Sample records for ancient anoxic ecological

  1. Using Ancient DNA to Understand Evolutionary and Ecological Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orlando, Ludovic Antoine Alexandre; Cooper, Alan


    Ancient DNA provides a unique means to record genetic change through time and directly observe evolutionary and ecological processes. Although mostly based on mitochondrial DNA, the increasing availability of genomic sequences is leading to unprecedented levels of resolution. Temporal studies of ...

  2. Causes for negative carbon isotope anomalies in Mesozoic marine sediments: Constraints from modern and ancient anoxic settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Breugel, Y.


    Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) were short periods in Earth history (˜0.5-1 Ma) characterized by atypically high burial rates of organic carbon in marine sediments worldwide. OAEs reflect increased marine primary production and/or enhanced organic matter preservation under anoxic water column condition

  3. Causes for negative carbon isotope anomalies in Mesozoic marine sediments : Constraints from modern and ancient anoxic settings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breugel, Y. van


    Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) were short periods in Earth history (˜0.5-1 Ma) characterized by atypically high burial rates of organic carbon in marine sediments worldwide. OAEs reflect increased marine primary production and/or enhanced organic matter preservation under anoxic water column condition

  4. Effect of a Jurassic oceanic anoxic event on belemnite ecology and evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ullmann, Clemens Vinzenz; Thibault, Nicolas Rudolph; Ruhl, Micha


    The Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 million y ago) is possibly the most extreme episode of widespread ocean oxygen deficiency in the Phanerozoic, coinciding with rapid atmospheric pCO2 increase and significant loss of biodiversity in marine faunas. The event is a unique past tipping...

  5. Microbial Diversity and Ecology in the Interfaces of the Deep-sea Anoxic Brine Pools in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Hikmawan, Tyas I.


    Deep-sea anoxic brine pools are one of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth, which are characterized by drastic changes in salinity, temperature, and oxygen concentration. The interface between the brine and overlaying seawater represents a boundary of oxic-anoxic layer and a steep gradient of redox potential that would initiate favorable conditions for divergent metabolic activities, mainly methanogenesis and sulfate reduction. This study aimed to investigate the diversity of Bacteria, particularly sulfate-reducing communities, and their ecological roles in the interfaces of five geochemically distinct brine pools in the Red Sea. Performing a comprehensive study would enable us to understand the significant role of the microbial groups in local geochemical cycles. Therefore, we combined culture-dependent approach and molecular methods, such as 454 pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene, phylogenetic analysis of functional marker gene encoding for the alpha subunits of dissimilatory sulfite reductase (dsrA), and single-cell genomic analysis to address these issues. Community analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated high bacterial diversity and domination of Bacteria over Archaea in most locations. In the hot and multilayered Atlantis II Deep, the bacterial communities were stratified and hardly overlapped. Meanwhile in the colder brine pools, sulfatereducing Deltaproteobacteria were the most prominent bacterial groups inhabiting the interfaces. Corresponding to the bacterial community profile, the analysis of dsrA gene sequences revealed collectively high diversity of sulfate-reducing communities. Desulfatiglans-like dsrA was the prevalent group and conserved across the Red Sea brine pools. In addition to the molecular studies, more than thirty bacterial strains were successfully isolated and remarkably were found to be cytotoxic against the cancer cell lines. However, none of them were sulfate reducers. Thus, a single-cell genomic analysis was used to study

  6. Ecological divergence combined with ancient allopatry in lizard populations from a small volcanic island. (United States)

    Suárez, N M; Pestano, J; Brown, R P


    Population divergence and speciation are often explained by geographical isolation, but may also be possible under high gene flow due to strong ecology-related differences in selection pressures. This study combines coalescent analyses of genetic data (11 microsatellite loci and 1 Kbp of mtDNA) and ecological modelling to examine the relative contributions of isolation and ecology to incipient speciation in the scincid lizard Chalcides sexlineatus within the volcanic island of Gran Canaria. Bayesian multispecies coalescent dating of within-island genetic divergence of northern and southern populations showed correspondence with the timing of volcanic activity in the north of the island 1.5-3.0 Ma ago. Coalescent estimates of demographic changes reveal historical size increases in northern populations, consistent with expansions from a volcanic refuge. Nevertheless, ecological divergence is also supported. First, the two morphs showed non-equivalence of ecological niches and species distribution modelling associated the northern morph with mesic habitat types and the southern morph with xeric habitat types. It seems likely that the colour morphs are associated with different antipredator strategies in the different habitats. Second, coalescent estimation of gene copy migration (based on microsatellites and mtDNA) suggest high rates from northern to southern morphs demonstrating the strength of ecology-mediated selection pressures that maintain the divergent southern morph. Together, these findings underline the complexity of the speciation process by providing evidence for the combined effects of ecological divergence and ancient divergence in allopatry.

  7. Ancient urban ecology reconstructed from archaeozoological remains of small mammals in the Near East. (United States)

    Weissbrod, Lior; Malkinson, Dan; Cucchi, Thomas; Gadot, Yuval; Finkelstein, Israel; Bar-Oz, Guy


    Modern rapidly expanding cities generate intricate patterns of species diversity owing to immense complexity in urban spatial structure and current growth trajectories. We propose to identify and uncouple the drivers that give rise to these patterns by looking at the effect of urbanism on species diversity over a previously unexplored long temporal frame that covers early developments in urbanism. To provide this historical perspective we analyzed archaeozoological remains of small mammals from ancient urban and rural sites in the Near East from the 2nd to the 1st millennium BCE, and compared them to observations from modern urban areas. Our data show that ancient urban assemblages consistently comprised two main taxa (Mus musculus domesticus and Crocidura sp.), whereas assemblages of contemporaneous rural sites were significantly richer. Low species diversity also characterizes high-density core areas of modern cities, suggesting that similar ecological drivers have continued to operate in urban areas despite the vast growth in their size and population densities, as well as in the complexity of their technologies and social organization. Research in urban ecology has tended to emphasize the relatively high species diversity observed in low-density areas located on the outskirts of cities, where open and vegetated patches are abundant. The fact that over several millennia urban evolution did not significantly alter species diversity suggests that low diversity is an attribute of densely-populated settlements. The possibility that high diversity in peripheral urban areas arose only recently as a short-term phenomenon in urban ecology merits further research based on long-term data.

  8. Pre-whaling genetic diversity and population ecology in eastern Pacific gray whales: insights from ancient DNA and stable isotopes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Elizabeth Alter

    Full Text Available Commercial whaling decimated many whale populations, including the eastern Pacific gray whale, but little is known about how population dynamics or ecology differed prior to these removals. Of particular interest is the possibility of a large population decline prior to whaling, as such a decline could explain the ~5-fold difference between genetic estimates of prior abundance and estimates based on historical records. We analyzed genetic (mitochondrial control region and isotopic information from modern and prehistoric gray whales using serial coalescent simulations and Bayesian skyline analyses to test for a pre-whaling decline and to examine prehistoric genetic diversity, population dynamics and ecology. Simulations demonstrate that significant genetic differences observed between ancient and modern samples could be caused by a large, recent population bottleneck, roughly concurrent with commercial whaling. Stable isotopes show minimal differences between modern and ancient gray whale foraging ecology. Using rejection-based Approximate Bayesian Computation, we estimate the size of the population bottleneck at its minimum abundance and the pre-bottleneck abundance. Our results agree with previous genetic studies suggesting the historical size of the eastern gray whale population was roughly three to five times its current size.

  9. Ancient feeding ecology inferred from stable isotopic evidence from fossil horses in South America over the past 3 Ma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberdi María T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stable isotope ratios (13C/12C and 18O/16O in fossil teeth and bone provide key archives for understanding the ecology of extinct horses during the Plio-Pleistocene in South America; however, what happened in areas of sympatry between Equus (Amerhippus and Hippidion is less understood. Results Here, we use stable carbon and oxygen isotopes preserved in 67 fossil tooth and bone samples for seven species of horses from 25 different localities to document the magnitude of the dietary shifts of horses and ancient floral change during the Plio-Pleistocene. Dietary reconstructions inferred from stable isotopes of both genera of horses present in South America document dietary separation and environmental changes in ancient ecosystems, including C3/C4 transitions. Stable isotope data demonstrate changes in C4 grass consumption, inter-species dietary partitioning and variation in isotopic niche breadth of mixed feeders with latitudinal gradient. Conclusions The data for Hippidion indicate a preference varying from C3 plants to mixed C3-C4 plants in their diet. Equus (Amerhippus shows three different patterns of dietary partitioning Equus (A. neogeus from the province of Buenos Aires indicate a preference for C3 plants in the diet. Equus (A. andium from Ecuador and Equus (A. insulatus from Bolivia show a preference for to a diet of mixed C3-C4 plants, while Equus (A. santaeelenae from La Carolina (sea level of Ecuador and Brazil are mostly C4 feeders. These results confirm that ancient feeding ecology cannot always be inferred from dental morphology. While the carbon isotope composition of horses skeletal material decreased as latitude increased, we found evidence of boundary between a mixed C3/C4 diet signal and a pure C4 signal around 32° S and a change from a mixed diet signal to an exclusively C3 signal around 35°S. We found that the horses living at high altitudes and at low to middle latitude still have a C4 component in their

  10. Virulence of lizard malaria: the evolutionary ecology of an ancient parasite-host association. (United States)

    Schall, J J


    The negative consequences of parasitic infection (virulence) were examined for two lizard malaria parasite-host associations: Plasmodium agamae and P. giganteum, parasites of the rainbow lizard, Agama agama, in Sierra Leone, West Africa; and P. mexicanum in the western fence lizard, Sceloporus occidentalis, in northern California. These malaria species vary greatly in their reproductive characteristics: P. agamae produces only 8 merozoites per schizont, P. giganteum yields over 100, and P. mexicanum an intermediate number. All three parasites appear to have had an ancient association with their host. In fence lizards, infection with malaria is associated with increased numbers of immature erythrocytes, decreased haemoglobin levels, decreased maximal oxygen consumption, and decreased running stamina. Not affected were numbers of erythrocytes, resting metabolic rate, and sprint running speed which is supported by anaerobic means in lizards. Infected male fence lizards had smaller testes, stored less fat in preparation for winter dormancy, were more often socially submissive and, unexpectedly, were more extravagantly coloured on the ventral surface (a sexually dimorphic trait) than non-infected males. Females also stored less fat and produced smaller clutches of eggs, a directly observed reduction in fitness. Infected fence lizards do not develop behavioural fevers. P. mexicanum appears to have broad thermal buffering abilities and thermal tolerance; the parasite's population growth was unaffected by experimental alterations in the lizard's body temperature. The data are less complete for A. agama, but infected lizards suffered similar haematological and physiological effects. Infected animals may be socially submissive because they appear to gather less insect prey, possibly a result of being forced into inferior territories. Infection does not reduce clutch size in rainbow lizards, but may lengthen the time between clutches. These results are compared with

  11. The enigma of prokaryotic life in deep hypersaline anoxic basins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wielen, PWJJ; Bolhuis, H; Borin, S; Daffonchio, D; Corselli, C; Giuliano, L; D'Auria, G; de Lange, GJ; Huebner, A; Varnavas, SP; Thomson, J; Tamburini, C; Marty, D; McGenity, TJ; Timmis, KN


    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins in the Mediterranean Sea are a legacy of dissolution of ancient subterranean salt deposits from the Miocene period. Our study revealed that these hypersaline basins are not biogeochemical dead ends, but support in situ sulfate reduction, methanogenesis, and heterotroph

  12. Ecological monophagy in Tasmanian Graphium macleayanum moggana with evolutionary reflections of ancient angiosperm hosts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Local host plant specialization in an insect herbivore may be caused by numerous factors,including host-specific natural enemy pressures or a local lack of suitable host-plant choices that are available elsewhere in its range. Such local specialization or "ecological monophagy",for whatever reason,may reflect reduced ability to behaviourally accept or physiologically utilize other allopatric hosts that are naturally used elsewhere by the species.We tested this feeding specialization hypothesis using the Tasmanian subspecies of Macleay's swallowtail butterfly,Graphium macleayanum moggana (Papilionidae),which uses only a single host-plant species,Antherosperma moschatum (southern sassafras,of the Monimiaceae). Further north,this same butterfly species (G. m. macleayanum) uses at least 13 host-plant species from seven genera and four families (Lauraceae,Rutaceae,Winteraceae,and Monimiaceae). Our larval feeding assays with G. m. moggana from Tasmania showed that certain Magnoliaceae and Lauraceae could support some larval growth to pupation.However,such growth was slower and survival was lower than observed on their normal southern sassafras host (Monimiaceae). We also found that toxicity of particular plant species varied tremendously within plant families (for both the Magnoliceae and the Monimiaceae).

  13. Chronology and ancient feeding ecology of two upper Pleistocene megamammals from the Brazilian Intertropical Region (United States)

    de Melo França, Lucas; Trindade Dantas, Mário André; Bocchiglieri, Adriana; Cherckinsky, Alexander; de Souza Ribeiro, Adauto; Bocherens, Hervé


    In Brazilian Intertropical Region (BIR) fossil remains of the giant ground sloth Eremotherium laurillardi (Lund, 1842) and of the proboscidean Notiomastodon platensis (Ameghino, 1888) are the most abundant among megaherbivores. However, the paleoecology of both species needs to be better understood to enlighten why these species disappear in the end of the Pleistocene, an issue that is still debated. During the last decades, the carbon and oxygen stable isotopes have been increasingly being used to obtain paleoecological information about extinct animals, although this information is in most cases dissociated from chronological data. Thus, the main objective of this study is to contribute to the knowledge about feeding ecology and chronology of E. laurillardi and N. platensis within BIR. For each fossil sample we performed stable isotopes analyses (δ13C/δ18O) and radiocarbon dating (14C with AMS). The results showed that N. platensis occurred between 12,125 and 19,594 cal yr BP and exhibited a grazer diet (δ13C = -1.1‰-1.3‰), while E. laurillardi lived between 11,084 and 27,690 cal yr BP, with a mixed feeder diet (C3/C4 plants; values ratio δ13C = -7.7‰ to -3.3‰). The δ18O values of N. platensis ranged between 2.20‰ and 3.60‰, while the values of E. laurillardi ranged between -3.10‰ and -1.10‰. Neither species did exhibit differences in its diet through time, which suggests that the vegetational composition of this locality did not vary in the late Pleistocene. Both species were living in an open environment, rich in herbaceous plants (C4 plants) and with tree and shrub with disjoint distribution, maybe similar to some parts of recent Caatinga, where they have partitioned the spatial and feeding niches.

  14. Bos primigenius in Ancient Egyptian art – historical evidence for the continuity of occurrence and ecology of an extinct key species

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    Carl Beierkuhnlein


    Full Text Available Knowledge of the habitat requirements and temporal stability of populations of extinct aurochs (Bos primigenius is surprisingly scarce. Reliable reports of this species, which by its domestication remains tremendously important for humans, are rare. As the species became extinct about 400 years ago and regionally disappeared much earlier, its behaviour and morphology are also under debate. Aurochs is also a crucial component of the mega-herbivore theory in nature conservation, but in fact its natural habitat and behaviour are unknown. Here, I report records of aurochs for the time period of Ancient Egypt. They are found in archaeological sites and literature, and in collections. Records of the species continue through all the periods of Ancient Egypt. In particular, hunting scenes illustrating the merits of high-ranking persons, in their graves (mastabas and temples, provide insights into the behaviour and ecology of the depicted game. Here, special attention is given to one outstanding hunting scene that is documented in a relief at the mortuary temple of Ramesses III (1175 BC, Medinet Habu, Egypt. Assisted by a group of hunters, the pharaoh kills three specimens of aurochs. The whole scene is stunningly realistic.  The adult specimen is fleeing towards the reed belt of the River Nile, suggesting that the species’ habitat was probably in large valley bottoms, where open grassland is regularly created by flooding. Endemic species of fish and game confirm that this scene took place in Lower Egypt. The regional populations of the North-African subspecies of aurochs probably went extinct shortly after this piece of art was produced. Records of species in ancient art can be very informative in terms of ecology and behaviour of species, especially when extinct species are addressed. In addition, the dating of old pieces of art containing biological information can be very precise, for instance when these refer to a historic personage. 

  15. Past climate clues from anoxic basin sediments: Cariaco basin (Venezuela) as a tropical climate type section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, L.C.


    This paper discusses how anoxic conditions in deep oceans are the result of a dynamic balance between oxygen supply and oxygen consumption. The author states that a significant consequence of ancient anoxic episodes was that the accumulation and preservation of organic matter in marine sediments were greatly enhanced, allowing the generation of potential petroleum source rocks. Changes in climatic conditions both in the short term as well as over longer periods of time are examined on the basis of oxygen isotope quantities found in ice-cores drilled in Greenland. The influence of these climatic changes on anoxic conditions in the oceans is discussed.

  16. Historical ecology meets conservation and evolutionary genetics: a secondary contact zone between Carabus violaceus (Coleoptera, Carabidae populations inhabiting ancient and recent woodlands in north-western Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Matern


    Full Text Available Only very few cases have documented that an increase in connectivity after a period of fragmentation in ecological time has had an effect on the distribution, genetic structure and morphology of stenotopic species. In this study we present an example of clinal variability in a woodland ground beetle as a result of changes in the connectivity of a landscape during the last two centuries. The study area hosts both the nominate form C. violaceus s. str. and the subspecies C. v. purpurascens, which is ranked as a distinct species by some authors. We studied 12 Carabus violaceus populations from a 30 km transect of ancient and recent forests in north-western Germany. We analyzed three polymorphic enzyme loci, classified the elytron sculpture and measured the shape of the aedeagus tip of the specimens. C. violaceus showed secondary gradients both in allozyme markers and morphometric characters in our study area. A genetic differentiation of 16% between the populations is high but lies within the range of intraspecific variability in habitat specialists of the genus Carabus. Populations had no significant deficit of heterozygotes. We found many hybrid populations in terms of morphological properties. This study highlights the conservation value of ancient woodland and the consequences of landscape connectivity and defragmentation on the genetic setting of a ground beetle. Moreover, it shows that differences in the external shape of male genitalia do not prevent gene flow within the genus Carabus. Thus, the establishment of species status should not exclusively be based on this property.

  17. Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willerslev, Eske; Cooper, Alan


    ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair......ancient DNA, palaeontology, palaeoecology, archaeology, population genetics, DNA damage and repair...

  18. 略论古希腊的自然观及其生态意蕴%On Ancient Greek View of Nature and its Ecological Implication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李笑春; 王东


    With a very complex form, ancient Greek view of nature opened various possibilities. We should treat the transcendence of the Greek philosophers carefully (they were firstly embedded in the cultural traditions individually) , and keep a healthy skepticism to the logical conclusion, that to kwon Greek view of nature is not the materialized beginning of viewing nature. It did provided possibility for human to look beyond the nature, but on the other hand it also deceived people by supporting religious beliefs. Ancient Greek view of nature was not a systematic one, and the rich theoretical differences shown by its diverse theories, was where the numerous ecological concepts bred from. The extreme plasticity of Greek view of nature, rooted in the natural philosophers' effort of trying to explore the secret of nature, but they did not interrogate the na- ture as an object of study. They took the experiential phenomena as the basis and starting point, hut always went back to the metaphysics of being. All in all, from the perspective of history of ecological ideas, we will find that, with infinite possibilities, ancient Greek view of nature was the initial framework from where the ecological thought expanded, and the either way through which ecological thought could grow up.%古希腊的自然观呈现出极为复杂的形态,它开启了各种可能。在此我们要审慎地看待希腊哲人的超越性(他们也同样首先是内嵌于文化传统的个人),要对逻辑化的结论保持健康的怀疑:古希腊自然观并非物化地看待自然的开端,它为人类超越地审视自然提供可能,但同时也为人类蒙蔽于自然之内的宗教信念提供支持;古希腊自然观并不系统,在不同理论之中所表现出的丰富差异,是孕育此后诸多生态观念的温床。古希腊自然观所表现出的极强的可塑性,根源于自然哲学家们尝试性地探求自然的秘密,但并不对象性地究诘自然

  19. 海口羊山古村落的生态适应性%The Ecological Adaptability of Ancient Villages in Yangshan, Haikou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王盈; 汪永平


    Because of several volcanic eruptions happened in ancient times, a unique geological landscape was formed in Yangshan area, with the earth's surface wholly covered with volcanic rocks. At the same time, this place is also famous for unique volcanic villages which are built mostly with the rocks. There are many ancient villages locates in this area, which are characteristic and well kept. Some of them have three or four hundred years history. By adapting to the geographical environment, to local customs, and meeting the survival needs,these ancient villages and residential buildings show amazing skill and wisdom to achieve a harmonious coexistence between human and nature, The ancient residents there built their villages according to the local conditions, using local materials and keeping an environmental awareness. Even today, it is still worth learning for eco-residential design. Based on the research on the site, the layout, the space features and architectural features of Yangshan ancient villages, the paper analyses the ecological idea and technical experience which made traditional villages adapt with both nature environment and social environment, briefly summarizes the guiding significance of the vernacular housing for the contemporary eco-residential design, and puts forward the problems faced by them in the development of a new era.%羊山地区是远古时多次火山爆发形成的山地,地表遍布火山岩石,形成了独特的地质景观;同时,也以独特的火山村落而闻名.羊山地区至今仍保存有许多尚完整且极具特色的古村落,其中最老的已有三四百年历史.这些古村落和民居建筑在适应地理环境、适应当地风土人情、满足生存需要等诸多方面显示出令人赞叹的技巧和智慧,实现了人与自然的和谐共生.其因地制宜、就地取材和注重环保的营造理念,在如今的生态建筑设计中仍值得借鉴.该文通过研究羊山古村落的选址布局方式、空

  20. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments. (United States)

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob


    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  1. Oceanic oxygenation events in the anoxic Ediacaran ocean. (United States)

    Sahoo, S K; Planavsky, N J; Jiang, G; Kendall, B; Owens, J D; Wang, X; Shi, X; Anbar, A D; Lyons, T W


    The ocean-atmosphere system is typically envisioned to have gone through a unidirectional oxygenation with significant oxygen increases in the earliest (ca. 635 Ma), middle (ca. 580 Ma), or late (ca. 560 Ma) Ediacaran Period. However, temporally discontinuous geochemical data and the patchy metazoan fossil record have been inadequate to chart the details of Ediacaran ocean oxygenation, raising fundamental debates about the timing of ocean oxygenation, its purported unidirectional rise, and its causal relationship, if any, with the evolution of early animal life. To better understand the Ediacaran ocean redox evolution, we have conducted a multi-proxy paleoredox study of a relatively continuous, deep-water section in South China that was paleogeographically connected with the open ocean. Iron speciation and pyrite morphology indicate locally euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) environments throughout the Ediacaran in this section. In the same rocks, redox sensitive element enrichments and sulfur isotope data provide evidence for multiple oceanic oxygenation events (OOEs) in a predominantly anoxic global Ediacaran-early Cambrian ocean. This dynamic redox landscape contrasts with a recent view of a redox-static Ediacaran ocean without significant change in oxygen content. The duration of the Ediacaran OOEs may be comparable to those of the oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) in otherwise well-oxygenated Phanerozoic oceans. Anoxic events caused mass extinctions followed by fast recovery in biologically diversified Phanerozoic oceans. In contrast, oxygenation events in otherwise ecologically monotonous anoxic Ediacaran-early Cambrian oceans may have stimulated biotic innovations followed by prolonged evolutionary stasis.

  2. Ancient human microbiomes. (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J; Lewis, Cecil M


    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and we therefore lack a foundation for characterizing this change. High-throughput sequencing has opened up new opportunities in the field of paleomicrobiology, allowing us to investigate the evolution of the complex microbial ecologies that inhabit our bodies. By focusing on recent coprolite and dental calculus research, we explore how emerging research on ancient human microbiomes is changing the way we think about ancient disease and how archaeological studies can contribute to a medical understanding of health and nutrition today.

  3. Ancient Egypt. (United States)

    Evers, Virginia

    This four-week fourth grade social studies unit dealing with religious dimensions in ancient Egyptian culture was developed by the Public Education Religion Studies Center at Wright State University. It seeks to help students understand ancient Egypt by looking at the people, the culture, and the people's world view. The unit begins with outlines…

  4. Anoxic media design, preparation and considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plugge, C.M.


    Exclusion of oxygen from growth media is essential for the growth of anoxic prokaryotes. In general, anaerobic techniques focus on the use of deaerated boiled growth media. Successful enrichment, isolation, and cultivation of anoxic prokaryotes critically depend on the choice of appropriate growth m

  5. Release of metals from anoxic sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Martin Mørk; Jacobsen, Gitte

    The Bornholm Deep is anoxic every summer, and samples were collected in the fall 2012 and stored dark and cold (4°C in climate room), degassing regularly with Ar(g) to keep the overlying water column anoxic. Nine sediments columns were selected and divided into three groups, (1) where the water w...... without crabs, but cloudy, indicating re-suspension in the group with crabs. The metal release from sediments will be discussed in the context of re-oxygenation of anoxic or low-oxic sediments and the effect of organism that digs into the sediment in recently re-oxidised bottom waters....

  6. Valanginian Weissert oceanic anoxic event (United States)

    Erba, Elisabetta; Bartolini, Annachiara; Larson, Roger L.


    Biotic changes in nannofossils and radiolarians associated with the Valanginian δ13C anomaly are documented at Ocean Drilling Program Hole 1149B in the Pacific Ocean: they are coeval and similar to those previously documented in the Tethys, suggesting a global perturbation of marine ecosystems. A marked increase in abundance of Diazomatolithus, absence of nannoconids, and a Pantanellium peak characterize the Valanginian δ13C excursion. Such changes are interpreted as being due to global enhanced fertility and a biocalcification crisis under conditions of excess CO2. The occurrence of organic C rich black shales in the Southern Alps and in the Pacific in the interval corresponding to the δ13C excursion suggests a Valanginian oceanic anoxic event (OAE). Volcanism of the Paranà-Etendeka large igneous province (ca. 132 Ma) was presumably responsible for an increase of CO2, triggering a climate change and accelerated hydrological cycling, possibly causing an indirect fertilization of the oceans. Widespread nutrification via introduction of biolimiting metals at spreading ridges could have significantly increased during the Gondwana breakup and simultaneous tectonic events in three separate oceans. There is no paleontological or δ18O evidence of warming during the Valanginian OAE. On the contrary, both nannofossils and oxygen isotopes record a cooling event at the climax of the δ13C excursion. Weathering of basalts and burial of organic C rich black shales were presumably responsible for CO2 drawdown and establishment of reversed greenhouse conditions.

  7. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen


    by increasing the number of sequence reads to billions effectively means that contamination issues that have haunted aDNA research for decades, particularly in human studies, can now be efficiently and confidently quantified. At present, whole genomes have been sequenced from ancient anatomically modern humans......, archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  8. 南昌古城湖泊生态经济发展史对建设鄱阳湖生态经济区的启示%Title: The Development History of Lake's Ecological Economy in Ancient Nanchang City and Its Revelation to the Construction of Poyang Lake' s Ecological Economy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    2000年前,古南昌城墙将位于抚河与赣江汇流处的四个湖泊围住,城内水面占1/2以上,人们聚居湖边.屋前是街道,屋后是码头,形成了世界鲜见的湖泊商业,逐步演变为商业最发达、人口最稠密的城市中心区域。但四湖并未被污染,原生态地貌保留至今,同步积淀了丰富的历史文化,是一部世界鲜见的城市湖泊生态保护与经济繁荣和谐运行史,对都阳湖生态经济区建设有重要启发意义。建议恢复古南昌湖泊商业的历史原貌,建设具有世界独特的“湖泊商业旅游区”。%About two thousand years ago, ancient Nanchang city was almost a water city. People settled around the lake. where streets stood in front of the room and harbor lied behind it. Ancient Nanchang city had increasingly becoming a rare lake commerce center, which had boomed business and dense population. Most importantly, the four lakes in ancient Nanchang city had never been populated and even kept its primitive geomorphology and accumulated rich historical culture. It inspires Poyang Lake's construction of ecological economy for its harmony between everlasting ecological protection and economical prosperity. This paper suggests the commercial history of ancient Nanchang city should be resumed and a world-specific"Lake Commercial Tourist Zone" should Be constructed.

  9. Ancient genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Der Sarkissian, Clio; Allentoft, Morten Erik; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen;


    , archaic hominins, ancient pathogens and megafaunal species. Those have revealed important functional and phenotypic information, as well as unexpected adaptation, migration and admixture patterns. As such, the field of aDNA has entered the new era of genomics and has provided valuable information when...

  10. Photochemical synthesis of biomolecules under anoxic conditions (United States)

    Folsome, C.; Brittain, A.; Zelko, M.


    The long-wavelength UV anoxic photosynthesis of uracil, various sugars (including deoxyribose and glycoaldehyde), amino acids, and other organic photoproducts is reported. The reactions were conducted in a mixture of water, calcium carbonate, hydrazine, and formaldehyde which were subjected to 24 hr or 72 hr radiation. Product yields were greatest when the hydrazine/formaldehyde ratio was one, and when the reactant concentrations were low. These data suggest that organic products can be formed in variety from those amounts of formaldehyde and hydazine precursors which are themselves formed under anoxic UV photochemical conditions.

  11. 广西黄姚古镇生态旅游解说系统的构建研究%The Construction Study of Guangxi’s Ancient Town Huangyao’s Ecological Tourism Interpretation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    构建黄姚古镇生态旅游解说系统将有利于服务黄姚古镇旅游开发,推动地方经济建设。通过论述古镇生态旅游解说系统构建的重要性,分析了黄姚古镇生态旅游开发的优势条件,指出黄姚古镇生态旅游解说系统由交通导引解说系统、接待设施解说系统、旅游吸引物解说系统、旅游管理解说系统等四个子系统组成。%The construction of ancient town Huang Yao’s tourism interpretation system will be conducive to the service of its tourism development,and the promotion of local economic construction. Through discussing the importance of constructing tourism interpretation system,the paper analyzes the superiorities of developing ecological tourism,and holds the view that the ecological tourism interpretation system of Huangyao consists of four subsystems:the traffic guidance interpretation system,the interpretation system of reception facilities and tourist attractions,and tourism management interpretation systems.

  12. Ancient Egypt (United States)

    Swamy, Ashwin Balegar

    This thesis involves development of an interactive GIS (Geographic Information System) based application, which gives information about the ancient history of Egypt. The astonishing architecture, the strange burial rituals and their civilization were some of the intriguing questions that motivated me towards developing this application. The application is a historical timeline starting from 3100 BC, leading up to 664 BC, focusing on the evolution of the Egyptian dynasties. The tool holds information regarding some of the famous monuments which were constructed during that era and also about the civilizations that co-existed. It also provides details about the religions followed by their kings. It also includes the languages spoken during those periods. The tool is developed using JAVA, a programing language and MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) a product of ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) to create map objects, to provide geographic information. JAVA Swing is used for designing the user interface. HTML (Hyper Text Markup Language) pages are created to provide the user with more information related to the historic period. CSS (Cascade Style Sheets) and JAVA Scripts are used with HTML5 to achieve creative display of content. The tool is kept simple and easy for the user to interact with. The tool also includes pictures and videos for the user to get a feel of the historic period. The application is built to motivate people to know more about one of the prominent and ancient civilization of the Mediterranean world.

  13. Current Situation of Ancient and Famous Trees and Ecological Landscapes in Classical Suzhou Gardens%苏州古典园林古树名木的现状及生态景观分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    针对苏州古典园林独特的地域特色与环境,认为古树名木不仅是一种生物个体或自然资源,更是历史的见证者和记忆者,具有独特的人文资源属性和价值,在此基础上对苏州古典园林古树名木的现状及其生态景观加以分析,阐释了古树名木的含义,并参照相关务例界定了古树名木的级别,以入选世界文化遗产的苏州拙政园、留园、网师园、环秀山庄、沧浪亭、狮子林、艺圃、耦园以及怡园9个古典园林的古树名木为调查对象,在2002年相关调查数据的基础上,对古树名木进行重新调查、核实,得知古树名木较2002年减少了11株.具体介绍了白皮松、银杏、圆柏、黄杨、柘树等的栽种历史与生长状况,强调了适地适树对百年以上古老树木生长的重要性,强调园林保护工作也应重视对植物的研究工作.%Due to the unique regional characteristics and environment of classical Suzhou gardens, ancient and famous trees in these gardens are not only organisms or natural resources, but also witnesses and recorders of history, so they have unique attributes and value of humanistic resources. On this basis, current situation of ancient and famous trees as well as ecological landscapes formed by these trees in classical Suzhou gardens were analyzed, connotations of these trees were elaborated, and relevant regulations were taken to identify the grade of these trees. Ancient and famous trees in 9 classical Chinese gardens were investigated, specifically, the Humble Administrator's Garden, the Lingering Garden, the Master-of-Nets Garden, the Mountain Villa with Embracing Beauty, the Pavilion of Surging Waves, the Lion Grove Garden, the Garden of Cultivation, the Couple's Retreat Garden and the Garden of Pleasure. Compared with statistics obtained in 2002, the quantity of ancient and famous trees in these 9 gardens reduces by 11. History and growth state of some trees are introduced, such as

  14. Ancient DNA from marine mammals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foote, Andrew David; Hofreiter, Michael; Morin, Philip A


    such as bone, tooth, baleen, skin, fur, whiskers and scrimshaw using ancient DNA (aDNA) approaches provide an oppor- tunity for investigating such changes over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Here, we review the application of aDNA techniques to the study of marine mammals. Most of the studies have...... focused on detecting changes in genetic diversity following periods of exploitation and environmental change. To date, these studies have shown that even small sample sizes can provide useful information on historical genetic diversity. Ancient DNA has also been used in investigations of changes...... in distribution and range of marine mammal species; we review these studies and discuss the limitations of such ‘presence only’ studies. Combining aDNA data with stable isotopes can provide further insights into changes in ecology and we review past studies and suggest future potential applications. We also...

  15. 我国生态农业历史中利用植物辅助效应的实践%Adoptation of plant facilitation effect on ancient ecological agricultural records in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周晴; 孙中宇; 杨龙; 温美丽


    我国有着悠久的生态农业历史,农、林生态系统中的植物种间关系被关注最多。种间关系主要有3种,即竞争、辅助和中性。过去,竞争关系是被研究最多的一种。近20年来,辅助关系逐渐受到重视并被引入主流生态学理论中。本文分析了这些经验记载的生态学机理,其中描述最多的是植物幼苗的遮阴以及土壤养分的改良(豆科植物固氮作用)。此外,在缓冲极端温度(夏季高温以及冬季低温)、减少杂草竞争、防止动物捕食、减少水分胁迫等方面也有少量记录。我国古代不仅有利用两种植物种间辅助效应的丰富记载,还有利用多种植物综合和复合的种间辅助关系,以及植物与动物之间的复杂关系构建生态系统的记载。特别是华南地区具有利用多种植物与动物间关系来构建基塘生态系统、复合果园生态系统、茶园生态系统等方面传统经验的记载。深入挖掘我国传统植物间辅助效应的记载,并对其进行科学研究,是生态学中非常有价值的课题。因此,本文从社会-生态记忆的角度,对古代文献中关于植物间辅助效应的记载进行梳理与分析,希望引起学界同仁对这些传统经验的重视,并在此基础上通过现代生态学的实验方法验证这些记载的真实性与适用性,为生态恢复、生态农业、现代林业及生态系统管理等提供有益的借鉴。%Most of the records on interspecific relationship in agriculture and forest ecosystems were conserved during the long agricultural history of China. The interspecific association is divided into competition, facilitation and neutrality, where competition is studied in a greater depth. There was an increasing attention on facilitation introduced by the mainstream ecology theories in the past 20 years. China owns voluminous ancient books in which the historical documents left a whole lot of relevant

  16. Enhancement of dimethylsulfide production by anoxic stress in natural seawater (United States)

    Omori, Yuko; Tanimoto, Hiroshi; Inomata, Satoshi; Wada, Shigeki; Thume, Kathleen; Pohnert, Georg


    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is produced by phytoplankton in the ocean and plays an important role in biogeochemical cycles and climate system of the Earth. Previous field studies reported a possible relationship between DMS enhancement and anoxic condition, although the governing processes are still to be identified. Here we show the first direct evidence for the enhancement of DMS production by natural planktonic assemblages caused by anoxic stress. Under the anoxic condition, DMS production was considerably enhanced and DMS bacterial consumption was inhibited, resulting in an eightfold higher rate of gross DMS production than that under the oxic condition. Our results demonstrated that anoxic stress is one of important "environmental factors" in the marine DMS dynamics, suggesting the possible global importance due to ubiquity of anoxic conditions in the coastal oceans. This process would become more important in the future due to expansion of coastal hypoxic and anoxic zones by global warming.

  17. [Predicting prognosis in post-anoxic coma]. (United States)

    Kirsch, M; Boveroux, P; Massion, P; Sadzot, B; Boly, M; Lambermont, B; Lamy, M; Damas, P; Damas, F; Moonen, G; Laureys, S; Ledoux, D


    Most patients who remain comatose for a few hours after a period of global cerebral ischemia have a poor prognosis. Early identification of these patients is desirable to reduce uncertainty about treatment and non-treatment decisions, and to improve relationships with the family. The absence of pupillary light response and corneal reflexes, absent or stereotyped extension motor response to noxious stimulation (3 days after insult); myoclonus status epilepticus; absence of cortical N20 response on somatosensory evoked potential studies; generalised suppression or burst-suppression EEG and serum neuron-specific enolase above 33 microg/L (sampled 1-3 days after insult) have been shown to predict poor outcome. We here propose an algorithm to help intensive care physicians' clinical decision making in post-anoxic coma.

  18. Anoxic phosphorus removal in a pilot scale anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongxun HOU; Shuying WANG; Yongzhen PENG; Zhiguo YUAN; Fangfang YIN; Wang GAN


    The anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch (A2/O OD) process is popularly used to eliminate nutrients from domestic wastewater. In order to identify the existence of denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB), evalu-ate the contribution of DPB to biological nutrient removal,and enhance the denitrifying phosphorus removal in the A2/O OD process, a pilot-scale A2/O OD plant (375 L)was conducted. At the same time batch tests using sequence batch reactors (12 L and 4 L) were operated to reveal the significance of anoxic phosphorus removal. The results indicated that: The average removal efficiency of COD, NH4+, pO3-4, and TN were 88.2%, 92.6%, 87.8%,and 73.1%, respectively, when the steady state of the pilotscale A2/O OD plant was reached during 31-73d,demonstrating a good denitrifying phosphorus removal performance. Phosphorus uptake took place in the anoxic zone by poly-phosphorus accumulating organisms NO2- could be used as electron receptors in denitrifying phosphorus removal, and the phosphorus uptake rate with NO2- as the electron receptor was higher than that with NO3- when the initial concentration of either NO2- or NO3 was 40 mg/L.

  19. Microbially mediated barite dissolution in anoxic brines (United States)

    Ouyang, Bingjie; Akob, Denise M.; Dunlap, Darren S.; Renock, Devon


    Fluids injected into shale formations during hydraulic fracturing of black shale return with extraordinarily high total-dissolved-solids (TDS) and high concentrations of barium (Ba) and radium (Ra). Barite, BaSO4, has been implicated as a possible source of Ba as well as a problematic mineral scale that forms on internal well surfaces, often in close association with radiobarite, (Ba,Ra)SO4. The dissolution of barite by abiotic processes is well quantified. However, the identification of microbial communities in flowback and produced water necessitates the need to understand barite dissolution in the presence of bacteria. Therefore, we evaluated the rates and mechanisms of abiotic and microbially-mediated barite dissolution under anoxic and hypersaline conditions in the laboratory. Barite dissolution experiments were conducted with bacterial enrichment cultures established from produced water from Marcellus Shale wells located in northcentral Pennsylvania. These cultures were dominated by anaerobic halophilic bacteria from the genus Halanaerobium. Dissolved Ba was determined by ICP-OES and barite surfaces were investigated by SEM and AFM. Our results reveal that: 1) higher amounts of barium (up to ∼5 × ) are released from barite in the presence of Halanaerobium cultures compared to brine controls after 30 days of reaction, 2) etch pits that develop on the barite (001) surface in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is distinct from those that form during control experiments without bacteria, 3) etch pits that develop in the presence of Halanaerobium exhibit a morphology that is similar to the morphology of etch pits formed in the presence of strong organic chelators, EDTA and DTPA, and 4) experiments using dialysis membranes to separate barite from bacteria suggest that direct contact between the two is not required in order to promote dissolution. These results suggest that Halanaerobium increase the rate of barite dissolution in anoxic and

  20. Adsorption Characteristics of Remazol Black B on Anoxic Sludge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Man-hong; CHEN Liang; CHEN Dong-hui; CHEN Chao-peng


    The adsorption characteristics of Remazol Black B on anoxic sludge were investigated. The parameters, such as initial pH, sulphate concentration, and temperature,affecting the dye adsorption were studied. The adsorption data were analyzed with three adsorption isotherm models,namely Langmuir, Freudlich, and linear partition. The results showed that adsorption of Remazol Black B on the sterilized sludge reached equilibrium in 4 h. It also indicated that pH had significant effect on anoxic sludge adsorption behavior. The adsorption capacity of anoxic sludge decreased with the increase of pH value and the maximum adsorption capacity of dyes occurred at pH = 3. The adsorptive capacities increased with the decrease of temperature and increase of sulphate concentration. Results also indicated that the adsorption equilibrium of Remazol Black B on anoxic sludge could be well fitted by Freundlich model.

  1. Ancient Astronomy in Armenia (United States)

    Parsamian, Elma S.


    The most important discovery, which enriched our knowledge of ancient astronomy in Armenia, was the complex of platforms for astronomical observations on the Small Hill of Metzamor, which may be called an ancient “observatory”. Investigations on that Hill show that the ancient inhabitants of the Armenian Highlands have left us not only pictures of celestial bodies, but a very ancient complex of platforms for observing the sky. Among the ancient monuments in Armenia there is a megalithic monument, probably, being connected with astronomy. 250km South-East of Yerevan there is a structure Zorats Kar (Karahunge) dating back to II millennium B.C. Vertical megaliths many of which are more than two meters high form stone rings resembling ancient stone monuments - henges in Great Britain and Brittany. Medieval observations of comets and novas by data in ancient Armenian manuscripts are found. In the collection of ancient Armenian manuscripts (Matenadaran) in Yerevan there are many manuscripts with information about observations of astronomical events as: solar and lunar eclipses, comets and novas, bolides and meteorites etc. in medieval Armenia.

  2. Extreme seawater compositions during Oceanic Anoxic Events (United States)

    Cohen, A.; Bottini, C.; Dickson, A. J.; Izon, G. J.; Coe, A. L.


    For almost the entire duration of the Phanerozoic, the oceans have remained well oxygenated and highly conducive to the development of animal and plant life. However, there have been relatively brief intervals, known as Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs), when a very significant expansion of low-oxygen regions occurred throughout the world's oceans. OAEs were characterised by highly atypical seawater chemistry, as reflected in the chemical and isotopic compositions of contemporaneous sediments and fossil remains. These oxygen-deficient intervals also exerted profound pressures on many marine species as indicated by major changes in species populations and distributions. High-resolution chemical and isotopic data recovered from marine sediments and sedimentary rocks, together with biotic information, provide us with the best means of understanding the significance of OAEs and their place in the evolution of the Earth system. We present new Mo- and Os-isotope and geochemical data from OAE 1a (early Cretaceous), which help define how this event evolved in relation to the other major environmental parameters - including global warming, continental weathering and Ontong-Java volcanism - of that time. We compare these new observations with published results from other Mesozoic OAEs and the PETM. Recently published Os-isotope data from DSDP site 463 (mid-Pacific) [1] and northern Italy [1, 2] show that the Os budget of the oceans was dominated for a period of c. 880 ka during OAE 1a by the hydrothermal flux of unradiogenic Os from the Ontong-Java province. The observation of identical Os-isotope compositions at these two very distant sites indicates that seawater was well mixed at that time. Over the same interval, the seawater Mo-isotope composition, based upon well-preserved samples from Italy, was persistently atypical, with δ98/95Mo ranging between -0.7 and +0.7 permil [3]. All the samples analysed here accumulated under highly anoxic conditions and contain highly abundant

  3. Copper corrosion experiments under anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ollila, Kaija [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)


    This report gives results from the corrosion experiments with copper under anoxic conditions. The objective was to study whether hydrogen-evolving corrosion reaction could occur. Copper foil samples were exposed in deaerated deionized water in Erlenmeyer flasks in the glove box with inert atmosphere. Four corrosion experiments (Cu1, Cu2, Cu3 and Cu4) were started, as well as a reference test standing in air. Cu1 and Cu2 had gas tight seals, whereas Cu3 and Cu4 had palladium foils as hydrogen permeable enclosure. The test vessels were stored during the experiments in a closed stainless steel vessel to protect them from the trace oxygen of the gas atmosphere and light. After the reaction time of three and a half years, there were no visible changes in the copper surfaces in any of the tests in the glove box, in contrast the Cu surfaces looked shiny and unaltered. The Cu3 test was terminated after the reaction time of 746 days. The analysis of the Pd-membrane showed the presence of H2 in the test system. If the measured amount of 7.2{center_dot}10{sup 5} mol H{sub 2} was the result of formation of Cu{sub 2}O this would correspond to a 200 nm thick corrosion layer. This was not in agreement with the measured layer thickness with SIMS, which was 6{+-}1 nm. A clear weight loss observed for the Cu3 test vessel throughout the test period suggests the evaporation of water through the epoxy sealing to the closed steel vessel. If this occurred, the anaerobic corrosion of steel surface in humid oxygen-free atmosphere could be a source of hydrogen. A similar weight loss was not observed for the parallel test (Cu4). The reference test standing in air showed visible development of corrosion products.

  4. Microbial oceanography of anoxic oxygen minimum zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ulloa, Osvaldo; Canfield, Donald E; DeLong, Edward F


    Vast expanses of oxygen-deficient and nitrite-rich water define the major oxygen minimum zones (OMZs) of the global ocean. They support diverse microbial communities that influence the nitrogen economy of the oceans, contributing to major losses of fixed nitrogen as dinitrogen (N(2)) and nitrous...... environmental genomics and geochemical studies show the presence of other relevant processes, particularly those associated with the sulfur and carbon cycles. AMZs correspond to an intermediate state between two "end points" represented by fully oxic systems and fully sulfidic systems. Modern and ancient AMZs...... and sulfidic basins are chemically and functionally related. Global change is affecting the magnitude of biogeochemical fluxes and ocean chemical inventories, leading to shifts in AMZ chemistry and biology that are likely to continue well into the future....

  5. Microbial responses to chitin and chitosan in oxic and anoxic agricultural soil slurries (United States)

    Wieczorek, A. S.; Hetz, S. A.; Kolb, S.


    Microbial degradation of chitin in soil substantially contributes to carbon cycling in terrestrial ecosystems. Chitin is globally the second most abundant biopolymer after cellulose and can be deacetylated to chitosan or can be hydrolyzed to N,N'-diacetylchitobiose and oligomers of N-acetylglucosamine by aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Which pathway of chitin hydrolysis is preferred by soil microbial communities is unknown. Supplementation of chitin stimulated microbial activity under oxic and anoxic conditions in agricultural soil slurries, whereas chitosan had no effect. Thus, the soil microbial community likely was more adapted to chitin as a substrate. In addition, this finding suggested that direct hydrolysis of chitin was preferred to the pathway that starts with deacetylation. Chitin was apparently degraded by aerobic respiration, ammonification, and nitrification to carbon dioxide and nitrate under oxic conditions. When oxygen was absent, fermentation products (acetate, butyrate, propionate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide) and ammonia were detected, suggesting that butyric and propionic acid fermentation, along with ammonification, were likely responsible for anaerobic chitin degradation. In total, 42 different chiA genotypes were detected of which twenty were novel at an amino acid sequence dissimilarity of less than 50%. Various chiA genotypes responded to chitin supplementation and affiliated with a novel deep-branching bacterial chiA genotype (anoxic conditions), genotypes of Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria (oxic and anoxic conditions), and Planctomycetes (oxic conditions). Thus, this study provides evidence that detected chitinolytic bacteria were catabolically diverse and occupied different ecological niches with regard to oxygen availability enabling chitin degradation under various redox conditions on community level.

  6. Ancient Marital Rites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Clearly defined rites governing speech and actions dominated both the social and domestic activities of ancient Chinese people. Rites not only dominated the lives of men, but were also prominent in the lives of women.

  7. Ancient Chinese Architecture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    CHINESE people have accu-mulated a great deal ofexperience in architecture,constantly improving building ma-terials and thus creating uniquebuilding styles.The history of ancient Chinesearchitechtural development can be

  8. Biological phosphorus uptake under anoxic and aerobic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens


    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated under anoxic and aerobic conditions. Tests were made to establish whether phosphorus accumulating bacteria can take up phosphate under anoxic conditions and thus utilise nitrate as oxidant. Furthermore, it was tested how the amount of organic matter...... sludge from two different pilot plants incorporating phosphorus removal. The results showed that the phosphorus accumulating bacteria can be divided into two groups in respect of process; one group capable of utilising only oxygen as oxidant and another group capable of utilising both oxygen and nitrate...... taken up by the phosphorus accumulating bacteria during the anaerobic phase affects the total denitrification rate, as well as the rate at which the phosphorus accumulating bacteria take up phosphate under anoxic conditions. The tests were conducted as batch experiments in 21. reactors with activated...

  9. The first metazoa living in permanently anoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiner Iben


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several unicellular organisms (prokaryotes and protozoa can live under permanently anoxic conditions. Although a few metazoans can survive temporarily in the absence of oxygen, it is believed that multi-cellular organisms cannot spend their entire life cycle without free oxygen. Deep seas include some of the most extreme ecosystems on Earth, such as the deep hypersaline anoxic basins of the Mediterranean Sea. These are permanently anoxic systems inhabited by a huge and partly unexplored microbial biodiversity. Results During the last ten years three oceanographic expeditions were conducted to search for the presence of living fauna in the sediments of the deep anoxic hypersaline L'Atalante basin (Mediterranean Sea. We report here that the sediments of the L'Atalante basin are inhabited by three species of the animal phylum Loricifera (Spinoloricus nov. sp., Rugiloricus nov. sp. and Pliciloricus nov. sp. new to science. Using radioactive tracers, biochemical analyses, quantitative X-ray microanalysis and infrared spectroscopy, scanning and transmission electron microscopy observations on ultra-sections, we provide evidence that these organisms are metabolically active and show specific adaptations to the extreme conditions of the deep basin, such as the lack of mitochondria, and a large number of hydrogenosome-like organelles, associated with endosymbiotic prokaryotes. Conclusions This is the first evidence of a metazoan life cycle that is spent entirely in permanently anoxic sediments. Our findings allow us also to conclude that these metazoans live under anoxic conditions through an obligate anaerobic metabolism that is similar to that demonstrated so far only for unicellular eukaryotes. The discovery of these life forms opens new perspectives for the study of metazoan life in habitats lacking molecular oxygen.

  10. Arctic black shale formation during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenniger, Marc; Nøhr-Hansen, Henrik; Hills, Len V.


    The Late Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) represents a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle caused by the widespread deposition of organic-rich black shales. Although the paleoceanographic response and the spatial extent of bottom-water anoxia in low and mid-paleolatitudes are re......The Late Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2) represents a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle caused by the widespread deposition of organic-rich black shales. Although the paleoceanographic response and the spatial extent of bottom-water anoxia in low and mid...

  11. Metabolic Strategies in Energy-Limited Microbial Communities in the Anoxic Subsurface (Frasassi Cave System, Italy) (United States)

    McCauley, R. L.; Jones, D. S.; Schaperdoth, I.; Steinberg, L.; Macalady, J. L.


    Two major sources of energy, light and chemical potential, are available to microorganisms. However, energy is not always abundant and is often a limiting factor in microbial survival and replication. The anoxic, terrestrial subsurface offers a unique opportunity to study microorganisms and their potentially novel metabolic strategies that are relevant for understanding biogeochemistry and biosignatures as related to the non-photosynthetic, energy-limited environments on the modern and ancient Earth and elsewhere in the solar system. Geochemical data collected in a remote stratified lake 600 m below ground surface in the sulfidic Frasassi cave system (Italy) suggest that little redox energy is available for life, consistent with low signal from domain-specific FISH probes. The carbon isotope signatures of biofilms (-33‰) and DIC (-9‰) in the anoxic water suggest in situ production by lithoautotrophs using RuBisCO. 16S rDNA libraries constructed from the biofilm are dominated by diverse sulfate reducing bacteria. The remaining bacterial and archaeal clones affiliate with more than 11 major uncultivated or novel prokaryotic lineages. Diverse dsrAB gene sequences are consistent with high sulfate concentrations and undetectable or extremely low oxygen, nitrate, and iron concentrations. However, the electron donor for sulfate reduction is unclear. Methane is detectable in the anoxic water although no 16S rDNA sequences associated with known methanogens or anaerobic methane oxidizers were retrieved. mcrA gene sequences retrieved from the biofilm by cloning are not related to cultivated methanogens or to known anaerobic methane oxidizers. Non-purgable organic carbon (NPOC) is below detection limits (i.e. <42 μM acetate) suggesting that alternative electron donors or novel metabolisms may be important. A sample collected by cave divers in October 2009 was pyrosequenced at the Pennsylvania State University Genomics Core Facility using Titanium chemistry (454 Life

  12. An Updated View of the Microbial Diversity in Deep Hypersaline Anoxic Basins

    KAUST Repository

    Mapelli, Francesca


    Deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs) are marine extreme habitats, firstly discovered in the 1970s of the last century, located in several oceanographic regions, including the Mediterranean and Red Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. These basins are filled with brines that do not mix with the overlying seawater, due to a density difference. Brine and seawater result separated by a thick interface acting as a trap for particulate and cells. Some microbiological studies focused on seawater-brine interfaces of DHABs, showing that microbial populations are differentially distributed according to the gradient of salinity, oxygen, and nutrients occurring in such transition zones. Moreover, DHABs’ brines were intensively studied showing that specific bacterial, archaeal, and eukaryotic populations thrive there. In the last few years, cultivation and “omics”-based approaches have been used with samples collected from DHABs around the world, allowing clarifying metabolic processes of paramount ecological importance and pointing out the high biotechnological potential of the inhabiting extremophiles.

  13. Microbiology of the Red Sea (and other) deep-sea anoxic brine lakes

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre


    Summary: The Red Sea harbours approximately 25 deep-sea anoxic brine pools. They constitute extremely unique and complex habitats with the conjugation of several extreme physicochemical parameters rendering them some of the most inhospitable environments on Earth. After 50 years of research mostly driven by chemists, geophysicists and geologists, the microbiology of the brines has been receiving increased interest in the last decade. Recent molecular and cultivation-based studies have provided us with a first glimpse on the enormous biodiversity of the local microbial communities, the identification of several new taxonomic groups, and the isolation of novel extremophiles that thrive in these environments. This review presents a general overview of these unusual biotopes and compares them with other similar environments in the Mediterranean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico, with a focus on their microbial ecology. © 2011 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  14. Marine ecosystem resilience during extreme deoxygenation: the Early Jurassic oceanic anoxic event. (United States)

    Caswell, Bryony A; Frid, Christopher L J


    Global warming during the Early Jurassic, and associated widespread ocean deoxygenation, was comparable in scale with the changes projected for the next century. This study quantifies the impact of severe global environmental change on the biological traits of marine communities that define the ecological roles and functions they deliver. We document centennial-millennial variability in the biological trait composition of Early Jurassic (Toarcian) seafloor communities and examine how this changed during the event using biological traits analysis. Environmental changes preceding the global oceanic anoxic event (OAE) produced an ecological shift leading to stressed benthic palaeocommunities with reduced resilience to the subsequent OAE. Changes in traits and ecological succession coincided with major environmental changes; and were of similar nature and magnitude to those in severely deoxygenated benthic communities today despite the very different timescales. Changes in community composition were linked to local redox conditions whereas changes in populations of opportunists were driven by primary productivity. Throughout most of the OAE substitutions by tolerant taxa conserved the trait composition and hence functioning, but periods of severe deoxygenation caused benthic defaunation that would have resulted in functional collapse. Following the OAE recovery was slow probably because the global nature of the event restricted opportunities for recruitment from outside the basin. Our findings suggest that future systems undergoing deoxygenation may initially show functional resilience, but severe global deoxygenation will impact traits and ecosystem functioning and, by limiting the species pool, will slow recovery rates.

  15. Molybdenum drawdown during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldberg, T.; Poulton, S.W.; Wagner, T.; Kolonic, S.F.; Rehkämper, M.


    During the Cretaceous greenhouse, episodes of widespread ocean deoxygenation were associated with globally occurring events of black shale deposition. Possibly the most pronounced of these oceanic anoxic events (OAE's) was the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE2 (~94 Ma). However, although certain redox sensit

  16. Diatoms respire nitrate to survive dark and anoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamp, Anja; de Beer, Dirk; Nitsch, Jana L.


    Diatoms survive in dark, anoxic sediment layers for months to decades. Our investigation reveals a correlation between the dark survival potential of marine diatoms and their ability to accumulate NO3− intracellularly. Axenic strains of benthic and pelagic diatoms that stored 11–274 mM NO3− in th...

  17. Dentistry in ancient mesopotamia. (United States)

    Neiburger, E J


    Sumer, an empire in ancient Mesopotamia (southern Iraq), is well known as the cradle of our modern civilization and the home of biblical Abraham. An analysis of skeletal remains from cemeteries at the ancient cities of Ur and Kish (circa 2000 B.C.), show a genetically homogeneous, diseased, and short-lived population. These ancient Mesopotamians suffered severe dental attrition (95 percent), periodontal disease (42 percent), and caries (2 percent). Many oral congenital and neoplastic lesions were noted. During this period, the "local dentists" knew only a few modern dental techniques. Skeletal (dental) evidence indicates that the population suffered from chronic malnutrition. Malnutrition was probably caused by famine, which is substantiated in historic cuneiform and biblical writings, geologic strata samples, and analysis of skeletal and forensic dental pathology. These people had modern dentition but relatively poor dental health. The population's lack of malocclusions, caries, and TMJ problems appear to be due to flat plane occlusion.

  18. Dwarfs in ancient Egypt. (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira


    Ancient Egypt was one of the most advanced and productive civilizations in antiquity, spanning 3000 years before the "Christian" era. Ancient Egyptians built colossal temples and magnificent tombs to honor their gods and religious leaders. Their hieroglyphic language, system of organization, and recording of events give contemporary researchers insights into their daily activities. Based on the record left by their art, the ancient Egyptians documented the presence of dwarfs in almost every facet of life. Due to the hot dry climate and natural and artificial mummification, Egypt is a major source of information on achondroplasia in the old world. The remains of dwarfs are abundant and include complete and partial skeletons. Dwarfs were employed as personal attendants, animal tenders, jewelers, and entertainers. Several high-ranking dwarfs especially from the Old Kingdom (2700-2190 BCE) achieved important status and had lavish burial places close to the pyramids. Their costly tombs in the royal cemeteries and the inscriptions on their statutes indicate their high-ranking position in Egyptian society and their close relation to the king. Some of them were Seneb, Pereniankh, Khnumhotpe, and Djeder. There were at least two dwarf gods, Ptah and Bes. The god Ptah was associated with regeneration and rejuvenation. The god Bes was a protector of sexuality, childbirth, women, and children. He was a favored deity particularly during the Greco-Roman period. His temple was recently excavated in the Baharia oasis in the middle of Egypt. The burial sites and artistic sources provide glimpses of the positions of dwarfs in daily life in ancient Egypt. Dwarfs were accepted in ancient Egypt; their recorded daily activities suggest assimilation into daily life, and their disorder was not shown as a physical handicap. Wisdom writings and moral teachings in ancient Egypt commanded respect for dwarfs and other individuals with disabilities.

  19. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations. (United States)

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  20. Ancient Egypt: Personal Perspectives. (United States)

    Wolinski, Arelene

    This teacher resource book provides information on ancient Egypt via short essays, photographs, maps, charts, and drawings. Egyptian social and religious life, including writing, art, architecture, and even the practice of mummification, is conveniently summarized for the teacher or other practitioner in a series of one to three page articles with…

  1. Cloning Ancient Trees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    west of Tiananmen Square in Beijing, in Zhongshan Park, there stand several ancient cypress trees, each more than 1,000 years old. Their leafy crowns are all more than 20 meters high, while four have trunks that are 6 meters in circumference. The most unique of these

  2. Ancient ports of Kalinga

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.

    The ancient Kingdom of Kalinga mentioned in the Hathigumpha inscription of Kharavela (1st century B.C.) extended from the mouths of the Ganges to the estuary of Godavari river on the East Coast. Ptolemy (100 A.D.) mentions that Paluru (District...

  3. Ancient deforestation revisited. (United States)

    Hughes, J Donald


    The image of the classical Mediterranean environment of the Greeks and Romans had a formative influence on the art, literature, and historical perception of modern Europe and America. How closely does is this image congruent with the ancient environment as it in reality existed? In particular, how forested was the ancient Mediterranean world, was there deforestation, and if so, what were its effects? The consensus of historians, geographers, and other scholars from the mid-nineteenth century through the first three quarters of the twentieth century was that human activities had depleted the forests to a major extent and caused severe erosion. My research confirmed this general picture. Since then, revisionist historians have questioned these conclusions, maintaining instead that little environmental damage was done to forests and soils in ancient Greco-Roman times. In a reconsideration of the question, this paper looks at recent scientific work providing proxy evidence for the condition of forests at various times in ancient history. I look at three scientific methodologies, namely anthracology, palynology, and computer modeling. Each of these avenues of research offers support for the concept of forest change, both in abundance and species composition, and episodes of deforestation and erosion, and confirms my earlier work.

  4. Printing Ancient Terracotta Warriors (United States)

    Gadecki, Victoria L.


    Standing in awe in Xian, China, at the Terra Cotta warrior archaeological site, the author thought of sharing this experience and excitement with her sixth-grade students. She decided to let her students carve patterns of the ancient soldiers to understand their place in Chinese history. They would make block prints and print multiple soldiers on…

  5. Characteristics of anoxic phosphors removal in sequence batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ya-yi; PAN Mian-li; Yan Min; PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Shu-ying


    The characteristics of anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake was investigated in sequencing batch reactors using denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB) sludge. The lab-scale experiments were accomplished under conditions of various nitrite concentrations (5.5, 9.5, and 15 mg/L) and mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) (1844, 3231, and 6730 mg/L). The results obtained confirmed that nitrite, MLSS, and pH were key factors, which had a significant impact on anaerobic phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake in the biological phosphorous removal process. The nitrites were able to successfully act as electron acceptors for phosphorous uptake at a limited concentration between 5.5 and 9.5 mg/L. The denitrification and dephosphorous were inhibited when the nitrite concentration reached 15 mg/L. This observation indicated that the nitrite would not inhibit phosphorus uptake before it exceeded a threshold concentration. It was assumed that an increase of MLSS concentration from 1844 mg/L to 6730 mg/L led to the increase of denitrification and anoxic P-uptake rate. On the contrary, the average P uptake/N denitrifying reduced from 2.10 to 1.57 mg PO43--P/mg NO3--N. Therefore, it could be concluded that increasing MLSS of the DEPHANOX system might shorten the reaction time of phosphorus release and anoxic phosphorus uptake. However, excessive MLSS might reduce the specific denitrifying rate. Meanwhile, a rapid pH increase occurred at the beginning of the anoxic conditions as a result of denitrification and anoxic phosphate uptake. Anaerobic P release rate increased with an increase in pH. Moreover, when pH exceeded a relatively high value of 8.0, the dissolved P concentration decreased in the liquid phase, because of chemical precipitation. This observation suggested that pH should be strictly controlled below 8.0 to avoid chemical precipitation if the biological denitrifying phosphorus removal capability is to be studied accurately.

  6. [Ecology and ecologies]. (United States)

    Valera, Luca


    Ecology (from the Greek words οιχοσ, "house" and λογια "study of") is the science of the "house", since it studies the environments where we live. There are three main ways of thinking about Ecology: Ecology as the study of interactions (between humans and the environment, between humans and living beings, between all living beings, etc.), Ecology as the statistical study of interactions, Ecology as a faith, or rather as a science that requires a metaphysical view. The history of Ecology shows us how this view was released by the label of "folk sense" to gain the epistemological status of science, a science that strives to be interdisciplinary. So, the aim of Ecology is to study, through a scientific methodology, the whole natural world, answering to very different questions, that arise from several fields (Economics, Biology, Sociology, Philosophy, etc.). The plurality of issues that Ecology has to face led, during the Twentieth-century, to branch off in several different "ecologies". As a result, each one of these new approaches chose as its own field a more limited and specific portion of reality.

  7. Does vivianite control phosphate solubility in anoxic meadow soils?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walpersdorf, Eva Christine; Bender Koch, Christian; Heiberg, Lisa


    composition in the gyttja layer was close to equilibrium with vivianite (saturation index, SIviv, 2.01±0.53) at constant pH (~ 6.8). Dissolution and precipitation experiments in the laboratory with soil suspensions from the gyttja layer demonstrated that vivianite solubility equilibria were only slowly......Vivianite (Fe3(PO4)2·8H2O) may precipitate in anoxic wetland soils where it may control orthophosphate (Pi) equilibrium solution concentrations at micromolar levels, and thus be of key importance in reducing excessive P from agricultural sources and eutrophication. However, vivianite equilibria...... restored. Even after 120 days following perturbation the supersaturation was still high (SIviv~6). It seems that vivianite does contribute to Pi immobilization in anoxic soil horizons, but due to slow precipitation kinetics such soils cannot maintain Pi concentrations at levels below critical thresholds...

  8. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event



    Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales) and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associ...

  9. Living at the Limits: Evidence for Microbial Eukaryotes Thriving under Pressure in Deep Anoxic, Hypersaline Habitats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Stoeck


    Full Text Available The advent of molecular tools in microbial ecology paved the way to exploit the diversity of microbes in extreme environments. Here, we review these tools as applied in one of the most polyextreme habitats known on our planet, namely, deep hypersaline anoxic basins (DHABs, located at ca. 3000–3500 m depth in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Molecular gene signatures amplified from environmental DHAB samples identified a high degree of genetic novelty, as well as distinct communities in the DHABs. Canonical correspondence analyses provided strong evidence that salinity, ion composition, and anoxia were the strongest selection factors shaping protistan community structures, largely preventing cross-colonization among the individual basins. Thus, each investigated basin represents a unique habitat (“isolated islands of evolution”, making DHABs ideal model sites to test evolutionary hypotheses. Fluorescence in situ hybridization assays using specifically designed probes revealed that the obtained genetic signatures indeed originated from indigenous polyextremophiles. Electron microscopy imaging revealed unknown ciliates densely covered with prokaryote ectosymbionts, which may enable adaptations of eukaryotes to DHAB conditions. The research reviewed here significantly advanced our knowledge on polyextremophile eukaryotes, which are excellent models for a number of biological research areas, including ecology, diversity, biotechnology, evolutionary research, physiology, and astrobiology.

  10. Comets in ancient India

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Patrick Das


    The Indo-aryans of ancient India observed stars and constellations for ascertaining auspicious times for sacrificial rites ordained by vedas. It is but natural that they would have recounted in the vedic texts about comets. In Rigveda ($\\sim $ 1700 - 1500 BC) and Atharvaveda ($\\sim $ 1150 BC), there are references to dhumaketus and ketus, which stand for comets in Sanskrit. Varahamihira in 550 AD and Ballala Sena ($\\sim $ 1100 - 1200 AD) have described a large number of comets recorded by ancient seers such as Parashara, Vriddha Garga, Narada, Garga, etc. In this article, I conjecture that an episode narrated in Mahabharata of a radiant king, Nahusha, ruling the heavens, and later turning into a serpent after he had kicked the seer Agastya (also the star Canopus), is a mythological retelling of a cometary event.

  11. Ambrosia of Ancients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    IN 196 B.C. a Chinese philosopher observedto his ruler: "A lord's to ppriority is the welfare of his subjects; to the peopie, eating is foremost." Chinese ancients perceived clearly the essentiality of grain cultivation to the survival of the population and country as a whole. This is apparent in the premillennial term for "country" -sheji literally translated as god of land and grain.

  12. Anoxic survival potential of bivalves: (arte)facts. (United States)

    de Zwaan, Albertus; Babarro, Jose M F; Monari, Marta; Cattani, Otello


    The anoxic survival time of the bivalves Chamelea gallina, Cerastoderma edule and Scapharca inaequivalvis from two different ecosystems and differing anoxia tolerances was studied in static (closed) and flow-through systems. The antibiotics chloramphenicol, penicillin and polymyxin were added, and molybdate (specific inhibitor of the process of sulfate reduction). Survival in (near) anoxic seawater of Chamelea was studied in a static system by comparing untreated seawater with autoclaved seawater and untreated clams with clams incubated in well-aerated seawater, containing the broad-spectrum antibiotic chloramphenicol, prior to the anoxic survival test. With untreated clams and natural seawater (median mortality time 2.4 days) a decrease in pH and exponential accumulation of sulfide and ammonium was observed in the anoxic medium, indicating excessive growth of (sulfate reducing) bacteria. In sterilized seawater LT50 (2.1 days) was not significantly different and again considerable amounts of ammonium and sulfide accumulated. However, pre-treatment of clams with chloramphenicol resulted in an increase of LT50 (11.0 days) by approximately fivefold. Accumulation of ammonium and sulfide was retarded, but was finally even stronger than in the medium containing untreated clams. Median mortality times were 2.5 and 2.4 days for Chamelea and 2.7 and 2.9 days for Cerastoderma for static and flow-through incubations, respectively. Addition of chloramphenicol increased strongly survival time in both systems with corresponding values of 11.0 and 16.3 days for Chamelea, and 6.4 and 6.5 days for Cerastoderma. LT50 of Scapharca in anoxic seawater was 14.4 days. Chloramphenicol and penicillin increased median survival time to 28.5 and 28.7 days, respectively, whereas polymyxin displayed no effect (LT50=13.6 days). Molybdate added to artificial sulfate free seawater blocked biotic sulfide formation, but did not improve survival time (LT50=13.7 days). Overall the results indicate

  13. Diversity of Ancient Woody Species in Urban Forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fornal-Pieniak Beata


    Full Text Available Mostly parks and forest are the most important ‘green islands’ in urban ecological network. Urban forests are belong to green areas and collected many plant species. The main aim of the article was characteristic of ancient plant species in urban forests in Tarnów. The field studies were carried out in years 2011-2012. It covered 80 phytosociological records on the area 500 m2 in herb layer of urban forests and in forest nature on oak-hornbeam. The results showed that many ancient plant species were growing in urban forest but less than in nature reserves

  14. Suicide in ancient Greece. (United States)

    Laios, K; Tsoukalas, G; Kontaxaki, M-I; Karamanou, M; Androutsos, G


    The theme of suicide appears several times in ancient Greek literature. However, each such reference acquires special significance depending on the field from which it originates. Most of the information found in mythology, but the suicide in a mythological tale, although in terms of motivation and mental situation of heroes may be in imitation of similar incidents of real life, in fact is linked with the principles of the ancient Greek religion. In ancient drama and mainly in tragedies suicide conduces to the tragic hypostasis of the heroes and to the evolution of the plot and also is a tool in order to be presented the ideas of poets for the relations of the gods, the relation among gods and men and the relation among the men. In ancient Greek philosophy there were the deniers of suicide, who were more concerned about the impact of suicide on society and also these who accepted it, recognizing the right of the individual to put an end to his life, in order to avoid personal misfortunes. Real suicides will be found mostly from historical sources, but most of them concern leading figures of the ancient world. Closer to the problem of suicide in the everyday life of antiquity are ancient Greek medicines, who studied the phenomenon more general without references to specific incidents. Doctors did not approve in principal the suicide and dealt with it as insane behavior in the development of the mental diseases, of melancholia and mania. They considered that the discrepancy of humors in the organ of logic in the human body will cause malfunction, which will lead to the absurdity and consequently to suicide, either due to excessive concentration of black bile in melancholia or due to yellow bile in mania. They believed that greater risk to commit suicide had women, young people and the elderly. As therapy they used the drugs of their time with the intention to induce calm and repression in the ill person, therefore they mainly used mandragora. In general, we would say

  15. Chromium isotope composition of reducing and anoxic sediments from the Peru Margin and Cariaco Basin (United States)

    Gueguen, B.; Planavsky, N.; Wang, X.; Algeo, T. J.; Peterson, L. C.; Reinhard, C. T.


    Chromium isotope systematics in marine sediments are now being used as a new redox proxy of the modern and ancient Earth's surface. Chromium is primarily delivered to the oceans by riverine inputs through weathering of Cr(III)-rich minerals present in the continental crust and oxidation of insoluble Cr(III) to soluble Cr(VI) species. Since oxidation-reduction reactions fractionate Cr isotopes whereby oxidized Cr(VI) species are preferentially enriched in heavy Cr isotopes, the Cr isotope composition of marine sediments may be useful tracers of redox conditions at the Earth's surface through geological time. Chromium is quantitatively removed in organic-rich sediments where reducing conditions prevail and promote reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), and thus, these sediments should capture the ambient seawater Cr isotope composition. However, the isotopic composition of modern organic-rich sediments is poorly documented so far, and this step is essential for further modeling the global oceanic Cr isotope mass balance and assessing the effects of sedimentation and post-depositional processes on the marine Cr isotopes archive. In this study, we have characterized modern marine organic-rich sediments for their Cr isotope composition (δ53/52Cr) from two different settings, the Peru margin upwelling zone and the anoxic Cariaco Basin (Venezuela). Chromium isotopes were measured on a MC-ICP-MS (Nu Plasma) using a double-spike correction method. The authigenic fraction of shallow samples from the Peru margin sedimentary sequence with a high Total Organic Carbon (TOC) content (>10 wt%) yield an average δ53/52Crauthigenic value of +0.67 ±0.05 ‰ (2sd). However, although this value is close to the seawater value (Atlantic Ocean) and to Cariaco basin sediments (~ +0.6 ‰), reducing sediments from the Peru margin are on average isotopically slightly heavier, especially in samples having a low authigenic fraction and a low TOC content (δ53/52Crauthigenic values up to +1.30

  16. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger


    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  17. Dance in Ancient Greek Culture


    Spalva, Rita


    The greatness and harmony of ancient Greece has had an impact upon the development of the Western European culture to this day. The ancient Greek culture has influenced contemporary literature genres and systems of philosophy, principles of architecture, sculpture and drama and has formed basis for such sciences as astronomy and mathematics. The art of ancient Greece with its penchant for beauty and clarity has been the example of the humanity’s search for an aesthetic ideal. Despite only bei...

  18. Mathematics in ancient Greece

    CERN Document Server

    Dantzig, Tobias


    More than a history of mathematics, this lively book traces mathematical ideas and processes to their sources, stressing the methods used by the masters of the ancient world. Author Tobias Dantzig portrays the human story behind mathematics, showing how flashes of insight in the minds of certain gifted individuals helped mathematics take enormous forward strides. Dantzig demonstrates how the Greeks organized their precursors' melange of geometric maxims into an elegantly abstract deductive system. He also explains the ways in which some of the famous mathematical brainteasers of antiquity led

  19. Ancient concrete works

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina


    It is commonly believed that the ancient Romans were the first to create and use concrete. This is not true, as we can easily learn from the Latin literature itself. For sure, Romans were able to prepare high-quality hydraulic cements, comparable with the modern Portland cements. In this paper, we will see that the use of concrete is quite older, ranging back to the Homeric times. For instance, it was used for the floors of some courts and galleries of the Mycenaean palace at Tiryns

  20. Climate and Ancient Societies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Climate, and human responses to it, have a strongly interconnected relationship. This when climate change occurs, the result of either natural or human causes, societies should react and adapt to these. But do they? If so, what is the nature of that change, and are the responses positive...... or negative for the long-term survival of social groups? In this volume, scholars from diverse disciplines including archaeology, geology and climate sciences explore scientific and material evidence for climate changes in the past, their causes, their effects on ancient societies and how those societies...

  1. Administrative Ecology (United States)

    McGarity, Augustus C., III; Maulding, Wanda


    This article discusses how all four facets of administrative ecology help dispel the claims about the "impossibility" of the superintendency. These are personal ecology, professional ecology, organizational ecology, and community ecology. Using today's superintendency as an administrative platform, current literature describes a preponderance of…

  2. Decoupling of the Carbon Cycle during Ocean Anoxic Event-2 (United States)

    Eldrett, J.; Bergman, S. C.; Minisini, D.


    The Cenomanian to Turonian Boundary transition (95-93 Ma) represents one of the most profound global perturbations in the carbon cycle of the last 140 million years. This interval is characterized by widespread deposition of organic-rich fine-grained sediment marked by a globally recognised positive carbon isotope excursion (CIE) reflecting the widespread removal of 12C-enriched organic matter in marine sediments under global anoxic conditions. However, the exact timing and trigger of this inferred global phenomenon, termed Oceanic Anoxic Event-2 is still debated, with recent studies showing diachroneity between the deposition of the organic-rich sediment and the CIE, and conflicting interpretations on detailed redox analyses in several of these inferred anoxic settings. Here we present the first evidence for widespread and persistent oxygenation during OAE-2 based primarily on the distribution of redox-sensitive trace metals preserved in sediments from the Eagle Ford Formation, Western Interior Seaway of North America. We generated a δ13C curve which indicates an earlier initiation of the CIE in Texas compared to the Global Stratotype and Point Section at Pueblo, Colorado. Our data also indicate anoxic-euxinic conditions in the mid-late Cenomanian, but improved bottom-water oxygenation prior to and during the CIE, corroborated by increased bioturbation, abundance of benthic foraminifera and reduced total organic carbon values. Trace metal enrichments support large volumes of mafic volcanism possibly from the High Arctic Large Igneous Province (LIP), which occur during peak bottom-water oxygenation and a plateau in δ13Corg values and does not immediately precede the Cenomanian-Turonian CIE, as previously stated. This suggests that the emplacement of a LIP was not the primary trigger of the OAE-2 event. It is also unlikely that bottom-water oxygenation was promoted by the introduction of volcanogenic Fe inhibiting sulfate reduction, as the depletion in redox

  3. Anoxic Activated Sludge Monitoring with Combined Nitrate and Titrimetric Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, B.; Gernaey, Krist; Vanrolleghem, P.A.


    An experimental procedure for anoxic activated sludge monitoring with combined nitrate and titrimetric measurements is proposed and evaluated successfully with two known carbon sources, (-)acetate and dextrose. For nitrate measurements an ion-selective nitrate electrode is applied to allow...... was with the carbon source in excess, since excess nitrate provoked nitrite build-up thereby complicating the data interpretation. A conceptual model could quantitatively describe the experimental observations and thus link the experimentally measured proton production with the consumption of electron acceptor...... and carbon source during denitrification....

  4. Exploring Ancient Skies A Survey of Ancient and Cultural Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H


    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers—events such as the supernova of 1054 A.D., the "lion horoscope," and the Star of Bethlehem. Explori...

  5. Authenticity in ancient DNA studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, M Thomas P; Willerslev, Eske


    Ancient DNA studies represent a powerful tool that can be used to obtain genetic insights into the past. However, despite the publication of large numbers of apparently successful ancient DNA studies, a number of problems exist with the field that are often ignored. Therefore, questions exist as ...

  6. H2 cycling and microbial bioenergetics in anoxic sediments (United States)

    Hoehler, Tori M.; DeVincenzi, Donald (Technical Monitor)


    The simple biochemistry of H2 is central to a large number of microbial processes, affecting the interaction of organisms with each other and with the environment. In anoxic sediments, the great majority of microbial redox processes involve H2 as a reactant, product, or potential by-product, and the thermodynamics of these processes are thus highly sensitive to fluctuations in environmental H2 concentrations. In turn, H2 concentrations are controlled by the activity of H2-consuming microorganisms, which efficiently utilize this substrate down to levels which correspond to their bioenergetic limitations. Consequently, any environmental change which impacts the thermodynamics of H2-consuming organisms is mirrored by a corresponding change in H2 concentrations. This phenomenon is illustrated in anoxic sediments from Cape Lookout Bight, NC, USA: H2 concentrations are controlled by a suite of environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, sulfate concentrations) in a fashion which can be quantitatively described by a simple thermodynamic model. These findings allow us to calculate the apparent minimum quantity of biologically useful energy in situ. We find that sulfate reducing bacteria are not active at energy yields below -18 kJ per mole sulfate, while methanogenic archaea exhibit a minimum close to -10 kJ per mole methane.

  7. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malliya Gounder Palanichamy

    Full Text Available Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  8. Tamil merchant in ancient Mesopotamia. (United States)

    Palanichamy, Malliya Gounder; Mitra, Bikash; Debnath, Monojit; Agrawal, Suraksha; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar; Zhang, Ya-Ping


    Recent analyses of ancient Mesopotamian mitochondrial genomes have suggested a genetic link between the Indian subcontinent and Mesopotamian civilization. There is no consensus on the origin of the ancient Mesopotamians. They may be descendants of migrants, who founded regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or they may be merchants who were involved in trans Mesopotamia trade. To identify the Indian source population showing linkage to the ancient Mesopotamians, we screened a total of 15,751 mitochondrial DNAs (11,432 from the literature and 4,319 from this study) representing all major populations of India. Our results although suggest that south India (Tamil Nadu) and northeast India served as the source of the ancient Mesopotamian mtDNA gene pool, mtDNA of these ancient Mesopotamians probably contributed by Tamil merchants who were involved in the Indo-Roman trade.

  9. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liesbeth Frías


    Full Text Available Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future.

  10. Characterization of Ancient Tripitaka (United States)

    Gong, Y. X.; Geng, L.; Gong, D. C.


    Tripitaka is the world's most comprehensive version of Buddhist sutra. There are limited numbers of Tripitaka currently preserved, most of them present various patterns of degradation. As little is known about the materials and crafts used in Tripitaka, it appeared necessary to identify them, and to further define adapted conservation treatment. In this work, a study concerning the paper source and dyestuff of the Tripitaka from approximate 16th century was carried out using fiber analysis and thin-layer chromatography (TLC). The results proved that the papers were mainly made from hemp or bark of mulberry tree, and indigo was used for colorizing the paper. At the end, we provide with suggestions for protecting and restoring the ancient Tripitaka.

  11. Kinetic and stoichiometric characterization of anoxic sulfide oxidation by SO-NR mixed cultures from anoxic biotrickling filters. (United States)

    Mora, Mabel; Fernández, Maikel; Gómez, José Manuel; Cantero, Domingo; Lafuente, Javier; Gamisans, Xavier; Gabriel, David


    Monitoring the biological activity in biotrickling filters is difficult since it implies estimating biomass concentration and its growth yield, which can hardly be measured in immobilized biomass systems. In this study, the characterization of a sulfide-oxidizing nitrate-reducing biomass obtained from an anoxic biotrickling filter was performed through the application of respirometric and titrimetric techniques. Previously, the biomass was maintained in a continuous stirred tank reactor under steady-state conditions resulting in a growth yield of 0.328 ± 0.045 g VSS/g S. To properly assess biological activity in respirometric tests, abiotic assays were conducted to characterize the stripping of CO2 and sulfide. The global mass transfer coefficient for both processes was estimated. Subsequently, different respirometric tests were performed: (1) to solve the stoichiometry related to the autotrophic denitrification of sulfide using either nitrate or nitrite as electron acceptors, (2) to evaluate the inhibition caused by nitrite and sulfide on sulfide oxidation, and (3) to propose, calibrate, and validate a kinetic model considering both electron acceptors in the overall anoxic biodesulfurization process. The kinetic model considered a Haldane-type equation to describe sulfide and nitrite inhibitions, a non-competitive inhibition to reflect the effect of sulfide on the elemental sulfur oxidation besides single-step denitrification since no nitrite was produced during the biological assays.

  12. Influence of different anoxic time exposures on active biomass, protozoa and filamentous bacteria in activated sludge. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Perez, S; Fermoso, F G; Arnaiz, C

    Medium-sized wastewater treatment plants are considered too small to implement anaerobic digestion technologies and too large for extensive treatments. A promising option as a sewage sludge reduction method is the inclusion of anoxic time exposures. In the present study, three different anoxic time exposures of 12, 6 and 4 hours have been studied to reduce sewage sludge production. The best anoxic time exposure was observed under anoxic/oxic cycles of 6 hours, which reduced 29.63% of the biomass production compared with the oxic control conditions. The sludge under different anoxic time exposures, even with a lower active biomass concentration than the oxic control conditions, showed a much higher metabolic activity than the oxic control conditions. Microbiological results suggested that both protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria decrease under anoxic time exposures compared to oxic control conditions. The anoxic time exposures 6/6 showed the highest reduction in both protozoa density, 37.5%, and abundance of filamentous bacteria, 41.1%, in comparison to the oxic control conditions. The groups of crawling ciliates, carnivorous ciliates and filamentous bacteria were highly influenced by the anoxic time exposures. Protozoa density and abundance of filamentous bacteria have been shown as promising bioindicators of biomass production reduction.

  13. Ancient human microbiomes


    Warinner, C.; Speller, C; Collins, M.; Lewis Jr., C.


    Very recently, we discovered a vast new microbial self: the human microbiome. Our native microbiota interface with our biology and culture to influence our health, behavior, and quality of life, and yet we know very little about their origin, evolution, or ecology. With the advent of industrialization, globalization, and modern sanitation, it is intuitive that we have changed our relationship with microbes, but we have little information about the ancestral state of our microbiome, and theref...

  14. Bruxism Associated with Anoxic Encephalopathy: Successful Treatment with Baclofen (United States)

    Janati, A. Bruce; ALGhasab, Naif Saad; ALGhassab, Fahad Saad


    Introduction. Bruxism is a movement disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth. Etiology of bruxism can be divided into three groups: psychosocial factors, peripheral factors, and pathophysiological factors. Methods. The clinical investigation was conducted at King Khaled Hospital in Hail, Saudi Arabia, in 2012. Results. A 16-year-old Saudi female was brought to the hospital in a comatose state and with generalized convulsive seizures secondary to acute anoxic encephalopathy. In the third week of hospitalization, while still in a state of akinetic mutism, she developed incessant bruxism which responded favorably to a GABA receptor agonist (baclofen). Conclusion. Our data support the hypothesis that bruxism emanates from imbalance or dysregulation of the neurotransmitter system. Larger scale studies will be needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:24455317

  15. Oxygen intrusion into anoxic fjords leads to increased methylmercury availability (United States)

    Veiteberg Braaten, Hans Fredrik; Pakhomova, Svetlana; Yakushev, Evgeniy


    Mercury (Hg) appears in the oxic surface waters of the oceans at low levels (sub ng/L). Because inorganic Hg can be methylated into the toxic and bioaccumulative specie methylmercury (MeHg) levels can be high at the top of the marine food chain. Even though marine sea food is considered the main risk driver for MeHg exposure to people most research up to date has focused on Hg methylation processes in freshwater systems. This study identifies the mechanisms driving formation of MeHg during oxygen depletion in fjords, and shows how MeHg is made available in the surface water during oxygen intrusion. Studies of the biogeochemical structure in the water column of the Norwegian fjord Hunnbunn were performed in 2009, 2011 and 2012. In autumn of 2011 mixing flushing events were observed and lead to both positive and negative effects on the ecosystem state in the fjord. The oxygenated water intrusions lead to a decrease of the deep layer concentrations of hydrogen sulfide (H2S), ammonia and phosphate. On the other hand the intrusion also raised the H2S boundary from 8 m to a shallower depth of just 4 m. Following the intrusion was also observed an increase at shallower depths of nutrients combined with a decrease of pH. Before flushing events were observed concentrations of total Hg (TotHg) increased from 1.3 - 1.7 ng/L in the surface layer of the fjord to concentrations ranging from 5.2 ng/L to 6.4 ng/L in the anoxic zone. MeHg increased regularly from 0.04 ng/L in the surface water to a maximum concentration of 5.2 ng/L in the deeper layers. This corresponds to an amount of TotHg present as MeHg ranging from 2.1 % to 99 %. The higher concentrations of MeHg in the deeper layer corresponds to an area where no oxygen is present and concentrations of H2S exceeds 500 µM, suggesting a production of MeHg in the anoxic area as a result of sulphate reducing bacteria activity. After flushing the concentrations of TotHg showed a similar pattern ranging from 0.6 ng/L in the

  16. Bruxism Associated with Anoxic Encephalopathy: Successful Treatment with Baclofen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bruce Janati


    Full Text Available Introduction. Bruxism is a movement disorder characterized by grinding and clenching of the teeth. Etiology of bruxism can be divided into three groups: psychosocial factors, peripheral factors, and pathophysiological factors. Methods. The clinical investigation was conducted at King Khaled Hospital in Hail, Saudi Arabia, in 2012. Results. A 16-year-old Saudi female was brought to the hospital in a comatose state and with generalized convulsive seizures secondary to acute anoxic encephalopathy. In the third week of hospitalization, while still in a state of akinetic mutism, she developed incessant bruxism which responded favorably to a GABA receptor agonist (baclofen. Conclusion. Our data support the hypothesis that bruxism emanates from imbalance or dysregulation of the neurotransmitter system. Larger scale studies will be needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  17. Feasibility of hydraulic separation in a novel anaerobic-anoxic upflow reactor for biological nutrient removal. (United States)

    Díez-Montero, Rubén; De Florio, Loredana; González-Viar, Marta; Volcke, Eveline I P; Tejero, Iñaki


    This contribution deals with a novel anaerobic-anoxic reactor for biological nutrient removal (BNR) from wastewater, termed AnoxAn. In the AnoxAn reactor, the anaerobic and anoxic zones for phosphate removal and denitrification are integrated in a single continuous upflow sludge blanket reactor, aiming at high compactness and efficiency. Its application is envisaged in those cases where retrofitting of existing wastewater treatment plants for BNR, or the construction of new ones, is limited by the available surface area. The environmental conditions are vertically divided up inside the reactor with the anaerobic zone at the bottom and the anoxic zone above. The capability of the AnoxAn configuration to establish two hydraulically separated zones inside the single reactor was assessed by means of hydraulic characterization experiments and model simulations. Residence time distribution (RTD) experiments in clean water were performed in a bench-scale (48.4 L) AnoxAn prototype. The required hydraulic separation between the anaerobic and anoxic zones, as well as adequate mixing in the individual zones, were obtained through selected mixing devices. The observed behaviour was described by a hydraulic model consisting of continuous stirred tank reactors and plug-flow reactors. The impact of the denitrification process in the anoxic zone on the hydraulic separation was subsequently evaluated through model simulations. The desired hydraulic behaviour proved feasible, involving little mixing between the anaerobic and anoxic zones (mixing flowrate 40.2 % of influent flowrate) and negligible nitrate concentration in the anaerobic zone (less than 0.1 mgN L(-1)) when denitrification was considered.

  18. Evidence For Volcanic Initiation Of Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Events (Invited) (United States)

    Sageman, B. B.; Hurtgen, M. T.; McElwain, J.; Adams, D.; Barclay, R. S.; Joo, Y.


    Increasing evidence from studies of Cretaceous ocean anoxic events (OAE’s) has suggested that major changes in volcanic activity may have played a significant role in their genesis. Numerous specific mechanisms of have been proposed, including increases in atmospheric CO2 and surface temperature, leading to enhanced chemical weathering and terrestrial nutrient release, or increases in reduced trace metal fluxes, leading to oxygen depletion and possibly providing micronutrients for enhanced primary production. An additional pathway by which the byproducts of enhanced volcanic activity may have contributed to OAE genesis involves relationships between the biogeochemical cycles sulfur, iron, and phosphorus. Recent analysis of S-isotope data from carbonate-associated sulfate and pyrite collected across the Cenomanian-Turonian OAE2 in the Western Interior basin suggest that increases in sulfate to an initially sulfate-depleted ocean preceded onset of the event. Modern lake data support the idea that increases in sulfate concentration drive microbial sulfate reduction, leading to more efficient regeneration of P from sedimentary organic matter. If the early Cretaceous opening of the South Atlantic was accompanied by evaporite deposition sufficient to draw down global marine sulfate levels, and widespread anoxia leading to elevated pyrite burial helped maintain these low levels for the succeeding 30 myr, during which most Cretaceous OAE’s are found, perhaps pulses of volcanism that rapidly introduced large volumes of sulfate may have played a key role in OAE initiation. The eventually burial of S in the form of pyrite may have returned sulfate levels to a low background, thus providing a mechanism to terminate the anoxic events. This talk will review the evidence for volcanic initiation of OAE’s in the context of the sulfate-phosphorus regeneration model.

  19. Cr Isotope Response to Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (United States)

    Holmden, C. E.; Jacobson, A. D.; Sageman, B. B.; Hurtgen, M.


    The element Cr offers a redox sensitive isotopic proxy with potential for tracing past oxygen levels in the oceans. We examine this potential in a marine carbonate section deposited during Cretaceous Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2) in the Western Interior Seaway, Colorado. Redox changes are the main source of Cr isotope fractionation in Earth surface environments. Cr(VI), in the form of the chromate oxyanion, is the thermodynamically favoured species in oxygenated seawater. Reduction of Cr(VI) causes light isotopes to partition into Cr(III), which is reactive and susceptible to removal into marine sediment. Therefore, widespread ocean anoxia should correlate with positive shifts in seawater chromate Cr isotope values (δ53Cr), assuming that all Cr input fluxes remained constant during the event. We find instead that inferred seawater δ53Cr values decreased during OAE 2. The minima of the sedimentary δ53Cr excursion coincides with the peak interval of anomalously enriched concentrations of Cr and other trace metals of basaltic affinity attributed to eruption of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP). We propose that an anoxic, hydrothermal plume enriched in Cr(III) with low δ53Cr values characteristic of igneous rocks moved from deep waters of the CLIP eruption site in the eastern Pacific into deep waters of the proto-North Atlantic through an oceanic gateway in the Central Americas. Once inside, metal-rich waters upwelled against the surrounding continental margins. CLIP volcanism delivered a submarine weathering flux of Cr to the oceans during OAE 2 that was large enough to mask the expected isotopic response of the ocean Cr cycle to increasing anoxia, particularly in the proto-North Atlantic Ocean.

  20. An open ocean record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke


    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic matter-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. These perturbations are globally recorded in sediments as carbon isotope excursions irrespective of lithology and depositional environment. During the early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and pericontinental shelves of Pangaea, and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7 ‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the lower Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. If the T-OAE was indeed a global event, an isotopic expression of this event should be found beyond the epi- and pericontinental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of lower Toarcian organic matter-rich cherts from Japan, deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean, was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6 ‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the lower Toarcian negative CIE known from Pangaean epi- and pericontinental strata. A smaller negative excursion in δ13Corg (ca. 2 ‰ is recognized lower in the studied succession. This excursion may, within the current biostratigraphic resolution, represent the excursion recorded in European epicontinental successions close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary. These results from the open ocean realm suggest, in conjunction with other previously published datasets, that these Early Jurassic carbon cycle perturbations affected the active global reservoirs of the exchangeable carbon cycle (deep marine, shallow marine, atmospheric.

  1. Layout of Ancient Maya Cities (United States)

    Aylesworth, Grant R.

    Although there is little doubt that the ancient Maya of Mesoamerica laid their cities out based, in part, on astronomical considerations, the proliferation of "cosmograms" in contemporary scholarly discourse has complicated matters for the acceptance of rigorous archaeoastronomical research.

  2. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments (United States)

    Simonia, I.


    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  3. Hunting for Ancient Rocky Shores. (United States)

    Johnson, Markes E.


    Promotes the study of ancient rocky shores by showing how they can be recognized and what directions future research may follow. A bibliography of previous research articles, arranged by geologic period, is provided in the appendix to this paper. (CW)

  4. Hedera helix L. and damages in Tlos Ancient City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elinç, Z.K.


    Full Text Available There are various plant types in Tlos Ancient City of Fethiye district in the Province of Mugla, a city where different residential ruins of Lycia Civilization starting from Classical Age until Byzantine Period. Tlos is an important city in West-Lycia and is situated right on the control point of Lycia Way. Hedera helix L. is one of the plants living in this area, which attracts the attention as it mostly harms the ancient ruins. One of the most important reasons why Hedera helix L. is growing commonly in this region is the perfect ecological circumstances for the growth of this plant of the location where this ancient city is situated in. Additionally the fact that the ruins of the city are left on their fate, is another perfect circumstance for the Hedera helix L. to grow. Climbing or creeping stems of Hedera helix L. stick easily to the objects it touches and encircle them. Due to this characteristic, the walls of the ancient city are covered by this plant. Nevertheless, Hedera helix L. does not only harm the ancient constructions and natural rocks but also woody plants. The harm caused by dried out or cut Hedera helix L. are more than the harm caused by them when they were untouched. The subject of this study is to prove the shape and level of the harm caused by Hedera helix L. on ancient ruins of Tlos. At the same time, this study will underline the fighting methods against Hedera helix L. by comparing similar studies in other countries. Knowledge collected after this study will offer an insight into the excavation and restoration studies undertaken in all Mediterranean countries.

  5. Did the ancient Egyptians migrate to ancient Nigeria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jock M. Agai


    Full Text Available Literatures concerning the history of West African peoples published from 1900 to 1970 debate�the possible migrations of the Egyptians into West Africa. Writers like Samuel Johnson and�Lucas Olumide believe that the ancient Egyptians penetrated through ancient Nigeria but Leo�Frobenius and Geoffrey Parrinder frowned at this opinion. Using the works of these early�20th century writers of West African history together with a Yoruba legend which teaches�about the origin of their earliest ancestor(s, this researcher investigates the theories that the�ancient Egyptians had contact with the ancient Nigerians and particularly with the Yorubas.Intradisciplinary and/or interdisciplinary implications: There is an existing ideology�amongst the Yorubas and other writers of Yoruba history that the original ancestors of�the Yorubas originated in ancient Egypt hence there was migration between Egypt and�Yorubaland. This researcher contends that even if there was migration between Egypt and�Nigeria, such migration did not take place during the predynastic and dynastic period as�speculated by some scholars. The subject is open for further research.

  6. An open marine record of the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Gröcke


    Full Text Available Oceanic anoxic events were time intervals in the Mesozoic characterized by widespread distribution of marine organic-rich sediments (black shales and significant perturbations in the global carbon cycle. The expression of these perturbations is globally recorded in sediments as excursions in the carbon isotope record irrespective of lithology or depositional environment. During the Early Toarcian, black shales were deposited on the epi- and peri-continental shelves of Pangaea and these sedimentary rocks are associated with a pronounced (ca. 7‰ negative (organic carbon isotope excursion (CIE which is thought to be the result of a major perturbation in the global carbon cycle. For this reason, the Early Toarcian is thought to represent an oceanic anoxic event (the T-OAE. Associated with this event, there were pronounced perturbations in global weathering rates and seawater temperatures. Although it is commonly asserted that the T-OAE is a global event and that the distribution of black shales is likewise global, an isotopic and/or organic-rich expression of this event has as yet only been recognized on epi- and peri-continental Pangaean localities. To address this issue, the carbon isotope composition of organic matter (δ13Corg of Early Toarcian cherts from Japan that were deposited in the open Panthalassa Ocean was analysed. The results show the presence of a major (>6‰ negative excursion in δ13Corg that, based on radiolarian biostratigraphy, is a correlative of the Early Toarcian negative CIE known from European epicontinental strata. Furthermore, a secondary ca. −2‰ excursion in δ13Corg is also recognized lower in the studied succession that, within the current biostratigraphical resolution, is likely to represent the excursion that occurs close to the Pliensbachian/Toarcian boundary and which is also recorded in European epicontinental successions

  7. Applicability of anoxic-oxic process in treating petrochemical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li-jun ZHAO; Fang MA; Jing-bo GUO


    To explore the applicability of anoxic-oxic (A/O) activated sludge process for petrochemical wastewater treatment, the relationship between bacterial community structure and pollutants loading/removal efficiencies was investigated by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and other conventional techniques. It showed that when the concentrations of the influent chemical oxygen demand (COD) and ammonia nitrogen (NH4+-N) were 420~560 mg/L and 64~100 mg/L, respectively, the corresponding average effluent concentra-tions were 160 mg/L and 55 mg/L, which were 1.6 and 2.2 times higher than those of the national standards in China, respectively, demonstrating the inefficient performances of A/O process. Analysis of GC-MS indicated that refractory pollutants were mainly removed by sludge adsorption, but not by biodegradation. PCR-DGGE profile analysis suggested that the biological system was species-rich, but there was apparent succession of the bacterial community structure in different locations of the A/O system. Variations of bacterial community structure and pollutant Ioadings had obvious influences on pollutants removal efficiencies. Thus, A/O process was inapplicable for the treatment of complicated petrochemical wastewater, and strategies such as the reinforcement of pre-treatment and two-stage A/O process were suggested.

  8. Organic geochemistry of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in Hawsker Bottoms, Yorkshire, England (United States)

    French, K. L.; Sepúlveda, J.; Trabucho-Alexandre, J.; Gröcke, D. R.; Summons, R. E.


    A comprehensive organic geochemical investigation of the Hawsker Bottoms outcrop section in Yorkshire, England has provided new insights about environmental conditions leading into and during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (T-OAE; ∼183 Ma). Rock-Eval and molecular analyses demonstrate that the section is uniformly within the early oil window. Hydrogen index (HI), organic petrography, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) distributions, and tricyclic terpane ratios mark a shift to a lower relative abundance of terrigenous organic matter supplied to the sampling locality during the onset of the T-OAE and across a lithological transition. Unlike other ancient intervals of anoxia and extinction, biomarker indices of planktonic community structure do not display major changes or anomalous values. Depositional environment and redox indicators support a shift towards more reducing conditions in the sediment porewaters and the development of a seasonally stratified water column during the T-OAE. In addition to carotenoid biomarkers for green sulfur bacteria (GSB), we report the first occurrence of okenane, a marker of purple sulfur bacteria (PSB), in marine samples younger than ∼1.64 Ga. Based on modern observations, a planktonic source of okenane's precursor, okenone, would require extremely shallow photic zone euxinia (PZE) and a highly restricted depositional environment. However, due to coastal vertical mixing, the lack of planktonic okenone production in modern marine sulfidic environments, and building evidence of okenone production in mat-dwelling Chromatiaceae, we propose a sedimentary source of okenone as an alternative. Lastly, we report the first parallel compound-specific δC13 record in marine- and terrestrial-derived biomarkers across the T-OAE. The δC13 records of short-chain n-alkanes, acyclic isoprenoids, and long-chain n-alkanes all encode negative carbon isotope excursions (CIEs), and together, they support an injection of isotopically light

  9. Long-term subculture of human keratinocytes under an anoxic condition. (United States)

    Kino-oka, Masahiro; Agatahama, Yuka; Haga, Yuki; Inoie, Masukazu; Taya, Masahito


    The serial subculturing of human keratinocyte cells under the anoxic and normoxic conditions was examined. The cumulative number of population doublings in the subcultures under the former condition increased 2.1-fold while maintaining an appreciable growth rate of cells, as compared with that under the latter condition. Moreover, the migration ability, which was estimated by the rotation rate of paired cells, was maintained accompanied by fully developed filopodia of F-actin filaments under the anoxic condition, despite of the poor development of stress fibers at the center of the cellular body. The cells passaged under the anoxic condition possessed the sufficient clonogenic potential to form epithelial sheets, supporting the view that the long-term subculture of keratinocytes under the anoxic condition can be applied for cell expansion in the practical production of epithelial sheets.

  10. Factors affecting biological denitrifying dephosphatation in anaerobic/anoxic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    This study was conducted to verify and discuss the denitrifying dephosphatation under different levels of nitrate concentration and retention time of anoxic/aerobic process in a Sequencing Batch Reactor ( SBR ).The results of tests demonstrated that there were two kinds of phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in the biological excess phosphorus removal (BEPR) system. One was non-DNPAOs that could only use oxygen as terminal electron acceptors, the other was denitrifying PAOs (DNPAOs) that could use both nitrate and oxygen as terminal electron acceptors. Phosphorus uptake efficiency could be attained under anoxic period ranging from 28.7%-96.7% in an anacrobic/anoxic/aerobic system. Experimental results showed that nitrate concentration and retention time of anoxic/aerobic process were the key factors affecting the course of denitrifying dephosphatation.

  11. Anoxic biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in saline media using denitrifier biogranules. (United States)

    Moussavi, Gholamreza; Shekoohiyan, Sakine; Naddafi, Kazem


    The total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) biodegradation was examined using biogranules at different initial TPH concentration and contact time under anoxic condition in saline media. The circular compact biogranules having the average diameter between 2 and 3mm were composed of a dense population of Bacillus spp. capable of biodegrading TPH under anoxic condition in saline media were formed in first step of the study. The biogranules could biodegrade over 99% of the TPH at initial concentration up to 2g/L at the contact time of 22h under anoxic condition in saline media. The maximum TPH biodegradation rate of 2.6 gTPH/gbiomass.d could be obtained at initial TPH concentration of 10g/L. Accordingly, the anoxic biogranulation is a possible and promising technique for high-rate biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in saline media.

  12. Jurassic carbonate microfacies, sea-level changes and the Toarcian anoxic event in the Tethys Himalaya (South Tibet) (United States)

    Han, Zhong; Hu, Xiumian; Garzanti, Eduardo


    Detailed microfacies analysis of carbonate rocks from the Tingri and Nyalam areas of South Tibet allowed us to reconstruct the evolution of sedimentary environments during the Early to Middle Jurassic. Based on texture, sedimentary structure, grain composition and fossil content of about 500 thin sections, 17 microfacies overall were identified, and three evolutionary stages were defined. Stage 1 (Rhaetian?-lower Sinemurian Zhamure Formation) was characterized by siliciclastic and mixed siliciclastic-carbonate sedimentation on a barrier shore environment, stage 2 (upper Sinemurian-Pliensbachian Pupuga Formation) by high-energy grainstones with rich benthic faunas thriving on a carbonate platform, and stage 3 (Toarcian-lower Bajocian Nieniexiongla Formation) by low-energy mudstones intercalated with frequent storm layers on a carbonate ramp. Besides, Carbon isotope analyses (δ13Ccarb and δ13Corg) were performed on the late Pliensbachian-early Toarcian interval, and the organic matter recorded a pronounced stepped negative excursion -4.5‰ corresponding to characteristics of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event globally, which began just below the stage 2-stage 3 facies shifting boundary. The comparison between the Tethys Himalaya (South Tibet) and the tropical/subtropical zones of the Western Tethys and Panthalassa was carried out to discuss the factors controlling sedimentary evolution. The change from stage 1 to stage 2 was possibly induced by sea-level rise, when the Tibetan Tethys Himalaya was located at tropical/subtropical latitudes in suitable climatic and ecological conditions for carbonate sedimentation. The abrupt change from stage 2 to stage 3 is interpreted as a consequence of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event, accompanied by obvious carbon-isotope negative excursion and sea-level rise. The failed recovery from the carbonate crisis in the early Bajocian, with continuing deposition on a low-energy carbonate ramp, is ascribed to the tectonic

  13. Neonatal medicine in ancient art. (United States)

    Yurdakök, Murat


    There are a limited number of artistic objects from ancient times with particular importance in neonatal medicine. The best examples are figurines from ancient Egypt of Isis nursing Horus, showing the importance of breastfeeding. The earliest images of the human fetus were made by the Olmecs in Mexico around 1200- 400 BCE. One of the earliest representations of congenital anomalies is a figurine of diencephalic twins thought to be the goddess of Anatolia, dated to around 6500 BCE. In addition to these figurines, three sets of twins in the ancient world have medical importance, and Renaissance artists often used them as a subject for their paintings: "direct suckling animals" (Romulus and Remus), "heteropaternal superfecundation" (mother: Leda, fathers: Zeus, the king of the Olympian gods, and Leda's husband, Tyndareus), and "twin-to-twin transfusion" in monozygotic twins (Jacob and Esau).

  14. Ancient "Observatories" - A Relevant Concept? (United States)

    Belmonte, Juan Antonio

    It is quite common, when reading popular books on astronomy, to see a place referred to as "the oldest observatory in the world". In addition, numerous books on archaeoastronomy, of various levels of quality, frequently refer to the existence of "prehistoric" or "ancient" observatories when describing or citing monuments that were certainly not built with the primary purpose of observing the skies. Internet sources are also guilty of this practice. In this chapter, the different meanings of the word observatory will be analyzed, looking at how their significances can be easily confused or even interchanged. The proclaimed "ancient observatories" are a typical result of this situation. Finally, the relevance of the concept of the ancient observatory will be evaluated.

  15. Skeletal dysplasia in ancient Egypt. (United States)

    Kozma, Chahira


    The ancient Egyptian civilization lasted for over 3000 years and ended in 30 BCE. Many aspects of ancient Egyptian culture, including the existence of skeletal dysplasias, and in particular achondroplasia, are well known through the monuments and records that survived until modern times. The hot and dry climate in Egypt allowed for the preservation of bodies and skeletal anomalies. The oldest dwarf skeleton, the Badarian skeleton (4500 BCE), possibly represents an epiphyseal disorder. Among the remains of dwarfs with achondroplasia from ancient Egypt (2686-2190 BCE), exists a skeleton of a pregnant female, believed to have died during delivery with a baby's remains in situ. British museums have partial skeletons of dwarfs with achondroplasia, humeri probably affected with mucopolysaccharidoses, and a skeleton of a child with osteogenesis imperfecta. Skeletal dysplasia is also found among royal remains. The mummy of the pharaoh Siptah (1342-1197 BCE) shows a deformity of the left leg and foot. A mummified fetus, believed to be the daughter of king Tutankhamun, has scoliosis, spina bifida, and Sprengel deformity. In 2006 I reviewed the previously existing knowledge of dwarfism in ancient Egypt. The purpose of this second historical review is to add to that knowledge with an expanded contribution. The artistic documentation of people with skeletal dysplasia from ancient Egypt is plentiful including hundreds of amulets, statues, and drawing on tomb and temple walls. Examination of artistic reliefs provides a glance of the role of people with skeletal dysplasia and the societal attitudes toward them. Both artistic evidence and moral teachings in ancient Egypt reveal wide integration of individuals with disabilities into the society.

  16. Night blindness and ancient remedy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hajar Al Binali


    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to briefly review the history of night blindness and its treatment from ancient times until the present. The old Egyptians, the Babylonians, the Greeks and the Arabs used animal liver for treatment and successfully cured the disease. The author had the opportunity to observe the application of the old remedy to a patient. Now we know what the ancients did not know, that night blindness is caused by Vitamin A deficiency and the animal liver is the store house for Vitamin A.

  17. Tuberculosis in ancient times

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Cilliers


    Full Text Available In spite of an array of effective antibiotics, tuberculosis is still very common in developing countries where overcrowding, malnutrition and poor hygienic conditions prevail. Over the past 30 years associated HIV infection has worsened the situation by increasing the infection rate and mortality of tuberculosis. Of those diseases caused by a single organism only HIV causes more deaths internationally than tuberculosis. The tubercle bacillus probably first infected man in Neolithic times, and then via infected cattle, but the causative Mycobacteriacea have been in existence for 300 million years. Droplet infection is the most common way of acquiring tuberculosis, although ingestion (e.g. of infected cows’ milk may occur. Tuberculosis probably originated in Africa. The earliest path gnomonic evidence of human tuberculosis in man was found in osteo-archaeological findings of bone tuberculosis (Pott’s disease of the spine in the skeleton of anEgyptian priest from the 21st Dynasty (approximately 1 000 BC. Suggestive but not conclusiveevidence of tuberculotic lesions had been found in even earlier skeletons from Egypt and Europe. Medical hieroglyphics from ancient Egypt are silent on the disease, which could be tuberculosis,as do early Indian and Chinese writings. The Old Testament refers to the disease schachapeth, translated as phthisis in the Greek Septuagint. Although the Bible is not specific about this condition, tuberculosis is still called schachapeth in modern Hebrew. In pre-Hippocratic Greece Homer did not mention phthisis, a word meaning non-specific wasting of the body. However. Alexander of Tralles (6th century BC seemed to narrow the concept down to a specific disease, and in the Hippocratic Corpus (5th-4th centuries BC phthisis can be recognised as tuberculosis. It was predominantly a respiratory disease commonly seen and considered to be caused by an imbalance of bodily humours. It was commonest in autumn, winter and spring

  18. Phylogenetic estimation of timescales using ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Molak, Martyna; Lorenzen, Eline; Shapiro, Beth;


    In recent years, ancient DNA has increasingly been used for estimating molecular timescales, particularly in studies of substitution rates and demographic histories. Molecular clocks can be calibrated using temporal information from ancient DNA sequences. This information comes from the ages...

  19. Origin of first cells at terrestrial, anoxic geothermal fields. (United States)

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Bychkov, Andrew Yu; Dibrova, Daria V; Galperin, Michael Y; Koonin, Eugene V


    All cells contain much more potassium, phosphate, and transition metals than modern (or reconstructed primeval) oceans, lakes, or rivers. Cells maintain ion gradients by using sophisticated, energy-dependent membrane enzymes (membrane pumps) that are embedded in elaborate ion-tight membranes. The first cells could possess neither ion-tight membranes nor membrane pumps, so the concentrations of small inorganic molecules and ions within protocells and in their environment would equilibrate. Hence, the ion composition of modern cells might reflect the inorganic ion composition of the habitats of protocells. We attempted to reconstruct the "hatcheries" of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells. These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K(+), Zn(2+), Mn(2+), and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K(+)/Na(+) ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn, and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under the anoxic, CO(2)-dominated primordial atmosphere, the chemistry of basins at geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. The precellular stages of evolution might have transpired in shallow ponds of condensed and cooled geothermal vapor that were lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K(+), Zn(2+), and phosphorous compounds.

  20. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry


    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  1. The ancient art of memory. (United States)

    Hobson, Allan


    Revision of Freud's theory requires a new way of seeking dream meaning. With the idea of elaborative encoding, Sue Llewellyn has provided a method of dream interpretation that takes into account both modern sleep science and the ancient art of memory. Her synthesis is elegant and compelling. But is her hypothesis testable?

  2. Ancient medicine--a review. (United States)

    Zuskin, Eugenija; Lipozencić, Jasna; Pucarin-Cvetković, Jasna; Mustajbegović, Jadranka; Schachter, Neil; Mucić-Pucić, Branka; Neralić-Meniga, Inja


    Different aspects of medicine and/or healing in several societies are presented. In the ancient times as well as today medicine has been closely related to magic, science and religion. Various ancient societies and cultures had developed different views of medicine. It was believed that a human being has two bodies: a visible body that belongs to the earth and an invisible body of heaven. In the earliest prehistoric days, a different kind of medicine was practiced in countries such as Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mesopotamia, India, Tibet, China, and others. In those countries, "medicine people" practiced medicine from the magic to modern physical practices. Medicine was magical and mythological, and diseases were attributed mostly to the supernatural forces. The foundation of modern medicine can be traced back to ancient Greeks. Tibetan culture, for instance, even today, combines spiritual and practical medicine. Chinese medicine developed as a concept of yin and yang, acupuncture and acupressure, and it has even been used in the modern medicine. During medieval Europe, major universities and medical schools were established. In the ancient time, before hospitals had developed, patients were treated mostly in temples.

  3. Ancient and modern environmental DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther; Overballe-Petersen, Søren; Ermini, Luca


    DNA obtained from environmental samples such as sediments, ice or water (environmental DNA, eDNA), represents an important source of information on past and present biodiversity. It has revealed an ancient forest in Greenland, extended by several thousand years the survival dates for mainland woo...

  4. Biological Nutrient Removal in a Full Scale Anoxic/Anaerobic/Aerobic/Pre-anoxic-MBR Plant for Low C/N Ratio Municipal Wastewater Treatment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡香; 谢丽; 张善发; 杨殿海


    A novel full scale modified A2O (anoxic/anaerobic/aerobic/pre-anoxic)-membrane bioreactor (MBR) plant combined with the step feed strategy was operated to improve the biological nutrient removal (BNR) from low C/N ratio municipal wastewater in Southern China. Transformation of organic carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus, and membrane fouling were investigated. Experimental results for over four months demonstrated good efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD) and 4NH+-N removal, with average values higher than 84.5%and 98.1%, re-spectively. A relatively higher total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency (52.1%) was also obtained at low C/N ratio of 3.82, contributed by the configuration modification (anoxic zone before anaerobic zone) and the step feed with a distribution ratio of 1︰1. Addition of sodium acetate into the anoxic zone as the external carbon source, with a theoretical amount of 31.3 mg COD per liter in influent, enhanced denitrification and the TN removal efficiency in-creased to 74.9%. Moreover, the total phosphate (TP) removal efficiency increased by 18.0%. It is suggested that the external carbon source is needed to improve the BNR performance in treating low C/N ratio municipal waste-water in the modified A2O-MBR process.

  5. A Huge Ancient Schwannoma of the Epiglottis. (United States)

    Lee, Dong Hoon; Kim, Jo Heon; Yoon, Tae Mi; Lee, Joon Kyoo; Lim, Sang Chul


    Ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis is extremely rare. The authors report the first case of a patient with a huge ancient schwannoma of the epiglottis. Clinicians should consider the possibility that ancient schwannoma may originate in the epiglottis mimicking the other more frequently observed lesions.

  6. Attenuation and colloidal mobilization of bacteriophages in natural sediments under anoxic as compared to oxic conditions. (United States)

    Klitzke, Sondra; Schroeder, Jendrik; Selinka, Hans-Christoph; Szewzyk, Regine; Chorus, Ingrid


    Redox conditions are known to affect the fate of viruses in porous media. Several studies report the relevance of colloid-facilitated virus transport in the subsurface, but detailed studies on the effect of anoxic conditions on virus retention in natural sediments are still missing. Therefore, we investigated the fate of viruses in natural flood plain sediments with different sesquioxide contents under anoxic conditions by considering sorption to the solid phase, sorption to mobilized colloids, and inactivation in the aqueous phase. Batch experiments were conducted under oxic and anoxic conditions at pH values between 5.1 and 7.6, using bacteriophages MS2 and PhiX174 as model viruses. In addition to free and colloid-associated bacteriophages, dissolved and colloidal concentrations of Fe, Al and organic C as well as dissolved Ca were determined. Results showed that regardless of redox conditions, bacteriophages did not adsorb to mobilized colloids, even under favourable charge conditions. Under anoxic conditions, attenuation of bacteriophages was dominated by sorption over inactivation, with MS2 showing a higher degree of sorption than PhiX174. Inactivation in water was low under anoxic conditions for both bacteriophages with about one log10 decrease in concentration during 16 h. Increased Fe/Al concentrations and a low organic carbon content of the sediment led to enhanced bacteriophage removal under anoxic conditions. However, even in the presence of sufficient Fe/A-(hydr)oxides on the solid phase, bacteriophage sorption was low. We presume that organic matter may limit the potential retention of sesquioxides in anoxic sediments and should thus be considered for the risk assessment of virus breakthrough in the subsurface.

  7. Anoxic stress and rapid cold hardening enhance cold tolerance of the migratory locust. (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Wang, Hongsheng; Zhang, Hanying; Kang, Le


    Anoxia and rapid cold hardening (RCH) can increase the cold tolerance of many animals. However, mechanisms underlying these two kinds of stresses remain unclear. In this study, we aimed to explore the relationship of acclimation to cold stress with acclimation to anoxic stress in the migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. RCH at 0°C for 3h promoted the survival of cold stress-exposed locusts. Anoxic hypercapnia (CO2 anoxic treatment) for 40 min exerted an effect similar to that of RCH. Anoxic hypercapnia within 1h can all promote the cold hardiness of locusts. We investigated the transcript levels of six heat shock protein (Hsp) genes, namely, Hsp20.5, Hsp20.6, Hsp20.7, Hsp40, Hsp70, and Hsp90. Four genes, namely, Hsp90, Hsp40, Hsp20.5, and Hsp20.7, showed differential responses to RCH and anoxic hypercapnia treatments. Under cold stress, locusts exposed to the two regimens showed different responses for Hsp90, Hsp20.5, and Hsp20.7. However, the varied responses disappeared after recovery from cold stress. Compared with the control group, the transcript levels of six Hsp genes were generally downregulated in locusts subjected to anoxic hypercapnia or/and RCH. These results indicate that anoxic stress and RCH have different mechanisms of regulating the transcription of Hsp family members even if the two treatments exerted similar effects on cold tolerance of the migratory locust. However, Hsps may not play a major role in the promotion of cold hardiness by the two treatments.

  8. The challenge of proving the existence of metazoan life in permanently anoxic deep-sea sediments. (United States)

    Danovaro, Roberto; Gambi, Cristina; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Neves, Ricardo Cardoso; Kristensen, Reinhardt Møbjerg


    The demonstration of the existence of metazoan life in absence of free oxygen is one of the most fascinating and difficult challenges in biology. Danovaro et al. (2010) discovered three new species of the Phylum Loricifera, living in the anoxic sediments of the L'Atalante, a deep-hypersaline anoxic basin of the Mediterranean Sea. Multiple and independent analyses based on staining, incorporation of radiolabeled substrates, CellTracker Green incorporation experiments and ultra-structure analyses, allowed Danovaro et al. (2010) to conclude that these animals were able to spend their entire life cycle under anoxic conditions. Bernhard et al. (2015) investigated the same basin. Due to technical difficulties in sampling operations, they could not collect samples from the permanently anoxic sediment, and sampled only the redoxcline portion of the L'Atalante basin. They found ten individuals of Loricifera and provided alternative interpretations of the results of Danovaro et al. (2010). Here we analyze these interpretations, and present additional evidence indicating that the Loricifera encountered in the anoxic basin L'Atalante were actually alive at the time of sampling. We also discuss the reliability of different methodologies and approaches in providing evidence of metazoans living in anoxic conditions, paving the way for future investigations.This paper is a response to Bernhard JM, Morrison CR, Pape E, Beaudoin DJ, Todaro MA, Pachiadaki MG, Kormas KAr, Edgcomb VG. 2015. Metazoans of redoxcline sediments in Mediterranean deep-sea hypersaline anoxic basins. BMC Biology 2015 13:105.See research article at

  9. Modern tree species composition reflects ancient Maya "forest gardens" in northwest Belize. (United States)

    Ross, Nanci J


    Ecology and ethnobotany were integrated to assess the impact of ancient Maya tree-dominated home gardens (i.e., "forest gardens"), which contained a diversity of tree species used for daily household needs, on the modern tree species composition of a Mesoamerican forest. Researchers have argued that the ubiquity of these ancient gardens throughout Mesoamerica led to the dominance of species useful to Maya in the contemporary forest, but this pattern may be localized depending on ancient land use. The tested hypothesis was that species composition would be significantly different between areas of dense ancient residential structures (high density) and areas of little or no ancient settlement (low density). Sixty-three 400-m2 plots (31 high density and 32 low density) were censused around the El Pilar Archaeological Reserve in northwestern Belize. Species composition was significantly different, with higher abundances of commonly utilized "forest garden" species still persisting in high-density forest areas despite centuries of abandonment. Subsequent edaphic analyses only explained 5% of the species composition differences. This research provides data on the long-term impacts of Maya forests gardens for use in development of future conservation models. For Mesoamerican conservation programs to work, we must understand the complex ecological and social interactions within an ecosystem that developed in intimate association with humans.

  10. A Modified Oxidation Ditch with Additional Internal Anoxic Zones for Enhanced Biological Nutrient Removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Wei; YANG Dianhai; XU Li; SHEN Changming


    A novel modified pilot scale anaerobic oxidation ditch with additional internal anoxic zones was operated experimentally,aiming to study the improvement of biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal and the effect of enhanced denitrifying phosphorus removal in the process.Under all experimental conditions,the anaerobic-oxidation ditch with additional internal anoxic zones and an internal recycle ratio of 200% had the highest nutrient removal efficiency.The effluent NH+4-N,total nitrogen(TN),PO34--P and total phosphorus(TP)contents were 1.2 mg·L-1,13 mg·L-1,0.3 mg·L-1 and 0.4 mg·L-1,respectively,all met the discharge standards in China.The TN and TP removal efficiencies were remarkably improved from 37% and 50% to 65% and 88% with the presence of additional internal anoxic zones and internal recycle ratio of 200%.The results indicated that additional internal anoxic zones can optimize the utilization of available carbon source from the anaerobic outflow for denitrification.It was also found that phosphorus removal via the denitrification process was stimulated in the additional internal anoxic zones,which was beneficial for biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal when treating wastewater with a limited carbon source.However,an excess internal recycle would cause nitrite to accumulate in the system.This seems to be harmful to biological phosphorus removal.

  11. Positive role of nitrite as electron acceptor on anoxic denitrifying phosphorus removal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG RongXin; LI Dong; LI XiangKun; BAO LinLin; JIANG AnXi; ZHANG Jie


    Literatures revealed that the electron acceptor-nitrite could be inhibitory or toxic in the denitrifying phosphorus removal process.Batch test experiments were used to investigate the inhibitory effect during the anoxic condition.The inoculated activated sludge was taken from a continuous double- sludge denitrifying phosphorus and nitrogen removal system.Nitrite was added at the anoxic stage.One time injection and sequencing batch injection were carried on in the denitrifying dephosphorus procedure.The results indicated that the nitrite concentration higher than 30 mg/L would inhibit the anoxic phosphate uptake severely, and the threshold inhibitory concentration was dependent on the characteristics of the activated sludge and the operating conditions; instead, lower than the inhibitory concentration would not be detrimental to anoxic phosphorus uptake, and it could act as good electron acceptor for the anoxic phosphate accumulated.Positive effects performed during the denitrifying biological dephosphorus all the time.The utility of nitrite as good electron acceptor would provide a new feasible way in the denitrifying phosphorus process.

  12. Highly informative ancient DNA 'snippets' for New Zealand moa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan McCallum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Analysis of ancient DNA has provided invaluable information on past ecologies, ancient populations, and extinct species. We used a short snippet of highly variable mitochondrial control region sequence from New Zealand's moa to characterise a large number of bones previously intractable to DNA analysis as well as bone fragments from swamps to gain information about the haplotype diversity and phylogeography that existed in five moa species. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: By targeting such 'snippets', we show that moa populations differed substantially in geographic structure that is likely to be related to population mobility and history. We show that populations of Pachyornis geranoides, Dinornis novaezealandiae, and Dinornis robustus were highly structured and some appear to have occupied the same geographic location for hundreds of thousands of years. In contrast, populations of the moa Anomalopteryx didiformis and Euryapteryx curtus were widespread, with specific populations of the latter occupying both the North and South Islands of New Zealand. We further show that for a specific area, in this case a North Island swamp, complete haplotype diversity and even sex can be recovered from collections of small, often discarded, bone fragments. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Short highly variable mitochondrial 'snippets' allow successful typing of environmentally damaged and fragmented skeletal material, and can provide useful information about ancient population diversity and structure without the need to sample valuable, whole bones often held by museums.

  13. Mitogenomic analyses from ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paijmans, Johanna L.A.; Gilbert, M Thomas P; Hofreiter, Michael


    analyses (whether using modern or ancient DNA) were largely restricted to the analysis of short fragments of the mitochondrial genome. However, due to many technological advances during the past decade, a growing number of studies have explored the power of complete mitochondrial genome sequences...... (mitogenomes). Such studies were initially limited to analyses of extant organisms, but developments in both DNA sequencing technologies and general methodological aspects related to working with degraded DNA have resulted in complete mitogenomes becoming increasingly popular for ancient DNA studies as well....... To date, at least 124 partially or fully assembled mitogenomes from more than 20 species have been obtained, and, given the rapid progress in sequencing technology, this number is likely to dramatically increase in the future. The increased information content offered by analysing full mitogenomes has...

  14. Molecular analysis of ancient caries. (United States)

    Simón, Marc; Montiel, Rafael; Smerling, Andrea; Solórzano, Eduvigis; Díaz, Nancy; Álvarez-Sandoval, Brenda A; Jiménez-Marín, Andrea R; Malgosa, Assumpció


    An 84 base pair sequence of the Streptococcus mutans virulence factor, known as dextranase, has been obtained from 10 individuals from the Bronze Age to the Modern Era in Europe and from before and after the colonization in America. Modern samples show four polymorphic sites that have not been found in the ancient samples studied so far. The nucleotide and haplotype diversity of this region have increased over time, which could be reflecting the footprint of a population expansion. While this segment has apparently evolved according to neutral evolution, we have been able to detect one site that is under positive selection pressure both in present and past populations. This study is a first step to study the evolution of this microorganism, analysed using direct evidence obtained from ancient remains.

  15. Models of ancient sound vases (United States)

    Bruel, Per V.


    Models were made of vases described by Vitruvius in Rome in about the year 70 A.D. and of sound vases (lydpotter) placed in Danish churches from 1100-1300 A.D. Measurements of vase's resonant frequencies and damping (reradiation) verified that the model vases obeyed expected physical rules. It was concluded that the excellent acoustical quality of many ancient Greek and Roman theaters cannot be ascribed to the vases placed under their seats. This study also found that sound vases placed in Nordic churches could not have shortened the reverberation time because there are far too few of them. Moreover, they could not have covered a broad frequency range. It remains a mystery why vases were installed under the seats of ancient Greek theaters and why, 1000 years later, Danes placed vases in their churches.

  16. Progressive island colonization and ancient origin of Hawaiian Metrosideros (Myrtaceae). (United States)

    Percy, Diana M; Garver, Adam M; Wagner, Warren L; James, Helen F; Cunningham, Clifford W; Miller, Scott E; Fleischer, Robert C


    Knowledge of the evolutionary history of plants that are ecologically dominant in modern ecosystems is critical to understanding the historical development of those ecosystems. Metrosideros is a plant genus found in many ecological and altitudinal zones throughout the Pacific. In the Hawaiian Islands, Metrosideros polymorpha is an ecologically dominant species and is also highly polymorphic in both growth form and ecology. Using 10 non-coding chloroplast regions, we investigated haplotype diversity in the five currently recognized Hawaiian Metrosideros species and an established out-group, Metrosideros collina, from French Polynesia. Multiple haplotype groups were found, but these did not match morphological delimitations. Alternative morphologies sharing the same haplotype, as well as similar morphologies occurring within several distinct island clades, could be the result of developmental plasticity, parallel evolution or chloroplast capture. The geographical structure of the data is consistent with a pattern of age progressive island colonizations and suggests de novo intra-island diversification. If single colonization events resulted in a similar array of morphologies on each island, this would represent parallel radiations within a single, highly polymorphic species. However, we were unable to resolve whether the pattern is instead explained by ancient introgression and incomplete lineage sorting resulting in repeated chloroplast capture. Using several calibration methods, we estimate the colonization of the Hawaiian Islands to be potentially as old as 3.9 (-6.3) Myr with an ancestral position for Kaua'i in the colonization and evolution of Metrosideros in the Hawaiian Islands. This would represent a more ancient arrival of Metrosideros to this region than previous studies have suggested.

  17. Splendid Arts Fram Ancient Capitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    IT was in the golden autumn in Beijing, when the sky was high and the air clear, that I hurried to Zhongshan Park to witness the display of the songs and dances of the seven Chinese ancient capitals. The flower beds arranged for the celebration of National Day were still there and the colorful blooms looked especially bright in the sunshine. The seven cities which have served as capitals in Chinese history are Beijing,

  18. Psychiatric Thoughts in Ancient India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Abhyankar


    Full Text Available A review of the literature regarding psychiatric thoughts in ancient India is attempted. Besides interesting reading, many of the concepts are still relevant and can be used in day-to-day practice especially towards healthy and happy living. Certain concepts are surprisingly contemporary and valid today. They can be used in psychotherapy and counselling and for promoting mental health. However, the description and classification of mental illness is not in tune with modern psychiatry.

  19. Nanoscience of an ancient pigment. (United States)

    Johnson-McDaniel, Darrah; Barrett, Christopher A; Sharafi, Asma; Salguero, Tina T


    We describe monolayer nanosheets of calcium copper tetrasilicate, CaCuSi(4)O(10), which have strong near-IR luminescence and are amenable to solution processing methods. The facile exfoliation of bulk CaCuSi(4)O(10) into nanosheets is especially surprising in view of the long history of this material as the colored component of Egyptian blue, a well-known pigment from ancient times.

  20. Ecological Inference (United States)

    King, Gary; Rosen, Ori; Tanner, Martin A.


    This collection of essays brings together a diverse group of scholars to survey the latest strategies for solving ecological inference problems in various fields. The last half-decade has witnessed an explosion of research in ecological inference--the process of trying to infer individual behavior from aggregate data. Although uncertainties and information lost in aggregation make ecological inference one of the most problematic types of research to rely on, these inferences are required in many academic fields, as well as by legislatures and the Courts in redistricting, by business in marketing research, and by governments in policy analysis.

  1. Batroxobin Against Anoxic Damage of Rat Hippocampal Neurons in Culture: Morphological Changes and Hsp70 Expression

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    @@Batroxobin,the thrombin-like enzyme,is used for therapeutic defibrination. We have found that batroxobin has good therapeutic effect in ischemic reperfusion rats and clinical practices in vivo. But we have not studied the neuroprotective effect of batroxobin on anoxic hippocampal neurons in vitro. The purpose of this study was to obtain further information on the mechanism of the batroxobin-induced neuroprotection and examine the neuroprotective effect on neurons exposed to anoxia. The effect of batroxobin on anoxic damages in cultured hippocampal neurons of neonatal rats was investigated by using morphological changes and heat shock protein 70Kd (Hsp70) immunoreactive expression as indicators. The results indicate that batroxobin, besides its defibrination, may have a direct neuroprotective effect on anoxic damage of hippocampal neurons.

  2. Inhibition of Sporosarcina pasteurii under anoxic conditions: implications for subsurface carbonate precipitation and remediation via ureolysis. (United States)

    Martin, Derek; Dodds, Kevin; Ngwenya, Bryne T; Butler, Ian B; Elphick, Stephen C


    The use of Sporosarcina pasteurii to precipitate calcium carbonate in the anoxic subsurface via ureolysis has been proposed for reducing porosity and sealing fractures in rocks. Here we show that S. pasteurii is unable to grow anaerobically and that the ureolytic activity previously shown under anoxic conditions is a consequence of the urease enzyme already present in the cells of the aerobically grown inoculum. The implications are discussed, suggesting that de novo synthesis of urease under anoxic conditions is not possible and that ureolysis may decline over time without repeated injection of S. pasteurii as the urease enzyme degrades and/or becomes inhibited. Augmentation with a different ureolytic species that is able to grow anaerobically or stimulation of natural communities may be preferable for carbonate precipitation over the long term.

  3. A comparative study of phosphate sorption in lowland soils under oxic and anoxic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Lisa; Pedersen, Thomas Vils; Jensen, Henning S.;


    of 36 to 93% of the dithionite-extractable FeIII (FeBD). Langmuir fitted Pi sorption isotherms showed a Pi release of up to 1.1 mmol kg-1 in six soils when Pi concentrations in the matrix (Psol) were lower than 10 µM. Phosphate desorption was attributed to dissolution of amorphous iron oxides......Received for publication June 13, 2009. Phosphate (Pi) release due to FeIII oxide dissolution is well documented for soils undergoing reduction. The Pi sorption properties of soils in anoxic conditions are, however, still under consideration. In this investigation, Pi sorption to strictly anoxic...... FeII phosphates may have caused the higher sorption capacities. Use of maximum sorption capacity (Smax) is therefore misleading as a measure of Pi sorption at low Psol concentrations. The results demonstrate that none of the strongly anoxic soils, irrespective of the initial FeIII oxide content...

  4. Ecological Modernization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, A.P.J.


    The Encyclopedia of Globalization provides a thorough understanding of the theoretical underpinnings of globalization as well as the various historical and analytical interpretations. Consisting of over 400 entries, coverage includes key cultural, ecological, economic, geographical, historical, poli

  5. Cognitive ecology. (United States)

    Hutchins, Edwin


    Cognitive ecology is the study of cognitive phenomena in context. In particular, it points to the web of mutual dependence among the elements of a cognitive ecosystem. At least three fields were taking a deeply ecological approach to cognition 30 years ago: Gibson's ecological psychology, Bateson's ecology of mind, and Soviet cultural-historical activity theory. The ideas developed in those projects have now found a place in modern views of embodied, situated, distributed cognition. As cognitive theory continues to shift from units of analysis defined by inherent properties of the elements to units defined in terms of dynamic patterns of correlation across elements, the study of cognitive ecosystems will become an increasingly important part of cognitive science.

  6. Community Ecology

    CERN Document Server


    This book presents the proceedings of a workshop on community ecology organized at Davis, in April, 1986, sponsored by the Sloan Foundation. There have been several recent symposia on community ecology (Strong et. al., 1984, Diamond and Case, 1987) which have covered a wide range of topics. The goal of the workshop at Davis was more narrow: to explore the role of scale in developing a theoretical approach to understanding communities. There are a number of aspects of scale that enter into attempts to understand ecological communities. One of the most basic is organizational scale. Should community ecology proceed by building up from population biology? This question and its ramifications are stressed throughout the book and explored in the first chapter by Simon Levin. Notions of scale have long been important in understanding physical systems. Thus, in understanding the interactions of organisms with their physical environment, questions of scale become paramount. These more physical questions illustrate the...

  7. Chemical and physical speciation of mercury in Offatts Bayou: A seasonally anoxic bayou in Galveston Bay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Seunghee; Lehman, Ronald D.; Choe, Key-Young; Gill, Gary A.


    A chemical equilibrium model was used to predict the solution speciation of dissolved mercury (Hg) in the stratified water column of Offatts Bayou, a subestuary in Galveston Bay, Texas, which undergoes seasonal anoxia in bottom waters. Chemical equilibrium modeling was conducted using conditional stability constants and concentrations of Hg-complexing organic ligands experimentally determined by competitive ligand equilibration methods. Dissolved Hg complexation was dominated by interactions with sulfide and dissolved organic matter (DOM) (HOHgHS0, HOHgHS(DOM), HgSHS2, and HgS 2{ 2 ) at all depths. Sulfide and glutathione competed for methylmercury (MeHg) complexation in oxic layers; in anoxic waters, sulfide complexation dominated MeHg speciation. The particle–water distribution coefficient (Kd) of Hg decreased in the anoxic layer of the water column, where the dissolved sulfide concentration increased, providing evidence that sulfide complexation influences the solubility of Hg. The solubility of MeHg was elevated in the anoxic as compared to the oxic layers, and this distributional feature was coincident with a change in the solution speciation of dissolved MeHg from glutathione/sulfide complexation in the oxic layers to a predominantly sulfide complexation in the anoxic layers. Maximum enrichment of Hg, MeHg, and iron (Fe) in suspended particulate matter was observed in the lower layer of the pycnocline, most likely resulting from formation of insoluble Fe oxide, which scavenged dissolved Hg sulfide and MeHg-sulfide species. The concomitant decrease in dissolved inorganic Hg, Fe, and sulfide in the anoxic layers is suggested to result from scavenging of inorganic Hg by FeS, which is in accordance with the Hg speciation model. Overall, Hg cycling in the water column of Offatts Bayou was associated with sulfide and DOM complexation, Fe dissolution/precipitation, water column production of MeHg, and/or efflux of MeHg from anoxic sediment.

  8. Theoretical evaluation on nitrogen removal of step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Gui-bing; PENG Yong-zhen


    Evaluation on nitrogen removal of step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process at the standpoint of reaction kinetics and process kinetics was conducted. Theoretical biological nitrogen removal efficiency was deduced based on the mass balance of nitrate in the last stage. The comparison of pre-denitrification process and step feed process in the aspects of nitrogen removal efficiency, volume of reactor and building investment was studied, and the results indicated that step-feed anoxic/oxic activated sludge process was superior to pre-denitrification process in these aspects.

  9. Decomposition of algal lipids in clay-enriched marine sediment under oxic and anoxic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕冬伟; 宋茜; 王旭晨


    A series of laboratory incubation experiments were conducted to examine the decomposition of algal organic matter in clay-enriched marine sediment under oxic and anoxic conditions.During the 245-day incubation period,changes in the concentrations of TOC,major algal fatty acid components (14:0,16:0,16:1,18:1 and 20:5),and n-alkanes (C16-C23) were quantified in the samples.Our results indicate that the organic matters were degraded more rapidly in oxic than anoxic conditions.Adsorption of fatty acids onto cla...

  10. Phloem flow and sugar transport in Ricinus communis L. is inhibited under anoxic conditions of shoot or roots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peuke, A.D.; Gessler, A.; Trumbore, S.; Windt, C.W.; Homan, N.; Gerkema, E.; As, van H.


    Anoxic conditions should hamper the transport of sugar in the phloem, as this is an active process. The canopy is a carbohydrate source and the roots are carbohydrate sinks.By fumigating the shoot with N2 or flooding the rhizosphere, anoxic conditions in the source or sink, respectively, were induce

  11. From Here I Walked into Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Manman


    @@ When I was a little girl, I had heard about the eighth world wonder - terra cotta warriors in Qin Emperor Mausoleum.I have been wishing to visit there to see those magnificent scene which were created thousands of years ago.While with my age added, I gradually learned the terra cotta warriors were lust only one of many ancient marks of Xi'an, which once was capital of 13 dynasties in ancient China.Xi'an actually is a carrier of ancient China culture, where I walked from the modern world to the ancient China.

  12. Ancient Indian Leaps into Mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Yadav, B S


    This book presents contributions of mathematicians covering topics from ancient India, placing them in the broader context of the history of mathematics. Although the translations of some Sanskrit mathematical texts are available in the literature, Indian contributions are rarely presented in major Western historical works. Yet some of the well-known and universally-accepted discoveries from India, including the concept of zero and the decimal representation of numbers, have made lasting contributions to the foundation of modern mathematics. Through a systematic approach, this book examines th

  13. Chinese Ancient Football with Romanticism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江凌; 李晓勤


    Like other traditional Chinese sports, the ancient Chinese football, which used to be called “cuju”, has some differences from several sports in western countries concerning cultural and hamanist purport as well as metal aspiration, although it was similar with modern football to some extent, such as a leather-made ball with a bladder, rectangle sports ground, referee, goal and certain competitiveness. The author tries to talk about such difference in cultural and humanist purport as well as mental aspiration by making a comparison between “cuju” and modern football.

  14. Ecological epigenetics. (United States)

    Kilvitis, Holly J; Alvarez, Mariano; Foust, Christy M; Schrey, Aaron W; Robertson, Marta; Richards, Christina L


    Biologists have assumed that heritable variation due to DNA sequence differences (i.e., genetic variation) allows populations of organisms to be both robust and adaptable to extreme environmental conditions. Natural selection acts on the variation among different genotypes and ultimately changes the genetic composition of the population. While there is compelling evidence about the importance of genetic polymorphisms, evidence is accumulating that epigenetic mechanisms (e.g., chromatin modifications, DNA methylation) can affect ecologically important traits, even in the absence of genetic variation. In this chapter, we review this evidence and discuss the consequences of epigenetic variation in natural populations. We begin by defining the term epigenetics, providing a brief overview of various epigenetic mechanisms, and noting the potential importance of epigenetics in the study of ecology. We continue with a review of the ecological epigenetics literature to demonstrate what is currently known about the amount and distribution of epigenetic variation in natural populations. Then, we consider the various ecological contexts in which epigenetics has proven particularly insightful and discuss the potential evolutionary consequences of epigenetic variation. Finally, we conclude with suggestions for future directions of ecological epigenetics research.

  15. Information Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Ellen Tove


    The paper describes a pedagogical didactical paradigm for teaching student-designers how to deal with context issues. Form/context-relationships are conceptualized as information ecologies and described as behavioral settings using a key concept developed by social psychologist R.A. Baker...... in the 1960ties, and chosen here because it integrates cultural and psychological trajectories in a theory of living settings. The pedagogical-didactical paradigm comprises three distinct information ecologies, named after their intended outcome: the problem-setting, the exploration-setting, and the fit......-setting. It is specified how context issues can be treated within each of these information ecologies. The paper concludes by discussing the outcome of applying this paradigm with respect to the student-designers’ competence as reflective practitioners....

  16. Study of control strategy and simulation in anoxic-oxic nitrogen removal process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yong-zhen; WANG Zhi-hui; WANG Shu-ying


    The control strategy and simulation of external carbon addition were specially studied in an anoxic-oxic(A/O) process with low carbon: nitrogen(C/N) domestic wastewater. The control strategy aimed to adjust the flow rate of external carbon dosage to the anoxic zone, thus the concentration of nitrate plus nitrite( NOx -N) in the anoxic zone was kept closed to the set point. The relationship was studied between the NOx-N concentration in the anoxic zone(SNo) and the dosage of external carbon, and the results showed that the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen(TN) could not be largely improved by double dosage of carbon source when SNO reached about 2mg/L. Through keeping SNO at the level of about 2 mg/L, the demand of effluent quality could be met and the carbon dosage could be optimized. Based on the Activated Sludge Model No. 1 (ASM No. 1 ), a simplified mathematical model of external carbon dosage was developed. Simulation results showed that PI controller and feed-forward PI controller both had good dynamic response and steady precision. And feed-forward PI controller had better control effects due to its consideration of influent disturbances.

  17. Carbon sequestration in an expanded lake system during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (United States)

    Xu, Weimu; Ruhl, Micha; Jenkyns, Hugh C.; Hesselbo, Stephen P.; Riding, James B.; Selby, David; Naafs, B. David A.; Weijers, Johan W. H.; Pancost, Richard D.; Tegelaar, Erik W.; Idiz, Erdem F.


    The Early Jurassic Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (~183 Ma) was marked by marine anoxia-euxinia and globally significant organic-matter burial, accompanied by a major global carbon-cycle perturbation probably linked to Karoo-Ferrar volcanism. Although the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event is well studied in the marine realm, accompanying climatic and environmental change on the continents is poorly understood. Here, utilizing radioisotopic, palynological and geochemical data from lacustrine black shales, we demonstrate that a large lake system developed contemporaneously with the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event in the Sichuan Basin, China, probably due to enhanced hydrological cycling under elevated atmospheric pCO 2. We attribute increased lacustrine organic productivity to elevated fluvial nutrient supply, which resulted in the burial of ~460 Gt of organic carbon in the Sichuan Basin alone, creating an important negative feedback in the global exogenic carbon cycle. We suggest that enhanced nutrient delivery to marine and large lacustrine systems was a key component in the global carbon cycle recovery during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event and acted to shorten the duration of the recovery of global δ13C values.

  18. Massive expansion of marine archaea during a mid-Cretaceous oceanic anoxic event

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuypers, M.M.M.; Blokker, P.; Erbacher, J.;


    Biogeochemical and stable carbon isotopic analysis of black-shale sequences deposited during an Albian oceanic anoxic event (∼112 million years ago) indicate that up to 80 weight percent of sedimentary organic carbon is derived from marine, nonthermophilic archaea. The carbon-13 content of archae...

  19. Anoxic survival of Macoma balthica: the effect of antibiotics, molybdate and sulphide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zwaan, A.; Schaub, B.; Babarro, J.M.F.


    In anoxic semi-closed systems, the survival time of the clam Macoma balthica was compared to clams which were incubated in the presence of several antibiotics (chloramphenicol, 5- oxytetracycline hydrochloride, penicillin, streptomycin. a mix of penicillin and streptomycin and a mix of chloramphenic

  20. Anoxic aggregates - an ephemeral phenomenon in the pelagic environment? RID A-1977-2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ploug, H.; Kuhl, M.; BuchholzCleven, B.;


    of heterotrophic processes would limit anoxic conditions to occurring only over a few hours, depending on the size of the aggregates. Therefore slow-growing obligate anaerobic microorganisms such as sulfate reducing bacteria and methanogenic bacteria may be limited by the relatively short persistence of anoxia...

  1. The effect of anoxic treatment on the larvae of six species of dermestids (Coleoptera)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, J.E.; Hansen, L.S.; Jensen, K.M.V.;


    Based on surveys of species of museum pest insects commonly found in Finland, Norway, Denmark and Sweden, six species were selected for a study of the effect of exposure to anoxic treatment on the larval stage. An oxygen level of 0.3% (the rest, nitrogen) was applied and lethal exposure times wer...

  2. Vivianite precipitation and phosphate sorption following iron reduction in anoxic soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Lisa; Bender Koch, Christian; Kjærgaard, Charlotte;


    (-1) and EPC0 increased from 1.7 to 83 mu M, after 322 d of anoxic incubation. The fast Fe(III) reduction made the peat soils particularly vulnerable to changes in redox conditions. However, the precipitation of vivianite/metavivianite minerals may control soluble P-i concentrations to between 2 and 3...

  3. Gradual and sustained carbon dioxide release during Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a (United States)

    Naafs, B. D. A.; Castro, J. M.; de Gea, G. A.; Quijano, M. L.; Schmidt, D. N.; Pancost, R. D.


    During the Aptian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a, about 120 million years ago, black shales were deposited in all the main ocean basins. The event was also associated with elevated sea surface temperatures and a calcification crisis in calcareous nannoplankton. These environmental changes have been attributed to variations in atmospheric CO2 concentrations, but the evolution of the carbon cycle during this event is poorly constrained. Here we present records of atmospheric CO2 concentrations across Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a derived from bulk and compound-specific δ13C from marine rock outcrops in southern Spain and Tunisia. We find that CO2 concentrations doubled in two steps during the oceanic anoxic event and remained above background values for approximately 1.5-2 million years before declining. The rise of CO2 concentrations occurred over several tens to hundreds of thousand years, and thus was unlikely to have resulted in any prolonged surface ocean acidification, suggesting that CO2 emissions were not the primary cause of the nannoplankton calcification crisis. We find that the period of elevated CO2 concentrations coincides with a shift in the oceanic osmium-isotope inventory associated with emplacement of the Ontong Java Plateau flood basalts, and conclude that sustained volcanic outgassing was the primary source of carbon dioxide during Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a.

  4. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)



    Isotope exchange reactions between S-35-labeled sulfur compounds were studied in anoxic estuarine sediment slurries at 21-degrees-C and pH 7.4-7.7. Two experiments labeled with radioactive elemental sulfur (S-35-degrees) and one labeled with radioactive sulfate ((SO42-)-S-35) were performed as time...

  5. Foreign Guests in Ancient Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zora Žbontar


    Full Text Available Xenía was a special relationship between a foreign guest and his host in Ancient Greece. The ritual of hosting a foreigner included an exchange of objects, feasting, and the establishment of friendship between people from different social backgrounds. This relationship implied trust, loyalty, friendship, and mutual aid between the people involved. Goods and services were also exchanged without any form of payment. There were no formal laws governing xenía – it was based entirely on a moral appeal. Mutual appreciation between the host and the guest was established during the ritual, but the host did retain a certain level of superiority over the guest. Xenía was one of the most important institutions in Ancient Greece. It had a lot of features and obligations similar to kinship and marriage. In literary sources the word xénos varies in meaning from “enemy stranger”, “friendly stranger”, “foreigner”, “guest”, “host” to “ritual friend”, and it is often hard to tell which usage is appropriate in a given passage. The paper describes the emphasis on hospitality towards foreigners. It presents an example of a depiction indicating xenía is presented, as well as several objects which were traded during the ritual. The paper also addresses the importance of hospitality in Greek drama in general, especially with examples of violations of the hospitality code.

  6. [Ancient history of Indian pharmacy]. (United States)

    Okuda, Jun; Natsume, Yohko


    The study of the ancient history of Indian medicine has recently been revived due to the publication of polyglot translations. However, little is known of ancient Indian pharmacy. Archaeological evidence suggests the Indus people lived a settled life approximately in 2500 B.C. Their cities were enjoying the cleanest and most hygienic daily life with elaborate civic sanitation systems. The whole conception shows a remarkable concern for health. Then, the early Aryans invaded India about 1500 B.C. and the Vedic age started. The Rgveda texts contain the hymns for Soma and those for herbs. The term Ayurveda (i.e., science of life) is found in some old versions of both Ramāyana and Mahābhārata and in the Atharvaveda. Suśruta had the credit of making a breakthrough in the field of surgery. The Ayurveda, a work on internal medicine, gives the following transmission of sages: Brahmā-->Daksa-->Prajāpati-->Aśivinau-->Indra-->Caraka. On the other hand, the Suśruta-samhitā, which deals mainly with surgical medicine, explains it as follows; Indra-->Dhanvantari-->Suśruta Both Caraka and Suśruta were medical doctors as well as pharmacists, so they studied more than 1000 herbs thoroughly. The Ayurveda had been used by his devotees for medical purposes. It eventually spread over Asia with the advanced evolution of Buddhism.

  7. Bacterial Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenchel, Tom


    Bacterial ecology is concerned with the interactions between bacteria and their biological and nonbiological environments and with the role of bacteria in biogeochemical element cycling. Many fundamental properties of bacteria are consequences of their small size. Thus, they can efficiently exploit...

  8. Attitudes Toward Deviant Sex in Ancient Mesopotamia (United States)

    Bullough, Vern L.


    The article concludes that the whole question of sexual life in ancient Mesopotamia is difficult to reconstruct and fraught with many uncertainties. Nevertheless, it seems certain that the ancient Mesopotamians had fewer prohibitions against sex than our own civilization, and regarded as acceptable many practices which later societies condemned.…

  9. Women--Sex Objects in Ancient Egypt. (United States)

    Mutimer, Brian T. P.

    Although it has been said that the women in Ancient Egypt enjoyed a reasonable state of social and professional equality with men, this paper presents an alternate theory--that women were second-class citizens whose physical prowess was secondary to their role as sex objects. It appears that men and women in Ancient Egypt often participated in the…

  10. The Idea of Ancient Greek Philosophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    As the source of western philosophy, ancient Greek philosophy had a profound influence on western philosophy. Ancient philosophers were hard to reach a consensus on the existence of all the things in the world. They tried to grasp the profound understanding of the world, which is the clue of the history of philosophy.

  11. Mechanisms in ancient Chinese books with illustrations

    CERN Document Server

    Hsiao, Kuo-Hung


    This book presents a unique approach for studying mechanisms and machines with drawings that were depicted unclearly in ancient Chinese books. The historical, cultural and technical backgrounds of the mechanisms are explained, and various mechanisms described and illustrated in ancient books are introduced. By utilizing the idea for the conceptual design of modern mechanisms, all feasible designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain members and joints that meet the technical standards of the subjects’ time periods are synthesized systematically. Ancient Chinese crossbows (the original crossbow and repeating crossbows), textile mechanisms (silk-reeling mechanism, spinning mechanisms, and looms), and many other artisan's tool mechanisms are used as illustrated examples.  Such an approach provides a logical method for the reconstruction designs of ancient mechanisms with uncertain structures. It also provides an innovative direction for researchers to further identify the original structures of mechanisms...

  12. Structural recognition of ancient Chinese ideographic characters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ning; Chen Dan


    Ancient Chinese characters, typically the ideographic characters on bones and bronze before Shang Dynasty (16th—11th century B.C.), are valuable culture legacy of history. However the recognition of Ancient Chinese characters has been the task of paleography experts for long. With the help of modern computer technique, everyone can expect to be able to recognize the characters and understand the ancient inscriptions. This research is aimed to help people recognize and understand those ancient Chinese characters by combining Chinese paleography theory and computer information processing technology. Based on the analysis of ancient character features, a method for structural character recognition is proposed. The important characteristics of strokes and basic components or radicals used in recognition are introduced in detail. A system was implemented based on above method to show the effectiveness of the method.

  13. [Anomalous pregnancies in ancient medicine]. (United States)

    Gazzaniga, Valentina


    In ancient Greek medicine female physiology is determined by a particular state of non-steady equilibrium, largely based on pregnancy and lactation, presented as the only balanced and healthy periods in women's life. Nonetheless, pregnancy can be also a pathological moment, in particular referring to specific alterations of its 'normal time' ('seven-months', 'eight-months' and 'ten-months' children). The article analyzes the well-known case of myle, an abnormal pregnancy developing in three and sometimes four years, non resolving in a normal delivery, but often in a dramatic haemorrhagic flux. The author compares Hippocratic and Aristotelic testimonies about myle and abnormal pregnancies with the evidence fournished by the historical-religious recent studies about Hera and her parthenogenetic, monstrous children.

  14. Detecting hybridization using ancient DNA. (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan K; Shapiro, Beth; Green, Richard E


    It is well established that related species hybridize and that this can have varied but significant effects on speciation and environmental adaptation. It should therefore come as no surprise that hybridization is not limited to species that are alive today. In the last several decades, advances in technologies for recovering and sequencing DNA from fossil remains have enabled the assembly of high-coverage genome sequences for a growing diversity of organisms, including many that are extinct. Thanks to the development of new statistical approaches for detecting and quantifying admixture from genomic data, genomes from extinct populations have proven useful both in revealing previously unknown hybridization events and informing the study of hybridization between living organisms. Here, we review some of the key recent statistical innovations for detecting ancient hybridization using genomewide sequence data and discuss how these innovations have revised our understanding of human evolutionary history.

  15. [Being old in ancient Hellas]. (United States)

    van Hooff, A J


    There is room for a more balanced view of old age among the ancient Greeks than is furnished by De Beauvoir's la Vieillesse and other more or less one-sided publications. The old body was despised by the Greeks of classical times; especially walking with three legs (tripous) was stressed as a mark of old age. The Hippocratic writings show some interest in the infirmities of elderly people. Specific psychic and intellectual qualities were not attributed to senescence: old age brought out good and bad qualities of a person more sharply than before. The share of old people in the population cannot be established with any certainty, but there was always a group of men in their sixties who had specific tasks in society. Old age was not an autonomous theme in art, it was solely accidental. The position of the elderly was challenged occasionally in democratic Athens, but it was never undermined. Old people were never marginated in classical Greece.

  16. Ancient Acupuncture Literature on Apoplexy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yi-zeng; BI Zhen; Xiao Yuan-chun


    This paper reviews twenty-eight Chinese medicine books with complete prescriptions prior to the Qing Dynasty, and analyzes the characteristics of acupoint selection and needling manipulations from the perspective of apoplectic symptoms. It is concluded that,in ancient times, apoplexy is often treated on the basis of its symptoms and a great number of acupoints are employed; hemiplegia is mainly treated by the acupoints of the Large Intestine Meridian and Gallbladder Meridian,with two key acupoints; coma is mainly treated by first-aid acupoints and qi-supplementing acupoints, with seven key acupoints; wry mouth and convulsion are mainly treated by the local acupoints; as for needling manipulations, moxibustion with moxa cones is principally used, while needling is less used.

  17. Algae after dark: mechanisms to cope with anoxic/hypoxic conditions. (United States)

    Yang, Wenqiang; Catalanotti, Claudia; Wittkopp, Tyler M; Posewitz, Matthew C; Grossman, Arthur R


    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular, soil-dwelling (and aquatic) green alga that has significant metabolic flexibility for balancing redox equivalents and generating ATP when it experiences hypoxic/anoxic conditions. The diversity of pathways available to ferment sugars is often revealed in mutants in which the activities of specific branches of fermentative metabolism have been eliminated; compensatory pathways that have little activity in parental strains under standard laboratory fermentative conditions are often activated. The ways in which these pathways are regulated and integrated have not been extensively explored. In this review, we primarily discuss the intricacies of dark anoxic metabolism in Chlamydomonas, but also discuss aspects of dark oxic metabolism, the utilization of acetate, and the relatively uncharacterized but critical interactions that link chloroplastic and mitochondrial metabolic networks.

  18. Bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments: consequences on the speciation of heavy metals. (United States)

    Dell'Anno, Antonio; Beolchini, Francesca; Gabellini, Massimo; Rocchetti, Laura; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto


    We investigated the effects of biostimulation and bioagumentation strategies applied to harbor sediments displaying reducing conditions and high concentrations of petroleum hydrocarbons and heavy metals. We compared the microbial efficiency of hydrocarbon removal from sediments maintained for 60 days in anoxic conditions and inoculated with acetate, sulfate-reducing bacterial strains and acetate and sulfate-reducing bacteria. All treatments determined a significant increase in the microbial growth and significant decreases of hydrocarbon contents and of redox potential values. The addition of sulfate-reducing bacterial strains to the sediment was the most efficient treatment for the hydrocarbon removal. In all experiments, significant changes of the heavy metals' phase repartition were observed. The results reported here suggest that the biodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in anoxic marine sediments may be enhanced by stimulating microbial anaerobic metabolism, but care should be applied to monitor the potential changes in the mobility and bioavailability of heavy metals induced by bio-treatments.

  19. Multiple S-isotopic evidence for episodic shoaling of anoxic water during Late Permian mass extinction. (United States)

    Shen, Yanan; Farquhar, James; Zhang, Hua; Masterson, Andrew; Zhang, Tonggang; Wing, Boswell A


    Global fossil data show that profound biodiversity loss preceded the final catastrophe that killed nearly 90% marine species on a global scale at the end of the Permian. Many hypotheses have been proposed to explain this extinction and yet still remain greatly debated. Here, we report analyses of all four sulphur isotopes ((32)S, (33)S, (34)S and (36)S) for pyrites in sedimentary rocks from the Meishan section in South China. We observe a sulphur isotope signal (negative δ(34)S with negative Δ(33)S) that may have resulted from limitation of sulphate supply, which may be linked to a near shutdown of bioturbation during shoaling of anoxic water. These results indicate that episodic shoaling of anoxic water may have contributed to the profound biodiversity crisis before the final catastrophe. Our data suggest a prolonged deterioration of oceanic environments during the Late Permian mass extinction.

  20. Anoxic carbon degradation in Arctic sediments: Microbial transformations of complex substrates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnosti, Carol; Finke, Niko; Larsen, Ole


    Complex substrates are degraded in anoxic sediments by the concerted activities of diverse microbial communities. To explore the effects of substrate complexity on carbon transformations in permanently cold anoxic sediments, four substrates—Spirulina cells, Isochrysis cells, and soluble high...... of carbon degradation diverged, with an additional 43%, 32%, 33%, and 8% of Isochrysis, Iso-Ex, Spirulina, and Spir-Ex carbon respired to CO2 over the next 750 h of incubation. Somewhat surprisingly, the soluble, carbohydrate-rich extracts did not prove to be more labile substrates than the whole cells from...... which they were derived. Although Spirulina and Iso-Ex differed in physical and chemical characteristics (solid/soluble, C/N ratio, lipid and carbohydrate content), nearly identical quantities of carbon were respired to CO2. In contrast, only 15% of Spir-Ex carbon was respired, despite the initial burst...

  1. Pyrite surface interaction with selected organic aqueous species under anoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bebié Joakim


    Full Text Available The interaction between low-molecular weight organic compounds and pyrite under anoxic conditions has been studied using a combination of electrophoresis and batch sorption experiments. The results suggest that acetate, carbamide, ethylamine, formamide, purine, D-ribose, and adenine, as well as the amino acids alanine, cysteine and glycine, interact within the electrophoretic shearplane of the pyrite surface. The observed surface interaction between the negatively charged surface of pyrite and the organic aqueous species takes place regardless of the formal charge of the aqueous species of interest. This indicates that the interaction of organic molecules with pyrite surfaces under anoxic conditions is dictated by interactions with specific surface sites (thiol or iron surface sites rather than electrostatic forces. Dissolved metals typically enhance the interaction of the organics species. This enhancement is either due to an alteration in the distribution of thiol and iron groups on the pyrite surface or by the formation of ternary surface complexes.

  2. gargammel: a sequence simulator for ancient DNA. (United States)

    Renaud, Gabriel; Hanghøj, Kristian; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic


    Ancient DNA has emerged as a remarkable tool to infer the history of extinct species and past populations. However, many of its characteristics, such as extensive fragmentation, damage and contamination, can influence downstream analyses. To help investigators measure how these could impact their analyses in silico, we have developed gargammel, a package that simulates ancient DNA fragments given a set of known reference genomes. Our package simulates the entire molecular process from post-mortem DNA fragmentation and DNA damage to experimental sequencing errors, and reproduces most common bias observed in ancient DNA datasets.

  3. Open questions on the origin of life at anoxic geothermal fields. (United States)

    Mulkidjanian, Armen Y; Bychkov, Andrew Yu; Dibrova, Daria V; Galperin, Michael Y; Koonin, Eugene V


    We have recently reconstructed the 'hatcheries' of the first cells by combining geochemical analysis with phylogenomic scrutiny of the inorganic ion requirements of universal components of modern cells (Mulkidjanian et al. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109:E821-830, 2012). These ubiquitous, and by inference primordial, proteins and functional systems show affinity to and functional requirement for K⁺, Zn²⁺, Mn²⁺, and phosphate. Thus, protocells must have evolved in habitats with a high K⁺/Na⁺ ratio and relatively high concentrations of Zn, Mn and phosphorous compounds. Geochemical reconstruction shows that the ionic composition conducive to the origin of cells could not have existed in marine settings but is compatible with emissions of vapor-dominated zones of inland geothermal systems. Under an anoxic, CO₂-dominated atmosphere, the ionic composition of pools of cool, condensed vapor at anoxic geothermal fields would resemble the internal milieu of modern cells. Such pools would be lined with porous silicate minerals mixed with metal sulfides and enriched in K⁺ ions and phosphorous compounds. Here we address some questions that have appeared in print after the publication of our anoxic geothermal field scenario. We argue that anoxic geothermal fields, which were identified as likely cradles of life by using a top-down approach and phylogenomics analysis, could provide geochemical conditions similar to those which were suggested as most conducive for the emergence of life by the chemists who pursuit the complementary bottom-up strategy.

  4. Energetic Constraints on H-2-Dependent Terminal Electron Accepting Processes in Anoxic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heimann, Axel Colin; Jakobsen, Rasmus; Blodau, C.


    Microbially mediated terminal electron accepting processes (TEAPs) to a large extent control the fate of redox reactive elements and associated reactions in anoxic soils, sediments, and aquifers. This review focuses on thermodynamic controls and regulation of H-2-dependent TEAPs, case studies...... illustrating this concept and the quantitative description of thermodynamic controls in modeling. Other electron transfer processes are considered where appropriate. The work reviewed shows that thermodynamics and microbial kinetics are connected near thermodynamic equilibrium. Free energy thresholds...

  5. Stimulated anoxic biodegradation of aromatic hydrocarbons using Fe(III) ligands (United States)

    Lovley, D.R.; Woodward, J.C.; Chapelle, F.H.


    Contamination of ground waters with water-soluble aromatic hydrocarbons, common components of petroleum pollution, often produces anoxic conditions under which microbial degradation of the aromatics is slow. Oxygen is often added to contaminated ground water to stimulate biodegradation, but this can be technically difficult and expensive. Insoluble Fe(III) oxides, which are generally abundant in shallow aquifers, are alternative potential oxidants, but are difficult for microorganisms to access. Here we report that adding organic ligands that bind to Fe(III) dramatically increases its bioavailability, and that in the presence of these ligands, rates of degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anoxic aquifer sediments are comparable to those in oxic sediments. We find that even benzene, which is notoriously refractory in the absence of oxygen, can be rapidly degraded. Our results suggest that increasing the bioavailability of Fe(III) by adding suitable ligands provides a potential alternative to oxygen addition for the bioremediation of petroleum-contaminated aquifers.Contamination of ground waters with water-soluble aromatic hydrocarbons, common components of petroleum pollution, often produces anoxic conditions under which microbial degradation of the aromatics is slow. Oxygen is often added to contaminated ground water to stimulate biodegradation, but this can be technically difficult and expensive. Insoluble Fe(III) oxides, which are generally abundant in shallow aquifers, are alternative potential oxidants, but are difficult for microorganisms to access. Here we report that adding organic ligands that bind to Fe(III) dramatically increases its bioavailability, and that in the presence of these ligands, rates of degradation of aromatic hydrocarbons in anoxic aquifer sediments are comparable to those in oxic sediments. We find that even benzene, which is notoriously refractory in the absence of oxygen, can be rapidly degraded. Our results suggest that increasing

  6. Controlled oxygen release from pyridone endoperoxides promotes cell survival under anoxic conditions


    Benz, Sebastian; Noetzli, Sarah; Siegel, Jay; Eberli, Daniel; Jessen, Henning Jacob


    In tissue engineering, survival of larger constructs remains challenging due to limited supply with oxygen caused by a lack of early vascularization. Controlled release of oxygen from small organic molecules represents a possible strategy to prevent cell death under anoxic conditions. A comprehensive study of methylated pyridone-derived endoperoxides has led to the development of water-soluble molecules that undergo retro Diels-Alder reactions in aqueous environment releasing oxygen in high y...

  7. Extreme Red Sea: Life in the deep-sea anoxic brine lakes



    Tectonic splitting of the Arabian and African plates originated the Red Sea together with one of the most unique, remote, and extreme environments on Earth: deep-sea anoxic brine lakes. They combine multiple extremes namely increased salinity (7-fold), temperature (up to 70°C), concentration of heavy metals (1,000- to 10,000-fold), and hydrostatic pressure [1]. Despite such harsh conditions, they harbor an unexpectedly high biodiversity and are teeming with life. Increased i...

  8. Biogenic nitrogen gas production at the oxic–anoxic interface in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Montes


    Full Text Available Excess nitrogen gas (N2xs was measured in samples collected at six locations in the eastern and western sub-basins of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela, in September 2008 (non-upwelling conditions and March 2009 (upwelling conditions. During both sampling periods, N2xs concentrations were below detection in surface waters, increasing to ~ 22 μmol N kg−1 at the oxic–anoxic interface ([O2] < ~ 4 μmol kg−1, ~ 250 m. Below the oxic–anoxic interface (300–400 m, the average concentration of N2xs was 24.7 ± 1.9 μmol N kg−1 in September 2008 and 27.5 ± 2.0 μmol N kg−1 in March 2009, i.e., N2xs concentrations within this depth interval were ~ 3 μmol N kg−1 higher (p < 0.001 during the upwelling season compared to the non-upwelling period. These results suggest that N-loss in the Cariaco Basin may vary seasonally in response to changes in the flux of sinking particulate organic matter. We attribute the increase in N2xs concentrations, or N-loss, observed during upwelling to: (1 higher availability of fixed nitrogen derived from suspended and sinking particles at the oxic–anoxic interface and/or (2 enhanced ventilation at the oxic–anoxic interface during upwelling.

  9. Effects of ecological engineered oxygenation on the bacterial community structure in an anoxic fjord in western Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forth, M.; Liljebladh, B.; Stigebrandt, A.;


    Oxygen-depleted bodies of water are becoming increasingly common in marine ecosystems. Solutions to reverse this trend are needed and under development, for example, by the Baltic deep-water OXygenation (BOX) project. In the framework of this project, the Swedish Byfjord was chosen for a pilot st...

  10. The removal of cyanobacteria and their metabolites through anoxic biodegradation in drinking water sludge. (United States)

    Ma, Guangxiang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Xu, Xiangchao; Ma, Chunxia; Li, Xiuqing


    The effects of environmental factors on cyanobacteria damage and microcystin-LR degradation in drinking water sludge were investigated under anoxic conditions. The rates of microcystin-LR release and degradation increased rapidly with the increasing temperature from 15°C to 40°C and the highest degradation rate of 99% was observed at 35°C within 10days. Compared to acidic conditions, microcystin-LR degraded more rapidly in weak alkali environments. In addition, the microbial community structures under different anoxic conditions were studied. The sequencing results showed that four phyla obtained from the DGGE profiles were as follows: Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Firmicutes and Cyanobacteria. Proteobacteria containing nine genera were the most common species. Pseudomonas, Methylosinus and Sphingomona all showed stronger activities and had significant increase as microcystin-LR degraded, so they should be responsible for the microcystin-LR degradation. This is the first report of Pseudomonas, Methylosinus and Sphingomonas as the microcystins-degrading microorganisms in anoxic drinking water sludge.

  11. The isotopic composition of authigenic chromium in anoxic marine sediments: A case study from the Cariaco Basin


    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Wang, Xiangli; Fischer, Woodward W.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Lyons, Timothy W.


    Chromium (Cr) isotopes are an emerging proxy for tracking redox processes at the Earth's surface. However, there has been limited exploration of the Cr isotope record of modern and recent marine sediments. The basic inorganic chemistry of Cr suggests that anoxic marine basins should factor prominently in the global Cr cycle and that sediments deposited within anoxic basins may offer a valuable Cr isotope archive throughout Earth's history. Here, we present δ^(53)Cr data from sediments of the ...

  12. Graphic Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brook Weld Muller


    Full Text Available This essay describes strategic approaches to graphic representation associated with critical environmental engagement and that build from the idea of works of architecture as stitches in the ecological fabric of the city. It focuses on the building up of partial or fragmented graphics in order to describe inclusive, open-ended possibilities for making architecture that marry rich experience and responsive performance. An aphoristic approach to crafting drawings involves complex layering, conscious absence and the embracing of tension. A self-critical attitude toward the generation of imagery characterized by the notion of ‘loose precision’ may lead to more transformative and environmentally responsive architectures.

  13. Aiding the Interpretation of Ancient Documents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roued-Cunliffe, Henriette

    How can Decision Support System (DSS) software aid the interpretation process involved in the reading of ancient documents? This paper discusses the development of a DSS prototype for the reading of ancient texts. In this context the term ‘ancient documents’ is used to describe mainly Greek...... and Latin texts and the term ‘scholars’ is used to describe readers of these documents (e.g. papyrologists, epigraphers, palaeographers). However, the results from this research can be applicable to many other texts ranging from Nordic runes to 18th Century love letters. In order to develop an appropriate...... tool it is important first to comprehend the interpretation process involved in reading ancient documents. This is not a linear process but rather a recursive process where the scholar moves between different levels of reading, such as ‘understanding the meaning of a character’ or ‘understanding...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : Schwannoma is a common benign tumour of nerve sheath. Degenerating type of schwannoma is called ancient schwannoma. Ancient schwannomas of scalp are rare and are often misdiagnosed as sebaceous cyst or dermoid cyst. CASE REPORT : We present a thirty two year old male presented with scalp swel ling of eight years duration. X - ray showed no intracranial extension. He underwent excision of the tumour and histopathology was reported as ancient schwannoma. DISCUSSION : Histopathologically , ancient schwannomas charecterised by cellular Antoni type A ar eas and less cellular Antoni type - B areas. 9 th , 7 th , 11 th , 5 th and 4 th cranial nerves are often affected and may be associated with multiple neuro fibramatosis (Von - Recklinghausen’s disease. Impact : Case is presented for its rarity and possible pre - operative misdiagnosis

  15. Ancient Magnetic Reversals: Clues to the Geodynamo. (United States)

    Hoffman, Kenneth A.


    Discusses the question posed by some that the earth's magnetic field may reverse. States that rocks magnetized by ancient fields may offer clues to the underlying reversal mechanism in the earth's core. (TW)

  16. Recycling and burial of phosphorus in sediments of an anoxic fjord-the By Fjord, western Sweden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viktorsson, Lena; Kononets, Mikhail; Roos, Per;


    the DIC and DIP fluxes at oxic bottoms was almost 10 times higher than the Redfield C: P ratio indicating partial immobilization of P in oxic sediments. In contrast, the C: P ratio in fluxes was on average 1.5 times lower than Redfield at the anoxic bottoms. The benthic fluxes from anoxic bottoms were P...... rich not only in relation to C, but also to N. The low C: P flux ratio at anoxic sites coincided with an about 2.5 times higher than Redfield C: P ratio of organic matter in the sediment solid phase clearly suggesting preferential regeneration of P at anoxic bottoms. Burial of inorganic P was higher...... water. The water in the basin is exchanged only every 3 to 5 years and the water below sill level is anoxic or sulfidic between water renewals. Five sites were examined in the By Fjord; three shallow sites above the sill level with oxic bottom waters and two deeper sites with anoxic bottom waters...

  17. Surgical history of ancient China: Part 2. (United States)

    Fu, Louis


    In this second part of ancient Chinese surgical history, the practice of bone setting in China began around 3000 years ago. Throughout this period, significant progress was made, some highlights of which are cited. These methods, comparable with Western orthopaedic technique, are still being practised today. In conclusion, the possible reasons for the lack of advancement in operative surgery are discussed, within context of the cultural, social and religious background of ancient China.

  18. Radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese documents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, H. [Nagoya Univ., Center for Chronological Research, Nagoya, Aichi (Japan)


    History is a reconstruction of past human activity, evidence of which is remained in the form of documents or relics. For the reconstruction of historic period, the radiocarbon dating of ancient documents provides important information. Although radiocarbon age is converted into calendar age with the calibration curve, the calibrated radiocarbon age is still different from the historical age when the document was written. The difference is known as 'old wood effect' for wooden cultural property. The discrepancy becomes more serious problem for recent sample which requires more accurate age determination. Using Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer at Nagoya University, we have measured radiocarbon ages of Japanese ancient documents, sutras and printed books written dates of which are clarified from the paleographic standpoint. The purpose is to clarify the relation between calibrated radiocarbon age and historical age of ancient Japanese document by AMS radiocarbon dating. This paper reports 23 radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese documents, sutras and printed books. The calibrated radiocarbon ages are in good agreement with the corresponding historical ages. It was shown by radiocarbon dating of the ancient documents that Japanese paper has little gap by 'old wood effect'; accordingly, ancient Japanese paper is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating of recent historic period. (author)

  19. Ecological macroeconomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Inge


    of this discussion includes contributions from actors involved with efforts to advance a ‘Green New Deal’ that repeats the idea that the promotion of green innovation and government funding of greener infrastructure would improve competitiveness and increase employment. This time ‘Green Keynesianism’ is accompanied...... to shift resources from consumption to investment and describing the role of consumer-citizens in such a change. The chapter starts by identifying the problems and challenges for an ecological macroeconomics. The next section outlines some of the shortcomings of traditional macroeconomics...... to energy, transport, housing, food and so forth. The fourth section outlines briefly the roles of consumer-citizens in relation to such sustainability transformations and the final section considers the possibilities for initiating the envisioned changes....

  20. Is our Future Written in the Geological Record of Oceanic Anoxic Events? The Calcareous Nannoplankton Perspective (Invited) (United States)

    Erba, E.


    The topical emergence of climate change as a crucial issue for society and governments has urged the understanding of the future state of the planet within the context of increasing carbon dioxide concentrations. In the near future, the ocean's uptake of CO2 is expected to rapidly decline because of surface warming, increased vertical stratification, and slowed thermohaline circulation. The Anthropocene CO2 emissions are inferred to be the cause of global warming and alteration of ocean chemistry, triggering unknown responses of marine biota in terms of extinction, innovation and/or temporary adaptations. During the Mesozoic under excess CO2 and greenhouse conditions, the ocean became depleted of oxygen, promoting the burial of massive amounts of organic matter. These episodes are named Oceanic Anoxic Events (OAEs) and might provide guidance as to the response of marine biota to massive CO2 releases and how and at what rate pre-perturbation conditions are eventually restored. After over three decades of research on OAEs, an impressive amount of data has been generated: there is a general consensus on the role of Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs) inducing CO2 increases, greenhouse climate and profound variations in chemical, physical and trophic characteristics of the ocean. OAEs can be studied to decipher the complexity of drivers and of responses within and among different organisms to CO2 pulses, extreme warmth, weathering changes, ocean fertilization and acidification to add the long-term and large-scale prospective to investigations on current, very-short-term and local responses. In Jurassic and Cretaceous oceans, coccolithophores were already a most efficient carbonate-forming group and OAEs offer the opportunity of characterizing variations in their abundance, diversity, and morphology to trace ecological affinities and adaptations to oceanic ecosystem perturbations. We quantitatively investigated the Toarcian OAE, the early Aptian OAE1a and the latest

  1. Oxic and anoxic mineralization of simple carbon substrates in peat at low temperatures (United States)

    Segura, Javier; Sparrman, Tobias; Nilsson, Mats; Schleucher, Jürgen; Öquist, Mats


    Northern peatlands store approximately one-quarter of the world's soil carbon and typically act as net carbon sinks. However a large fraction of the carbon fixed during the growing season can be emitted back to the atmosphere during winter as CO2 and CH4, despite low temperatures and frozen conditions, making low temperature biogeochemical processes crucial for the long-term net ecosystem carbon balance. However, the metabolic processes driving carbon mineralization under winter conditions are poorly understood and whether or not peat microbial communities can maintain metabolic activity at temperatures below freezing is uncertain. Here we present results from an incubation study aimed at elucidating the potential of peat microbial communities to mineralize simple carbon substrates to CO2 and CH4 at low temperatures. Peat samples from the acrotelm were amended with [13C]- glucose and incubated at -5 °C, -3 °C, +4 °C, and +9 °C under both oxic and anoxic conditions, and rates of CO2 and CH4 production were determined. In addition, incorporation of the labelled substrate into phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were determined to account for microbial growth during mineralization and the metabolic partitioning between catabolic and anabolic activity. Biogenic [13C]-CO2 was produced from the added substrate in peat samples incubated both under oxic and anoxic conditions. Under oxic conditions the production rates were 3.5, 2.3, 0.3 and 0.07 mg CO2 g SOM-1day-1 at +9 °C, +4 °C, -3 °C and -5 °C, respectively, and corresponding rates for anoxic conditions were 1.1, 1.0, 0.03 and 0.01 mg CO2 g SOM-1day-1. Consequently the observed Q10 values of the temperature sensitivity under both oxic and anoxic conditions increased dramatically upon soil freezing. However, anoxic mineralization appears less sensitive to temperature as compared to when oxygen is present. Methane was also produced and detected across the range of the incubation temperatures in the anoxic

  2. Evidence for Ancient Mesoamerican Earthquakes (United States)

    Kovach, R. L.; Garcia, B.


    Evidence for past earthquake damage at Mesoamerican ruins is often overlooked because of the invasive effects of tropical vegetation and is usually not considered as a casual factor when restoration and reconstruction of many archaeological sites are undertaken. Yet the proximity of many ruins to zones of seismic activity would argue otherwise. Clues as to the types of damage which should be soughtwere offered in September 1999 when the M = 7.5 Oaxaca earthquake struck the ruins of Monte Alban, Mexico, where archaeological renovations were underway. More than 20 structures were damaged, 5 of them seriously. Damage features noted were walls out of plumb, fractures in walls, floors, basal platforms and tableros, toppling of columns, and deformation, settling and tumbling of walls. A Modified Mercalli Intensity of VII (ground accelerations 18-34 %b) occurred at the site. Within the diffuse landward extension of the Caribbean plate boundary zone M = 7+ earthquakes occur with repeat times of hundreds of years arguing that many Maya sites were subjected to earthquakes. Damage to re-erected and reinforced stelae, walls, and buildings were witnessed at Quirigua, Guatemala, during an expedition underway when then 1976 M = 7.5 Guatemala earthquake on the Motagua fault struck. Excavations also revealed evidence (domestic pttery vessels and skeleton of a child crushed under fallen walls) of an ancient earthquake occurring about the teim of the demise and abandonment of Quirigua in the late 9th century. Striking evidence for sudden earthquake building collapse at the end of the Mayan Classic Period ~A.D. 889 was found at Benque Viejo (Xunantunich), Belize, located 210 north of Quirigua. It is argued that a M = 7.5 to 7.9 earthquake at the end of the Maya Classic period centered in the vicinity of the Chixoy-Polochic and Motagua fault zones cound have produced the contemporaneous earthquake damage to the above sites. As a consequences this earthquake may have accelerated the

  3. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations. (United States)

    Melchior, Linea; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans R; Kivisild, Toomas; Dissing, Jørgen


    Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  4. Anoxic carbon degradation in Arctic sediments: Microbial transformations of complex substrates (United States)

    Arnosti, C.; Finke, N.; Larsen, O.; Ghobrial, S.


    Complex substrates are degraded in anoxic sediments by the concerted activities of diverse microbial communities. To explore the effects of substrate complexity on carbon transformations in permanently cold anoxic sediments, four substrates— Spirulina cells, Isochrysis cells, and soluble high molecular weight carbohydrate-rich extracts of these cells (Spir-Ex and Iso-Ex)—were added to sediments collected from Svalbard. The sediments were homogenized, incubated anaerobically in gas-tight bags at 0°C, and enzyme activities, fermentation, and terminal respiration were monitored over a 1134 h time course. All substrate additions yielded a fraction (8%-13%) of carbon that was metabolized to CO 2 over the first 384 h of incubation. The timecourse of VFA (volatile fatty acid) production and consumption, as well as the suite of VFAs produced, was similar for all substrates. After this phase, pathways of carbon degradation diverged, with an additional 43%, 32%, 33%, and 8% of Isochrysis, Iso-Ex, Spirulina, and Spir-Ex carbon respired to CO 2 over the next 750 h of incubation. Somewhat surprisingly, the soluble, carbohydrate-rich extracts did not prove to be more labile substrates than the whole cells from which they were derived. Although Spirulina and Iso-Ex differed in physical and chemical characteristics (solid/soluble, C/N ratio, lipid and carbohydrate content), nearly identical quantities of carbon were respired to CO 2. In contrast, only 15% of Spir-Ex carbon was respired, despite the initial burst of activity that it fueled, its soluble nature, and its relatively high (50%) carbohydrate content. The microbial community in these cold anoxic sediments clearly has the capacity to react rapidly to carbon input; extent and timecourse of remineralization of added carbon is similar to observations made at much higher temperatures in temperate sediments. The extent of carbon remineralization from these specific substrates, however, would not likely have been predicted

  5. [Construction and evaluation of an engineered bacterial strain for producing lipopeptide under anoxic conditions]. (United States)

    Liang, Xiao-long; Zhao, Feng; Shi, Rong-jiu; Ban, Yun-he; Zhou, Ji-dong; Han, Si-qin; Zhang, Ying


    Biosurfactant-facilitated oil recovery is one of the most important aspects of microbial enhanced oil recovery (MEOR). However, the biosurfactant production by biosurfactant-producing microorganisms, most of which are aerobes, is severely suppressed due to the in-situ anoxic conditions within oil reservoirs. In this research, we successfully engineered a strain JD-3, which could grow rapidly and produce lipopeptide under anoxic conditions, by protoplast confusion using a Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain BQ-2 which produces biosurfactant aerobically, and a facultative anaerobic Pseudomonas stutzeri strain DQ-1 as parent strains. The alignment of 16S rDNA sequence (99% similarity) and comparisons of cell colony morphology showed that fusant JD-3 was closer to the parental strain B. amyloliquefaciens BQ-2. The surface tension of culture broth of fusant JD-3, after 36-hour cultivation under anaerobic conditions, decreased from initially 63.0 to 32.5 mN · m(-1). The results of thin layer chromatography and infrared spectrum analysis demonstrated that the biosurfactant produced by JD-3 was lipopeptide. The surface-active lipopeptide had a low critical micelle concentration (CMC) of 90 mg · L(-1) and presented a good ability to emulsify various hydrocarbons such as crude oil, liquid paraffin, and kerosene. Strain JD-3 could utilize peptone as nitrogen source and sucrose, glucose, glycerin or other common organics as carbon sources for anaerobic lipopeptide synthesis. The subculture of fusant JD-3 showed a stable lipopeptide-producing ability even after ten serial passages. All these results indicated that fusant JD-3 holds a great potential to microbially enhance oil recovery under anoxic conditions.

  6. Hematite Bearing Ridge as Evidence for Anoxic Water Discharge in Gale Crater (United States)

    Fraeman, A. A.; Arvidson, R. E.; Catalano, J. G.; Morris, R. V.; Murchie, S. L.; Seelos, F. P.; Seelos, K. D.; McGovern, A.; Viviano, C. E.


    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter CRISM hyperspectral imaging data covering the northern flank of Mount Sharp and acquired with pixels spatially oversampled have been processed to retrieve high signal to noise single scattering albedo spectra from 0.45 to 2.6 μm with enhanced spatial resolution. Using these data and coordinated HiRISE images, a ~200 m wide and 6.5 km long ridge to the north of a large channel system emanating from Mount Sharp was identified and mapped. The ridge is composed of finely layered strata dipping to the north and exhibits a strong spectral signature of crystalline hematite. To the west, the ridge transitions to an escarpment overlain by younger strata; to the east, debris flows from Mount Sharp cover and obscure the ridge. The ridge is stratigraphically directly above the clay bearing strata. We interpret the ridge to be formed by erosion associated with outflow from the channel that preferentially stripped away flanking strata not as well cemented by hematite. We hypothesize that the hematite accumulated where anoxic groundwater discharged and came into contact with an oxidizing Martian atmosphere. Anoxic water may have originated as precipitation that percolated through the mound, leaching Fe2+ from the overlying sulfate layers until encountering the clay aquiclude. Alternatively, anoxic Fe2+-rich waters at Gale could have originated by groundwater discharge near the base of the mound. In this scenario, dissolved Fe2+ could be leached from an underlying basaltic aquifer or possibly the clay layer. Given that iron oxidation reactions on Earth may be mediated by chemolithotrophic microorganisms, the ridge provides a compelling site for a detailed measurement campaign by the Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover.

  7. Simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal in anoxic-aerobic circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR). (United States)

    Cui, Y; Nakhla, G; Zhu, J; Patel, A


    Biological nutrient removal (BNR) in municipal wastewater treatment to remove carbonaceous substrates and nutrients, has recently become increasingly popular worldwide due to increasingly stringent regulations. Biological fluidized bed (BFB) technology, which could be potentially used for BNR, can provide some advantages such as high efficiency and a compact structure. This work shows the results of simultaneous elimination of organic carbon and nitrogen using a circulating fluidized bed biological reactor (CFBBR, which has been developed recently for chemical engineering processes. The CFBBR has two fluidized beds, running as anoxic and aerobic processes to accomplish simultaneous nitrification and denitrification, with continuous liquid recirculation through the anoxic bed and the aerobic bed. Soluble COD concentrations in the effluent ranging from 4 to 20 mg l(-1) were obtained at varying COD loading rates; ammonia nitrogen removal efficiencies averaged in excess of 99% at a minimum total hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 2.0 hours over a temperature range of 25 degrees C to 28 degrees C. Effluent nitrate nitrogen concentration of less than 5 mg l(-1) was achieved by increasing effluent recycle rate. No nitrite accumulation was observed either in the anoxic bed or in the aerobic bed. The system was able to treat grit chamber effluent wastewater at a HRT of 2.0 hours while achieving average effluent BOD, COD, NH3-N, TKN, nitrates, total phosphate, TSS and VSS concentrations of 10 mg l(-1), 18 mg l(-1), 1.3 mg l(-1), 1.5 mg l(-1), 7 mg l(-1), 2.0 mg l(-1), 10 mg l(-1) and 8 mg l(-1) respectively. The CFBBR appears to be not only an excellent alternative for conventional activated sludge type BNR technologies but also capable of processing much higher loadings that are suitable for industrial applications.

  8. Nerve Growth Factor Inhibits Gd3+-sensitive Calcium Influx and Reduces Chemical Anoxic Neuronal Death

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui JIANG; Shunlian TIAN; Yan ZENG; Jing SHI


    To investigate whether glutamate and voltage-gated calcium channels-independent calcium influx exists during acute anoxic neuronal damage and its possible relationship to neuronal protective function of NGF. In in vitro model of acute anoxia, hippocampal cultures from newborn rats were exposed to 3 mmol/L KCN. Changes of intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were monitored by con-focal imaging and cell viability was assayed by PI and cFDA staining. The results showed that after treatment with primary hippocampal cultures with 3 mmol/L KCN for 15 min,[Ca2+]i was significantly increased 6.27-fold compared to pre-anoxia level and 73.3% of the cells died.When combination of 20 μmol/L MK-801 (glutamate receptor antagonist), 40 μmol/L CNQX (AMPA receptor antagonist) and 5 μmol/L nimodipine (voltage-gated calcium channel antagonist) (hereafter denoted as MCN) were administrated to hippocampal cultures, levels of [Ca2+]i and cell death rate induced by KCN were partially reduced by 35.9% and 47.5% respectively. However, Gd3+ (10μmol/L) almost completely blocked KCN-mediated [Ca2+]i elevation by 81.9% and reduced neuronal death by 88.8% in the presence of MCN. It is noteworthy that NGF, used in combination with MCN,inhibited KCN-induced [Ca2+]i increase by 77.4% and reduced cell death by 87.1%. Only PLC inhibitor U73122 (10 μmol/L) abolished NGF effects. It is concluded that Gd3+-sensitive calcium influx,which is NMDA (glutamate receptor) and voltage-gated calcium channels-independent, is responsible for acute anoxic neuronal death. NGF can inhibit Gd3+-sensitive calcium influx and reduce anoxic neuronal death through activating PLC pathway.

  9. Vivianite precipitation and phosphate sorption following iron reduction in anoxic soils. (United States)

    Heiberg, Lisa; Koch, Christian Bender; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Jensen, Henning S; Hans Christian, B Hansen


    Phosphorus retention in lowland soils depends on redox conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate how the Fe(III) reduction degree affects phosphate adsorption and precipitation. Two similarly P-saturated, ferric Fe-rich lowland soils, a sandy and a peat soil, were incubated under anaerobic conditions. Mössbauer spectroscopy demonstrated that Fe(III) in the sandy soil was present as goethite and phyllosilicates, whereas Fe(III) in the peat soil was mainly present as polynuclear, Fe-humic complexes. Following anoxic incubation, extensive formation of Fe(II) in the solids occurred. After 100 d, the Fe(II) production reached its maximum and 34% of the citrate-bicarbonate-dithionite extractable Fe (Fe(CBD)) was reduced to Fe(II) in the sandy soil. The peat soil showed a much faster reduction of Fe(III) and the maximum reduction of 89% of Fe(CBD) was reached after 200 d. Neoformation of a metavivianite/vivianite phase under anoxic conditions was identified by X-ray diffraction in the peat. The sandy soil exhibited small changes in the point of zero net sorption (EPC₀) and P(i) desorption with increasing Fe(III) reduction, whereas in the peat soil P desorption increased from 80 to 3100 μmol kg⁻¹ and EPC₀ increased from 1.7 to 83 μM, after 322 d of anoxic incubation. The fast Fe(III) reduction made the peat soils particularly vulnerable to changes in redox conditions. However, the precipitation of vivianite/metavivianite minerals may control soluble P(i) concentrations to between 2 and 3 μM in the long term if the soil is not disturbed.

  10. Microscopic and Spectroscopic Characterisation of Waterlogged Archaeological Softwood from Anoxic Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nanna Bjerregaard

    Confocal Raman imaging, UV-microspectrophotometry, light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, compositional analysis, and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy has been applied to waterlogged archaeological Norway spruce [Picea abies (L.) Karst] and Scots pine [Pinus sylvestris L.] retrieved from anoxic...... waterlogged sites and solely decayed by erosion bacteria to refine the understanding of the residual wood structure left after degradation. This was done not only to improve the ability to develop suitable and cost effective conservations treatments but also to improve the understanding of anaerobic decay...

  11. Jellyfish Lake, Palau: early diagenesis of organic matter in sediments of an anoxic marine lake (United States)

    Orem, W.H.; Burnett, W.C.; Landing, W.M.; Lyons, W.B.; Showers, W.


    The major postdepositional change in the sedimentary organic matter is carbohydrate biodegradation. Lignin and aliphatic substances are preserved in the sediments. Dissolved organic matter in pore waters is primarily composed of carbohydrates, reflecting the degradation of sedimentary carbohydrates. Rate constants for organic carbon degradation and sulfate reduction in sediments of the lake are about 10?? lower than in other anoxic sediments. This may reflect the vascular plant source and partly degraded nature of the organic matter reaching the sediments of the lake. -from Authors

  12. Wordsworthian Ecology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Wordsworth devoted himself to the ideal of a harmonious relation between human and nature, between man and soci-ety, between man and the ego. In this sense, Wordsworth improved the development of ecology. This argument will be support-ed by the approach of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy. And it is supported by the following points.The first part points out that Wordsworth’s love of nature led to his love of man, which was reflected by his care for common people. Part Two shows Wordsworth’s solicitude for dwelling. His notion of dwelling had aspect of poetic dwelling. The harmonious hu-man-nature relationship reveals thee essence of free dwelling. His poetic experiment agreed with Heidegger ’s argument on poet-ic creation. His discussion of free labour was like Heidegger’s interpretation of“merit”. Part Three tells about Wordsworth’s great effort to amend the alienated human nature by treasuring the Child’s nature, imagination and human feelings.In this way, the conclusion can be got:although it would be a huge project to reinterpret Wordsworth with the approaches of eco-criticism and Heidegger’s eco-philosophy, it is still worth making the effort.

  13. Sound Ecologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Duffy


    Full Text Available Discussions about what constitutes ‘the rural’ invariably focus on notions of spatial location – of inhabiting spaces apart from that of the metropolitan. Deeply embedded in our images of what it means to be Australian, nonetheless our intellectual framing of ‘the rural’ as something outback and beyond has significant implications for our relations with these spaces. The relatively recent phenomenon of sea- and tree-changes has struck many unawares, and not simply because a good latté is so hard to find. Although a frivolous remark, such an apparent lack does shift our focus to a bodily scale of the rural; how is rural place re/made through our experiences of it? This article originates out of on-going research that explores the practice of listening and sound and the ways in which the body can draw attention to the intuitive, emotional, and psychoanalytical processes of subjectivity and place-making. Drawing on Nigel Thrift’s concept of an ecology of place, I suggest that contemporary heightened concerns with regards to loss and lack in rural Australia has led to a nascent emotional economy – one in which individual and intimate connections to the rural require a rethinking of how we live community and belonging. In such a terrain, what does it mean to be rural?

  14. Twins in Ancient Greece: a synopsis. (United States)

    Malamitsi-Puchner, Ariadne


    This brief outline associates twins with several aspects of life in Ancient Greece. In Greek mythology twins caused ambivalent reactions and were believed to have ambivalent feelings for each other. Very often, they were viewed as the representatives of the dualistic nature of the universe. Heteropaternal superfecundation, which dominates in ancient myths, explains on one hand, the god-like qualities and, on the other hand, the mortal nature of many twins. An assumption is presented that legends referring to twins might reflect the territorial expansions of Ancient Greeks in Northern Mediterranean, around the Black Sea, in Asia Minor, as well as North East Africa. In conclusion, in Greek antiquity, twins have been used as transitional figures between myth and reality.

  15. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melchior, Linea Cecilie; Lynnerup, Niels; Siegismund, Hans Redlef


    the ancient Danes (average 13%) than among extant Danes and Scandinavians ( approximately 2.5%) as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic...... samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture) that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP) was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least...... for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture....

  16. The Vindolanda Tablets and the Ancient Economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evers, Kasper Grønlund

    , a model is outlined which takes into account the different economic behaviours revealed by the tablets and attempts to fit them together into one coherent, economic system, whilst also relating the activities to questions of scale in the ancient economy; moreover, the conclusions drawn in the study......, the aim is to investigate how best to comprehend the economic system attested at Vindolanda and to consider the wider implications for studies of the ancient economy in general. This is accomplished by a three-step approach: first, the nature of the Vindolandan evidence is assessed, and the state...... of research on both studies of the ancient economy and the economy of early Roman Britain is accounted for, so as to highlight the value of the Vindolanda Tablets and lay the ground for the interpretations which follow. Secondly, the economic activities attested by the tablets are analysed in terms of market...

  17. Palaeoparasitology - Human Parasites in Ancient Material. (United States)

    Araújo, Adauto; Reinhard, Karl; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando


    Parasite finds in ancient material launched a new field of science: palaeoparasitology. Ever since the pioneering studies, parasites were identified in archaeological and palaeontological remains, some preserved for millions of years by fossilization. However, the palaeoparasitological record consists mainly of parasites found specifically in human archaeological material, preserved in ancient occupation sites, from prehistory until closer to 2015. The results include some helminth intestinal parasites still commonly found in 2015, such as Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworms, besides others such as Amoebidae and Giardia intestinalis, as well as viruses, bacteria, fungi and arthropods. These parasites as a whole provide important data on health, diet, climate and living conditions among ancient populations. This chapter describes the principal findings and their importance for knowledge on the origin and dispersal of infectious diseases.

  18. The biochemistry of ancient DNA in bone. (United States)

    Tuross, N


    The amount of DNA in ancient bone was determined by ethidium bromide staining after the removal of the potent Taq inhibitor, fulvic acid. A complete decalcification and a perfusion protocol were used to recover DNA from bone. A variety of purification techniques including molecular sieve, hydroxyapatite binding and 'Magic' preparations yielded DNA that spanned from 3.4 micrograms/g of bone to below detectable limits. Fulvic acid was shown to interfere with the quantification of DNA derived from ancient human skeletal material one hundred to over seven thousand years old. Scanning UV in the 300 to 230 nm range is a simple and sensitive technique for documenting fulvic acid contamination in ancient bone extracts.

  19. Pectus excavatum in mummies from ancient Egypt. (United States)

    Kwiecinski, Jakub


    Pectus excavatum is one of the common congenital anomalies, yet there seems to be a suspicious absence of any cases or descriptions of this deformity from antiquity. This could represent a real change in disease prevalence but is more likely just due to an inadequate reporting in medico-historical literature. The current study reviews reports of computed tomography (CT) scans of 217 ancient Egyptian mummies, revealing 3 presumed cases of this deformity. Therefore, pectus excavatum was in fact present already in ancient times, with prevalence roughly similar to the modern one.

  20. Symmetries in Images on Ancient Seals

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia


    In this paper, we discuss the presence of symmetries in images engraved on ancient seals, in particular on stamp seals. Mainly used to secure the containers from tampering and for owner's identification, these objects appeared during the 5th millennium BC in Mesopotamia. Usually the seals were engraved with simple images, suitable to communicate an immediate information. Rotational symmetries are already displayed by the most ancient stamp seals, whose images reach a quasi-perfect symmetry in their small circular or ovoid spaces. Bilateral symmetries are quite common in Egyptian scarab seals.

  1. Automatic indexing and reformulation of ancient dictionaries


    Belaïd, Abdel; Turcan, Isabelle; Pierrel, Jean-Marie; Belaïd, Yolande; Rangoni, Yves; Hadjamar, Hassen


    International audience; This paper is related to automatic indexing and reformu-lation of ancient dictionaries. The objective is to make easy the access to ancient printed documents from XVI to XIX century for a diversified public (historians, scien-tists, librarians, etc.). Since the facsimile mode is insuffi-cient, the aim is to look further for the use of the index-ing based on the formal structure representative of some contents in order to optimize their exploration. Starting from a firs...

  2. Mythological Emblem Glyphs of Ancient Maya Kings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmke, Christophe


    Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles that incorp......Heinrich Berlin’s identification of Emblem Glyphs in 1958 has rightly been hailed as one of the major breakthroughs in the decipherment of ancient Maya writing. Although their exact function and meaning was unclear at the time, these are now recognized to serve as exalted regal titles...

  3. A Modern Take on an Ancient Master

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A new English translation of The Analects gives a fresh perspective on Confucius and his philosophy by Zan Jifang Confucius(551-491 B.C.) is generally viewed as ancient China’s foremost thinker.His philosophy is probably best catalogued in The Analects,a record of the sage’s wisdom compiled after his death.This Confucian classic provides a shortcut to understanding Chinese culture. A new English edition of the ancient classic(published by the Foreign Languages Press)

  4. Evolution of medical education in ancient Greece

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Emmanouil Pikoulis; Pavlos Msaouel; Efthimios D Avgerinos; Sofia Anagnostopoulou; Christos Tsigris


    @@ The study of ancient Greece is essential for the proper understanding of the evolution of modem Western medicine.An important innovation of classical Greek medicine was the development of a body of medical theory associated with natural philosophy,i.e.a strong secular tradition of free enquiry,or what would now be called "science" (Επιστημη).Medical education rests upon the ancient Greek foundations and its history remains a fascinating topic for modem physicians and medical teachers.

  5. Multi-proxy study of Ocean Anoxic Event 2 (Cenomanian-Turonian) yields new perspective on the drivers for Mesozoic anoxic events (United States)

    Sageman, B. B.; Hurtgen, M.; Jacobson, A. D.; Selby, D. S.


    Mesozoic ocean anoxic events have long been a focus of intense study because they appear to reflect a large-scale oscillation of the marine redox state from oxic to anoxic, and at least locally sulfidic. The consensus view on the cause of these events has changed over the past 39 years, since they were first defined. A global net increase in primary production is now widely accepted as the key driver, and the evidence for a volcanic trigger of this process is strong. However, the exact pathway from volcanism to OAE is less certain. Some authors favor the direct role of a massive load of reduced compounds in LIP hydrothermal fluxes for consuming available marine oxygen. Others prefer the indirect pathway of oxygen consumption by enhanced organic matter flux, which requires a major increase in nutrient budgets. Metallic micronutrients in the hydrothermal fluxes have been hypothesized, as have increases in riverine phosphorus fluxes due to enhanced weathering that would result from volcanic CO2 driven warming. Our recent work on the OAE2 interval has led to some new ideas about these hypothesized drivers. In particular, refinement of the Late Cenomanian time scale, and comparison of the geochemical records of d13C, d34S, Osi, P phases, and d44Ca between selected sections in North America and Europe has suggested the following sequence of events: 1) Osi data indicate that the onset of a major volcanic event precedes the positive shift in C-isotopes by at least 40 to possibly 180 kyr; 2) a positive shift in d44Ca data interpreted to indicate ocean acidification is coincident with the volcanic event; 3) the positive shift in C-isotopes is interpreted to reflect the accumulated burial of marine organic matter sufficient to shift the C-reservoir to heavier values; thus, our data suggest that up to 180 kyr was required for the shift in nutrient supply, productivity increase, and organic matter burial. Two mechanisms that conceivably match the lagged character of the event

  6. Iron corrosion in an anoxic soil: Comparison between thermodynamic modelling and ferrous archaeological artefacts characterised along with the local in situ geochemical conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saheb, M.; Neff, D.; Michelin, A.; Dillmann, P. [CEA Saclay, CNRS, LAPA SIS2M, UMR3299, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Saheb, M. [ANDRA, F-92298 Chatenay Malabry (France); Descostes, M. [CEA Saclay, DEN DANS DPC SECR, Lab Radionuclides Migrat Measurements and Modelling, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Descostes, M. [Univ Evry, CEA, CNRS, UMR 8587, Evry (France); Dillmann, P. [CNRS, Inst Rech Archeomat, UMR 5060, F-75700 Paris (France)


    This article is part of an ongoing study on the long-term corrosion behaviour of ferrous archaeological artefacts. The aim of this study is to correlate the corrosion products formed on ancient artefacts in an anoxic medium to the environmental data using thermodynamic modelling. For this purpose, measurement campaigns have been conducted on the archaeological site of Glinet (16. century, High Normandy (Seine-Maritime), France) where the evolution of the pore water chemistry has been recorded for a period of one year. Three evolution steps have been distinguished after the oxidizing perturbation which was induced by the piezometers installation. The first step was related to an oxidizing environment in which pore water was in equilibrium with a Fe(III) precipitated phase: ferri-hydrite (FeOOH center dot 0.4 H{sub 2}O). The second step was considered as an intermediate step and Fe speciation had evolved; equilibrium was achieved between ferri-hydrite and a Fe(II) carbonate phase: siderite (Fe(II)CO{sub 3}). The last step of the evolution was related to a reducing stage where pore water was in equilibrium with magnetite (Fe(II, III){sub 3}O{sub 4}) and with chukanovite (Fe(II){sub 2}(OH){sub 2}CO{sub 3}). As these phases were present in the corrosion layers formed on the archaeological samples, it is possible to conclude that the thermodynamic approach was helpful in developing a better understanding of the effect of geochemical conditions on the composition and mineralogy of the corrosion products formed on archaeological artefacts. This work could be used as a reference for further corrosion studies, especially on long-term corrosion processes applied to nuclear waste disposal. (authors)

  7. Nitrate-dependent iron oxidation limits iron transport in anoxic ocean regions (United States)

    Scholz, Florian; Löscher, Carolin R.; Fiskal, Annika; Sommer, Stefan; Hensen, Christian; Lomnitz, Ulrike; Wuttig, Kathrin; Göttlicher, Jörg; Kossel, Elke; Steininger, Ralph; Canfield, Donald E.


    Iron is an essential element for life on Earth and limits primary production in large parts of the ocean. Oxygen-free continental margin sediments represent an important source of bioavailable iron to the ocean, yet little of the iron released from the seabed reaches the productive sea surface. Even in the anoxic water of oxygen minimum zones, where iron solubility should be enhanced, most of the iron is rapidly re-precipitated. To constrain the mechanism(s) of iron removal in anoxic ocean regions we explored the sediment and water in the oxygen minimum zone off Peru. During our sampling campaign the water column featured two distinct redox boundaries separating oxic from nitrate-reducing (i.e., nitrogenous) water and nitrogenous from weakly sulfidic water. The sulfidic water mass in contact with the shelf sediment contained elevated iron concentrations >300 nM. At the boundary between sulfidic and nitrogenous conditions, iron concentrations dropped sharply to nitrate reduction (narG). Part of this upregulation was related to the activity of known iron-oxidizing bacteria. Collectively, our data suggest that iron oxidation and removal is induced by nitrate-reducing microbes, either enzymatically through anaerobic iron oxidation or by providing nitrite for an abiotic reaction. Given the important role that iron plays in nitrogen fixation, photosynthesis and respiration, nitrate-dependent iron oxidation likely represents a key-link between the marine biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen, oxygen and carbon.

  8. Perils of categorical thinking: "Oxic/anoxic" conceptual model in environmental remediation (United States)

    Bradley, Paul M.


    Given ambient atmospheric oxygen concentrations of about 21 percent (by volume), the lower limit for reliable quantitation of dissolved oxygen concentrations in groundwater samples is in the range of 0.1–0.5 mg/L. Frameworks for assessing in situ redox condition are often applied using a simple two-category (oxic/anoxic) model of oxygen condition. The "oxic" category defines the environmental range in which dissolved oxygen concentrations are clearly expected to impact contaminant biodegradation, either by supporting aerobic biodegradation of electron-donor contaminants like petroleum hydrocarbons or by inhibiting anaerobic biodegradation of electron-acceptor contaminants like chloroethenes. The tendency to label the second category "anoxic" leads to an invalid assumption that oxygen is insignificant when, in fact, the dissolved oxygen concentration is less than detection but otherwise unknown. Expressing dissolved oxygen concentrations as numbers of molecules per volume, dissolved oxygen concentrations that fall below the 0.1 mg/L field detection limit range from 1 to 1017 molecules/L. In light of recent demonstrations of substantial oxygen-linked biodegradation of chloroethene contaminants at dissolved oxygen concentrations well below the 0.1–0.5 mg/L field detection limit, characterizing "less than detection" oxygen concentrations as "insignificant" is invalid.

  9. Nitrogen and phosphorus removal in pilot-scale anaerobic-anoxic oxidation ditch system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yongzhen; HOU Hongxun; WANG Shuying; CUI Youwei; Zhiguo Yuan


    To achieve high efficiency of nitrogen and phosphorus removal and to investigate the rule of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification phosphorus removal(SNDPR),a whole course of SNDPR damage and recovery was studied in a pilot-scale,anaerobicanoxic oxidation ditch(OD),where the volumes of anaerobic zone,anoxic zone,and ditches zone of the OD system were 7,21,and 280L,respectively.The reactor was fed with municipal wastewater with a flow rate of 336 L/d.The concept of simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND)rate(rSND) was put forward to quantify SND.The results indicate that:(1)high nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies were achieved during the stable SND phase,total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphate(TP) removal rates were 80%and 85%,respectively;(2)when the system was aerated excessively,the stability of SND was damaged,and rSND dropped from 80% to 20%or less;(3)the natural logarithm of the ratio of NOx to MJ4+ in the effluent had a linear correlation to oxidation-reduction potential (ORP);(4)when NO3- was less than 6 mg/L.high phosphorus removal efficiency could be achieved;(5)denitrifying phosphorus removal (DNPR) could take place in the anaerobic-anoxic OD system.The major innovation was that the SND rate was devised and quantified.

  10. Metabolism in anoxic permeable sediments is dominated by eukaryotic dark fermentation (United States)

    Bourke, Michael F.; Marriott, Philip J.; Glud, Ronnie N.; Hasler-Sheetal, Harald; Kamalanathan, Manoj; Beardall, John; Greening, Chris; Cook, Perran L. M.


    Permeable sediments are common across continental shelves and are critical contributors to marine biogeochemical cycling. Organic matter in permeable sediments is dominated by microalgae, which as eukaryotes have different anaerobic metabolic pathways to bacteria and archaea. Here we present analyses of flow-through reactor experiments showing that dissolved inorganic carbon is produced predominantly as a result of anaerobic eukaryotic metabolic activity. In our experiments, anaerobic production of dissolved inorganic carbon was consistently accompanied by large dissolved H2 production rates, suggesting the presence of fermentation. The production of both dissolved inorganic carbon and H2 persisted following administration of broad spectrum bactericidal antibiotics, but ceased following treatment with metronidazole. Metronidazole inhibits the ferredoxin/hydrogenase pathway of fermentative eukaryotic H2 production, suggesting that pathway as the source of H2 and dissolved inorganic carbon production. Metabolomic analysis showed large increases in lipid production at the onset of anoxia, consistent with documented pathways of anoxic dark fermentation in microalgae. Cell counts revealed a predominance of microalgae in the sediments. H2 production was observed in dark anoxic cultures of diatoms (Fragilariopsis sp.) and a chlorophyte (Pyramimonas) isolated from the study site, substantiating the hypothesis that microalgae undertake fermentation. We conclude that microalgal dark fermentation could be an important energy-conserving pathway in permeable sediments.

  11. Anoxic biodegradation of dimethyl phthalate (DMP) by activated sludge cultures under nitrate-reducing conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Worldwide extensive use of plasticized plastics has resulted in phthalates pollution in different environment. Nitrates from industry and agriculture are also widely disseminated in the soils, natural waters and wastewaters. Dimethyl phthalate (DMP) biodegradation by activated sludge cultures under nitrate-reducing conditions was investigated. Under one optimized condition, DMP was biodegraded from 102.20 mg/L to undetectable level in 56 h under anoxic conditions and its reaction fitted well with the first-order kinetics. Using the high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis, mono-methyl phthalate (MMP) and phthalic acid (PA) were detected as the major intermediates of DMP biodegradation. When combined with the determination of chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) removal capacity and pH, DMP was found to be mineralized completely under anoxic conditions. The biodegradation pathway was proposed as DMP → MMP → PA → … → CO2 + H2O.The molar ratio of DMP to nitrate consumed was found to be 9.0:1, which agrees well with the theoretical stoichiometric values of DMP biodegradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria. The results of the non-linear simulation showed that the optimum pH and temperature for the degradation were 7.56 and 31.4℃, respectively.

  12. Uranium(IV) adsorption by natural organic matter in anoxic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Sharon E.; Dynes, James J.; Cliff, John; Bargar, John R.


    Uranium is an important carbon-free fuel source and environmental contaminant that accumulates in the tetravalent state, U(IV), in anoxic sediments, such as ore deposits, marine basins, and contaminated aquifers. However, little is known about the speciation of U(IV) in low-temperature geochemical environments, inhibiting the development of a conceptual model of U behavior. Until recently, U(IV) was assumed to exist predominantly as the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite (UO2+x) in anoxic sediments; however, studies now show that this is not often the case. Yet a model of U(IV) speciation in the absence of mineral formation under field-relevant conditions has not yet been developed. Uranium(IV) speciation controls its reactivity, particularly its susceptibility to oxidative mobilization, impacting its distribution and toxicity. Here we show adsorption to organic carbon and organic carbon-coated clays dominate U(IV) speciation in an organic-rich natural substrate under field-relevant conditions. Whereas previous research assumed that U(IV) speciation is dictated by the mode of reduction (i.e., whether reduction is mediated by microbes or by inorganic reductants), our results demonstrate that mineral formation can be diminished in favor of adsorption, regardless of reduction pathway. Projections of U transport and bioavailability, and thus its threat to human and ecosystem health, must consider U(IV) adsorption to organic matter within the sediment environment.

  13. Dynamic anoxic ferruginous conditions during the end-Permian mass extinction and recovery (United States)

    Clarkson, M. O.; Wood, R. A.; Poulton, S. W.; Richoz, S.; Newton, R. J.; Kasemann, S. A.; Bowyer, F.; Krystyn, L.


    The end-Permian mass extinction, ~252 million years ago, is notable for a complex recovery period of ~5 Myr. Widespread euxinic (anoxic and sulfidic) oceanic conditions have been proposed as both extinction mechanism and explanation for the protracted recovery period, yet the vertical distribution of anoxia in the water column and its temporal dynamics through this time period are poorly constrained. Here we utilize Fe-S-C systematics integrated with palaeontological observations to reconstruct a complete ocean redox history for the Late Permian to Early Triassic, using multiple sections across a shelf-to-basin transect on the Arabian Margin (Neo-Tethyan Ocean). In contrast to elsewhere, we show that anoxic non-sulfidic (ferruginous), rather than euxinic, conditions were prevalent in the Neo-Tethys. The Arabian Margin record demonstrates the repeated expansion of ferruginous conditions with the distal slope being the focus of anoxia at these times, as well as short-lived episodes of oxia that supported diverse biota.

  14. Uranium(IV) adsorption by natural organic matter in anoxic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bone, Sharon E.; Dynes, James J.; Cliff, John; Bargar, John R.


    Uranium is an important fuel source and a global environmental contaminant. It accumulates in the tetravalent state, U(IV), in anoxic sediments, including ore deposits, marine basins, and contaminated aquifers. However, very little is known about the speciation of U(IV) in low temperature geochemical environments, inhibiting the development of a conceptual model of U behavior. Until recently, U(IV) was assumed to exist predominantly as the sparingly soluble mineral uraninite (UO2) in anoxic sediments; yet studies now show that UO2 is not often dominant in these environments. However, a model of U(IV) speciation under environmentally relevant conditions has not yet been developed. Here we show that complexes of U(IV) adsorb on organic carbon and organic carbon-coated clays in an organic-rich natural substrate under field-relevant conditions. Whereas previous research assumed that the U(IV) product depended on the reduction pathway, our results demonstrate that UO2 formation can be inhibited simply by decreasing the U:solid ratio. Thus, it is the number and type of surface ligands that controls U(IV) speciation subsequent to U(VI) reduction. Projections of U transport and bioavailability, and thus its threat to human and ecosystem health, must consider retention of U(IV) ions within the local sediment environment.

  15. Investigating phosphorus uptake in anoxic and sulfidic surface sediments with 33P radiotracer experiments (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Gonzalez, Santiago; Slomp, Caroline


    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. Enhanced P availability in the water column can fuel algal blooms and the development of bottom water anoxia. Recently, it was suggested that micro-organisms in sediments overlain by anoxic and sulfidic bottom waters might take up dissolved P and form Fe(II)-P minerals, thereby enhancing P removal. In this study, we investigated the uptake of P in surface sediments with 33P radiotracer experiments. The sediments were recovered from the anoxic and sulfidic deep basin of the Black Sea and, for comparison, from the adjacent oxic shelf. Results suggest a very fast sedimentary uptake of 33P at all sites but in particular for sediments from the oxic shelf. At all sites, most 33P was sequestered in the citrate-dithionite-bicarbonate-(CDB)-extractable sediment P fraction. No significant differences with abiotic controls were observed, implying that micro-organisms were not directly involved in the P uptake. Whereas 33P uptake by the oxic shelf sediment was likely controlled by sorption of 33P to iron(Fe)-(oxyhydr)oxides, the nature of the CDB-extractable P fraction in the deep basin sediments remains unclear. We discuss whether authigenic formation of Fe(II)-P minerals or fast adsorption of P to calcites may explain our findings.

  16. The Removal of Uranium onto Nanoscale Zero-Valent Iron Particles in Anoxic Batch Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard A. Crane


    Full Text Available The removal of uranium (U onto nanoscale zero-valent iron particles has been studied for uranium-bearing mine water and synthetic uranyl solutions in the presence and absence of dissolved oxygen. The work has been conducted in order to investigate the differential nanoparticle corrosion behaviour and associated mechanisms of U removal behaviour in conditions representative of near-surface and deep groundwater systems. Batch systems were analysed over a 28-day reaction period during which the liquid and nanoparticulate solids were periodically analysed to determine chemical evolution of the solutions and particulates. Analysis of aqueous samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry recorded near-total U removal after 1 hour of reaction in all systems studied. However, in the latter stages of the reaction (after 48 hours, significant rerelease of uranium was recorded for the mine water batch system with dissolved O2 present. In contrast, less than 2% uranium rerelease was recorded for the anoxic batch system. Concurrent analysis of extracted nanoparticle solids using X-ray diffraction recorded significantly slower corrosion of the nanoparticles in the anoxic batch system, with residual metallic iron maintained until after 28 days of reaction compared to only 7 days of reaction in systems with dissolved O2 present. Results provide clear evidence that the corrosion lifespan and associated U6+ removal efficacy of nanoscale zero-valent iron replace enhanced in the absence of dissolved oxygen.

  17. Phosphorus, carbon and nitrogen enrichment during sedimentation in a seasonally anoxic lake (Lake Lugano, Switzerland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt W. Hanselmann


    Full Text Available Sedimentation fluxes of major nutrients are investigated during 1996 and 1997 at three different depths and two locations in eutrophic southern basin of Lake Lugano (Switzerland. Horizontal differences between the two sites are on the order of 10-40% (but can exceed 50%, whereas differences related to interannual oscillations range between 5 and 24%. Particulate organic carbon (POC and nitrogen (PN fluxes show a constant increase of 5-20% from the upper to the bottom trap. This tendency remains more or less constant during the year. On the contrary, particulate phosphorus (PP shows a seasonal variation, with higher accumulation rates from the I to the III trap in autumn and winter which can exceed +1200%. This phenomenon is due to the interaction between the dissolved phosphorus (DP and the iron(oxihydroxides (Fe(OH3 near the oxycline. Fe(OH3 precipitates at the iron redox boundary, scavenging DP. This enrichment flux increases together with the development of the anoxic benthic layer. The efficiency of the iron redox layer in trapping upward diffusing P is related to the concentration of dissolved iron in the anoxic hypolimnion. In Lake Lugano the two considered sites present major difference of iron concentration, and this difference is reflected in the P sedimentation fluxes. The exposition of an additional sedimentation trap above the maximal oxycline height has allowed to gain insight into this phenomenon.

  18. Lenticulostriate arterial distribution pathology may underlie pediatric anoxic brain injury in drowning (United States)

    Ishaque, Mariam; Manning, Janessa H.; Woolsey, Mary D.; Franklin, Crystal G.; Tullis, Elizabeth W.; Fox, Peter T.


    Drowning is a leading cause of neurological morbidity and mortality in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI) can result from nonfatal drowning and typically entails substantial neurological impairment. The neuropathology of drowning-induced pediatric ABI is not well established. Specifically, quantitative characterization of the spatial extent and tissue distribution of anoxic damage in pediatric nonfatal drowning has not previously been reported but could clarify the underlying pathophysiological processes and inform clinical management. To this end, we used voxel-based morphometric (VBM) analyses to quantify the extent and spatial distribution of consistent, between-subject alterations in gray and white matter volume. Whole-brain, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in 11 children with chronic ABI and 11 age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls (4–12 years). Group-wise VBM analyses demonstrated predominantly central subcortical pathology in the ABI group in both gray matter (bilateral basal ganglia nuclei) and white matter (bilateral external and posterior internal capsules) (P < 0.001); minimal damage was found outside of these deep subcortical regions. These highly spatially convergent gray and white matter findings reflect the vascular distribution of perforating lenticulostriate arteries, an end-arterial watershed zone, and suggest that vascular distribution may be a more important determinant of tissue loss than oxygen metabolic rate in pediatric ABI. Further, these results inform future directions for diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. PMID:26937385

  19. Lenticulostriate arterial distribution pathology may underlie pediatric anoxic brain injury in drowning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Ishaque


    Full Text Available Drowning is a leading cause of neurological morbidity and mortality in young children. Anoxic brain injury (ABI can result from nonfatal drowning and typically entails substantial neurological impairment. The neuropathology of drowning-induced pediatric ABI is not well established. Specifically, quantitative characterization of the spatial extent and tissue distribution of anoxic damage in pediatric nonfatal drowning has not previously been reported but could clarify the underlying pathophysiological processes and inform clinical management. To this end, we used voxel-based morphometric (VBM analyses to quantify the extent and spatial distribution of consistent, between-subject alterations in gray and white matter volume. Whole-brain, high-resolution T1-weighted MRI datasets were acquired in 11 children with chronic ABI and 11 age- and gender-matched neurotypical controls (4–12 years. Group-wise VBM analyses demonstrated predominantly central subcortical pathology in the ABI group in both gray matter (bilateral basal ganglia nuclei and white matter (bilateral external and posterior internal capsules (P < 0.001; minimal damage was found outside of these deep subcortical regions. These highly spatially convergent gray and white matter findings reflect the vascular distribution of perforating lenticulostriate arteries, an end-arterial watershed zone, and suggest that vascular distribution may be a more important determinant of tissue loss than oxygen metabolic rate in pediatric ABI. Further, these results inform future directions for diagnostic and therapeutic modalities.

  20. Are iron-phosphate minerals a sink for phosphorus in anoxic Black Sea sediments? (United States)

    Dijkstra, Nikki; Kraal, Peter; Kuypers, Marcel M M; Schnetger, Bernhard; Slomp, Caroline P


    Phosphorus (P) is a key nutrient for marine organisms. The only long-term removal pathway for P in the marine realm is burial in sediments. Iron (Fe) bound P accounts for a significant proportion of this burial at the global scale. In sediments underlying anoxic bottom waters, burial of Fe-bound P is generally assumed to be negligible because of reductive dissolution of Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides and release of the associated P. However, recent work suggests that Fe-bound P is an important burial phase in euxinic (i.e. anoxic and sulfidic) basin sediments in the Baltic Sea. In this study, we investigate the role of Fe-bound P as a potential sink for P in Black Sea sediments overlain by oxic and euxinic bottom waters. Sequential P extractions performed on sediments from six multicores along two shelf-to-basin transects provide evidence for the burial of Fe-bound P at all sites, including those in the euxinic deep basin. In the latter sediments, Fe-bound P accounts for more than 20% of the total sedimentary P pool. We suggest that this P is present in the form of reduced Fe-P minerals. We hypothesize that these minerals may be formed as inclusions in sulfur-disproportionating Deltaproteobacteria. Further research is required to elucidate the exact mineral form and formation mechanism of this P burial phase, as well as its role as a sink for P in sulfide-rich marine sediments.

  1. Microbial community in anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic sludge reduction process revealed by 454 pyrosequencing analysis. (United States)

    Ning, Xinqiang; Qiao, Wenwen; Zhang, Lei; Gao, Xu


    Modification of the anoxic-oxic (AO) process by inserting a sludge holding tank (SHT) into the sludge return line forms an anoxic-oxic-settling-anaerobic (A+OSA) process that can achieve a 48.98% sludge reduction rate. The 454 pyrosequencing method was used to obtain the microbial communities of the AO and A+OSA processes. Results showed that the microbial community structures of the 2 processes were different as a result of the SHT insertion. Bacteria assigned to the phyla Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes commonly existed and dominated the microbial populations of the 2 processes. However, the relative abundance of these populations shifted in the presence of SHT. The relative abundance of Proteobacteria decreased during the A+OSA process. A specific comparison at the class level showed that Sphingobacteria was enriched in the A+OSA process. The result suggested that the fermentative bacteria Sphingobacteria may have key functions in reducing the sludge from the A+OSA process. Uncultured Nitrosomonadaceae gradually became the dominant ammonia-oxidizing bacteria, and the nitrite-oxidizing bacterium Nitrospira was enriched in the A+OSA process. Both occurrences were favorable for stabilized nitrogen removal. The known denitrifying species in the A+OSA process were similar to those in the AO process; however, their relative abundance also decreased.

  2. Using biogenic sulfur gases as remotely detectable biosignatures on anoxic planets. (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S; Claire, Mark W; Kasting, James F


    We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS(2), OCS, CH(3)SH, CH(3)SCH(3), and CH(3)S(2)CH(3)) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH(3)SCH(3), or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH(3)S(2)CH(3), or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C(2)H(6)) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH(4)) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases-and therefore the life that produces them-if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere.

  3. Cross-regulation by CrcZ RNA controls anoxic biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (United States)

    Pusic, Petra; Tata, Muralidhar; Wolfinger, Michael T.; Sonnleitner, Elisabeth; Häussler, Susanne; Bläsi, Udo


    Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) can thrive in anaerobic biofilms in the lungs of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. Here, we show that CrcZ is the most abundant PA14 RNA bound to the global regulator Hfq in anoxic biofilms grown in cystic fibrosis sputum medium. Hfq was crucial for anoxic biofilm formation. This observation complied with an RNAseq based transcriptome analysis and follow up studies that implicated Hfq in regulation of a central step preceding denitrification. CrcZ is known to act as a decoy that sequesters Hfq during relief of carbon catabolite repression, which in turn alleviates Hfq-mediated translational repression of catabolic genes. We therefore inferred that CrcZ indirectly impacts on biofilm formation by competing for Hfq. This hypothesis was supported by the findings that over-production of CrcZ mirrored the biofilm phenotype of the hfq deletion mutant, and that deletion of the crcZ gene augmented biofilm formation. To our knowledge, this is the first example where competition for Hfq by CrcZ cross-regulates an Hfq-dependent physiological process unrelated to carbon metabolism.

  4. Anoxic depolarization of hippocampal astrocytes: possible modulation by P2X7 receptors. (United States)

    Leichsenring, Anna; Riedel, Thomas; Qin, Ying; Rubini, Patrizia; Illes, Peter


    Current responses from CA1 neurons and stratum oriens astrocytes were recorded from hippocampal brain slices by means of the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. Anoxic depolarization (AD) was induced by an oxygen/glucose-deprived (OGD) medium also containing sodium iodoacetate and antimycin, in order to block glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, respectively. Anoxic depolarization has been reported to be due to the sudden increase of the extracellular K(+) concentration and the accompanying explosive rise in glutamate concentration. We asked ourselves whether the release of ATP activating P2X7 receptors is also involved in the AD. Although, the AD was evoked in absolute synchrony in neurons and astrocytes, and the NMDA receptor antagonistic AP-5 depressed these responses, neither the non-selective P2 receptor antagonist PPADS, nor the highly selective P2X7 receptor antagonist A438079 interfered with the AD or its delay time in neurons/astrocytes after inducing chemical hypoxia. However, A438079, but not PPADS increased in astrocytes the slow inward current observed in a hypoxic medium. It is concluded that ATP co-released with glutamate by hypoxic stimulation has only a minor function in the present brain slice system.

  5. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astronomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors regarded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Consequently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  6. Records of solar eclipse observations in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN YanBen; QIAO OiYuan


    Like ancient people at other places of the world, the ancient Chinese lived in awe of the Sun. As they felt solar eclipses extremely significant events, they closely observed the occurrence of solar eclipse. Ancient astronomers further realized very early that solar eclipses were one of the important astro-nomical phenomena to revise and improve the ancient calendar. Interestingly, ancient emperors re-garded solar eclipses as warnings from heaven that might affect the stability of their throne. Conse-quently, observing and recording solar eclipses became official, which dated far back to ancient China when numerous relevant descriptions were recorded in historical books. These records contribute substantially to China as an ancient civilization, as well as to the research of the long-term variation of the rotation rate of the Earth during >2000 years before the 17th century. This paper briefly reviews the perception, observations and recording of solar eclipses by ancient Chinese astronomers.

  7. Dialogue Genre Texts in Ancient Greek Prose: Linguostylistic Aspect


    Gita Bērziņa


    Dialogue Genre Texts in Ancient Greek Prose: Linguostylistic Aspect Doctoral thesis deals with the study of essential linguistic features of the Ancient Greek dialogue as an important ancient prose genre. The goal of the thesis is to disclose the specific linguistic characteristics of the genre of Ancient Greek dialogue on the basis of comparative analysis of the linguistic structure (on all levels as well as in style) of the texts of three most prominent authors (Plato, Xenoph...

  8. Environmental Conditions in a Carpathian Deep Sea Basin During the Period Preceding Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 - A Case Study from the Skole Nappe (United States)

    Bąk, Krzysztof; Bąk, Marta; Górny, Zbigniew; Wolska, Anna


    Hemipelagic green clayey shales and thin muddy turbidites accumulated in a deep sea environment below the CCD in the Skole Basin, a part of the Outer Carpathian realm, during the Middle Cenomanian. The hemipelagites contain numerous radiolarians, associated with deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. These sediments accumulated under mesotrophic conditions with limited oxygen concentration. Short-term periodic anoxia also occurred during that time. Muddy turbidity currents caused deposition of siliciclastic and biogenic material, including calcareous foramini-fers and numerous sponge spicules. The preservation and diversity of the spicules suggests that they originate from disarticulation of moderately diversified sponge assemblages, which lived predominantly in the neritic-bathyal zone. Analyses of radiolarian ecological groups and pellets reflect the water column properties during the sedimentation of green shales. At that time, surface and also intermediate waters were oxygenated enough and sufficiently rich in nutri-ents to enable plankton production. Numerous, uncompacted pellets with nearly pristine radiolarian skeletons inside show that pelletization was the main factor of radiolarian flux into the deep basin floor. Partly dissolved skeletons indicate that waters in the Skole Basin were undersaturated in relation to silica content. Oxygen content might have been depleted in the deeper part of the water column causing periodic anoxic conditions which prevent rapid bacterial degra-dation of the pellets during their fall to the sea floor.

  9. Environmental Conditions in a Carpathian Deep Sea Basin During the Period Preceding Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 - A Case Study from the Skole Nappe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bąk Krzysztof


    Full Text Available Hemipelagic green clayey shales and thin muddy turbidites accumulated in a deep sea environment below the CCD in the Skole Basin, a part of the Outer Carpathian realm, during the Middle Cenomanian. The hemipelagites contain numerous radiolarians, associated with deep-water agglutinated foraminifera. These sediments accumulated under mesotrophic conditions with limited oxygen concentration. Short-term periodic anoxia also occurred during that time. Muddy turbidity currents caused deposition of siliciclastic and biogenic material, including calcareous foramini-fers and numerous sponge spicules. The preservation and diversity of the spicules suggests that they originate from disarticulation of moderately diversified sponge assemblages, which lived predominantly in the neritic-bathyal zone. Analyses of radiolarian ecological groups and pellets reflect the water column properties during the sedimentation of green shales. At that time, surface and also intermediate waters were oxygenated enough and sufficiently rich in nutri-ents to enable plankton production. Numerous, uncompacted pellets with nearly pristine radiolarian skeletons inside show that pelletization was the main factor of radiolarian flux into the deep basin floor. Partly dissolved skeletons indicate that waters in the Skole Basin were undersaturated in relation to silica content. Oxygen content might have been depleted in the deeper part of the water column causing periodic anoxic conditions which prevent rapid bacterial degra-dation of the pellets during their fall to the sea floor.

  10. Biological Phosphorus Release and Uptake Under Alternating Anaerobic and Anoxic Conditions In a Fixed-Film Reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerrn-Jespersen, Jens Peter; Henze, Mogens; Strube, Rune


    Biological phosphorus removal was investigated in a fixed-film reactor with alternating anaerobic and anoxic conditions. The tests showed that biological phosphorus removal can be obtained in a fixed-film reactor with nitrate as oxidising agent. In the anaerobic period, 0.52 mg of PO4-P...... potassium taken up and phosphate taken up in the anoxic phase was determined to be 0.36 mg K/mg P. The phosphorus concentration in the sludge was determined at 8–10% of dry solids....

  11. Fire usage and ancient hominin detoxification genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Jac M.M.J.G.; Alink, Gerrit M.; Scherjon, Fulco; MacDonald, Katharine; Smith, Alison C.; Nijveen, Harm; Roebroeks, Wil


    Studies of the defence capacity of ancient hominins against toxic substances may contribute importantly to the reconstruction of their niche, including their diets and use of fire. Fire usage implies frequent exposure to hazardous compounds from smoke and heated food, known to affect general heal

  12. Discovering the Ancient Maya from Space (United States)

    Sever, T. L.


    The Pet6n region of northern Guatemala contains some of the most significant Mayan archeological sites in Latin America. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper, IKONOS, and QuickBird satellite, and airborne STAR-3i and AIRSAR radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as sites, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. Through the use of various airborne and satellite sensor systems we have been able to detect and map ancient causeways, temples, reservoirs, and land forms, and locate these features on the ground through GPS technology. Recently, we have discovered that there is a strong relationship between a tropical forest vegetation signature in satellite imagery and the location of archeological sites. We believe that the use of limestone and lime plasters in ancient Maya construction affects the moisture, nutrition, and plant species of the surface vegetation. We have mapped these vegetation signatures in the imagery and verified through field survey that they are indicative of archeological sites. Through the use of remote sensing and GIS technology it is possible to identify unrecorded archeological features in a dense tropical forest environment and monitor these cultural features for their protection.

  13. Ancient Human Parasites in Ethnic Chinese Populations (United States)

    Yeh, Hui-Yuan; Mitchell, Piers D.


    Whilst archaeological evidence for many aspects of life in ancient China is well studied, there has been much less interest in ancient infectious diseases, such as intestinal parasites in past Chinese populations. Here, we bring together evidence from mummies, ancient latrines, and pelvic soil from burials, dating from the Neolithic Period to the Qing Dynasty, in order to better understand the health of the past inhabitants of China and the diseases endemic in the region. Seven species of intestinal parasite have been identified, namely roundworm, whipworm, Chinese liver fluke, oriental schistosome, pinworm, Taenia sp. tapeworm, and the intestinal fluke Fasciolopsis buski. It was found that in the past, roundworm, whipworm, and Chinese liver fluke appear to have been much more common than the other species. While roundworm and whipworm remained common into the late 20th century, Chinese liver fluke seems to have undergone a marked decline in its prevalence over time. The iconic transport route known as the Silk Road has been shown to have acted as a vector for the transmission of ancient diseases, highlighted by the discovery of Chinese liver fluke in a 2,000 year-old relay station in northwest China, 1,500 km outside its endemic range. PMID:27853113

  14. Ancient bronze disks, decorations and calendars

    CERN Document Server

    Sparavigna, Amelia Carolina


    Recently, it was published that some ancient bronze disks could had been calendars, that is, that their decorations had this function. Here I am discussing an example, the disk of the Trundholm Sun Chariot, proposing a new interpretation of it, giving a calendar of 360 days. Some geometric diagrams concerning the decoration layout are also proposed.

  15. Ancient DNA analysis of dental calculus. (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan


    Dental calculus (calcified tartar or plaque) is today widespread on modern human teeth around the world. A combination of soft starchy foods, changing acidity of the oral environment, genetic pre-disposition, and the absence of dental hygiene all lead to the build-up of microorganisms and food debris on the tooth crown, which eventually calcifies through a complex process of mineralisation. Millions of oral microbes are trapped and preserved within this mineralised matrix, including pathogens associated with the oral cavity and airways, masticated food debris, and other types of extraneous particles that enter the mouth. As a result, archaeologists and anthropologists are increasingly using ancient human dental calculus to explore broad aspects of past human diet and health. Most recently, high-throughput DNA sequencing of ancient dental calculus has provided valuable insights into the evolution of the oral microbiome and shed new light on the impacts of some of the major biocultural transitions on human health throughout history and prehistory. Here, we provide a brief historical overview of archaeological dental calculus research, and discuss the current approaches to ancient DNA sampling and sequencing. Novel applications of ancient DNA from dental calculus are discussed, highlighting the considerable scope of this new research field for evolutionary biology and modern medicine.

  16. Tapping Ancient Roots: Plaited Paper Baskets (United States)

    Patrick, Jane


    With ancient roots, basket making has been practiced since the earliest civilizations, and according to textile experts, probably pre-dates pottery. This is partly conjecture since few baskets remain. It is through evidence found in clay impressions that the earliest baskets reveal themselves. Basically, basketry construction is like flat weaving.…

  17. Ancient Pyramids Help Students Learn Math Concepts (United States)

    Smith, Courtney D.; Stump, Amanda M.; Lazaros, Edward J.


    This article presents an activity that allows students to use mathematics and critical-thinking skills to emulate processes used by the ancient Egyptians to prepare the site for the Pyramids of Giza. To accomplish this, they use three different methods. First, they create a square using only simple technological tools that were available to the…

  18. Defining Astrology in Ancient and Classical History (United States)

    Campion, Nicholas


    Astrology in the ancient and classical worlds can be partly defined by its role, and partly by the way in which scholars spoke about it. The problem is complicated by the fact that the word is Greek - it has no Babylonian or Egyptian cognates - and even in Greece it was interchangeable with its cousin, 'astronomy'. Yet if we are to understand the role of the sky, stars and planets in culture, debates about the nature of ancient astrology, by both classical and modern scholars, must be taken into account. This talk will consider modern scholars' typologies of ancient astrology, together with ancient debates from Cicero in the 1st century BC, to Plotinus (204/5-270 AD) and Isidore of Seville (c. 560 - 4 April 636). It will consider the implications for our understanding of astronomy's role in culture, and conclude that in the classical period astrology may be best understood through its diversity and allegiance to competing philosophies, and that its functions were therefore similarly varied.

  19. Ancient whole grain gluten-free flatbreads (United States)

    The USDA food guide recommends that at least ½ of all the grains eaten should be whole grains. The FDA allows food Health Claim labels for food containing 51% whole gains and 11 g of dietary fiber. This is the only report demonstrating innovative ancient whole grain gluten-free (no yeast or chemical...

  20. An ancient musical instrument returns home

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    After 300 years abroad, an ancient Chinese musical instrument returned home with its face lifted and a Japanese name. Originally a one-stringed plucker, the Daisho Modo now features a whole family of electric high-, medium-pitched and bass instruments. With crisp tone and wide range, the Daisho Modo is

  1. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma


    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  2. The Study of Women in Ancient Society. (United States)

    Moscovich, M. James


    Presents ideas for teaching about the roles of women in ancient Greek and Roman societies for undergraduate history and sociology classes. The discussion covers the roots of misogyny in Western culture, parallels between mythologies and sociocultural patterns, and the legal status of women in antiquity. (AM)

  3. [Ancient tattooing from today's point of view]. (United States)

    Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, K


    Both literary and arachaeological evidence indicates that, up to now, ancient tattoos can be traced with certainty in painting only among Thracians. A comparison with modern tattoos reveals differences of motivation and motifs, whereas localization, technique, and removal show similarities. The illustrations demonstrate some tattoos typical for Thracians on Greek vases.

  4. Case report 872. "Ancient" schwannoma (degenerated neurilemoma). (United States)

    Schultz, E; Sapan, M R; McHeffey-Atkinson, B; Naidich, J B; Arlen, M


    A case of an ancient schwannoma was presented. The rare occurrence of this tumor has resulted in only a few reported cases with descriptions of its features on imaging. Our patient's tumor, like one previously reported case, demonstrated calcification on the plain film - a finding not associated with other histologic types of schwannomas. Angiography revealed the tumor to be hypervascular. Evaluation by MRI demonstrated a lobulated, encapsulated soft tissue mass containing several cystic areas that corresponded histologically to areas of necrosis. Hypertrophied blood vessels were seen in the periphery of the tumoral mass. Too few ancient schwannomas have been reported to conclude whether or not radiographic evidence of soft tissue calcification is characteristic of this histologically distinctive subtype of schwannoma. However, since calcification is seen histologically as part of the degenerating process, its presence on plain films could be a feature of this tumor. Furthermore, the presence of cystic areas on MRI is not surprising given the pathological changes that occur in this tumor. We suggest that a diagnosis of ancient schwannoma be considered when a patient presents with a hypervascular soft tissue mass containing amorphous calcification on plain films and cystic areas on MRI. Despite the nonspecificity of these imaging findings, this point is relevant because each of these features suggests the presence of a malignant mass. Awareness of the possibility of a benign ancient schwannoma could obviate unnecessary radical surgery.

  5. Communication Arts in the Ancient World. (United States)

    Havelock, Eric A., Ed.; Hershbell, Jackson P., Ed.

    Intended for both classicists and nonclassicists, this volume explores the beginnings of literacy in ancient Greece and Rome and examines the effects of written communication on these cultures. The nine articles, written by classical scholars and educators in the field of communication, discuss the following: the superiority of the alphabet over…

  6. Paragons of Education in Ancient Times

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    MOTHERS contributed greatly to children’s education in ancient China long before schools took shape. Behind many prominent figures lay greatmothers whose personal example and verbal instruction benefited their children throughout life. There is an old sayingabout the "stern father and compassionate mother."However, you will always

  7. The Roots of Science in Ancient China. (United States)

    Fisher, Arthur


    A 45-year-old research project (culminating in the multivolume "Science and Civilization in China") is examining major scientific innovations in ancient China and attempting to explain why, although the Chinese gained a technological edge in the past, they did not make the forward leap into modern science. (JN)

  8. The Challenges of Qualitatively Coding Ancient Texts (United States)

    Slingerland, Edward; Chudek, Maciej


    We respond to several important and valid concerns about our study ("The Prevalence of Folk Dualism in Early China," "Cognitive Science" 35: 997-1007) by Klein and Klein, defending our interpretation of our data. We also argue that, despite the undeniable challenges involved in qualitatively coding texts from ancient cultures, the standard tools…

  9. Mitochondrial phylogenomics of modern and ancient equids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vilstrup, Julia T; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine; Stiller, Mathias;


    to calibrate reliable molecular clocks. Additional mitochondrial genome sequence data, including radiocarbon dated ancient equids, will be required before revisiting the exact timing of the lineage radiation leading up to modern equids, which for now were found to have possibly shared a common ancestor as far...

  10. Genomic correlates of atherosclerosis in ancient humans. (United States)

    Zink, Albert; Wann, L Samuel; Thompson, Randall C; Keller, Andreas; Maixner, Frank; Allam, Adel H; Finch, Caleb E; Frohlich, Bruno; Kaplan, Hillard; Lombardi, Guido P; Sutherland, M Linda; Sutherland, James D; Watson, Lucia; Cox, Samantha L; Miyamoto, Michael I; Narula, Jagat; Stewart, Alexandre F R; Thomas, Gregory S; Krause, Johannes


    Paleogenetics offers a unique opportunity to study human evolution, population dynamics, and disease evolution in situ. Although histologic and computed x-ray tomographic investigations of ancient mummies have clearly shown that atherosclerosis has been present in humans for more than 5,000 years, limited data are available on the presence of genetic predisposition for cardiovascular disease in ancient human populations. In a previous whole-genome study of the Tyrolean Iceman, a 5,300-year-old glacier mummy from the Alps, an increased risk for coronary heart disease was detected. The Iceman's genome revealed several single nucleotide polymorphisms that are linked with cardiovascular disease in genome-wide association studies. Future genetic studies of ancient humans from various geographic origins and time periods have the potential to provide more insights into the presence and possible changes of genetic risk factors in our ancestors. The study of ancient humans and a better understanding of the interaction between environmental and genetic influences on the development of heart diseases may lead to a more effective prevention and treatment of the most common cause of death in the modern world.

  11. The Ancient stellar population of Leo A.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saha, Abhijit; Fiorentino, Giuliana; Tolstoy, Eline; Cole, Andrew


    The primary goal of our proposal is the characterisation of the oldest stellar populations in Leo A using the properties of ancient RR Lyrae variable stars as tracers. Well known and long established correlations exist between the periods and luminosities of RR Lyrae variable stars and their ages an

  12. Ancient Egyptian Medicine: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Adu-Gyamfi


    Full Text Available Our present day knowledge in the area of medicine in Ancient Egypt has been severally sourced from medical papyri several of which have been deduced and analyzed by different scholars. For educational purposes it is always imperative to consult different literature or sources in the teaching of ancient Egypt and medicine in particular. To avoid subjectivity the author has found the need to re-engage the efforts made by several scholars in adducing evidences from medical papyri. In the quest to re-engage the efforts of earlier writers and commentaries on the medical papyri, we are afforded the opportunity to be informed about the need to ask further questions to enable us to construct or reconstruct both past and modern views on ancient Egyptian medical knowledge. It is this vocation the author sought to pursue in the interim, through a preliminary review, to highlight, comment and reinvigorate in the reader or researcher the need for a continuous engagement of some pertinent documentary sources on Ancient Egyptian medical knowledge for educational and research purposes. The study is based on qualitative review of published literature. The selection of those articles as sources was based on the focus of the review, in order to purposively select and comment on articles that were published based either on information from a medical papyrus or focused on medical specialization among the ancient Egyptians as well as ancient Egyptian knowledge on diseases and medicine. It was found that the Egyptians developed relatively sophisticated medical practices covering significant medical fields such as herbal medicine, gynecology and obstetrics, anatomy and physiology, mummification and even the preliminary form of surgery. These practices, perhaps, were developed as remedies for the prevailing diseases and the accidents that might have occurred during the construction of their giant pyramids. It must be stated that they were not without flaws. Also, the

  13. The Ancient Kemetic Roots of Library and Information Science. (United States)

    Zulu, Itibari M.

    This paper argues that the ancient people of Kemet (Egypt), "the black land," built and operated the first major libraries and institutions of higher education in the world. Topics of discussion include the Ancient Egyptians as an African people; a chronology of Ancient Kemet; literature in Kemet; a history of Egyptian Librarianship; the…

  14. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten;


    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We...... maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication....

  15. Ecological specialization and population size in a biodiversity hotspot: How rare species avoid extinction


    S. E. Williams; Y. M. Williams; Vanderwal, J.; Isaac, J. L.; L. P. Shoo; Johnson, C. N.


    Species with narrow environmental niches typically have small geographic ranges. Small range size is, in turn, often associated with low local abundance. Together, these factors should mean that ecological specialists have very small total populations, putting them at high risk of extinction. But some specialized and geographically restricted species are ancient, and some ecological communities have high proportions of rare and specialized endemics. We studied niche characteristics and patter...

  16. Genetic diversity among ancient Nordic populations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linea Melchior

    Full Text Available Using established criteria for work with fossil DNA we have analysed mitochondrial DNA from 92 individuals from 18 locations in Denmark ranging in time from the Mesolithic to the Medieval Age. Unequivocal assignment of mtDNA haplotypes was possible for 56 of the ancient individuals; however, the success rate varied substantially between sites; the highest rates were obtained with untouched, freshly excavated material, whereas heavy handling, archeological preservation and storage for many years influenced the ability to obtain authentic endogenic DNA. While the nucleotide diversity at two locations was similar to that among extant Danes, the diversity at four sites was considerably higher. This supports previous observations for ancient Britons. The overall occurrence of haplogroups did not deviate from extant Scandinavians, however, haplogroup I was significantly more frequent among the ancient Danes (average 13% than among extant Danes and Scandinavians (approximately 2.5% as well as among other ancient population samples reported. Haplogroup I could therefore have been an ancient Southern Scandinavian type "diluted" by later immigration events. Interestingly, the two Neolithic samples (4,200 YBP, Bell Beaker culture that were typed were haplogroup U4 and U5a, respectively, and the single Bronze Age sample (3,300-3,500 YBP was haplogroup U4. These two haplogroups have been associated with the Mesolithic populations of Central and Northern Europe. Therefore, at least for Southern Scandinavia, our findings do not support a possible replacement of a haplogroup U dominated hunter-gatherer population by a more haplogroup diverse Neolithic Culture.

  17. Ancient Egypt in our Cultural Heritage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Vasiljević


    Full Text Available Inspiration derived from ancient Egypt is usually expressed through the Egyptian motifs in arts and popular culture of the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as through the non-scientific interpretations of the culture, very much based upon the Renaissance ones. The number and variety of material and non-material traces of this fascination are most expressed in the countries where, along with the early support for the institutional development of Egyptology, there existed economically potent educated middle classes (Western and Central Europe, USA, but may also be traced elsewhere. The public fascination by ancient Egypt has not ceased by the times of foundation of Egyptology, marked by the decipherment of the hieroglyphic script in 1822. Until the end of the 20th century Egyptologists have rarely dealt with the prelude to their discipline, limiting their interest to the critical approach to ancient sources and to noting the attempts to interpret the hieroglyphic script and the function of pyramids. However, the rising importance of the reception studies in other disciplines raised the interest of Egyptologists for the "fascination of Egypt", thus changing the status of various modes of expressing "Egyptomania" – they have thus become a part of the cultural heritage, registered, documented, preserved and studied. The research of this kind is only beginning in Serbia. The line of inquiry enhances the knowledge of the scope, manifestations and roles of the interest in Egypt, not limited by the national or political borders. On the other hand, the existence of the cultural heritage similar to the wider European view of ancient Egypt – short remarks by Jerotej Račanin, Kandor by Atanasije Stojković, the usage of architectural motifs derived from Egypt, the emergence of small private collections, to mention several early examples – all show that the research into the reception of ancient Egypt may contribute to the knowledge about the history

  18. Ancient and Medieval Cosmology in Armenian Highland (United States)

    Farmanyan, Sona V.; Mickaelian, Areg M.


    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. It is especially vivid in ancient cultures, many of which are related to the Middle East. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenian's pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs. By this study we answer the question "How did the Universe work in Ancient Armenian Highland?" The paper focuses on the structure of the Universe and many phenomena of nature that have always had major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. Here we weave together astronomy, anthropology and mythology of Armenia, and scientific thinking revealed in local astronomy traditions. The initial review of the study covers Moses of Khoren, Yeznik of Koghb, Anania Shirakatsi and other 5th-7th centuries historians' and scientists' records about the Universe related superstitious beliefs and cosmological understanding. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across "seven worlds", "seven earths" and "seven layers" concepts. We draw parallels between scientific and mythological Earth and Heaven and thus find similar number of layers on both of the ancient and modern thinking. In the article we also give some details about the tripartite structure of the Universe and how these parts are connected with axis. This axis is either a column or a Cosmic Tree (Kenatz Tsar). In Armenian culture the preliminary meanings of the Kenatz Tsar are more vivid in folk songs (Jan gyulums), plays, epic, and so on, which was subsequently mixed with religious and spiritual views. We conclude that the perception of the Universe structure and celestial objects had a significant impact on culture and worldview of the people of the Armenian Highland; particularly it was one of the bases of the regional cultural diversity.

  19. A2O工艺缺氧生物磷去除%Anoxic Biological Phosphorus Uptake in A2O Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓莲; 王淑莹; 彭永臻


    A lab-scale anaerobic-anoxic-oxic (A2O) process used to treat a synthetic brewage wastewater was investigated. The objectives of the study were to identify the existence of denitrifying phosphorus removing bacteria (DPB), evaluate the contribution of DPB to biological nutrient removal and enhance the denitrifying phosphorus removal in A2O bioreactors. Sludge analysis confirmed that the average anoxic P uptake accounted for approximately 70% the total amount of P uptake, and the ratio of anoxic P uptake rate to aerobic P uptake rate was 69%. In addition, nitrate concentration in the anoxic phase and different organic substrate introduced into the anaerobic phase had significant effect on the anoxic P uptake. Compared with conventional A2O processes, good removal efficiencies of COD, phosphorus, ammonia and total nitrogen (92.3%, 95.5%, 96% and 79.5%, respectively) could be achieved in the anoxic P uptake system, and aeration energy consumption was saved 25%. By controlling the nitrate recirculation flow in the anoxic zone, anoxic P uptake could be enhanced, which solved the competition for organic substrates among poly-P organisms and denitrifiers successfully under the COD limiting conditions. Therefore, in wastewater treatment plants the control system should be applied according to the practical situation to optimize the operation.

  20. Heterogeneous oxygenation states in the Atlantic and Tethys oceans during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (United States)

    Westermann, Stéphane; Vance, Derek; Cameron, Vyllinniskii; Archer, Corey; Robinson, Stuart A.


    The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (ca. 93.5 Ma) is marked by an episode of profound environmental change, including a major perturbation of the carbon cycle and an Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE-2). Here, we present molybdenum (Mo) isotope variations within the OAE-2 interval for four sections from the western Tethys (Furlo and La Contessa) and the North-Atlantic (ODP site 1276 and DSDP site 367). The main target of this study is to investigate the extent of reducing conditions (truly global in extent or restricted to poorly-ventilated restricted deep basins), with particular reference to the relationship between the change in the oxygenation state of the ocean and the link to global perturbations of the carbon cycle recorded in carbon isotopes. All four sections show fluctuations in the redox sensitive trace metal (RSTE) distribution, suggesting rapid variations in local redox conditions, ranging from anoxic to euxinic. The RSTE enrichment factors (EFs) also suggest different depositional conditions and paleoceanographic processes in the western Tethys versus the North Atlantic. Whereas the North Atlantic sites show evidence of weak watermass restriction associated with the action of a particulate shuttle within the water column, the EFs of the Tethyan sections are characteristic of unrestricted marine systems. Mo isotopes show surprisingly negative values through the Tethyan sections. At the onset of OAE-2, an increasing trend in δMo98 is observed, with values ranging from -0.6 to 0.6‰. During the second half of OAE-2, the δMo98 curve shows a progressive shift towards more negative values. In the North Atlantic, δMo98 signatures from ODP site 1276 show a similar behaviour as observed in the western Tethys. At DSDP site 367, Mo isotopes are generally heavier during OAE-2, fluctuating around an average value of 1.1‰. This is consistent with fully euxinic conditions and the black shales deposited may have recorded the seawater signature during OAE-2. The Mo isotope

  1. Why Oceanic Anoxic Events Terminated? Data and Speculations About the end of OAE1a. (United States)

    Erba, E.


    After three decades of research on oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), an impressive amount of geo-data has generated models that try to explain the peculiar mid Cretaceous ocean/atmosphere system. Plausible causes of oceanic anoxia have been identified and somehow substantiated with geological data. Refined and improved chronology has allowed the dating of events that perhaps accidentally concurred to trigger and maintain oceanic anoxia for long time intervals. Based on the original definition, OAEs are intervals of abnormal primary productivity in surface seawaters and oxygen-depletion in bottom seawaters. There is a general consensus on the role of carbon dioxide increases, and implicit tectonic-igneous events, triggering a major climate change, responses of marine biota and restructuring of chemical and physical characteristics of the ocean. An improved understanding of processes at the onset and during OAEs has been achieved, but less attention has been paid to the termination of anoxia. The early Aptian OAE 1a is an extreme and long lasting perturbation of the Cretaceous. It is associated with geochemical anomalies and fundamental changes in marine and terrestrial ecosystems. The end of OAE1a was characterized in pelagic sections, allowing the identification, dating and quantification of paleonvironmental changes. Specifically, nannofossil assemblages were quantified to estimate biogenic calcite production and fluxes, and reconstruct the evolution of calcareous phytoplankton, relative to changes in planktonic communities and in the ocean/atmosphere composition. The restoration of oxygenated bottom waters correlates with a renewal of nannoplankton calcification and a short- lived but distinctive cooling episode. The end of anoxia appears to be abrupt and unambiguously anticipates the long-lasting C isotopic positive excursion that is detached from organic carbon-rich black shales in pelagic sequences. The sharp re-oxygenation might imply a major external cause and

  2. Ecological palaeoecology: a missing link between ecology and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rull, V.


    Full Text Available Palaeoecology is more than a palaeoenvironmental discipline; it is a science that is well-suited for supplying the empirical evidence necessary to test ecological hypotheses and contributes to our understanding of the interface of ecology and evolution. A critical time frame in palaeoecology is the often-overlooked Q-time dimension (centuries to millennia, which tends to be the most appropriate time dimension to examine ecology–evolution interactions. This paper discusses these topics from a conceptual perspective and provides examples of the contributions of palaeoecology to the study of ecology–evolution interactions. It also admonishes researchers about the threats of overlooking palaeoecology. Specifically, this paper argues that the neglect of palaeoecology may result in the loss of empirical support for ecology and its interactions with evolution as DNA-based phylogenetic and phylogeographic studies become more and more prevalent. The main concepts discussed are the time continuum, the notion of ecological palaeoecology and the empirical nature of palaeoecology in the face of more hypothetical approaches. More practically speaking, several examples are provided that highlight the utility of ecological palaeoecology for understanding a variety of processes, including ecological succession, community– environment equilibria, community assembly, biotic responses to environmental change, speciation and extinction, and biodiversity conservation. The ecology–evolution interface is analysed using two processes in which these disciplines interact intensively: ecological succession and long-range migration. This work concludes that both ecological palaeoecology (including ancient DNA records and DNA-based phylogenetics and phylogeography are needed to better understand the biosphere ecologically and the processes occurring at the ecology–evolution interface.La paleoecología es más que una disciplina ambiental, ya que proporciona las

  3. Ecological Society of America meeting. Global warming, insects take the stage at Snowbird. (United States)

    Kaiser, J


    Despite the turmoil of not-so-distant forest fires and United Airlines troubles that threw off travel schedules, some 2600 ecologists made their way to this sun-soaked canyon last month for the Ecological Society of America's 85th annual meeting. Topics ranged from ancient droughts to photosynthesis beneath snow and how trees resist insects.

  4. Metabolism in anoxic permeable sediments is dominated by eukaryotic dark fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bourke, Michael F.; Marriott, Philip J; Glud, Ronnie N.


    . Here we present analyses of flow-through reactor experiments showing that dissolved inorganic carbon is produced predominantly as a result of anaerobic eukaryotic metabolic activity. In our experiments, anaerobic production of dissolved inorganic carbon was consistently accompanied by large dissolved H......Permeable sediments are common across continental shelves and are critical contributors to marine biogeochemical cycling. Organic matter in permeable sediments is dominated by microalgae, which as eukaryotes have different anaerobic metabolic pathways to prokaryotes such as bacteria and archaea....../hydrogenase pathway of fermentative eukaryotic H2 production, suggesting that pathway as the source of H2 and dissolved inorganic carbon production. Metabolomic analysis showed large increases in lipid production at the onset of anoxia, consistent with documented pathways of anoxic dark fermentation in microalgae...

  5. Photocatalytic decomposition of humic acids in anoxic aqueous solutions producing hydrogen, oxygen and light hydrocarbons. (United States)

    Klauson, Deniss; Budarnaja, Olga; Beltran, Ignacio Castellanos; Krichevskaya, Marina; Preis, Sergei


    Photocatalytic water splitting for hydrogen and oxygen production requires sacrificial electron donors, for example, organic compounds. Titanium dioxide catalysts doped with platinum, cobalt, tungsten, copper and iron were experimentally tested for the production of hydrogen, oxygen and low molecular weight hydrocarbons from aqueous solutions of humic substances (HS). Platinum-doped catalyst showed the best results in hydrogen generation, also producing methane, ethene and ethane, whereas the best oxygen production was exhibited by P25, followed by copper--and cobalt-containing photocatalysts. Iron-containing photocatalyst produced carbon monoxide as a major product. HS undergoing anoxic photocatalytic degradation produce hydrogen with minor hydrocarbons, and/or oxygen. It appears that better hydrogen yield is achieved when direct HS splitting takes place, as opposed to HS acting as electron donors for water splitting.

  6. Vasoactivity of hydrogen sulfide in normoxic and anoxic turtles (Trachemys scripta)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stecyk, Jonathan A.W.; Jensen, Nini Skovgaard; Nilsson, Göran E.;


    Systemic vascular resistance (Rsys) of freshwater turtles increases substantially during anoxia, but the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. We investigated whether hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an endogenously produced metabolite believed to be an O2 sensor/transducer of vasomotor tone......, contributes to the increased Rsys of anoxic red-eared slider turtles (Trachemys scripta). Vascular infusion of the H2S donor NaHS in anesthetized turtles at 21°C and fully recovered normoxic turtles at 5°C and 21°C revealed H2S to be a potent vasoconstrictor of the systemic circulation. Likewise, wire...... myography of isolated turtle mesenteric and pulmonary arteries demonstrated H2S to mediate an anoxia-induced constriction. Intriguingly, however, NaHS did not exert vasoconstrictory effects during anoxia (6 h at 21°C; 14 days at 5°C) when plasma H2S concentration, estimated from the colorimetric measurement...

  7. Glial Hsp70 Protects K+ Homeostasis in the Drosophila Brain during Repetitive Anoxic Depolarization (United States)

    Armstrong, Gary A. B.; Xiao, Chengfeng; Krill, Jennifer L.; Seroude, Laurent; Dawson-Scully, Ken; Robertson, R. Meldrum


    Neural tissue is particularly vulnerable to metabolic stress and loss of ion homeostasis. Repetitive stress generally leads to more permanent dysfunction but the mechanisms underlying this progression are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of energetic compromise in Drosophila by targeting the Na+/K+-ATPase. Acute ouabain treatment of intact flies resulted in subsequent repetitive comas that led to death and were associated with transient loss of K+ homeostasis in the brain. Heat shock pre-conditioned flies were resistant to ouabain treatment. To control the timing of repeated loss of ion homeostasis we subjected flies to repetitive anoxia while recording extracellular [K+] in the brain. We show that targeted expression of the chaperone protein Hsp70 in glial cells delays a permanent loss of ion homeostasis associated with repetitive anoxic stress and suggest that this is a useful model for investigating molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection. PMID:22174942

  8. Glial Hsp70 protects K+ homeostasis in the Drosophila brain during repetitive anoxic depolarization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gary A B Armstrong

    Full Text Available Neural tissue is particularly vulnerable to metabolic stress and loss of ion homeostasis. Repetitive stress generally leads to more permanent dysfunction but the mechanisms underlying this progression are poorly understood. We investigated the effects of energetic compromise in Drosophila by targeting the Na(+/K(+-ATPase. Acute ouabain treatment of intact flies resulted in subsequent repetitive comas that led to death and were associated with transient loss of K(+ homeostasis in the brain. Heat shock pre-conditioned flies were resistant to ouabain treatment. To control the timing of repeated loss of ion homeostasis we subjected flies to repetitive anoxia while recording extracellular [K(+] in the brain. We show that targeted expression of the chaperone protein Hsp70 in glial cells delays a permanent loss of ion homeostasis associated with repetitive anoxic stress and suggest that this is a useful model for investigating molecular mechanisms of neuroprotection.

  9. Reduction of Biological Sludge Production Applying an Alternating Oxic/anoxic Process in Water Line. (United States)

    Eusebi, Anna Laura; Panigutti, Maximiliano; Battistoni, Paolo


    Alternating oxic/anoxic process, applied for the main objective of the improvement of nitrogen performances, was studied in terms of secondary effect of biomass reduction. The process was carried out in one real water resource recovery facility and the data were compared with the previous conventional period when a conventional process was adopted. The main mechanism of the process for the sludge minimization is recognized in the metabolic uncoupling. In fact, an increase of the specific oxygen uptake rate in the biological reactor was recorded stimulated by the change of the oxidation reduction potential environment. Moreover, the heterotrophic growth yield was measured equal to 0.385 kgVSS/kgCOD. The global percentage of reduction was tested with the mass balance of solids. The process is able to decrease the observed sludge yield up to 20%. The specific energy consumption was evaluated.

  10. Mid-Cretaceous carbon cycle perturbations and Oceanic Anoxic Events recorded in southern Tibet (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolin; Chen, Kefan; Hu, Dongping; Sha, Jingeng


    The organic carbon isotope (δ13Corg) curve for ~1.7-km-thick mid-Cretaceous strata of the Chaqiela section in Gamba area, southern Tibet is presented in this study. C-isotopic chemostratigraphic correlation combined with biostratigraphic constraints show that the Chaqiela section spans early Aptian through early Campanian period, and that almost all of the carbon cycle perturbations and Oceanic Anoxic Events during the mid-Cretaceous period are well recorded in the continental margin area of the southeastern Tethys Ocean. Significantly, two levels of methane-derived authigenic carbonates were identified at the onset of OAE1b near the Aptian-Albian boundary. We suggest that an increase in methane release from gas hydrates, potentially driven by sea-level fall and bottom water temperature increase, may have contributed to the large negative δ13Corg excursions and global warming during OAE1b.

  11. Microbial pathways for the mobilization of mercury as Hg(O) in anoxic subsurface environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkay, Tamar


    The goal of our project which was initiated in June 2005 is focused on the presence of merA in microbial communities of anoxic environments and the effect of anaerobic respiratory pathways on MR expression and activities. The following progress has been made to date: PCR primers were designed to span the known phylogenetic range of merA genes of Gram-negative bacteria. In control experiments, these primers successfully amplified a 288 bp region at the 3? end of previously characterized merA genes from Shewanella putrefaciens pMERPH, Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans, Pseudomonas stutzeri pPB, Tn5041, Pseudomonas sp. K-62, and Serratia marcescens pDU1358.

  12. From clinical judgment to odds: a history of prognostication in anoxic-ischemic coma. (United States)

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M


    Persistent coma from a major anoxic-ischemic injury to the brain may indicate there is less chance for full recovery. The tools of prognostication to assess comatose survivors of cardiopulmonary resuscitation have developed over several decades. Physicians would initially base their judgment on experience and data on outcome in these patients in the early years were merely on awakening not on disability. In the late 1970s, a large multicenter prospective study was performed on outcome in nontraumatic coma. The impetus for this study was the result of Plum and Jennet's collaboration. In 1981--for the first time--complex statistics were used to improve the accuracy of prognosis and became known as the "Levy algorithms." These early seminal studies shaped the prediction models and implied that clinical information alone could assist physicians in making a prediction. Later, probabilistic methods became more commonplace.

  13. Genome sequence of Halorhabdus tiamatea, the first archaeon isolated from a deep-sea anoxic brine lake.

    KAUST Repository

    Antunes, Andre


    We present the draft genome of Halorhabdus tiamatea, the first member of the Archaea ever isolated from a deep-sea anoxic brine. Genome comparison with Halorhabdus utahensis revealed some striking differences, including a marked increase in genes associated with transmembrane transport and putative genes for a trehalose synthase and a lactate dehydrogenase.

  14. Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beyer, F.; Rietman, B.M.; Zwijnenburg, A.; Brink, van den P.; Vrouwenvelder, J.S.; Jarzembowska, M.; Laurinonyte, J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Plugge, C.M.


    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and pretr

  15. Metabolic profiling of heat or anoxic stress in mouse C2C12 myotubes using multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. (United States)

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Petersen, Bent O; Duus, Jens Ø; Gregersen, Niels; Bross, Peter; Oksbjerg, Niels; Bertram, Hanne C


    In the present study, the metabolic effects of heat and anoxic stress in myotubes from the mouse cell line C2C12 were investigated by using a combination of (13)C, (1)H, and (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and enrichment with [(13)C]-glucose. Both the (13)C and the (1)H NMR spectra showed reduced levels of the amino acids alanine, glutamate, and aspartate after heat or anoxic stress. The decreases were smallest at 42 degrees C, larger at 45 degrees C, and most pronounced after anoxic conditions. In addition, in both the (1)H and the (31)P NMR spectra, decreases in the high-energy phosphate compounds adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine with increasing severity of stress were identified. At anoxic conditions, an increase in (13)C-labeled lactate and appearance of glycerol-3-phosphate were observed. Accumulation of lactate and glycerol-3-phosphate is in agreement with a shift to anaerobic metabolism due to inhibition of the aerobic pathway in the mitochondria. Conversely, lower levels of unlabeled ((12)C) lactate were apparent at increasing severity of stress, which indicate that lactate is released from the myotubes to the medium. In conclusion, the metabolites identified in the present study may be useful markers for identifying severity of stress in muscles.

  16. Anoxic or aerial survival of bivalves and other euryoxic invertebrates as a useful response to environmental stress - A comprehensive review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zwaan, A.; Eertman, R.H.M.


    Laboratory and field studies have demonstrated the applicability of anoxic/aerial survival as an early warning indicator of contaminant induced stress. The effects of xenobiotics, including heavy metals, organometals and organics as well as contaminated field sediments have been investigated. The us

  17. Spatial extent and degree of oxygen depletion in the deep proto-North Atlantic basin during Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Helmond, Niels A. G. M.; Ruvalcaba Baroni, Itzel; Sluijs, Appy; Sinninghe Damste, Jaap S.; Slomp, Caroline P.


    Massive organic matter burial due to widespread ocean anoxia across the Cenomanian/Turonian boundary event (∼94 Ma) resulted in a major perturbation of the global carbon cycle: the so-called Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE2). The characteristics and spatial distribution of the OAE2 deposits that forme

  18. Enhanced N2-fixation and NH4+ recycling during oceanic anoxic event 2 in the proto-North Atlantic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruvalcaba Baroni, I.; Tsandev, I.; Slomp, C.P.


    Evidence from sediment core records and model studies suggests that increased nutrient supply played a key role in the initiation of the Cenomanian-Turonian oceanic anoxic event 2 (OAE2; 94 Ma). However, the relative roles of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability in controlling primary produc

  19. Treatment of phenolics, aromatic hydrocarbons, and cyanide-bearing wastewater in individual and combined anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic bioreactors. (United States)

    Sharma, Naresh K; Philip, Ligy


    Studies were conducted on a mixture of pollutants commonly found in coke oven wastewater (CWW) to evaluate the biodegradation of various pollutants under anaerobic, aerobic, and anoxic conditions. The removal of the pollutants was monitored during individual bioreactor operation and using a combination of bioreactors operating in anaerobic-aerobic-anoxic sequence. While studying the performance of individual reactors, it was observed that cyanide removal (83.3 %) was predominant in the aerobic bioreactor, while much of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) (69 %) was consumed in the anoxic bioreactor. With the addition of cyanide, the COD removal efficiency was affected in all the bioreactors, and several intermediates were detected. While treating synthetic CWW using the combined bioreactor system, the overall COD removal efficiency was 86.79 % at an OLR of 2.4 g COD/L/day and an HRT of 96 h. The removal efficiency of 3,5-xylenol and cyanide, with inlet concentration of 150 and 10 mg/L, was found to be 91.8 and 93.6 % respectively. It was found that the impact of xylenol on the performance of the bioreactors was less than cyanide toxicity. Molecular analysis using T-RFLP revealed the dominance of strictly aerobic, mesophilic proteobacterium, Bosea minatitlanensis, in the aerobic bioreactor. The anoxic bioreactor was dominant with Rhodococcus pyridinivorans, known for its remarkable aromatic decomposing activity, while an unclassified Myxococcales bacterium was identified as the predominant bacterial species in the anaerobic bioreactor.

  20. Characterization of microbial arsenate reduction in the anoxic bottom waters of Mono Lake, California (United States)

    Hoeft, S.E.; Lucas, F.; Hollibaugh, J.T.; Oremland, R.S.


    Dissimilatory reduction of arsenate (DAsR) occurs in the arsenic-rich, anoxic water column of Mono Lake, California, yet the microorganisms responsible for this observed in situ activity have not been identified. To gain insight as to which microorganisms mediate this phenomenon, as well as to some of the biogeochemical constraints on this activity, we conducted incubations of arsenate-enriched bottom water coupled with inhibition/amendment studies and Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) characterization techniques. DAsR was totally inhibited by filter-sterilization and by nitrate, partially inhibited (~50%) by selenate, but only slightly (~25%) inhibited by oxyanions that block sulfate-reduction (molybdate and tungstate). The apparent inhibition by nitrate, however, was not due to action as a preferred electron acceptor to arsenate. Rather, nitrate addition caused a rapid, microbial re-oxidation of arsenite to arsenate, which gave the overall appearance of no arsenate loss. A similar microbial oxidation of As(III) was also found with Fe(III), a fact that has implications for the recycling of As(V) in Mono Lake's anoxic bottom waters. DAsR could be slightly (10%) stimulated by substrate amendments of lactate, succinate, malate, or glucose, but not by acetate, suggesting that the DAsR microflora is not electron donor limited. DGGE analysis of amplified 16S rDNA gene fragments from incubated arsenate-enriched bottom waters revealed the presence of two bands that were not present in controls without added arsenate. The resolved sequences of these excised bands indicated the presence of members of the epsilon (Sulfurospirillum) and delta (Desulfovibrio) subgroups of the Proteobacteria, both of which have representative species that are capable of anaerobic growth using arsenate as their electron acceptor.

  1. Paleoenvironmental responses to Late Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 on the Kerguelen Plateau (United States)

    Dickson, A.; Saker-Clark, M.; Jenkyns, H. C.; Erba, E.; Bottini, C.; Murphy, M. J.; Gorbanenko, O.; Idiz, E.; van den Boorn, S.


    Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2, ~94 Ma: late Cretaceous) was characterized by a perturbation in seawater chemistry, an expansion of marine anoxia and euxinia, an increase in marine organic-carbon burial, a decrease in atmospheric pCO2 during an interval of high global temperatures, an extinction event among marine organisms, and changes in weathering intensity. However, many of the most detailed studies of OAE-2 are from the northern hemisphere, and consequently how global environmental changes were expressed at the local and regional scale in the southern hemisphere is poorly understood. A detailed geochemical, petrographic and micropalaeontological dataset from Ocean Drilling Program Site 1138 on the Kerguelen Plateau, southern Indian Ocean (53.5oS paleolatitude), identifies OAE-2 from a 3‰ positive carbon-isotope excursion (CIE) and from high-resolution nannofossil biostratigraphy. An enrichment of organic carbon (to ~15%) corresponds with a shift towards locally sub-oxic/anoxic conditions, as recorded by trace-metal enrichments and molybdenum-isotope compositions. The redox changes coincide stratigraphically with an abrupt decline in the delivery of highly weathered detrital material and terrestrial organic matter to Site 1138. A rapid relative sea-level rise occurring around the onset of OAE-2 could have reduced the input of highly weathered detrital sediments, while moving the local seafloor deeper into an oxygen minimum zone impinging on the margins of the Kerguelen Plateau. Alternatively, or additionally, intensified mid-latitude hydrological cycling in the early stages of OAE-2 could have rapidly destabilized terrestrial sediments from sub-aerial landmasses on the Kerguelen Plateau. In either case, the new datasets highlight the abrupt nature of the palaeoenvironmental response to OAE-2 in the mid-latitude southern hemisphere.

  2. Uranium and plutonium in anoxic marine sediments of the Santiago River mouth (Eastern Pacific, Mexico). (United States)

    Almazán-Torres, María Guadalupe; Ordóñez-Regil, Eduardo; Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina


    The uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) content with depth in a sediment core collected in the continental shelf off the mouth of the Santiago River in the Mexican Pacific was studied to evaluate the contamination effects of the effluent of the Santiago-Lerma River as it moves into the sea. The large mass of terrestrial detritus delivered by the river influences the physicochemical and geochemical processes in the seafloor. Abnormal concentrations of U and Pu in sediments were examined as indicative of the effects of anoxic conditions. One of the indicators of pollution of seawater is the bacterial activity of the shallow seabed layer; and among the prevailing bacteria, the magnetotactic ones induce the formation of euhedral and framboidal shapes (pyrite). These pyrite entities are by-products of anoxic environments loaded with decomposing detrital material and are very abundant in the surface layers of the sediment core analyzed. The pyrite formation is the result of a biochemical reaction between iron and organic sulphur reduced by bacteria, and the pyrite entities precipitate to the seafloor. In the same upper zone of the profile, (238)U is readily immobilized, while (234)U is oxidized and dissolved in seawater by the effect of hot atom chemistry. This may cause the activity ratio (AR) (234)U/(238)U disequilibrium (near 0.41). Furthermore, in the shallow layer of the sediment core, an abnormally high concentration of (239+240)Pu was detected. In this upper layer, the activity concentrations found were 3.19 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, 1.32 kg(-1) for (234)U and 2.78 Bq kg(-1) for (239+240)Pu. In the lower fractions of the sediment core, normal values of AR (234)U/(238)U (≈1) were found, with traces of (239+240)Pu.

  3. Enhanced dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene by zerovalent silicon in the presence of polyethylene glycol under anoxic conditions. (United States)

    Lee, Chun-Chi; Doong, Ruey-An


    The combination of zerovalent silicon (Si(0)) with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is a novel technique to enhance the dechlorination efficiency and rate of chlorinated hydrocarbons. In this study, the dechlorination of tetrachloroethylene (PCE) by Si(0) in the presence of various concentrations of PEG was investigated under anoxic conditions. Several surfactants including cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and Tween 80 were also selected for comparison. Addition of SDS and Tween 80 had little effect on the enhancement of PCE dechlorination, while CTAB and PEG significantly enhanced the dechlorination efficiency and rate of PCE by Si(0) under anoxic conditions. The Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was used to describe the dechlorination kinetics of PCE and could be simplified to pseudo-first-order kinetics at low PCE concentration. The rate constants (k(obs)) for PCE dechlorination were 0.21 and 0.36 h(-1) in the presence of CTAB and PEG, respectively. However, the reaction mechanisms for CTAB and PEG are different. CTAB could enhance the apparent water solubility of PCE in solution containing Si(0), leading to the enhancement of dechlorination efficiency and rate of PCE, while PEG prevented the formation of silicon dioxide, and significantly enhanced the dechlorination efficiency and rate of PCE at pH 8.3 ± 0.2. In addition, the dechlorination rate increased upon increasing PEG concentration and then leveled off to a plateau when the PEG concentration was higher than 0.2 μM. The k(obs) for PCE dechlorination by Si(0) in the presence of PEG was 106 times higher than that by Si(0) alone. Results obtained in this study would be helpful in facilitating the development of processes that could be useful for the enhanced degradation of cocontaminants by zerovalent silicon.

  4. Microbialite of anoxic condition from Permian-Triassic transition in Guizhou,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Spherical microfossils are present in the Hindeodus parvus zone of the Lower Triassic in Ziyun,Guizhou Province. They generally range from 0.15 to 0.30 mm across,with micritic wall and filled by micro-sparry calcites,and are evenly scattered in micritic matrix. Their abundance makes the rock as-signed to microbialites. The accompanied organisms include ostracods and algal mat,but no gastro-pods or bivalves. Presence of small (<7 μm) pyrite framboids indicates that this bed formed in anoxic conditions. In some sections,this bed is overlain and underlain by tidal-flat micritic limestone with microgastropods and small burrows. Occurrence only in deposits on reef top indicates that the micro-bial organism was benthic,and needed sunlight in life. The size of the microbial fossil exceeds that of any bacteria or cyanobacteria. Thus,it does not belong to these two phyla. It may belong to lower green algae,and is assigned to a new species in a new genus,Ziyunosphaeridium sinensis gen. et sp. nov. Up to now,the rocks described as microbialites from the Permian-Triassic transition include six types: (1) porous micritic limestone such as that descried from Japan by Sano and Nakashima (1997),(2) limestone with rich globular microfossils such as that described from the Nanpanjiang Basin in China by Lehrmann (1999),(3) dendroidal limestone such as that described from the vicinity of Chongqing by Kershaw et al. (1999),(4) spherical microbial limestone adapted to anoxic environments described from Ziyun,Guizhou reported in this paper,(5) limestone with cyanobacterial fossils such as that described by Wang et al. (2005),and (6) stromatolites. All these microbialites are not reefs in the proper sense,and the argument that Permian reef ecosystems extended into the Mesozoic is incorrect.

  5. Microbialite of anoxic condition from Permian-Triassic transition in Guizhou, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU YaSheng; JIANG HongXia; YANG Wan; FAN JiaSong


    Spherical microfossils are present in the Hindeodus parvus zone of the Lower Triassic in Ziyun, Guizhou Province. They generally range from 0.15 to 0.30 mm across, with micritic wall and filled by micro-sparry calcites, and are evenly scattered in micritic matrix. Their abundance makes the rock assigned to microbialites. The accompanied organisms include ostracods and algal mat, but no gastropods or bivalves. Presence of small (<7 μm) pyrite framboids indicates that this bed formed in anoxic conditions. In some sections, this bed is overlain and underlain by tidal-flat micritic limestone with microgastropods and small burrows. Occurrence only in deposits on reef top indicates that the microbial organism was benthic, and needed sunlight in life. The size of the microbial fossil exceeds that of any bacteria or cyanobacteria. Thus, it does not belong to these two phyla. It may belong to lower green algae, and is assigned to a new species in a new genus, Ziyunosphaeridium sinensis gen. et sp. nov. Up to now, the rocks described as microbialites from the Permian-Triassic transition include six types: (1) porous micritic limestone such as that descried from Japan by Sano and Nakashima (1997), (2) limestone with rich globular microfossils such as that described from the Nanpanjiang Basin in China by Lehrmann (1999), (3) dendroidal limestone such as that described from the vicinity of Chongqing by Kershaw et al. (1999), (4) spherical microbial limestone adapted to anoxic environments described from Ziyun, Guizhou reported in this paper, (5) limestone with cyanobacterial fossils such as that described by Wang et al. (2005), and (6) stromatolites. All these microbialites are not reefs in the proper sense, and the argument that Permian reef ecosystems extended into the Mesozoic is incorrect.

  6. Experimental Study on Anoxic/Oxic Bioreactor and Constructed Wetland for Rural Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Leju Celestino Ladu


    Full Text Available This study examined the removal of nutrients from the domestic wastewater through the application of integrated anoxic/oxic (A/O bio-reactor and constructed wetland system. Influent and effluent samples were collected from the system and experimented for Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD, NH4+-N, NO3--N and TP in the laboratory. Different Hydraulic Retention Time (HRT and recycle ratios were applied in the reactor to evaluate their influence on removal efficiency of nutrients. The temperature was controlled between 20 to 24°C and pH ranges was 7.6-8.1. The result revealed average COD removal efficiencies of 47, 68, 74, 83 and 85% at HRT of 1.5, 4, 2, 3 and 5 h. The average removal of NH4+-N was 60.3, 63.0, 64.4, 71 and 91.8 % operated with HRT of 2, 3, 5, 1.5 and 4 h, respectively. The average removal of NO3- -N was 92, 94, 95 and 97% run with HRT of 2, 1.5, 3, 5 and 4 h, respectively. The average removal of TP was 78, 85, 88 and 89% operated with HRT of 5, 3, 2 and 1 h. This system removed up to 74.1, 94.4 and 85% of NH4+-N, NO3- -N and TP with proper pH control using external source of alkalinity. The result showed the optimum recycle ratio of 3. The results obtained attest that, the integrated anoxic/oxic bioreactor and constructed wetland is feasible and efficient for wastewater treatment.

  7. The Cogollo Group and the oceanic anoxic events 1a and 1b, Maracaibo basin, Venezuela

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Méndez Dot

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCarbonates of Cogollo Group (Apón, Lisure and Maraca formations constitute the broader calcareous platform system originated during Aptian and Albian of Cretaceous in north-western South America, Maracaibo Basin, Venezuela. On the shallow shelf, a variety of calcareous sedimentary facies were deposited during marine transgressive and regressive cycles. Some of them developed porosity and constitute important hydrocarbon reservoirs. Due to some major marine transgressions, from early Aptian, the anoxic environment and characteristic facies of a pelagic environment moved from the outer slope and basin to the shallow shelf, during specific time intervals, favouring the sedimentation of organic matter-rich facies, which correspond to the oceanic anoxic events (OAEs 1a and 1b. The source rock of Machiques Member (Apón Formation was deposited during early Aptian OAE 1a (~ 120 Ma. The source rock of Piché Member, located at the top of the Apón Formation, was deposited during late Aptian OAE 1b (~ 113 Ma. Finally, La Luna Formation, from Cenomanian, that covers the OAE 2 (~ 93 Ma, represents the most important source rock in the Maracaibo Basin. In this way and based on sedimentological and organic geochemistry results from the determinations performed on 247 samples belonging to six cores in the Maracaibo Basin, we propose these two organic-rich levels, deposited on the shallow shelf of the Cogollo Group, as "effective source rocks", additional to La Luna Formation, with oil migration in relatively small distances to the porosity facies.

  8. Effect of Cretaceous oceanic anoxic events on the evolutionary trend of planktonic foraminifera (United States)

    Kuroyanagi, A.; Ozaki, K.; Kawahata, H.


    It is widely thought that oceanic redox state is essential for the evolutionary history of life on the earth, and "anoxic events" have been proposed as one of the causal mechanisms for mass extinctions. During mid-Cretaceous, widely known as the extremely warm period, oceanic anoxic events (OAEs) occurred several times and they would have caused a substantial impact on the biosphere. Planktonic foraminifera are marine planktons with calcite tests and their productions constitute ~30-80% of the modern deep-marine calcite budget, thus they play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Previous study reported that planktonic foraminifera displayed the high turnover (extinction and speciation) rate at or near the major OAEs. However, the impact of Cretaceous OAEs on the evolutionary trend of planktonic foraminifera remains obscure. In this study, we investigated the role of spatiotemporal extent of anoxia on the evolutionary trend of planktonic foraminifera by assessing the extinction/speciation rate of planktonic foraminifera around Cretaceous OAEs. The number of foraminiferal species increased across the OAE1a and then showed a peak after this episode. Around OAE2, several planktonic foraminifera species became extinct and several speciated, however, long-term trends in foraminiferal evolution showed no drastic changes near the event. Therefore these results suggest that the ocean surface environment at OAEs would not have a direct effect on foraminiferal extinction/speciation. This interpretation is reinforced when considering the recent culturing results, which demonstrate that modern planktonic foraminifera have a high tolerance to extremely low dissolved oxygen levels than expected. Accumulating geochemical data also suggest a spatial heterogeneity of oceanic anoxia/euxinia during OAE2. These results lead us to conclude that Cretaceous OAEs would not directly related to planktonic foraminiferal extinction due to regional distribution of anoxia/euxinia.

  9. Climate change, social unrest and dynastic transition in ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Dian; JIM Chiyung; LIN Chusheng; HE Yuanqing; LEE Fung


    The evident connection between human evolution and climatic changes has been concurred by scientists. Although many people are trying to forecast the impacts of climatic changes on our future society, there are not any studies to quantitatively scrutinize the interrelation between climatic changes and social developments by using historical data. In line with this knowledge gap, this study adopted a scientific approach to compare the paleoclimatic records with the historical data of wars, social unrests, and dynastic transitions in China spanned from the late Tang to Qing Dynasties. Results showed that war frequency in cold phases was much higher than that in mild phases. Besides, 70%-80% of war peaks and most of the dynastic transitions and nationwide social unrests in China took place in cold phases. This phenomenon could be attributed to the diminishing thermal energy input in cold phases resulting in the fall of land-productivity and hence, the deficiency of livelihood resources across society. Accompanied with certain social circumstances, this kind of ecological stress was transformed into wars and social unrests, followed by dynastic transitions in most of the cases. By closer examination, it was even found that war frequency was negatively correlated with temperature anomaly series. As land carrying capacities vary from one climatic zone to another, the magnitude of war- temperature association also differed among different geographic regions. It is suggested that climatic change was one of the most important factors in determining the dynastic cycle and alternation of war and peace in ancient China.

  10. The early Toarcian anoxic event: what the beginning and the end of the story are? (United States)

    Mattioli, Emanuela; Plancq, Julien; Raucsik, Béla


    The early Toarcian anoxic event: what the beginning and the end of the story are? E. Mattioli (1), J. Plancq (1), and B. Rauksik (2) (1) UMR 5125 PEPS, CNRS, France; Université Lyon 1, Campus de la DOUA, Bâtiment Géode, 69622 Villeurbanne Cedex, France ( (2) Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pannonia, Veszprém, Hungary The early Toarcian anoxic event (T-OAE) and the associated biotic crisis have received much attention in the last decade. However, the events forewarning the crisis as well as its aftermath are still poorly known. The T-OAE coincides with a prominent carbon isotope negative excursion (T-CIE) that is preceded by an excursion of similar intensity at the Pliensbachian-Toarcian boundary (Hesselbo et al., 2007). The onset of T-CIE occurred some 700 kyr later than the end of the Boundary-CIE (Suan et al., 2008a). This succession of events demonstrates that the T-OAE was a complex suite of environmental perturbations. In this work, we focused on calcareous nannofossil assemblages occurring in the Peniche section (Portugal) during the Boundary-CIE with the aim to understand if calcifying plankton reacted in a similar/different way to the two CIEs. Also, two sections and one borehole located along a W-E transect, along the NW-Tethyan shelf (in the Yorkshire coast, in the E Paris Basin, and in Mecsek Basin, respectively), were investigated to assess which way calcareous nannoplankton recovered after the crisis, and if the recovery was a synchronous event. The production by nannoplankton collapsed during the T-CIE, as demonstrated by the lowest absolute abundance of nannofossils measured in Peniche and other studied sites (Mattioli et al., 2008). Besides this nannofossil abundance decrease, also the size of the incertae sedis Schizosphaerella test was drastically reduced (Suan et al., 2008b). If a similar size decrease is also recorded during the Boundary-CIE, calcareous nannofossil abundances are

  11. Ancient and modern DNA reveal dynamics of domestication and cross-continental dispersal of the dromedary. (United States)

    Almathen, Faisal; Charruau, Pauline; Mohandesan, Elmira; Mwacharo, Joram M; Orozco-terWengel, Pablo; Pitt, Daniel; Abdussamad, Abdussamad M; Uerpmann, Margarethe; Uerpmann, Hans-Peter; De Cupere, Bea; Magee, Peter; Alnaqeeb, Majed A; Salim, Bashir; Raziq, Abdul; Dessie, Tadelle; Abdelhadi, Omer M; Banabazi, Mohammad H; Al-Eknah, Marzook; Walzer, Chris; Faye, Bernard; Hofreiter, Michael; Peters, Joris; Hanotte, Olivier; Burger, Pamela A


    Dromedaries have been fundamental to the development of human societies in arid landscapes and for long-distance trade across hostile hot terrains for 3,000 y. Today they continue to be an important livestock resource in marginal agro-ecological zones. However, the history of dromedary domestication and the influence of ancient trading networks on their genetic structure have remained elusive. We combined ancient DNA sequences of wild and early-domesticated dromedary samples from arid regions with nuclear microsatellite and mitochondrial genotype information from 1,083 extant animals collected across the species' range. We observe little phylogeographic signal in the modern population, indicative of extensive gene flow and virtually affecting all regions except East Africa, where dromedary populations have remained relatively isolated. In agreement with archaeological findings, we identify wild dromedaries from the southeast Arabian Peninsula among the founders of the domestic dromedary gene pool. Approximate Bayesian computations further support the "restocking from the wild" hypothesis, with an initial domestication followed by introgression from individuals from wild, now-extinct populations. Compared with other livestock, which show a long history of gene flow with their wild ancestors, we find a high initial diversity relative to the native distribution of the wild ancestor on the Arabian Peninsula and to the brief coexistence of early-domesticated and wild individuals. This study also demonstrates the potential to retrieve ancient DNA sequences from osseous remains excavated in hot and dry desert environments.

  12. AMS radiocarbon dating of ancient Japanese sutras

    CERN Document Server

    Oda, H; Nakamura, T; Fujita, K


    Radiocarbon ages of ancient Japanese sutras whose historical ages were known paleographically were measured by means of accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Calibrated radiocarbon ages of five samples were consistent with the corresponding historical ages; the 'old wood effect' is negligible for ancient Japanese sutras. Japanese paper has been made from fresh branches grown within a few years and the interval from trimming off the branches to writing sutra on the paper is within one year. The good agreement between the calibrated radiocarbon ages and the historical ages is supported by such characteristics of Japanese paper. It is indicated in this study that Japanese sutra is a suitable sample for radiocarbon dating in the historic period because of little gap by 'old wood effect'.

  13. Paleo-Environmental Reconstruction Using Ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mikkel Winther

    The aim of this thesis has been to investigate and expand the methodology and applicability for using ancient DNA deposited in lake sediments to detect and determine its genetic sources for paleo-environmental reconstruction. The aim was furthermore to put this tool into an applicable context...... solving other scientifically interesting questions. Still in its childhood, ancient environmental DNA research has a large potential for still developing, improving and discovering its possibilities and limitations in different environments and for identifying various organisms, both in terms...... of the sampling methods and strategies (taphonomic processes), the more fundamental molecular methodologies (e.g. extraction and sequencing) and eventually the bioinformatic processing. In the enclosed studies we have tried to take some principal steps towards improving this, firstly by reviewing previous...

  14. Human evolution: a tale from ancient genomes. (United States)

    Llamas, Bastien; Willerslev, Eske; Orlando, Ludovic


    The field of human ancient DNA (aDNA) has moved from mitochondrial sequencing that suffered from contamination and provided limited biological insights, to become a fully genomic discipline that is changing our conception of human history. Recent successes include the sequencing of extinct hominins, and true population genomic studies of Bronze Age populations. Among the emerging areas of aDNA research, the analysis of past epigenomes is set to provide more new insights into human adaptation and disease susceptibility through time. Starting as a mere curiosity, ancient human genetics has become a major player in the understanding of our evolutionary history.This article is part of the themed issue 'Evo-devo in the genomics era, and the origins of morphological diversity'.

  15. Lipids of aquatic sediments, recent and ancient (United States)

    Eglinton, G.; Hajibrahim, S. K.; Maxwell, J. R.; Quirke, J. M. E.; Shaw, G. J.; Volkman, J. K.; Wardroper, A. M. K.


    Computerized gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is now an essential tool in the analysis of the complex mixtures of lipids (geolipids) encountered in aquatic sediments, both 'recent' (less than 1 million years old) and ancient. The application of MS, and particularly GC-MS, has been instrumental in the rapid development of organic geochemistry and environmental organic chemistry in recent years. The techniques used have resulted in the identification of numerous compounds of a variety of types in sediments. Most attention has been concentrated on molecules of limited size, mainly below 500 molecular mass, and of limited functionality, for examples, hydrocarbons, fatty acids and alcohols. Examples from recent studies (at Bristol) of contemporary, 'recent' and ancient sediments are presented and discussed.

  16. Putative ancient microorganisms from amber nuggets. (United States)

    Veiga-Crespo, Patricia; Blasco, Lucía; Poza, Margarita; Villa, Tomás G


    Evolutionary microbiology studies based on the isolation of ancient DNA and/or microbial samples are scarce due to the difficulty of finding well preserved biological specimens. However, amber is a fossil resin with natural preserving properties for microbial cells and DNA. The visualization by transmission electron microscopy of different microorganism-like specimens found in amber nuggets from both the Miocene and the Cretaceous periods was accompanied by studies of ancient DNA obtained from the nuggets. After the design of specific primers based on the present sequences of both genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the ancestral AGP2 sequence from the Miocene, as well as the 18S rRNA from the Cretaceous, were amplified.

  17. Rangifer and man: An ancient relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Gordon


    Full Text Available A long-term relationship between Rangifer and humans is documented in three case studies: the Canadian Barrenlands (8000 years ago to Historic period, Ice-Age France (11 000-19 000 years ago and Mesolithic Russia (7000¬10 000 years ago. Ancient human and herd migration occurred in all areas, based upon Rangifer remains and seasonal variations in tools along reconstructed migration routes, with few if any hunting camps outside the routes. An April peak of ancient human births is inferred from the historic record where we see births occurring nine months after peak nutritional states in herds and people. The origin of reindeer domestication and breeding in Eurasia is discussed.

  18. Segmentation of Ancient Telugu Text Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao A.V


    Full Text Available OCR of ancient document images remains a challenging task till date. Scanning process itself introduces deformation of document images. Cleaning process of these document images will result in information loss. Segmentation contributes an invariance process in OCR. Complex scripts, like derivatives of Brahmi, encounter many problems in the segmentation process. Segmentation of meaningful units, (instead of isolated patterns, revealed interesting trends. A segmentation technique for the ancient Telugu document image into meaningful units is proposed. The topological features of the meaningful units within the script line are adopted as a basis, while segmenting the text line. Horizontal profile pattern is convolved with Gaussian kernel. The statistical properties of meaningful units are explored by extensively analyzing the geometrical patterns of the meaningful unit. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm involving segmentation process is found to be 73.5% for the case of uncleaned document images.

  19. The isotopic composition of authigenic chromium in anoxic marine sediments: A case study from the Cariaco Basin (United States)

    Reinhard, Christopher T.; Planavsky, Noah J.; Wang, Xiangli; Fischer, Woodward W.; Johnson, Thomas M.; Lyons, Timothy W.


    Chromium (Cr) isotopes are an emerging proxy for tracking redox processes at the Earth's surface. However, there has been limited exploration of the Cr isotope record of modern and recent marine sediments. The basic inorganic chemistry of Cr suggests that anoxic marine basins should factor prominently in the global Cr cycle and that sediments deposited within anoxic basins may offer a valuable Cr isotope archive throughout Earth's history. Here, we present δ53Cr data from sediments of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela-a 'type' environment for large, perennially anoxic basins with a relatively strong hydrological connection to the global oceans. We document a marked positive shift in bulk δ53Cr values following the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum, followed by relative stasis. Based on a suite of independent redox proxies, this transition marks a switch from oxic to persistently anoxic and sulfidic (euxinic) depositional conditions within the basin. We find good agreement between two independent approaches toward estimating the δ53Cr composition of authigenic Cr in euxinic Cariaco Basin sediments and that these estimates are very similar to the δ53Cr composition of modern open Atlantic Ocean seawater. These data, together with considerations of reaction kinetics and mass balance within the Cariaco Basin, are consistent with the hypothesis that anoxic marine settings can serve as a chemical archive of first-order trends in seawater δ53Cr composition. Additionally, the Cariaco Basin data suggest that there has been secular stability in the average δ53Cr value of Atlantic seawater over the last ∼15 kyr.

  20. Simultaneous Organics and Nutrients Removal from Domestic Wastewater in a Combined Cylindrical Anoxic/Aerobic Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Husham T. Ibrahim


    Full Text Available The aim of present study was to design and construct an continuous up-flow pilot scale Moving Bed Biofilm Reactor (MBBR which is consists of combined cylindrical Anoxic/Aerobic MBBR in nested form with anoxic/aerobic volume ratio equal to 0.16 to treated 4 m3 /days of domestic wastewater in Chongqing city at Southwest China. The treatment must be satisfactory to meet with grade B of discharge standard of pollutants for municipal wastewater treatment plant in China (GB/T18918-2002. Kaldnes (K1 media was used as a carrier in both reactors at a media fill ratio equal to 50%. The reactors was operated under the Anoxic/Oxic (An/O process which must meet stringent TN limits without sludge returning into the system and only an internal recycling was performed from aerobic to anoxic reactor. After developing the biofilm on the media, reactor was operated at 3 different Hydraulic Residence Time (HRT ranging from 4.95 to 8.25 h. During operation the internal recycle ratio to eliminate nitrogen compounds were 100% of inflow rate and the average Dissolved Oxygen concentration (DO in aerobic and anoxic MBBRs were 4.49 and 0.16 mg/L, respectively. The obtained results showed that the HRT of 6.2 h was suitable for simultaneous removal of COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP. In this HRT the average removal efficiencies were 93.15, 98.06, 71.67 and 90.88% for COD, NH4+-N, TN and TP, respectively.

  1. Metatranscriptomic analyses of plankton communities inhabiting surface and subpycnocline waters of the Chesapeake Bay during oxic-anoxic-oxic transitions. (United States)

    Hewson, Ian; Eggleston, Erin M; Doherty, Mary; Lee, Dong Yoon; Owens, Michael; Shapleigh, James P; Cornwell, Jeffrey C; Crump, Byron C


    We used metatranscriptomics to study the gene transcription patterns of microbial plankton (0.2 to 64 μm) at a mesohaline station in the Chesapeake Bay under transitions from oxic to anoxic waters in spring and from anoxic to oxic waters in autumn. Samples were collected from surface (i.e., above pycnocline) waters (3 m) and from waters beneath the pycnocline (16 to 22 m) in both 2010 and 2011. Metatranscriptome profiles based on function and potential phylogeny were different between 2010 and 2011 and strongly variable in 2011. This difference in variability corresponded with a highly variable ratio of eukaryotic to bacterial sequences (0.3 to 5.5), reflecting transient algal blooms in 2011 that were absent in 2010. The similarity between metatranscriptomes changed at a lower rate during the transition from oxic to anoxic waters than after the return to oxic conditions. Transcripts related to photosynthesis and low-affinity cytochrome oxidases were significantly higher in shallow than in deep waters, while in deep water genes involved in anaerobic metabolism, particularly sulfate reduction, succinyl coenzyme A (succinyl-CoA)-to-propionyl-CoA conversion, and menaquinone synthesis, were enriched relative to in shallow waters. Expected transitions in metabolism between oxic and anoxic deep waters were reflected in elevated levels of anaerobic respiratory reductases and utilization of propenediol and acetoin. The percentage of archaeal transcripts increased in both years in late summer (from 0.1 to 4.4% of all transcripts in 2010 and from 0.1 to 6.2% in 2011). Denitrification-related genes were expressed in a predicted pattern during the oxic-anoxic transition. Overall, our data suggest that Chesapeake Bay microbial assemblages express gene suites differently in shallow and deep waters and that differences in deep waters reflect variable redox states.

  2. Phylogenetic and Ecological Analysis of Novel Marine Stramenopiles (United States)

    Massana, Ramon; Castresana, Jose; Balagué, Vanessa; Guillou, Laure; Romari, Khadidja; Groisillier, Agnès; Valentin, Klaus; Pedrós-Alió, Carlos


    Culture-independent molecular analyses of open-sea microorganisms have revealed the existence and apparent abundance of novel eukaryotic lineages, opening new avenues for phylogenetic, evolutionary, and ecological research. Novel marine stramenopiles, identified by 18S ribosomal DNA sequences within the basal part of the stramenopile radiation but unrelated to any previously known group, constituted one of the most important novel lineages in these open-sea samples. Here we carry out a comparative analysis of novel stramenopiles, including new sequences from coastal genetic libraries presented here and sequences from recent reports from the open ocean and marine anoxic sites. Novel stramenopiles were found in all major habitats, generally accounting for a significant proportion of clones in genetic libraries. Phylogenetic analyses indicated the existence of 12 independent clusters. Some of these were restricted to anoxic or deep-sea environments, but the majority were typical components of coastal and open-sea waters. We specifically identified four clusters that were well represented in most marine surface waters (together they accounted for 74% of the novel stramenopile clones) and are the obvious targets for future research. Many sequences were retrieved from geographically distant regions, indicating that some organisms were cosmopolitan. Our study expands our knowledge on the phylogenetic diversity and distribution of novel marine stramenopiles and confirms that they are fundamental members of the marine eukaryotic picoplankton. PMID:15184153

  3. The ancient Greeks present: Rational Trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wildberger, N J


    Pythagoras' theorem, the area of a triangle as one half the base times the height, and Heron's formula are amongst the most important and useful results of ancient Greek geometry. Here we look at all three in a new and improved light, using quadrance not distance. This leads to a simpler and more elegant trigonometry, in which angle is replaced by spread, and which extends to arbitrary fields and more general quadratic forms.

  4. Computed tomography of ancient Egyptian mummies. (United States)

    Harwood-Nash, D C


    This first report of the application of computed tomography (CT) to the study of ancient mummies, the desiccated brain of a boy and the body of a young woman within her cartonnage, shows that CT is uniquely suitable for the study of such antiquities, a study that does not necessitate destruction of the mummy or its cartonnage. Exquisite images result that are of great paleoanatomical, paleopathological, and archeological significance.

  5. Volatile and Isotopic Imprints of Ancient Mars (United States)

    Mahaffy, Paul R.; Conrad, Pamela G.


    The science investigations enabled by Curiosity rover's instruments focus on identifying and exploring the habitability of the Martian environment. Measurements of noble gases, organic and inorganic compounds, and the isotopes of light elements permit the study of the physical and chemical processes that have transformed Mars throughout its history. Samples of the atmosphere, volatiles released from soils, and rocks from the floor of Gale Crater have provided a wealth of new data and a window into conditions on ancient Mars.

  6. Chemistry Progress and Civilization in Ancient China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Yu-Qian; RUAN Shu-Xiang; TANG Shan; SHUAI Zhi-Gang


    @@ During the 6,000 years of Chinese civilization, chemistry has played an essential role.The bronzed chime bells of the Warring States Period (475-221 BC) unearthed in Hubei Province shows not only the excellence in musical instruments in ancient China, but also the technological advances in metallurgy.Chinese alchemy was not originated from the quest to turn common metals to gold, instead, it was for searching medicines for longevity of human beings, mostly practised by Taoists.

  7. Ancient News: HMGBs are Universal Sentinels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marco E. Bianchi; Barbara Celona


    @@ Yanai et al. (2009, Nature 462, 99-103) have shown that high mobility group boxs (HMGBs) are universal sensors of viral nucleic acids, and thus of cell infection. This appears to be an evolutionary ancient mechanism of virus detection, and possibly might be a facet of a more general propensity of HMGBs to act as integrators of signals that pertain to peace and stress, life and death.

  8. Deep history impacts present-day ecology and biodiversity. (United States)

    Vitt, Laurie J; Pianka, Eric R


    Lizards and snakes putatively arose between the early Jurassic and late Triassic; they diversified worldwide and now occupy many different ecological niches, making them ideal for testing theories on the origin of ecological traits. We propose and test the "deep history hypothesis," which claims that differences in ecological traits among species arose early in evolutionary history of major clades, and that present-day assemblages are structured largely because of ancient, preexisting differences. We combine phylogenetic data with ecological data collected over nearly 40 years to reconstruct the evolution of dietary shifts in squamate reptiles. Data on diets of 184 lizard species in 12 families from 4 continents reveal significant dietary shifts at 6 major divergence points, reducing variation by 79.8%. The most striking dietary divergence (27.6%) occurred in the late Triassic, when Iguania and Scleroglossa split. These two clades occupy different regions of dietary niche space. Acquisition of chemical prey discrimination, jaw prehension, and wide foraging provided scleroglossans access to sedentary and hidden prey that are unavailable to iguanians. This cladogenic event may have profoundly influenced subsequent evolutionary history and diversification. We suggest the hypothesis that ancient events in squamate cladogenesis, rather than present-day competition, caused dietary shifts in major clades such that some lizard clades gained access to new resources, which in turn led to much of the biodiversity observed today.

  9. Ecological, Pedagogical, Public Rhetoric (United States)

    Rivers, Nathaniel A.; Weber, Ryan P.


    Public rhetoric pedagogy can benefit from an ecological perspective that sees change as advocated not through a single document but through multiple mundane and monumental texts. This article summarizes various approaches to rhetorical ecology, offers an ecological read of the Montgomery bus boycotts, and concludes with pedagogical insights on a…

  10. 2000 Year-old ancient equids: an ancient-DNA lesson from pompeii remains. (United States)

    Di Bernardo, Giovanni; Del Gaudio, Stefania; Galderisi, Umberto; Cipollaro, Marilena


    Ancient DNA extracted from 2000 year-old equine bones was examined in order to amplify mitochondrial and nuclear DNA fragments. A specific equine satellite-type sequence representing 3.7%-11% of the entire equine genome, proved to be a suitable target to address the question of the presence of aDNA in ancient bones. The PCR strategy designed to investigate this specific target also allowed us to calculate the molecular weight of amplifiable DNA fragments. Sequencing of a 370 bp DNA fragment of mitochondrial control region allowed the comparison of ancient DNA sequences with those of modern horses to assess their genetic relationship. The 16S rRNA mitochondrial gene was also examined to unravel the post-mortem base modification feature and to test the status of Pompeian equids taxon on the basis of a Mae III restriction site polymorphism.

  11. Reconstructing Ancient History-- Historiographical Review of the Ancient History of Korea, 1950s-2000s

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stella Xu


    Full Text Available The ancient history of Korea has been one of the most controversial and difficult phases to incorporate into an East Asian history survey class, not only because there are indeed quite a number of contested issues, but also because very few updated materials are available in English. This essay aims to provide a comprehensive and critical overview of research on the topic of Korean ancient history in the past six decades (mainly in South Korea, so that the ancient history of Korea can be understood first within the broader frame of East Asian history, and then in relation to the intellectual and ideological evolution which has significantly impacted historical interpretations in South Korea.

  12. Philosophy of ecology

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Bryson; Peacock, Kent A


    The most pressing problems facing humanity today - over-population, energy shortages, climate change, soil erosion, species extinctions, the risk of epidemic disease, the threat of warfare that could destroy all the hard-won gains of civilization, and even the recent fibrillations of the stock market - are all ecological or have a large ecological component. in this volume philosophers turn their attention to understanding the science of ecology and its huge implications for the human project. To get the application of ecology to policy or other practical concerns right, humanity needs a clear and disinterested philosophical understanding of ecology which can help identify the practical lessons of science. Conversely, the urgent practical demands humanity faces today cannot help but direct scientific and philosophical investigation toward the basis of those ecological challenges that threaten human survival. This book will help to fuel the timely renaissance of interest in philosophy of ecology that is now oc...

  13. Production of class a biosolids with anoxic low dose alkaline treatment and odor management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abu-Orf, M.M.; Brewster, J.; Oleszkiewicz, J.; Reimers, R.S.; Lagasse, P.; Amy, B.; Glindemann, D.


    The feasibility of full-scale anoxic disinfection of dewatered and digested sludge from Winnipeg, Manitoba with low lime doses and lagoon fly ash was investigated to determine if a class A product could be produced. Lime doses of 50g, 100g, and 200g per kg of biosolids (dry) were used along with fly ash doses of 500g. 1000g. and 1500g per kg of biosolids (dry). The mixed product was buried in eight-10 cubic meter trenches at the West End Water Pollution Control Center In Winnipeg. The trenches were backfilled with dirt and trapped to simulate anoxic conditions. Sampling cages were packed with the mixed product and pathogens non-indigenous to Winnipeg's biosolids. The cages were buried amongst the mixed biosolids in the trench. The non-indigenous pathogens spiked in the laboratory were the helminth Ascaris suum and the enteric virus reovirus. Samples were removed at days 12, 40, 69, 291, and 356 and were tested for the presence of fecal Coliform, Clostridium perfringens spores, Ascaris suum eggs, and reovirus. The pH, total solids, and free ammonia content of the mixed product were also determined for each sample. Odor was quantified for samples at both 291 and 356 days. Fecal Coliform bacteria and reovirus were completely inactivated for doses as low as 100g lime per kg biosolids (dry) and 50g lime + 500g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry). Spores of the bacteria C. perfringens experienced a 4-log reduction when treated with 100g lime per kg biosolids and a 5-log reduction when treated with doses as low as 50g lime + 500g fly ash per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Ascaris eggs were completely inactivated in 5 gram packets for all treatments involving 100g lime per kg biosolids (dry) after 69 days. Class A pathogen requirements were met for all treatments involving a lime dose of at least 100g per kg biosolids. The odor potential from the produced biosolids is also assessed. (author)

  14. The Ancient City of Pinqyao:Where the Time Stops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lily Wang


    @@ It is a common night in May, I found myself wandering in the Ancient City of Pingyao.If not those neon light, I would even doubt that I had gone back to the ancient times.Located on the eastern banks of the Fen River, and in the southwestern edge of the Taiyuan basin, Pingyao Ancient City is the outstanding example of Chinese Han nationality cities during Ming and Qing Dynasties.

  15. Advances in structural mechanics of Chinese ancient architectures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maohong YU; Yoshiya ODA; Dongping FANG; Junhai ZHAO


    Chinese ancient architectures are valuable heritage of ancient culture of China. Many historical building have been preserved up to now. The researches on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures show the different aspects of structure and mechanics. Systematical studies on the structural mechanics of ancient architectures have been carried out at Xi'an Jiaotong University since 1982. It is related with the need of repair of some national preservation relics in Xi'an. These studies include: 1) Ancient wooden structures including three national preservation relics Arrow Tower at North City Gate, City Tower at East City Gate, and Baogao Temple in Ningbao, Zhejiang province. 2) Ancient tall masonry building, the Big Goose Pagoda and Small Goose Pagoda in Xi'an. 3) Mechanical characteristics of ancient soil under foundation and city wall; the influence of caves in and under the ancient City Wall on the stability of the wall. 4) The typical Chinese ancient building at the center of city: the Bell Tower and Drum tower. 5) The behavior of Dou-Gong and Joggle joint of Chinese ancient wooden structure. 6) The mechanical behavior of ancient soils under complex stress state. A new systematical strength theory, the unified strength theory, is used to analyze the stability of ancient city wall in Xi'an and foundation of tall pagoda built in Tang dynasty. These researches also concern differential settlements of Arrow Tower and resistance to earthquake of these historical architecture heritages. Some other studies are also introduced. This paper gives a summary of these researches. Preservation and research are nowadays an essential requirement for the famous monuments, buildings, towers and others. Our society is more and more conscious of this necessity, which involves increasing activities of restoration, and then sometimes also of repair, mechanical strengthening and seismic retrofitting. Many historical buildings have in fact problems of structural strength and

  16. Mapping the Ancient Maya Landscape from Space (United States)

    Sever, Tom


    This project uses new satellite and airborne imagery in combination with remote sensing, GIS, and GPS technology to understand the dynamics of how the Maya successfully interacted with their karst topographic landscape for several centuries in the northern Peten region of Guatemala. The ancient Maya attained one of the greatest population densities in human history in the tropical forest of the Peten, Guatemala, and it was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared for unknown reasons around AD 800. How the Maya were able to successfully manage water and feed this dense population is not known at this time. However, a recent NASA-funded project was the first to investigate large seasonal swamps (bajos) that make up 40 percent of the landscape. Through the use of remote sensing, ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals and water reservoirs have been detected and verified through ground reconnaissance. The results of this research cast new light on the adaptation of the ancient Maya to their environment. Micro-environmental variation within the wetlands was elucidated and the different vegetational associations identified in the satellite imagery. More than 70 new archeological sites within and at the edges of the bajo were mapped and tested. Modification of the landscape by the Maya in the form of dams and reservoirs in the Holmul River and its tributaries and possible drainage canals in bajos was demonstrated. The recent acquisition of one-meter IKONOS imagery and high resolution STAR-3i radar imagery (2.5m backscatter/ 10m DEM), opens new possibilities for understanding how a civilization was able to survive for centuries upon a karst topographic landscape and their human-induced effects upon the local climate. This understanding is critical for the current population that is presently experiencing rapid population growth and destroying the landscape through non-traditional farming and grazing techniques

  17. [Bow legged adjectives in ancient literature]. (United States)

    Simon, Frantisek; Steger, Florian


    This article addresses the issue of capturing the medical entity called 'curved legs' in a terminologically exact way. In so doing, it refers to the long-lasting process of differentiation of exact nuances of meaning in Ancient Greek and Latin. In the chronological perusal of ancient Greek literature, it becomes evident that the various adjectives employed are often vague when looking at non-medical literature. By contrast, in the Hippocratic corpus these terms are for the first time annotated with explanations intended to lead to a more precise understanding of the described deformity. Further attempts of differentiation can be found in the writings of Galen, who not only distinguishes between outward and inward curvatures, but also between deformities of the thigh and lower leg as well as between pathological and natural curvatures. Latin literature also provides a series of adjectives that were initially often used in the meaning of 'curved' but it was not until Celsus that these were differentiated with respect to the type and direction of the curvature. When comparing Greek and Latin adjectives, it turns out that though the Latin term blaesus can be traced back etymologically to the Greek word beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta, the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta does not fully correspond to that of the Latin word. It is not before the later common transliteration of Greek words that this adjective took on the meaning of beta lambda alpha iota sigma ó zeta; however, this was finally lost again. In summary, the article concludes that exact word meanings in ancient literature are often unclear and precise ascriptions of meanings are inconsistent. In the case of "curved legs," this has led to misunderstandings regarding the respective types and directions of the curvature.

  18. Dance Poem presents Ancient Northwestern Settings and Folle Customs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    WEST of the Yang Pass, a dance poem created and performed by the Lanzhou Song and Dance Troupe, presents the audience with a picture of ancient times and folk customs on the Loess Plateau in Northwestern China. It depicts our ancestors’ staunch will to live, and their pioneering spirit, as well as the splendid traditional culture. The dance poem includes 11 sections: "Prelude," "Ancient Road," "Desert," "Camel Station," "Crescent Moon Spring," "Ancient Castle," "Temple Oil Lamps," "Mogao Grottoes," "Red Willows," "Market," "Ancient Battle Fields," and "Fields." West of the Yang Pass is a dance without particular characters or coherent plot. A group

  19. The Ancient Maya Landscape from Space (United States)

    Sever, T.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    The Peten, once inhabited by a population of several million before the collapse of the ancient Maya in the 10th and 11th centuries, is being repopulated toward its former demographic peak. Environmental dynamics, however, impose severe constraints to further development. Current practices in subsistence, commercial agriculture, and cattle raising are causing rapid deforestation resulting in the destruction of environmental and archeological resources. The use of remote sensing and Geographic Information Systems (GIS) technology is a cost-effective methodology for addressing issues in Maya archeology as well as monitoring the environmental impacts being experienced by the current population.

  20. Conserved intron positions in ancient protein modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Roos Albert DG


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The timing of the origin of introns is of crucial importance for an understanding of early genome architecture. The Exon theory of genes proposed a role for introns in the formation of multi-exon proteins by exon shuffling and predicts the presence of conserved splice sites in ancient genes. In this study, large-scale analysis of potential conserved splice sites was performed using an intron-exon database (ExInt derived from GenBank. Results A set of conserved intron positions was found by matching identical splice sites sequences from distantly-related eukaryotic kingdoms. Most amino acid sequences with conserved introns were homologous to consensus sequences of functional domains from conserved proteins including kinases, phosphatases, small GTPases, transporters and matrix proteins. These included ancient proteins that originated before the eukaryote-prokaryote split, for instance the catalytic domain of protein phosphatase 2A where a total of eleven conserved introns were found. Using an experimental setup in which the relation between a splice site and the ancientness of its surrounding sequence could be studied, it was found that the presence of an intron was positively correlated to the ancientness of its surrounding sequence. Intron phase conservation was linked to the conservation of the gene sequence and not to the splice site sequence itself. However, no apparent differences in phase distribution were found between introns in conserved versus non-conserved sequences. Conclusion The data confirm an origin of introns deep in the eukaryotic branch and is in concordance with the presence of introns in the first functional protein modules in an 'Exon theory of genes' scenario. A model is proposed in which shuffling of primordial short exonic sequences led to the formation of the first functional protein modules, in line with hypotheses that see the formation of introns integral to the origins of genome evolution

  1. Extinct 244Pu in Ancient Zircons (United States)

    Turner, Grenville; Harrison, T. Mark; Holland, Greg; Mojzsis, Stephen J.; Gilmour, Jamie


    We have found evidence, in the form of fissiogenic xenon isotopes, for in situ decay of 244Pu in individual 4.1- to 4.2-billion-year-old zircons from the Jack Hills region of Western Australia. Because of its short half-life, 82 million years, 244Pu was extinct within 600 million years of Earth's formation. Detrital zircons are the only known relics to have survived from this period, and a study of their Pu geochemistry will allow us to date ancient metamorphic events and determine the terrestrial Pu/U ratio for comparison with the solar ratio.

  2. Archaeological sites as indicators of ancient shorelines

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    -Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 Archaeological Sites as Indicators of Ancient Shorelines K H Vora, A. S. Gnur. Sundaresh and S. Tripati National Institute of Oceanogr-aplzy, Dona Paula, Goa Ernail: Abstract During the late... Coastal areas of the continents have been the focal points of the emergence of the civilization. For in- stance, the Indian Ocean witnessed the rise of 3 major the Bronze Age Civilizations around it during the mid- Holocene period. Ocean has played...

  3. The Charm of An Ancient Southern City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    AN artistic narrow bridge winds into a place of pavilions, terraces and open halls, all under the pleasant shade of green trees. This is Mist-Water Pavilion Park in Gantang Lake in the city of Jiujiang, Jiangxi Province. When you stand here in the quiet and elegant historic garden and look out over the water on all four sides, you can’t help but think of the ancient war that took place on this very spot 1,700 years ago. During the Three Kingdoms Period (220-280), this was

  4. The astronomical orientation of ancient Greek temples. (United States)

    Salt, Alun M


    Despite its appearing to be a simple question to answer, there has been no consensus as to whether or not the alignments of ancient Greek temples reflect astronomical intentions. Here I present the results of a survey of archaic and classical Greek temples in Sicily and compare them with temples in Greece. Using a binomial test I show strong evidence that there is a preference for solar orientations. I then speculate that differences in alignment patterns between Sicily and Greece reflect differing pressures in the expression of ethnic identity.

  5. Surgical history of ancient China: part 1. (United States)

    Fu, Louis


    Although surgery was an accepted and quite proficient craft very early on in Chinese history, it has deteriorated through the ages. Despite the fact that anaesthetic agents in major surgery were employed during the third century, Chinese surgery is conspicuous by its stagnation. Reverence for the dead, filial piety, abhorrence of shedding blood and other conservative attitudes make it impossible for any accurate knowledge of the human anatomy and physiology, without which surgery cannot progress. This article surveys some highlights in the history of surgery in ancient China and examines the factors responsible for its decline. The second concluding part deals with orthopaedics.

  6. Human Nature Evil in Ancient Western Literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Whether man is good or evil by nature is a constant topic tophilosophers and writers. Is a man born virtuous or evil? What onearth is human nature? Is the origin of human nature kind or wicked?People have been debating over this topic for centuries. Theseseemingly simple questions have perplexed those Great Minds forthousands of years in European countries and are the constant themesof literary works as well. The problem of human nature is the deepestof the issues regarding human beings which have long been underdiscussion since ancient time.

  7. PIXE analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, E.K.; Yu, Y.C.; Wang, C.W.; Liu, T.Y.; Wu, C.M.; Chen, K.M.; Lin, S.S


    In this work, proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method was applied for the analysis of ancient Chinese Changsha porcelain produced in the Tang dynasty (AD 618-907). A collection of glazed potsherds was obtained in the complex of the famous kiln site at Tongguan, Changsha city, Hunan province. Studies of elemental composition were carried out on ten selected Changsha potsherds. Minor and trace elements such as Ti, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Rb, Sr, and Zr in the material of the porcelain glaze were determined. Variation of these elements from sample to sample was investigated. Details of results are presented and discussed.

  8. What is dental ecology? (United States)

    Cuozzo, Frank P; Sauther, Michelle L


    Teeth have long been used as indicators of primate ecology. Early work focused on the links between dental morphology, diet, and behavior, with more recent years emphasizing dental wear, microstructure, development, and biogeochemistry, to understand primate ecology. Our study of Lemur catta at the Beza Mahafaly Special Reserve, Madagascar, has revealed an unusual pattern of severe tooth wear and frequent tooth loss, primarily the result of consuming a fallback food for which these primates are not dentally adapted. Interpreting these data was only possible by combining our areas of expertise (dental anatomy [FC] and primate ecology [MS]). By integrating theoretical, methodological, and applied aspects of both areas of research, we adopted the term "dental ecology"-defined as the broad study of how teeth respond to the environment. Specifically, we view dental ecology as an interpretive framework using teeth as a vehicle for understanding an organism's ecology, which builds upon earlier work, but creates a new synthesis of anatomy and ecology that is only possible with detailed knowledge of living primates. This framework includes (1) identifying patterns of dental pathology and tooth use-wear, within the context of feeding ecology, behavior, habitat variation, and anthropogenic change, (2) assessing ways in which dental development and biogeochemical signals can reflect habitat, environmental change and/or stress, and (3) how dental microstructure and macro-morphology are adapted to, and reflect feeding ecology. Here we define dental ecology, provide a short summary of the development of this perspective, and place our new work into this context.

  9. A Modified Bio-Ecological Process for Rural Wastewater Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haq Nawaz Abbasi


    Full Text Available Limited water resources and ensuring access to clean water are critical environmental challenges, especially for the developing world. In particular, rural domestic wastewater has become a significant source for the pollution of freshwater bodies. A modified bio-ecological A2O-wetland system for rural wastewater treatment consisting of a biological unit (anaerobic baffled reactor, anoxic tank and oxic unit, A2O and an ecological unit (horizontal flow constructed wetland was developed, and key performance indicators were identified. The bio-ecological treatment system showed high removal efficiency for pollutants, successfully achieving 91%, 85%, 78%, and 92% removal efficiencies for chemical oxygen demand (COD, ammonium (NH4–N, total nitrogen (TN, and total phosphorus (TP, respectively. The concentrations of pollutants in the effluent from the system were lower than the Class 1 A regulated values of the Chinese National Standard GB18918-2002. The system offered high removal efficiency, simple operation, and low energy consumption. The A2O-wetland is a good alternative for rural wastewater treatment systems.

  10. Origin of Chinese ancient glasses——study on the earliest Chinese ancient glasses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAN Fuxi; CHENG Huansheng; LI Qinghui


    The earliest Chinese ancient glasses before the West Han Dynasty (200 BC) from different regions are studied. The glass samples were unearthed from Hunan, Hubei, Yunnan, Sichuan, Guizhou, Guangdong and Xinjiang of China. The chemical composition of these glasses samples is analyzed by proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique, energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) method and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). It is shown that the glass chemical compositions belong to barium-lead silicate BaO-PbO-SiO2, potash soda lime silicate K2O (Na2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O>1), soda potash lime silicate Na2O (K2O)-CaO-SiO2 (K2O/Na2O<1) and potash silicate K2O-SiO2 glass systems, respectively. The origins of the earliest Chinese ancient glasses are discussed from the archaeological and historical points of view. These four types of Chinese ancient glasses were all made in Chinese territory using local raw materials. The glass preparation technology was related to the Chinese ancient bronze metallurgy and proto-porcelain glaze technology. The glass technology relationship between the East and the West is analyzed at the same time.

  11. Environmental magnetism of the Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic Event at Peniche (Portugal) (United States)

    Font, Eric; Vitor Duarte, Luis; Adatte, Thierry; Mirão, José


    The Pliensbachian-Toarcian section of Peniche has been recently selected as the global stratotype section and point for this time interval. It represents one of the best examples of the record of the oceanic anoxic event (OAE) in the world. Here we conducted a detailed a magnetostratigraphic and environmental study in order to improve the time-scale calibration and to provide new magnetic markers for period of oceanic anoxia recorded in marine sediments. Our results show that the magnetic signal is carried by very low coercive magnetic minerals and exhibit unstable and unreliable data for magnetostratigraphic investigation. In counterpart, bulk magnetic properties (magnetic susceptibility, isothermal remanent magnetization curves, etc) coupled to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) show a striking negative correlation with carbonate content and 13DC previously published in the literature. Particularly, the most pronounced negative C isotopic composition of the OAE interval correlates with high magnetic susceptibility values. SEM-EDS analysis show that the strata featured by high MS values contain ubiquitous pyrite and greigite framboids. These insights provide new markers to identify the magnetic signature of OAE in the marine record. Funded by IDL (FCT UID/GEO/50019/2013)

  12. Anoxic iron cycling bacteria from an iron sulfide- and nitrate-rich freshwater environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Caroline Marianne Haaijer


    Full Text Available In this study, both culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used to determine whether the iron sulfide mineral- and nitrate-rich freshwater nature reserve Het Zwart Water accommodates anoxic microbial iron cycling. Molecular analyses (16S rRNA gene clone library and FISH showed that sulfur-oxidizing denitrifiers dominated the microbial population. In addition, bacteria resembling the iron-oxidizing, nitrate-reducing Acidovorax strain BrG1 accounted for a major part of the microbial community in the groundwater of this ecosystem. Despite the apparent abundance of strain BrG1-like bacteria, iron-oxidizing nitrate reducers could not be isolated, likely due to the strictly autotrophic cultivation conditions adopted in our study. In contrast an iron-reducing Geobacter sp. was isolated from this environment while FISH and 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses did not reveal any Geobacter sp.-related sequences in the groundwater. Our findings indicate that iron-oxidizing nitrate reducers may be of importance to the redox cycling of iron in the groundwater of our study site and illustrate the necessity of employing both culture-dependent and independent methods in studies on microbial processes.

  13. Influence of green waste compost on azimsulfuron dissipation and soil functions under oxic and anoxic conditions. (United States)

    García-Jaramillo, M; Cox, L; Hermosín, M C; Cerli, C; Kalbitz, K


    Concerns have been raised over the sustainability of intensive rice cultivation, where the use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides has been associated with numerous environmental problems. The objective of this study was to test the effect of the herbicide azimsulfuron on important soil functions as affected by amendment with a byproduct of the olive oil industry. Soil was collected from a Mediterranean rice field. Part of it was amended with alperujo compost (AC). Amended and unamended soils were incubated for 43days in presence or not of azimsulfuron, under anoxic-flooded (AF) and oxic-unflooded (OU) conditions. We monitored the dissipation of the herbicide azimsulfuron, C mineralization, soil microbial biomass (SMB) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) content and its nature. Under AF conditions, the application of compost produced an increase in the dissipation of the herbicide (up to 12.4%). It was related with the higher DOC content, 4 times higher than under OU conditions. Though increases in carbon turnover (under AF and OU conditions) and reduction of SMBC after herbicide application (only under AF conditions) were observed, the differences were not statistically significant. The application of this organic amendment is presented as an efficient management strategy to increase C turnover in agricultural soils and reduce some of the negative effects derived from the application of azimsulfuron under flooded conditions.

  14. Effects of loading rate and hydraulic residence time on anoxic sulfide biooxidation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI Jing; ZHENG Ping; MAHMOOD Qaisar; ISLAM Ejazul; HU Bao-lan; WU Dong-lei


    The optimal operation conditions in an anoxic sulfide oxidizing (ASO) bioreactor were investigated. The maximal loading rates (LRs) observed through decreasing hydraulic retention time (HRT) at fixed substrate concentration are higher than those by increasing substrate concentration at fixed HRT. The sulfide oxidation in ASO reactor was partially producing both sulfate and sulfur; but the amount of sulfate produced was approximately one third that of sulfur. The process was able to tolerate high sulfide concentration, as the sulfide removal percentage always remained near 99% when influent concentration was up to 580 mg/L. It tolerated relatively lower nitrate concentration because the removal percentage dropped to 85% when influent concentration was increased above 110 mg/L. The process can tolerate shorter HRT but careful operation is needed. Nitrate conversion was more sensitive to HRT than sulfide conversion since the process performance deteriorated abruptly when HRT was decreased from 3.12 h to 2.88 h. In order to avoid nitrite accumulation in the reactor, the influent sulfide and nitrate concentrations should be kept at 280 mg/L and 67.5 mg/L respectively. Present biotechnology is useful for removing sulfides from sewers and crude oil.

  15. Simultaneous removal of phenol and nitrate in an anoxic fluidized bed reactor. (United States)

    Omena, Sylvia P F; Sader, Leandro T; Silva, Edson L


    The general purpose of this study was to characterize a biological treatment system for phenol removal in an anoxic fluidized bed reactor (AFBR) that employed nitrate as the final electron acceptor. The average influent phenol concentrations in the study were 52, 107, 201, 335, and 518 mg/L so that phenol was not detected in the effluent for influent concentrations up to 335 mg/L. The removal efficiency dropped to 70% when the AFBR was operated with influent phenol concentrations above 500 mg/L. The ratio of carbon (derived solely from phenol) to nitrate (N-NO(3)) was approximately 1. Hence, the average influent N-NO(3) concentrations in the study were 45, 79, 157, 260, and 362 mg/L, with corresponding nitrogen removal efficiencies of 94%, 89%, 86%, 79%, and 51%. Nitrite accumulation was not observed because the average effluent N-NO(3) concentration during the entire reactor operation period was 1.5 mg/L.

  16. Carbonate platform evidence of ocean acidification at the onset of the early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (United States)

    Trecalli, Alberto; Spangenberg, Jorge; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl B.; Parente, Mariano


    The early Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (Early Jurassic;˜183 Myr ago) is associated with one of the largest negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE) in the whole Phanerozoic (3-7‰). Estimates of the magnitude and rate of CO2 injection in the ocean-atmosphere system are compatible with a scenario of ocean acidification. Many carbonate platforms drowned in the Pliensbachian, well before the early Toarcian event. In this paper we test the hypothesis of surface water ocean acidification by presenting data from a resilient carbonate platform: the Apennine Carbonate Platform of southern Italy. The studied sections document a dramatic shift of the carbonate factory from massive biocalcification to chemical precipitation. Lithiotis bivalves and calcareous algae (Palaeodasycladus mediterraneus), which were the most prolific carbonate producers of Pliensbachian carbonate platforms, disappear during the first phase of the early Toarcian CIE, before the most depleted values are reached. We discuss the local versus supraregional significance of this shift and propose a scenario involving abrupt decline of carbonate saturation, forced by CO2 release at the beginning of the early Toarcian CIE, followed by a calcification overshoot, driven by the recovery of ocean alkalinity. Attribution of the demise of carbonate platform hypercalcifiers to ocean acidification is supported by palaeophysiology and reinforced by experimental data on the detrimental effects of ocean acidification on recent shellfishes and calcareous algae.

  17. Biogas biodesulfurization in an anoxic biotrickling filter packed with open-pore polyurethane foam. (United States)

    Fernández, Maikel; Ramírez, Martín; Gómez, José Manuel; Cantero, Domingo


    Biogas biodesulfurization by an anoxic biotrickling filter packed with open pore polyurethane foam at the laboratory scale (packed volume 2.4L) has been studied. The biotrickling system was operated for 620 days with biogas supplied continuously and two nitrate feeding regimes were tested (manual and programmed). Biomass immobilization was carried out under the manual nitrate feeding regime and a study was then carried out on the effects on removal efficiency of the following parameters: nitrate source, H2S inlet load, nitrate concentration, sulfate accumulation, temperature, pH and trickling liquid velocity. The effect of increased H2S inlet load was studied under the programmed nitrate feeding regime. The results show that a removal efficiency of 99% can be obtained when working under the following conditions: inlet loads below 130gSm(-3)h(-1), a programmed nitrate feeding system, temperature of 30°C, sulfate concentration below 33gL(-1), a pH between 7.3 and 7.5, and a trickling liquid velocity higher than 4.6mh(-1).

  18. Electricity generation by anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from hypersaline soda lakes (United States)

    Miller, L.G.; Oremland, R.S.


    Anaerobic bacteria and anoxic sediments from soda lakes produced electricity in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). No electricity was generated in the absence of bacterial metabolism. Arsenate respiring bacteria isolated from moderately hypersaline Mono Lake (Bacillus selenitireducens), and salt-saturated Searles Lake, CA (strain SLAS-1) oxidized lactate using arsenate as the electron acceptor. However, these cultures grew equally well without added arsenate using the MFC anode as their electron acceptor, and in the process oxidized lactate more efficiently. The decrease in electricity generation by consumption of added alternative electron acceptors (i.e. arsenate) which competed with the anode for available electrons proved to be a useful indicator of microbial activity and hence life in the fuel cells. Shaken sediment slurries from these two lakes also generated electricity, with or without added lactate. Hydrogen added to sediment slurries was consumed but did not stimulate electricity production. Finally, electricity was generated in statically incubated "intact" sediment cores from these lakes. More power was produced in sediment from Mono Lake than from Searles Lake, however microbial fuel cells could detect low levels of metabolism operating under moderate and extreme conditions of salt stress. ?? 2008 US Government.

  19. Metal impacts on microbial biomass in the anoxic sediments of a contaminated lake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gough, Heidi L.; Dahl, Amy L.; Nolan, Melissa A.; Gaillard, Jean-Francois; Stahl, David A.


    Little is known about the long-term impacts of metal contamination on the microbiota of anoxic lake sediments. In this study, we examined microbial biomass and metals (arsenic, cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, manganese, and zinc) in the sediments of Lake DePue, a backwater lake located near a former zinc smelter. Sediment core samples were examined using two independent measures for microbial biomass (total microscopic counts and total phospholipid-phosphate concentrations), and for various fractions of each metal (pore water extracts, sequential extractions, and total extracts of all studied metals and zinc speciation by X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS). Zinc concentrations were up to 1000 times higher than reported for sediments in the adjacent Illinois River, and ranged from 21,400 mg/kg near the source to 1,680 mg/kg near the river. However, solid metal fractions were not well correlated with pore water concentrations, and were not good predictors of biomass concentrations. Instead, biomass, which varied among sites by as much as two-times, was inversely correlated with concentrations of pore water zinc and arsenic as established by multiple linear regression. Monitoring of other parameters known to naturally influence biomass in sediments (e.g., organic carbon concentrations, nitrogen concentrations, pH, sediment texture, and macrophytes) revealed no differences that could explain observed biomass trends. This study provides strong support for control of microbial abundance by pore water metal concentrations in contaminated freshwater sediments.

  20. Prediction of Anoxic Sulfide Biooxidation Under Various HRTs Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    During present investigation the data of a laboratory-scale anoxic sulfide oxidizing (ASO) reactor were used in a neural network system to predict its performance.Methods Five uncorrelated components of the influent wastewater were used as the artificial neural network model input to predict the output of the effluent using back-propagation and general regression algorithms. The best prediction performance is achieved when the data are preprocessed using principal components analysis (PCA) before they are fed to a back propagated neural network.Results Within the range of experimental conditions tested,it was concluded that the ANN model gave predictable results for nitrite removal from wastewater through ASO process. The model did not predict the formation of suffate to an acceptable manner.Conclusion Apart from experimentation,ANN model can help to simulate the results of such experiments in finding the best optimal choice for ASO based denitrification. Together with wastewater collection and the use of improved treatment systems and new technologies,better control of wastewater treatment plant (WTP) can lead to more effective maneuvers by its operators and,as a consequence,better effluent quality.

  1. Deposition in anoxic Taconic foreland basin, late Middle Ordovician, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hay, B.J.; Cisne, J.L.


    The Taconic foreland basin resulted from a collision between the North American craton and the Ammonoosuc arc. The basin is positioned between a broad carbonate shelf on the west and the clastic arc terrane. In the downslope direction, basin deposits changed from distal shelf carbonates (Trenton Limestone), to coeval interbedded hemipelagic black shales and calcilutites on the slope (Dolgeville Formation and Utica Shale), to silty shales, siltstones, and sandstones laid down by turbidites on the basin floor (Snake Hill Shale). From the distribution of organic carbon and the concentration of benthic epifauna and infauna, it can be inferred that conditions were aerobic on the shelf (>1 ml/L O/sub 2/), anaerobic on the slope (<0.4 ml/L O/sub 2/), and dysaerobic on the basin floor (<1 ml/L O/sub 2/). Through time, four long-term anaerobic and dysaerobic cycles are revealed, lasting between 500,000 and 1,000,000 yr. Anaerobic cycles are characterized by over 50% higher organic carbon values, lack of infaunal burrowing traces, and a highly impoverished benthic epifauna. Dysaerobic cycles are marked by lower organic carbon contents, sporadic burrowing traces, and a slightly more diverse and abundant benthic epifauna. The longest anaerobic cycle occurred during the transgressive phase that led to widespread deposition of black shale over the carbonate platform. Anoxic conditions in the Taconic foreland basin may have been influenced by the prevailing global oceanographic conditions during the Middle Ordovician.

  2. The importance of diazotrophic cyanobacteria as primary producers during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ohkouchi


    Full Text Available In Livello Bonarelli black shale deposited during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2, ca. 94 Ma, nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk sediments are mostly in a narrow range from –2.7 to –0.7‰. We also determined molecular distribution and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geoporphyrins extracted from the black shale. The nitrogen isotopic compositions of C32 Ni deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrin (DPEP and total Ni porphyrins are –3.5 and –3.3‰, respectively, leading us to the estimation that the mean nitrogen isotopic composition of photoautotrophic cells were around +1‰ during the formation of Bonarelli black shale. This value is suggestive of N2-fixation, a dominant process for these photoautotrophs when assimilating nitrogen. Furthermore, Ni-chelated C32 DPEP, derived mainly from chlorophyll a had the highest concentration. Based on this evidence, we conclude that diazotrophic cyanobacteria were major primary producers during that time. Cyanobacteria may be key photoautotrophs during the formation of black shale type sediments intermittently observed throughout the later half of the Earth's history, and hence may have played a crucial role in the evolution of geochemical cycles even in the later half of the Earth's history.

  3. An importance of diazotrophic cyanobacteria as a primary producer during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ohkouchi


    Full Text Available In Livello Bonarelli black shale deposited during Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE-2, ca. 94 Ma, nitrogen isotopic compositions of bulk sediments are in a narrow range from −2.7 to −0.7. We also determined molecular distribution and nitrogen isotopic compositions of geoporphyrins extracted from the black shale. The nitrogen isotopic compositions of C32 Ni deoxophylloerythroetioporphyrin (DPEP and total Ni porphyrins are −3.5 and −3.3, respectively, leading us to the estimation that the mean nitrogen isotopic composition of photoautotrophic cell was around +1 during the formation of Bonarelli black shale. This value is suggestive of N2-fixation a dominant process for these photoautotrophs when assimilating nitrogen. Furthermore, Ni-chelated C32 DPEP, derived mainly from chlorophyll a was the highest concentration. Based on these evidence, we conclude that diazotrophic cyanobacteria were major primary producers during that time. The cyanobacteria may be key photoautotrophs during the formation of black shale type sediments intermittently observed throughout the later half of the Earth's history, and hence may have played a crucial role in the evolution of geochemical cycles.

  4. Key respiratory genes elucidate bacterial community respiration in a seasonally anoxic estuary. (United States)

    Eggleston, Erin M; Lee, Dong Y; Owens, Michael S; Cornwell, Jeffrey C; Crump, Byron C; Hewson, Ian


    Intense annual spring phytoplankton blooms and thermohaline stratification lead to anoxia in Chesapeake Bay bottom waters. Once oxygen becomes depleted in the system, microbial communities use energetically favourable alternative electron acceptors for respiration. The extent to which changes in respiration are reflected in community gene expression have only recently been investigated. Metatranscriptomes prepared from near-bottom water plankton over a 4-month time series in central Chesapeake Bay demonstrated changes consistent with terminal electron acceptor availability. The frequency of respiration-related genes in metatranscriptomes was examined by BLASTx against curated databases of genes intimately and exclusively involved in specific electron acceptor utilization pathways. The relative expression of genes involved in denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium were coincident with changes in nitrate, nitrite and ammonium concentrations. Dissimilatory iron and manganese reduction transcript ratios increase during anoxic conditions and corresponded with the highest soluble reactive phosphate and manganese concentrations. The sulfide concentration peaked in late July and early August and also matched dissimilatory sulfate reduction transcript ratios. We show that rather than abrupt transitions between terminal electron acceptors, there is substantial overlap in time and space of these various anaerobic respiratory processes in Chesapeake Bay.

  5. Amylolytic activity and carbohydrate levels in relation to coleoptile anoxic elongation in Oryza sativa genotypes. (United States)

    Pompeiano, Antonio; Fanucchi, Francesca; Guglielminetti, Lorenzo


    Among starchy seeds, rice has the unique capacity to germinate successfully under complete anaerobiosis. In this conditions, starch degradation is supported by a complete set of starch-degrading enzymes that are absent or inactive in cereals except rice. A characterization of carbohydrate metabolism and starch-degrading enzyme activity across twenty-nine genotypes of Oryza sativa L. is presented here. The zymogram of amylolytic activities present in rice embryos and endosperms under anaerobic conditions seven days after sowing (DAS) revealed marked differences among cultivars. Coleoptile elongation was positively correlated with total amylolytic activities and α-amylase activity in embryos, and negatively correlated with α-amylase activity in endosperm. Moreover, carbohydrate content in embryos was found to be positively correlated with total amylolytic activities under anaerobic conditions, while a negative relationship was recorded in the endosperm. Carbohydrate status in rice seedlings has a primary importance in sustaining coleoptile elongation towards the surface. The relationship between carbohydrate level in embryo and anoxic germination, as well as with total amylolytic activities present in rice embryo under anaerobic condition 7 DAS, is consistent with the role of sugar metabolism to support rice germination under oxygen-deprived environment.

  6. Increased Intracranial Pressure during Hemodialysis in a Patient with Anoxic Brain Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Lund


    Full Text Available Dialysis disequilibrium syndrome (DDS is a serious neurological complication of hemodialysis, and patients with acute brain injury are at increased risk. We report a case of DDS leading to intracranial hypertension in a patient with anoxic brain injury and discuss the subsequent dialysis strategy. A 13-year-old girl was admitted after prolonged resuscitation from cardiac arrest. Computed tomography (CT revealed an inferior vena cava aneurysm and multiple pulmonary emboli as the likely cause. An intracranial pressure (ICP monitor was inserted, and, on day 3, continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT was initiated due to acute kidney injury, during which the patient developed severe intracranial hypertension. CT of the brain showed diffuse cerebral edema. CRRT was discontinued, sedation was increased, and hypertonic saline was administered, upon which ICP normalized. Due to persistent hyperkalemia and overhydration, ultrafiltration and intermittent hemodialysis were performed separately on day 4 with a small dialyzer, low blood and dialysate flow, and high dialysate sodium content. During subsequent treatments, isolated ultrafiltration was well tolerated, whereas hemodialysis was associated with increased ICP necessitating frequent pauses or early cessation of dialysis. In patients at risk of DDS, hemodialysis should be performed with utmost care and continuous monitoring of ICP should be considered.

  7. Contribution of microfiltration on phosphorus removal in the sequencing anoxic/anaerobic membrane bioreactor. (United States)

    Cho, Jinwoo; Song, Kyung-Guen; Ahn, Kyu-Hong


    This study investigated the contribution of microfiltration to phosphorus removal in the sequencing anoxic/anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The phosphorus content in activated sludge was fractionated by the Schmidt-Thannhauser-Schneider method. The size distribution of phosphorus in the influent was analyzed to estimate the portion of particulate phosphorus rejected physically by the 0.2 mum microfiltration. The result was that along with the high removal of phosphorus (83%) the phosphorus content of activated sludge was measured as 58.66 mgP/gVSS corresponding to 5.87% on dry weight basis. About 9% of total phosphorus was chemically precipitated phosphates while 56% was stored inside the microbial cell by activity of PAOs, and 35% was the sum of minor intracellular compositions and the particulate residuals, which could be rejected completely by the microfiltration. The biological activity is the dominant way of phosphorus removal in the process. However, the microfiltration also contributed significantly to phosphorus removal by retaining the particulate phosphorus inside the system.

  8. Modeling simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal (SCNR) in anaerobic/anoxic reactor treating domestic wastewater. (United States)

    Mendes, Carlos; Esquerre, Karla; Queiroz, Luciano Matos


    This paper presents a mathematical model based on the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1 (ADM1) to simulate the effects of nitrate concentration and hydraulic retention time (HRT) on the simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal (SCNR) in anaerobic/anoxic reactor treating domestic wastewater. The model was calibrated using previously published experimental data obtained from anaerobic batch tests for different COD/ [Formula: see text] ratios. Model simulations were performed to predict the SCNR in a completely mixed reactor (CSTR) operating under mesophilic conditions (35 °C). Six different scenarios were evaluated to investigate the performance of the SCNR based on typical influent characteristics of domestic wastewater. The variables analyzed were chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal, nitrate concentration, methane production, nitrogen gas, volatile fatty acids (VFA) concentration, pH and percentage of COD used by the denitrifying and methanogenic microorganisms. The HRT was decreased stepwise from 15 to 4 h. The results indicate that Scenario (S5) with a COD/ [Formula: see text] ratio equal to 10 and an HRT equal to 15 h ensures the occurrence of the stable SCNR. Furthermore, the accumulation of denitrification intermediates and a significant reduction in the biogas production when the organic matter is limited was verified.

  9. Substrate uptake and subcellular compartmentation of anoxic cholesterol catabolism in Sterolibacterium denitrificans. (United States)

    Lin, Ching-Wen; Wang, Po-Hsiang; Ismail, Wael; Tsai, Yu-Wen; El Nayal, Ashraf; Yang, Chia-Ying; Yang, Fu-Chun; Wang, Chia-Hsiang; Chiang, Yin-Ru


    Cholesterol catabolism by actinobacteria has been extensively studied. In contrast, the uptake and catabolism of cholesterol by Gram-negative species are poorly understood. Here, we investigated microbial cholesterol catabolism at the subcellular level. (13)C metabolomic analysis revealed that anaerobically grown Sterolibacterium denitrificans, a β-proteobacterium, adopts an oxygenase-independent pathway to degrade cholesterol. S. denitrificans cells did not produce biosurfactants upon growth on cholesterol and exhibited high cell surface hydrophobicity. Moreover, S. denitrificans did not produce extracellular catabolic enzymes to transform cholesterol. Accordingly, S. denitrificans accessed cholesterol by direction adhesion. Cholesterol is imported through the outer membrane via a putative FadL-like transport system, which is induced by neutral sterols. The outer membrane steroid transporter is able to selectively import various C27 sterols into the periplasm. S. denitrificans spheroplasts exhibited a significantly higher efficiency in cholest-4-en-3-one-26-oic acid uptake than in cholesterol uptake. We separated S. denitrificans proteins into four fractions, namely the outer membrane, periplasm, inner membrane, and cytoplasm, and we observed the individual catabolic reactions within them. Our data indicated that, in the periplasm, various periplasmic and peripheral membrane enzymes transform cholesterol into cholest-4-en-3-one-26-oic acid. The C27 acidic steroid is then transported into the cytoplasm, in which side-chain degradation and the subsequent sterane cleavage occur. This study sheds light into microbial cholesterol metabolism under anoxic conditions.

  10. Changes in calcareous nannoplankton calcification during the latest Cenomanian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 and similarity with other Cretaceous Oceanic Anoxic Events (United States)

    Faucher, Giulia; Erba, Elisabetta; Bottini, Cinzia


    The Cenomanian has been characterized by greenhouse climate conditions and profound environmental perturbations, including the latest Cenomanian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 (OAE 2), an episode of widespread organic matter burial in oxygen-depleted oceans. OAE 2 is thought to be related to the emplacement of the Caribbean Plateau which probably introduced in the atmosphere a large amount of CO2 with consequent impact on biota, climate and ocean chemistry. The perturbation of the carbon cycle is reflected in the carbon isotopic record that evidences a positive shift at the OAE 2 onset and subsequent C-isotopic peaks. The aim of this study is the identification of possible changes in coccolith size/shape as a response to paleoenvironmental perturbations associated with OAE 2. Biometric analyses were performed on selected coccolith species (Biscutum constans, Discorhabdus rotatorius, Watznaueria barnesiae and Zeugrabdothus erectus) from five sections spanning the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval including OAE 2. The study provided evidence for size fluctuations and dwarfism of B. constans, Z. erectus and D. rotatorius during OAE 2, followed by a recovery at the end of the event. On the contrary, W. barnesiae displays constant sizes through the event. High-resolution investigations showed that B. constans follows the same size trends in all the analysed sections with i) a decrease in size at the OAE 2 onset where an increase in pCO2 is observed, ii) a partial increase in size back to pre-OAE 2 values around the first δ13C peak (peak A), where a decrease in pCO2 concentration is reconstructed iii) and a subsequent more expressed decrease in size reaching minimum values around the δ13C peak B where trace metal abundance has been identified. Small specimens are present till the end of OAE 2 and only after δ13C peak D a partial recovery in size is observed. Nannoplankton dwarfism is here interpreted as forced by rapidly increasing pCO2 during the formation of the

  11. The Denitrifying Biological Phosphorus Removal Performance in Anaerobic/Anoxic Sequencing Batch Reactor: The Effect of Carbon Source


    Gürtekin, Engin; ŞEKERDAĞ, Nusret


    In this study, the effect of carbon source on denitrifying biological phosphorus removal performance in acetate and glucose fed two anaerobic/anoxic sequencinq batch reactor (SBR) was investigated. Glucose and acetate were used as the substrates. In acetate and glucose fed reactors, the COD (Chemical Oxygen Demand) removal efficiencies were 91,90% and PO4-P removal efficiencies were 87,51% respectively. These results shows that the phosphorus removal efficiency is lower in glucose fed reactor.

  12. Long-term performance and fouling analysis of full-scale direct nanofiltration (NF) installations treating anoxic groundwater

    KAUST Repository

    Beyer, Florian


    Long-term performance and fouling behavior of four full-scale nanofiltration (NF) plants, treating anoxic groundwater at 80% recovery for drinking water production, were characterized and compared with oxic NF and reverse osmosis systems. Plant operating times varied between 6 and 10 years and pretreatment was limited to 10μm pore size cartridge filtration and antiscalant dosage (2-2.5mgL-1) only. Membrane performance parameters normalized pressure drop (NPD), normalized specific water permeability (Kw) and salt retention generally were found stable over extended periods of operation (>6 months). Standard acid-base cleanings (once per year or less) were found to be sufficient to maintain satisfying operation during direct NF of the described iron rich (≤8.4mgL-1) anoxic groundwaters. Extensive autopsies of eight NF membrane elements, which had been in service since the plant startup (6-10 years), were performed to characterize and quantify the material accumulated in the membrane elements. Investigations using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) measurements revealed a complex mixture of organic, biological and inorganic materials. The fouling layers that developed during half to one year of operation without chemical cleaning were very thin (<2. μm). Most bio(organic) accumulates were found in the lead elements of the installations while inorganic precipitates/deposits (aluminosilicates and iron(II)sulfides) were found in all autopsied membrane elements. The high solubility of reduced metal ions and the very slow biofilm development under anoxic conditions prevented rapid fouling during direct NF of the studied groundwaters. When compared to oxic NF and RO systems in general (e.g. aerated ground waters or surface waters), the operation and performance of the described anoxic installations (with minimal pretreatment) can be described as very stable. © 2014

  13. Lethal exposure times of anoxic treatment in eight species of museum pests (fam. Dermestidae, Ptinidae and Tineidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergh, Jan-Erik; Hansen, Lise Stengaard; Nielsen, Per Væggemose


    Based on surveys of species of museum pest insects commonly found in Fennoscandia, a number of important species were selected for a study of mortality caused by exposure to modified atmosphere (>99.7 % nitrogen). In most of the species 100 % mortality was obtained within 72 hours of exposure....... Preliminary analysis of the results revealed that the larval and pupal stages were most tolerant to the anoxic treatment....

  14. Investigations of aroma volatile biosynthesis under anoxic conditions and in different tissues of "Redchief Delicious" apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.). (United States)

    Rudell, D R; Mattinson, D S; Mattheis, J P; Wyllie, S G; Fellman, J K


    Disks from different tissues were obtained from "Redchief Delicious" apple fruit (Malus domestica Borkh.) and analyzed for the ability to metabolize 1-pentanol as well as synthesize constitutive esters and alcohols under anoxic and aerobic conditions. The skin tissue displayed a greater capacity to synthesize pentanal, pentyl acetate, pentyl propionate, pentyl butyrate, and pentyl hexanoate than the hypanthial and carpellary tissues during incubation with 1-pentanol. With the exception of pentyl acetate and pentyl propionate biosynthesis, the hypanthial tissue synthesized these compounds at a higher rate than the carpellary tissue. Anoxia inhibited both constituent and 1-pentanol-derived ester biosynthesis. While anoxia inhibited ester biosynthesis, ethanol biosynthesis increased at a greater rate in tissue disks held under these conditions. Biosynthesis of 1-butanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, and 1-hexanol was greater in tissue disks held in air during the first part of the measurement period and dropped off more rapidly than those transpiring in tissue disks held under anoxic conditions. The biosynthetic rates of all esters, both constituent and 1-pentanol-derived, increased as a result of air exposure. While hypoxic or anoxic conditions may promote ethanol synthesis, these conditions also appear to inhibit the formation of the ethanol-derived esters partially responsible for the off-flavor in apples attributed to ultralow O(2) controlled atmosphere storage.

  15. The role of DPB at anoxic stage in a novel package type BNR process with batch settler. (United States)

    Shin, Hang-Sik; Lee, Sang-Hyung; Nam, Se-Yong; Park, Myung-Gyun


    In this research, package type BNR process was developed to remove nutrients as well as suspended solids from domestic sewage. The effect of HRT reduction of settler on the removal of pollutants as well as the role of DPBs at anoxic reactor were investigated. The proposed package system was composed of sludge denitrification tank, anaerobic, anoxic, oxic, and batch settler. This system could remove nitrogen and phosphorus effectively at low COD/N ratio and also remove SS more effectively than other ordinary BNR system having the conventional settlers. The removal efficiency of total nitrogen (T-N) in optimal condition was about 75.1% under the TCOD/TKN ratio as low as 5.7. The average concentration of the effluent TCOD, ortho-P, NH4+-N, NO3- -N and SS in the package type BNR system of 2 h settler retention time were 15.6. 1.38, 1.4, 10.3 and 3.9 mg/L, respectively. In anoxic state, denitrifying dephosphatation, that is uptaking phosphate by using nitrate-nitrogen as an electron acceptor was observed. The removed NO3- -N concentration by denitrifying dephosphatation was 1.62 mg NO3- -N/mg PO4(3-)-P.

  16. Importance of the autumn overturn and anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion for the annual methane emissions from a temperate lake. (United States)

    Encinas Fernández, Jorge; Peeters, Frank; Hofmann, Hilmar


    Changes in the budget of dissolved methane measured in a small temperate lake over 1 year indicate that anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion and the autumn overturn period represent key factors for the overall annual methane emissions from lakes. During periods of stable stratification, large amounts of methane accumulate in anoxic deep waters. Approximately 46% of the stored methane was emitted during the autumn overturn, contributing ∼80% of the annual diffusive methane emissions to the atmosphere. After the overturn period, the entire water column was oxic, and only 1% of the original quantity of methane remained in the water column. Current estimates of global methane emissions assume that all of the stored methane is released, whereas several studies of individual lakes have suggested that a major fraction of the stored methane is oxidized during overturns. Our results provide evidence that not all of the stored methane is released to the atmosphere during the overturn period. However, the fraction of stored methane emitted to the atmosphere during overturn may be substantially larger and the fraction of stored methane oxidized may be smaller than in the previous studies suggesting high oxidation losses of methane. The development or change in the vertical extent and duration of the anoxic hypolimnion, which can represent the main source of annual methane emissions from small lakes, may be an important aspect to consider for impact assessments of climate warming on the methane emissions from lakes.

  17. Effect of resuspension on the release of heavy metals and water chemistry in anoxic and oxic sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Kyung-Yup; Kim, Hong-Seok; Hwang, Inseong [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)


    Two types of river sediments with contrasting characteristics (anoxic or oxic) were resuspended and the release of heavy metals and changes in water chemistry were investigated. During resuspension of the anoxic sediment, the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration and redox potential of the water layer decreased abruptly within the first 1 min, followed by increases toward the end of the resuspension period. Heavy metals were released rapidly in the first 6 h, probably due to the oxidation of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) of the anoxic sediment, and then the aqueous phase concentrations of the heavy metals decreased due to resorption onto the sediment until the 12-h point. During resuspension of the oxic sediment, the DO concentration and redox potential remained relatively constant in the oxic ranges. The heavy metals were released from the oxic sediment gradually during a 24-h resuspension period. The temporal maximum concentrations of Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd in the aqueous phases in both experiments frequently exceeded the USEPA water quality criteria or the water quality guidelines of Australia and New Zealand. This suggests that a resuspension event could bring about temporal water quality deterioration in the two sediment environments. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  18. Antikythera Mechanism and the Ancient World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Safronov


    Full Text Available In this historical review, the opinions of Ancient Greece philosophers, astronomers, and poets such as Thales Milesian, Pythagoras, Plato, Eudoxus, Aristotle, Archimedes, Cicero, Diogenes Laertius, Iamblichus, Plutarch, Homer, and Aratus about the planet position calculations and about the possibility of predictions of natural phenomena are analyzed. The planet positions were predicted before Eudoxus (probably before Philolaus by a spindle of Ananke and after Eudoxus by Antikythera mechanism. Following Pythagoras and Plato, it is established that the regular seismoacoustic observations were performed. In the Ancient World in the Mediterranean area, there was an extensive network of acoustic stations (~10 pcs, which were located in close proximity to the geologic faults. Also, it is shown that the ship that was carrying Antikythera mechanism (A-Ship was built in 244 BC in Syracuse with direct participation of Archimedes and Archias from Corinthian. Later, the A-Ship was a part of the Roman Republic safety system. The grain volumes, which were delivered to Rome city by large grain vessels, and the population of Rome city in the period 74–71 BC were estimated. Planetary calculator might be used for the chronology of the historical events as a backward prediction in addition to present Radiocarbon dating and Dendrochronology methods.

  19. Acoustical measurements in ancient Roman theatres (United States)

    Farnetani, Andrea; Fausti, Patrizio; Pompoli, Roberto; Prodi, Nicola


    The Greek and Roman theatres are among the most precious and spectacular items of cultural heritage in the Mediterranean countries. The theatres are famous not only for their impressive architecture, but also for the acoustic qualities. For this reason it is important to consider these theatres as an acoustical heritage and to study their sound field. Within the activities of the ERATO (identification Evaluation and Revival of the Acoustical heritage of ancient Theatres and Odea) project, acoustical measurements were taken in well-preserved ancient Roman theatres at Aspendos (Turkey) and Jerash (Jordan). Roman theatres have an impressive stage building that forms a back wall in the orchestra area, and it was found that, from the analysis of the acoustical parameters, the reverberation time (e.g., 1.7 s at middle frequencies in the theatre of Aspendos) is quite long compared not only with other open-space theatres but also with closed spaces. Contrary to modern halls the clarity is high and this fact, together with a low sound level in most of the seats, gives the sound field a unique character.

  20. Ancient and Medieval Earth in Armenia (United States)

    Farmanyan, S. V.


    Humankind has always sought to recognize the nature of various sky related phenomena and tried to give them explanations. The purpose of this study is to identify ancient Armenians' pantheistic and cosmological perceptions, world view, notions and beliefs related to the Earth. The paper focuses on the structure of the Earth and many other phenomena of nature that have always been on a major influence on ancient Armenians thinking. In this paper we have compared the term Earth in 31 languages. By discussing and comparing Universe structure in various regional traditions, myths, folk songs and phraseological units we very often came across to "Seven Heavens" (Seven heavens is a part of religious cosmology found in many major religions such as Islam, Judaism, Hinduism and Christianity (namely Catholicism) and "Seven Earths". Armenians in their turn divided Earth and Heavens into seven layers. And in science too, both the Earth and the Heavens have 7 layers. The Seven Heavens refer to the layers of our atmosphere. The Seven Earths refer to the layers of the Earth (from core to crust), as well as seven continents. We conclude that the perception of celestial objects varies from culture to culture and preastronomy had a significant impact on humankind, particularly on cultural diversities.

  1. Development of Ecological Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Keizikas


    Full Text Available The article presents research on ecological buildings and their influence on the constructional sphere. The aim of the paper is to reveal the essence of ecological architecture showing substantial progress and its potential to stimulate architectural and technological growth. The article also describes relations between the ideas of ecological buildings and the ‘passive house’ concepts and aspects of development as well as describes the possibilities of improving building sustainability and energy efficiency. Article in Lithuanian

  2. Social Ecological Economics


    Spash, Clive L.


    This paper introduces and explains how ecological economics has developed as a modern movement with its roots in environmentalism and radical environmental economics. Divisions and conflicts within the field are explored to show why material claiming to fall under the title of ecological economics fails to be representative of progress or the vision which drove socio-economic specialists to interact with ecologists in the first place. The argument is then put forward that ecological economics...

  3. Between Design and Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørn, Mona Chor

    such vegetation, based on concepts and theories in plant community ecology. If these communities are based on local forbs there is a continuum in anthropogenic intervention from designed and intensively maintained to semi-natural herbaceous vegetation. Results from a large field experiment show that, after three...... colonised by grasses and eventually woody species. This thesis adds useful basic knowledge in plant community ecology and species-specific growth, which are relevant to research and planning in landscape architecture and ecology....

  4. [Demography and human ecology]. (United States)

    Nazareth, J M


    At the end of the 19th century the German biologist Ernest Haekel was the first scientist to use the term ecology, which was defined as the study of relationships of organisms or groups of organisms with the environment and indicated the interdependence of the living world, including plants, animals, and humans. This concept also indicates a continuous process of adaptation of organisms to their external environment. The basic concepts of scientific ecology, which developed at the end of the 19th century, can be attributed to Darwin: the relationships between living beings and the notion of the process of adaptation to their environment. The term human ecology appeared in the early 1920s. Human ecology embodies fundamental ideas: biotype, habitat, community, biocenosis, ecosystem, biomass, interchange and equilibrium, and circulation of energy. The accumulated knowledge about human ecology is broken down using the criteria of topography (ecology of humid forests, deserts, lakes, etc.); followed by the appearance of species; and the variants of classical division: auto ecology (influence of external factors on living beings) and sinecology (the study of groups of associated organisms, i.e., natural, animal, and vegetation communities). The species are considered on the basis of equality or sinecology (all of them have the same interests), while in human ecology a species is determined by its relation to a reference group--autoecology or anthropocentric ecology. In 1911, J. Thompson bridged the gap between biological knowledge and social sciences; in 1921, H. Barrows identified human ecology as a component of geography; in 1925, L. Bernard presented the classification of ecosystems; and in 1936, Ezra Park published his work, Human Ecology, followed in 1945 by the emergence of the Chicago school. Demography and human ecology are intimately connected because population is the result of natural and migratory movements, therefore the two sciences require a methodology

  5. Chemical ecology of fungi. (United States)

    Spiteller, Peter


    Fungi are widespread in nature and have conquered nearly every ecological niche. Fungi occur not only in terrestrial but also in freshwater and marine environments. Moreover, fungi are known as a rich source of secondary metabolites. Despite these facts, the ecological role of many of these metabolites is still unknown and the chemical ecology of fungi has not been investigated systematically so far. This review intends to present examples of the various chemical interactions of fungi with other fungi, plants, bacteria and animals and to give an overview of the current knowledge of fungal chemical ecology.

  6. Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) as a bridge between ecology and evolutionary genomics. (United States)

    Bybee, Seth; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Duryea, M Catherine; Futahashi, Ryo; Hansson, Bengt; Lorenzo-Carballa, M Olalla; Schilder, Ruud; Stoks, Robby; Suvorov, Anton; Svensson, Erik I; Swaegers, Janne; Takahashi, Yuma; Watts, Phillip C; Wellenreuther, Maren


    Odonata (dragonflies and damselflies) present an unparalleled insect model to integrate evolutionary genomics with ecology for the study of insect evolution. Key features of Odonata include their ancient phylogenetic position, extensive phenotypic and ecological diversity, several unique evolutionary innovations, ease of study in the wild and usefulness as bioindicators for freshwater ecosystems worldwide. In this review, we synthesize studies on the evolution, ecology and physiology of odonates, highlighting those areas where the integration of ecology with genomics would yield significant insights into the evolutionary processes that would not be gained easily by working on other animal groups. We argue that the unique features of this group combined with their complex life cycle, flight behaviour, diversity in ecological niches and their sensitivity to anthropogenic change make odonates a promising and fruitful taxon for genomics focused research. Future areas of research that deserve increased attention are also briefly outlined.

  7. Induction of anoxic microenvironment in multi-phase metabolic shift strategy during periodic discontinuous batch mode operation enhances treatment of azo dye wastewater. (United States)

    Nagendranatha Reddy, C; Naresh Kumar, A; Annie Modestra, J; Venkata Mohan, S


    Variation in anoxic microenvironment (multi-phase (MP) metabolic shift strategy) during cycle operation of periodic discontinuous batch/sequencing batch (PDBR/SBR) mode operation showed enhanced degradation of recalcitrant azo dye (C.I. Acid Black 10B) at higher dye load (1250mg/l). The process performance was evaluated by varying anoxic phasing period during cycle operation. Before multiphase (BMP) operation with 2.1% of anoxic period showed color/COD removal efficiency of 41.9%/46.3%. Increment in anoxic period responded favorable in enhancing treatment efficiency [AMPI (16.2%), 49.4%/52.4%; AMPII (26.6%), 54.7%/57.2%; AMPIII (34.9%), 58.4%/61.5%]. Relatively higher bio-electrochemical activity, persistent reductive behavior (redox catalytic currents, 0.26/-0.72μA), prevalence of redox shuttlers (Fe-S proteins, cytochromes, quinones) facilitating enhanced electron transfer by minimization of associated losses and higher enzyme activities were observed with induction of anoxic phase. Anoxic condition shifts system microenvironment between oxidation and reduction assisting reduction of dye to its intermediates followed by their mineralization.

  8. Regulation of crayfish, Orconectes virilis, tail muscle lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in response to anoxic conditions is associated with alterations in phosphorylation patterns. (United States)

    Green, Stuart R; Storey, Kenneth B


    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), the terminal enzyme of anaerobic glycolysis, has a crucial role in sustaining ATP production by glycolysis during periods of anoxia via regenerating NAD(+) through the production of lactate. The present study examined the effects of prolonged (20h) anoxic submergence on LDH from the tail muscle of an anoxia-tolerant crayfish (Orconectes virilis). LDH was purified to homogeneity from tail muscle of both aerobic control and anoxic crayfish in a three step process. Analysis of the kinetic parameters and the stability of LDH showed that the Vmax in the pyruvate-reducing direction was significantly higher for the enzyme from anoxic crayfish whereas in the lactate-oxidizing direction the Vmax was significantly higher for the control enzyme. Differential scanning fluorimetry was used to assess thermal unfolding of crayfish LDH. The results showed that the enzyme from control muscle had a significantly higher melting temperature (greater thermal stability) than the anoxic enzyme form, suggesting that there was a structural difference between the two enzyme forms. Immunoblotting of purified LDH implicated post-translational modification as the reason for this difference; purified LDH from aerobic control crayfish showed significantly higher amounts of serine/threonine phosphorylation than did the anoxic enzyme form. This study provides evidence for anoxia-induced modifications of crayfish muscle LDH that may contribute significantly to modulating enzyme function under anoxic conditions.

  9. A new era in palaeomicrobiology: prospects for ancient dental calculus as a long-term record of the human oral microbiome. (United States)

    Warinner, Christina; Speller, Camilla; Collins, Matthew J


    The field of palaeomicrobiology is dramatically expanding thanks to recent advances in high-throughput biomolecular sequencing, which allows unprecedented access to the evolutionary history and ecology of human-associated and environmental microbes. Recently, human dental calculus has been shown to be an abundant, nearly ubiquitous, and long-term reservoir of the ancient oral microbiome, preserving not only microbial and host biomolecules but also dietary and environmental debris. Modern investigations of native human microbiota have demonstrated that the human microbiome plays a central role in health and chronic disease, raising questions about changes in microbial ecology, diversity and function through time. This paper explores the current state of ancient oral microbiome research and discusses successful applications, methodological challenges and future possibilities in elucidating the intimate evolutionary relationship between humans and their microbes.

  10. Genetic tests of ancient asexuality in Root Knot Nematodes reveal recent hybrid origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lunt David H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of "ancient asexuals", taxa that have persisted for long periods of evolutionary history without sexual recombination, is both controversial and important for our understanding of the evolution and maintenance of sexual reproduction. A lack of sex has consequences not only for the ecology of the asexual organism but also for its genome. Several genetic signatures are predicted from long-term asexual (apomictic reproduction including (i large "allelic" sequence divergence (ii lack of phylogenetic clustering of "alleles" within morphological species and (iii decay and loss of genes specific to meiosis and sexual reproduction. These genetic signatures can be hard to assess since it is difficult to demonstrate the allelic nature of very divergent sequences, divergence levels may be complicated by processes such as inter-specific hybridization, and genes may have secondary roles unrelated to sexual reproduction. Apomictic species of Meloidogyne root knot nematodes have been suggested previously to be ancient asexuals. Their relatives reproduce by meiotic parthenogenesis or facultative sexuality, which in combination with the abundance of nematode genomic sequence data, makes them a powerful system in which to study the consequences of reproductive mode on genomic divergence. Results Here, sequences from nuclear protein-coding genes are used to demonstrate that the first two predictions of ancient asexuality are found within the apomictic root knot nematodes. Alleles are more divergent in the apomictic taxa than in those species exhibiting recombination and do not group phylogenetically according to recognized species. In contrast some nuclear alleles, and mtDNA, are almost identical across species. Sequencing of Major Sperm Protein, a gamete-specific gene, from both meiotic and ameiotic species reveals no increase in evolutionary rate nor change in substitution pattern in the apomictic taxa, indicating that the locus

  11. Study on the structures and illumination characteristics of Chinese ancient oil lamps (United States)

    Zhu, Zhiqiang; Zhan, Qingxuan


    Chinese ancient firelight lighting had a long history in which developed technologies were applied. The paper concerns itself with a study of Chinese ancient firelight lighting lamps, including the structures and illuminating characteristics of ancient oil lamps.

  12. Assessing marine productivity in ancient oceans using silver as a paleoproductivity proxy (United States)

    McKay, J. L.; Algeo, T. J.


    One of challenges in studying OAEs is determining what role marine productivity played in the development of anoxic conditions. Typically changes in paleoproductivity are inferred using proxies such as organic carbon (Corg) and barium. The concentrations of various trace metals, notably Mo, often positively correlate with Corg and thus have also been used as paleoproductivity proxies. This metal-Corg relationship is primarily related to the control Corg has on the development of reducing conditions that favor the post-depositional enrichment of redox-sensitive trace metals. Recent work suggests that Ag accumulates in organic-rich particles as they settle through the water column and its concentration in marine sediments is therefore related to marine productivity rather than post-depositional enrichment. Here we assess the use of Ag as a paleoproductivity proxy in ancient marine sediments using a suite of black shales ranging in age from Late PreCambrian to Cretaceous, including samples from Toarcian and Cretaceous OAEs. The organic carbon content in these shales is highly variable (30%). Barium exhibits a weak negative (not positive) correlation with Corg (R2 = 0.21), most likely reflecting the susceptibility of biogenic barite to dissolution under reducing conditions. Molybdenum concentrations (800 ppm) are generally higher in shales with a higher Corg content. However, the correlation between Corg and Mo varies greatly (R2 = 0.06 to 0.77) suggesting other factors such as bottom water oxygen, sedimentation rate, and changes in the availability of Mo over time are also influencing its enrichment. In comparison, Ag concentrations (10000 ppb) consistently exhibit a positive correlate with Corg (R2 = 0.58 to 0.89). Although more work is required, it appears that Ag maybe a more reliable paleoproductivity proxy then either Ba or Mo.

  13. Jin Quan Museum Gives New Life to Ancient Coins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The saying goes that ""ancient coins are living history"". The rusty ancient coins that appeared in China's 5,000 years of history, such as seashells, Bu Bi (spade-shaped money), Dao Bi (knife-shaped money), Banliang coins from Qin Dynasty and Wuzhu coins from Han Dynasty, are all the reflections of the China's splendid traditions in politics,

  14. An Ancient Inca Tax and Metallurgy in Peru (United States)

    Journal of Chemical Education, 2007


    The discovery of ancient Inca tax rulers and other metallurgical objects in Peru show that the ancient civilizations of the country smelted metals. The analysis shows that the smelters in Peru switched from the production of copper to silver after a tax was imposed on them by the Inca rulers.

  15. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fordyce, Sarah Louise; Avila Arcos, Maria del Carmen; Rasmussen, Morten


    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hy...

  16. Any payoff to ecological engineering?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ollikainen, Markku; Zandersen, Marianne; Bendtsen, Jørgen


    This paper examines the economic aspects of pumping of oxygen-rich water to anoxic bottoms of the Baltic Sea from two different angles. Drawing on the recent pumping experiments in the Swedish archipelago (Lännerstasundet) and in the Finnish archipelago (Sandofjärden), we generalize the findings...

  17. Ecologies of Learning, Ecologies of Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyrup, Helene

    The subject of this project/paper is the challenges that digital media pose to earlier definitions, divisions and conceptions of learning institutions and their activities. It is argued that, in the light of digital media, the idea of institutional co-creation of learning and literacies needs...... in the light of the new Danish school reform. How can different learning institutions contribute to a “joint” ecology of learning? What would the benefits be from this in terms of young people’s literacies? On what theoretical basis can such an ecology and co-creation take place? And what kind of didactics...

  18. Persistence of Carbonate Platform Environments in Central Mexico during the Oceanic Anoxic Event 2: impact of the Carribean Plateau? (United States)

    Bomou, Brahimsamba; Adatte, Thierry; Föllmi, Karl; Arnaud-Vanneau, Annie; Fleitmann, Dominik


    The Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event 2 is described as an interruption of normal pelagic sediment deposition by several distinct intervals of widespread oceanic anoxia (Schlanger & Jenkyns, 1976; Jenkyns, 1980; Arthur et al., 1990) characterized by black shales deposition coinciding with a positive shift in carbon isotope excursion. Some authors show a relationship between OAEs and massive volcanic events associated with the emplacement of large igneous provinces (LIPs) and sea floor spreading at mid-ocean ridges (Kuroda et al., 2007; Snow et al., 2005). High metal abundance anomalies recorded in pelagic sections (e.g. Pueblo, Colorado) coincide with the massive volcanism that built the Carribean plateau (around 93-94 Ma), associated with the onset of OAE 2 (Snow et al., 2005). Mort et al., (2007) demonstrate that the onset of the OAE 2 was triggered by a short-lived but significant increase in phosphorus burial. The bottom waters became anoxic and switched from being a P sink to a P source, sustaining the productivity in a positive feedback loop. However, the behaviour of phosphorus and trace metals at larger scale, in different paleogeography and paleodepht is still poorly known. The Axaxacualco and Baranca el Cañon sections, located at the Guerrero-Morelos carbonate platform in southern Mexico exhibit a fully correlateable d13C curves. In the distal part of the carbonate platform at Axaxacualco, the maximum d13C positive excursion coincides with oligotrophic carbonate platform environments supported by low concentrations in P and characterized by abundant and diversified benthic microfauna and rudists. The impact of OAE appears may be more significant in the proximal part of the carbonate platform at Barranca, characterized by the deposition of thick laminated microbialites indicative of mesotrophic conditions. The Morelos Carbonate platform with oligotrophic to mesotrophic conditions was persistent throughout the entire OAE2 in Central Mexico despite

  19. Exploring Ancient Skies An Encyclopedic Survey of Archaeoastronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kelley, David H


    Exploring Ancient Skies brings together the methods of archaeology and the insights of modern astronomy to explore the science of astronomy as it was practiced in various cultures prior to the invention of the telescope. The book reviews an enormous and growing body of literature on the cultures of the ancient Mediterranean, the Far East, and the New World (particularly Mesoamerica), putting the ancient astronomical materials into their archaeological and cultural contexts. The authors begin with an overview of the field and proceed to essential aspects of naked-eye astronomy, followed by an examination of specific cultures. The book concludes by taking into account the purposes of ancient astronomy: astrology, navigation, calendar regulation, and (not least) the understanding of our place and role in the universe. Skies are recreated to display critical events as they would have appeared to ancient observers - events such as the supernova of 1054, the 'lion horoscope' or the 'Star of Bethlehem.' Exploring An...

  20. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of ancient Sampula population in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The archaeological site of Sampula cemetery was located about 14 km to the southwest of the Luo County in Xinjiang Khotan, China, belonging to the ancient Yutian kingdom. 14C analysis showed that this cemetery was used from 217 B.C. to 283 A.D.Ancient DNA was analyzed by 364 bp of the mitochondrial DNA hypervariable region Ⅰ (mtDNA HVR-Ⅰ), and by six restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) sites of mtDNA coding region. We successfully extracted and sequenced intact stretches of maternally inherited mtDNA from 13 out of 16 ancient Sampula samples. The analysis of mtDNA haplogroup distribution showed that the ancient Sampula was a complex population with both European and Asian characteristics. Median joining network of U3 sub-haplogroup and multi-dimensional scaling analysis all showed that the ancient Sampula had maternal relationship with Ossetian and Iranian.

  1. [Changes of marriage age in ancient China]. (United States)

    Zhang, D


    The changes in age of marriage in ancient China can be classified into 3 periods. Around 680 B.C., the government set the age of marriage at 20 for men and at 15 for women. Even though it was written in the works of the Confucian school that men should marry at 30 and women at 20, it was never really followed. The Wei and Jin dynasties provided the longest periods of war and social instability. Large numbers of population died because of war or famine. Because heavy taxes were collected on each member of family, many families did not report marriage or childbirth. In order to encourage childbirth, the government reduced the age of marriage to 15 for men and 13 for women. Administrative and legislative regulation were introduced to force people to marry early, especially women. Incentives were given to families with more women. These policies was enforced due to the imbalance of the sex ratio and reduction of population size. As female infanticides were prevalent because of differential values placed on male and female children, it was difficult for men to find partners to marry. Shortage of women was also the result of the polygamy of the rich and the aristocracy. The imbalance of the sex ratio forced women to marry early. Nevertheless, women getting married too early were not fertile. Infant or child mortality was high among children of young mothers. From the Song to the Ching dynasties, the age of marriage was set at 16 for men and 14 for women. In the ancient times, the population of China was around 60-70 million before the Ching dynasty. Generally speaking, the population size was small. Early marriage was necessary and feasible. Even though fertility in ancient times was high, mortality has high also. Life expectancy ranged form 22 to 35. People needed to marry early and have children early to replace themselves. On the other hand, large land areas and inefficient production tools required a larger labor force. Large population size also represented

  2. Mapping The Ancient Maya Landscape From Space (United States)

    Sever, Tom; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)


    The Peten region of northern Guatemala is one of the last places on earth where major archeological sites remain to be discovered. It was in this region that the Maya civilization began, flourished, and abruptly disappeared. Remote sensing technology is helping to locate and map ancient Maya sites that are threatened today by accelerating deforestation and looting. Thematic Mapper and IKONOS satellite and airborne Star3-I radar data, combined with Global Positioning System (GPS) technology, are successfully detecting ancient Maya features such as cities, roadways, canals, and water reservoirs. Satellite imagery is also being used to map the bajos, which are seasonally flooded swamps that cover over 40% of the land surface. The use of bajos for farming has been a source of debate within the professional community for many years. But the recent detection and verification of cultural features within the bajo system by our research team are providing conclusive evidence that the ancient Maya had adapted well to wetland environments from the earliest times and utilized them until the time of the Maya collapse. The use of the bajos for farming is also an important resource for the future of the current inhabitants who are experiencing rapid population growth. Remote sensing imagery is also demonstrating that in the Preclassic period (600 BC- AD 250), the Maya had already achieved a high organizational level as evidenced by the construction of massive temples and an elaborate inter-connecting roadway system. Although they experienced several setbacks such as droughts and hurricanes, the Maya nevertheless managed the delicate forest ecosystem successfully for several centuries. However, around AD 800, something happened to the Maya to cause their rapid decline and eventual disappearance from the region. The evidence indicates that at this time there was increased climatic dryness, extensive deforestation, overpopulation, and widespread warfare. This raises a question that

  3. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald


    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  4. Massive Expansion of Marine Archaea During The Early Albian Oceanic Anoxic Event 1B (United States)

    Kuypers, M. M.; Kuypers, M. M.; Blokker, P.; Erbacher, J.; Kinkel, H.; Pancost, R. D.; Pancost, R. D.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.


    Oceanic anoxic events (OAEs), periods of globally enhanced burial of organic matter (OM) in the marine realm, played an important role in the mid-Cretaceous `greenhouse climate' by effectively reducing atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. It is generally believed that these OAEs were caused either by decreased remineralisation or increased production of phytoplanktonic OM. Here we show that enhanced organic carbon (OC) burial during the early Albian OAE1b (~112 My) was caused by a different process. Combined biogeochemical and stable carbon isotopic analyses indicate that black shales from this period contain up to 80% of OC derived from archaea. Archaea-derived isoprenoidal tetraether membrane lipids and free and macromolecularly bound isoprenoid alkanes are abundantly present in these black shales. More specifically the presence of certain ether lipids (cyclic biphytane tetraethers) indicates representatives of the pelagic archaea. To the best of our knowledge this is the earliest fossil evidence for marine planktonic archaea, extending their geological record by more than 60 million years. The diversity of archaeal lipids recovered from the OAE1b black shales suggests that they derive from a multitude of archaeal species. However, the specific 13C enrichment of all such lipids indicates a common `heavy' (13C-rich) carbon source for the archaea and/or a common pathway of carbon-fixation with a reduced 13C fractionation effect compared to the Calvin cycle used by algae, cyanobacteria and higher plants. The large differences (up to 12%) in 13C/12C ratios between the algal biomarkers and the much more abundant archaeal molecular fossils suggest that the latter were not living heterotrophically on photoautotrophic biomass. It seems likely that the archaea present during OAE1b used a chemical energy source (possibly ammonium) for carbon fixation since photoautotrophy within the domain of the Archaea is restricted to only a few species from hypersaline

  5. The use of magnesium peroxide for the inhibition of sulfate-reducing bacteria under anoxic conditions. (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Jie; Chang, Yi-Tang; Hung, Chun-Hsiung


    Sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), which cause microbiologically influenced material corrosion under anoxic conditions, form one of the major groups of microorganisms responsible for the generation of hydrogen sulfide. In this study, which is aimed at reducing the presence of SRB, a novel alternative approach involving the addition of magnesium peroxide (MgO2) compounds involving the use of reagent-grade MgO2 and a commercial product (ORC) was evaluated as a means of inhibiting SRB in laboratory batch columns. Different concentrations of MgO2 were added in the columns when black sulfide sediment had appeared in the columns. The experimental results showed that MgO2 is able to inhibit biogenic sulfide. The number of SRB, the sulfide concentration and the sulfate reducing rate (SRR) were decreased. ORCtrade mark as an additive was able to decrease more effectively the concentration of sulfide in water and the SRB-control effect was maintained over a longer time period when ORCtrade mark was used. The level of oxidation-reduction potential (ORP), which has a linear relationship to the sulfide/sulfate ratio, is a good indicator of SRB activity. As determined by fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), most SRB growth was inhibited under increasing amounts of added MgO2. The concentration of sulfide reflected the abundance of the SRB. Utilization of organic matter greater than the theoretical SRB utilization rate indicated that facultative heterotrophs became dominant after MgO2 was added. The results of this study could supply the useful information for further study on evaluating the solution to biocorrosion problems in practical situations.

  6. Genome-scale dynamic modeling of the competition between Rhodoferax and Geobacter in anoxic subsurface environments. (United States)

    Zhuang, Kai; Izallalen, Mounir; Mouser, Paula; Richter, Hanno; Risso, Carla; Mahadevan, Radhakrishnan; Lovley, Derek R


    The advent of rapid complete genome sequencing, and the potential to capture this information in genome-scale metabolic models, provide the possibility of comprehensively modeling microbial community interactions. For example, Rhodoferax and Geobacter species are acetate-oxidizing Fe(III)-reducers that compete in anoxic subsurface environments and this competition may have an influence on the in situ bioremediation of uranium-contaminated groundwater. Therefore, genome-scale models of Geobacter sulfurreducens and Rhodoferax ferrireducens were used to evaluate how Geobacter and Rhodoferax species might compete under diverse conditions found in a uranium-contaminated aquifer in Rifle, CO. The model predicted that at the low rates of acetate flux expected under natural conditions at the site, Rhodoferax will outcompete Geobacter as long as sufficient ammonium is available. The model also predicted that when high concentrations of acetate are added during in situ bioremediation, Geobacter species would predominate, consistent with field-scale observations. This can be attributed to the higher expected growth yields of Rhodoferax and the ability of Geobacter to fix nitrogen. The modeling predicted relative proportions of Geobacter and Rhodoferax in geochemically distinct zones of the Rifle site that were comparable to those that were previously documented with molecular techniques. The model also predicted that under nitrogen fixation, higher carbon and electron fluxes would be diverted toward respiration rather than biomass formation in Geobacter, providing a potential explanation for enhanced in situ U(VI) reduction in low-ammonium zones. These results show that genome-scale modeling can be a useful tool for predicting microbial interactions in subsurface environments and shows promise for designing bioremediation strategies.

  7. A High-Resolution Porphyrin Nitrogen Isotope Record of an Oceanic Anoxic Event (United States)

    Pearson, A.; Higgins, M. B.; Robinson, R. S.; Carter, S. J.


    Nitrogen isotope values measured in sediments deposited at times of widespread marine suboxic conditions are consistently more depleted in 15N than are modern marine sediments. We measured a high-resolution δ15N record of sedimentary porphyrins from a section spanning the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) II to examine changes in the nitrogen cycle recorded in surface waters. We compare these values to δ15N values of three sedimentary fractions: bulk sediment, extractable organic matter (bitumen), and non-extractable organic matter (kerogen). All fractions record similar trends; are offset from each other by consistent differences that are reflective of algal (not cyanobacterial) export; and are depleted in 15N compared to modern sedimentary samples, both before, during, and after the interval defined by the OAE. Prior to the termination of OAE II, there is a slight further negative excursion in δ15N values. In order to interpret these and other depleted δ15N values measured in similar black shales, we invoke a nitrogen isotope model that considers the importance of redox transformations of N under suboxic conditions. This model invokes an ocean in which the deep N reservoir is dominated by NH4+, limited nitrification occurs in the photic zone, and chemocline denitrification acts as a quantitative sink for downwelling nitrate. Although in this model a large component of net production may be fueled by N fixation, N fixation alone cannot generate biomass with δ15N values as depleted as are seen in many Mesozoic OAE sections. We postulate that throughout the Phanerozoic, excursions leading to negative values of d15N reflect relatively low rates of nitrosification relative to the sum of NH4+ utilization and N fixation.

  8. Impact of free ammonia on anammox rates (anoxic ammonium oxidation) in a moving bed biofilm reactor. (United States)

    Jaroszynski, L W; Cicek, N; Sparling, R; Oleszkiewicz, J A


    Using a bench scale moving bed bioreactor (MBBR), the effect of free ammonia (FA, NH(3), the un-ionized form of ammonium NH(4)(+)) concentration on anoxic ammonium oxidation (anammox) was evaluated based on the volumetric nitrogen removal rate (NRR). Although, a detailed microbial analysis was not conducted, the major NRR observed was assumed to be by anammox, based on the nitrogen conversion ratios of nitrite to ammonium and nitrate to ammonium. Since the concentration of free ammonia as a proportion of the total ammonia concentration is pH-dependent, the impact of changing the operating pH from 6.9 to 8.2, was investigated under constant nitrogen loading conditions during continuous reactor operation. Furthermore, the effect of sudden nitrogen load changes was investigated under constant pH conditions. Batch tests were conducted to determine the immediate response of the anammox consortium to shifts in pH and FA concentrations. It was found that FA was inhibiting NRR at concentrations exceeding 2 mg N L(-1). In the pH range 7-8, the decrease in anammox activity was independent of pH and related only to the concentration of FA. Nitrite concentrations of up to 120 mg N L(-1) did not negatively affect NRR for up to 3.5 h. It was concluded that a stable NRR in a moving bed biofilm reactor depended on maintaining FA concentrations below 2 mg N L(-1) when the pH was maintained between 7 and 8.

  9. Reproductive tactics of male bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus) in anoxic and hypoxic waters (United States)

    Seivåg, Maria Larsen; Salvanes, Anne Gro Vea; Utne-Palm, Anne Christine; Kjesbu, Olav Si'gurd


    The bearded goby (Sufflogobius bibarbatus), a key species in the northern Benguela Upwelling Ecosystem, tolerates extremely low levels of oxygen. Yet little is known about how its reproduction is affected by these harsh living conditions. The distribution patterns of alternative reproductive tactics of male bearded goby across the continental shelf off Namibia were investigated. Histology and stereology were for the first time used to validate macroscopic maturity development by estimating volume fraction of the different stages of spermatogenesis using "Delesse principle", an approach so far for teleosts barely used in studies on testes but applied in advanced oocyte estimation. The macroscopic scale appeared suitable for the purpose, and the prevalence of territorial and sneaker tactics could therefore be documented. The sneakers had relative large testes and small seminal vesicles (SV), with the opposite being the case for the territorials. A third, numerous category with intermediate sized testes and SV was also recognized with unclear underlying tactical rationale, although regression analyses indicated similar investment in testes weight in relation to somatic weight as for the territorials. Low oxygen levels were the most important factor limiting spawning activity in territorial males. Our data suggested the existence of a spawning site on the outer shelf of the central Namibian shelf where the bottom water is hypoxic (oxygen saturation of 6.2-6.7%) while the anoxic middle shelf area (oxygen saturation of 1.7-2.9%) appeared to show too low oxygen levels for spawning to take place. Hence, significant parts of this large shelf area appear unsuited for successful reproduction of the bearded goby, in particular for nest building by the territorials.

  10. Biogeochemical modeling of CO2 and CH4 production in anoxic Arctic soil microcosms (United States)

    Tang, Guoping; Zheng, Jianqiu; Xu, Xiaofeng; Yang, Ziming; Graham, David E.; Gu, Baohua; Painter, Scott L.; Thornton, Peter E.


    Soil organic carbon turnover to CO2 and CH4 is sensitive to soil redox potential and pH conditions. However, land surface models do not consider redox and pH in the aqueous phase explicitly, thereby limiting their use for making predictions in anoxic environments. Using recent data from incubations of Arctic soils, we extend the Community Land Model with coupled carbon and nitrogen (CLM-CN) decomposition cascade to include simple organic substrate turnover, fermentation, Fe(III) reduction, and methanogenesis reactions, and assess the efficacy of various temperature and pH response functions. Incorporating the Windermere Humic Aqueous Model (WHAM) enables us to approximately describe the observed pH evolution without additional parameterization. Although Fe(III) reduction is normally assumed to compete with methanogenesis, the model predicts that Fe(III) reduction raises the pH from acidic to neutral, thereby reducing environmental stress to methanogens and accelerating methane production when substrates are not limiting. The equilibrium speciation predicts a substantial increase in CO2 solubility as pH increases, and taking into account CO2 adsorption to surface sites of metal oxides further decreases the predicted headspace gas-phase fraction at low pH. Without adequate representation of these speciation reactions, as well as the impacts of pH, temperature, and pressure, the CO2 production from closed microcosms can be substantially underestimated based on headspace CO2 measurements only. Our results demonstrate the efficacy of geochemical models for simulating soil biogeochemistry and provide predictive understanding and mechanistic representations that can be incorporated into land surface models to improve climate predictions.

  11. Cadmium-isotopic evidence for increasing primary productivity during the Late Permian anoxic event (United States)

    Georgiev, Svetoslav V.; Horner, Tristan J.; Stein, Holly J.; Hannah, Judith L.; Bingen, Bernard; Rehkämper, Mark


    Earth's most extreme extinction event near the end of the Late Permian decimated more than 90% of all extant marine species. Widespread and intensive oceanic anoxia almost certainly contributed to the catastrophe, though the driving mechanisms that sustained such conditions are still debated. Of particular interest is whether water column anoxia was a consequence of a 'stagnant ocean', or if it was controlled by increases in nutrient supply, primary productivity, and subsequent heterotrophic respiration. Testing these competing hypotheses requires deconvolving sedimentary/bottom water redox conditions from changes in surface water productivity in marine sediments. We address this issue by studying marine shales from East Greenland and the mid-Norwegian shelf and combining sedimentary redox proxies with cadmium-isotopic analyses. Sedimentary nitrogen-isotopic data, pyrite framboid analyses, and organic and inorganic shale geochemistry reveal sulfidic conditions with vigorous upwelling, and increasingly anoxic conditions with a strengthening upwelling in the Greenland and Norwegian sections, respectively. Detailed analysis of sedimentary metal budgets illustrates that Cd is primarily associated with organic carbon and records primary geochemical signatures, thus enabling reconstruction of surface water nutrient utilization. Cadmium-isotopic analyses of the authigenic shale fraction released by inverse aqua regia digestion yield an average δ114Cd110 of + 0.15 ± 0.01 ‰ (2 SE, n = 12; rel. NIST SRM 3108), indicative of incomplete surface water nutrient utilization up-section. The constant degree of nutrient utilization combined with strong upwelling requires increasing primary productivity - and not oceanic stagnation - to balance the larger nutrient fluxes to both study sites during the development of the Late Permian water column anoxia. Overall, our data illustrate that if bottom water redox and upwelling can be adequately constrained, Cd-isotopic analyses of

  12. Jellyfish Lake, Palau: Regeneration of C, N, Si, and P in anoxic marine lake sediments (United States)

    Lyons, W.B.; Lent, R.M.; Burnett, W.C.; Chin, P.; Landing, W.M.; Orem, W.H.; McArthur, J.M.


    Sediment cores from Jellyfish Lake were processed under an inert atmosphere and the pore waters extracted and analyzed for the following parameters: pH, titration alkalinity (TA), Cl-, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, Ca2-, Mg2+, SO42-, and H2S. Additionally, in one set of pore-water samples (core 10), the ??13C of the ??CO2 was also determined. The TA, H4SiO4, PO43-, NH4+, and H2S increased with depth in the pore waters above anoxic bottom-water values. H2S values increased to 3.8 ??M. In one case, both H4SiO4 and PO43- concentrations increased to a maximum value and then decreased with depth, suggesting removal into solid phases. The H4SiO4 concentrations are equal to or greater than pore-water values observed in sediments underlying upwelling areas. PO43- concentrations are, in general, lower than pore-water values from terrigenous nearshore areas but higher than nearshore carbonate pore-water values from Florida Bay or Bermuda. The Ca2+, Cl-, and Mg2+: Cl- ratios show slight decreases in the top 15-20 cm, suggesting that authigenic carbonate may be forming. This suggestion is supported by the fact that the pore waters are saturated with respect to CaCO3 due to the very high TAs. The ??13C measurements of the pore-water ??CO2 are from a shorter core. These measurements reach their most negative concentration at 72 cm and then become slightly heavier. This change is accompanied by a decrease in TA, suggesting the onset of methanogenesis at this location in this core.

  13. NF-κB and epigenetic mechanisms as integrative regulators of brain resilience to anoxic stress. (United States)

    Sarnico, Ilenia; Branca, Caterina; Lanzillotta, Annamaria; Porrini, Vanessa; Benarese, Marina; Spano, Pier Franco; Pizzi, Marina


    Brain cells display an amazing ability to respond to several different types of environmental stimuli and integrate this response physiologically. Some of these responses can outlive the original stimulus by days, weeks or even longer. Long-lasting changes in both physiological and pathological conditions occurring in response to external stimuli are almost always mediated by changes in gene expression. To effect these changes, cells have developed an impressive repertoire of signaling systems designed to modulate the activity of numerous transcription factors and epigenetic mechanisms affecting the chromatin structure. Since its initial characterization in the nervous system, NF-κB has shown to respond to multiple signals and elicit pleiotropic activities suggesting that it may play a pivotal role in integration of different types of information within the brain. Ample evidence demonstrates that NF-κB factors are engaged in and necessary for neuronal development and synaptic plasticity, but they also regulate brain response to environmental noxae. By focusing on the complexity of NF-κB transcriptional activity in neuronal cell death, it emerged that the composition of NF-κB active dimers finely tunes the neuronal vulnerability to brain ischemia. Even though we are only beginning to understand the contribution of distinct NF-κB family members to the regulation of gene transcription in the brain, an additional level of regulation of NF-κB activity has emerged as operated by the epigenetic mechanisms modulating histone acetylation. We will discuss NF-κB and epigenetic mechanisms as integrative regulators of brain resilience to anoxic stress and useful drug targets for restoration of brain function. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Brain Integration.

  14. [Characterisation of excess sludge reduction in an anoxic + oxic-settling-anaerobic activated sludge process]. (United States)

    Gao, Xu; Lu, Yan-Hua; Guo, Jin-Song


    An energy balance analysis method with auto calorimeter being adopted was introduced to determine calorific values of sludge samples in influent and effluent of uncoupling tank in an anoxic (A) + oxic-settling-anaerobic (OSA) process and a reference system. The affiliation of sludge amount change and its energy content were studied, as well as potential of excess sludge reduction was evaluated through modifying performance of uncoupling tank. The characteristi s and causes of sludge reduction in OSA system were deduced according to energy and matter balance analysis. Results show that when the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of uncoupling tank are 5.56 h, 7.14 h and 9 h, the excess sludge reduction of whole A + OS Asystem are 1.236 g/d, 0.771 g/d and 0.599 g/d respectively. Energy content of sludge flows into and out of the uncoupling tank changes, the specific calorific value of sludge in effluent is inclined to be higher than that in influent with the HRT of the tank increasing: there isn't any significant difference of sludge calorific values between influent and effluent at 5.56 h, while the differences are in 99-113 J/g at 7.14 h, and 191-329 J/g at 9 h. Sludge in uncoupling tank would decay and longer HRT will result in more attenuation. It could be concluded that excess sludge reduction of A + OSA system is caused by both of sludge decay in uncoupling tank and sludge proliferation in AO reaction zone.

  15. Nitrogen polishing in a fully anoxic anammox MBBR treating mainstream nitritation-denitritation effluent. (United States)

    Regmi, Pusker; Holgate, Becky; Miller, Mark W; Park, Hongkeun; Chandran, Kartik; Wett, Bernhard; Murthy, Sudhir; Bott, Charles B


    As nitrogen discharge limits are becoming more stringent, short-cut nitrogen systems and tertiary nitrogen polishing steps are gaining popularity. For partial nitritation or nitritation-denitritation systems, anaerobic ammonia oxidation (anammox) polishing may be feasible to remove residual ammonia and nitrite from the effluent. Nitrogen polishing of mainstream nitritation-denitritation system effluent via anammox was studied at 25°C in a fully anoxic moving bed bioreactor (MBBR) (V = 0.45 m(3) ) over 385 days. Unlike other anammox based processes, a very fast startup of anammox MBBR was demonstrated, despite nitrite limited feeding conditions (influent nitrite = 0.7 ± 0.59 mgN/L, ammonia = 6.13 ± 2.86 mgN/L, nitrate = 3.41 ± 1.92 mgN/L). The nitrogen removal performance was very stable within a wide range of nitrogen inputs. Anammox bacteria (AMX) activity up to 1 gN/m(2) /d was observed which is comparable to other biofilm-based systems. It is generally believed that nitrate production limits nitrogen removal through AMX metabolism. However, in this study, anammox MBBR demonstrated ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate removal at limited chemical oxygen demand (COD) availability. AMX and heterotrophs contributed to 0.68 ± 0.17 and 0.32 ± 0.17 of TIN removal, respectively. It was speculated that nitrogen removal might be aided by denitratation which could be due to heterotrophs or the recently discovered ability for AMX to use short-chain fatty acids to reduce nitrate to nitrite. This study demonstrates the feasibility of anammox nitrogen polishing in an MBBR is possible for nitritation-denitration systems.

  16. Small-world Characteristics of EEG Patterns in Post-Anoxic Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martijn eBeudel


    Full Text Available Post-Anoxic Encephalopathy (PAE has a heterogenous outcome which is difficult to predict. At present, it is possible to predict poor outcome using somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP in only a minority of the patients at an early stage. In addition, it remains difficult to predict good outcome at an early stage. Network architecture, as can be quantified with continuous electroencephalography (cEEG, may serve as a candidate measure for predicting neurological outcome. Here we explore whether cEEG monitoring can be used to detect the integrity of neural network architecture in patients with PAE after cardiac arrest. From 56 patients with PAE treated with mild therapeutic hypothermia (MTH, 19-channel cEEG data was recorded starting as soon as possible after cardiac arrest. Adjacency matrices of shared frequencies between 1 and 25 Hz of the EEG channels were obtained using Fourier transformations. Number of network nodes and connections, clustering coefficient (C, average path length (L and small-world index (SWI were derived. Outcome was quantified by the best Cerebral Performance Category (CPC-score within 6 months. Compared to non-survivors, survivors showed significantly more nodes and connections. L was significantly higher and C and SWI were significantly lower in the survivor group than in the non-survivor group. The number of nodes, connections and the L negatively correlated with the CPC-score. C and SWI correlated positively with the CPC-score. The combination of number of nodes, connections, C and L showed the most significant difference and correlation between survivors and non-survivors and CPC-score. Our data might implicate that non-survivors have insufficient distribution and differentiation of neural activity for regaining normal brain function. These network differences, already present during hypothermia, might be further developed as early prognostic markers. The predictive values are however still inferior to current practice

  17. Influence of microorganisms on the oxidation state distribution of multivalent actinides under anoxic conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Donald Timothy [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Borkowski, Marian [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lucchini, Jean - Francois [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Ams, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Richmann, M. K. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Khaing, H. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swanson, J. S. [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The fate and potential mobility of multivalent actinides in the subsurface is receiving increased attention as the DOE looks to cleanup the many legacy nuclear waste sites and associated subsurface contamination. Plutonium, uranium and neptunium are the near-surface multivalent contaminants of concern and are also key contaminants for the deep geologic disposal of nuclear waste. Their mobility is highly dependent on their redox distribution at their contamination source as well as along their potential migration pathways. This redox distribution is often controlled, especially in the near-surface where organic/inorganic contaminants often coexist, by the direct and indirect effects of microbial activity. Under anoxic conditions, indirect and direct bioreduction mechanisms exist that promote the prevalence of lower-valent species for multivalent actinides. Oxidation-state-specific biosorption is also an important consideration for long-term migration and can influence oxidation state distribution. Results of ongoing studies to explore and establish the oxidation-state specific interactions of soil bacteria (metal reducers and sulfate reducers) as well as halo-tolerant bacteria and Archaea for uranium, neptunium and plutonium will be presented. Enzymatic reduction is a key process in the bioreduction of plutonium and uranium, but co-enzymatic processes predominate in neptunium systems. Strong sorptive interactions can occur for most actinide oxidation states but are likely a factor in the stabilization of lower-valent species when more than one oxidation state can persist under anaerobic microbiologically-active conditions. These results for microbiologically active systems are interpreted in the context of their overall importance in defining the potential migration of multivalent actinides in the subsurface.

  18. Anoxic growth of Ensifer meliloti 1021 by N2O-reduction, a potential mitigation strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eBueno


    Full Text Available Denitrification in agricultural soils is a major source of N2O. Legume crops enhance N2O emission by providing N-rich residues, thereby stimulating denitrification, both by free-living denitrifying bacteria and by the symbiont (rhizobium within the nodules. However, there are limited data concerning N2O production and consumption by endosymbiotic bacteria associated with legume crops. It has been reported that the alfalfa endosymbiont Ensifer meliloti strain 1021, despite possessing and expressing the complete set of denitrification enzymes, is unable to grow via nitrate respiration under anoxic conditions. In the present study, we have demonstrated by using a robotized incubation system that this bacterium is able to grow through anaerobic respiration of N2O to N2. N2O reductase (N2OR activity was not dependent on the presence of nitrogen oxyanions or NO, thus the expression could be induced by oxygen depletion alone. When incubated at pH 6, E. meliloti was unable to reduce N2O, corroborating previous observations found in both, extracted soil bacteria and Paracoccus denitrificans pure cultures, where expression of functional N2O reductase is difficult at low pH. Furthermore, the presence in the medium of highly reduced C-substrates, such as butyrate, negatively affected N2OR activity. The emission of N2O from soils can be lowered if legumes plants are inoculated with rhizobial strains overexpressing N2O reductase. This study demonstrates that strains like E. meliloti 1021, which do not produce N2O but are able to reduce the N2O emitted by other organisms, could act as even better N2O sinks.

  19. Anoxic Biodegradation of Isosaccharinic Acids at Alkaline pH by Natural Microbial Communities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P Rout

    Full Text Available One design concept for the long-term management of the UK's intermediate level radioactive wastes (ILW is disposal to a cementitious geological disposal facility (GDF. Under the alkaline (10.013.0 anoxic conditions expected within a GDF, cellulosic wastes will undergo chemical hydrolysis. The resulting cellulose degradation products (CDP are dominated by α- and β-isosaccharinic acids (ISA, which present an organic carbon source that may enable subsequent microbial colonisation of a GDF. Microcosms established from neutral, near-surface sediments demonstrated complete ISA degradation under methanogenic conditions up to pH 10.0. Degradation decreased as pH increased, with β-ISA fermentation more heavily influenced than α-ISA. This reduction in degradation rate was accompanied by a shift in microbial population away from organisms related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides to a more diverse Clostridial community. The increase in pH to 10.0 saw an increase in detection of Alcaligenes aquatilis and a dominance of hydrogenotrophic methanogens within the Archaeal population. Methane was generated up to pH 10.0 with acetate accumulation at higher pH values reflecting a reduced detection of acetoclastic methanogens. An increase in pH to 11.0 resulted in the accumulation of ISA, the absence of methanogenesis and the loss of biomass from the system. This study is the first to demonstrate methanogenesis from ISA by near surface microbial communities not previously exposed to these compounds up to and including pH 10.0.

  20. Stimulation of autotrophic denitrification by intrusions of the Bosporus Plume into the anoxic Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara A. Fuchsman


    Full Text Available Autotrophic denitrification was measured in the southwestern coastal Black Sea, where the Bosporus Plume injects oxidized chemical species (especially O2 and NO3- into the oxic, suboxic and anoxic layers. Prominent oxygen intrusions caused an overlap of NOx- and sulfide at the same station where autotrophic denitrification activity was detected with incubation experiments. Several bacteria that have been proposed to oxidize sulfide in other low oxygen environments were found in the Black Sea including SUP05, Sulfurimonas, Arcobacter, and BS-GSO2. Comparison of TRFLP profiles from this mixing zone station and the Western Gyre (a station not affected by the Bosporus Plume indicate the greatest relative abundance of Sulfurimonas and Arcobacter at the appropriate depths at the mixing zone station. The autotrophic gammaproteobacterium BS-GSO2 correlated with ammonium fluxes rather than with sulfide fluxes and the maximum in SUP05 peak height was shallower than the depths where autotrophic denitrification was detected. Notably, anammox activity was not detected at the mixing zone station, though low levels of DNA from the anammox bacteria Candidatus Scalindua were present. These results provide evidence for a modified ecosystem with different N2 production pathways in the southwest coastal region compared to that found in the rest of the Black Sea. Moreover, the same Sulfurimonas phylotype (BS139 was previously detected on >30 μm particles in the suboxic zone of the Western Gyre along with DNA of potential sulfate reducers, so it is possible that particle-attached autotrophic denitrification may be an overlooked N2 production pathway in the central Black Sea as well.

  1. Dynamics in artifact ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødker, Susanne; Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted


    artifacts influence the use of others. Understanding this interplay becomes more and more essential for interaction design as our artifact ecologies grow. This paper continues a recent discourse on artifact ecologies. Through interviews with iPhone users, we demonstrate that relationships between artifacts...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Shubik


    Full Text Available The author's investigations results are presented in comparing with literary materials concerning the application of principles and methods of ecological immunology for solving radioecological questions. The data on characteristic of immunity and health of human population affected with radiation factors of the environment is given as well as animals' population state as the links offood ecological chains.

  3. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement......, will not be covered in this e-book....

  4. The ecology of citizenship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coates, Robert; Garmany, Jeff


    This article calls into question the relationship between citizenship, space and ecological stability. Drawing on case study research from urban Brazil, we argue that while space may be crucial to Western perspectives of citizenship – particularly in urban areas – the ecological coproduction of thes

  5. The Case of the Missing Ancient Fungal Polyploids. (United States)

    Campbell, Matthew A; Ganley, Austen R D; Gabaldón, Toni; Cox, Murray P


    Polyploidy-the increase in the number of whole chromosome sets-is an important evolutionary force in eukaryotes. Polyploidy is well recognized throughout the evolutionary history of plants and animals, where several ancient events have been hypothesized to be drivers of major evolutionary radiations. However, fungi provide a striking contrast: while numerous recent polyploids have been documented, ancient fungal polyploidy is virtually unknown. We present a survey of known fungal polyploids that confirms the absence of ancient fungal polyploidy events. Three hypotheses may explain this finding. First, ancient fungal polyploids are indeed rare, with unique aspects of fungal biology providing similar benefits without genome duplication. Second, fungal polyploids are not successful in the long term, leading to few extant species derived from ancient polyploidy events. Third, ancient fungal polyploids are difficult to detect, causing the real contribution of polyploidy to fungal evolution to be underappreciated. We consider each of these hypotheses in turn and propose that failure to detect ancient events is the most likely reason for the lack of observed ancient fungal polyploids. We examine whether existing data can provide evidence for previously unrecognized ancient fungal polyploidy events but discover that current resources are too limited. We contend that establishing whether unrecognized ancient fungal polyploidy events exist is important to ascertain whether polyploidy has played a key role in the evolution of the extensive complexity and diversity observed in fungi today and, thus, whether polyploidy is a driver of evolutionary diversifications across eukaryotes. Therefore, we conclude by suggesting ways to test the hypothesis that there are unrecognized polyploidy events in the deep evolutionary history of the fungi.

  6. Ancient climate change, antifreeze, and the evolutionary diversification of Antarctic fishes. (United States)

    Near, Thomas J; Dornburg, Alex; Kuhn, Kristen L; Eastman, Joseph T; Pennington, Jillian N; Patarnello, Tomaso; Zane, Lorenzo; Fernández, Daniel A; Jones, Christopher D


    The Southern Ocean around Antarctica is among the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, but has experienced episodic climate change during the past 40 million years. It remains unclear how ancient periods of climate change have shaped Antarctic biodiversity. The origin of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in Antarctic notothenioid fishes has become a classic example of how the evolution of a key innovation in response to climate change can drive adaptive radiation. By using a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny of notothenioids and reconstructed paleoclimate, we demonstrate that the origin of AFGP occurred between 42 and 22 Ma, which includes a period of global cooling approximately 35 Ma. However, the most species-rich lineages diversified and evolved significant ecological differences at least 10 million years after the origin of AFGPs, during a second cooling event in the Late Miocene (11.6-5.3 Ma). This pattern indicates that AFGP was not the sole trigger of the notothenioid adaptive radiation. Instead, the bulk of the species richness and ecological diversity originated during the Late Miocene and into the Early Pliocene, a time coincident with the origin of polar conditions and increased ice activity in the Southern Ocean. Our results challenge the current understanding of the evolution of Antarctic notothenioids suggesting that the ecological opportunity that underlies this adaptive radiation is not linked to a single trait, but rather to a combination of freeze avoidance offered by AFGPs and subsequent exploitation of new habitats and open niches created by increased glacial and ice sheet activity.

  7. Ancient DNA from lake sediments: Bridging the gap between paleoecology and genetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lumibao Candice Y


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Quaternary plant ecology in much of the world has historically relied on morphological identification of macro- and microfossils from sediments of small freshwater lakes. Here, we report new protocols that reliably yield DNA sequence data from Holocene plant macrofossils and bulk lake sediment used to infer ecological change. This will allow changes in census populations, estimated from fossils and associated sediment, to be directly associated with population genetic changes. Results We successfully sequenced DNA from 64 samples (out of 126 comprised of bulk sediment and seeds, leaf fragments, budscales, and samaras extracted from Holocene lake sediments in the western Great Lakes region of North America. Overall, DNA yields were low. However, we were able to reliably amplify samples with as few as 10 copies of a short cpDNA fragment with little detectable PCR inhibition. Our success rate was highest for sediments Conclusions An ability to extract ancient DNA from Holocene sediments potentially allows exciting new insights into the genetic consequences of long-term environmental change. The low DNA copy numbers we found in fossil material and the discovery of multiple sequence variants from single macrofossil extractions highlight the need for careful experimental and laboratory protocols. Further application of these protocols should lead to better understanding of the ecological and evolutionary consequences of environmental change.

  8. Legacy of the Ancient World: An Educational Guide. Understanding Ancient Culture through Art at the Tampa Museum of Art. (United States)

    Whitelaw, R. Lynn

    Among the many contributions made by Ancient Greeks and Romans to contemporary life, are those which influence art, architecture, literature, philosophy, mathematics and science, theater, athletics, religion, and the founding of democracy. The Tampa Museum of Art's classical collection offers a unique opportunity to learn about Ancient Greeks and…

  9. Predictive systems ecology. (United States)

    Evans, Matthew R; Bithell, Mike; Cornell, Stephen J; Dall, Sasha R X; Díaz, Sandra; Emmott, Stephen; Ernande, Bruno; Grimm, Volker; Hodgson, David J; Lewis, Simon L; Mace, Georgina M; Morecroft, Michael; Moustakas, Aristides; Murphy, Eugene; Newbold, Tim; Norris, K J; Petchey, Owen; Smith, Matthew; Travis, Justin M J; Benton, Tim G


    Human societies, and their well-being, depend to a significant extent on the state of the ecosystems that surround them. These ecosystems are changing rapidly usually in response to anthropogenic changes in the environment. To determine the likely impact of environmental change on ecosystems and the best ways to manage them, it would be desirable to be able to predict their future states. We present a proposal to develop the paradigm of predictive systems ecology, explicitly to understand and predict the properties and behaviour of ecological systems. We discuss the necessary and desirable features of predictive systems ecology models. There are places where predictive systems ecology is already being practised and we summarize a range of terrestrial and marine examples. Significant challenges remain but we suggest that ecology would benefit both as a scientific discipline and increase its impact in society if it were to embrace the need to become more predictive.

  10. Ancient Forests and the Tree-Ring Reconstruction of Past Climate (Ancient Forests and Dendroclimatology)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahle, David (Tree-Ring Laboratory, University of Arkansas)


    The original presettlement forests of North America have been dramatically altered, but thousands of unmolested ancient forests survive on remote or noncommercial terrain, including dry-site eastern hardwoods such as chestnut oak and post oak, the pinyon-juniper woodlands of the semiarid West, oak woodlands of California and in northeast Mexico, and the boreal forests of Canada and Alaska. Long tree-ring chronologies derived from these ancient forest remnants provide irreplaceable archives of environmental variability which are crucial for evaluating present and future change. Temperature sensitive tree -ring chronologies from cold treeline environments place 20th century warming into long historical perspective, and moisture sensitive tree-ring chronologies provide analogs to the decadal moisture regimes of the 20th century. These tree-ring data suggests that the 16th century megadrought was the most severe-sustained drought to impact North America in 1500 years, and had huge environmental and social impacts at the dawn of European settlement.

  11. Ancient engineers' inventions precursors of the present

    CERN Document Server

    Rossi, Cesare


    This book describes the inventions and designs of ancient engineers who are the precursors of the present. The period ranges mainly from 300 B.C. to 1600 A.D. with several exceptions. Many of the oldest inventions are documented by archaeological finds, often very little known, mainly from Pompeii, Herculaneum and Stabiae and reveal a surprising modernity in their conception. Most of the inventions presented in the first four parts of the book were conceived up to the late Roman Empire and may be considered as milestones, each in their respective field. The fifth part concentrates on more recent centuries. The sixth part deals with some building construction techniques. Generally, for each of the presented inventions, three elements of research and reference are provided: written documents (the classics), iconic references (coins, bas-reliefs, etc.) and archaeological findings. The authors did not write this book for engineers only; hence they describe all the devices without assuming wide technical knowledge...

  12. Damage and repair of ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, David; Willerslev, Eske; Hansen, Anders


    , and extensive degradation. In the course of this review, we will discuss the current aDNA literature describing the importance of aDNA studies as they relate to important biological questions and the difficulties associated with extracting useful information from highly degraded and damaged substrates derived......Under certain conditions small amounts of DNA can survive for long periods of time and can be used as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) substrates for the study of phylogenetic relationships and population genetics of extinct plants and animals, including hominids. Because of extensive DNA...... degradation, these studies are limited to species that lived within the past 10(4)-10(5) years (Late Pleistocene), although DNA sequences from 10(6) years have been reported. Ancient DNA (aDNA) has been used to study phylogenetic relationships of protists, fungi, algae, plants, and higher eukaryotes...

  13. Were the ancient Romans art forgers?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Casemen


    Full Text Available A popularly held tenet in the historical record on art is that the practice of forgery began in ancient Rome, where sculptures made by craftsmen of the day were passed off as classical Greek antiquities. However, revisionist scholars in recent decades have challenged this perspective. One line of criticism denies that forgery was present in Rome, asserting that the evidence for it has been misunderstood. A softer line suggests that while the traditional view overstates the case, there is still reason to accept that the culture of Rome harbored art forgery. This article assesses the competing claims in light of literary references by Roman authors, physical evidence including inscriptions on sculptures, the phenomenon of Corinthian bronze, the nature of Roman copying, social and economic conditions necessary for art forgery to arise, and what art forgery consists of by definition.

  14. Confocal Terahertz Imaging of Ancient Manuscripts (United States)

    Flammini, Mariano; Bonsi, Claudia; Ciano, Chiara; Giliberti, Valeria; Pontecorvo, Emanuele; Italia, Paola; DelRe, Eugenio; Ortolani, Michele


    Terahertz imaging has the potential to identify and decipher portions of ancient manuscripts, which may be unreadable at infrared and visible wavelengths. We use a scanning confocal terahertz microscope to scan a medieval parchment with music notes and pentagrams written with different inks. The microscope is based on a continuous-wave solid-state source at 0.3 THz, emitting in the free space with a horn antenna, and a high numerical-aperture ellipsoidal reflector. We present terahertz images with diffraction-limited lateral resolution of approximately 0.5 mm, where the different inks all give similar high contrast. Symbols written on the "verso" side of the parchment, barely glimpsed in the near-infrared photograph, leave a clear imprint in the terahertz images. Artifacts due to imperfect flatness of the parchment are also briefly discussed.

  15. The Ancient Evolutionary History of Polyomaviruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher B Buck


    Full Text Available Polyomaviruses are a family of DNA tumor viruses that are known to infect mammals and birds. To investigate the deeper evolutionary history of the family, we used a combination of viral metagenomics, bioinformatics, and structural modeling approaches to identify and characterize polyomavirus sequences associated with fish and arthropods. Analyses drawing upon the divergent new sequences indicate that polyomaviruses have been gradually co-evolving with their animal hosts for at least half a billion years. Phylogenetic analyses of individual polyomavirus genes suggest that some modern polyomavirus species arose after ancient recombination events involving distantly related polyomavirus lineages. The improved evolutionary model provides a useful platform for developing a more accurate taxonomic classification system for the viral family Polyomaviridae.

  16. Optical spectroscopy of ancient paper and textiles (United States)

    Missori, M.


    Ancient paper and textiles represent a striking example of optically inhomogenous materials whose optical responses are strongly governed by scattering effects. In order to recover the absorption coefficient from non-invasive and non-destructive reflectance measurements a specific approach based on Kubelka-Munk two-flux theory must be applied. In this way quantitative chemical information, such as chromophores concentration, can be obtained, as well as quantitative spectra of additional substances such as pigments or dyes. Results on a folio of the Codex on the Flight of Birds by Leonardo da Vinci and a linen cloth dated back to 1653 and called the Shroud of Arquata, a copy of the Shroud of Turin, will be presented.

  17. Ancient Maya astronomical tables from Xultun, Guatemala. (United States)

    Saturno, William A; Stuart, David; Aveni, Anthony F; Rossi, Franco


    Maya astronomical tables are recognized in bark-paper books from the Late Postclassic period (1300 to 1521 C.E.), but Classic period (200 to 900 C.E.) precursors have not been found. In 2011, a small painted room was excavated at the extensive ancient Maya ruins of Xultun, Guatemala, dating to the early 9th century C.E. The walls and ceiling of the room are painted with several human figures. Two walls also display a large number of delicate black, red, and incised hieroglyphs. Many of these hieroglyphs are calendrical in nature and relate astronomical computations, including at least two tables concerning the movement of the Moon, and perhaps Mars and Venus. These apparently represent early astronomical tables and may shed light on the later books.

  18. Coal and cremation in ancient Peru (United States)

    Brooks, William E.


    After my visit to the adobe-walled archaeological site of Chan Chan, near Trujillo in northern Peru in the summer of 2000 (Geotimes, August 2003), my guide asked if I would like to see the metallurgical furnaces used by the Chimú, ancient residents and master metalsmiths of the region. Chan Chan was the capital of the Chimú Empire (A.D. 1100-1400) and the largest pre-Columbian city in the Americas. These furnaces, my guide explained, were where Andean gold, silver and copper ores were smelted and fabricated into jewelry, masks and plates sought by the Spaniards. We left the main part of the complex, followed a dusty trail, and arrived at a site marked by fresh-looking, redbrown, clinker-like debris.

  19. Study of ancient pottery from Slovakia (United States)

    Lipka, J.; Rausz, J.; Gajdošová, M.; Fusek, G.; Sitek, J.; Hucl, M.


    Ancient pottery samples collected from south-west Slovakia were studied through subjective observation and by Mössbauer spectroscopy. This method is convenient for determining the provenance and the manufacture of pottery. Transformations, induced by firing the clay and characterized by Mössbauer spectroscopy, give valuable information regarding the manufacture as, for instance, the final temperature of firing in it. The relative abundance of Fe2+ and Fe3+ determines the atmosphere used to fire a pottery. It has been found that the determination of the firing atmosphere obtained through the subjective observation is in good agreement with that obtained using Mössbauer spectroscopy. An unfired and fired clay was also investigated.

  20. Evidence of Ancient Blisters in Rocks (United States)


    This image from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit shows scoriaceous rocks (rocks containing holes or cavities) on the ground, as well as a transition from rocky terrain (foreground) to smoother terrain (background). Spirit is heading toward the smoother terrain on its way to the 'Columbia Hills.' The holes in some of the rocks may have resulted from 'blisters' formed by water vapor as it escaped lava. This indicates that the rocks were chilled atop an ancient lava flow. Porous rocks such as these, now appearing in abundance, have not been seen since early in the mission. Scientists believe they may have been covered by crater ejecta. This image was taken on sol 110 (April 24, 2004) at a region dubbed 'site 35.'

  1. Recognition of dementia in ancient China. (United States)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Lu-Ning; Tian, Jin-Zhou


    A search of previous records in the literatures was done to summarize the opinions for dementia in ancient China. The earliest description of dementia was traced in the Yellow emperor's internal classic, a book written 2000 years ago. Hua Tuo (AD 140-208) in Han Dynasty first denominated "dementia" in the book, Hua Tuo Shen Yi Mi Zhuan. The pathogenesis of dementia could be generalized as the insufficiency of Qi, a flowing energy; the stagnation of phlegm, a harmful liquid substance in the body; and the blood stasis, which were also regarded as therapeutic targets. Therefore, we can conclude that dementia has been recognized and investigated in traditional Chinese medicine, which is definitely before the industrial civilization era.

  2. Ancient bacteria show evidence of DNA repair

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnson, Sarah Stewart; Hebsgaard, Martin B; Christensen, Torben R


    Recent claims of cultivable ancient bacteria within sealed environments highlight our limited understanding of the mechanisms behind long-term cell survival. It remains unclear how dormancy, a favored explanation for extended cellular persistence, can cope with spontaneous genomic decay over......-term survival of bacteria sealed in frozen conditions for up to one million years. Our results show evidence of bacterial survival in samples up to half a million years in age, making this the oldest independently authenticated DNA to date obtained from viable cells. Additionally, we find strong evidence...... that this long-term survival is closely tied to cellular metabolic activity and DNA repair that over time proves to be superior to dormancy as a mechanism in sustaining bacteria viability....

  3. Homosexuality in ancient and modern Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Young-Gwan; Hahn, Sook-Ja


    This paper examines Korean views on the subject of male homosexuality. Using historical and contemporary sources, it seeks to explain elements of new cultural openness towards homosexuality in modern Korea. Korean people's understanding and knowledge of male homosexuality is ambiguous and limited. In the absence of knowledge and open communication, most Korean people imagine that male homosexuality is an abnormal and impure modern phenomenon. Prejudice and confusion lead most Korean male homosexuals to be estranged from their families, religious communities and non-homosexual peers. Moreover, they are often viewed as the 'carriers' of AIDS and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). The purpose of this paper is to examine current Korean perspectives on male homosexuality by exploring both the ancient history of the practice of male homosexuality and current thinking about homosexual life among Koreans, which has played an important part in the formation of contemporary attitudes toward homosexuality.

  4. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia - part 2]. (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J


    The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. Insofar, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of a approximately shipu (clergymanexorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as common healthy individuals or rule leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) that, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for, would give a final decision about the disease or the future. Besides this more occult facet, nourished in religious faiths and in the magic, the medicine of Ancient Mesopotamia included rational knowledge, certainly as the result of systematic patients observation and semiotic interpretation. From those observations and knowledge referred to the Sumerian period, carefully logged, refined and transmitted to the following generations, it was built a valuable group of texts with the description of symptoms, signs, diagnosis and prognostic of the most common diseases, still identifiable in the present.

  5. Ecology of Hypersaline Microorganisms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kerkar, S.

    of ancient seas. Deep Sea brines are relatively stable as a result of their higher density as reported in the Red Sea and Gulf of Mexico (MacDonald et al, 1990). Preliminary studies have suggested that microbial activity occurs in some Deep Sea hypersaline... partially characterized extreme halophile called ?Halobacterium sp GN101? (GN = Guerrero Negro, Mexico) (Ebert and Goebel, 1985). Hal R1 activity is typical with first activity detected during the transition from exponential to stationary phase...

  6. Ancient clam gardens, traditional management portfolios, and the resilience of coupled human-ocean systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Jackley


    Full Text Available Indigenous communities have actively managed their environments for millennia using a diversity of resource use and conservation strategies. Clam gardens, ancient rock-walled intertidal beach terraces, represent one example of an early mariculture technology that may have been used to improve food security and confer resilience to coupled human-ocean systems. We surveyed a coastal landscape for evidence of past resource use and management to gain insight into ancient resource stewardship practices on the central coast of British Columbia, Canada. We found that clam gardens are embedded within a diverse portfolio of resource use and management strategies and were likely one component of a larger, complex resource management system. We compared clam diversity, density, recruitment, and biomass in three clam gardens and three unmodified nonwalled beaches. Evidence suggests that butter clams (Saxidomus gigantea had 1.96 times the biomass and 2.44 times the density in clam gardens relative to unmodified beaches. This was due to a reduction in beach slope and thus an increase in the optimal tidal range where clams grow and survive best. The most pronounced differences in butter clam density between nonwalled beaches and clam gardens were found at high tidal elevations at the top of the beach. Finally, clam recruits (0.5-2 mm in length tended to be greater in clam gardens compared to nonwalled beaches and may be attributed to the addition of shell hash by ancient people, which remains on the landscape today. As part of a broader social-ecological system, clam garden sites were among several modifications made by humans that collectively may have conferred resilience to past communities by providing reliable and diverse access to food resources.

  7. Perspectives of the microbial carbon pump with special references to microbial respiration and ecological efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dang


    Full Text Available Although respiration consumes fixed carbon and produce CO2, it provides energy for essential biological processes of an ecosystem, including the microbial carbon pump (MCP. In MCP-driving biotransformation of labile DOC to recalcitrant DOC (RDOC, microbial respiration provides the metabolic energy for environmental organic substrate sensing, cellular enzyme syntheses and catalytic processes such as uptake, secretion, modification, fixation and storage of carbon compounds. The MCP efficiency of a heterotrophic microorganism is thus related to its energy production efficiency and hence to its respiration efficiency. Anaerobically respiring microbes usually have lower energy production efficiency and lower energy-dependent carbon transformation efficiency, and consequently lower MCP efficiency at per cell level. This effect is masked by the phenomena that anoxic environments often store more organic matter. Here we point out that organic carbon preservation and RDOC production is different in mechanisms, and anaerobically respiring ecosystems could also have lower MCP ecological efficiency. Typical cases can be found in large river estuarine ecosystems. Due to strong terrigenous input of nutrients and organic matter, estuarine ecosystems usually experience intense heterotrophic respiration processes that rapidly consume dissolved oxygen, potentially producing hypoxic and anoxic zones in the water column. The lowered availability of dissolved oxygen and the excessive supply of nutrients such as nitrate from river input prompt enhanced anaerobic respiration processes. Thus, some nutrients may be consumed by anaerobically respiring heterotrophic microorganisms, instead of being utilized by phytoplankton for carbon fixation and primary production. In this situation, the ecological functioning of the estuarine ecosystem is altered and the ecological efficiency is lowered, as less carbon is fixed and less energy is produced. Ultimately this would have

  8. Recent Developments in Ecological Economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007......Reader with published articles within the field of ecological economics, mostly from 1997 - 2007...

  9. Neanderthal behaviour, diet, and disease inferred from ancient DNA in dental calculus. (United States)

    Weyrich, Laura S; Duchene, Sebastian; Soubrier, Julien; Arriola, Luis; Llamas, Bastien; Breen, James; Morris, Alan G; Alt, Kurt W; Caramelli, David; Dresely, Veit; Farrell, Milly; Farrer, Andrew G; Francken, Michael; Gully, Neville; Haak, Wolfgang; Hardy, Karen; Harvati, Katerina; Held, Petra; Holmes, Edward C; Kaidonis, John; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; de la Rasilla, Marco; Rosas, Antonio; Semal, Patrick; Soltysiak, Arkadiusz; Townsend, Grant; Usai, Donatella; Wahl, Joachim; Huson, Daniel H; Dobney, Keith; Cooper, Alan


    Recent genomic data have revealed multiple interactions between Neanderthals and modern humans, but there is currently little genetic evidence regarding Neanderthal behaviour, diet, or disease. Here we describe the shotgun-sequencing of ancient DNA from five specimens of Neanderthal calcified dental plaque (calculus) and the characterization of regional differences in Neanderthal ecology. At Spy cave, Belgium, Neanderthal diet was heavily meat based and included woolly rhinoceros and wild sheep (mouflon), characteristic of a steppe environment. In contrast, no meat was detected in the diet of Neanderthals from El Sidrón cave, Spain, and dietary components of mushrooms, pine nuts, and moss reflected forest gathering. Differences in diet were also linked to an overall shift in the oral bacterial community (microbiota) and suggested that meat consumption contributed to substantial variation within Neanderthal microbiota. Evidence for self-medication was detected in an El Sidrón Neanderthal with a dental abscess and a chronic gastrointestinal pathogen (Enterocytozoon bieneusi). Metagenomic data from this individual also contained a nearly complete genome of the archaeal commensal Methanobrevibacter oralis (10.2× depth of coverage)-the oldest draft microbial genome generated to date, at around 48,000 years old. DNA preserved within dental calculus represents a notable source of information about the behaviour and health of ancient hominin specimens, as well as a unique system that is useful for the study of long-term microbial evolution.

  10. Quantitative plant ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian


    This e-book is written in the Wolfram' CDF format (download free CDF player from The objective of this e-book is to introduce the population ecological concepts for measuring and predicting the ecological success of plant species. This will be done by focusing on the measurement...... and statistical modelling of plant species abundance and the relevant ecological processes that control species abundance. The focus on statistical modelling and likelihood function based methods also means that more algorithm based methods, e.g. ordination techniques and boosted regression tress...

  11. Complex adaptive systems ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie


    In the following, I will analyze two articles called Complex Adaptive Systems EcologyI & II (Molin & Molin, 1997 & 2000). The CASE-articles are some of the more quirkyarticles that have come out of the Molecular Microbial Ecology Group - a groupwhere I am currently making observational studies....... They are the result of acooperation between Søren Molin, professor in the group, and his brother, JanMolin, professor at Department of Organization and Industrial Sociology atCopenhagen Business School. The cooperation arises from the recognition that bothmicrobial ecology and sociology/organization theory works...

  12. [Parasitism and ecological parasitology]. (United States)

    Balashov, Iu S


    Parasitism as one of the life modes is a general biological phenomenon and is a characteristic of all viruses, many taxa of bacteria, fungi, protists, metaphytes, and metazoans. Zooparasitology is focused on studies of parasitic animals, particularly, on their taxonomy, anatomy, life cycles, host-parasite relations, biocoenotic connections, and evolution. Ecological parasitology is a component of ecology, as the scientific study of the relation of living organisms with each other and their surroundings. In the present paper, critical analysis of the problems, main postulates, and terminology of the modern ecological parasitology is given.

  13. Simultaneous urea hydrolysis, formaldehyde removal and denitrification in a multifed upflow filter under anoxic and anaerobic conditions. (United States)

    Garrido, J M; Méndez, R; Lema, J M


    A multifed upflow filter (MUF), working under anoxic or anaerobic conditions, coupled with an aerobic biofilm airlift suspension (BAS) reactor was operated in order to treat a wastewater with high formaldehyde (up to 1.5 g L-1) and urea (up to 0.46 g L-1) concentrations. In the MUF, formaldehyde removal, denitrification and urea hydrolysis took place simultaneously. The MUF was operated at 37 degrees C, at a hydraulic retention time (HRT) ranging from 1 to 0.3 d. An organic loading rate (OLR) of 0.5 kg-formaldehyde m-3 d-1 was efficiently eliminated during anaerobic operation and transformed into methane, while a much higher OLR (up to 2 kg-formaldehyde m-3 d-1) was oxidised under anoxic conditions by the nitrite or nitrate from the nitrifying airlift. However, only 80% of urea was hydrolysed to ammonia in an anoxic environment while complete conversion occurred under anaerobic conditions. Moreover, formaldehyde concentrations higher than 50 mg L-1 provoked a loss of efficiency of urea hydrolysis, decreasing to 10% at formaldehyde concentrations above 300 mg L-1. Methane production rate during the anaerobic stage was adversely affected by accumulations of formaldehyde in the reactor causing lower formaldehyde removal efficiency. However, denitrification proceeded properly even at a formaldehyde concentration of 700 mg L-1 in the reactor, although nitrous oxide appears in the off-gas. The COD/N ratios required for complete nitrite and nitrate denitrification with formaldehyde were estimated at 2.1 and 3.5 kg-COD/kg-N, respectively.

  14. Process evaluation of an alternating aerobic-anoxic process applied in a sequencing batch reactor for nitrogen removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Wei; PENG Yongzhen; WANG Shuying


    In order to improve the nitrogen removal efficiency and save operational cost,the feasibility of the alternating aerobic-anoxic process(AAA process)applied in a sequencing batch reactor(SBR)system for nitrogen removal was investigated.Under sufficient influent alkalinity,the AAA process did not have an advantage over one aerobicanoxic(OAA)cycle on treatment efficiency because microorganisms had an adaptive stage at the alternating aerobic-anoxic transition,which would prolong the total cycling time.On the contrary,the AAA process made the system control more complicated.Under deficient influent alkalinity,when compared to OAA,the AAA process improved treatment efficiency and effluent quality with NH4+-N in the effluent below the detection limit.In the nitrification.the average stoichiometric ratio between alkalinity consumption and ammonia oxidation is calculated to be 7.07 mg CaCO3/mg NH4+-N.In the denitrification,the aver age stoichiometric ratio between alkalinity production and NO3- -N reduction is about 3.57 mg CaCO3/mg NO3- -N.As a result,half of the alkalinity previously consumed during the aerobic nitrification was recovered during the subsequent anoxic denitrification period.That was why the higher treatment efficiency in the AAA process was achieved without the supplement of bicarbonate alkalinity.If the lack of alkalinity in the influent was less than 1/3 of that needed.there is no need for external alkalinity addition and treatment efficiency was the same as that under sufficient influent alkalinity.Eyen if the lack of alkalinity in the influent was more than 1/3 of that needed.the AAA process was an optimal strategy because it reduced the external alkalinity addition and saved on operational cost.

  15. Isotope studies of carbonate rocks of La Luna Formation (Venezuela) to constrain the oceanic anoxic event 3 (OAE3) (United States)

    Machado, M. C.; Chemale, F., Jr.; Kawashita, K.; Rey, O.; Moura, C. A. V.


    87Sr/86Sr ratios, δ13C, and δ18O determinations performed on 30 bulk carbonate rocks are presented to constrain the isotope characteristics regarding Oceanic Anoxic Event 3 in the La Luna Formation, Maracaibo Basin. The samples were collected along a 22 m profile in San Miguel region (Merida State, Venezuela). The exhibited 87Sr/86Sr ratios are between 0.707659, at the base, and 0.707733 at the top of studied section, corresponding estimated younger numerical ages than the inferred ages dated as Santonian (85.8-83.5 Ma) based on occurrence of Dicarinella asymetrica. The obtained 87Sr/86Sr ratios are certainly higher than expected for Santonian sea Sr and they are attributed to regular riverine strontium fluxes in the restricted (gulf-like) Maracaibo Basin. The values of δ18O data between -3.76‰ and -11.76‰ are distributed in two distinct clusters in a same way and coherent as for δ13C data which are in a range between -1.75‰ and -13.87‰. One of the clusters δ13C = -2.5 ± 1.0‰ and δ18O = -10.0 ± 1.5‰), illustrate the homogeneous marine deposition under tropical conditions, while the other, more variable, probably could reflect the cyclicity of temporally changes in Pacific versus Atlantic Ocean circulation with cooling water or cooling trend climate. These δ13C values around -2.5 ± 1.0‰ do not fit with the significant carbon isotope excursion as expected for the oceanic anoxic event (OAE) and support the work hypothesis that Coniacian-Santonian anoxic event (denominate as OAE3) is not a global one.

  16. PO4 release at the sediment surface under anoxic conditions: a contribution to the eutrophication of the Baltic Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernd Schneider


    Full Text Available The vertical profiles of phosphate, total CO2 and oxygen/hydrogen sulphide were determined in the deep water of the Gotland Sea during March 2003 to July 2006 with a temporal resolution of 2-3 months. This time span included the shift from anoxic to oxic conditions resulting from a water renewal event, as well as the transition back to anoxic waters during the subsequent two-year stagnation period. The data from depths below 150 m were used to identify and quantify phosphate release and removal processes. The relationship between the total CO2 generated by mineralization (CT, min and the PO4 concentrations indicated that the initial decrease in the phosphate concentrations after the inflow of oxygen-rich water was mainly a dilution effect. Only about one third of the PO4 removal was a consequence of the precipitation of insoluble iron-3-hydroxo-phosphates (Fe-P, which occurred slowly at the sediment surface under oxic conditions. From the CT, min/PO4 ratios it was also concluded that the formation of Fe-P was reversed during the later phase of the stagnation, when the redoxcline approached a depth of 150 m. A phosphate mass balance was performed for four deep water sub-layers in order to quantify the dissolution of Fe-P during the stagnation period and thus to estimate the amount of Fe-P deposited during the last inflow of oxygen-rich water. A value of about 50 mmol-P m-2 was found, which refers to the specific biogeochemical conditions during the change from anoxic to oxic conditions that preceded the stagnation period.

  17. Biological anoxic treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions from the petrochemical industry: A proof of concept study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz, Raúl; Souza, Theo S.O. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Glittmann, Lina [Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, Department of Supply Engineering, Wolfenbüttel (Germany); Pérez, Rebeca [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain); Quijano, Guillermo, E-mail: [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University of Valladolid, Dr Mergelina s/n, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)


    Highlights: • The treatment of O{sub 2}-free VOC emissions can be done by means of denitrifying processes. •Toluene vapors were successfully removed under anoxic denitrifying conditions. • A high bacterial diversity was observed. • Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria were the predominant phyla. • The nature and number of metabolites accumulated varied with the toluene load -- Abstract: An innovative biofiltration technology based on anoxic biodegradation was proposed in this work for the treatment of inert VOC-laden emissions from the petrochemical industry. Anoxic biofiltration does not require conventional O{sub 2} supply to mineralize VOCs, which increases process safety and allows for the reuse of the residual gas for inertization purposes in plant. The potential of this technology was evaluated in a biotrickling filter using toluene as a model VOC at loads of 3, 5, 12 and 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1} (corresponding to empty bed residence times of 16, 8, 4 and 1.3 min) with a maximum elimination capacity of ∼3 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}. However, significant differences in the nature and number of metabolites accumulated at each toluene load tested were observed, o- and p-cresol being detected only at 34 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}, while benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde and phenol were detected at lower loads. A complete toluene removal was maintained after increasing the inlet toluene concentration from 0.5 to 1 g m{sup −3} (which entailed a loading rate increase from 3 to 6 g m{sup −3} h{sup −1}), indicating that the system was limited by mass transfer rather than by biological activity. A high bacterial diversity was observed, the predominant phyla being Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria.

  18. Retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma: Review of clinico-radiological features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loke, T.K.L.; Lo, K.K.L.; Lo, J.; Chan, J.C.S. [United Christian Hospital, Kwun Tong, (Hong Kong). Department of Diagnostics Radiology; Yuen, N.W.F. [United Christian Hospital, Kwun Tong, (Hong Kong). Department of Histopathology


    A case is reported here of an ancient schwannoma in the retroperitoneum. The findings of abdominal ultrasound and CT in a patient with a retroperitoneal ancient schwannoma are presented, and the clinical and radiological features of this unusual tumour are reviewed. The presence of a large, well-delineated complex cystic mass in the deep soft tissues should raise the possibility of an ancient schwannoma. It is important to recognize these tumours as benign with excellent prognosis so as to avoid unnecessary radical surgery. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 12 refs., 2 figs.

  19. Change of ancient hydrology net in Northeast China Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui QU; Yu CHU; Fenglong ZHANG; Fuli QI; Xiangkui YANG


    Comparing with lithofacies palaeogeography of several great plains, the authors analyzed four great plains in Quaternary diastrophism, the sedimentary facies, sedimentary environment and their evolution from the independent embryonic and river system of ancient Heilongjiang finally to the Halar highland, Songnen Plain, Sanjiang Plain, the Xingkai Lake Plain and various river systems, collected the unification outside the system of Heilongjiang River to release into the sea, south ancient Xialiao River finally piracy Dongliao River, Xialiao River had released into the sea the ancient water law vicissitude and the evolved rule.

  20. Influence of soil minerals on chromium(VI reduction by sulfide under anoxic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chulsung


    Full Text Available Abstract The effects of soil minerals on chromate (CrVIO42-, noted as Cr(VI reduction by sulfide were investigated in the pH range of 7.67 to 9.07 under the anoxic condition. The examined minerals included montmorillonite (Swy-2, illite (IMt-2, kaolinite (KGa-2, aluminum oxide (γ-Al2O3, titanium oxide (TiO2, P-25, primarily anatase, and silica (SiO2. Based on their effects on Cr(VI reduction, these minerals were categorized into three groups: (i minerals catalyzing Cr(VI reduction – illite; (ii minerals with no effect – Al2O3; and (iii minerals inhibiting Cr(VI reduction- kaolinite, montmorillonite, SiO2 and TiO2 . The catalysis of illite was attributed primarily to the low concentration of iron solubilized from the mineral, which could accelerate Cr(VI reduction by shuttling electrons from sulfide to Cr(VI. Additionally, elemental sulfur produced as the primary product of sulfide oxidation could further catalyze Cr(VI reduction in the heterogeneous system. Previous studies have shown that adsorption of sulfide onto elemental sulfur nanoparticles could greatly increase sulfide reactivity towards Cr(VI reduction. Consequently, the observed rate constant, kobs, increased with increasing amounts of both iron solubilized from illite and elemental sulfur produced during the reaction. The catalysis of iron, however, was found to be blocked by phenanthroline, a strong complexing agent for ferrous iron. In this case, the overall reaction rate at the initial stage of reaction was pseudo first order with respect to Cr(VI, i.e., the reaction kinetics was similar to that in the homogeneous system, because elemental sulfur exerted no effect at the initial stage prior to accumulation of elemental sulfur nanoparticles. In the suspension of kaolinite, which belonged to group (iii, an inhibitive effect to Cr(VI reduction was observed and subsequently examined in more details. The inhibition was due to the sorption of elemental sulfur onto kaolinite, which

  1. Effects of soil erosion and anoxic-euxinic ocean in the Permian-Triassic marine crisis. (United States)

    Kaiho, Kunio; Saito, Ryosuke; Ito, Kosuke; Miyaji, Takashi; Biswas, Raman; Tian, Li; Sano, Hiroyoshi; Shi, Zhiqiang; Takahashi, Satoshi; Tong, Jinnan; Liang, Lei; Oba, Masahiro; Nara, Fumiko W; Tsuchiya, Noriyoshi; Chen, Zhong-Qiang


    The largest mass extinction of biota in the Earth's history occurred during the Permian-Triassic transition and included two extinctions, one each at the latest Permian (first phase) and earliest Triassic (second phase). High seawater temperature in the surface water accompanied by euxinic deep-intermediate water, intrusion of the euxinic water to the surface water, a decrease in pH, and hypercapnia have been proposed as direct causes of the marine crisis. For the first-phase extinction, we here add a causal mechanism beginning from massive soil and rock erosion and leading to algal blooms, release of toxic components, asphyxiation, and oxygen-depleted nearshore bottom water that created environmental stress for nearshore marine animals. For the second-phase extinction, we show that a soil and rock erosion/algal bloom event did not occur, but culmination of anoxia-euxinia in intermediate waters did occur, spanning the second-phase extinction. We investigated sedimentary organic molecules, and the results indicated a peak of a massive soil erosion proxy followed by peaks of marine productivity proxy. Anoxic proxies of surface sediments and water occurred in the shallow nearshore sea at the eastern and western margins of the Paleotethys at the first-phase extinction horizon, but not at the second-phase extinction horizon. Our reconstruction of ocean redox structure at low latitudes indicates that a gradual increase in temperature spanning the two extinctions could have induced a gradual change from a well-mixed oxic to a stratified euxinic ocean beginning immediately prior to the first-phase extinction, followed by culmination of anoxia in nearshore surface waters and of anoxia and euxinia in the shallow-intermediate waters at the second-phase extinction over a period of approximately one million years or more. Enhanced global warming, ocean acidification, and hypercapnia could have caused the second-phase extinction approximately 60 kyr after the first

  2. Controls on Atmospheric O2: The Anoxic Archean and the Suboxic Proterozoic (United States)

    Kasting, J. F.


    Geochemists have now reached consensus that the Archean atmosphere was mostly anoxic, that a Great Oxidation Event (GOE) occurred at around 2.5 Ga, and that the ensuing Proterozoic atmosphere was consistently oxidized [1,2]. Evidence for this broad-scale change in atmospheric composition comes from a variety of sources, most importantly from multiple sulfur isotopes [3,4]. The details of both the Archean and Proterozoic environments remain controversial, however, as does the underlying cause of the GOE. Evidence of 'whiffs' of oxygen during the Archean [5] now extend back as far as 3.0 Ga, based on Cr isotopes [6]. This suggests that O2 was being produced by cyanobacteria well before the GOE and that the timing of this event may have been determined by secular changes in O2 sinks. Catling et al. [7] emphasized escape of hydrogen to space, coupled with progressive oxidation of the continents and a concomitant decrease in the flux of reduced gases from metamorphism. But hydrogen produced by serpentinization of seafloor could also have been a controlling factor [8]. Higher mantle temperatures during the Archean should have resulted in thicker, more mafic seafloor and higher H2 production; decreasing mantle temperatures during the Proterozoic should have led to seafloor more like that of today and a corresponding decrease in H2 production, perhaps by enough to trigger the GOE. Once the atmosphere became generally oxidizing, it apparently remained that way during the rest of Earth's history. But O2 levels in the mid-Proterozoic could have been as low at 10-3 times the Present Atmospheric Level (PAL) [9]. The evidence, once again, is based on Cr isotopes. Possible mechanisms for maintaining such a 'suboxic' Proterozoic atmosphere will be discussed. Refs: 1. H. D. Holland, Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 66, 3811 (2002). 2. H. D. Holland, Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B-Biological Sciences 361, 903 (Jun 29, 2006). 3. J. Farquhar, H. Bao, M. Thiemans, Science

  3. CO2-induced shift in microbial activity affects carbon trapping and water quality in anoxic bioreactors (United States)

    Kirk, Matthew F.; Santillan, Eugenio F. U.; Sanford, Robert A.; Altman, Susan J.


    Microbial activity is a potentially important yet poorly understood control on the fate and environmental impact of CO2 that leaks into aquifers from deep storage reservoirs. In this study we examine how variation in CO2 abundance affected competition between Fe(III) and SO42--reducers in anoxic bioreactors inoculated with a mixed-microbial community from a freshwater aquifer. We performed two sets of experiments: one with low CO2 partial pressure (∼0.02 atm) in the headspace of the reactors and one with high CO2 partial pressure (∼1 atm). A fluid residence time of 35 days was maintained in the reactors by replacing one-fifth of the aqueous volume with fresh medium every seven days. The aqueous medium was composed of groundwater amended with small amounts of acetate (250 μM), phosphate (1 μM), and ammonium (50 μM) to stimulate microbial activity. Synthetic goethite (1 mmol) and SO42- (500 μM influent concentration) were also available in each reactor to serve as electron acceptors. Results of this study show that higher CO2 abundance increased the ability of Fe(III) reducers to compete with SO42- reducers, leading to significant shifts in CO2 trapping and water quality. Mass-balance calculations and pyrosequencing results demonstrate that SO42- reducers were dominant in reactors with low CO2 content. They consumed 85% of the acetate after acetate consumption reached steady state while Fe(III) reducers consumed only 15% on average. In contrast, Fe(III) reducers were dominant during that same interval in reactors with high CO2 content, consuming at least 90% of the acetate while SO42- reducers consumed a negligible amount (bioreactors enhanced CO2 solubility trapping relative to the low-CO2 bioreactors by increasing alkalinity generation (6X). Hence, the shift in microbial activity we observed was a positive feedback on CO2 trapping. More rapid Fe(III) reduction degraded water quality, however, by leading to high Fe(II) concentration.

  4. Integrated stratigraphy of the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary interval: improving understanding of Oceanic Anoxic Events (United States)

    Jarvis, Ian


    The Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (CTB) interval ~ 94 Ma represented a period of major global palaeoenvironmental change. Increasingly detailed multidisciplinary studies integrating sedimentological, palaeontological and geochemical data from multiple basins, are enabling the development of refined but complex models that aid understanding of the mechanisms driving changes in ocean productivity and climate. This paper reviews some of the exciting new developments in this field. Facies change characterizes the CTB interval in most areas. In the Chalk seas of northern Europe, a widespead hiatus was followed by the deposition of clay-rich organic-lean beds of the Plenus Marl and its equivalents, and then nodular chalks. In the North Sea basin and its onshore extension in eastern England and northern Germany, black shales of the Black Band (Blodøks Formation, Hasseltal Formation) occur. Similarly, in northern Tethys, a brief interval of black shale accumulation within a predominantly carbonate succession, is exemplified by the Niveau Thomel in the Vocontian Basin (SE France), and the Livello Bonarelli in Italy. Widespread deposition of organic-rich marine sediments during CTB times led to 12C depletion in surface carbon reservoirs (oceans, atmosphere, biosphere), and a large positive global δ13C excursion preserved in marine carbonates and both marine and terrestrial organic matter (Oceanic Anoxic Event 2). Significant biotic turnover characterises the boundary interval, and inter-regional correlation may be achieved at high resolution using integrated biostratigraphy employing macrofossils (ammonites, inoceramid bivalves), microfossils (planktonic foraminifera, dinoflagellate cysts) and calcareous nannofossils. Correlations can be tested against those based on comparison of δ13C profiles - carbon isotope chemostratigraphy, supplemented by oxygen isotope and elemental data. Interpretation of paired carbonate - organic matter δ13C data from multiple CTB sections

  5. Changes in Soil Minerology Reduce Phosphorus Mobility During Anoxic Soil Conditions (United States)

    Giri, S. K.; Geohring, L. D.; Richards, B. K.; Walter, M.; Steenhuis, T. S.


    Phosphorus (P) transfer from the landscape to receiving waters is an important environmental concern because these diffuse losses may cause widespread water quality impairments which can accelerate freshwater eutrophication. Phosphorus (P) mobilization from soil to surface and subsurface flow paths is controlled by numerous factors, and thus it can vary greatly with time and landscape scale. To determine whether P mobilization during soil saturation in the landscape was caused or controlled by complexation, iron reduction or ligand exchange, experiments were carried out to better characterize the interrelationships of varying P sources with dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and soil anoxic conditions. The soil incubation experiments consisted of treatments with distilled water, 5 mM acetic acid (HAc), 0.05% humic acid (HA) and glucose (40 mM) at 26 o C under anaerobic conditions to isolate effects of the various P exchange processes. The experimental results suggest that during soil saturation, the loosely bound P, which is primarily associated with iron oxyhydroxides, was mobilized by both reduction and complexation processes. Good correlations were observed between ferrous iron (Fe+2) and DOC, and between total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) and DOC, facilitating P desorption to the soil water. The anaerobic soil conditions with different P sources also indicated that mineralization facilitated P mobility, mainly due to chelation (humics and metabolites) and as a result of the bio-reduction of iron when fresh litter and grass were present. The organic P sources which are rich in carbohydrate and cellulose and that undergo fermentation due to the action of lactate forming organisms also caused a release of P. The easily metabolizable DOC sources lead to intensive bio-reduction of soil with the release of Fe, however this did not necessarily appear to cause more TDP in the soil solution. The varying P additions in soils with water, HAc and glucose (40mm) before and after

  6. Implications of variance in biogeochemical proxy records spanning Mesozoic Oceanic Anoxic Events (United States)

    Gomes, M. L.; Mills, J. V.; Hurtgen, M. T.; Sageman, B. B.


    The cycling of key elements through the ocean and atmosphere varied widely in the Mesozoic in response to changes in primary productivity and organic carbon burial, volcanism, weathering, and evaporite burial. Many of these processes have been proposed as triggers for the discreet periods of widespread organic carbon production and/or preservation termed Ocean Anoxic Events or OAE's. Thus, it might be expected that similar patterns of elemental cycling would characterize most major OAE intervals and could be used to help elucidate the controls on initiation and/or termination of these events. Yet this is not the case. In this study we compare the variability of a series of geochemical proxies, focusing on sulfur (S) isotopes of marine sulfate and sulfide minerals, through a series of Mesozoic OAE's. The data set includes our own results from OAE1a (ca. 125Ma) and OAE2 (ca. 94Ma), as well as published data from other events. The results indicate that S cycling varied significantly among the events, despite many similarities in the behavior of carbon isotopes and geochemical indicators of oxygen deficiency. Specifically, S isotope compositions of seawater sulfate and pyrite are quite variable during OAE2 suggesting that a short-term increase in sulfate levels upon a low background occurred at the onset due to enhanced volcanism and/or weathering. In contrast, S isotope compositions of seawater sulfate and pyrite decrease dramatically through the OAE1a and are completely decoupled from the carbon cycle. We evaluate these trends using coupled sulfur and carbon box models and show that patterns of S cycling during OAE1a were predominantly controlled by volcanism, whereas S cycling during OAE2 represents a stronger interplay between volcanic processes and linkage with the carbon cycle. An analysis of the differences in S cycling among events provides improved insight into the suite of processes that interacted to drive large-scale changes in environmental conditions

  7. Fungal palaeodiversity revealed using high-throughput metabarcoding of ancient DNA from arctic permafrost. (United States)

    Bellemain, Eva; Davey, Marie L; Kauserud, Håvard; Epp, Laura S; Boessenkool, Sanne; Coissac, Eric; Geml, Jozsef; Edwards, Mary; Willerslev, Eske; Gussarova, Galina; Taberlet, Pierre; Haile, James; Brochmann, Christian


    The taxonomic and ecological diversity of ancient fungal communities was assessed by combining next generation sequencing and metabarcoding of DNA preserved in permafrost. Twenty-six sediment samples dated 16 000-32 000 radiocarbon years old from two localities in Siberia were analysed for fungal ITS. We detected 75 fungal OTUs from 21 orders representing three phyla, although rarefaction analyses suggested that the full diversity was not recovered despite generating an average of 6677 ± 3811 (mean ± SD) sequences per sample and that preservation bias likely has considerable effect on the recovered DNA. Most OTUs (75.4%) represented ascomycetes. Due to insufficient sequencing depth, DNA degradation and putative preservation biases in our samples, the recovered taxa probably do not represent the complete historic fungal community, and it is difficult to determine whether the fungal communities varied geographically or experienced a composition shift within the period of 16 000-32 000 bp. However, annotation of OTUs to functional ecological groups provided a wealth of information on the historic communities. About one-third of the OTUs are presumed plant-associates (pathogens, saprotrophs and endophytes) typical of graminoid- and forb-rich habitats. We also detected putative insect pathogens, coprophiles and keratinophiles likely associated with ancient insect and herbivore faunas. The detection of putative insect pathogens, mycoparasites, aquatic fungi and endophytes broadens our previous knowledge of the diversity of fungi present in Beringian palaeoecosystems. A large group of putatively psychrophilic/psychrotolerant fungi was also detected, most likely representing a modern, metabolically active fungal community.

  8. Silting up and development of anoxic conditions enhanced by high abundance of the geoengineer species Ophiothrix fragilis (United States)

    Murat, A.; Méar, Y.; Poizot, E.; Dauvin, J. C.; Beryouni, K.


    In the English Channel, the brittle-star Ophiothrix fragilis is a common epifaunal species typically found on pebbles in habitats with strong tidal currents. This species forms dense aggregations on the seafloor, supporting populations that can reach up to 7500 ind m-2 in the eastern part of the Baie de Seine, offshore from Antifer harbour. Here, O. fragilis occurs in an area with unexpected amounts of fine-grained sediment. Some of these mud deposits are made up of unusually compact black muds, an indication of the development of anoxic conditions in surficial sediments. To highlight a potential link between silting up and dense O. fragilis populations, and identify the interactions between environmental conditions and the population dynamics of this species, we analyse the data from three surveys corresponding to exceptional situations: (1) just after a Seine flood; (2) just after a storm and (3) after a period of ten months without any flood or storm. Four parameters are taken into account: number of brittle stars per 0.25 m2, Fine Fraction percentage, Total Organic Carbon and Total Sulphur. The main environmental forcings appear to be Seine river inflow, regional circulation dependent on tidal currents and the occurrence of storms. O. fragilis is able to geoengineer its environment in various ways and at different rates. Silting up is enhanced by increasing abundance of O. fragilis and takes place at a very fast rate. As a result, floods and storms reflecting instantaneous events give rise to a steady-state situation established between the abundance of this species and the fine fraction percentage. Anoxic conditions are dependent on the degradation of organic matter and require more time to be established. After many months in the absence of any disturbing events, anoxic conditions are developed in non-compacted muddy sediments (stability situation) and represent the normal surficial situation when the sediment becomes compacted (compact black muds). The

  9. [Contribution of the EEG and evoked potentials in the prognosis of post-anoxic comas in children]. (United States)

    Parain, D; Devaux, A M; Proust, B


    Six children with post-anoxic coma were studied and there was evidence of preserved brainstem function together with the presence of electrocerebral activity on EEG. There is no definite prognosis with slow EEG; patients can either die, survive, but with major neurological damage, or recover completely. In that case, evoked potentials have a good prognostic value. Normal BAEP indicate that patients will survive. However, absence of the cortical component of SEP indicates major cerebral damage. Evolution towards a vegetative state can therefore be predicted.

  10. Metabolic profiling of heat or anoxic stress in mouse C2C12 myotubes using multinuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Straadt, Ida K; Young, Jette F; Petersen, Bent O


    -energy phosphate compounds adenosine triphosphate and phosphocreatine with increasing severity of stress were identified. At anoxic conditions, an increase in (13)C-labeled lactate and appearance of glycerol-3-phosphate were observed. Accumulation of lactate and glycerol-3-phosphate is in agreement with a shift...... to anaerobic metabolism due to inhibition of the aerobic pathway in the mitochondria. Conversely, lower levels of unlabeled ((12)C) lactate were apparent at increasing severity of stress, which indicate that lactate is released from the myotubes to the medium. In conclusion, the metabolites identified...

  11. Marine Ecological Environment Management Based on Ecological Compensation Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunzhen Qu


    Full Text Available The level of marine environmental management is a key factor in the successful implementation of marine power strategies. The improvement in management levels of marine environments requires innovation in marine management. In other words, the transformation of marine environmental management into marine ecological environment management must be done in order to achieve sustainable development of the marine economy. As an environmental economic policy that combines both administrative and market measures, ecological compensation mechanisms have significant advantages in marine ecological environment management. Based on the study of the current development of ecological compensation mechanisms in China, through the analysis of the connotation of marine ecological civilization, existing marine ecological protection practices and marine environmental management methods, this paper posits that the current marine ecological environment management in China should be established on the basis of ecological compensation mechanisms. At present, a lack of laws and regulations for overall marine ecological environment management is the key factor restricting the practice of marine ecological environment management. Therefore, it is necessary to explore the current path of marine ecological environment management in China from the perspective of the construction of legal system of ecological compensation law, the establishment of ecological compensation fees, ecological taxes and ecological compensation fund systems, and the clear status for a marine ecological management and supervision body.

  12. Green Turtle Trophic Ecology (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — SWFSC is currently conducting a study of green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas) trophic ecology in the eastern Pacific. Tissue samples and stable carbon and stable...

  13. Market Squid Ecology Dataset (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains ecological information collected on the major adult spawning and juvenile habitats of market squid off California and the US Pacific Northwest....

  14. Ecological Provinces of Minnesota (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the first level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  15. Ecological Subsections of Minnesota (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the third level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  16. Ecological Sections of Minnesota (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This coverage provides information for the second level of the Ecological Classification System. The boundaries of the polygons of this coverage were derived from...

  17. [Medicine in ancient Mesopotamia--part 1]. (United States)

    Martins E Silva, J


    The present work summarizes the more elucidating aspects on the foundations and the practice of the medicine in Antique Mesopotamia, since the invention of the writing, more than 5000 thousand years ago, and the beginning of our era. The first part of the article includes a brief perspective about the political and social evolution that characterized those archaic civilizations, as well as the inventions and knowledge further used by the following Humanity's generations. Most of what is known on the subject, as well as the history and political-social events that occurred in the region during that remote epoch, resulted of the laborious decoding of about half a million small clay plates or fragments with text engravings in cuneiform characters that were discovered since the middle of the XIX century in the ruins of the main cities of the Babylonian and Assyrian empires. The second part embraces exclusively the main characteristics of the medicine in Ancient Mesopotamia, in its main facets: concept of disease, healers and practice. The disease was considered a divine punishment or resultant from a malign influence. In that base, the medicine began by being preventive, by the use of appropriate amulets, or by offerings or sacrifices intending to pacify those malign forces. The treatment of the generality of the diseases privileged the expulsion of those spirits and malign influences from the patient body, purifying it, which was done by the specific intervention of an ãshipu (clergyman-exorcist); not having results, the treatment was continued by the asû (practical healer) that appealed to a group of physical manipulations, limited surgical acts and the administration or application of prescriptions, resultants of the mixture of organic and inorganic substances. In case of failing, the patients (as well as individuals or rein leaders) could fall back upon a priest diviner (bârû) who, by examination of the organs of an animal especially sacrificed for the effect

  18. Removal of High C and N Contents in Synthetic Wastewater Using Internal Circulation of Anaerobic and Anoxic/Oxic Activated Sludge Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boontian Nittaya


    Full Text Available Internal circulation (IC of activated sludge anaerobic and anoxic/oxic processes was used to treat high carbon (C and nitrogen (N synthetic wastewater in order to achieve an effluent standard. The 1st & 2nd internal circulation anoxic (ICA has shown a great advantage. Because under anoxic conditions heterotrophs utilize organic matter (OM. OM and NO3−-N are an electron donor and an electron donor, respectively. As a result, under conditions high carbon and NO3−-N, N2 production can generate higher than with 1st ICA BNR system only. Aerobic IC to anoxic, 1st ICA, and effluent IC to anoxic, 2nd ICA, could remove 100% of COD, 99.60% of TKN, and 99.90% of NH4+-N. The organic loading rate and NH4+-N loading rate are 68.38 kg-COD m−3 d−1 and 9.86 kg NH4+-N m−3 d−1, respectively in synthetic wastewater. Performance of these ICA activated sludge treatment was achieved the discharge standard with effluent COD less than 0 mg L−1,effluent NH4+-N less than 4 mg NH4+-N L−1, effluent NO2−-N less than 0.1 mg NO2−-N L−1, and NO3−-N less than 0.02 mg NO3−-N L−1.

  19. Sraffa and ecological economics


    Verger, Yoann


    References to Sraffa and to the neo-Ricardian school is something quite customary in ecological economics. By looking at contributions in this area since the beginning of ecological economics and at contributions on environmental problem from the neo-Ricardian school, we see that a connection between both school still has to be made. This connection should be articulated around the initial aim of Sraffa: to develop a new paradigm, competing against the neoclassical one. Only then it will be p...

  20. Indicators of Ecological Change (United States)


    Wang et al. (2003) and earlier those of Chapra and Di Toro (1991). Wang et al. (2003) termed their approach the extreme value method and used it to...Thesis, Auburn University, Auburn, AL. 210 pp. Chapra , S. C., Di Toro, D. M., 1991. Delta method for estimating primary production, respiration, and...characteristics, The challenge in using ecological indicators is determining which of the numerous measures of ecological systems best characterize

  1. Urban Sound Ecologies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine


    of the 1970s while developing them into recent definitions of ecology in urban studies. Finally, we unfold our framing of urban sound ecologies with three case analyses: a sound intervention in Berlin, a symphony for wind instruments in Copenhagen and a video walk in a former railway station in Kassel...... to how artists working with new information and media technologies create inventive ways of inserting sound and image into urban environments....

  2. Ecological Perspectives in HCI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blevis, Eli; Bødker, Susanne; Flach, John;

    The aim of the workshop is to provide a forum for researchers and practitioners to discuss the present and future of ecological perspectives in HCI. The participants will reflect on the current uses and interpretations of “ecology” and related concepts in the field. The workshop will assess...... the potential of ecological perspectives in HCI for supporting rich and meaningful analysis, as well as innovative design, of interactive technologies in real-life contexts...

  3. Developments in numerical ecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legendre, P.; Legendre, L.


    From earlier ecological studies it has become apparent that simple univariate or bivariate statistics are often inappropriate, and that multivariate statistical analyses must be applied. Despite several difficulties arising from the application of multivariate methods, community ecology has acquired a mathematical framework, with three consequences: it can develop as an exact science; it can be applied operationally as a computer-assisted science to the solution of environmental problems; and it can exchange information with other disciplines using the language of mathematics.

  4. Similar biodiversity of ectomycorrhizal fungi in set-aside plantations and ancient old-growth broadleaved forests (United States)

    Spake, Rebecca; van der Linde, Sietse; Newton, Adrian C.; Suz, Laura M.; Bidartondo, Martin I.; Doncaster, C. Patrick


    Setting aside overmature planted forests is currently seen as an option for preserving species associated with old-growth forests, such as those with dispersal limitation. Few data exist, however, on the utility of set-aside plantations for this purpose, or the value of this habitat type for biodiversity relative to old-growth semi-natural ecosystems. Here, we evaluate the contribution of forest type relative to habitat characteristics in determining species richness and composition in seven forest blocks, each containing an ancient old-growth stand (> 1000 yrs) paired with a set-aside even-aged planted stand (ca. 180 yrs). We investigated the functionally important yet relatively neglected ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), a group for which the importance of forest age has not been assessed in broadleaved forests. We found that forest type was not an important determinant of EMF species richness or composition, demonstrating that set-aside can be an effective option for conserving ancient EMF communities. Species richness of above-ground EMF fruiting bodies was principally related to the basal area of the stand (a correlate of canopy cover) and tree species diversity, whilst richness of below-ground ectomycorrhizae was driven only by tree diversity. Our results suggest that overmature planted forest stands, particularly those that are mixed-woods with high basal area, are an effective means to connect and expand ecological networks of ancient old-growth forests in historically deforested and fragmented landscapes for ectomycorrhizal fungi. PMID:26917858

  5. Barcoding the largest animals on Earth: ongoing challenges and molecular solutions in the taxonomic identification of ancient cetaceans (United States)

    Speller, Camilla; van den Hurk, Youri; Charpentier, Anne; Rodrigues, Ana; Gardeisen, Armelle; Wilkens, Barbara; McGrath, Krista; Rowsell, Keri; Spindler, Luke; Collins, Matthew


    Over the last few centuries, many cetacean species have witnessed dramatic global declines due to industrial overharvesting and other anthropogenic influences, and thus are key targets for conservation. Whale bones recovered from archaeological and palaeontological contexts can provide essential baseline information on the past geographical distribution and abundance of species required for developing informed conservation policies. Here we review the challenges with identifying whale bones through traditional anatomical methods, as well as the opportunities provided by new molecular analyses. Through a case study focused on the North Sea, we demonstrate how the utility of this (pre)historic data is currently limited by a lack of accurate taxonomic information for the majority of ancient cetacean remains. We then discuss current opportunities presented by molecular identification methods such as DNA barcoding and collagen peptide mass fingerprinting (zooarchaeology by mass spectrometry), and highlight the importance of molecular identifications in assessing ancient species’ distributions through a case study focused on the Mediterranean. We conclude by considering high-throughput molecular approaches such as hybridization capture followed by next-generation sequencing as cost-effective approaches for enhancing the ecological informativeness of these ancient sample sets. This article is part of the themed issue ‘From DNA barcodes to biomes’. PMID:27481784

  6. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom


    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost...... damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from...

  7. Ancient and modern women in the "Woman's World". (United States)

    Hurst, Isobel


    Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.

  8. Non-destructive sampling of ancient insect DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Philip Francis; Elias, Scott; Gilbert, Tom;


    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for ancient DNA (aDNA) studies on insect remains is that sampling procedures involve at least partial destruction of the specimens. A recent extraction protocol reveals the possibility of obtaining DNA from past insect remains without causing visual morphological...... damage. We test the applicability of this protocol on historic museum beetle specimens dating back to AD 1820 and on ancient beetle chitin remains from permafrost (permanently frozen soil) dating back more than 47,000 years. Finally, we test the possibility of obtaining ancient insect DNA directly from...... of 77-204 base pairs (-bp) in size using species-specific and general insect primers. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: The applied non-destructive DNA extraction method shows promising potential on insect museum specimens of historical age as far back as AD 1820, but less so on the ancient permafrost...

  9. Next Generation Sequencing of Ancient DNA: Requirements, Strategies and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Knapp


    Full Text Available The invention of next-generation-sequencing has revolutionized almost all fields of genetics, but few have profited from it as much as the field of ancient DNA research. From its beginnings as an interesting but rather marginal discipline, ancient DNA research is now on its way into the centre of evolutionary biology. In less than a year from its invention next-generation-sequencing had increased the amount of DNA sequence data available from extinct organisms by several orders of magnitude. Ancient DNA  research is now not only adding a temporal aspect to evolutionary studies and allowing for the observation of evolution in real time, it also provides important data to help understand the origins of our own species. Here we review progress that has been made in next-generation-sequencing of ancient DNA over the past five years and evaluate sequencing strategies and future directions.

  10. Deep sequencing of RNA from ancient maize kernels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Fordyce

    Full Text Available The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited - perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication.

  11. Ancestry of modern Europeans: contributions of ancient DNA. (United States)

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand


    Understanding the peopling history of Europe is crucial to comprehend the origins of modern populations. Of course, the analysis of current genetic data offers several explanations about human migration patterns which occurred on this continent, but it fails to explain precisely the impact of each demographic event. In this context, direct access to the DNA of ancient specimens allows the overcoming of recent demographic phenomena, which probably highly modified the constitution of the current European gene pool. In recent years, several DNA studies have been successfully conducted from ancient human remains thanks to the improvement of molecular techniques. They have brought new fundamental information on the peopling of Europe and allowed us to refine our understanding of European prehistory. In this review, we will detail all the ancient DNA studies performed to date on ancient European DNA from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginning of the protohistoric period.

  12. Deep Sequencing of RNA from Ancient Maize Kernels (United States)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Cappellini, Enrico; Romero-Navarro, J. Alberto; Wales, Nathan; Alquezar-Planas, David E.; Penfield, Steven; Brown, Terence A.; Vielle-Calzada, Jean-Philippe; Montiel, Rafael; Jørgensen, Tina; Odegaard, Nancy; Jacobs, Michael; Arriaza, Bernardo; Higham, Thomas F. G.; Ramsey, Christopher Bronk; Willerslev, Eske; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.


    The characterization of biomolecules from ancient samples can shed otherwise unobtainable insights into the past. Despite the fundamental role of transcriptomal change in evolution, the potential of ancient RNA remains unexploited – perhaps due to dogma associated with the fragility of RNA. We hypothesize that seeds offer a plausible refuge for long-term RNA survival, due to the fundamental role of RNA during seed germination. Using RNA-Seq on cDNA synthesized from nucleic acid extracts, we validate this hypothesis through demonstration of partial transcriptomal recovery from two sources of ancient maize kernels. The results suggest that ancient seed transcriptomics may offer a powerful new tool with which to study plant domestication. PMID:23326310

  13. Anticancer activity of botanical compounds in ancient fermented beverages (review). (United States)

    McGovern, P E; Christofidou-Solomidou, M; Wang, W; Dukes, F; Davidson, T; El-Deiry, W S


    Humans around the globe probably discovered natural remedies against disease and cancer by trial and error over the millennia. Biomolecular archaeological analyses of ancient organics, especially plants dissolved or decocted as fermented beverages, have begun to reveal the preliterate histories of traditional pharmacopeias, which often date back thousands of years earlier than ancient textual, ethnohistorical, and ethnological evidence. In this new approach to drug discovery, two case studies from ancient Egypt and China illustrate how ancient medicines can be reconstructed from chemical and archaeological data and their active compounds delimited for testing their anticancer and other medicinal effects. Specifically, isoscopoletin from Artemisia argyi, artemisinin from Artemisia annua, and the latter's more easily assimilated semi-synthetic derivative, artesunate, showed the greatest activity in vitro against lung and colon cancers. In vivo tests of these compounds previously unscreened against lung and pancreatic cancers are planned for the future.

  14. Mycorrhizal symbiosis: ancient signalling mechanisms co-opted

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, R.; Vleeshouwers, V.G.A.A.


    Mycorrhizal root endosymbiosis is an ancient property of land plants. Two parallel studies now provide novel insight into the mechanism driving this interaction and how it is used by other filamentous microbes like pathogenic oomycetes.

  15. Cases of Trephination in Ancient Greek Skulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliki Ζafiri


    Full Text Available Background: Trephination, or trepanning, is considered to be one of the most ancient surgical operations with an especially extensive geographical incidence, both in the New World and in the Old. In Europe, more than 200 finds of trephination have been found, from Scandinavia to the Balkans. The technique of trephination or trepanning covers overall the last 10,000 years and exhibits great versatility and adjustability in the knowledge, technical means, therapeutic needs, prejudices and social standards of each period and of each population group. Hippocrates was the one to classify for the first time the kinds of cranial fractures and define the conditions and circumstances for carrying out a trepanning.Aim: The present research aims to investigate the Greek cranial trephinations on sculls from the collection of the Anthropological Museum of the Medical School of Athens that come from archaeological excavations.Method: Skulls were examined by macroscopic observation with reflective light. Furthermore, radiographic representation of the skulls was used.Results: The anthropological researches and the studies of anthropological skeleton remains that came out during archaeological excavations from different eras and areas have given information about the medical practices in the very important geographic area of Greece and in particular, we referred to cases of Greek trephinations.

  16. Studing cranial vault modifications in ancient Mesoamerica. (United States)

    Tiesler, Vera


    The artificial modification of infant cranial vaults through massages or by means of constriction and compression devices constitutes a readily visible, permanent body modification that has been employed cross-culturally to express identity, ethnicity, beauty, status and gender. For those ancient societies that staged head shaping, these cultural correlates may be ascertained by examining cranial shapes together with other data sets from the archaeological record. Studies of skulls modified for cultural reasons also provide important clues for understanding principles in neural growth and physiopathological variation in cranial expansion. This paper focuses on head shaping techniques in Mesoamerica, where the practice was deeply rooted and widespread before the European conquest. It provides a comprehensive review of the Mesoamericanistic research on shaping techniques, implements and taxonomies. An up-dated, interdisciplinary examination of the physiological implications and the cultural meanings of artificially produced head shapes in different times and culture areas within Mesoamerica leads to a discussion of the scope, caveats, and future directions involved in this kind of research in the region and beyond.

  17. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane


    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.

  18. complex multiplication, ancient Indian mathematics ” Vedas”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajashri K. Bhongade


    Full Text Available For designing of comple x nu mber multiplier basic idea is adopted from designing of multiplier. An ancient Indian mathematics “Vedas” is used for designing the multiplier unit. The reare 16 sutra in Vedas, from that the Urdhva Tiryak b-hyam sutra (method was selected for implimentation complex multiplication and basically Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra appli-cable to all cases of multip licat ion. Any multi-bit mu ltip licat ion can be reduced down to single bit mult iplication and addition by using Urdhva Tiryakbhyam sutra is performed by vertically and crosswise. The partial products and sums are generated in single step which reduces the carry propagation fro m LSB to MSB by using these formulas. In th is paper simu lation result for4bit complex no. multiplication using Booth‟s algorithm and using Vedic sutra are illustrated. The imp le mentation of the Vedic mathe matics and their application to the comple x mu lt iplier was checked parameter like propagation delay.

  19. Ancient solar wind in lunar microbreccias (United States)

    Thiemens, M. H.; Clayton, R. N.


    Possible components of the ancient solar wind, particularly the N-15/N-14 ratio, are investigated on the basis of lunar microbreccia studies. Nitrogen contents and isotope ratios were determined for Apollo 11 and 15 microbreccia samples by means of vacuum pyrolysis techniques. The Apollo 11 soil breccias, which had been closed to the addition of recent solar wind due to their compaction, are found to contain the lowest N-15/N-14 ratios yet reported for the solar wind, extending the range of variation of the ratio to between a delta N-15 of -190% in the past to +120% at present. Nitrogen isotope analysis of the Apollo 15 drill core, which had undergone two episodes of solar wind exposure, also support the secular variation in the N-15 content of the solar wind, which is attributed to spallation reactions in the sun. The formation of the breccias at the Apollo 11 and 15 sites is discussed on the basis of the observed nitrogen systematics, and differences between N-15 and Ne-21 cosmic ray exposure ages implied are attributed to the diffusive loss of neon from lunar soils.

  20. Benefits of ecological engineering practices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brüll, A.; Van Bohemen, H.; Costanza, R.; Mitsch, W.J.


    With the intention to further promote the field of ecological engineering and the solutions it provides, a workshop on “Benefits of Ecological Engineering Practices” was held 3 Dec 2009. It was conducted by the International Ecological Engineering Society in Paris at the conference “Ecological Engin