古代文学理论与西方的有所不同,中西美学也形成了各自的特点。

  12. 水芹的本草考证%Textual study on Oenanthe javanica documented in ancient Chinese medicinal literatures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄正明; 杨新波; 曹文斌

    2001-01-01

    Object To obtain a deeper understanding of the origin andvarieties of Oenanthe javanica (Bl.) DC. for therapeutic use. Methods Literatures documented through generations of practical experiences were retrieved with simultaneous field study and laboratory identification of chemical constituents and pharmacological actions for comparison. Results The growth pattern and its therapeutic efficacy in different indications as recorded in the ancient literatures were found to be basically identical to that obtained by modern scientific research. Conclusion Only Oenanthe javanica (BL.) DC. of the Umbelliferae family can be considered as the orthodox product for therapeutic use.%目的 通过对水芹的本草学研究,考证其基源及药用品种。方法 查阅有关历代文献,实地考察和应用现代科学技术对水芹的化学成分和药理作用等进行研究。结果 表明历代本草文献中所记载水芹的生长特征及其功能主治与现代研究结果基本一致。结论 水芹基源仅伞形科水芹属植物水芹Oenanthejavanica(B1.)DC.为药用正品。

  13. 瞿林东先生与中国古代史学批评研究%Mr. Qu Lindong and Research of Ancient Chinese Historical Criticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 朱志先

    2012-01-01

      瞿林东先生的《中国古代史学批评纵横》,从宏观角度提炼了中国古代史学批评的理论体系,具体涉及到史学批评的概念、目的、标准及方法、作用等。其《中国史学史纲》从微观角度对自唐迄清的史学批评进行了深入探究。瞿林东先生对史学批评的理论建构与实践研究,直接或间接地推动了学界史学批评研究的发展。%  In , Mr. Qu Lindong refined the theoretical system of ancient Chinese his-torical criticism with a macroscopic view involving historical concepts, purposes, criteria, methods, and effects. In , he made a micro-exploration into the historical criticism from the Tang to the Qing Dynasty. His theoretical establishment and practical research in historical criticism directly or indirectly promoted the development of historical criticism.

  14. A Review of the Research on Special Word Order in Ancient Chinese%古代汉语特殊语序研究述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洁

    2015-01-01

    特殊语序是指在线性序列的句法层面上,主语与谓语、谓语与宾语、定语、状语与中心语的位置发生变化,这是先秦时期常见的语法现象,研究者给予了高度关注,研究范围不断扩大,研究成果丰硕。我们拟对古代汉语特殊语序研究做一概述,了解当前的研究水平,为进一步的研究奠定基础。%Special word order refers to position changes between subject and predicate,predicate and object,attribute,adverbi-al and central word on the linear sequence of syntactic level.This is a common grammatical phenomenon in the pre -Qin period and has received high attention from the researchers,with expanding scope and rich achievements.This paper makes a summary of research on special word order in ancient Chinese,which will help us understand the present situation and lay the foundation for its further research.

  15. 中国古汉语中隐喻象似性的分析%The analysis of metaphorical iconicity in ancient Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史岩

    2015-01-01

    隐喻不只是一种表达方式,隐喻象似将隐喻视为象似的范畴,是人类基本的思维方式和认知工具,对语义的衍生和发展具有一定作用。本文以中国古汉语为研究对象,通过象似性理论,认知隐喻学等来探讨隐喻象似性在在中国古汉语中的应用。%metaphor is not only a kind of expression, metaphorical iconicity regards metaphor as a part of iconicity. It’s human being’s basic thinking mode and cognitive tool and it plays a dominant role in the development of semantics. This paper aims to study the metaphorical iconicity in the ancient Chinese based on iconicity theory and cognitive metaphor.

  16. 中国古代文学编辑活动的特点%The Characteristics of Chinese Ancient Literature Editing Activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘达科

    2012-01-01

    中国古代文学编辑活动的特点十分突出。它在编、刊、售三位一体的格局中起着重要的主导作用,与收藏、访书、宣传、娱情互为因果、多元一体,与文学风气乃至文化思潮关联互动、相互呼应。这些特点为当今信息化社会的文学活动提供了许多启迪性因素和可资借鉴的文化资源。%The characteristics of Chinese ancient literature editing activities was very outstanding. It played an important leading role in the trinity situation of of edition, printing and saling, and became cause each other and pluralism with collection, visiting books, propaganda, entertainment, association interactions and mutual e- cho with Literature ethos even cultural ideological trend. These characteristics provided many enlightenment sexual factors and culture resources that can be referenced for the literature activities in the current information society.

  17. 中国古代音乐的表达要素与社会价值%The Key Expressive Elements of Chinese Ancient Music and its Social Value

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蕊

    2009-01-01

    音乐是人类伟大的发明之一.而中国古代音乐更有其自身的特色,中国人对音乐有自己的认识.中华民族从音乐中获得了无穷的智慧,汲取了丰富的营养,并感受到了音乐重要的教育作用和启示.世界各地了解中国的人们都认为"中国是礼义之邦",其实中国也是礼乐之邦.因为中国古人非常注重以礼约束人们的外部行为的同时,也很注重以乐陶冶人们的性情,引导人们去恶从善,所以中国古代音乐在教育方面也具有一定的政治功能和教化功能.%Music is one of the great inventions of humankind.While Chinese ancient music has its own characteristics,Chinese people have their own understanding of music.The Chinese nation gain endless wisdom,absorb nutrition from music and receive its instruction and inspiration.People familiar with China all over the world all agree that "China is a nation of ritual".and in fact a nation of music.Ancient Chinese people pay special attention to disciplining one's behavior with ritual.and meanwhile,nurturing one's temperament with music to discard viciousness and to develop kindness.Therefore,Chinese ancient music plays certain political and instructive role in education.

  18. A Dialogue with the Ancient and Reflection on the Interpretation of History of Bianque and Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Youfeng

    2007-01-01

    Based on the description of epidemic diseases in the chapter of "The Story of Bianque" in Records of Historian, the author has analyzed and explored the truthfulness of its background data and the possibility of the plague spreading at that time from both macro and micro angles. The symptoms of plague including chills formation of some doctrines in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) such as exopathic heat disease doctrine, internal injury of spleen and stomach doctrine and epidemic febrile disease doctrine. The course of exogenous phenomena, the author has explored the effect on the initial medical theory, primitive religion and culture due to the spreading of epidemic diseases from the angles of epidemiology, the theory of images and figures, originated from epidemic diseases was proposed. The author also put forward some opinions on the relationship between epidemic diseases spreading and traditional education of TCM, sustained development of TCM.

  19. Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  20. 我国古代未成年人犯罪刑事立法的启示%On Revelation of Criminal Legislation for Juveniles in Ancient Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘慰

    2013-01-01

    中国古代法律制度深受儒家仁义道德主义思想的影响,对未成年人犯罪的处理就是其中之一,古称“恤幼”。“恤幼”思想认为统治者和社会对未成年人的健康成长负有不可推卸的责任,主张对未成年人犯罪实行不同于成年人的特别宽容制度,在刑事实体法和程序法上都主张对未成年人给予更多的关爱,并将其体现在刑事立法和司法实践中。这些刑事政策和法律规定不仅为当时的未成年人犯罪惩罚、预防工作指引了正确方向,为维护未成年人的特殊利益起到了积极作用,也为当代科学完善未成年人犯罪刑事政策的形成和发展提供了宝贵的资源。%the ancient Chinese legal system was influen ced by the thoughts of the Confucian morality and ideology, the juvenile crime is one of them, which is called "Sympathized-youth”. The thought of "Sym-pathized-youth” tended to the un-removable responsibility of the rulers and the society for the growth of ju-venile, advocating that the juvenile crime was different from special tolerance system for adult, and the more cares and mercy to the juvenile in the substantive law and procedural law and embodied it in criminal legis-lation and judicial practice . These criminal policies and the laws not only guided the right direction for the ancient juvenile punishment and prevention, playing a positive role for the juvenile special interests, but also provided a valuable resource for the scientifically improvement of the criminal policies and development for juvenile crime.

  1. Study on the aesthetic emotion characteristic of Chinese garden ancient architecture%中国园林古建筑的审美情感特色研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈逸琳; 王列

    2016-01-01

    Chinese garden ancient architecture has a long history, different style, profound culture, and it originated in the life, also serves people and things in life. It not only provides the residence, rest and playing places for people, but also is the point view in landscape. It can vary sceneries with changing view-points in the landscape space. It is the embodiment of people inner aesthetic demand, is also the perfect symbol of culture and power in a specific historical period. And emotional need, which rooted in people’s hearts, is an inner demand of identity, a personal satisfaction, and is a spiritual need people dreamed after busy work. Ancient Chinese garden architecture mainly includes three classification methods: monomer structures, roof shapes and regions. Its characteristics are mainly shown in the following four aspects: material requirements, building group distribution, bucket arch structure and art complex. Its aesthetic emotions include color, texture, art (light and shadow, modelling, decoration, culture) and harmonious beauty.%通过对中国园林古建筑的审美情感特色研究,认为中国园林古建筑历史悠久、风格迥异、文化深厚,它起源于生活,服务于生活中的人与物。不仅供人们居住观赏、休憩游玩,而且也是园林景观中的点景,使景观空间步移景异。它是人们内心审美需求的具体体现,也是特定历史时期文化与权力的完美象征。而情感需求真切植根于人们的内心,是一种内心需求的认同,个人感情的满足,是繁忙工作之余人们梦寐以求的精神需求。中国园林古建筑的主要划分类型包括按单体构造划分、按屋顶形式划分及按不同地区划分3种。其特色主要表现在材料需求、建筑群体布局、斗拱结构及艺术多重化等4个方面。其审美情感包括色彩美感、质感美感、艺术美感(光影美感、造型美感、装饰美感、文化美感)及和谐美感4个方面。

  2. The "Revolution" Theories in Ancient Chinese Civilization and Its Contemporary Reflections%国学中的“革命”论及其当代反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    祁志祥

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese word "geming" (revolution) can be traced back to the accounts of Tang and Wu revolutions in two ancient Chinese books, Shangshu and Yizhuan. The word is meaningful in three as-pects: the first, it is the overthrowing of a tyrant by his subjects; the second, it is the use of violent means; the third it is to seek justice for people. As a way of defending human rights, revolution is of posi-tive meaning in constituting deterrence to tyrants or tyrannies in a monarchy system. However, some of the revolutions in later dynasties have gone to the contrary, and it should arouse people to take warnings and painful lessons. The touchstone of judging the righteousness and legitimacy of revolutions is whether they will benefit the people. If beneficial, then the revolution is worthy of praise; if not or even harmful, then precautions have to be taken against the false revolution.%"革命"一词,源出《尚书》和《易传》,与汤、武革命紧密相连。它有三个特点:一是臣民推翻君主;二是诉诸暴力手段;三是"诛无道",为民请命。"革命"作为维护"民本"、捍卫"民权"的一种手段,对君主专制下暴君暴政构成了一种威慑,具有积极、进步的法理意义。不过后来历朝历代的某些"革命",都走向了反面,这却是值得引以为戒的惨痛教训。衡量"革命"正义与否、合法与否的试金石是看其对人民是否有益。有益,这种"革命"就是值得赞赏肯定的;无益而有害,那么,这种"革命"就是值得警惕防范的"假革命"。

  3. 数据库语义学在古汉语自动分析上的应用%Application of database semantics to automatic analyses of ancient Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯秋香; 汪榕培

    2012-01-01

    The automatic syntactic and semantic analyses of ancient Chinese are discussed in a cognition-based,computer and artificial intelligence-oriented linguistic framework,aiming to support ancient Chinese teaching and research,as well as modern Chinese parsing and processing.The method of database semantics based on left-associative grammar is applied to the automatic syntactic and semantic analyses of two basic sentence structures of ancient Chinese(functor-argument construction and coordination construction).Based on possible continuation,in conformity with the time-linearity of natural language,rules are composed and executed.It is proved to be convenient,computationally efficient,and applicable to ancient Chinese.The graphs,automatically generated as a result of the analyses,are clear and accurate,which highlights the particularity,adaptability and analytical capability of database semantics.%在以认知为基础的面向计算机和人工智能领域的语言学框架下,对古汉语的自动句法语义分析进行研究,希望能对古汉语教学与研究,以及现代汉语的分析和处理起到一定的推动和促进作用.运用以左结合语法为基础的数据库语义学方法对古汉语的两个基本结构(函词-论元结构和并列结构)进行自动句法和语义分析,以可接续性为前提,遵循自然语言的时间线性顺序,采用规则和模式匹配的方法,过程简便,计算效率高,且符合古汉语本身的特点.分析结束时自动生成的语义关系图清晰、准确,更彰显了数据库语义学方法的独特性、适应性以及分析能力.

  4. The Concept of“li”(理) in Chinese Ancient Philosophy and in Nishi Amane’s Translation%中国传统哲学概念“理”与西周哲学译名之研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙彬

    2015-01-01

    Nishi Amane(西周)was known as“the founding father of modern Japanese philosophy”, and was the first scholar in promoting Western scholarly thoughts in Japan. Among his voluminous translation works, Chinese ancient philosophies were his philosophical foundations. Little research has been found in this direction. The concept of“li”(理) in Chinese ancient philosophy was a key word in Nishi Amane’s translation of Western philosophies. He used to use“reason”,“law”,“principle”,“idea”,“truth”and“relation”to translate“li”(理). In his translation, there are metaphysical“li”(理), and physical“li”(理);there are“li”(理) in the sense of Chinese ancient philosophy, and“li”(理) that is not Chinese. From his translation, we can see that Nishi Amane(西周) not only had profound and precise understanding of“li”(理) in Chinese ancient philosophy, and is able to elaborate and develop the notion in interaction with Western philosophical thoughts.%“日本近代哲学之父”西周(1829~1897)译介的大量西方哲学概念之中,中国传统哲学概念为其重要的依据与媒介。目前学界对此问题尚无深入的研究探讨。中国传统哲学中的“理”这一概念是西周译介西方哲学概念时常用的关键词。西周曾使用“reason”、“law”、“principle”、“idea”、“truth”以及“relation”等西方哲学范畴来与其进行对译。其中,既有形而上意义上的“理”,又有形而下意义上的“理”,既有中国传统哲学意义上的“理”,又有非中国传统哲学意义上的“理”。从对其译介的过程可以看出,西周不仅对中国传统哲学意义上“理”有着准确深入地认识,而且在东西方哲学思想碰撞中还有对其的超越与发挥。

  5. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  6. 蒙学对语文教育的启示%On the Ancient Old-style Private School Education’s Enlightenment to the Modern Chinese Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁琳

    2015-01-01

    The ancient old-style private school education dates far back and has a profound historical accumula-tion. It provides valuable teaching experiences and rich literature resources for contemporary Chinese education. It sheds lights on areas such as basic learning method,classical Chinese reading ability and composition writing. What’s more,it helps enrich the learner’s necessary knowledge reserve,provide them with good language training and improve their ancient Chinese literacy.%蒙学源远流长,有着深厚的历史积淀,能为当代语文教育提供宝贵的教学经验和丰富的文献资源。尤其在学习的基本方法、文言文阅读能力、作文写作等方面有着重要的启示意义,可以为受教育者补充必要的知识储备,进行良好的语言训练,并提高其国学素养。

  7. Dialogue Between the History and Present:Thinking about How to Teach Chinese Ancient Literature%历史与现代的对话——中国古代文学教学断想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高萍

    2012-01-01

    Chinese ancient literature has both diachronic and synchronic.It is necessary to think about from two aspects in teaching the ancient literature:on the one hand,the literature should be returned to the historical environment and the original ancient culture in order to interpret its true meaning as much as possible.On the other hand,from the perspective of humanistic care and spirit,we should look for meeting point between the ancient civilization and modern life,helping us build ideal personality.The previous aspect is basis and the latter aspect is goal.If we have cognized of the significance of ancient literature,our national spirit can be carried forward.%古代文学既具有历时性,又具有共时性,因此必须从这两个层面去构建其教学:一方面把文学还原在历史的场境中去解读,尽可能还原古代文学以本来面目,解读其真情真意。另一方面从人文关怀的角度,从中寻找古代文明与现代人生的契合点,力求为当代大学生的人格构建提供可资借鉴的东西。前一个层面是基础,后一个层面是目的,在认知古代文学的基础上,架通历史与现代的桥梁,让历史与现代对话,以古鉴今,弘扬民族精神。

  8. 从中西神话人物区别看中西文化差异的根源--以希腊神话和中国上古神话为例%On the Root of Chinese-Western Cultural Differences Based on the Differences between Chinese and Western Mythological Figures:A Case Study on Greek Mythology and Chinese Ancient Mythology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张赟

    2014-01-01

    中国古代神话和古希腊神话是中西神话的重要代表。通过比较可以发现,中希神话中的人物在外形和性格方面表现出种种不同。而从这种不同,我们可以看出中西文化所体现的差异,并进一步研究造成这种差异的根源是什么。%Chinese ancient mythology and Greek mythology are respectively the important representative of Chinese and Western mythology. Through comparing them, it can be found that there are a variety of differences in the appearances and characters of mythological figures between Chinese and Greek mythology. From the differences, we can find the differences between Chi-nese and Western culture, and further study the root of the differ-ences.

  9. 关于中国古文字与日语汉字词词义关联的研究%Research on the Correlation of Word Meanings between Ancient Chinese Characters and Japanese Kanjis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付怡

    2015-01-01

    Throughout history, people with a profound knowledge of history all know that Japanese culture is evolved from the cul-tural essence of the Chinese nation to a great extent. From Xu Fu's navigation to Liuqiu in the Qin period, to Wang Jing's mis-sionary work in Japan during the Three Kingdoms period, and then to the period when the five nomadic nations invaded China, many craftsmen travelledl eastward on the sea to work in Japan, resulting in the rapid progress of Japanese culture in the Sheng-wen period when the Chinese etiquette rose in Japan, which is still reflected in Japanese cultural tradition even in today. Up un-til late Tang Dynasty, through long-term and continuous learning and absorption of Chinese culture and tradition, Japanese invent-ed their own characters—hiraganas and katakanas, which are early Japanese characters constituted by Chinese cursive hand-writing and radicals. Chinese chaacters, introduced into Japanese in this period, are still in use today with their original meanings in ancient Chinese. Hence, it can be judged that Chinese characters in Japanese are generally all referred from ancient Chinese, so though belonging to different language families respectively, Japanese and Chinese, as elaborated above, are fundamentally consanguineous and homologous. However, with the gradual weakening and elimination of ancient meanings of some Chinese characters in contemporary Chinese, new Japanese learners will probably make mistakes if they learn or guess on the basis of modern Chinese meanings. Through investigating the birth and changes of ancient Chinese characters, this paper explores the evolution of ancient Chinese and Japanese characters from a his-torical perspective, analyzes Japanese absorption and re-creation of Chinese characters, and on this basis, explores the correla-tion-based mutual translation of word meanings between Japanese kanjis and Chinese characters, hoping to benefit Japanese language learning and researches in the field

  10. Doorway to Chinese Civilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Xi’an,the ancient Chinese capital and modern day metropolis,offers an exciting array of historic attractions and tourist charms The long and extensive history of Xi’an,an ancient Chinese capital,has endowed it with an abundant variety of cultural sites and artifacts,including the

  11. 中国古代人物品评中的“典型”批评%The Criticism of "Model" in Figures Commentary of Ancient Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪泓

    2011-01-01

    典型是中国古代人物品评重要的审美范畴之一。“尚典型”与“称典型”从两方面构建了“典型”人物与传统历史及现实未来的关系。唐以后人物品评中典型批评的盛行表明,中国传统文化对遵礼守法及道德规范的高度重视,“典型”人物身上往往呈现出古风古韵。“典型”人物亦颇具老成之品性,以中正、七十“不逾矩”为人生的最高境界。人物典型批评还往往与“清风”连用,“典型”人物无论从外形还是从骨髓里都透出清明的风貌,体现了善与美的统一。传统诗文中还有不少将饮酒与“典型”联系起来的语句,形成了一个脱俗率性的“饮者典型”的文学母题。%" Model" is one of the important aesthetic categories in figures commentary of ancient Chinese antiquity. "Learning from ' model' " and "becoming a ' model' " had built the characters' relationship between traditional history and real future from two aspects. The prevalence of "model" criticism in figures commentary in the Tang Dynasty and the following era had indicated the high importance with the compliance to etiquette and moral in traditional culture of China, and the "model" figures always tended to reflect the classic flavor. The "model" figures also tended to be steady, to be moderate or follow one' s heart without overstepping the boundary of fight at seventy, were considered as the most supreme realm in one' s life. The criticism of "model" was always used with "fresh wind", the "model" figures displayed a style of freshness or elegance in whether semblance or immanence, and reflected the unity of the gobd and the beautiful. Besides, a lot of sentences in traditional poetries and essays connected drinking with "model", they had formed a literal motif of refined "drinker model".

  12. The Theme of the "Green Grass" in Chinese Ancient Poems%论古代诗歌中的青草主题

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵江南

    2001-01-01

    自古至今,革一直点缀着美丽的大地也点缀着诗固的天空。当诗人的双眼注视着天地间平凡的青草,再经心灵的沉淀,青革便叠映着诗人的各种情感和体验,构成奇妙的心灵幻象,随着视点和角度的转换和调整,诗人之情思、感悟和启迪也不断衍生。这样,普通的青革便折射出玄妙美测氰氲万状的灵光,表现出玲珑剔透灵动飘逸的神韵,历代骚人墨客留下了许多吟咏青草的篇章,形成了诗歌百花园中独特的青草主题:草,象征着生命境遇;诉说着历史兴亡;见证着生离死别。%Since the ancient times, the green grass adorns the poems as well as the land. When the poets fix their eyes upon the common green grass and often they evaluate it in their poems, the green grass re flects the feeling, experience and the inagination of the poets. With the change of vision and angle, the thought and feeling of the poets derive. In this way, the green grass is able to reflect a wonderful and imaginable power so the poets in the previous dynasties write a lot of poems about the green grass. Thus a special theme of green grass is formed in the chinese poems. The green grass symbolizes the situation of life, tells the rise and fall of the dynasties and witnesses births and deaths.

  13. Investigating the Connotations of the Genre of Paixie in Ancient Chinese Poetry%“俳谐”考论——以诗词为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王毅

    2012-01-01

    本文从古代文学(主要是诗词)的批评与创作中,梳理、辨析、论述俳谐的各种涵义。从其本原内涵到后代对俳谐赋予的多层涵义中可以看出,在俳谐诗词中,俳谐不仅指俳优传统中的戏谑娱乐和讽喻谲谏,俳谐还有通俗鄙俚之意,有时又被等同于回文、药名等杂体,而戏作诗词中有很多也可看作俳谐体。尤可注意的是,从杜甫《戏作俳谐体遣闷二首》等一些俳谐诗来看,俳谐并不只有通俗之作,也有文人用自嘲、反讽等手法写出的真情雅作。而俳谐的核心则是一种戏谑的姿态。%This paper analyzes and delineates the different definitions of Paixie as a literary genre through examining the critical and creative works ( mainly poetry) from ancient Chinese literature. Through tracing the original connotation of Paixie and exami- ning the various definitions from later periods, the paper points out that paixie as a genre not only refers to the entertaining forms such as satires and parodies with high - brow and low - brow styles but also includes miscellaneous writing of varied forms and playful writings such as palindromes or names of herbs. From the works by such famous and refined poets as Du Fu, it can be in- ferred that paixie writing is not only meant to be popular and playful but also adopted for self - mockery and irony with refined taste and purpose.

  14. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen

    2015-01-01

    by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  15. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  16. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; QIAO OiYuan

    2009-01-01

    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astro-nomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors re-garded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Conse-quently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  17. 论大学世界古代史课程中有关中国史内容的教学——以《世界史·古代史编》为中心%On the Teaching of Contents about Chinese History in College World Ancient History Course --Taking the Ancient History Part of World History as the Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爽

    2012-01-01

    《]世界史.古代史编》是按照世界古代史的时间断限,以全球史观的视野,来选择对世界历史和世界文明发展产生重要影响的中国史内容。对于《古代史编》中编写的中国史内容教授要详略得当,充分利用现有研究成果,才能使学生深刻认识中国在世界历史中的位置和作用,从而使学生具备全球史观。%From the view of global history and according to the time boundary of world ancient history, Ancient History Part of World History selects teaching contents about Chinese history which have important influences on world history and the development of world civilization. In the teaching of contents about Chinese history in An- cient History Part of World History, teachers should make full use of existing research results with proper details and summaries, in order to make college students deeply understand the position and action of China in world his- tory, thus to improve the students' global view of history.

  18. 从《说文解字》建筑词看古人的宇宙观及美学意识%Look at the ancient Chinese Cosmology and aesthetic consciousness from"Shuowen Jiezi"building

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳华

    2013-01-01

    "Shuowen Jiezi"contained in building word what is reflected both ancient Chinese vocabulary system, it contains the ancients in the social life, thoughts and the understanding of the universe and life and cultural information. To sort through the construction and analysis of ancient China, the concept of the universe contains these buildings in words and aesthetic culture consciousness.%《说文解字》中所包含的建筑词既是上古汉语词汇系统的反映,同时也蕴含着古人在社会生活、思想观念及对宇宙人生的认识等文化方面的信息。通过对建筑词进行整理并分析,从中探讨这些建筑词中所蕴含的中国古人的宇宙观念及审美文化意识。

  19. Research in Ancient Chinese Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    LU Guo-yao, A Comprehensive Study of Muhua's Haifu in Linguistic and Aesthetic Perspective Abstract: The distinguished scholar Qian Zhongshu once highly praised Muhua's Haifu. As a complement of his saying, this paper appraises it in linguistic and aesthetic perspective. When combined with Longinus' On Sublime, it seems more practical while the latter is more theoretical. In phonological perspective,

  20. Reinterpretation of Ancient Chinese Story in The Woman Warrior%“岳母刺字”典故在《女勇士》中的“移位”探究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊

    2016-01-01

    Many Chinese American writers tend to reinterpret some ancient Chinese stories in their works .This paper mainly analyzes the reinterpretation of the famous Chinese story YUE Fei Tattooed by His Mother in Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior ,comparing their similarities and differences as well as probing into the reasons of the re-interpretation ,in hope of revealing the psychological course of Chinese American’s pursuing their identities and the psy-chological characteristics under the dual cultural shocks .%许多华裔美国文学作品存在对中国古代故事原型进行挪用,并在新语境下重新诠释的现象。采用比较分析的方法,分析“岳母刺字”的历史典故在《女勇士》中挪用和变形的“移位”情况,探究它们之间的异同及其“移位”产生的原因,可更深刻地揭示华裔美国人寻找身份的心理历程和在双重文化冲击下的心理特征。

  1. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;

    2015-01-01

    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  2. 中国先秦与古希腊体育的差异性及美学品格探究%On Differences and Aesthetic Character between Chinese Pre-Qin Sport and the Ancient Greek Sporty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 邹丹

    2014-01-01

    中国体育与西方体育从文化根源上就呈现出巨大的差异性。中国先秦体育具有礼仪性、养生性、实用性的特征,古希腊体育体现出宗教性、军事性、娱乐性的特点。中国春秋时期的体育在“礼、乐”中彰显德性的教化,具中庸和合与顺应自然的审美意趣,体现出重视技巧和谋略,偏重于以柔克刚的阴柔之美;古希腊体育则在娱乐性的竞技活动中重人格的培养,具崇尚崇高与不受文明礼仪束缚的自然天成的审美倾向,表现出强调力量和速度,偏重于竞技取胜的阳刚之美。%Chinese sports and western sports show huge differences in their culture roots. Chinese Pre- Qin sports has characteristics of etiquette , nourishing of life , practicability,while the ancient Greek sports shows characteristics of religiousness, military ,entertainment. In the period of the spring and autumn, Chinese sports reveals moral education through "the ritual and music", with the doctrine of the mean and aesthetic interest going with the nature, which attaches importance to skills and strategy, and prefers to the feminine beauty with its softer approach to power. On the other hand ,the ancient Greek sports gives priorities to personality training in the entertaining competitive activities, with the aesthetics tendency out of the etiquette rules bound ,which emphasizes on strength and speed, preferring the competitive masculinity.

  3. 韩国古代国文小说中的中国小说元素论考%A Study on the Chinese Novels Elements in the Ancient Korean Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙海龙

    2015-01-01

    The spread of Chinese novels to Korean peninsula during Chosun Dynasty (1392‐1910)not only promoted the development of Korean Chinese novels directly ,but also produced direct or indirect in‐fluence on the ancient Korean novels .T his paper explored the Chinese elements in the ancient Korean no‐vels from the form ,language ,subject ,theme ,plot and character ,time and space background etc .in order to arouse the research interests of domestic academia in the field of Sino‐Korean relations and culture .%朝鲜时期(1392—1910年)中国小说的大量东传,不仅直接推动了韩国古代汉文小说的发展,还直接或间接对韩国古代国文小说产生了不容忽视的影响。文章从形式、语言、主题、题材、情节以及人物、时空背景等多个方面对朝鲜国文小说中所蕴含的中国小说元素予以了挖掘,以期能够借此引起国内学界对国文小说的关注,从而为进一步理解古代中韩文化之关联提供更为广阔的研究领域与空间。

  4. Chinese ancient government running higher education---Luoyang imperial college teaching content and teaching form%中国古代官办高等教育--洛阳太学的教学内容和教学形式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢留枝

    2014-01-01

    培养高级人才是高等教育的重要职责,高等教育教学内容和教学形式是高等教育的重要内容,更与人才质量的高低息息相关,因此,探究高等教育教学内容与教学形式是研究高等教育发展状况及未来人才培养方向的必然选择。我国古代高等教育按性质分为官办高等教育和私立高等教育两种形式。古代官办高等教育是我国当代公立高等教育的雏形,而古代官办高等教育中的洛阳太学是我国古代官办高等教育的典型代表,因此,研究我国古代的洛阳太学及其概况,对我国当代的公立高等教育具有及其重要的作用。%Is the important role of higher education to train talents of higher education,the teaching content and form is an important part of higher education,more and personnel quality is closely linked,therefore,the content of inquiry teaching in higher education and teaching is an inevitable choice for the development of higher education and the future direction of personnel training.Higher education in ancient China are divided into government run higher education and private higher education in two forms.The ancient official higher education is the embryonic form of China's contemporary public higher education,while the ancient official in higher education,Luoyang university is a typical representative of Chinese ancient government run higher education,therefore,study on China's ancient Luoyang Taixue and situation,to contemporary China Public Higher Education and its important role.

  5. 格式塔意象视角下古诗《行宫》的英译%Translation of the Chinese Ancient Poem Ancient Palace in Perspective of Image-Gestalt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    车志红

    2012-01-01

    The theory of integrity,closure,heterogeneous isomorphism principle of Gestalt psychology have been applied in literature writing,literary appreciation and literary translation.In literary translation,translators should process the dual activities of language cognition and aesthetic experience,construct image-Gestalt,then recreate image-G by using the target language.Based on the theory of image-G,this article analyses the upper and lower image-G of Ancient Palace and compares the advantages and disadvantages of the translation of 4 English version of Ancient Palace in Perspective of Image-Gestalt recreation.%格式塔心理学理论的整体性,闭合性,异质同构性原则在文学创作,文学鉴赏及文学翻译中都可得到运用。在文学翻译中要对原文进行语言认知和美感体验的双重活动,构建格式塔意象,而后用目的语进行格式塔意象再造。本文运用格式塔意象基本理论,分析古诗《行宫》的上层格式塔意象和下层格式塔意象,并对《行宫》四个译文在格式塔意象的再造上的得失进行对比。

  6. Comparison and Reflection on Chinese Language Teaching Materials between Prevailing Elementary School and Ancient Enlightenment Education%现行小学语文教材对古代蒙学教材的借鉴与反思

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方海带

    2014-01-01

    21世纪以来,小学语文教材对古代蒙学教材的精华进行了继承与发扬。然而,无论是对蒙学教材的认识还是对其的借鉴都存在着不足,我们对其进行重新审视和反思,是十分必要的。%In the 21st century, Chinese language teaching materials used in elementary schools have inherited and carried forward the essence of ancient enlightenment teaching materials. However, either the understanding or the reference to those teaching materials is insufficient, therefore, it is very necessary to carry on the review and reflection on it.

  7. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2010-03-01

    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  8. 中医古籍语言系统中的语义类型分析研究%Analytical Study on the Semantic Types of Language Systems in Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine Books

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱玲; 崔蒙; 贾李蓉; 于琦; 杨峰

    2012-01-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicine language system (TCMLS), the language system of ancient traditional medicine books is aimed at constructing semantic network for traditional medicine books to enable its retrieval and search with TCMLS. With bibliometrics and documentary analysis, it analyzed and discussed an important category in language system, semantic type, to lay the foundation for language system of ancient traditional medicine books.%中医古籍语言系统是以中医药学语言系统(TCMLS)为依托建立的,旨在初步建立中医古籍的语义网络,从而实现与中医药学语言系统(TCMLS)的兼容检索与查询.使用文献计量学及文献分析方法,对语言系统的一个重要类目一语义类型进行简要分析和论述,为中医古籍语言系统的构建奠定基础.

  9. 以评价理论视角谈中国古诗词修辞手法的意义体现%On Meaning Manifestation of Rhetorical Devices in Chinese Ancient Poetry through Appraisal Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨超

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of Halliday's Systemic and Functional Grammar, Martin established a new framework for semantic analysis-Appraisal Theory, which takes interpersonal meaning of discourse as the core. Embarking from the theory, this article explores the meaning manifestation of six familiar rhetorical devices in Chinese ancient poetry and ultimately reveals that each appraisal subsystem should be involved in the semantic analysis of ancient poetry with abundant rhetorical resources.%继Halliday的系统功能语法之后,Martin创立了以研究语篇人际意义为主的语义分析框架——评价理论。本文试从这一理论视角出发,探讨中国古诗词这一特殊语篇中六种常用修辞手法的意义体现,并且揭示出:在对含有丰富修辞资源的诗词进行语义分析时,需要有针对性地运用不同的评价子系统进行语义评估。

  10. A Brief Discussion on the Ancient Chinese System of Se-lecting Officials and Its Realistic Meaning%浅谈中国古代选官制度及其现实意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王诗玉

    2013-01-01

      China is a country with a long history, so its profound traditional culture left us endless spiritual wealth. In ancient Chi-nese political culture, official selection system is of profound sig-nificance to bother certain dynasties and the world. To research theses systems of selecting officials can not only help us know about ancient political ideology, but also provide references for contemporary civil servant system.%  中国是一个有着悠久历史的国家,博大精深的传统文化留给了我们无尽的精神财富。在中国古代政治文化中,各个朝代的选官制度不仅对朝代自身也对中国乃至世界都产生了十分深远的影响,研究这些选官制度不仅能对古代的政治思想有所了解,同时也对当代的公务员等现存制度有着可以借鉴的现实意义。

  11. The Phenomen on of the Initial′s Palatalization of the Ancient Jian(见系) in the Modern Chinese Dialects%现代汉语方言中的“见系声母腭化现象”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽丽

    2013-01-01

    The phenomenon of the initials′palatalization of the ancient Jian (见系) refers to the fact that the ancient Jian which was not palatalized and pronounced as [k] group with thebroad vowels in modern Putonghua ,is palatalized ,pronounced as [t¢] group or [t∫] group ,with the front -open vowels in the modern Chinese dialects .In the modern Chinese dialects ,the initials′palatalization of Hui Dialect remains relatively complete ,with that of Xiang Dialect ,Wu Dialect ,and Gan Dialect being secondary ,and that of the Hakka Dialect ,Jin Group and Mandarin is very rare .The palatalized phonemes mentioned in the previous dialects belong to the colloquial layer which were evolved from [k] group with the front -openVowels .%  “见系声母腭化现象”指中古见系字在今普通话中未腭化读[k]组拼洪音的,在现代汉语方言中腭化读[t礰]组拼细音或[t礏]组的现象。现代汉语方言中,徽语的腭化现象保存比较完整,湘语吴语赣语次之,客家话晋语官话极少。腭化音在上述方言中属于白读层,由曾经存在过的[k]组拼细音演变而来。

  12. 救赎与救劫--古代小说中的神仙降凡主题%Redemption and Calamity Saving---The Theme of Immortals’ Descension to Mortal World in Chinese Ancient Novels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    万晴川; 王雅静

    2014-01-01

    Descriptions in Chinese ancient novels reflect the ideas of atonement and sending because of punishment in Taoism , which is always changed and replaced by diverse authors in different ages;and has been a factor of narration to express the main idea of various times and the feelings about personal life of authors .The description about descending to the world in Chinese ancient novels performs the ideas heroes ’ incarnation when the calamity comes in Taoism .The incarnation of immortal is actually a myth archetype to pursuit a harmonious universal order , longing for earthl lness , making mistakes of gods , calamities of the world , whatever , all means that har-monious order has been broken and immortals come to the mortal world to recover and rebuild the harmonious order .%古代小说中的谪降描写,表现了道教关于罪谴、赎罪的观念。这一母题在不同时代被不同作者改造、置换,成为表达不同时代的中心意识和创作者个人人生感触的叙事要素。小说中的使命降世描写,则表现了道教有关劫难来临、道教英雄下凡救世的思想。神仙降凡叙事实际上就是追求宇宙和谐秩序的神话原型,无论是神仙思凡、犯错,还是人世间的劫难,都意味着和谐秩序遭到破坏,神仙谪下尘世修炼或降世救劫,就是要努力恢复和重建和谐的秩序。

  13. 中国古代文学导读精品课程群建设及思考%Excellent Course Series Construction of the“Reading Guide on the Ancient Chinese Literature”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘怀荣

    2014-01-01

    After more than ten years’ development,the construction of the excellent courses in universities and colleges has already been possessed with the qualifications re-quired by the excellent course series construction. The Ancient Chinese Literature has a history of about three thousand years,the representative work of which not only includes ample and different background knowledge,but is also famous and long-lasted for its deli-cate beauty. It exerts an special influence which other courses does not exist on the lib-eral art cultivation for the college students. Thus the excellent course series construction of the “Reading Guide on the Ancient Chinese Literature” has profound realistic meaning as well as theoretical value in terms of both teaching practices and theoretical exploration.%高校精品课程的建设经过十几年的发展,已经基本具备了进行课程群建设的条件。中国古代文学具有3000余年的发展历史,其中的代表性作品既包含有多学科的知识,又富于美感,长期流传,脍炙人口,在大学生人文素质教育中能够发挥其他课程所不具备的特殊作用。因而,中国古代文学导读精品课程群的建设,在教学实践及理论探索两方面都具有非常重要的现实意义和理论价值。

  14. A Comparative Study on the Automatic Extraction of Two-character Word from Ancient Chinese%古汉语双字词自动获取方法的比较与分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段磊; 韩芳; 宋继华

    2012-01-01

    Word extraction is of great importance in the research fields of natural language generation, computational lexicography, parsing, corpus linguistic, etc. To address the issue of automatic extraction of two-character word from ancient Chinese, this paper takes the "Records of the Grand Historian" corpus as an example, and uses the statistical methods that based on frequency, mutual information and hypothesis testing to extract two-character word, respectively. Then it compares and analyzes the results according to the manual marked result in detail. It paves the way for the scheme design for the two-character word extraction from ancient Chinese in different applications.%词汇的自动获取在自然语言生成、计算词典编纂、句法分析以及语料库语言学等领域均有着重要的研究价值.该文针对古汉语双字词的自动获取问题,以《史记》全文语料为例,分别应用基于频率、互信息、假设检验的统计方法获取古汉语双字词,并结合人工标注结果进行了详细的比较和分析,评价了各方法的优缺点及可靠性,为不同应用背景下的古汉语双字词自动获取提供了相应的解决方案.

  15. 中国古代艺徒制对构建现代学徒制的启示%Revelation on Chinese Ancient Apprenticeship to the Establishment of Modern Apprentice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀丽

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of Chinese modern apprenticeship not only learns from foreign experiences, but also learns from the history and development of itself. There were many useful experiences of Chinese ancient apprentice-ship. Ancient apprentice is an all -around talents training mode that combines skills operation and moral attain-ment. The features like “career practice”,“words and deeds”,“ability assessment”,“moral concept”which express in the process of feudal government marco-control makes a great influence and revelation on the es-tablishment of modern apprenticeship with China characteristics.%建立中国现代学徒制不仅要借鉴外国的经验,更多的是要从其自身的历史与嬗变中寻找能够借鉴的东西。中国古代艺徒制中就有许多值得借鉴之处。艺徒制作为集技能操作和德育素养于一体的全方位人才培养方式。其在官府宏观控制地实施过程中体现出来的“职业实践”、“言传身教”、“能力考评”、“德育观念”等特点至今有深刻的教育意义,对建立中国特色的现代学徒制有着重要的启示。

  16. Ancient Egypt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  17. Mode and Application of Database and the Collection of Ancient Bibliography on Qigong in Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine%南京中医药大学气功古籍文献整理与数据库开发的模式与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高雨; 顾宁一; 宋宇

    2011-01-01

    南京中医药大学图书馆是一所专业的中医药古籍图书馆,气功古籍的收藏是其古籍部一大特色.鉴于此,南京中医药大学图书馆于2008年成功申请了国家体育总局的科研项目.经过一年多的文献调查、整理及数据库的开发,现已完成了“气功基本古籍提要库”的开发与应用.“气功基本古籍提要库”的开发与应用以养生类气功古籍文献为特色,开创了气功古籍文献专题库的开发模式.同时,网络设计思想提高了数据库的共享性.总而言之,“气功基本古籍提要库”基本上反映了中国传统气功的经典面貌与文化传承,既对气功古籍研究提供了快捷、方便的检索方式,又实现了对气功古籍的有效保护.%The library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine has many ancient Chinese medical books, and above all, the ancient books of Qigong is its characteristic. Considering this, the library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine had successfully applied for the scientific research projects of General Administration of Sport of China in 2008. After more than one year's research and collection on the bibliographies as well as the- development of the database, the library of Nanjing University of Chinese Medicine has fulfilled the development and application of the database on basic Qigong ancient books. This database is characterized by Qigong ancient bibliographies on health promotion, which starts the development mode for subject database of Qigong ancient books. Meanwhile the idea of network make the sharing of the database be possible. In a word, the database of Qigong ancient books reflects the classic and cultural heritage of Chinese traditional Qigong. It offers not only one quick and convenient way to search Qigong ancient books, but also protects our Qigong ancient books.

  18. Chinese Ancient Marriage Culture on Contemporary Marital Life Enlightenment%论中国古代婚恋文化对当代婚姻生活的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘桂华

    2014-01-01

    The ancient Chinese Confucian classics and the works of love literature on love and marriage life made a specifica-tion and description,to show the long history and distinctive ancient marriage culture,which contains a lot of useful elements of today’s society,love and marriage life is beneficial.Modern society because of lifestyle changes,people’s concept of mar-riage has changed,“the unmarried cohabitation”,“flash marriage”,“flash off”and an affair affect the stability of the society, the harmonious development,the ancient tradition of marriage in the cautious attitude of marriage,the wedding,sincere and specification of marriage faithful long-term stability requirements,the emphasis on love and marriage,can provide reference for solving these contradictions and problems.At the same time,between the couple together the ancient marriage culture and how to deal with the reality of marriage and family conflicts and other issues also gives a beneficial enlightenment.%中国古代儒家经典和爱情文学作品等对爱情和婚姻生活做出了规范和描述,展现了历史悠久且特色鲜明的古代婚恋文化,其蕴含的诸多积极有益的元素,对当今社会的爱情婚姻生活都有所裨益。当代社会由于生活方式的转变,人们的婚恋观也出现了变革,“不婚同居”、“闪婚”、“闪离”和婚外情等问题影响着社会的稳定、和谐发展,古代传统婚恋观中对婚姻的谨慎态度、对婚礼的规范、对婚姻长久稳定的要求、对爱情和婚姻的真挚与忠贞的强调,都可以为解决这些矛盾和问题提供参考。同时,古代婚恋文化中对夫妻相守之道和如何处理好婚姻与家庭现实之间的矛盾等问题也给出了有益的启示。

  19. On the Translation of the Allusions in Ancient Chinese Poems%汉诗英译中典故的翻译方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福珍

    2016-01-01

    汉语诗歌的翻译已是不易,而汉语诗歌中常用的典故的翻译尤为不易。典故的文字虽然简洁凝练,但却包含着丰富的内容,蕴含着深刻的寓意和文化内涵。翻译典故时,首先要探寻清楚其文化渊源,然后理解其文化内涵。在此基础上,采用恰当的翻译方法,灵活地翻译,在译入语读者可接受的范围内,向译入语读者传播汉语文化。%Chinese poem is a unique literature form in Chinese treasure house of literature. It is not easy to translate Chinese poems into English. In translating Chinese poems, translation of allusions is one of the most difficult part because allusions are full of stories and meanings and cultural contents. When translating allusions,at first,the translator must find out the related information about the allusion such as the origin and the content,the historical background and try to understand the cultural contents. Then proper translating methods can be adopted flexibly to transfer Chinese culture to the target language readers within their acceptable scope.

  20. 主体间性哲学观照下的汉诗文化意象翻译%A Study of Culture-bound Image Translation in Chinese Ancient Poetry from the Perspective of Intersubjectivity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓嘉

    2012-01-01

    本文以主体间性理论为支撑,透视了汉诗文化意象翻译中的文化内涵,并从文化翻译观的角度探讨了文化意象翻译与主体间性之间的关系。此外,文章还通过具体译例分析了主体间性理论对汉诗文化意象翻译的启示及如何突破意象的不可译性。%Based on the theory of intersubjectivity,this paper first expounds the cultural connotation in translation of culture-bound image in Chinese poetry,then discusses the relationship between culture-bound image translation and intersubjectivity from the perspective of cultural translation,and finally in translation cases it analyzes the enlightenment from intersubjectivity theory concerning the culture-bound image translation in Chinese ancient poetry and overcoming the untranslatability in translation.

  1. On the Change of Perspectives and Reproduction of Artistic Conception in Translating Chinese Ancient Poems into English%中国古诗英译中的视角转变与意境再现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李宏霞

    2011-01-01

    研究了中国古诗英译的视角选择问题,认为鉴于英汉诗歌在语言特征、格律规律、审美倾向和文化思维等方面的差异,中国古诗英译过程中,译者可以不拘泥于原诗的形式,而根据译诗的意境来灵活选择视角。提出了采用局中人视角,将原诗的旁叙译为自叙,采用第二人称、将原诗的旁叙译为对叙;增译第二人称、将原诗的自叙译为对语等具体方法。%It is pointed out that since Chinese poems and English poems are different in language features, rhythm and meter, aesthetic tendency and cultural thought, translators can be free of the form of the original poem and choose the perspective flexibly according to the artistic conception in the process of translating an ancient Chinese poem into English. Several specific methods are proposed including applying the perspective of player and translate other-talking into self-statement, applying the second person and translate other-talking into dialogues, adding the second person and translate other-talking into a conversation.

  2. A Research on Color Concept of Traditional Chinese Painting from the Color of the Ancient Painted Pottery of Majiayao Culture%从马家窖彩陶的色彩论中国画色彩观

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王万成

    2012-01-01

    this context analyze the color concept from the color on the ancient painted pottery of Maji- ayao culture, pigments of it and the way of painting, which put forward the decorative color concept of Chinese painting. After bimillennium, the color concept of Chinese painting is developing on the way of subjective color, the separation between color and ink, mutual transformation of black and white.%本文从马家窑彩陶的色彩、颜料构成、描绘方式出发,分析其色彩背后的文化观念,并进一步指出其色彩的装饰性和文化抽象性对之后中国画色彩观念的影响。此后两千余年,中国画的色彩一直是沿着主观施色、色不碍墨,黑白相生的方向发展的。

  3. On Synonymous Coupling and Antonymous Coupling in the Categories of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory%中国古代文论范畴的邻界耦合与对待耦合

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪涌豪

    2011-01-01

    There were many categories of near-synonymy and also many categories of antonym in ancient Chinese literary theory. The former categories were coupled with nearly synonymous popular sayings while the latter categories were coupled with antonymous popular sayings. Ancient people preferred to use these categories of sayings to define and discuss literature, just because they kept such cultural psychology and cognitive habits of thinking carefully and respecting tradition that they were reluctant to create new words and expressions to be criticized for submerging the origin of things and acting rashly, and also because they wanted to ensure that their argumentation was eloquent and profound, so that these categories could fully display the innermost essences of literary creating, and show the law of the universe that all things act mutually and perform reciprocally. This reveals the humanity root of Chinese literature, and forms one of the important characteristics of Chinese traditional literary theory.%中国古代文论中有许多近义范畴,又有许多对待范畴,前者由意义邻近的名言耦合而成,后者则由意义对待的名言耦合而成。古人好用此类名言界定与论说文学,既是出于慎终追远的文化心理和认知习惯,不愿别作新词,以冲冒被人指为汩没本源、鲁莽率意的考虑,也是为了保证立论的周洽与深刻,从而最大程度地开显文学创造的内里机理,并有以体现天地万物相偶相成的运化规律。它在在体现了中国文学的人文根性,也是构成传统文论的重要特点之一。

  4. 古今文字形体的装饰与美化%The Ornamentation and Beautiifcation of the Forms of Ancient and Modern Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁燕

    2015-01-01

    Compared with alphabetic writing,Chinese traditional character have been pay more attention to the decoration and beautification. Although the means of decoration or degree is differ in different fonts and text at different stages of development, the Chinese people stick to have the most passion for beautifying the Chinese character.%中国传统文字较之拼音文字,更加注重装饰与美化。不同的字体和文字发展的不同阶段,装饰的手段或程度不一,但中国人对文字进行美化的热情却是始终如一的。

  5. Frugality of Chinese Ancient Architecture and its Value of Times%中国古代建筑俭德及其时代价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦红岭

    2014-01-01

    俭德既是中国古代建筑活动的重要道德观念,也是中国传统建筑审美风尚的重要特征,对于廉政治国、富国裕民有重要作用。古代典籍中有关宫室营建方面的建筑俭德,主要体现在“卑宫室”与“宫室有度”两个方面,倡导宫室营建“务以节俭”,不求高大和华美,反对过度追求物质欲望,主张以礼来节制消费,反对费财劳力的建筑奢侈之风。古代建筑俭德观是一笔宝贵的思想财富,在可持续发展成为全球共识的背景下,具有不可低估的时代价值。%Virtue of frugality is not only China’s important moral values of ancient building, but also an important feature of traditional architectural aesthetic fashion. It plays an important role in the integrity of governance and enriches the state and the people. Virtue of frugality of palace construction mentioned in ancient books is mainly reflected in two aspects, namely, “ mean palace” and “ moderation palace”. Both aspects advocate that palace construction is “services to frugal”, does not seek tall and gorgeous, against excessive pursuit of material desires, and advocate control spending by etiquette, against labor architectural extravagance. The ancient virtue of frugality is precious thoughts of wealth and has value of times which can’t be underestimated under the backdrop of sustainable development to become a global consensus.

  6. 中国古代死刑制度的本体论解析%Chinese Ontological Analysis of Ancient Death Penalty System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高吉见

    2014-01-01

    死刑在本体论上的含义是掌握公权力的主体以公共利益或他人的利益受到损害为名义,而利用其掌握的公权力实施的、对造成公权力主体自认为除行为人本人以外的其他客体具有严重威胁和破坏的人剥夺其生命的一种极端的手段。中国死刑制度在静态、动态上各具特色。中国古代死刑制度“经久不衰”的原因是生产力发展水平低下,阶级斗争的残酷性,中国古代对“人性”认识的局限性,自原始社会末期至今的血族复仇思想的影响。%Meaning of the death penalty in the ontology is to master the subject of public authority or in the name of public interest damage, and also make use of the implementation of public power. Meanwhile, the death penalty is an extreme means of depriving and destroying humans’ lives, including public authority except the perpetrator himself objects. There are several characteristic feature for ancient death penalty system of both in static and dynamic. The cause of “Enduring”on the death penalty system in ancient China is the low level of development of productivity,class struggle cruelty, limitations of ancient China,“human”understanding, since the end of primitive society kinship Revenge ideas have lasted till now.

  7. The Ancient City of Pinqyao:Where the Time Stops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang

    2011-01-01

    @@ It is a common night in May, I found myself wandering in the Ancient City of Pingyao.If not those neon light, I would even doubt that I had gone back to the ancient times.Located on the eastern banks of the Fen River, and in the southwestern edge of the Taiyuan basin, Pingyao Ancient City is the outstanding example of Chinese Han nationality cities during Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  8. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang

    2011-01-01

    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  9. Ancient medicine--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja

    2008-01-01

    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  10. Review of Database about Ancient Traditional Chinese Medical Books%中医古籍数据库建设研究进展及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高程熙; 赵博

    2012-01-01

    综合了近十年中医药类数据库的发展状况,发现在数据库的建设过程中,选择图文结合方式构建的数据库是目前中医古籍数据库的主流.在数据库建设标准的制定上应该注意中医古籍版本的选择.在依托平台方面清华同方TPI系统在构建特色数据库方面有很大优势.元数据加工方面一般按中医古籍的分类、题名、责任者、出版年代、出版者、版本项、版式、卷数、馆藏地、书籍特征、保存状况、复制状况等进行著录.为方便检索,在原文的标引上可统一采用规范字标引.%Based on the synthesis of nearly ten years of Traditional Chinese Medicine database, Found in the database construction process, the choice of graphic combining ways of building up the database is the classics database of the mainstream of the traditional Chinese medicine. In the database construction standards on traditional Chinese medicine should pay attention to the choice of the classics edition. Relying on platform aspects in Tsinghua Tongfang TPI in constructing the characteristic database system has great advantage. Yuan data processing according to the classification of Chinese classics general, title, responsible, publishing, publishers, version, format, volume number, collection, books, save situation, features state of the copy for description. For the convenience of retrieval, in the version of the standard on can unite made regulating the use of lead.

  11. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  12. The Roots of Science in Ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur

    1982-01-01

    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  13. The Peacocks Flying to the Southeast and Ancient Chinese Marriage Customs of“Chu Fu”%«孔雀东南飞»与中国古代“出妇”婚俗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丰建霞

    2015-01-01

    通过文献研究阐述了中国古代出妇婚俗,并从出妇婚俗的角度对中国古代文学史上著名的叙事长诗«孔雀东南飞»进行了解读。出妇礼俗是古代婚姻礼俗制度的构成部分,其内容包括“七出之制”即出妻的七种规定,出妇行为遵循特定的礼仪程式进行,出妇享有一定的尊严和财产所有权。«孔雀东南飞»是一首出妇(妻)诗。兰芝被遣属“子甚宜其妻,父母不悦,出。”的情形,诗歌叙写了兰芝被遣的过程,反映了她对自己私物拥有处置权的事实。%The purpose of current study is to produce a detailed account of how “Chu Fu”works as ancient Chinese marriage custom through the review of literature,and the writer interprets The Peacocks Flying to the Southeast ———the well-known long narrative poem in China's history of litera-ture from the perspective of the customs.“Chu Fu”is a component of the ancient Chinese marriage customs.It included “The Seven Dispossession”which refers to seven stipulations when man repudi-ates his wife.The ceremony of“Chu Fu”follows specified procedures,and reserves a certain degree of dignity and property ownership to the repudiated wives.The Peacocks Flying to the Southeast is a po-em for “Chu Fu”.Lanzhi's dispossession can be categorized as the case “the son loves his wife very much,but the parents don't,then dispossesses her from the family”.The poem describes the process of Lanzhi's dispossession,and reflects the fact that Lanzhi has right to dispose her personal belong-ings.

  14. A Review of the 14th International Symposium on Ancient Chinese Novel-Drama Literature and Digitalization%第十四届中国古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化国际研讨会综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满新; 燕亢生

    2015-01-01

    The 14th International Symposium on Ancient Chinese Novel-Opera Literature and Digitalization was held on August 21 to 22, 2015. More than fifty experts and scholars from all over the country, together with those from Japan, Korea, and Malaysia, carried out full discussion and exchange around three aspects:ancient vernacular fiction, classical Chinese novels, and dramas. Many issues were involved, such as versions, origins, authors, digitalization, thematic interpretation, communication, etc. The conference will play a more significant role in promoting further study of ancient Chinese novels, dramas and digitalization, and will be critically important for the study of ancient Chinese novels and subject construction and development of drama.%2015年8月21日至22日,第十四届中国古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化国际研讨会在廊坊成功召开.来自全国各地和日本、韩国、马来西亚的专家学者五十余人,围绕古代白话小说、文言小说、戏曲三个方面进行了充分的讨论与交流,内容涉及版本辨证、故事考源、作者探溯、数字化研究、主题诠解、传播考探等诸多问题.此次会议对今后古代小说戏曲文献暨数字化研究将会起到较大的促进作用,对推动中国古代小说研究、戏曲学科建设和发展也具有重要的意义.

  15. 民族医药古籍保护性研究意义及现状%Significance and Present Status of Conservation Research on Ancient Literatures of Chinese Ethnic Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李雪; 冯岭

    2015-01-01

    -of-mouth might face the danger of failure in finding an eligible heir to inherit them.Therefore,it is urgent and necessary for the whole society to gather strength to carry out emergent investigations of various versions of those ancient literatures of ethnic medicine and afterward specialized and scientific protection,arrangement and research work.Take the protective research of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures for example,with the special attention and financial aids of all different levels of government departments such as the Ministry of Science and Technology,a nationwide project of the survey,collection and arrangement of Ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was carried out for the first time.After more than five yearswork,a catalogue was published for the first time by the re-search team as an approach to protect the cultural property right of the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures.It was the first time for the catalogue to be translated into Tibetan,Chinese,English and Latin according to international standards as a research result for promotional purposes.It was also the first time for the ancient Tibetan medicine literatures to be permanently preserved,protected and spread in digital form-by way of building an information platform.Besides,the intellectual property right of ancient Tibetan medicine literatures was also protected through registering patents and copyrights,etc.The work experience and scientific research model that the research team gained laid a solid foundation for the scientific protection,inheritance and development of the ancient literatures of ethnic medicine in China;it also established a mature,scientific orientation for further research.

  16. “六维精讲”与“经典习读”相结合古代汉语教学改革模式实践报告%A practice report on the ancient Chinese teaching mode“six dimension intensive lecture” combined with “classic learning”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张鹏飞; 代伟

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the effect of teaching on the ancient Chinese,we explore and practice a new mode of Teaching Reform———“six dimension intensive lecture” combined with“classic learning” of the ancient Chinese teaching mode.“Six dimension” refers to the common words, the phenomenon of using Chinese characters, lexical and syntactic, rhetoric, cul-ture, ancient notes.Teachers teach the text carefully according to the six aspects, students also read the text carefully from the six aspects, to study the method and develop the ability of reading the classical text.%为了使古代汉语教学更高效,探索践行了一种新的教改模式———“六维精讲”与“经典习读”相结合的古代汉语教学模式。“六维”指常用字词、用字现象、词法句法、修辞、文化、古注。教师“六维”讲课、学生“六维”习读,培养阅读经典古籍的方法和能力。

  17. A discussion on the reasons of differences between property and flavor of Chinese Materia Medica of ancient and modern times%古今中药性味不统一的原因探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张效霞; 王振国

    2009-01-01

    The property and flavor (four properties of cold, hot, warm, cool and five flavors of spicy, sweet, bitter, sour, salty)which marked the function and efficacy of Chinese Materia Medica had dif-ferent records in TCM ancient literature, even being completely opposite. By analyzing the reason, it mainly involves such aspects as different properties of soil and water, different harvesting seasons, incorrect nomen-clature not corresponding to reality, different angles, double properties and flavors, former mistakes and lat-ter corrections, different processing methods etc.%标示中药性能功效的性味(寒热温凉四气和辛甘苦酸咸五味),在中医文献中的记载并不一致,甚至截然相反.分析其原因,主要有水土质异、采收季节不同、名实讹误、角度不同、性味双重、前错后改、炮制方法等几个方面.

  18. [Herbological studies on Chinese crude drug Ma-huang. Part 1-On the botanical origin of Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizawa, Chieko; Kitade, Makiko; Mikage, Masayuki

    2005-01-01

    The botanical origin of a Chinese crude drug Ma-huang in ancient China and the origin of Japanese Ma-huang were herbologically studied. The results showed that the plants of Ephedra sinica Stapf, E. intermedia Schrenk & C. A. Meyer and E. equisetina Bunge were used as Ma-huang in China, and the first species was considered to be of high quality. The characters of Mao-zhou Ma-huang and Tong-zhou Ma-huang printed in Tu-jing-ben-cao, published in the Song Dynasty in China, were identified as E. likiangensis Florin and E. intermedia, respectively, and both species were recognized as excellent Ma-huang in the Ming Dynasty. The word origin of Katsune-kusa, the Japanese name for Ma-huang in the Heian Era, was etymologically considered as meaning the plant having reddish brown roots. In Japan, the plant of Equisetum ramosissimum Desf. var.japonicum Milde, of the family Equisetaceae, was substituted for Ma-huang in the middle of Edo Era, and it was designated that this action was based on the confusion of Ephedra plants and Equisetum plants those days in China.

  19. The Comparative Study betwee n the Ancient Chinese Academy and the Universities in the Middle Ages of Western Europe%中国古代书院与欧洲中世纪大学的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2012-01-01

    The essay mainly introduced us the similar and difference between the ancient Chinese academy and the Western Middle Ages university,two famous higher education system in the history of eastern and western culture.The arguments concern some basic issues such as the background,characteristic of system,the aim of running schools,teaching method and the administrative model between the eastern academy and the western university,which enlighten us on the modern reform of higher education further according to our domestic reality.%本文从历史与比较的角度考察了在世界文史上颇有影响的中国早期书院与西方中世纪大学,并分析了形成背景、制度特点、办学观念、社会作用和影响的异同,以期对现代的高教改革提供有益的借鉴。

  20. 'Reversing' the Flow of the Ancient Chinese Calendrical Subseasonal Phases Jie Qi in Australia: The Construction of a Chinese Medical & Agricultural Lunisolar Calendar (Northern and Southern Hemispheres)(Continued Part 2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rey Tiquia

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 The Cychcal Flow of the Sixty-Gan zhi Temporal Units 'Time for the Chinese is forever flowing without beginningor end' ,noted Thome H.Fang.And 'it is customary for Chineseto use the kan-Chih(gan zhi)to mark the passage of time.

  1. Absorbing the Essence of Chinese Ancient Academy Education to Bring Up the College Students to Practice the"Chinese Dream"%汲取古代书院教育精华造就勇于实践“中国梦”的一代大学生∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晨钟; 王思文

    2014-01-01

    当代部分大学生中突出存在自我主义和集体主义、自由精神和自律意识、自私功利和无私奉献、自信心态与自卑情绪等“自冲突”现象。为了培养勇于实践梦想的一代大学生,我们有必要汲取古代书院教育精华,从严肃教学制度、“智育伦理化”教学方法、重视劳动素质培养、提高自我管理能力、重视仪式教育和特色环境育人等方面建立书院精神和大学制度相结合的高职特色教育模式。%The contemporary College students have the prominent "self conflict phenomenon"such as egoism and collectivism,the spirit of freedom and self-discipline consciousness,selfishness and utilitarianism and selfless dedication,confident attitude and feelings of inferiority,and so on.In order to cultivate college students having the courage to ptractice the"Chinese Dream",it is necessary for us to learn the essence of Ancient Academy education,to establish the higher vocational education mode combining the chinese ancient academy spirit and the modern university system from strict teaching system,"the intellectual education ethicalization" teaching method,paying attention to the importance of labor quality training,improving the ability of self management and paying attention to ceremony education and environmental education.

  2. Therapeutic strategies for Parkinson's disease: the ancient meets the future--traditional Chinese herbal medicine, electroacupuncture, gene therapy and stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xuan; Liang, Xi-Bin; Li, Feng-Qiao; Zhou, Hui-Fang; Liu, Xian-Yu; Wang, Jian-Jun; Wang, Xiao-Min

    2008-10-01

    In China, it has been estimated that there are more than 2.0 million people suffering from Parkinson's disease, which is currently becoming one of the most common chronic neurodegenerative disorders during recent years. For many years, scientists have struggled to find new therapeutic approaches for this disease. Since 1994, our research group led by Drs. Ji-Sheng Han and Xiao-Min Wang of Neuroscience Research Institute, Peking University has developed several prospective treatment strategies for the disease. These studies cover the traditional Chinese medicine-herbal formula or acupuncture, and modern technologies such as gene therapy or stem cell replacement therapy, and have achieved some original results. It hopes that these data may be beneficial for the research development and for the future clinical utility for treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  3. 中国古代戏剧服饰之美与观众%The Beauty of Chinese Ancient Drama Costume and the Spectator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵志飞

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally, Chinese theatrical concept is spectator-centered, just as the creation and performance of Chinese drama.Theatrical costume increasingly inclines towards aestheticism because of the visual needs of spectator, whose tolerance makes it reasonable for drama to express its main idea through its costume.With a long history, the theatrical costume recreated by dramatists and performers has become the art that comes from life but higher than life. At the same time, it has also a series of symbolic, decorative, regular and choreographic characteristics, which can not only attract spectators, but also concentrate their attention on the drama to make it more enjoyable.%中国传统的戏剧观念是以观众为中心的, 这也就造就了我国戏剧的创作、 搬演都会以观众为重的局面. 观众视觉上的要求导致戏剧服饰逐渐趋向唯美, 观众的包容为戏剧服饰 "以形写神" 提供合理性. 而当戏剧服饰经历了历史的洗礼、 剧作家和演员的双重创作, 成为了来源于生活却高于生活的艺术品, 它也就具备了可舞性、 程式性、 符号性、 装饰性等一系列特性, 这些特性产生功能, 不仅吸引观众, 还能使得观众尽快入戏, 更好地感受戏剧之美.

  4. 从功能语言学视角看上古语篇的衔接机制--以《尚书》为例%On the Cohesion Mechanism of Ancient Chinese Discourse from the Perspective of Functional Linguistics---A case study of Shoo King

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈丹丹

    2014-01-01

    Cohesion is an important category in Functional Grammar , exerting textual function in both Chinese and English dis-courses where it is decoded in different ways .In ancient Chinese discourses cohesion devices present its own characteristics .The paper aims to analyze cohesive mechanism of the famous Chinese book Shangshu , one of the ancient Chinese classics with the help of Hallidayan Cohesion framework .%衔接是功能语言学研究的重要范畴,它同时存在于汉英语篇实施语篇功能。关于上古语篇的衔接机制研究尚处于起步阶段。在借鉴西方功能语言学的衔接理论框架的基础上,结合上古汉语实际,分析上古语篇组篇功能中的衔接机制,以期更好地了解上古语篇质态。

  5. Reading On Ancient Chinese Literati Gardens --About the Effects of Traditional Text to Experience the Artistic Conception of Space%“读”——中国古代文人园林——由文字对于空间意境体验的作用引申出去

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙磊磊; 谷华

    2012-01-01

    By interpreting the ancient Chinese gardens, starting from the effecting of the traditional text to experience the artistic conception of space, this paper attempts to contact Bernard Tschumi's theoretical model -The overall structure of space' with analyzing the poetry and artistic conception of traditional Chinese gardens The action of "read" the text is an unique cFues to understand the spatial structure of ancient Chinese gardens Giving rise to further thought: under the context of global regionalism, how to reinterpret or extend the traditional Chinese poetic space.%本文试图从解读中国古代文人园林出发。从文字对空间意境体验的作用引申开去,联系届米的“空间结构”的理论模型工具来分析传统园林中的诗意与意境的建构。提出“读”文宇是理解中国古代园林空间结构——“意境”的独特线索。从而引发进一步的思考在强调地域性的全球背景之下,该如何重斩诠释、延续中国传统空间的诗意或探索建筑空间意境的创新。

  6. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  7. The Volume of a Sphere: A Chinese Derivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swetz, Frank J.

    1995-01-01

    Examines how ancient Chinese mathematicians attempted to correct an error concerning the volume of a sphere in the Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art, a compendium of the mathematics known and used in China in ancient times. (MKR)

  8. 古今中西之間--陳垣與20世紀中國史學%Between the Ancient and the Present and between China and the West:Prof. Chen Yuan and Chinese Historiography in the 20 th Century

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陳智超

    2010-01-01

    Every historian should answer two questions related to each other, i. e. what is the relationship between history and reality and what is that between historiography and reality. Moreover, Chinese historians should answer other two questions also re-lated to each other, namely what is the relationship between China and the West and what is that between Chinese culture and Western culture. Based on their own outlook on the ancient and the present as well as on China and the West, every conscious Chinese historian of the 20 th century was bound to cherish a definite sense of responsi-bility and determined what role they played and what way they chose when taking on this responsibility. The present paper expounds Prof. Chen Yuan’ s answers to the above questions andhis practice concerned with them in the four stages of his lifetime.

  9. Searching Signals in Chinese Ancient Records for the $^{14}$C Increases in AD 774-775 and in AD 992-993

    CERN Document Server

    Chai, Ya-Ting

    2014-01-01

    According to the analysis of the $^{14}$C content of two Japanese trees over a period of approximately 3000 years at high time resolution, Miyake (2012) found a rapid increase at AD 774-775 and later on at AD 992-993 (Miyake 2013). This corresponds to a high-energy event happened within one year that input $\\gamma$-ray energy about 7$\\times{}$10$^{24}$erg to the Earth, leaving the origin a mystery. Such strong event should have an unusual optical counterpart, and have been recorded in historical literature. We searched Chinese historical materials around AD 744-775 and AD 992-993, but no remarkable event was found except a violent thunderstorm in AD 775. However, the possibility of a thunderstorm containing so much energy is still unlikely. We conclude the event caused the $^{14}$C increase is still unclear. This event most probably has no optical counterpart, and short gamma-ray burst, giant flare of a soft gamma-ray repeater and terrestrial $\\gamma$-ray flash may all be the candidates.

  10. Searching for events in Chinese ancient records to explain the increase in 14C from AD 774-775 and AD 993-994

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Ya-Ting; Zou, Yuan-Chuan

    2015-09-01

    According to analysis of the 14C content in two Japanese trees, that grew over a period of approximately 3000 years, with high time resolution, Miyake et al. found a rapid increase at AD 774-775 and another one at AD 993-994. These increases correspond to high-energy events that happened within those years and radiated γ-ray energy of about 7×1024 erg toward the Earth. The origin of these events is a mystery. Such strong events should have an unusual optical counterpart, and have been recorded in historical literatures. We searched Chinese historical materials around AD 744-775 and AD 993-994, but no remarkable event was found except for a violent thunderstorm in AD 775. However, the possibility of a thunderstorm containing so much energy is unlikely. We conclude that the events, which caused the 14C increase, are still unclear. These events most probably had no optical counterpart, and a short gamma-ray burst, giant flare of a soft gamma-ray repeater or a terrestrial γ-ray flash could all be candidates.

  11. The Accuracy of the Five-planet Locations Calculated by the Chinese Ancient Calendar Named Shoushi Li%《授时历》五星推步的精度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇

    2011-01-01

    The calendar Shoushi Li is one of the most famous calendars in ancient China,which was recorded in the Lizhi (ancient calendar book of China) of Yuanshi (annals of the Yuan Dynasty from 1279 to 1367). There are seven important calculation parts, including solar terms, syzygies, corrections of the sun and the moon, eclipses and so on. The locations of the five-planet are also in the list. Almost every part has a corresponding section in the modern astronomical year book. It is the last calendar formulated only by Chinese astronomers and its period of usage (from 1281 to 1644) is the longest one in ancient China.It was also a new calendar system which cast off the traditional method by which calculations were carried out from the epoch of the distant past. The basic constants were obtained by meticulous observations and then used in calculations.In this paper, the calculation methods of planetary locations in Shoushi Li are investigated and recovered by studying the official texts of Yuanshi. (1) The locations of the ephemeris of Jupiter in 1299 are derived and our recovering method is affirmed by comparing with other studies. (2) The calculated accuracies of celestial longitudes of the five-planet from 1280 to 1650 are obtained. For Jupiter, Mars, Saturn, Venus and Mercury, the average values of absolute errors are 0.49°, 1.91° , 0.70° , 2.82° and 5.01° . Jupiter and Saturn have comparatively higher accuracies. (3) Zhoulu, Lilu, Dulu, Heying and Liying are used for planetary calculations in Shoushi Li. Their accurate values, instead of those adopted in Shoushi Li, are derived and calculated by modern astronomical methods and then inputted into Shoushi models. It is found that the accuracies of planetary locations are not improved.The errors of Jupiter and Saturn are 1.83° and 1.21° . But the errors of Mercury, Venus and Mars ascend to 30.04°, 54.86° and 10.82° , respectively. It is indicated that the accuracies can not be increased by revising some of the

  12. A Study on the Images of Tiantai and the Sexual Description in Chinese Ancient Novels and Operas%天台桃源意象与古代小说戏曲中的性描写

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张天星

    2014-01-01

    The Taoyuan of Wuling and the story of Liuchen and Ruanzhao's entering the Tiantai Mountian are mixed in Tang Dynasty , thus the images of Tiantai come into being .The images of Tiantai inherit the adventure of the story of Liu and Ruan , and have been widely used in the sexual description in Chinese ancient novels and operas since the Song Dynasty .The images of Tiantai play the role of metaphor and symbol in the description , which suspends concrete characterization in the sexual description , and not only highlights the happiness of the sex but also poeticizes the sexual description .The images of Tiantai represent the implicit characteristic of the sexual description in Chinese literature , and their aesthetic val-ues are well worth carrying on .%唐代文人将刘阮遇仙与武陵桃源附会并相互混融,遂产生了天台桃源意象;天台桃源意象开始承袭刘阮遇仙的艳遇特质被用来叙写男女艳情,天台桃源意象就此走上了艳化之路。宋元以后,天台桃源意象被小说戏曲作家广泛用于性描写。天台桃源意象在古代小说戏曲的性描写中起着隐喻、象征的作用,悬置了对性行为的刻画,既突显了男女性爱的美好,也诗化了古代小说戏曲的性描写,突出地代表了中国文学性描写含蓄蕴藉一路的审美特色。天台桃源意象在古代小说戏曲性描写中所体现的美学价值历久弥新,启示今天的文艺工作者仍应把含蓄隽永和富有启发力的性描写作为遵循的基本准则。

  13. 归有光古文非唐宋派论--兼论归有光古文创作特征%GUI You-guang’s Studies of Ancient Chinese Different from Tang and Song School:On Features of His Creation in Classical Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣刚

    2016-01-01

    Tang and Song School was the one of ancient Chinese in the period of Emperor Jiajing.Its literary view was characterized by advocating the classical Chinese of Tang and Song Dynasties.GUI You-guang was a master of classical Chinese in Ming Dynasty.In terms of literary views,he was quite different from Qin and Han School.It is generally believed that GUI You-guang played a role of connection in the history of classical Chinese from Tang and Song to Qing.That is,he inherited eight masters of Tang and Song Dynasties,and laid a foundation for the Tongcheng School of Qing Dynasty.For this reason, he has been considered as a member of Tang and Song School.However,through analysis of GUI’s advocation of classical Chi-nese and the features of his creation,we can find that it is not in accordance with the fact to do so.%唐宋派是明代嘉靖年间的一个古文流派,其为文观点以宗尚唐宋古文为显著特征。归有光是明代古文大家,在持论方面与“秦汉派”龃龉不合。一般认为归有光在自唐宋至清代的古文发展史上起着承上启下的作用,即上承唐宋八大家而下开清代桐城派,因此文学史上一般将其归入唐宋派之中。然而,通过对归有光古文宗尚、创作特征等的分析,可知将其归入于古文中的唐宋派并不符合客观事实。

  14. 从文学特征论看俄国形式主义与中国古代文论之异同%A Contrast of Russian Formalism and Ancient Chinese Literary Theory Based on Literary Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨一铎

    2012-01-01

    在对文学特性的探讨及对文学诸特征的研究中,俄国形式主义与中国古代文论不乏相似之处:二者都是对以往文学理论的反动和纠偏;都是通过对文学区别于其他学科的艺术形式的强调和对诗歌技法的探讨,来达到对文学理论的科学性诉求;并都对后世文学理论产生深远影响。但由于时代及文化的差异,俄国形式主义非常明确地表现出对具有科学性文学理论的追求,并同现代语言学理论关系紧密;相反,对文体划分的重视及对诗歌声律也即音乐性的强调则是中国古代文论的两大特点。%It can be seen from the discussion and study of various literary characteristics that Russian formalism and Chinese ancient literary theory have a lot in common in terms of the historical background, the emphasis on form as well as the impact on the future generations. However, there are still some different characteristics between them since they occurred at different times and resulted in different cultures.

  15. A Study on 36 Examples of the Reptile, Fish and Invertebrate Names in the Ancient Chinese Language%古代虫鱼爬行动物名所指考36例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李海霞

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese animal name 瓦剌 was today’s crocodile. 螣蛇 was flying head snake. 纳鼈 was big-headed turtle.锯鲨 was needle tooth shark. 狮刀 was dorab. 含光 was yellow fish. 哲绿鱼 was taimen. 花魿 was some of spotfishes. 松鱼was sea catfish. 赤鬃 was genuine porgy and yellow porgy. 火烧鳊 was suckerfish. 青蚨 was giant water bug. 茭虱 was bedbug.蜭was a worm eating dry meat and furs. 蟛蚏 was fiddler crab. 空豸was pholad. 假猪螺 was trumpet shell whelk. 土笋 was sipunculida. 桃花鱼 was a kind of jelly fish, and so on.%古籍中的动物名瓦剌是鳄鱼。螣蛇是金花蛇。纳鼈是平胸龟。锯鲨是尖齿锯鳐。狮刀鱼是宝刀鱼。含光是黄鱼。哲绿鱼是哲罗鲑。花魿是几种鲾。松鱼是海鲇。赤鬃是黄鲷、真鲷。火烧鳊是胭脂鱼。青蚨是大型昆虫田鳖。茭虱是臭虫。蜭是蠹食毛皮干肉的虫。蟛蚏是招潮蟹。空豸是双壳类的海笋。假猪螺是管角螺。土笋是星虫。桃花鱼是桃花水母。

  16. From Conception to Narration:Exploring the “Kitchen-Stove Ghosts” in Ancient Chinese Fiction%从观念到叙事:古代小说中的“灶下灵异”考论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛永海

    2014-01-01

    Many traditional Chinese novels contain records of the “kitchen-stove ghosts”.Such narrative records , having been deeply influenced by the kitchen-god/ghost worship and its taboos from ancient times on , reflect the evolution of cultural concepts in China .Meanwhile , the stories under such topics have been ex-panded and enriched since the 3rd century, so that many new subject matters are added to the original motifs , such as the stove-ghost that haunts the kitchen , the kitchen-ware talk at midnight , and the spirit-channeling under the cooking stove .Textual analyses of such novels show the subtle changes of the “kitchen-stove ghosts”narration in plot pattern and aesthetic style during the process of their circulation .%古代小说作品中多有关于“灶下灵异”的记载。一方面,这些叙述受到了自古以来灶神(鬼)崇拜与禁忌观念的深刻影响,折射出文化观念的演变轨迹;另一方面,汉魏以来有关故事内容不断被扩展与丰富,出现了灶鬼作祟、灶器夜谈、灶下通灵等各具特色的题材类型。通过对小说文本的分析,可见出“灶下灵异”叙述在流传中情节模式与美学风格方面的细致变化。

  17. Good Reasons to Choose Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    TASTE, texture and aroma all act as food’s aphrodisiacs. Chinese food combines each of these elements, creating an art for the senses. Diet has long been recognized as a way of preserving and enhancing health. From ancient times, the Chinese noticed people’s moods change with the seasons. Using a delicately woven tapestry, food and Chinese medicine go hand in hand. According to traditional Chinese medicine, people should change their

  18. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Louis

    2009-12-01

    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  19. 新课改背景下高师古代文学课程与教学改革刍议%On Reform of Chinese Ancient Literature Course and Teaching in Normal Colleges under the Background of New Curriculum Reform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦丹

    2012-01-01

    The implementation of the new curriculum reform puts forward a series of requirements for teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normM colleges such as the teaching aim, teaching content, teaching concepts and teaching methods. These requirements, however, are not met in the teaching of Chinese ancient literature in normal colle- ges. Under the background of new curriculum reform, to explore the approach for the reform of the Chinese ancient literature in normal colleges, it is suggested to reestablish course system, improve teaching objectives, strengthen literary theory and culture history teaching, change the teaching concept, teaching method, attach importance not only to basic teaching, but also to academic research ability training. Only in this way, earl Chinese ancient literature teaching in normal colleges radiates new vitality to meet the the requirement of new curriculum reform and to realize the training objectives of normal colleges and universities.%新课改的推行对高师古代文学教学提出了教学目标、教材内容、教师教学观念及教学方法上的一系列要求。面对这些要求,高师古代文学教学却无法对接,其现状不尽如人意。因而要在新课改背景下寻求高师古代文学的改革路径,可重新设置课程体系、改进教学目标、增强文论、文化史等内容的教学,改变教学观念、教学方法,既要重视基础教学,也要重视学术研究能力的培养。只有这样,才能使高师古代文学教学焕发新的生机,适应新课改的需求,实现高师院校的培养目标。

  20. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.

    2007-08-01

    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  1. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  2. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    女 (nü) is a pictograph. InChinese it means female, theopposite of male. In ancientChinese, women had low socialstatus which is reflected in theshape of the character. 女 in theOracle-Bone Script looks like a

  3. Internationalization of Chinese Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Linhan; Huang, Danyan

    2013-01-01

    This paper probes into the development of internationalization of higher education in China from ancient times to modern times, including the emergence of international connections in Chinese higher education and the subsequent development of such connections, the further development of internationalization of Chinese higher education, and the…

  4. The Magic of Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    One of the world's oldest languages appears to have a vibrant futureClassical Greek and Latin, two languages that share an ancient history with Chinese, have been threatened with extinction, being used primarily in classic books or for special purposes. Chinese, on the other hand, is thriving as more and more people develop an interest in learning the language, and its charm has been noticed by linguists.

  5. An Exploration of the Digital Library and the Organization of Ancient Books

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-jen Ku

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the digital library and the organization of ancient books. The author first discusses the digitization and organization of ancient books collected in the libraries, and then analyzes the problems encountered in this process. In conclusion, possible future developments are discussed.[Article content in Chinese

  6. 试论中国古村的旅游开发和利用--以湖北黄陂大余湾为例%A Discussion on Exploration and Utilization of Tourist Resources in Chinese Ancient Villages-Dayuwan Village in Huangpi District in Hubei Province as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈星辰; 孙君恒

    2015-01-01

    结合分析武汉黄陂大余湾古村旅游开发和利用中存在的具有代表性的问题,对中国古村旅游开发和利用提出的建议和对策主要是:一是加强同居民的沟通,树立居民的自信心和自豪感,提高村民的“觉悟”。二是注意根据古村实际情况选择合适的开发模式,注意维护古村居民的切身利益。三是借鉴上海世博会枫泾古村的开发经验,精心打造一流的旅游品牌。四是创建古村文化数据库,更好地保护和开发我国的古村文化。五是打造一流的管理队伍,加强旅游景区的管理。%Combined with analysis of the typical issues in the exploration and utilization of tourist resources of Dayuwan ancient village in Huangpi District in Hubei Province, the following proposals and countermeasures are brought about, concerning exploration and utilization of Chi-nese ancient villages. First, enhance communications with local people, help them establish confidence and a sense of pride, and raise their awareness;Second, select an appropriate development model in accordance with the actual conditions of the ancient village, and safeguard vital interests of local residences;Third, draw on the exploration experience of Fengjing ancient village displayed in the Shanghai World Expo, and elaborately build a first class brand of tourism; Fourth, set up a cultural database of ancient villages to better protect and explore the culture of ancient villages in our country;Fifth, build a first class management team to improve the management in tourist spots.

  7. Chinese Women Soldiers: A History of 5,000 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaolin

    1994-01-01

    Describes the role of women in the Chinese military during four eras: (1) the ancient period; (2) the post Opium War period; (3) 1949-present; and (4) today's women in the Chinese military. Includes a full-page chart indicating women warriors in ancient China. (CFR)

  8. Theory-of-mind reasoning in Ancient China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Emde Boas, P.

    2014-01-01

    Ancient Chinese literature on strategic theory goes back to ideas proposed almost 3000 years ago, but which were first written down during the late Spring and Autumn period and the Warring States period (around 500 BC). The most famous work is the Art of War from Sun Tzu. While Sun Tzu extensively r

  9. Ningwu——An Ancient Pass On The Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    <正>Ningwu situated on the Loess Plateau in north of Shanxi Province is one of the three passes along the Great Wall. The other two are the Pian Pass in the west and the Yanmen Pass in the east. In the ancient times, it had been a key military town in the northern Chinese borders.

  10. Climate changes may lead to the collapse of ancient civilizations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Studies of an international research consortium indicate that severe monsoon changes might have simultaneously accelerated the fall of two great ancient civilizations, the Tang Dynasty (618-907 AD), one of the most prosperous reigns in Chinese history, and the Maya civilization in Meso-America that ended in 830 AD.

  11. Governance,Communication and Mood Projection---On the Dialectical Relationship Between Literary Works and History in Chinese Ancient Literature Teaching%统摄沟通观照--古代文学教学中“文”与“史”关系的辩证思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何晓苇

    2016-01-01

    The in-class teaching of ancient Chinese literature has gradually shifted its focus back on lit-erary works analysis,which doesn't mean literary history will be rejected or abolished. The essence of litera-ture education draws the concentration of ancient literature teaching on literary works comprehension and appreciation,while literary history and its methodological significance on teaching and learning should never be underestimated in works-centered teaching activities. In the macroscopic aspect,teaching literature with literary history construction may help students systematically take in literary knowledge. In microscopic as-pect,studying writers and their works under the complex history background may help deepen students' com-prehension and extend their reflection. Only by balancing and integrating literary works and history in ancient literature teaching activity may allow students to grasp the essence and beauty of Chinese ancient literature.%如今高校的中国古代文学教学逐渐向讲授文学作品回归,但并不意味着对文学史的摒弃以至于取消。文学教育的性质,决定了古代文学课程的教学理当立足于文学作品的阅读与理解,但以文学作品为中心的教学活动,亦不可看轻文学史对于文学作品的教与学所具有的方法论上的价值意义。从宏观层面上,教学内容需要有文学史的统摄,便于学生将所学知识条理化、系统化;从微观层面上,将作家作品放在文学纵横交错的历史坐标轴上加以考察,有助于学生理解的深化与融会,延伸与拓展其思考。既重“文”亦不忽视“史”,唯有二者的交相融合,才能使学生真正把握住中国古代文学的思想精髓与艺术特质。

  12. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neiburger, E J

    2000-01-01

    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  13. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2006-02-15

    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  14. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  15. Moessbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsia Yuanfu; Huang Hongbo [Nanjing University, Department of Physics (China)

    2003-09-15

    The Moessbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  16. 中国古代文论当代性如何可能——评党圣元《返本与开新》%On the Possibility of the Contemporaneity of Ancient Chinese Literary Theory--A Review of Returning to the Origin and Opening Up the New of Dang Shengyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘毅青

    2012-01-01

    当下,我们学者借用西方理论与观念时,可能忽视了中国文学理论必须要建立在中国文学史与批评史基础上,而西方文学理论的局限性就表现在中西文学史与批评史发展的差异上,而一味地以其为方法来衡诸于中国文学,就显得背道而驰、南辕北辙?党圣元《返本与开新一一中国传统文论的当代阐释》在当代文论陷入困境之时,思考的焦点问题是还原中国古代文论的本来面目,目的则是立足于中国文论的“当代性”,实是一部别开生面的力作。%t present, we use the western theories and ideas, but perhaps ignore that the Chinese literary theory should be built on the basis of the history of Chinese literature and criticism history, while the limitation of the western literary the ory on the difference between the development of Chinese and Western literary history and criticism history. Does it ap- pear to draw further apart, apart to judge Chinese literature with the method of the western? The focus of the problem in Dang Shengyuan's Returning to the Origin and Opening the New---- The Interpretation to the Contemporary of Chinese Traditional Literary Theory is to restore the true face of ancient Chinese literary theory when the contemporary literary theory is in trouble, aiming at being on the basis of the Contemporaneity of Chinese literary theory, which is real a entire- ly new work.

  17. 论元南戏中的“贪淫破家”悲剧——《小孙屠》解读%Tragedy of Adultery in Southern Ancient Chinese Opera of Yuan Dynasty——A Study on Xiao Sun Tu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑传寅

    2001-01-01

    元南戏《小孙屠》是以从良妓女贪淫破家的故事为主要表现对象的悲剧性作品,旨在劝诫世人:妓女性淫,不可娶以为妇。但剧作的意义不仅在此,她揭示了妓女制度对“良人女”心灵的扭曲与毒害,把奸情与官府的昏庸腐败联系起来,概括了丰富的社会生活内容,提升了剧作的思想意义和认识价值。剧中有清官出现,但她与旨在颂扬清官断案的公案剧和清官戏有所不同。《小孙屠》观察生活的视角和评价生活的尺度具有东方特色,反映了东方劳动群众的婚姻家庭观念和社会理想。%Xiao Sun Tu, Southern ancient Chinese opera of Yuan Dynasty, warns people that whores are lewd and are not suitable to become wives by telling us a story of how a married woman ruins her family by unchaste conduct. The play suggests ancient prostitute system distort and poison “gentlewoman's soul”, mirrors the harsh reality and the corruption of officials of Yuan Dynasty. The play contains rich portraits and description of ancient society, which highlight the ideal value.

  18. Chinese Advertising and Advanced Chinese Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Fan

    2006-01-01

    @@ Chinese advertising has long been inseparable from the Chinese national culture from late Shang Dynasty and early Zhou Dynasty when Jiang Ziya beat sword to spread sound to the 21st century when the badge of Beijing 2008 Olympic Games sweeps the whole world. With cultural trait as one of its fundamental character,advertising naturally becomes one of the most important cultural industries in contemporary era. In recent years because of prevalent theme, "Rediscover the Brilliance of Ancient Cities," promoted by the 39th IAA World Congress and the 12th China Advertising Festival held in China, Beijing and Xi'an, two ancient cities, had been splendidly presented to the whole world.

  19. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  20. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  1. Cloning Ancient Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    west of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in Zhongshan Park, there stand several ancient cypress trees, each more than 1,000 years old. Their leafy crowns are all more than 20 meters high, while four have trunks that are 6 meters in circumference. The most unique of these

  2. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    The ancient Kingdom of Kalinga mentioned in the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela (1st century B.C.) extended from the mouths of the Ganges to the estuary of Godavari river on the East Coast. Ptolemy (100 A.D.) mentions that Paluru (District...

  3. Ancient deforestation revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald

    2011-01-01

    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  4. [On the issue of healers of the Ancient China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarenko, V G

    2010-01-01

    The article is devoted to the first physicians of the Ancient China--I-Ing (XVII-XVI centuries BC) and I-Ho (VI-V centuries BC). On the basis of the investigation of the ancient sources the significant input of the mentioned physicians into the development of the traditional Chinese medicine, dietetics and diet therapy included is testified. In addition, their scientific approach to the issues of diagnostics and treatment on the basis of applying the natural philosophy principles of Yin-Yan and Y-Sin is demonstrated.

  5. Ancient human microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M

    2015-02-01

    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  6. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das

    2014-01-01

    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  7. 禅宗的“不立文字”与中国古代诗学领域中的“重意轻言”%Zen's thought of independence of words of and regarding meaning as superiority to words in ancient Chinese poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐腾腾

    2012-01-01

    Zen is a religious sect,which is based on the India Zen and integrated the China's Taoism and metaphysics in the Wei and Jin Dynasties.It has injected fresh blood into the Chinese rational culture,and the thinking way of "Independence of words;Beside Buddhism deliver a sermon;Straight give direction to human heart;Sight of nature to achieve Buddha" has produced influence on Chinese ancient poetry.One important aspect is that China' s classical poetry pays more and attention to the "meaning",so the art situation of "regarding meaning as superiority to word" is reflected in the theory of poetry,creation and appreciation.%禅宗标榜的"不立文字,教外别传,直指人心,见性成佛"的思维方式渗入到我国古代诗歌领域,产生了广泛而深远的影响,其中一个重要方面即是使我国古典诗歌越来越强调"意",使中国古典诗歌在诗歌理论、创作与欣赏方面都体现出一种"重意轻言"的艺术态势。

  8. A Monograph on An Ancient History in Southeast Asia with Chinese Characteristics---Review on Ancient History of Southeast Asia%一部具有中国特色的东南亚古史专著--评梁志明等主编的《东南亚古代史》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余定邦

    2013-01-01

    A History of Ancient Southeast Asia, edited by Liang Zhim-ing, has some academic value features, which include emphasis on aca-demic review of the Southeast Asia history; more detailed describe of the region prehistoric culture; emphasis ancient social and cultural develop-ment in Southeast Asia from early 1 century to 16 century;response to the argues of ancient history in Southeast Asia and put forward his own aca-demic insights;paying more attention to the research materials in original languages.comprehensive discussion about the ancient politics, economy culture in this region;the relationship between Southeast Asia and India. The downside of this book in some aspects of historical studies in South-east Asia is relatively simple.%梁志明等主编的《东南亚古代史》具有一些有学术价值的特点是:重视介绍东南亚古代史研究的学术史;较详尽地论述了该地区的史前文化;重视对公元初至16世纪初东南亚古国社会文化发展的研究;回应了东南亚古史研究中的不少热点问题并提出自己的学术见解;用中外史料互相补充,全面论述东南亚古代史和东南亚古国的政治、经济和历史文化情况以及它们之间、它们与中印两大文明古国的关系。《东南亚古代史》的不足之处是对东南亚古代史研究方面某些争议问题如:蒲甘阿奴律陀王到中国迎取佛牙、素可泰兰甘亨王入访中国、中国古籍中的暹国是否就是素可泰、“十三世纪危机”、东南亚古国土地所有制等作出回应时,论述过于简单,没有明确提出自己的考证结论。

  9. From Philosophy Research Object and the Way of Thinking to See the Differences between Ancient Chinese and Western Philosophy%从哲学研究对象和思维方式看古代中西方哲学差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史彦虎; 乔利丽

    2012-01-01

    Philosophy research ability and results is an important part of cultural strength,and is the essence of the spirit of the times.However,poverty of philosophy is the fact that does not dispute.To boost the philosophy and social science,we can neither worship everything foreign,nor blindly prize the ancient.We should be dialectical analysis the Chinese and Western philosophy,and be based on the classical philosophy resources and social reality to solve the existing problems.We should not only know the differences between Chinese and western philosophy,but also analyse their characteristics and causes of formation.In learning and referencing inheritance and innovation,we prosper philosophy and the social sciences.The differences between Chinese and Western ancient philosophy,are not only embody in the research object,but also root in the way of thinking differences.The differences have both advantages and disadvantages for national science and culture development.%哲学的研究能力和成果是文化实力的重要部分,是时代精神的精华,然而哲学资源的贫困是不争的事实。要振兴哲学社会科学,我们既不能崇洋媚外,也不能一味崇古尚古,而必须对中西哲学进行辩证分析,基于古典哲学资源和社会现实解决现存的问题;我们既要了解中西哲学的差异,又要分析各自的特点及形成原因,在学习与借鉴、传承与创新中繁荣哲学社会科学。中西古代哲学的差异性不仅体现在研究对象上,而且根源于思维方式的本质差异,这些差异性对民族科学文化的影响有利有弊。

  10. 面向文学事实本身——英伽登现象学文论与中国古代文论比较初探%Facing the Literary Facts of Their Own: the Comparison between Ingarden's Phenomenology Literary Theory and the Ancient Chinese Literary Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛志信

    2012-01-01

    While the contemporary Chinese literary theory has made some achievements by mostly absorbing the results of Western literary theory, it also exposes its drawbacks emphasizing on "external research" and devia- ting from the literary facts of their own. However, "facing the literary facts of their own", the literary theory re- search can pose valuable questions, not leading itself to be a vassal of other disciplines. "Facing the literary facts of their own", Ingarden's phenomenological literary theory and the ancient Chinese literary theory provide rich re- sources for us to rethink and construct the contemporary Chinese literary theory. In short, the comparison and dis- crimination of the two theories have an important theoretical value.%中国当代文学理论研究多吸收西方文学理论的成果,取得了一定成就的同时,也暴露出其研究重视"外部研究",偏离文学事实本身的弊端,文学理论研究只有"面向文学事实本身",才能提出真正有价值的问题,才能不致成为别的学科的附庸。英伽登的现象学文论和中国古代文论直面文学本身,为我们反思和建设中国当代文学理论提供了丰富的资源,对两者"面向文学事实本身"的方式进行比较辨析,具有重要的理论价值。

  11. Suicide in ancient Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G

    2014-01-01

    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  12. Literature study on fecal class Chinese medicines and their application in the ancient prescriptions%应用文献挖掘及关联规则分析方法挖掘分析古代方剂中粪便类中药的基本特征及其应用∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏泽琦; 张文君; 张雨珊; 王德辰; 孟祥梅; 王玮鑫; 吴嘉瑞; 李健; 丁霞

    2016-01-01

    Objective To summarize the basic characteristics of fecal class Chinese medicines in modern clinical practice, and to find out the application of them in ancient prescriptions. Methods Taking“fe-ces”(Chinese:粪便;pinyin:fènbiàn) and “Chinese medicines”(Chinese: 中药; pinyin: zhōngyào) as the keywords, we searched CNKI, Wangfang, CQVIP and CBM databases of relevant articles pub-lished since the time of establishment. Then the fecal class Chinese medicines were screened. What we obtained were where the official names came from, what their alternative names were at different times, which creatures they were excreted from, what property and flavor, meridian tropism, efficacy and indi-cations they had. Furthermore, we searched the ancient prescriptions involving fecal class Chinese medi-cines using the database platform of Dictionary of Chinese Medicine Prescriptions, institute of Chinese Materia Medical of China Academy of Chinese Medical Sciences to get the common compatibility and po-tential rules of clinical application. Results Total eleven fecal class Chinese were common used in mod-ern clinical practice, which were recorded in various monographs of Chinese medicine by numerous names, and were excreted from birds, mammals and worm. The nature of the medicines were hot or cold;the flavor coved sour, bitter, sweet, bitter, salty; the meridian tropism lied in meridian of liver ( gall bladder) ,heart ( cardiac ) , spleen ( stomach ) , lung ( intestine ) and kidney ( bladder ); the various effects were listed as the following: resolving superficies, clearing heat, dispelling pathogenic wind and removing dampness, resolving stagnation, expelling blood stasisfor removing obstruction in collaterals, re-moving phlegm, relieving cough, calming endogenous wind, inducing resuscitation, removing toxicity, destroying parasites, relieve itching, eliminating necrotic tissues and promoting granulation. In addition, we extracted relevant 1 550 relevant prescriptions

  13. The Application of Auspicious Ornaments in Ancient Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦宇

    2012-01-01

      The application of auspicious ornaments is common in ancient architecture. Their accumulation is profound and implication is ingenious. They have great expression and infection on the art of architecture. All kinds of the architecture have their own auspicious ornaments which can reflect the style and character. In an-cient Chinese palace and temple, usually there are some little animal ornaments which are arranged in different number and pattern. These animals are regarded as divine animals. They all have special meanings. It contains the feudal thoughts of ancient China and its culture connotation. This paper studies the specific application of auspicious ornaments through the study of the divine animals on the ridge.

  14. On the Application of Value of Ancient Chinese Poems Art Songs in Vocal Music Teaching%中国古诗词艺术歌曲在声乐教学中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁珺

    2015-01-01

    随着中国古诗词艺术歌曲的不断创作与实践,其越来越多地出现在声乐教学领域,并体现着作为中国特有艺术歌曲体裁的重要价值。学习并演唱中国古诗词艺术歌曲不仅能更好地掌握演唱技巧、提高对音乐的理解和想象能力,还能更深层次地领会中华文化的博大精深,丰富自身的艺术修养。%With the development of Chinese poetry art song creation and practice, more and more of them are used in the field of vocal music teaching, and embodies the unique Chinese art song genre as an important value. Therefore, learn and sing Chinese poetry art song can not only better master singing skills and improve understanding of music and imagination ability, but also understand Chinese culture and profound and rich artistic accomplishment deeply.

  15. Acupuncture in ancient China: how important was it really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, Hanjo

    2013-01-01

    Although acupuncture theory is a fundamental part of the Huangdi Neijing, the clinical application of the needle therapy in ancient China was always a limited one. From early times there have been warnings that acupuncture might do harm. In books like Zhang Zhongjing's Shanghanlun it plays only a marginal role. Among the 400 emperors in Chinese history, acupuncture was hardly ever applied. After Xu Dachun called acupuncture a "lost tradition" in 1757, the abolition of acupuncture and moxibustion from the Imperial Medical Academy in 1822 was a radical, but consequent act. When traditional Chinese medicine was revived after 1954, the "New Acupuncture" was completely different from what it had been in ancient China. The conclusion, however, is a positive one: The best time acupuncture ever had was not the Song dynasty or Yuan dynasty, but is now - and the future of acupuncture does not lie in old scripts, but in ourselves.

  16. Traditional Chinese Biotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yan; Wang, Dong; Fan, Wen Lai; Mu, Xiao Qing; Chen, Jian

    The earliest industrial biotechnology originated in ancient China and developed into a vibrant industry in traditional Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar. It is now a significant component of the Chinese economy valued annually at about 150 billion RMB. Although the production methods had existed and remained basically unchanged for centuries, modern developments in biotechnology and related fields in the last decades have greatly impacted on these industries and led to numerous technological innovations. In this chapter, the main biochemical processes and related technological innovations in traditional Chinese biotechnology are illustrated with recent advances in functional microbiology, microbial ecology, solid-state fermentation, enzymology, chemistry of impact flavor compounds, and improvements made to relevant traditional industrial facilities. Recent biotechnological advances in making Chinese liquor, rice wine, soy sauce, and vinegar are reviewed.

  17. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Spalva, Rita

    2015-01-01

    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  18. Chinese Literature,Anyone?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ALI; ALIZADEH

    2007-01-01

    Like many other ancient cultures,China possesses an impressive and celebrated literary heritage. The master poets of the medieval Tang Dynasty(618-907), for example, are rightfully known as some of the world’s best lyric poets; the adventures of the Monkey King and his company—as told in the classical Chinese narrative Journey to the West—have achieved a global following (in part due to TV adaptations and the like); and novels, short story collections and memoirs by expat Chinese authors living in the West have won major literary prizes and become international bestsellers.

  19. Ancient Art Form Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Chinese New Year painting exhibition reveals the beauty of folk art A CHINESE New Year painting exhibition has offered thousands of art lovers a traditional folk art feast in Beijing this past January and February.With the theme of "Door Gods," over 300 works of art were on display,representing various styles in China’s different regions. Woodcut prints,each a piece of special handmade folk art featuring auspicious subjects,are characterized by their concise lines, bright colors,and joyful scenes embodying people’s best wishes for the New Year.

  20. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias

    2006-01-01

    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  1. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2011-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  2. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  3. On the Influence of Yi-ology on the Ancient Chinese Legal Culture%简论易学对中国古代法律文化的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐鹤薇

    2012-01-01

    I Ching:Book of Changes is the earliest book widespread in ancient China, and recognized as "the best of all the scrip- tures,the origin of all the schools of thought".Its rich content whereas plain wording help reserve historical materials in the ancient time and serve as a channel for later generations to study people's life then.In the text and commentaries of I Ching,plenty of le- gal phenomena and thoughts are recorded. For generations,practitioners of laws spare no efforts in studying the legal culture in it. Research of the legal culture in I Ching experienced a development process from suspicion to confirmation,from annotation to anal- ysis,from sporadic cases to unitary study.In the text of I Ching,many legal issues can be found,like "suit", "imprisonment", "sen- tence", "penalty',etc.The influence of I Ching on the legal society of ancient China will be analyzed by briefly introducing the symbolisms in hexagrams like Shibe,Xie,Bi,Feng and Lv.%《周易》是中国古代流传最早的成体系书,自古被誉为"群经之首,百家之源"。它的内容丰富,文字古朴,保留了许多上古的史料,亦给后人研究上古文化提供了便利。在《周易》经传文本里,记载了大量的法律现象和法律思想,经几代的法律人的共同努力,使《周易》的法律文化经过了"从疑到肯、从注到解、从零到整"的发展过程。在《周易》经传的文本里,记载着大量诸如"讼"、"狱"、"刑"、"罚"等法律现象。本文通过简述《周易》中《噬嗑》、《解》、《贲》、《丰》、《旅》等卦中的象辞,分析了易学文化对中国古代法制社会的影响。

  4. Leadership insights of the Chinese military classics for physician leaders and healthcare administrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzenaue, Robert W

    2007-01-01

    Trite sayings from Chinese military classics often find their way into after-dinner fortune cookies in many Chinese restaurants in America. However, no one should underestimate the lessons from those Chinese military classics, and they certainly should never be trivialized. Leaders at all levels of healthcare management can learn timeless lessons spanning three millennia from the wisdom of ancient Chinese military writings.

  5. A Brief Discussion on the Medical Communication Between China and Vietnam in the Ancient Times%简论古代中越医药交流

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李未醉; 余罗玉

    2004-01-01

    In ancient China and Vietnam, cultural exchanges were frequent. In medicine, Chinese medicine was trans-ported into Vietnam or vice versa. Chinese doctors resided there and Chinese medical books were read. The practice of these exchanges helped promote the medical development and the international relations.

  6. The First Chinese Emperor in Vietnam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>Vietnam,a close neighbor of China,was influenced by the Chinese Culture for generations.In history,Vietnam had been under the administration and protection of ancient Chinese imperial court for a long period of time.The first Chinese emperor in Vietnam,who can be traced far back to Qin and Han dynasty,is referred to as the oldest emperor worldwide, His name was Zhao Tuo,

  7. A Brief Introduction to Chinese Drama

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    GREEK,Indian,and Chinese dramas are thethee most ancient dramas in the history ofthe world.Greek drama started between thesixth and fifth centuries B.C.;Indian,around thebeginning of me Christian era,and Chinese drama wasborn in the middle of the 12th centruy.Chinese dramahas been performed for the past 800 years and contin-ues to entertain audiences today.

  8. Ancient Art Form Revisited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Jian

    2011-01-01

    @@ A CHINESE New Year painting exhibition has offered thousands of art lovers a traditional folk art feast in Beijing this past January and February.With the theme of "Door Gods," over 300 works of art were on display, representing various styles in China's different regions.

  9. 从文学作品看中国古代女性地位的变化%Exploring Changes of Ancient Chinese Women's Statue from the Perspective of Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁广雪; 张士昌

    2012-01-01

    我国古代文学作品中不乏有描写妇女生活的篇章,考察这些文学作品可以了解我国古代妇女地位的变化情况。先秦时期,妇女受礼教约束比较少,地位比较高;秦汉之后随着以男性为主导的封建统治地位的逐渐巩固,妇女地位逐渐下降。明清时期由于妇女生活的极其黑暗,引发了妇女解放运动的产生。封建社会解体之后我国妇女解放运动得到了蓬勃的发展。%There is no shortage of literary works of ancient China to describe the women's lives, from which we can know the changes of the statue of women in ancient times. In the Pre-Qin Dynasty, women seldom subjected to the Confucianism constraints, and had a relatively high position. With the male-dominated feudal dominance gradually consolidated after the Qin and Hart, the statue of women gradually decreased. But in the Ming and Qing Dynasties, women lived an extremely dark life, which resulted in the women' s liberation movement, and the movement in China got a vigorous development after the disintegration of the feudal society.

  10. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN ancient Chinese characters,母(pronounced mu)depicts a womanbending on her knees and crossingher hands in front with two points onher chest symbolizing her breasts.The original meaning of 母 is anadult woman who has given birth tochildren,i.e.a mother It was later

  11. The Origin of Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    IN oracle-bone inscription, 面 (mian) depictsthe outline of a face with a large eye at its center.To this end its original meaning was the humanface. However, in ancient Chinese 面 referred tothe front of the head and another characterdenoted the cheek, specifically the area between

  12. 古代服装十二章纹的文化精神与美学蕴涵%The cultural spirit and aesthetic implication of the twelve-stamp pattern of ancient Chinese clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰宇

    2011-01-01

    The restrictive functions of political factors and cultural perceptions are investigated on the clothing design in Chinese clothing development. Based on historical evidence and theoretical reasoning, combined with Chinese culture and traditional aesthetic concepts, the origin and development of the twelve-stamp pattern are illustrated. It is concluded that the patterns of traditional Chinese clothing are the combination of the concept of patriarchal clan system and cultural and aesthetic factors.%讨论中国服装发展中政治因素和文化观念对服装设计和制作所起的制约作用,以史料论证和理论逻辑推理的方法,结合中国文化和美学传统观念,论述十二章纹图案的历史成因与发展,得出中国服装图案是以宗法礼制观念为主导,文化与美学因素客观显现的结论.

  13. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H

    2011-01-01

    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  14. 从古代文学作品看传统体育的历史与精神——《体育古文》前言%The History and Spirits of Traditional Sports Embodied in Traditional Literature Works -preface to Ancient Chinese Literature Works on Sports and Games

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵逵夫

    2012-01-01

    Many works in ancient Chinese literature (from Pre-Qin to the modern times), ranging in genre from pomes, Ci, Qu, Fu, prose, and novels, made descriptions of the sports and games people engaged in. The types of sports and games mentioned include ball games and Jirang, the game of throwing stuffs into the pot and horsing racing, archery, fencing, Jiao Di, sumo, Martial art, swimming, racing, long-jump, tug of war, skiing, fishing, the I-go, shuttlecock kicking and flying kite. These literature works not only showed vivid pictures of sports activities in different periods, thoughts, emotions and the spiritual states of the participants and the audiences, but also embodied the cultural connotations and the basic spirits of Chinese traditional sports. From these works, professionals in the sports field and sports enthusiasts can get to know the history of Chinese traditional sports and gain better understanding of the cultural connotations of the Chinese traditional sports.%中国古代文学中反映体育活动的作品很多,诗、词、曲、赋、散文、小说各种体裁的都有,时间从先秦至近代,关于体育活动的类型涉及各种球类及击壤、投壶及赛马、射箭、击剑、角抵、相扑、武术、游泳、赛跑、跳远、拔河、滑雪、钓鱼、围棋及妇女儿童的踢毽子、放风筝等。它们不仅生动地反映了古代各个时期一些体育活动进行的场面,参加活动者及观看者的思想情绪、精神状态,而且也反映出中国传统体育的文化内涵和基本精神。从事体育专业工作的人们和体育爱好者可以从中看到一部生动具象的中国古代体育史,同时对中国传统体育的文化内涵有更深的体会。

  15. 中国古代人性理论的嬗变与哲学思考——也谈人性的善与恶、公与私%The Evolvement of Ancient Chinese Theories on Human Nature and Some Philosophical Reflections--On the Goodness and Evilness, Graciousness and Selfishness of Human Nature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘新科

    2012-01-01

    The knowledge of ancient Chinese philosophers about human nature has experienced a long history of evolvement. They realized that human nature is the combination of man's natural attributes and social attributes and devised theories of "original goodness" and "original evil" as the criteria of good and e- vil. Their "knowing and doing" or the "doing and knowing" views as the methodology of interpreting the formation of human nature is meaningful to the modern people in approaching human nature from the phil- osophical level. However, the proposition of "original selfishness" is only the result of private ownership, and human nature is judged ni an isolated, static, one-sided view which is a kind of Metaphysical Value judgment. Some ancient Chinese scholars also opposed the idea, and their proposition of "fulfilling one's de-sires to the full when one is able, containing one's desires when one is poor" is in agreement with the notion of "human nature development", which is meaningful in the modern time.%我国古代哲人对人性的认识经历了一个漫长的岁月和嬗变的过程。明确了人性是人的自然属性和社会属性的总和,并以"性善论"、"性恶论"作为判别是非、善恶的标准;以"知行观"与"行知观"作为人性形成的方法论,对我们从哲学层面认识人性问题有一定的意义。但应看到,"人性本私"是私有制的产物,是用孤立、静止、片面的世界观来看待人性,是一种形而上学的价值判断。而中国古人也是反对这一观点的,提出的"进则近尽,退则节求",是比较符合初期过渡阶段"人性发展"理念的。这在今天仍有一定的借鉴价值。

  16. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske

    2006-01-01

    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  17. The concept of primes and the algorithm for counting the greatest common divisor in Ancient China

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Shaohua

    2009-01-01

    When people mention the number theoretical achievements in Ancient China, the famous Chinese Remainder Theorem always springs to mind. But, two more of them--the concept of primes and the algorithm for counting the greatest common divisor, are rarely spoken. Some scholars even think that Ancient China has not the concept of primes. The aim of this paper is to show that the concept of primes in Ancient China can be traced back to the time of Confuciusor (about 500 B.C.) or more ago. This implies that the concept of primes in Ancient China is much earlier than the concept of primes in Euclid's \\emph{Elements}(about 300 B.C.) of Ancient Greece. We also shows that the algorithm for counting the greatest common divisor in Ancient China is essentially the Euclidean algorithm or the binary gcd algorithm. Donald E. Knuth said that "the binary gcd algorithm was discovered by J. Stein in 1961". Nevertheless, Knuth was wrong. The ancient Chinese algorithm is clearly much earlier than J. Stein's algorithm.

  18. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  19. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  20. Recognition of dementia in ancient China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou

    2012-12-01

    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era.

  1. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.

    2015-08-01

    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  2. Connecting Ancient and Modern

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bai Shi

    2012-01-01

    Beijing has a history of over 1,000 years.There were once many renowned readitional Chinese opera theaters in the capital city.But now these vintage theaters are being swallowed up in the glitz of modernization and urbanization.Nevertheless,people can still make unexpected discoveries of traditional Chinese culture when wandering through Beijing's hutongs,or alleys.The Zheng Yi Ci Theater is one such surprise.It is a historical relic with over 300 years of history,poised to reinvigorate the traditional Chinese opera.Xinhuayaji International Cultural Communication Co.Ltd.produced the 2011Winter Drama Season at the Zheng Yi Ci Theater from November 23 to December 25,2011,reigniting the fame of the oldest theater in Beijing.The Zheng Yi Ci served as the venue for the 100th production of the Mei Lanfang Classics,a six-part production by the eponymous Peking Opera master.This year will mark the 300th anniversary of the theater's reconstruction.

  3. Hu Shi's Study of Chinese Medieval intellectual History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lou Yulie

    2006-01-01

    Hu Shi frequently gave lectures on the history of Chinese philosophy,especially the history of ancient Chinese philosophy,from the year 1919 to 1937.A large number of papers and dissertations published during this period are related to his research on this topic.In his opinion,there are three characteristics of the history of ancient Chinese philosophy:" religionalization of thought," "Indianization of philosophy," and "conflict between Chinese thought and Indian thought." In this paper,I explore Hu Shi's deep insight into the religionalization of Confucianism in Han dynasty and into the thought of Taoism in the medieval times.

  4. Mössbauer Studies in Chinese Archaeology: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsia, Yuanfu; Huang, Hongbo

    2003-09-01

    The Mössbauer effect has been applied to a wide variety of objects related to Chinese archaeology. Besides ceramic artifacts, materials like porcelain, glazes, bronzes, ancient coins, ancient mineral drugs, and even fossils were studied. This article reviews these applications with particular emphasis on the study of the famous terracotta warriors and horses of the Qin Dynasty.

  5. 中国古代女性贞节观解读——以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例%Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Female Chastity View --Case Study on Virtuous Women Image in Vernacular Short Novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李停停

    2012-01-01

    There were large number of virtuous woman images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties. We can see the gender characteristics of female chastity view in feudal period and dominant effect on female thoughts and behaviors from the images, especially those typical images. Taking virtuous women images in vernacular short novels of the Ming and Qing Dynasties as an example, the chastity view which Chinese ancient women understood reflects some features: the chastity is women's "duty", keeping chastity is bidirectional and chastity is important than filial piety and utilitarian.%明清拟话本小说中存在着大量的贞节烈女形象,从这些形象,尤其是那些典型形象身上,可以透视出封建时代女性贞节观的性别特点及其对女性思想行为的支配作用。以明清拟话本小说中的贞节烈女形象为例,中国古代女性视角所理解的贞节观体现出了贞节是女人的“本分内事”、守贞具有双向性和贞节重于孝道、实利等特点。

  6. 新世纪小说史研究的新气象--刘勇强先生《中国古代小说史叙论》述评%New Atmosphere of Novel History Research in New Century-A Review of Mr.LIU Yong-qiang’s Narrative Comments on Chinese Ancient Novel History

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    章琦

    2015-01-01

    上世纪初,小说史著作开始登上学术舞台,在不同历史时期里表现出各自的特色。本世纪初,刘勇强先生的《中国古代小说史叙论》在结构、内质及学术问题的处理等方面均有独到之处,体现了新世纪小说史研究的新气象。%In the early years of the last century,the works of novel history began to appear in the academic circle.And they have different features in different times.At the beginning of this century,Mr.LIU Yong-qiang’s Narrative Comments on Chinese Ancient Novel History has its unique features in either its structure,content or tackling of some academic issues. This shows the new atmosphere of the novel history study in new century.

  7. 中医美白祛斑、散结除疤外用古方溯源(一)——唐以前选方用药特点%Review on Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine External Use Prescriptions with Skin-whitening,Macularemoving,Stagnation-dissipating and Scar-removing Efficacy Chapter One——Characteristics of Prescriptions and Medicine before Tang Dynasty

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑛; 宋坪

    2012-01-01

    从先秦至清代,众多中医古籍文献中均记载了具有美白祛斑、散结除疤功效的外用方药.这些方药可被用于治疗各种色素沉着类皮肤疾病以及痤疮后皮肤养护.本文按历史时间顺序进行整理,并结合不同时期中医学思想及著作特点分析其方剂组成及药物使用规律,旨在指导临床遣方用药.%From pre-Qin period to Qing dynasty, many ancient traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) literature records external use prescriptions and medicine with skin-whitening, macula-removing, stagnation-dissipating and scar-removing efficacy. These prescriptions and medicine can be used to treat various skin pigmentary disorders and conserve skin suffered from acne. The author reviews literature in historical order and analyzes the law of prescription composition and medicine use according to TCM thoughts and writings characteristics of different periods, in order to help doctors prescribe medicine.

  8. Developing classification indices for Chinese pulse diagnosis

    CERN Document Server

    Shu, Jian-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To develop classification criteria for Chinese pulse diagnosis and to objectify the ancient diagnostic technique. Methods: Chinese pulse curves are treated as wave signals. Multidimensional variable analysis is performed to provide the best curve fit between the recorded Chinese pulse waveforms and the collective Gamma density functions. Results: Chinese pulses can be recognized quantitatively by the newly-developed four classification indices, that is, the wave length, the relative phase difference, the rate parameter, and the peak ratio. The new quantitative classification not only reduces the dependency of pulse diagnosis on Chinese physician's experience, but also is able to interpret pathological wrist-pulse waveforms more precisely. Conclusions: Traditionally, Chinese physicians use fingertips to feel the wrist-pulses of patients in order to determine their health conditions. The qualitative theory of the Chinese pulse diagnosis is based on the experience of Chinese physicians for thousands of year...

  9. 古与今的对话——浅谈中国古民居的室内审美心理对现代室内装饰的影响%Dialog between Ancient and Modern Times: Brief Discussion of the Influence of Interior Aesthetic Mentality for the Chinese Ancient Dwellings on Modern Interior Decoration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鲲

    2011-01-01

    随着文化历史的积淀,在日常生活中人们必然碰到具有中国古典文化元素在室内设计中的反映,于是就会产生兴奋.这些记忆痕迹就会由着兴奋而产生重组,再一次界定欣赏对象的边界、形态,从而获得愉悦的快感这就是一种稳定的视觉造型的记忆,将有赖于业已存在的痕迹结构.这也是人在环境中的直觉与感受.这种感受主要是靠视觉的体验获得.人们在一定的行为环境中用视觉来发掘事物,经过大脑的感知从而产生审美心理.%People get excited when meeting Chinese classical elements reflected in interior design as they already hove some accumulation of Chinese culture and history in daily life. This memory frace will be reorganized with excitement and redefine the boundary and form of the objects being watched, thus comes out a sense of euphoria. This is a stable memory of visual modeling based on the existent structure It's also the intuition and perception of a person in a certain environment. The perception is obtained mainly by visual experiences People seek new things through vision in a certain behavior environment and then bring in aesthetic mentality via perception of the brain.

  10. Countermeasures to Enhance the Teaching Effectiveness of Ancient Chinese Literature in Normal Universities under the Credit System%学分制下增强高师院校中国古代文学史教学实效性的对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房厚信

    2012-01-01

    中国古代文学史课程作为高等师范院校汉语言文学专业必修的一门专业主干课程,对于培养优秀的中学语文师资具有重要作用。学分制下,由于学年制思想观念、管理制度和客观条件等的障碍性因素制约,致使高师院校中国古代文学史课程教学实效性不强。本文设想从更新教学观念、改进课堂教学,注重过程评价、完善教学评价模式,突出学生主体、强化课外辅导和教学与科研相结合,提高课堂教学效果等四个方面来增强中国古代文学史教学实效性,以实现大学教育和基础教育的有效互动。%As a main course of Chinese literature courses in Normal Colleges and Universities, Chinese Language and Lit- erature compulsory plays an important role in training outstanding secondary school language teachers. Under the credit sys- tem, institutions of Ancient Chinese Literature teaching obstacles constraints of the ideas of the academic year, the manage- ment system and the objeetive conditions, resulting in high teacher effectiveness is not strong. This article envisages to update teaching concepts, improving classroom teaching, focusing on the evaluation of the process, improving the teaching evalua- tion model, and outstanding student body, strengthen the combination of tutoring and teaching and research to improve clas- sroom instruction effects to enhance teaching effectiveness, in order to achieve effective interaction of university education and basic education.

  11. The Spiritual Journey of Aesthetic Imagery of Dwelling:from Perception,Meditation to Evocation --- Ideographic Paradigm Exploration of China Ancient Design Art〔*〕

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Tiejun

    2016-01-01

    Ancient Chinese design art contains endless philosophical meaning and deep aesthetic imagery,however,its ideographic system emerged through the simple laws of Image Formation and evolution of the nature of design practice. The ancient Chinese design art has formed a unique ideographic system,influenced by oriental culture,from primitive touching, observation and perception,to its meditation,association and experience,and that of its mer-ging,dedicating and transcending. Through the reading of China ancient cultural pluralism form and the analyzing of specific design art phenomenon,to highlight the aesthetic image of the spiritual home of dwelling and mental imagery in ancient history under the Chinese aes-thetic category. In the era of western and oriental art culture blend and diversification,we’ ll examine and ascertain the depth of the subtle of archaic Chinese design art,in order to achieve artistic contemplation.

  12. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  13. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonia, I.

    2011-06-01

    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  14. Hunting for Ancient Rocky Shores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.

    1988-01-01

    Promotes the study of ancient rocky shores by showing how they can be recognized and what directions future research may follow. A bibliography of previous research articles, arranged by geologic period, is provided in the appendix to this paper. (CW)

  15. Thoughts on Strengthening the Cultivation of College Students' Socialist Core Values: From the Perspective of the"Moralization towards Folk" in Ancient Chinese Life%加强大学生社会主义核心价值观培育的思考——以古代中国"化民成俗"生活教化实践为视角

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张毓雯

    2015-01-01

    "Moralization towards Folk" in ancient China is achieved through a life education practice which can cultivate the social spirit that meets the will of the feudal ruling class by changing the material lifestyle. Its characteristics of comprehensive cultivation,which shows that life,progressiveness and comprehensiveness are not only the core of our traditional education,but also the necessity for modern education. Socialist core values, as a mainstream value compatible with Chinese current situations,need acceptance and identity of the society. The research on "Moralization towards Folk" provides a new perspective for the construction of new social spirits,especially for the college students' acceptance and identity of the mainstream value. The purpose of this research is to achieve the synergy of socialist core values through connecting with the college students' life comprehensively on the basis of following the law of college students ' cognitive development. In fact,"Moralization towards Folk" in ancient China indicates the idea of the cultivation of college students' socialist core values.%古代中国"化民成俗"是通过改变物质生活方式从而达到构建满足封建统治阶级意愿的社会精神秩序的生活教化实践. 其体现出来生活化、渐进性、综合性的教化特征不仅是我国传统教育的要义,也是现代教育的应有之义. 社会主义核心价值观作为符合中国具体国情的主流价值需要社会的接受和认同,对"化民成俗"的研究为新的社会精神秩序的构建特别是对大学生对主流价值的接受和认同提供了新的视角. 在遵循大学生认知发展规律的基础上,通过与大学生生活的全面对接,实现社会主义核心价值观的协同培育. 古代中国"化民成俗"生活教化实践为大学生社会主义核心价值观培育点明了思路.

  16. Summary of“Spectrum”of Style in Chinese Fiction and Academic Strategy--Also on Interpretation of Glossary of Style and Method in Ancient Chinese Fiction by TAN Fan%中国小说文体之“谱系”梳理及其学理化战略--兼评谭帆《中国古代小说文体文法术语考释》

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李桂奎; 黄霖

    2015-01-01

    中国小说文体研究以往通常被纳入“小说学”框架下进行,着力于阐释“小说”命名及其类型。近年,在文体学研究的热潮下,“小说文体学”研究不仅获得了独立,而且其研究规模和层次也有大的突破,日趋“谱系”化。其中,谭帆等积数年之功推出的《中国古代小说文体文法术语考释》通过对中国古代小说文体及文法术语的多维度考释,对中国小说文体谱系进行了较为系统的梳理,使小说文体研究达到了学理化的高度。沿着这一路向,我们应进一步发扬“辨性质”、“明角度”的学术传统,理出错综复杂的传统小说文体谱系的脉络与头绪,并注重“跨学科”发掘和文化探寻,强化各个小说文体术语之间的逻辑关联研究,既注重叙事术语考释,又兼顾写人术语考释,使传统小说文体“谱系”梳理全面开花,进而使中国小说文体谱系学建构水到渠成。%Study of style of Chinese fiction is included in“fictional studies”frequently in the past, which focus on the appellation of“fiction”and its types. Recently, due to the upsurge of stylistics,“stylistics of fiction”becomes an independent subject and undergoes a breakthrough of scale and lev⁃el of study, leading to a“spectrum”. Among them, Interpretation of Glossary of Style and Method in An⁃cient Chinese Fiction by TAN Fan investigates style, method and glossary of ancient Chinese fiction and summarizes stylistic spectrum of Chinese fiction, which reaches an academic level. Along with that, we should develop academic tradition such as“knowing the nature”and“knowing the perspec⁃tive”so as to sort out the vein and main thread in the complicated stylistic spectrum of traditional fiction, and have an“interdisciplinary”exploration and cultural quest so as to strengthen the logic connection among each stylistic term. The focus on investigation into

  17. 古今中式园林意境的点睛之笔--匾联%The Punchline of the Artistic Conception of Ancient and Modern Chinese Gardens--Punchline Couplets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹航

    2014-01-01

    匾联是园林艺术的重要组成,它引导观园者思绪,再现精致意境。本文从历史的视角,分析了园林物象、心境与匾联的产生,并结合一古一今两座园林,分析了意境与匾联的关系。匾联蕴含了浓厚的文化,现代中式景观应予以传承。%A couplet is an important part of garden art. It gu-ides the delicate thoughts of the viewers, reflecting artistic conception. In this paper, from the historical perspective, the author analyzes the production of landscape images, mood and signboards, and combined with the two gardens, analyzing the artistic conception and the relationship of couplets. Couplets is ful of strong culture, modern Chinese landscape should con-tain it.

  18. 古诗教学与文化教育%Ancient Poetry Teaching and Cultural Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    在世界文学史上古诗堪称一绝。古诗以意境清新,含义深刻,语言生动,韵律优美而著称,是中华文化传统教育的一座宝库。古诗自然成为语文教学内容的重要组成部分。%In the history of world literature, ancient poetry is a must. Ancient poetry with a fresh artistic conception, profound meaning, language, vivid, beautiful and famous, is the treasure of Chinese culture and traditional education. Ancient poetry has become an important part of Chinese teaching content.

  19. An Ancient Solar Eclipse Record "Tian-da-yi" in the 10th Century BC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The ancient record "Tian-da-yi" (the sky darkened greatly) is identified with the solar eclipse on May 31, 976BC. This identification is demonstrated in this paper through a palaeographic, astronomical and chronological analysis. It is probably the earliest solar eclipse in Chinese history that can be so identified.

  20. Trigrams in the Ancient I Ching Oracle: An Application of Group Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vugman, Ney V.

    2001-02-01

    The Ancient Chinese I Ching's trigrams may provide excellent motivation for learning group theory. It is shown that the eight trigrams form the representation of a mathematical group, which also may be written as the direct product of the water molecule point symmetry group and the group of the inversion operation.

  1. Proof and Pedagogy in Ancient China: Examples from Liu Hui's Commentary on "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Man-Keung

    1993-01-01

    Illustrates the pedagogical implications embodied in Liu Hui's discussion on the ancient Chinese mathematical classic "JIU ZHANG SUAN SHU" (Nine Chapters on the Mathematical Art) with respect to aspects of proof and, more generally, the role of proof in mathematics. Provides examples involving area and volume. (Contains 25 references.) (MDH)

  2. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  3. 童心哲学史论--古代中国人对儿童的发现%A Historical Treatise on Philosophy of the Heart of the Newborn:“Discovery of the Child” by Ancient Chinese Thinkers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓东

    2015-01-01

    中国的童心主义哲学有悠远的历史。从先秦老子、孟子,经由宋明心学,到泰州学派的罗汝芳,尤其是到李贽那里,童心主义成熟起来,而成为具有现代气息的学说。李贽的下狱自戕,标志着童心主义所肩负的中国思想现代转型的使命在中国遭遇挫败。童心主义与西方现代学说多有可会通之处,例如,童心、赤子概念与卢梭的“自然人”概念是相通的,童心主义与卢梭教育学是相通的,与马克思主义亦多有可通约之处。“童心”(或“赤子之心”)比其他概念能更好地体现彻底的自然主义和彻底的人本主义。童心主义主张,社会、文化、政治、伦理、教育等领域的建设应当彻底回归人之自然规定性,这为人解脱异化、获得解放奠定了理论基础,为中国文化乃至全球文明的发展指明了方向。%The philosophy of the heart of the newborn has a long history in China. Due to the contribu-tions made by the scholars ranging from Lao Zi and Mencius in the pre-Qin period, via the School of Mind in the Song and Ming dynasties, to Luo Rufang and in particular to Li Zhi of the Taizhou School, the philosophy of the heart of the newborn became mature with modern features. Li Zhi’s imprisonment and suicide marked a great setback in the modern transformation of traditional Chinese thoughts, which had been the mission for the philosophy of the heart of the newborn. There are many similarities be-tween the philosophy of the heart of the newborn and modern western theories. For example, the con-cept of“the new born” or“the heart of the newborn” is similar to Rousseau’s“natural man”, and the philosophy of the heart of the newborn is somewhat commensurate with Rousseau’s pedagogy as well as Marxism. The concept of “the heart of the newborn” can better reflect the thoroughgoing naturalism and thoroughgoing humanism than other concepts. The philosophy of

  4. Ancient DNA analysis of human remains from the Upper Capital City of Kublai Khan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yuqin; Xie, Chengzhi; Xu, Xuelian; Li, Chunxiang; Zhang, Quanchao; Zhou, Hui; Zhu, Hong

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of DNA from human archaeological remains is a powerful tool for reconstructing ancient events in human history. To help understand the origin of the inhabitants of Kublai Khan's Upper Capital in Inner Mongolia, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) polymorphisms in 21 ancient individuals buried in the Zhenzishan cemetery of the Upper Capital. MtDNA coding and noncoding region polymorphisms identified in the ancient individuals were characteristic of the Asian mtDNA haplogroups A, B, N9a, C, D, Z, M7b, and M. Phylogenetic analysis of the ancient mtDNA sequences, and comparison with extant reference populations, revealed that the maternal lineages of the population buried in the Zhenzishan cemetery are of Asian origin and typical of present-day Han Chinese, despite the presence of typical European morphological features in several of the skeletons.

  5. The Name and Symbolic Meaning of Ancient Chinese Constellation from The Record of Astronomy in Sui Shu%中国古代的星官命名及其象征意义——以《隋书·天文志》为中心

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵贞

    2012-01-01

    The name of constellation from The Record of Astronomy in Sui Shu,fully simulated the whole actual state of the empire on earth,and in the sky world,the heaven kingdom formed corresponding to the human society. In imperial politics as a reference,such as the imperial harem,official mode,name and substance of the system, worship of God, commodity economy, and border ethnic, all of the constellation in the sky world can be implemented in the light of the corresponding officials. In this sense ,the name of constellation and its symbolic meaning highlighted the ancient Chinese harmony concept between the heav- en and the human being,in large extent to meet the need of the emperor communication with God and as- trological divination.%《隋书·天文志》所见星官的命名,完全比照了人间帝国的整体实态,因而在天上的星空世界中也形成了一个对应于人间社会的天上王国。若以帝王政治为参照,举凡帝王后宫、职官系统、名物制度、祭祀神位、商品经济以及边疆民族等方面,都能在天上的星官世界中加以落实和对应。从这个意义上说,星官的命名及其象征意义凸现了中国古代"天人合一"的思想观念,在很大程度上是为帝王"通天"的星占需要而服务的。

  6. A Combination of influence from Confucianism and Taoism upon Chinese culture and literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵英华

    2008-01-01

    @@ Preface The mixture of various cultures including those deep rooted in Chinese history and those imported in the ancient time has led to the profoundness,uniqueness and colorfulness of Chinese culture,among which the combination of two of them---Confucianism and Taoism has fundamental influence in the way Chinese think and behave.

  7. Neonatal medicine in ancient art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurdakök, Murat

    2010-01-01

    There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau).

  8. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  9. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira

    2008-12-01

    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  10. Chinese Food Heats Up

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Earlier this year,the vice chairman of industry body the China Cuisine Association,Yang Liu,expressed his bewilderment at the absence of a truly successful Chinese restaurant chain."In this ancient nation with a restaurant culture thousands of years old,home to the most delicious food in the world,it is a pity that you can find world-famous traditional dishes and delicious snacks,but a globally competitive restaurant chain is nowhere to be found,"he told Sanlian Life Weekly.

  11. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  12. Comment on Chinese tea culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王俊人

    2015-01-01

    Drinking tea has become a part of people's daily life. Tea culture as the crystallization of Chinese tradition has a long history. China is the homeland of tea. Tea as one of important exports has made a great contribution to economic develop-ment of Ancient China. Tasting tea is a unique culture of China. The tea quality, teahouse’s atmosphere and tea wares are all considered to be very important when tasting. With a long time of the habit of drinking tea, Chinese people have given tea the special spirit:clearness, respect, joy and truthfulness.

  13. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  14. Studies on Chinese Early Knowledge of Latin America Based on Chinese Ancient Documents in the Ming and Qing Dynasties%试论中国人对拉丁美洲的早期认知——基于明清中国史籍的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张贯之; 袁艳

    2012-01-01

    With the frequent exchanges between China and the foreign countries, the records of Latin A- merica in Chinese documents gradually increased between the Ming and Qing Dynasties, including books of world history and geography, the accounts written by Chinese diplomatic envoys and overseas travellers and the works translated from foreign newspapers and books. The increasing record of Latin America re- flected that Chinese knowledge of Latin America was deepening. It developed from indirect knowledge through introduction by foreign missionaries to direct knowledge from Chinese diplomatic envoys and overseas travellers, from a summary knowledge of history and geography to a comprehensive understanding of politics, economics and society.%随着中外交流日益频繁,明清时期中国有关拉丁美洲的记述逐渐增多,主要包括世界史地著作、驻外使节和海外游历使的记述以及译自外国报刊书籍的译作等。有关拉丁美洲记述的增多,反映出中国人对拉丁美洲的认识不断深化:从经由外国人介绍而获得的间接认识到亲赴拉丁美洲各国常驻或游历得到直接认识,由概要的地理历史知识到对政治经济社会的全面了解。

  15. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  16. The ancient art of memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Allan

    2013-12-01

    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  17. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca

    2015-01-01

    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woo...

  18. The Chinese Pyramids and the Sun

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese Pyramids are huge ancient burial mounds. In the satellite images we can see some complexes where the main buildings are the pyramidal mounds of an emperor and his empress. Here we discuss a possible sunrise/sunset orientation of these two pyramids on the solstices and equinoxes.

  19. Traditional Culture Still Influences Chinese Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    TRADITIONAL Chinese culture dates back to ancient times. But this culture is the outcome of a patriarchal agricultural society, and is most certainly stamped with the mark of feudalism. During a time when the state and the family had the same structure, women’s problems most typically reflected the characters of the patriarchal clan agricultural society and the traditional culture. Traditional

  20. A Huge Ancient Schwannoma of the Epiglottis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jo Heon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul

    2016-03-01

    Ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis is extremely rare. The authors report the first case of a patient with a huge ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis. Clinicians should consider the possibility that ancient schwannoma may originate in the epiglottis mimicking the other more frequently observed lesions.

  1. Ancient Cultural Center Building and Materials Research Numismatic Collection Museum--Ancient COINS by Tibetan cultural center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王冠利

    2014-01-01

    The quality of the Chinese cultural center is located in the ancient COINS hidden city, the city center in Jinan, convenient transportation, beautiful scenery, poured enough, the surrounding environment culture atmosphere, be helpful for cultural centers in the long run. The building area is about 3500 square meters, the whole building is divided into two layer, a layer of main distribution the exhibition hall, second floor mainly by the studio to form. The designer of the coin reference model, through the deepening, evolution techniques such as the characteristics of Chinese coin will, connotation unity emerges into design, show to buildings. Very good carry the historical culture, also captures the pulse of the times lived.

  2. Analysis of Chinese Ancient and Modern Thought on Income Distribution:Inspiration on the Contemporary Distribution Reform%中国古代及近代收入分配思想评析--兼论对当代分配改革的启示

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙浩进

    2014-01-01

    China ancient and modern thinkers have put forward a view of fair income distribution , but has not formed the system theory .The ancient thinkers on the maintenance of the feudal ruling class standpoint think in-come allocation problem , and not from the change status , giving people the power angle to solve the issue of unfair distribution of income;the modern thinker only from the western thought and experience to solve .Their views and then reality and characteristics of Chinese society is not consistent .But in these thinkers ,“benevolence”,“not to compete with the people”,“people”,“reduced to”,“from the people , but also from the people”,“regulation of capital” in the income distribution of attention to people's livelihood , Guan Zhao vulnerable groups thought es-sence , is to construct the the socialist harmonious society and building a well -off society in an all -round way . The eighteen Party's proposed “the important concept of income distribution fair”, the practice of the history of the fair distribution of income and China thought of economic and social development together , get rid of the limitations of the old times , meaning the new era , to promote the China distribution field of fair .%中国古代和近代的思想家都提出过关于收入分配公平的观点,但未形成系统的理论。古代的思想家是站在维护封建统治阶级的立场上来思考收入分配问题的,并没有从改变民众地位,赋予民众权力的角度来解决收入分配不公平的问题;近代的思想家仅从西方的思想和经验来寻求问题的解决的。他们的见解与当时中国社会的现实与特点并不相符。但在这些思想家的观点中,“仁政”、“不与民争利”、“恤民”、“减少分利者”、“取之于民、还之于民”、“节制资本”等在收入分配上重视民生、关照弱势群体的思想精华,都值得为构建社会主义和谐社

  3. A Check on the Variations of Earth's Rotation with an Ancient Solar Eclipse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan-Ben Han; Qi-Yuan Qiao

    2003-01-01

    We address the relation between an ancient total eclipse, which occurred on A.D.1542 August 11 and the variation of Earth's rotation. The total eclipse was recorded in some ancient Chinese books, especially in local chronicles. Some of the documents include useful information for determining the location of the totality zone. The parameters of the eclipse are calculated by using the DE406 Ephemeris.A high-precision value of AT which expresses the variation of the Earth's rotation,of about 300 ~ 380 s, is obtained.

  4. Chinese Martial Arts in the Republican Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Acevedo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available During the beginning of the XXth century, China suffered attacks from foreign powers causing the lost of parts of its territory as well as a challenge to its national pride. The traditional Chinese martial arts were unable to defeat the tactics and modern weaponry that China’s enemies had in their arsenal. Despite the overwhelming odds, the Chinese forces made use of their ingenuity and adapted the ancient weapons and fighting skills succeeding to some extent in slowing down the enemy’s advance. This period witnessed the last time cold weapons would play an important role in modern Chinese warfare.

  5. My personal idea on acupuncture and moxibustion (acu-moxibustion) literature of the Republic of China not recorded in the General Catalog of the Ancient Chinese Medical Books%《中国中医古籍总目》未载民国针灸文献管窥

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨克卫; 王朝辉; 李乃奇; 李芃柳

    2015-01-01

    除《中国中医古籍总目》已载的馆藏书籍外,民国时期的针灸文献尚有大量散存于民间,其中不乏稀见善本.1933年创刊的中国最早的针灸学专业期刊《针灸杂志》,在民国期间共出版35期,其“专载”栏目曾刊载过多种针灸学专著.不同地区的针灸学家相继创立针灸社团和针灸讲习所,开展针灸教育,自行编撰了多种针灸学讲义,为针灸学的传承和发展做出了重要贡献.民国时期的针灸文献,时代特色鲜明,形式、内容丰富,值得进一步深入整理挖掘,尤其是散落民间的文献应该受到应有的重视.%In addition to the collected books in the General Catalog of Ancient Chinese Medical Books,there are lots of acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China period scattered among the people which are not carried in this Catalog,some of them are rare and precious ones.In 1933,the first issue of Acu-moxibustion Journal was published and became the first professional Journal of acupuncture and moxibustion in China,35 issues were published at that time,with many monographs on acu-moxibustion carried in its "special column".Meanwhile,other acupuncturists from different regions also established acu-moxibustion associations or schools and edited all kinds of acupuncture moxibustion teaching materials in order to develop acu-moxibustion education.In a word,the acu-moxibustion literature of the Republic of China were not only rich in forms and contents,but also combined with regional characteristics.Therefore,it should be pay more attention on that field and do further study.

  6. Legacy of an Ancient Herbalist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    LI Shizhen (1518-1593), born inQichun County, Hubei Province, wasa well-known traditional Chinese medicalscientist and botanist. He inheritedmedicinal knowledge from his father andspent a lot of time studying clinicalpractice and pharmaceuticals. He often

  7. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  8. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael

    2013-01-01

    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well....... To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...

  9. Molecular analysis of ancient caries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció

    2014-09-01

    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains.

  10. Models of ancient sound vases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruel, Per V.

    2002-11-01

    Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

  11. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  12. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T

    2013-02-06

    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  13. The Chinese ancient building shallow roof form and meaning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄芮

    2014-01-01

    Environmental art design is a kind of spatial art, it not only embodies the natural environment, architectural environment, at the same time also reflected the cultural environment and psychological environment, therefore, have certain social environment art, historic.

  14. Characterization of ancient Chinese pottery decorated with a black pigment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uda, M.; Akiyoshi, K.; Nakamura, M.

    1999-04-01

    The Yangshao type pottery, made about 6000 yrs ago, was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), and confirmed to be composed of quartz, feldspar, muscovite and calcite. A black pigment on it was assumed to be (Mn, Fe) 3O 4 from Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and XRD experiments. Firing temperature of the pottery was assumed to be less than 600°C from a heating experiment of the fragment of the pottery.

  15. 双加工发展理论新探——兼及中国一古老推理错觉的跨年级特征%Retesting the Developmental Dual Process Theory——The Developmental Trends of an Ancient Chinese Reasoning Illusion Also Included

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小平; 储美霞

    2011-01-01

    为了检验双加工发展理论及了解中国一古老推理错觉问题的发展特征,从小五至大二各个年级选取被试385名,并将各年龄段被试分成两组,分别施之以涉及相同内容、相同财会关系推断能力的十文钱问题。结果发现:(1)被试在两个问题上的理性行为的发展趋势产生了分离;(2)被试的部分的非理性行为有随年龄增多的趋势;(3)两组被试的理性行为出现的比率在小学五年级便存在差异。上述结果说明,双加工发展理论获得有力支持且至小学五年级始,财会关系推理错觉即存在,表现出跨年级的普遍性。%In this paper,the developmental trend of the Ten Wen problem,an ancient Chinese reasoning illusion,is studied;the important hypothesis of the developmental dual process theory is tested. 83 fifth grade elemental school students(mean age=11.12,SD=.54),66 eighth grade high school students(mean age=14.39, SD=.59),115 eleventh grade high school students(mean age=17.91,SD=.61) and 89 second grade university students(mean age =20.59,SD=1.11) participated in the study.All these participants were recruited from the same region.During the research,participants in each grade were divided into two groups randomly.One of the two groups in each grade solved the Ten Wen problem;the other solved a revised Ten Wen problem which had the same content of the Ten Wen problem but was much easier.Furthermore,the two problems both are hard and confuses our common sense.So the two problems have been regarded as the tasks which involve the same heuristic and analytic process but different confliction of two systems.And it was used in our study to test the hypothesis that deferent developmental trends could be found in such tasks according to he developmental dual process theory. The results show that:(1) the subjects up until the fifth grade of elemental school behaved worse when they tried to solve the Ten Wen problem

  16. Confucius School, a National Strategy for Chinese Language Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGHONG

    2005-01-01

    Confucius Great educator, thinker, and founder of Confucianism, Confucius(551-479 B.C.) is regarded as having had the greatest innuence on the development of Chinese culture. He is believed to have had 3,000 students and 72 disciples, with whom he traveled the vassal states in ancient China for 14 years. He collated and compiled many ancient books,including the Book of Songs, the Book of History, the Book of Rites,and the Book of Music.

  17. Multiple maternal origins of native modern and ancient horse populations in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, C Z; Su, R; Bower, M A; Edwards, C J; Wang, X B; Weining, S; Liu, L; Xie, W M; Li, F; Liu, R Y; Zhang, Y S; Zhang, C M; Chen, H

    2009-12-01

    To obtain more knowledge of the origin and genetic diversity of domestic horses in China, this study provides a comprehensive analysis of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) D-loop sequence diversity from nine horse breeds in China in conjunction with ancient DNA data and evidence from archaeological and historical records. A 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequence from 182 modern samples revealed a total of 70 haplotypes with a high level of genetic diversity. Seven major mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) and 16 clusters were identified for the 182 Chinese modern horses. In the present study, nine 247-bp mitochondrial D-loop sequences of ancient remains of Bronze Age horse from the Chifeng region of Inner Mongolia in China (c. 4000-2000a bp) were used to explore the origin and diversity of Chinese modern horses and the phylogenetic relationship between ancient and modern horses. The nine ancient horses carried seven haplotypes with rich genetic diversity, which were clustered together with modern individuals among haplogroups A, E and F. Modern domestic horse and ancient horse data support the multiple origins of domestic horses in China. This study supports the argument that multiple successful events of horse domestication, including separate introductions of wild mares into the domestic herds, may have occurred in antiquity, and that China cannot be excluded from these events. Indeed, the association of Far Eastern mtDNA types to haplogroup F was highly significant using Fisher's exact test of independence (P = 0.00002), lending support for Chinese domestication of this haplogroup. High diversity and all seven mtDNA haplogroups (A-G) with 16 clusters also suggest that further work is necessary to shed more light on horse domestication in China.

  18. [Different uses of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench (buckwheat) in Japan and China: what ancient medical documents reveal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, Nami; Marui, Eiji

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this thesis is to demonstrate that buckwheat has been recognized, both in Japan and China, as a crop that is useful in many ways: as an agricultural crop, and for the healing powers and properties that, according to traditional Chinese medicine, it has. A comparative study of ancient documents pertaining to medicine in these countries has made it clear that this is the case. Buckwheat, however, has been used quite differently in each country. As is shown in some ancient Chinese documents pertaining to medicine, China has treated buckwheat primarily as a medicine for clinical use rather than as an edible crop. Nowadays, buckwheat is eaten only in some regions of China. Although it came to Japan from China as a medicine, in Japan buckwheat gradually became a popular food crop. It has become an important component of traditional Japanese cuisine thanks in part to government support and the strong demand that developed in Japanese society.

  19. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman

    2011-01-01

    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  20. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S

    2011-01-01

    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  1. Negative Influence of Confucianism on Chinese Mode of Thinking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张昊

    2007-01-01

    As the leading ideology of the ancient China, Confucianism has its deep influence on the spirit and behavior of the Chinese people. This paper suggests that among all the influences Confucianism has brought to the Chinese people, those negative ones on the Chinese mode of thinking are barricades of the Chinese social development and should be avoided. The article studies this issue by involving such theories as the Five Constant Virtues[1] of a human being and the Five Cardinal Hierarchical Relations[2] in the Confucian ideology as well as the group mind theory[3] in the psychology.

  2. Man and Nature in Chinese and Western Traditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑浩

    2008-01-01

    The Chinese conception of "oneness with man and heaven" and the Western tradition of man's separation from nature accompanied by a subject-object dichotomy are the cores of each culture, which largely decides the discrepancy in various aspects of the Chinese and Western ways. To have an embedded and penetrating idea about the differences between the two cultures, it is necessary to gain sufficient knowledge of man-nature relation in dominant Chinese and Western conceptions. This paper aims to explore this issue from the perspective of Taoism and Confucianism in Chinese context, and ancient Greek and Hebraic heritage and modern mechanical view in Western tradition.

  3. 抗高热I号合剂对肺炎双球菌所致发热家兔脑脊液PGE、cAMP含量的影响%THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-FEVER MIXTURE I TO THE LEVELS OF PGE AND cAMP IN THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OF FEVER RABBITS INFECTED BY PNEUMOCOCCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝肇熙; 张进淘; 王杰龙; 张发荣; 谢春光; 刘宁; 孙鸿辉

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察抗高热I号合剂(AFMI)对发热家兔脑脊液前列腺素E(PGE)、环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)含量的影响。方法:用肺炎双球菌感染家兔,造成发热模型,提前应用AFMI合剂及以两种不同剂量于家兔体温达到高峰时应用,观测家兔脑脊液PGE、cAMP含量的变化并进行比较。结果:发热家兔脑脊液PGE、cAMP含量异常升高(P<0.01),AFMI可显著降低发热家兔脑脊液中异常升高的PGE和cAMP的含量(P<0.01),最佳剂量为26.25 g*kg-1, 提前应用AFMI,可阻抑感染家兔脑脊液中PGE、cAMP的合成释放。结论:AFMI具有良好的解热降温作用。%OBJECTIVE:To study effects of Anti-fever mixture I(AFMI,composed of Herba Ephedrae Decoction and Radix Puerariae Decoction) to the levels of PGE and cAMP in the cerebrospinal fluid of fever rabbits.METHODS:Rabbits were infected by pneumococcus to produce a fever model. Two different doses of AFMI were used when the rabbits' temperature reached its peak, and also used AFMI ahead of schedule. Survey the changes of PGE and cAMP levels and compared with each other.RESULTS:The levels of PGE and cAMP in fever rabbits' cerebrospinal fluid was rised abnormally(P<0.01), AFMI can lower the abnormally rised levels of PGE and cAMP in the cerebrospinal fluid(P<0.01), and the use of AFMI ahead of schedule can inhibit the synthesis and release of PGE and cAMP in the cerebrospinal fluid.CONCLUSION:The antipyretic and lowering temperature effects of AFMI are excellent.

  4. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  5. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko

    2010-01-01

    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  6. On the evolution of word usage of classical Chinese poetry

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Liang

    2015-01-01

    The hierarchy of classical Chinese poetry has been broadly acknowledged by a number of studies in Chinese literature. However, quantitative investigations about the evolution of classical Chinese poetry are limited. The primary goal of this study is to provide quantitative evidence of the evolutionary linkages, with emphasis on word usage, among different period genres for classical Chinese poetry. Specifically, various statistical analyses were performed to find and compare the patterns of word usage in the poems of nine period genres, including shi jing, chu ci, Han shi , Jin shi, Tang shi, Song shi, Yuan shi, Ming shi, and Qing shi. The result of analysis indicates that each of nine period genres has unique patterns of word usage, with some Chinese characters being preferably used by the poems of a particular period genre. The analysis on the general pattern of word preference implies a decreasing trend in the use of ancient Chinese characters along the timeline of dynastic types of classical Chinese poetr...

  7. Reflect on Ancient Books Protection in College Libraries%基于高校图书馆古籍保护工作的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭金钟; 唐玉斌

    2011-01-01

    古籍是传承中华民族传统文化的瑰宝.因而加强对古籍保护、开发与利用具有十分重要的意义,文章通过对高校图书馆古籍保护工作存在的问题进行分析,并就高校图书馆在古籍保护、开发和利用方面提出建议.%The ancient books is the treasure of tradition Chinese traditional culture. It is very important to emphasize the protection and exploitation of the ancient books. There are some problems existed in the protection and exploitation of the ancient books in college libraries at the present. The author protects to work an existent question to the ancient books and made further analysis. It put forward some suggestions to scientific protecting ancient books.

  8. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.

    1971-01-01

    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  9. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  10. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏雪

    2016-01-01

    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  11. Things Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Yip Wang

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Chinese culture. Some of the items and activities described include a traditional Chinese child's outfit, dolls, sandalwood fans, writing and printing materials and techniques, toys and crafts, a Chinese abacus, and eating utensils. Several recipes for…

  12. Healthy buildings have existed in China since ancient times

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Qigao; Feng, Ya; Wang, Gonglu [Chongqing Jianzhu Univ., Chongqing, Sichuan (China)

    1997-09-01

    The historical experience in China of constructing healthy buildings over many centuries merits even more attention today. Using the quadrangle as a basic style, buildings have been constructed in this way from ancient China to the present time. It is a style found in all areas of the country. The buildings in which people lived in ancient China were designed according to the doctrine of wind and water (which in Chinese is called feng shui). Today we would describe this as a philosophy for designing the indoor environment for healthy living. The common properties of such buildings are that of having good indoor air quality and easy maintenance of the indoor climate. This paper describes the optimal performance of quadrangle buildings from the perspective of their environment, illumination by natural lighting, infrared absorption and radiation, noise and indoor air quality, insulation properties and gives a mathematical analysis of these features. While this building style is not unique to China it could be developed more in other countries. It is a healthy style of building which can serve mankind worldwide because of its natural energy saving and adopting more widely it would improve standards in building. (author) 9 figs., 2 tabs., 7 refs.

  13. [Anomalous pregnancies in ancient medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Valentina

    2010-01-01

    In ancient Greek medicine female physiology is determined by a particular state of non-steady equilibrium, largely based on pregnancy and lactation, presented as the only balanced and healthy periods in women's life. Nonetheless, pregnancy can be also a pathological moment, in particular referring to specific alterations of its 'normal time' ('seven-months', 'eight-months' and 'ten-months' children). The article analyzes the well-known case of myle, an abnormal pregnancy developing in three and sometimes four years, non resolving in a normal delivery, but often in a dramatic haemorrhagic flux. The author compares Hippocratic and Aristotelic testimonies about myle and abnormal pregnancies with the evidence fournished by the historical-religious recent studies about Hera and her parthenogenetic, monstrous children.

  14. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E

    2016-06-01

    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  15. [Being old in ancient Hellas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, A J

    1983-08-01

    There is room for a more balanced view of old age among the ancient Greeks than is furnished by De Beauvoir's la Vieillesse and other more or less one-sided publications. The old body was despised by the Greeks of classical times; especially walking with three legs (tripous) was stressed as a mark of old age. The Hippocratic writings show some interest in the infirmities of elderly people. Specific psychic and intellectual qualities were not attributed to senescence: old age brought out good and bad qualities of a person more sharply than before. The share of old people in the population cannot be established with any certainty, but there was always a group of men in their sixties who had specific tasks in society. Old age was not an autonomous theme in art, it was solely accidental. The position of the elderly was challenged occasionally in democratic Athens, but it was never undermined. Old people were never marginated in classical Greece.

  16. Translation Techniques of Reduplicated Words in Chinese Poems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张笑一

    2016-01-01

    Reduplicated words are used commonly as the rhetorical devices in ancient Chinese poems. Poets often use reduplicated words to add in the poetry works of rhythm and image in order to render the atmosphere and express feelings. Based on the analysis of common problems in the translation of reduplicated words in Chinese poems, the translation can be divided into two broad categories, the functional equivalence and semantic equivalence.

  17. Development of Chinese Lotus Culture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何娇飞

    2013-01-01

    There is a very long history of lotus culture in China. Lotus has a very high medicinal value. Lotus seed is nutritious food. Lotus has anti-aging, prolong the life of the role. Since ancient time, the image of lotus was recorded in various books and literature works. Lotus is a common and tasty food in China. Chinese people like lotus not only because of its useful value, but al⁃so because of its holy spirit. And people even think highly of soul of lotus.

  18. [Traditional Chinese medicine in urology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüsch, T; Tsaur, I; Reiter, M; Mager, R; Haferkamp, A

    2014-11-01

    Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an ancient holistic medicine based on the doctrine of Tao and Qi. Tao represents an alteration from which the polarity of Yin and Yang arises and Qi is the vitality which circulates through the body. Therapeutic concepts of TCM include acupuncture, herbal therapy, nutrition and Tuina, a form of manual therapy. TCM is now gaining increased acceptance in the Western society as a complementary therapy. Acupuncture and herbal therapy are the main forms of implementation of TCM in urology.

  19. [Chinese phytotherapy: the power of synergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Manuel

    2005-05-01

    Chinese pharmacology is ancient and very extensive. In reality, Chinese pharmacology is composed of matter having vegetable, animal and mineral origins; however, the dominance of vegetable and the exclusive restriction to vegetable matter which European legislation obliges us to follow makes the use of the term phyto-therapy which means curing via plants, as is reported in another article, "Phyto-therapy, a choice based on science and tradition" by Dr. Josep AlluPéCreus. (Rev ROL Enf 8(3):179-182).

  20. English in the Chinese foreign language classroom

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Danping

    2013-01-01

    Chinese is an ancient language, but the present scope of its global study is unprecedented. Comprehending the impacts of worldwide linguistic realities on 'Chinese as a Foreign Language' (CFL) teachers and students will be critical to its long-term success. The most important phenomenon has been the establishment of English as a lingua franca, especially in the expanding marketplaces of Asia. This book examines the role of English as a medium of instruction in CFL classrooms. It begins by integrating existing studies on the global spread of English with research on English as a medium of secon

  1. gargammel: a sequence simulator for ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renaud, Gabriel; Hanghøj, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2016-10-29

    Ancient DNA has emerged as a remarkable tool to infer the history of extinct species and past populations. However, many of its characteristics, such as extensive fragmentation, damage and contamination, can influence downstream analyses. To help investigators measure how these could impact their analyses in silico, we have developed gargammel, a package that simulates ancient DNA fragments given a set of known reference genomes. Our package simulates the entire molecular process from post-mortem DNA fragmentation and DNA damage to experimental sequencing errors, and reproduces most common bias observed in ancient DNA datasets.

  2. Examination of Chinese Gambling Problems through a Socio-Historical-Cultural Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samson Tse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.

  3. Examination of Chinese gambling problems through a socio-historical-cultural perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Samson; Yu, Alex C H; Rossen, Fiona; Wang, Chong-Wen

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this review is to highlight emerging trends about Chinese people and gambling addiction over the last 15 years, and to provide a discourse on the potential link between gambling and Chinese culture and history. The authors reported on the phenomenon of gambling among Chinese people using relevant research studies and reports and traditional Chinese literature. Chinese people have elevated levels of gambling addiction compared to their Western counterparts. These elevated rates are coupled with the rapid expansion of gambling venues within the Pan-Pacific region. While there is an accumulated body of research on Chinese and gambling, a systematic cultural analysis of Chinese gambling is still under development. We undertook a brief comparison between two ancient civilizations, China and Rome, in order to gain better understanding about gambling among Chinese people. To effectively deal with gambling addictions among Chinese people, it is imperative to develop culturally responsive interventions.

  4. The Festivals of Ancient Women

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    FOR hundreds of thonsands of years, Chinese folk festivals were formed based on the demand of farmers who offered their sacrifices to the gods and on the influence of historical legends and religious belief. Because some folk festivals had a close connection with women’s lives, they were called "Daughters’ Festivals." The Dragon Boat Festival (the 5th day of the 5th lunar month) and Qiqiao Festival (the seventh day of the seventh luna? month) are both Daughters’ Festivals. For two thousand years, these

  5. On Standard Nomenclature of Basic Chinese Medical Terms (Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢竹藩

    2002-01-01

    @@ PHILOSOPHICAL TERMS TCM was developed in the light of ancient Chinese natural philosophy, and so a number of philosophical terms are used in medicine. They can be classified into three categories: theory of (essential) qi, theory of yin-yang, and theory of the five elements.

  6. Review on Ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine External Use Prescriptions with Skin-whitening, Macularemoving, Stagnation-dissipating and Scar-removing Efficacy (Chapter Two)——Characteristics of Prescriptions and Medicine in the Song-Jin-Yuan Dynasty%中医美白祛斑、散结除疤外用古方溯源(二)——宋金元时期选方用药特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范瑛; 宋坪; 王天怡

    2012-01-01

    In the Song-Jin-Yuan dynasty, ancient Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) literature recorded many external use prescriptions and medicine with skin-whitening, macula-removing, stagnation-dissipating and scar-removing efficacy. In the Song dynasty, the therapeutic methods were dispersing wind, inducing diuresis and using aromatic herhs to dredge the meridians. In the Jin-Yuan dynasty, the therapeutic methods were regulating qi, activating blood and using white herbs to whiten skin. According to the theoretical basis of TCM and the law of prescription composition, as well as TCM thoughts and writings characteristics of different periods, the article reviews and analyzes these external use prescriptions and medicine in order to help doctors prescribe medicine.%目的 宋金元时期,中医古籍文献中记载了大量具有美白祛斑、散结除疤功效的外用方药.宋代此类方药以祛风利水、芳香通络为法,金元时期则侧重于理气活血、以白养白.本文根据中医药学的理论基础和辨证用药组方规律,结合不同时期中医学思想及著作特点,对此类外用方药进行挖掘、整理及分析,旨在指导临床遣方用药.

  7. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... and Latin texts and the term ‘scholars’ is used to describe readers of these documents (e.g. papyrologists, epigraphers, palaeographers). However, the results from this research can be applicable to many other texts ranging from Nordic runes to 18th Century love letters. In order to develop an appropriate...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...

  8. AN INTERESTING CASE OF ANCIENT SCHWANNOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  9. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  10. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)

    2001-06-01

    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  11. Birth of Olympic flame: Ancient Greece and European identity (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malešević Miroslava

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-Chinese protests that were organized throughout European cities fol­lowing the route of the Olympic torch from Athens to Beijing, and the conflicts that erupted with strong emotions on both sides between the protestors and the Chinese citizens, will without a doubt remain a lasting memory of the 2008 Olympic games. Regardless of these protests' justified motives, there is a visible paradoxical role-switch in the scenes that circled the globe for months: the Olympic torch and Olympic idea, were being defended by China as a highest value and the source of their own past and identity, and attacked by the people (Europeans on whose land that very idea had been created and nurtured for over a hundred years. How should these contradictory images be understood? How did it come to this that the Chinese view themselves as the keepers of the Olympic tradition, that the pride of the Chinese nation, focused in that flame, gets hurt in attempts of European protestors to put it out? The modern Olympic Games, founded in 1896, were one of the echoes of a centuries' long Western European fascination with the Antique. This phenomenon of the Antique admiration has brought about a redefining of the European civilization's past, the abandoning the biblical narrative and the gradual creation of a secular story that we call modern history, in which Greece and Rome have become the main references of origin. The same process influenced the formation of national states that perceive, apart from their own histories, a collective cultural origin in Ancient Greece. Of course, the Galls, Francs or Germans had little in common with ancient Greeks; but modern European nations unite this fictional image of the Antique with the firm belief that it is the source of their cultural identity. For instance, not only did the 18th century French and English believe that they originated from ancient Greece but they managed to successfully 'sell' that story to modern Greeks

  12. Archaeological Discoveries in the People’s Republic of China and Their Contribution to the Understanding of Chinese History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingcan Chen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available More than eight decades ago, the distinguished Chinese scholar Hu Shi (1891–1962 wrote an essay titled ‘My Views on Ancient History’, in which he said: My outlook regarding ancient history is, for the present, we should shorten the study of ancient history by two or three thousand years, and start our researches from the Book of Odes. When archaeology has become well developed, then we can slowly extend [our understanding of ancient history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty, using excavated historical evidence. Today, over eighty years later, Chinese history before the Eastern Zhou dynasty has been steadily reconstructed, step by step, from archaeological discoveries, without which, even the well-recognized deserved brilliance of ancient history, since the Eastern Zhou dynasty, would be dimmed.

  13. Study on Anti-seismic Strengthening of the Ancient Stone Archway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Ding

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chinese ancient stone archways are in flat structure. And joints of their members are of half tenons and mortises. Under the influence of the earthquake, the resisting ability of archway’s uneven sides is relatively poor and the relevant members have little reliable joints. This paper is to analyze seismic strengthening feasibility of Tiantai mountain stone archway which is damaged from the earthquake and to research on the aspects of the loading mode, structure layout and soundness. On the premise of guaranteeing the authenticity and beauty, we use earthquake damaging mechanism of stone archways and the modern anti-seismic structure designing theory and modern building materials. We also follow the way of the modern construction technology and ancient construction and strengthen the anti-seismic way of the resisting ability of Tiantai mountain stone archway’s uneven sides and joints of tenons and mortises. The best anti-seismic strengthening schemes are put forward as well.

  14. A case study and mechanism investigation of typical mortars used on ancient architecture in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng Yuyao [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China); Zhang Bingjian [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)], E-mail: zbj@mail.hz.zj.cn; Liang Xiaolin [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, Zhejiang (China)

    2008-07-10

    Mortars sampled from Dutifulness Monument, where typical ancient China mortar formulas and manufacturing processes were used, were analyzed by starch-iodine test, FTIR, DSC-TG, SEM and XRD methods. Several modeling samples were then made according to historical records of Chinese ancient mortar formulas and analyzed with the same techniques. The modeling formulas also were used to consolidate loose specimens. The results show that sticky rice plays a crucial role in the microstructure and the consolidation properties of lime mortars. A possible mechanism was suggested that biomineralization may occur during the carbonation of calcium hydroxide, where the sticky rice functions as a template and controls the growth of calcium carbonate crystal. The organic-inorganic materials formed based on this mechanism will be more favorable for consolidating the loose samples both in strength improvement and durability.

  15. "Chi-Fang-Qi": Is it the aureole of an ancient supernova?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Fuyuan; JIANG Shiyang

    2005-01-01

    An annotation for the statement about JingXing (Great Star) in the most famous Chinese ancient historical book Shi Ji (Historical Records) authored by Sima Qian reads as follows: "There was a red aureole ("Chi-Fang-Qi") which connected with a deep-color aureole ("Qing-Fang-Qi"). Two yellow stars were in the red aureole,one yellow star was in the deep-color aureole". The author of the annotation was Meng Kang, an officer as well as a scholar of the Wei State in the Three Kingdoms period. The same records are to be found in two other Chinese historical books compiled by the authors of later ages in Tang Dynasty --Jin History and Sui History. The scene illustrated by the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi" is very similar to the pictures of SN1987A taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. Let it be noted that although the ancient authors were often with serious wrong understandings of some astronomical phenomena such as supernovae, their depictions about natural phenomena they witnessed were mostly objective, and it was unlikely that they fictionally made the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi". We infer that the ancient observers might have ever watched a very bright supernova with an aureole structure in its remnant and then left such a record. Meng Kang perhaps was the first to give the record about "Chi-Fang-Qi", and he might have lived in the period from about AD 180 to AD250, very near to AD 185, so, here the supernova the ancient people watched was most likely the one in the year of AD 185. This supposition is consistent with the distance parameter of the most possible remnant of SN185 derived by some modern measurements. If the correlation between the record of "Chi-Fang-Qi" and the supernova remnant can be further proven true, it would be an important verification of the modern theory about stellarevolution.

  16. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.

    2001-12-01

    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  17. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen

    2010-01-01

    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  18. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne

    2016-01-01

    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  19. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans Redlef

    2010-01-01

    the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least...... for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture....

  20. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  1. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  2. The biochemistry of ancient DNA in bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuross, N

    1994-06-15

    The amount of DNA in ancient bone was determined by ethidium bromide staining after the removal of the potent Taq inhibitor, fulvic acid. A complete decalcification and a perfusion protocol were used to recover DNA from bone. A variety of purification techniques including molecular sieve, hydroxyapatite binding and 'Magic' preparations yielded DNA that spanned from 3.4 micrograms/g of bone to below detectable limits. Fulvic acid was shown to interfere with the quantification of DNA derived from ancient human skeletal material one hundred to over seven thousand years old. Scanning UV in the 300 to 230 nm range is a simple and sensitive technique for documenting fulvic acid contamination in ancient bone extracts.

  3. Pectus excavatum in mummies from ancient Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub

    2016-12-01

    Pectus excavatum is one of the common congenital anomalies, yet there seems to be a suspicious absence of any cases or descriptions of this deformity from antiquity. This could represent a real change in disease prevalence but is more likely just due to an inadequate reporting in medico-historical literature. The current study reviews reports of computed tomography (CT) scans of 217 ancient Egyptian mummies, revealing 3 presumed cases of this deformity. Therefore, pectus excavatum was in fact present already in ancient times, with prevalence roughly similar to the modern one.

  4. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  5. Automatic indexing and reformulation of ancient dictionaries

    OpenAIRE

    Belaïd, Abdel; Turcan, Isabelle; Pierrel, Jean-Marie; Belaïd, Yolande; Rangoni, Yves; Hadjamar, Hassen

    2004-01-01

    International audience; This paper is related to automatic indexing and reformu-lation of ancient dictionaries. The objective is to make easy the access to ancient printed documents from XVI to XIX century for a diversified public (historians, scien-tists, librarians, etc.). Since the facsimile mode is insuffi-cient, the aim is to look further for the use of the index-ing based on the formal structure representative of some contents in order to optimize their exploration. Starting from a firs...

  6. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...

  7. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris

    2008-01-01

    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  8. Bhasma : The ancient Indian nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilipkumar Pal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda and other Indian system of medicine use metals, but their use is also amply described in Chinese and Egyptian civilization in 2500 B.C. Bhasma are unique ayurvedic metallic/minerals preparation, treated with herbal juice or decoction and exposed for Ayurveda, which are known in Indian subcontinent since 7 th century A.D. and widely recommended for treatment of a variety of chronic ailments. Animal′s derivative such as horns, shells, feathers, metallic, nonmetallic and herbals are normally administered as Bhasma. A Bhasma means an ash obtained through incineration; the starter material undergoes an elaborate process of purification and this process is followed by the reaction phase, which involves incorporation of some other minerals and/or herbal extract. There are various importance of Bhasma like maintaining optimum alkalinity for optimum health, neutralizing harmful acids that lead to illness; because Bhasma do not get metabolized so they don′t produce any harmful metabolite, rather it breakdowns heavy metals in the body. Methods including for Bhasma preparation are parpati, rasayoga, sindora, etc., Bhasma which contain Fe, Cu, S or other manufacturing process plays a specific role in the final product(s. Particle size (1-2 μ reduced significantly, which may facilitate absorption and assimilation of the drug into the body system. Standardization of Bhasma is utmost necessary to confirm its identity and to determine its quality, purity safety, effectiveness and acceptability of the product. But the most important challenges faced by these formulations are the lack of complete standardization by physiochemical parameters.

  9. Linxia:Chinese Mecca

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Linxia Hui Autonomous Prefecture is located in the northwest Gansu Province. Linxia used to be a strategically important town on the conjunction of ancient Silk Road, Tang Dynasty-Ancient Tibet Passage and Gansu-Sichuan Official

  10. A Date Recovery System launched for chronological studies in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Benefited from the performance of the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project (XSZP) in China and our new astronomical chronology method designed and processed for Chinese particular 60-day-cycle Ganzhi (the heavenly stems and earthly branches) date records, we launch a Date Recovery System (DRS) for ancient China. Of high analysis function, this software can recover and convert the complete or incomplete date information originally from Ganzhi style in the historical period of China to the Gregorian Calendar System, which may have wide applications in the area of literary history, archaeology and cultural relic, etc., and solve the Goldbach Puzzles of Chinese nations. As an example, we give the detailed process for the sculptures on four bronze wares with the Ganzhi data and afterwards employ this software and provide their possible dates corresponding to Gregorian system.

  11. A Date Recovery System launched for chronological studies in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Benefited from the performance of the Xia-Shang-Zhou Chronology Project(XSZP) in China and our new astronomical chronology method designed and processed for Chinese particular 60-day-cycle Ganzhi(the heavenly stems and earthly branches)date records,we launch a Date Recovery System(DRS)for ancient China. Of high analysis function,this software can recover and convert the complete or incomplete date information originally from Ganzhi style in the historical period of China to the Gregorian Calendar System,which may have wide applications in the area of literary history,archaeology and cultural relic,etc.,and solve the Goldbach Puzzles of Chinese nations.As an example,we give the detailed process for the sculptures on four bronze wares with the Ganzhi data and afterwards employ this software and provide their possible dates corresponding to Gregorian system.

  12. On Functional Discourse Analysis Applied in Translation of Chinese Tea Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔艳君; 李洋

    2012-01-01

      In this article, the author aims to analyze some English translations of ancient Chinese tea poems in a functional lin⁃guistic point of view based mainly on Halliday’s functional linguistic theory. First of all, there is a general introduction of Halli⁃day’s functional linguistic theory, secondly we will look into the features of ancient Chinese tea poetry, such as the grammar, the language and the context, and then the author picks out two typical examples for detail analyzing, at last there is a brief conclusion of the whole article.

  13. Dialogue Genre Texts in Ancient Greek Prose: Linguostylistic Aspect

    OpenAIRE

    Gita Bērziņa

    2011-01-01

    Dialogue Genre Texts in Ancient Greek Prose: Linguostylistic Aspect Doctoral thesis deals with the study of essential linguistic features of the Ancient Greek dialogue as an important ancient prose genre. The goal of the thesis is to disclose the specific linguistic characteristics of the genre of Ancient Greek dialogue on the basis of comparative analysis of the linguistic structure (on all levels as well as in style) of the texts of three most prominent authors (Plato, Xenoph...

  14. Fire usage and ancient hominin detoxification genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general heal

  15. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T. L.

    2008-01-01

    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  16. Ancient bronze disks, decorations and calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it was published that some ancient bronze disks could had been calendars, that is, that their decorations had this function. Here I am discussing an example, the disk of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, proposing a new interpretation of it, giving a calendar of 360 days. Some geometric diagrams concerning the decoration layout are also proposed.

  17. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan

    2015-02-01

    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  18. Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Jane

    2011-01-01

    With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

  19. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  20. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  1. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  2. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma

    2010-01-01

    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  3. The Study of Women in Ancient Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscovich, M. James

    1982-01-01

    Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

  4. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K

    1981-06-01

    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases.

  5. Case report 872. "Ancient" schwannoma (degenerated neurilemoma).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, E; Sapan, M R; McHeffey-Atkinson, B; Naidich, J B; Arlen, M

    1994-10-01

    A case of an ancient schwannoma was presented. The rare occurrence of this tumor has resulted in only a few reported cases with descriptions of its features on imaging. Our patient's tumor, like one previously reported case, demonstrated calcification on the plain film - a finding not associated with other histologic types of schwannomas. Angiography revealed the tumor to be hypervascular. Evaluation by MRI demonstrated a lobulated, encapsulated soft tissue mass containing several cystic areas that corresponded histologically to areas of necrosis. Hypertrophied blood vessels were seen in the periphery of the tumoral mass. Too few ancient schwannomas have been reported to conclude whether or not radiographic evidence of soft tissue calcification is characteristic of this histologically distinctive subtype of schwannoma. However, since calcification is seen histologically as part of the degenerating process, its presence on plain films could be a feature of this tumor. Furthermore, the presence of cystic areas on MRI is not surprising given the pathological changes that occur in this tumor. We suggest that a diagnosis of ancient schwannoma be considered when a patient presents with a hypervascular soft tissue mass containing amorphous calcification on plain films and cystic areas on MRI. Despite the nonspecificity of these imaging findings, this point is relevant because each of these features suggests the presence of a malignant mass. Awareness of the possibility of a benign ancient schwannoma could obviate unnecessary radical surgery.

  6. Communication Arts in the Ancient World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

    Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

  7. Paragons of Education in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    MOTHERS contributed greatly to children’s education in ancient China long before schools took shape. Behind many prominent figures lay greatmothers whose personal example and verbal instruction benefited their children throughout life. There is an old sayingabout the "stern father and compassionate mother."However, you will always

  8. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej

    2012-01-01

    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  9. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias;

    2013-01-01

    to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far...

  10. Genomic correlates of atherosclerosis in ancient humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Thompson, Randall C; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Allam, Adel H; Finch, Caleb E; Frohlich, Bruno; Kaplan, Hillard; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Miyamoto, Michael I; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Thomas, Gregory S; Krause, Johannes

    2014-06-01

    Paleogenetics offers a unique opportunity to study human evolution, population dynamics, and disease evolution in situ. Although histologic and computed x-ray tomographic investigations of ancient mummies have clearly shown that atherosclerosis has been present in humans for more than 5,000 years, limited data are available on the presence of genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease in ancient human populations. In a previous whole-genome study of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy from the Alps, an increased risk for coronary heart disease was detected. The Iceman's genome revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. Future genetic studies of ancient humans from various geographic origins and time periods have the potential to provide more insights into the presence and possible changes of genetic risk factors in our ancestors. The study of ancient humans and a better understanding of the interaction between environmental and genetic influences on the development of heart diseases may lead to a more effective prevention and treatment of the most common cause of death in the modern world.

  11. The Ancient stellar population of Leo A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Abhijit; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The primary goal of our proposal is the characterisation of the oldest stellar populations in Leo A using the properties of ancient RR Lyrae variable stars as tracers. Well known and long established correlations exist between the periods and luminosities of RR Lyrae variable stars and their ages an

  12. Reading,Question and Discussion of the Chinese Ancient Poetry Appreciation Inquiry-based Teaching in Senior School%高中语文古代诗歌鉴赏探究式教学之诵读、质疑、讨论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    润萍

    2014-01-01

    诗歌教学是高中语文教学的重点之一,要做到多读、熟读,让学生探究课文,发现问题,学会质疑,学会讨论,解决问题,使学生获得审美享受、发展想象力,体会中华文化的博大精深。%One of the key points of the content of the poetry teaching in senior school Chinese teaching is to do more reading and perusal. Let the students explore the text,finding the problem,learn to question,learn to discuss and solve the problem. The teaching aim is to have the student obtain aesthetic pleasure and develop imagination,realize the greatness of Chinese culture.

  13. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  14. 中西方古典爱情诗之比较--以李白的《怨情》与勃朗宁夫人的《我怎样爱你》为例%Contrastive Study of Ancient Chinese and Western Love Poems-- Analysis of Li Bai’s Yuanqing and Elizabeth Barrett Browning’s How Do I Love Thee?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚华星; 岳国法

    2014-01-01

    The love poems in both Chinese and Western literature have eulogized the holiest, purest and noblest relationship of all human beings, however, Chinese love poems differ a lot from those of Western owing to the difference between geographical conditions, cultural backgrounds , psychological traits, etc. This paper attempts to probe into the difference between Chinese and Western love poems from three aspects:the creating motivation, themes of the poems and the stylistic features of the poems, and finally the paper reaches a conclusion that Chinese love poems are implicit, subtle and laconic, while Western love poems are explicit, incisive and magnificent. They have their own characteristics in many aspects so we should appreciate them with a broad mind.%中西方爱情诗歌都歌颂了人类情感中最神圣、纯洁和崇高的爱情,然而由于地理环境、文化心理等各种因素的差异,中西爱情诗也各有特色。从创作动机、作品主题及诗风和手法这三个方面探讨中西方爱情诗的差异,可以发现:中诗委婉、微妙、简隽;西诗直率、深刻、铺陈。两方各有千秋,我们应以开放的心态博采众长。

  15. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  16. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten;

    2013-01-01

    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We...... maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication....

  17. [Study on sociocultural history of therapeutic efficacy and processing of chinese materia medica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jin-Sheng

    2006-10-01

    The historical evolving examples of the confirmation of therapeutic efficacy of some Chinese materia medica, the social fashion of using medicine, and the processing methods of Chinese materia medica indicate that the social trend of thoughts, customs and economic factors in different ages affected the various aspects of Chinese materia medica. So, Chinese materia medica possesses very outstanding social and cultural features. Not all the actions of Chinese materia medica recorded came from the experiences of doctors. The understanding level to the nature in different ages decides what kind of drugs they would accept. There are three kinds of drug processing in ancient times: effective medicinal processing, fantastic Taoist processing and invalid trading processing. Based on the study of sociocultural history of therapeutic efficacy and processing of Chinese materia medica. It is crucial that the history and medical literature research on Chinese materia medica and pharmacy should be raised to the position as important as clinical and experiment researches.

  18. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  19. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  20. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.

    2016-12-01

    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  1. Stable isotopic analysis on ancient human bones in Jiahu site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YaoWu; S.H.AMBROSE; WANG ChangSui

    2007-01-01

    Palaeodietary analysis is one of important topics in bioarchaeology field and has been paid great attention to by Chinese archaeometrists recently. Ancient human bones in Jiahu Site were analyzed by means of stable isotopes of C, N and 0.13 human bones were excluded from 28 bones for dietary reconstruction due to their unusual collagen contents, C and N contents, and C/N atomic ratios especially.δ13C(-20.37±0.53‰)in collagen of remaining samples showed that C3 food were consumed mainly, which is consistent of the archaeological findings that rice was the staple in Jiahu. According to the difference of δ15N and δ13C values in bone collagen, the samples can be classified into four clusters. The changes of δ15N values in bone collagen and δ13C values in hydroxylapatite through whole cultural phases indicated the transition from hunting to gathering and fishing to rice agriculture and animal domestication ultimately. Meanwhile, the δ18O change in hydroxylapatite showed that palaeoclimate was relatively constant during Jiahu culture.

  2. Stable isotopic analysis on ancient human bones in Jiahu site

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.H.AMBROSE

    2007-01-01

    Palaeodietary analysis is one of important topics in bioarchaeology field and has been paid great at- tention to by Chinese archaeometrists recently. Ancient human bones in Jiahu Site were analyzed by means of stable isotopes of C, N and O. 13 human bones were excluded from 28 bones for dietary re- construction due to their unusual collagen contents, C and N contents, and C/N atomic ratios espe- cially. δ 13C (-20.37±0.53‰) in collagen of remaining samples showed that C3 food were consumed mainly, which is consistent of the archaeological findings that rice was the staple in Jiahu. According to the difference of δ 15N and δ 13C values in bone collagen, the samples can be classified into four clusters. The changes of δ 15N values in bone collagen and δ 13C values in hydroxylapatite through whole cultural phases indicated the transition from hunting to gathering and fishing to rice agriculture and animal domestication ultimately. Meanwhile, the δ 18O change in hydroxylapatite showed that pa- laeoclimate was relatively constant during Jiahu culture.

  3. Ancient structure in Africa unlikely to explain Neanderthal and non-African genetic similarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Melinda A; Malaspinas, Anna-Sapfo; Durand, Eric Y; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2012-10-01

    Neanderthals have been shown to share more genetic variants with present-day non-Africans than Africans. Recent admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans outside of Africa was proposed as the most parsimonious explanation for this observation. However, the hypothesis of ancient population structure within Africa could not be ruled out as an alternative explanation. We use simulations to test whether the site frequency spectrum, conditioned on a derived Neanderthal and an ancestral Yoruba (African) nucleotide (the doubly conditioned site frequency spectrum [dcfs]), can distinguish between models that assume recent admixture or ancient population structure. We compare the simulations to the dcfs calculated from data taken from populations of European, Chinese, and Japanese descent in the Complete Genomics Diversity Panel. Simulations under a variety of plausible demographic parameters were used to examine the shape of the dcfs for both models. The observed shape of the dcfs cannot be explained by any set of parameter values used in the simulations of the ancient structure model. The dcfs simulations for the recent admixture model provide a good fit to the observed dcfs for non-Africans, thereby supporting the hypothesis that recent admixture with Neanderthals accounts for the greater similarity of Neanderthals to non-Africans than Africans.

  4. [Reasearch on evolution and transition of processing method of fuzi in ancient and modern times].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chan-Chan; Cheng, Ming-En; Duan, Hai-Yan; Peng, Hua-Sheng

    2014-04-01

    Fuzi is a medicine used for rescuing from collapse by restoring yang as well as a famous toxic traditional Chinese medicine. In order to ensure the efficacy and safe medication, Fuzi has mostly been applied after being processed. There have been different Fuzi processing methods recorded by doctors of previous generations. Besides, there have also been differences in Fuzi processing methods recorded in modern pharmacopeia and ancient medical books. In this study, the authors traced back to medical books between the Han Dynasty and the period of Republic of China, and summarized Fuzi processing methods collected in ancient and modern literatures. According to the results, Fuzi processing methods and using methods have changed along with the evolution of dynasties, with differences in ancient and modern processing methods. Before the Tang Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly processed and soaked. From Tang to Ming Dynasties, Fuzi had been mostly processed, soaked and stir-fried. During the Qing Dynasty, Fuzi had been mostly soaked and boiled. In the modem times, Fuzi is mostly processed by being boiled and soaked. Before the Tang Dynasty, a whole piece of Fuzi herbs or their fragments had been applied in medicines; Whereas their fragments are primarily used in the modern times. Because different processing methods have great impacts on the toxicity of Fuzi, it is suggested to study Fuzi processing methods.

  5. Effect of Ancient Ceramic Art Value on Modern Ceramics%古陶瓷的艺术价值对现代陶瓷艺术的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹棠森; 孙万欣

    2016-01-01

    通过定性和定量分析古陶瓷艺术的价格以及古陶瓷艺术对现代陶瓷艺术的影响,说明古陶瓷艺术是真正的中国“制造”。%The effect of ancient ceramic value and art on modern ceramics is qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. Results show in the history of ceramic art, only Chinese ancient ceramic art can be labeled as China made.

  6. A Better Understanding of Ancient Poems from the Views of Minnan and Gan Dialects in China%从闽南语、赣方言角度浅议古代诗歌的理解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文文

    2014-01-01

    Using some dialects which preserved a lot of ancient Chinese characteristics to analyze the ancient Chinese poems can help to overcome language barrier and approach the primitive form of these works. This papers make use of the ancient Chinese phonetic features, special vocabulary and grammar phenomenon retained in Minnan dialect and Gan dialect to analyze 5 ancient Chinese poems such as Wang wan's Ci Beigushan Xia, Zhu xi 's Guan Shu You Gan in the Song dynasty and Shijing. By doing so, we try to express the ideas that the subject cross of Dialectology and ancient literature is conducive to the proper interpretation of ancient books, and to the better carrying out the ancient poetry teaching.%用保存有丰富古代汉语特征的方言分析古代诗歌,有助于克服语言障碍,探索作品的本原形态。本文利用分散留存于闽南语及赣方言中的古汉语语音特点、特殊词汇、语法现象,分析了唐代王湾《次北固山下》、宋代朱熹《观书有感》和上古时期的《诗经·东门之池》、《诗经·何彼秾矣》、《诗经·将仲子》等5首古诗,表明方言学与古代文学的学科交叉,既有利于在古籍整理中进行正确释读,也有助于更好地开展古代诗歌教学。

  7. Book Review on "Ancient Herbs, Modern Medicine"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Yu

    2004-01-01

    @@ Ever since Chinese medicine came onto the health care scene, it has had an uneasy and at times contentious relationship with mainstream Western biomedicine. For the first two twenty years or so there was nothing of the significance to speak of in the way of. collaboration or integration between the two medical systems. Western medical literature often cast uninformed criticism on Chinese medicine, and in return, Chinese medical doctors or scholars would usually disparage Western biomedicine. However, the ice has begun to melt in the past 10 years. Dialogues between the two systems took place at multiple levels: the United States federal government established the Office for Complementary and Alternative Medicine within the National Health Institute, which was later on expanded into a national center to provide funding and coordinate research on subjects such as Chinese medicine;some universities and medical schools started to teach or conduct clinical research on Chinese medicine; several major medical centers enlisted acupuncturists and even herbalists as medical staff. But the real driving force of the change is grass-root acceptance of Chinese medicine by patients, and the burgeoning interaction and collaboration between practicing Chinese and Western doctors.

  8. Patterns of East Asian pig domestication, migration, and turnover revealed by modern and ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Greger; Liu, Ranran; Zhao, Xingbo; Yuan, Jing; Fuller, Dorian; Barton, Loukas; Dobney, Keith; Fan, Qipeng; Gu, Zhiliang; Liu, Xiao-Hui; Luo, Yunbing; Lv, Peng; Andersson, Leif; Li, Ning

    2010-04-27

    The establishment of agricultural economies based upon domestic animals began independently in many parts of the world and led to both increases in human population size and the migration of people carrying domestic plants and animals. The precise circumstances of the earliest phases of these events remain mysterious given their antiquity and the fact that subsequent waves of migrants have often replaced the first. Through the use of more than 1,500 modern (including 151 previously uncharacterized specimens) and 18 ancient (representing six East Asian archeological sites) pig (Sus scrofa) DNA sequences sampled across East Asia, we provide evidence for the long-term genetic continuity between modern and ancient Chinese domestic pigs. Although the Chinese case for independent pig domestication is supported by both genetic and archaeological evidence, we discuss five additional (and possibly) independent domestications of indigenous wild boar populations: one in India, three in peninsular Southeast Asia, and one off the coast of Taiwan. Collectively, we refer to these instances as "cryptic domestication," given the current lack of corroborating archaeological evidence. In addition, we demonstrate the existence of numerous populations of genetically distinct and widespread wild boar populations that have not contributed maternal genetic material to modern domestic stocks. The overall findings provide the most complete picture yet of pig evolution and domestication in East Asia, and generate testable hypotheses regarding the development and spread of early farmers in the Far East.

  9. Neural Strategies for Reading Japanese and Chinese Sentences: A Cross-Linguistic fMRI Study of Character-Decoding and Morphosyntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Koongliang; Itoh, Kosuke; Kwee, Ingrid L.; Nakada, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Japanese and Chinese share virtually identical morphographic characters invented in ancient China. Whereas modern Chinese retained the original morphographic functionality of these characters (hanzi), modern Japanese utilizes these characters (kanji) as complex syllabograms. This divergence provides a unique opportunity to systematically…

  10. Chinese Dream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The general managers of South Korean auto giants Hyundai and Kia have high hopes for the growing Chinese auto market. Both companies went through a painstaking period as the financial crisis first roared across the globe. Jin Shan-fa, General Manager of Hyundai Motor Group

  11. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K

    2000-01-01

    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  12. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... solving other scientifically interesting questions. Still in its childhood, ancient environmental DNA research has a large potential for still developing, improving and discovering its possibilities and limitations in different environments and for identifying various organisms, both in terms...... of the sampling methods and strategies (taphonomic processes), the more fundamental molecular methodologies (e.g. extraction and sequencing) and eventually the bioinformatic processing. In the enclosed studies we have tried to take some principal steps towards improving this, firstly by reviewing previous...

  13. Human evolution: a tale from ancient genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic

    2017-02-05

    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become a major player in the understanding of our evolutionary history.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity'.

  14. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.

    1979-01-01

    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  15. Putative ancient microorganisms from amber nuggets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Blasco, Lucía; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomás G

    2007-06-01

    Evolutionary microbiology studies based on the isolation of ancient DNA and/or microbial samples are scarce due to the difficulty of finding well preserved biological specimens. However, amber is a fossil resin with natural preserving properties for microbial cells and DNA. The visualization by transmission electron microscopy of different microorganism-like specimens found in amber nuggets from both the Miocene and the Cretaceous periods was accompanied by studies of ancient DNA obtained from the nuggets. After the design of specific primers based on the present sequences of both genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ancestral AGP2 sequence from the Miocene, as well as the 18S rRNA from the Cretaceous, were amplified.

  16. Rangifer and man: An ancient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gordon

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period, Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago and Mesolithic Russia (7000¬10 000 years ago. Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas, based upon Rangifer remains and seasonal variations in tools along reconstructed migration routes, with few if any hunting camps outside the routes. An April peak of ancient human births is inferred from the historic record where we see births occurring nine months after peak nutritional states in herds and people. The origin of reindeer domestication and breeding in Eurasia is discussed.

  17. Segmentation of Ancient Telugu Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao A.V

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available OCR of ancient document images remains a challenging task till date. Scanning process itself introduces deformation of document images. Cleaning process of these document images will result in information loss. Segmentation contributes an invariance process in OCR. Complex scripts, like derivatives of Brahmi, encounter many problems in the segmentation process. Segmentation of meaningful units, (instead of isolated patterns, revealed interesting trends. A segmentation technique for the ancient Telugu document image into meaningful units is proposed. The topological features of the meaningful units within the script line are adopted as a basis, while segmenting the text line. Horizontal profile pattern is convolved with Gaussian kernel. The statistical properties of meaningful units are explored by extensively analyzing the geometrical patterns of the meaningful unit. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm involving segmentation process is found to be 73.5% for the case of uncleaned document images.

  18. A Jade from Other Mountain:On Stephen Owen’s Translation and Interpretation of Chinese Ancient Literary Theory--Taking Chinese Literary Theory:English Translation with Criticism as Example%他山之石:宇文所安如何译释中国古代文论--以《中国文论:英译与评论》为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高超

    2012-01-01

      Stephen uses the method of literal translation in Owen Readings in Chinese Literary Thought , which generates a more objective representation of the original style, makes up the accuracy and profundity of the missing translation of the text supplemented by explanations and notes, and lastly quotes, proves and compares one another among the text, the history of the forming of the text and the history of the text interpretation in order to interpret the text with a reasonable imagination of history and comb and discuss the historical changes of traditional Chinese literary theory and literary criticism in the broad context of cultural history.%  宇文所安译释中国古代文论,从文本本身出发,采用直译的笔法,比较客观地再现了原文的风貌,而辅以解说与注释则弥补了翻译所缺失的文本中的那份准确与深刻,同时,宇文所安把文本与文本产生的历史以及文本诠释的历史互相征引,相互比照,以合理的历史想像力去诠释文本,梳理并论述了中国传统文学理论与文学批评在广阔的文化史背景下的历史性变迁

  19. Twelve Traditional Chinese Paths to Good Health

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JANE SHAW

    1994-01-01

    THESE 12 traditional Chinese practices were devised by our ancestors to maintain good health and are key to longevity. To bolster your health, try the following: 1. Move your eyes often. Ancient people called this exercise "yunjing" and believed moving the eyes could eliminate cataracts and nebulas and adjust myopia and farsightedness. First move the eyes from left to right and vice versa, then up and down and vice versa, 15 times each direction. Close your eyes tightly for a moment and then open them wide.

  20. [Acupoints selection rules analysis of ancient acupuncture for urinary incontinence based on data mining technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Tan, Zhigao; Cao, Juanshu; Gong, Houwu; Qin, Zuoai; Zhong, Feng; Cao, Yue; Wei, Yanrong

    2015-12-01

    Based on ancient literature of acupuncture in Canon of Chinese Medicine (4th edition), the articles regarding acupuncture for urinary incontinence were retrieved and collected to establish a database. By Weka data mining software, the multi-level association rules analysis method was applied to analyze the acupoints selection characteristics and rules of ancient acupuncture for treatment of urinary incontinence. Totally 356 articles of acupuncture for urinary incontinence were collected, involving 41 acupoints with a total frequency of 364. As a result, (1) the acupoints in the yin-meridian of hand and foot were highly valued, as the frequency of acupoints in yin-meridians was 2.6 times than that in yang-meridians, and the frequency of acupoints selected was the most in the liver meridian of foot-jueyin; (2) the acupoints in bladder meridian of foot-taiyang were also highly valued, and among three yang-meridians of foot, the frequency of acupoints in the bladder meridian of foot-taiyang was 54, accounting for 65.85% (54/82); (3) more acupoints selected were located in the lower limbs and abdomen; (4) specific acupoints in above meridians were mostly selected, presenting 73.2% (30/41) to the ratio of number and 79.4% (289/364) to the frequency, respectively; (5) Zhongji (CV 3), the front-mu point of bladder meridian, was seldom selected in the ancient acupuncture literature, which was different from modern literature reports. The results show that urinary incontinence belongs to external genitalia diseases, which should be treated from yin, indicating more yin-meridians be used and special acupoints be focused on. It is essential to focus inheritance and innovation in TCM clinical treatment, and applying data mining technology to ancient literature of acupuncture could provide classic theory basis for TCM clinical treatment.

  1. The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wildberger, N J

    2008-01-01

    Pythagoras' theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron's formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms.

  2. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood-Nash, D C

    1979-12-01

    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance.

  3. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.

    2015-01-01

    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  4. Ancient News: HMGBs are Universal Sentinels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco E. Bianchi; Barbara Celona

    2010-01-01

    @@ Yanai et al. (2009, Nature 462, 99-103) have shown that high mobility group boxs (HMGBs) are universal sensors of viral nucleic acids, and thus of cell infection. This appears to be an evolutionary ancient mechanism of virus detection, and possibly might be a facet of a more general propensity of HMGBs to act as integrators of signals that pertain to peace and stress, life and death.

  5. Restriction and Respondence棗Example for the Design of Nanjing Museum of Ancient Biological Relic of Chinese Science Academy%制约与回应—以中国科学院南京古生物博物馆方案设计为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐康; 邓浩

    2001-01-01

    This article provides some main ideas in the project of Nanjing Museum of Ancient Biological Relic , which is subordinated to China Academy of Science. The author points out that architecture designing has to confront with various restrictions imposed by nature and society, and an architect should, endeavor to make innovation in designing and grant due and effective solution to them,on the basis of a profound understanding of these restrictive factors.%该文介绍了中国科学院南京古生物博物馆方案设计的主要构思,指出在建筑创作中需要客观面对来自自然和社会方面的种种制约,建筑师应当在对制约因素的深层次理解基础之上,努力寻求创新的空间,并在手法上予以有效和到位的回应。

  6. Selected Translated Abstracts of Chinese-Language Climate Change Publications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushman, R.M.; Burtis, M.D.

    1999-05-01

    This report contains English-translated abstracts of important Chinese-language literature concerning global climate change for the years 1995-1998. This body of literature includes the topics of adaptation, ancient climate change, climate variation, the East Asia monsoon, historical climate change, impacts, modeling, and radiation and trace-gas emissions. In addition to the biological citations and abstracts translated into English, this report presents the original citations and abstracts in Chinese. Author and title indexes are included to assist the reader in locating abstracts of particular interest.

  7. Chinese Geography through Chinese Cuisine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    China has the world's largest population, now over 1.3 billion, but its land area (much of it high mountains or desert) is about the same as that of the United States, which has less than one-fourth as many people. So Chinese farmers have learned to use every inch of their fertile land intensively. Pressure on the land has required extremely…

  8. 近代以来“国学”思潮中关于传统学术态度的变迁--兼论现代教育中的学科建制问题%Since the Modern Times “Ancient Chinese Literature Search”trend in the Traditional Academic Attitude Change---Discussion on Discipline Construction in Modern Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程郁

    2015-01-01

    Marked with two considerable debates on the notion of Sinology in the past one hundred years,the reflections of Sinology can be divided into two phases.The first,which can be titled as“the period of the enlightenment of Chinese intellectuals”,is characteristic of the penetration of West-ern discipline institutionalization and scientific research methods.It actually turned out to be the process of transition in which Chinese traditional values and belief systems with Confucianism at their core had gradually fallen into ruin.The second is the reflection of the previous enlightenment period triggered by critical examinations of Western discipline institutionalization and scientific research methods.With this reflection,the growing appeal to restore and reestablish our social values and belief systems with the help of studies of Chinese intellectual tradition emerges.Thus,the debate on the notion of Sinology is more than a matter of logico-conceptual anal-ysis.It also opens up a new opportunity to reflect and promote our studies of modern discipline insti-tutionalization in an evolving context of Sinology.%以上世纪至今的两次国学之争为标志,国学发展历程可概括为“远逝”与“复返”两个阶段。第一阶段是以西方学科建制、科学研究方法之传入为标志的“智识界之启蒙”,实质是儒家伦理为核心的传统价值理念、信仰系统的逐步破坏与崩溃的历程;第二阶段是随着对现代学科建制、研究方法的反思而引发的启蒙反思历程。国学概念之争不能视为简单的逻辑问题,而应以国学的发展轨迹为视角反思和推进现代学科制度的研究。

  9. 2000 Year-old ancient equids: an ancient-DNA lesson from pompeii remains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena

    2004-11-15

    Ancient DNA extracted from 2000 year-old equine bones was examined in order to amplify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. A specific equine satellite-type sequence representing 3.7%-11% of the entire equine genome, proved to be a suitable target to address the question of the presence of aDNA in ancient bones. The PCR strategy designed to investigate this specific target also allowed us to calculate the molecular weight of amplifiable DNA fragments. Sequencing of a 370 bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial control region allowed the comparison of ancient DNA sequences with those of modern horses to assess their genetic relationship. The 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene was also examined to unravel the post-mortem base modification feature and to test the status of Pompeian equids taxon on the basis of a Mae III restriction site polymorphism.

  10. Reconstructing Ancient History-- Historiographical Review of the Ancient History of Korea, 1950s-2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Xu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The ancient history of Korea has been one of the most controversial and difficult phases to incorporate into an East Asian history survey class, not only because there are indeed quite a number of contested issues, but also because very few updated materials are available in English. This essay aims to provide a comprehensive and critical overview of research on the topic of Korean ancient history in the past six decades (mainly in South Korea, so that the ancient history of Korea can be understood first within the broader frame of East Asian history, and then in relation to the intellectual and ideological evolution which has significantly impacted historical interpretations in South Korea.

  11. The City-state Civilization Embodied in Ancient Greek Mythology%浅析古希腊神话中的城邦文明

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒙俊宇

    2011-01-01

    古希腊神话具有的人本主义、民主精神、自由思想、享乐主义等特点,体现出城邦文明的特征。本文分析了古希腊神话的特点及其表现出的城邦文明,并对比了东西方文化视野中的古希腊神话和中国神话。%Features like humanism, democracy, liberal thoughts and hedonism in ancient Greek mythology reflect the characteristics of city-state civilization. This paper analyzes the features of ancient Greek mythology and the city-state civilization it embodied, also compares the ancient Greek and Chinese mythology in the view of the Western and Oriental cultures.

  12. Computational network pharmacological research of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    The interaction between drug molecules and target proteins is the basis of pharmacological action.The pharmacodynamic mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants for chronic kidney disease(CKD) was studied by molecular docking and complex network analysis.It was found that the interaction network of components-proteins of Chinese medicinal plants is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of drugs.The action mechanism of Chinese medicinal plants is different from that of drugs.We also found the interaction network of components-proteins of tonifying herbs is different from the interaction network of components-proteins of evil expelling herbs using complex network research approach.It illuminates the ancient classification theory of Chinese medicinal plants.This computational approach could identify the pivotal components of Chinese medicinal plants and their key target proteins rapidly.The results provide data for development of multi-component Chinese medicine.

  13. LEARNING CHINESE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Vocabulary: 银行 yin hang bank 邮局 you jǔ (you as in "slow") post office 电报 dian bao telegram 邮票 you piao (you as in "know") stamp 信 xin letter 信封 xin feng envelope 航空 hang kong airmail 包裹 bao guo parcel 元 yuan a unit of currency in China 人民币 ren min bi RMB (the name of Chinese currency)

  14. Chinese Weddings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    ACCORDING to the Marriage Law of the People’s Republic of China, marital kinship is established and protected by law when a couple registers at tile local marriage registration office. The newly-weds usually hold a wedding feast in celebration at home or in a restaurant. The big red Chinese character, "Double Happiness," would be pasted on walls at the ceremonial hall to

  15. Study on Gender-Related Speech Communication in Classical Chinese Poetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xinhe; Qin, Dandan

    2016-01-01

    Gender, formed in men and women's growth which is constrained by social context, is tightly tied to the distinction which is presented in the process of men and women's language use. Hence, it's a new breakthrough for studies on gender and difference by analyzing gender-related speech communication on the background of ancient Chinese culture.

  16. Analysis of the Protection and Classification of Ancient Books%古籍保护和定级刍议

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭邦明

    2011-01-01

    从书籍产生那天起,人们就开始了同各种"书厄"的不断抗争,因此书籍的保护工作成为了中国书籍发展史的重要内容。本文就古籍保护工作中存在问题和全国古籍普查和古籍定级工作的必要性提出自己的看法和意见。%People have fought against books' doom since books were born.Books preservation plays a very important role in the development history of Chinese books.Advice on problems of preserving ancient books and necessity of national ancient books census and class

  17. The Color Composition in Ancient Construction Decoration%古代建筑装饰中的色彩组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭楠; 冯艳

    2013-01-01

      中国古建筑以色彩富丽著称,源于油漆工艺与彩画工艺的底和面的搭配。油漆工艺为古建筑着上简明的彩色外衣,形成大块色彩基调。建筑彩画则是装饰在梁枋等木件表面的美术,小范围内堆叠丰富纹案。%Chinese ancient architecture is famous for its rich color, originated in the painting process and painting process of bot om and surface matching. Painting process puts on con-cise color coat for ancient architecture, format ing the large color tone. Architectural painting is the art decorated in the w-ood surface lake Liang, Fang, in small range stacked rich pat -erns.

  18. Chinese Culture and Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kam-Cheung

    2001-01-01

    Describes essential characteristics of Chinese philosophical tradition; Discusses Western perspectives on value leadership in education, particularly moral leadership. Discuses moral leadership from a Chinese philosophical perspective, especially Confucianism. Draws implications for using Chinese cultural and philosophical traditions to develop…

  19. CHINESE JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@Chinese Journal of Chemistry is an international journal published in English by the Chinese Chemical Society with its editorial office hosted by Shanghai Institute of Organic Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  20. Promotion,Overcoming and Creative Transformation-Tibetan Buddhist Philosophy as Ideological Source for Developing Chinese Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Junzhe

    2015-01-01

    There are two fundamental factors in the development of modern Chinese philosophy:The first one is the Chinese people’s great social practice. the second one is the rich philosophical thought both at home and abroad. The former one is based upon the experiences in developing mod ̄ern Chinese philosophy, which is an exhaustible source. However,it still needs to absorb or draw on the experience from the excellent philosophies from ancient and modern times and from both Chinese and foreign. Among these, Tibetan Buddhist phi ̄losophy is an important ideological source that is worthy of being absorbed.

  1. The Chinese Banking System

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    The Chinese banking system is critical to the functioning of the Chinese economy, being the main conduit through which savings are allocated to investment opportunities. Banking activity in China has grown rapidly over the past decade in association with the expansion of the Chinese economy, and the Chinese banking system now includes some of the world’s largest banks. Chinese banks have become more commercially orientated over this period, although the Chinese Government retains considerable...

  2. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Legal Ethics of Ancient China%中国古代法律伦理化的利弊得失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽

    2011-01-01

    中国古代法律伦理化是中国历史上特有的文化特征.法律与伦理道德的融合是中国封建专制特性的明显表现.本文就中国历史上法律伦理化的利弊得失作简要评价.%Legal ethics in ancient China is a unique cultural feature in Chinese history. The merge of law and ethics is the obvious performance of feudalism in China. The article evaluates the advantages and disadvantages of the legal ethics in Chinese history.

  3. Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, Tom

    2003-01-01

    This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques

  4. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian

    2011-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  5. Traditional Chinese Medicine for Senile Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM has a 3000 years' history of human use. A literature survey addressing traditional evidence from human studies was done, with key result that top 10 TCM herb ingredients including Poria cocos, Radix polygalae, Radix glycyrrhizae, Radix angelica sinensis, and Radix rehmanniae were prioritized for highest potential benefit to dementia intervention, related to the highest frequency of use in 236 formulae collected from 29 ancient Pharmacopoeias, ancient formula books, or historical archives on ancient renowned TCM doctors, over the past 10 centuries. Based on the history of use, there was strong clinical support that Radix polygalae is memory improving. Pharmacological investigation also indicated that all the five ingredients mentioned above can elicit memory-improving effects in vivo and in vitro via multiple mechanisms of action, covering estrogen-like, cholinergic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, neurogenetic, and anti-Aβ activities. Furthermore, 11 active principles were identified, including sinapic acid, tenuifolin, isoliquiritigenin, liquiritigenin, glabridin, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, N-methyl-beta-carboline-3-carboxamide, coniferyl ferulate and 11-angeloylsenkyunolide F, and catalpol. It can be concluded that TCM has a potential for complementary and alternative role in treating senile dementia. The scientific evidence is being continuously mined to back up the traditional medical wisdom.

  6. Dance Poem presents Ancient Northwestern Settings and Folle Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    WEST of the Yang Pass, a dance poem created and performed by the Lanzhou Song and Dance Troupe, presents the audience with a picture of ancient times and folk customs on the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China. It depicts our ancestors’ staunch will to live, and their pioneering spirit, as well as the splendid traditional culture. The dance poem includes 11 sections: "Prelude," "Ancient Road," "Desert," "Camel Station," "Crescent Moon Spring," "Ancient Castle," "Temple Oil Lamps," "Mogao Grottoes," "Red Willows," "Market," "Ancient Battle Fields," and "Fields." West of the Yang Pass is a dance without particular characters or coherent plot. A group

  7. The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  8. Conserved intron positions in ancient protein modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Roos Albert DG

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of the origin of introns is of crucial importance for an understanding of early genome architecture. The Exon theory of genes proposed a role for introns in the formation of multi-exon proteins by exon shuffling and predicts the presence of conserved splice sites in ancient genes. In this study, large-scale analysis of potential conserved splice sites was performed using an intron-exon database (ExInt derived from GenBank. Results A set of conserved intron positions was found by matching identical splice sites sequences from distantly-related eukaryotic kingdoms. Most amino acid sequences with conserved introns were homologous to consensus sequences of functional domains from conserved proteins including kinases, phosphatases, small GTPases, transporters and matrix proteins. These included ancient proteins that originated before the eukaryote-prokaryote split, for instance the catalytic domain of protein phosphatase 2A where a total of eleven conserved introns were found. Using an experimental setup in which the relation between a splice site and the ancientness of its surrounding sequence could be studied, it was found that the presence of an intron was positively correlated to the ancientness of its surrounding sequence. Intron phase conservation was linked to the conservation of the gene sequence and not to the splice site sequence itself. However, no apparent differences in phase distribution were found between introns in conserved versus non-conserved sequences. Conclusion The data confirm an origin of introns deep in the eukaryotic branch and is in concordance with the presence of introns in the first functional protein modules in an 'Exon theory of genes' scenario. A model is proposed in which shuffling of primordial short exonic sequences led to the formation of the first functional protein modules, in line with hypotheses that see the formation of introns integral to the origins of genome evolution

  9. Extinct 244Pu in Ancient Zircons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Grenville; Harrison, T. Mark; Holland, Greg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Gilmour, Jamie

    2004-10-01

    We have found evidence, in the form of fissiogenic xenon isotopes, for in situ decay of 244Pu in individual 4.1- to 4.2-billion-year-old zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia. Because of its short half-life, 82 million years, 244Pu was extinct within 600 million years of Earth's formation. Detrital zircons are the only known relics to have survived from this period, and a study of their Pu geochemistry will allow us to date ancient metamorphic events and determine the terrestrial Pu/U ratio for comparison with the solar ratio.

  10. Archaeological sites as indicators of ancient shorelines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Archaeological Sites as Indicators of Ancient Shorelines K H Vora, A. S. Gnur. Sundaresh and S. Tripati National Institute of Oceanogr-aplzy, Dona Paula, Goa Ernail: vora@nio.org Abstract During the late... Coastal areas of the continents have been the focal points of the emergence of the civilization. For in- stance, the Indian Ocean witnessed the rise of 3 major the Bronze Age Civilizations around it during the mid- Holocene period. Ocean has played...

  11. The Charm of An Ancient Southern City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    AN artistic narrow bridge winds into a place of pavilions, terraces and open halls, all under the pleasant shade of green trees. This is Mist-Water Pavilion Park in Gantang Lake in the city of Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province. When you stand here in the quiet and elegant historic garden and look out over the water on all four sides, you can’t help but think of the ancient war that took place on this very spot 1,700 years ago. During the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280), this was

  12. The astronomical orientation of ancient Greek temples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salt, Alun M

    2009-11-19

    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.

  13. Human Nature Evil in Ancient Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜

    2015-01-01

    Whether man is good or evil by nature is a constant topic tophilosophers and writers. Is a man born virtuous or evil? What onearth is human nature? Is the origin of human nature kind or wicked?People have been debating over this topic for centuries. Theseseemingly simple questions have perplexed those Great Minds forthousands of years in European countries and are the constant themesof literary works as well. The problem of human nature is the deepestof the issues regarding human beings which have long been underdiscussion since ancient time.

  14. 我国古代档案保护技术对现代纸质档案保管之启迪%On the Enlightenment of Protection Technology of Ancient Chinese Archives on the Safekeeping of Modern Paper Archives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉娟

    2011-01-01

    通过对我国古代档案保护制度中的档案库房建筑技术、档案虫霉防治技术、档案修裱技术的具体阐述,指出在档案库房建筑方面选址要合理、设计要通风、房屋建设要墙壁厚地基高;在虫霉防治技术方面要采用防治结合、干扫法、中草药防虫、炭的使用等方法;在档案装裱技术方面要采用优秀的修裱技艺、合适的修裱材料。%Through elaborating the technologies of storeroom architecture,Entomophthora prevention,and archives mounting,it is pointed out that,in respect of storeroom architecture,the site selection should be rational,the design should be ventilated,the wall thick and groundsill high;as to Entomophthora prevention,prevention should be integrated with control,some other methods,such as dry mounting,using Chinese herbal medicine to prevent insects,and charcoal can also be applied;in respect of archives mounting,excellent mounting technology should be used,and suitable mounting materials should be chosen.

  15. Theoretical Explanation of Ancient Chinese "Daoyin Health Preservation Exercises" from the Perspective of the Intangible Cultural Heritage%非物质文化遗产视域下我国古代“导引养生功”之理论阐释

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓倩; 王英武

    2013-01-01

    “导引养生功”属我国传统中医养生范畴,是我国优秀传统体育文化的一个重要有机组成部分.文章全面而系统的阐述和分析了“导引养生功”基本理论对健身的重要指导作用.提出:“导引养生功”安全可靠,有病治病,无病强身,有益心身健康,极有推广价值,具有显著的锻炼健身效果.旨在为我国《全民健身计划纲要》的进一步实施提供理论依据.%Guided Qigong is a traditional Chinese health areas and an important integral part of our traditional sports culture. The paper makes a comprehensive and systematic exposition and analysis of the important role of the basic theory of "Daoyin Health Preservation Exercises" in guiding fitness. It proposes: "Daoyin Health Preservation Exercises", safe and reliable, can cure and make a strong body and is beneficial to physical and mental health. It has spreading value with a significant effect of exercise and fitness. The aim is to provide a theoretical basis for the further implementation of "National Fitness Program".

  16. Italian Textile Industry: Throw an Embroidered Ball in the Chinese Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ Throwing an embroidered ball is an act of seeking marriage practiced by noble family maidens in ancient China.March 2009,the early spring of Beijing saw Italian textile industry's passion for a close relationship with the Chinese market after a global shiver in the freezing economic winter.It is a ball of elegance,quality and sincere cooperation,which is to become larger and more attractive with the stable development of Chinese textile industry and the ever expansion of Chinese consumption market.

  17. 韩语汉字词考释%Examination and Interpretation of Korean Chinese Characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈立中

    2011-01-01

    This article examines the ortografia of 20 Korean Chinese characters, searches ancient Chinese literature for examples and explores the origins of these words and the difference and relationship between the meaning of Chinese characters and that of Korean characters%本文考察了20个韩语汉字词的汉字写法,并从历代汉语文献中搜罗例证,探讨这些词语的渊源及汉韩词义的区别与联系。

  18. Absolutely Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    <正>Ink painting animation - an exquisite art form that ends up in a museum Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy Little Tadpole Looking for Mummy, China’s first ink painting animation, was produced in 1961. With innovation in painting, photography and production technology, it was the first effort at ’animating’ ink paintings. Fishes, shrimps, frogs and crabs in the film resemble those in Qi Baishi’s works. By any shot, it’s an animated painting of fishes and insects, one that is suffused with a taste of Chinese ink-and-wash painting.

  19. Manned Spaceflight Ancient Dream, Modern Attempt

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    China was first in the world to invent rockets, and the first "astronaut" was also Chinese. In the late 14th century a man named Wanhu had himself tied to a special chair, the back of which was fitted with 47 prototype rockets, while he

  20. Antikythera Mechanism and the Ancient World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Safronov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this historical review, the opinions of Ancient Greece philosophers, astronomers, and poets such as Thales Milesian, Pythagoras, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Archimedes, Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, Iamblichus, Plutarch, Homer, and Aratus about the planet position calculations and about the possibility of predictions of natural phenomena are analyzed. The planet positions were predicted before Eudoxus (probably before Philolaus by a spindle of Ananke and after Eudoxus by Antikythera mechanism. Following Pythagoras and Plato, it is established that the regular seismoacoustic observations were performed. In the Ancient World in the Mediterranean area, there was an extensive network of acoustic stations (~10 pcs, which were located in close proximity to the geologic faults. Also, it is shown that the ship that was carrying Antikythera mechanism (A-Ship was built in 244 BC in Syracuse with direct participation of Archimedes and Archias from Corinthian. Later, the A-Ship was a part of the Roman Republic safety system. The grain volumes, which were delivered to Rome city by large grain vessels, and the population of Rome city in the period 74–71 BC were estimated. Planetary calculator might be used for the chronology of the historical events as a backward prediction in addition to present Radiocarbon dating and Dendrochronology methods.