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Sample records for anchoveta engraulis ringens

  1. Alimentación de la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en el norte de Chile (18°25'-25°40'S en diciembre de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la dieta de Engraulis ringens para determinar posibles diferencias en su comportamiento alimentario por longitud y gradiente latitudinal. Las muestras se obtuvieron entre 18°25'S y 24°40'S durante el crucero de evaluación hidroacústica del reclutamiento de E. ringens, realizado entre el 1 y 20 de diciembre de 2010. El análisis comprendió la determinación de la dieta contenida en un total de 294 estómagos, provenientes de 18 estaciones de muestreo y distribuidos en tres clases de longitud (pre-reclutas, reclutas y adultos. La dieta se describió mediante los métodos numéricos de frecuencia de ocurrencia e índice de importancia relativa, además de la similitud dietaria por longitud y latitud, y especialización trófica. E. ringens registró un amplio espectro trófico, tanto de presas fitoplanctónicas como zooplanctónicas, con una alta predominancia de fitoplancton por sobre zooplancton en 2,5 órdenes de magnitud, por rango de longitud y latitud. Los componentes de mayor importancia relativa en la dieta fueron las diatomeas de los géneros Rhizosolenia y Chaetoceros, y Copepoda dentro del zooplancton. El análisis de la similitud trófica intraespecífica mostró una alta sobreposición entre los grupos de longitud, conformando una "unidad trófica". Mientras que el análisis latitudinal reveló una alta sobreposición trófica con tendencia a formar dos "unidades tróficas", pero sin seguir un patrón definido. Los resultados, confirman el carácter de depredador generalista y oportunista de E. ringens en la zona norte de Chile durante el periodo analizado.

  2. Bases conceptuales para la aplicación de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM en sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Arteaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican los factores claves a considerar en el desarrollo de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM para los recursos pequeños pelágicos en la zona de centro-sur de Chile, sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens. En Chile, la EEM no ha sido aplicada al manejo de estas pesquerías y la asesoría científica se ha desarrollado sobre la evaluación de estrategias de explotación utilizando modelos de evaluación mono-específicos. Para ambas especies se analizan los siguientes tópicos: i alternancia en la abundancia poblacional asociada a los pulsos de reclutamientos y capturas, ii variabilidad temporal en la fuerza del reclutamiento, iii estacionalidad del crecimiento cohorte y especie-específico, y iv relación ambiente-recurso. Los resultados evidencian que los tópicos analizados debieran ser considerados en la construcción de un modelo operativo y/o en la regla de cosecha, dado el carácter mixto de ambas pesquerías, su marcada alternancia y la influencia de las condiciones ambientales. Por lo tanto, se propone que el diseño e implementación de una EEM para sardina común y anchoveta, incluya los elementos señalados en un marco de evaluación multi-especifico y de manejo de carácter mixto.

  3. Efecto de la ración alimenticia sobre la maduración gonadal y acumulación de grasa de anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 en cautiverio Effect of feeding ration on gonad maturation and fat accumulation in Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la ración alimenticia sobre la tasa de maduración gonadal, el desempeño de las gónadas maduras y la redistribución de la energía consumida en gónada, músculo o grasa corporal en ejemplares de anchoveta peruana Engraulis ringens en condiciones de cautiverio Estos resultados ayudan a comprender los procesos reproductivos ocurridos en el medio natural ante alteraciones de factores ambientales tales como los eventos El Niño y La Niña, de gran implicancia en el ecosistema y las pesquerías del Pacífico oriental. El tiempo trascurrido desde el estadio inmaduro hasta vitelogénico fue de 45 días bajo condiciones alimenticias energéticamente óptimas y temperatura alrededor de 16,5°C (46,1 cal g-1 pez día-1 . Las hembras alimentadas con 138,3 cal g-1 pez día-1 alcanzaron la máxima vitelogénesis en 30 días y, aunque el alimento fue excesivo, no incrementaron su masa muscular pero si presentaron mayor acumulación de grasa corporal y presencia de ovocitos más grandes, lo cual indica un incremento en el almacenamiento energético en la hembra y su progenie. Los ovocitos vitelogénicos de los peces alimentados con 46,1 cal g-1 pez día-1 presentaron atresia más rápido que los ovocitos vitelogénicos de peces alimentados con 138,3 cal g-1 pez día-1 . Aunque la cantidad de alimento fue adecuada, las hembras no desovaron durante el experimento. En machos, la disponibilidad de alimento también aceleró la maduración gonadal pero la expulsión de espermatozoides parece haber estado condicionada por la presencia de hembras con ovocitos en máximo estado de vitelogénesis.We analyzed the effect that feeding rations have on gonad maturation, mature gonad performance, and the redistribution of the energy taken up by the gonads, muscle, and body fat in captive specimens of Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens. These results help us understand the reproductive processes occurring in the natural environment given changes

  4. Clasificación acústica de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki mediante máquinas de vectores soporte en la zona centro-sur de Chile: efecto de la calibración de los parámetros en la matriz de confusión Acoustic classification of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Strangomera bentincki using support vector machines in central-southern Chile: effect of parameter calibration on the confusion matrix

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    Hugo Robotham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se clasificó la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki detectadas mediante equipos acústicos en la zona centro-sur de Chile, mediante el método de Máquinas de Vectores Soporte (SVM. Para esto se utilizaron descriptores de cardúmenes extraídos desde ecogramas, que fueron clasificados como morfológicos, batimétricos, energéticos y posicional espacial. Para lograr clasificaciones precisas mediante la utilización de esta metodología, fue necesario optimizar parámetros correspondientes al Kernel-Gaussiano, γ y de penalización del modelo C, mediante el análisis del efecto de la calibración sobre las matrices de confusión resultantes de la clasificación de las especies analizadas. El método SVM ajustó correctamente el 95,3% de los cardúmenes de anchoveta y sardina común. Los parámetros óptimos del Kernel-Gaussiano γ y de penalización C obtenidos mediante la metodología propuesta fueron γ = 450 y C = 0,95, respectivamente. Los parámetros mencionados incidieron de manera importante en la matriz de confusión y los porcentajes de clasificación final, por lo que se sugiere establecer, en aplicaciones futuras de este método, un protocolo experimental de calibración. La sardina común fue la especie con menor error de clasificación en el conjunto de las matrices de confusión. El descriptor correspondiente a profundidad del fondo fue el más sensible al SVM, la segunda variable en importancia es el descriptor distancia a la costa.The support vector machines (SVM method was used to classify the anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki species detected in south-central Chile by means of acoustic equipment. For this, descriptors of fish schools (morphology, bathymetry, energy, spatial position extracted from ecograms were used. In order to obtain precise classifications using this methodology, it was necessary to optimize the parameters Gaussian-Kernel γ and penalty term

  5. Development of free neuromasts in Engraulis ringens and Strangomera bentincki (Teleostei, Clupeiformes early larvae

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    Alejandra Llanos-Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuromast morphology and distribution are characterized during early ontogeny of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki. Although both species share morphological features, they show several differences during their early ontogeny, such as size at hatching and yolk absorption. Larvae were obtained from incubation of planktonic eggs (at 12°C, collected during the spawning season 2001 (August-September at Coliumo Bay. The neuromasts were observed from hatching to 25 days, and the pattern of neuromast appearance, in newly hatched larva, until yolk absorption, was determined using Janus Green staining and scanning electronic microscope. Results showed a similar pattern of neuromast development in both species. At hatching, two pairs of neuromasts were observed in the cephalic area and 8-9 in the rest of the body, which increased to 19 pairs and to 30-39 pairs at a larval size of 11 mm, respectively. On the average, 12 hair cells per neuromast were counted, with little variation among neuromasts. The polarity of these hair cells was closest to multiple polarity. Neuromast positioning for both species, anchoveta and common sardine larvae, are similar to those of Engraulis mordax and Clupea harengus, respectively. The similar development pattern of these species seems to be related to similar functional constraints and close taxonomic affinity.

  6. Efecto de la inyección de un análogo de GnRH sobre la maduración final ovocitaria y los perfiles plasmáticos de esteroides gonadales en anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens).

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros Linares, Paola Bianca

    2007-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto de un análogo de GnRH sobre la maduración final ovocitaria y los perfiles plasmáticos de testosterona (T), 17β Estradiol (E2) y 17α, 20β dihidroxiprogesterona (17α, 20β DP) en ejemplares de E. ringens. Para ello, individuos de esta especie fueron capturados en la Bahía del Callao fueron acondicionados al cautiverio en tanques de 10 m3 con aeración constante, temperatura del agua de 16 ºC, recirculación de agua de mar y alimentación ad libitum durante un periodo de un me...

  7. Estimación del descarte por exceso de captura en la pesquería industrial de cerco del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana Engraulis ringens a partir de un programa de observación a bordo

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    Josymar Torrejón-Magallanes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la estimación del descarte por exceso de captura en la pesquería industrial de cerco del stock Norte-Centro de anchoveta peruana. Se define el descarte por exceso de captura, como la porción de captura que se arroja al mar cuando se ha capturado más de lo que la capacidad de bodega de la embarcación puede almacenar. El análisis de estimación para el periodo 2005 - 2014, se realizó a partir del “Programa de observadores a bordo de la flota de cerco” que ejecuta el Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE, en donde 5 837 viajes, que representan el 1.6% de los viajes totales, fueron muestreados. Las metodologías utilizadas en la estimación fueron: Modelo Lineal Generalizado (GLM y el Modelo Delta. Las estimaciones por el Modelo Delta y el GLM fueron diferentes en magnitudes pero similares en tendencias, sin embargo la evaluación del funcionamiento del Modelo Delta, indica que este modelo se ajusta mejor a los datos. El Modelo Delta estimó que la pesquería descarta por exceso de captura entre 2 954 y 199 164 toneladas, con un promedio de 121 312 toneladas para el periodo de estudio, el cual representó una tasa del 2.6% en relación a los desembarques. Se sugiere la incorporación de variables espaciales (p. ej. distancia a la costa, latitud, longitud, físicas (TSM y del comportamiento del cardumen (p.e. agregación, para mejorar el análisis y comprender mejor el comportamiento de este tipo de descarte.

  8. A set of sustainability performance indicators for seafood : direct human consumption products from Peruvian anchoveta fisheries and freshwater aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Avadi, A.; Fréon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Different seafood products based on Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fisheries and freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum), contribute at different scales to the socio-economic development, environmental degradation and nutrition of the Peruvian population. Various indicators have been used in the literature to assess the performance of these industries regarding different aspects of sustainability, notably ...

  9. Regeringserklæringen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    2012-01-01

    Regeringserklæringen Det er en spændende, men på sin vis også en utaknemmelig opgave at deltage i en historisk kommissionsundersøgelse af PET’s efterforskning på det politiske område. Det spændende består i, at man gives uhindret adgang til dokumenter fra regeringen og landets efterregnings- og s...

  10. Aktionslæringens DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Benedicte

    Aktionslæringen DNA giver en række redskaber til læring i fællesskaber, uanset om der arbejdes med individuelle eller kollektive projekter i offentlig eller privat regi. Metoden danner modvægt til de mere individuelistiske traditioner inden for voksenpædagogikken. DNA-metaforen bruges bogen igennem...

  11. Using indicators and models for an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture management: the anchovy fishery and Pacific oyster culture in Chile: case studies Aplicación de indicadores y modelos para un enfoque ecosistémico de la pesca y la acuicultura: pesquería de anchoveta y cultivo de ostra del Pacífico en Chile: casos de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrate the use of indicators and models to support the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture management using two case studies in Chile: prediction of environmental variability effects upon anchovy (Engraulis ringens fishery of northern Chile and prediction of suitable sites and carrying capacity of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas culture using FARM and geographic information system (GIS models in the Valdivia estuary. A three stage approach was applied: Stage 1 considers spatiotemporal ecosystem indicators (fisheries, aquaculture, environmental, and regulatory, Stage 2 uses statistical relationships between indicators, GIS, and other simulation models (e.g., artificial neural networks and FARM of environment-resources interaction, and Stage 3 is the analysis and validation of models outputs. The methodology illustrates how indicators and models may be used to assist decision-makers in developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture. The application of these approaches provides an integrative methodology for abundance prediction of anchovy and site selection for shellfish aquaculture, despite limitations in the available data.Este trabajo muestra el uso de indicadores y modelos para apoyar la aplicación del enfoque ecosistémico en la gestión de la pesca y la acuicultura, mediante dos casos de estudios en Chile: predicción de los efectos de la variabilidad ambiental en la pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona norte de Chile y la predicción de sitios aptos y capacidad de carga para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico (Crassostrea gigas en el estuario de Valdivia. Se aplicó un enfoque metodológico de tres etapas: etapa 1 considera indicadores espacio-temporales del ecosistema (pesca, acuicultura, medio ambiente y legislación; etapa 2 utiliza relaciones estadísticas entre los indicadores, funciones de SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica, y otros modelos de simulación (Redes

  12. Trends in spatio-temporal distribution of Peruvian anchovy and other small pelagic fish biomass from 1966-2009 Tendencias espacio-temporales en la distribución de la biomasa de anchoveta peruana y de otros peces pelágicos pequenos entre 1966 y 2009

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    Mariano Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in abundance and distribution of anchovy and other species of pelagic fish of the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS are driven by environmental forcing variations in different time and spatial scales between the coastal 'cold' ecosystem and the 'warm' oceanic one. Data to study these fluctuations have come mostly from the fishery to show how anchovy (Engraulis ringens increases when sardine (Sardinops sagax declines and vice versa. However, using acoustic data on latitudinal biomass we show that other species as mackerel (Scomber japonicus and jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi also follow the same opposed trend, then the fishery data hides the true dimension of the balance of abundance among species. Based on Hovmoller diagrams we scrutinized the changes in interannual latitudinal acoustic biomass, landings and influence of El Nino events from 1966 to 2009 in order to describe: 1 how the anchovy decadal distribution pattern moved from south to north since the 1960's; 2 how there have been produced concomitant changes in the latitudinal abundance and distribution of other species such as sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel before, during and after El Nino events; and 3 what was the overall effect of the succession of El Nino events on all these pelagic species. We concluded that: a every El Nino event has had an effect on the expansion or contraction of pelagic species distribution and abundance, with different latitudinal effects; and b the El Nino 1997-98 did not trigger but accelerated a decline phase on the abundance of sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel by a reduction of their ideal habitat due to an expansion of the coastal ecosystem caused by a shallower location of the upper limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ These findings observed using past data might be taken into consideration for fishery management purposes when considering future scenarios.Los cambios en la abundancia y distribución de anchoveta y de otras especies

  13. Rundt om Ringen - veje til Wagners verdensteater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artikler om Ringen af Lars Ole Bonde, Villy Sørensen, Peter Kjærulff, John Christiansen, udgivet i forbindelse med Den Jyske Operas Ring-opførelser. Interviews med Francesco Cristofoli og Klaus Hoffmeier....

  14. Miljøsertifisering i oppdrettsnæringen

    OpenAIRE

    Kringstad, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Oppdrettsnæringen har de siste tiårene opplevd en solid utvikling, og fremstår i dag som en viktig næring i Norge. Bærekraftbegrepet har fått en sentral rolle i næringslivet, og i likhet med andre næringen opplever også oppdrettsnæringen utfordringer knyttet til å imøtekomme dette. Miljøsertifiseringen Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) ble etablert for å bidra til en bærekraftig oppdrettsnæring, og selskapene i studien har alle valgt å ASC sertifisere sine anlegg. Denne studien har til he...

  15. Environmental assessment of Peruvian anchoveta food products : is less refined better ?

    OpenAIRE

    Avadi, A.; Fréon, Pierre; Quispe, I.

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCAs) of various anchovy (anchoveta) direct human consumption products processed in Peru were carried out, to evaluate their relative environmental performance as alternative products to enhance nutrition of communities with low access to fish products in the country. LCA was carried out for fresh, frozen, canned, salted and cured anchoveta products, both at plant gate and featuring local and national distribution over non-refrigerated, chilled and fully refrigerated d...

  16. Predicting habitat suitability and geographic distribution of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) due to climate change in the coastal areas off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Andrade, Isabel; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Hormazabal, Samuel; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio; Böhm, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    The effects of climate change on ocean conditions will have impacts on fish stocks, primarily through physiological and behavioural effects, such as changes in growth, reproduction, mortality and distribution. Habitat and distribution predictions for marine fishery species under climate change scenarios are important for understanding the overall impacts of such global changes on the human society and on the ecosystem. In this study, we examine the impacts of climate change on anchovy fisheries off Chile using predicted changes in global models according to the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) and IPCC high future CO2 emission scenario A2, habitat suitability index (HSI) models and satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates from high-resolution regional models for the simulation period 2015-2065. Predictions of SST from global climate models were regionalised using the Delta statistical downscaling technique. Predictions of chlorophyll-a were developed using historical Chl-a and SST (2003-2013) satellite data and applying a harmonic model. The results show an increase in SST of up to 2.5 °C by 2055 in the north and central-south area for an A2 scenario. The habitat suitability index model was developed using historical (2001-2011) monthly fisheries and environmental data. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) was used as an abundance index in developing the HSI models and was calculated as the total catch (ton) by hold capacity (m3) in a 10‧ × 10‧ fishing grid square of anchovy, integrated over one month of fishing activity. The environmental data included the distance to coast (DC), thermal (SST) and food availability (Chl-a) conditions. The HSI modelling consists of estimating SI curves based on available evidence regarding the optimum range of environmental conditions for anchovy and estimating an integrated HSI using the Arithmetic Mean Model (AMM) method. The results of this work show that the model has produced robust estimates of habitat suitability and geographic distribution off Chile and has been especially effective in capturing the spatial and temporal variability of CPUE. Using IDRISI geographical information system (GIS), these HSI models simulated monthly changes in the habitat suitability (i.e., relative abundance) and distribution of anchovy off Chile forced by changes in the regionalised SST and Chl-a as projected by the NCAR model under the A2 emission scenario. The simulations predicted a moderate negative change of 17% and 13% for the north and central-south areas, respectively, in the habitat suitability (i.e., potential relative abundance) of anchovy by 2055.

  17. Sing English: Om sangens potensial i engelskopplæringen

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    Ragnhild Elisabeth Lund

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sang er en åpenbar kilde til læring av fremmedspråk. Læreplaner for engelskfaget opp gjennom tidene har påpekt dette, og læreverkene i engelsk inneholder mange sanger. Men nøyaktig hva er det sang kan bidra med? Hva slags sanger er tatt med i bøkene, og hvilke målsettinger ser ut til å være knyttet til dem? Artikkelen besvarer disse spørsmålene ved å vise til læreplaner og utvalgte lærebøker fra perioden 1885 – 2008 og hvordan de legger opp til at sang skal brukes som en del av opplæringen i engelsk. Undersøkelsen er begrenset til ungdomstrinnet. Innledningsvis refererer artikkelen til ulike begrunnelser for bruk av sang i fremmedspråkopplæringen. Når sang nevnes i læreplanene eller innlemmes i lærebøkene, reflekteres enkelte av disse begrunnelsene. Samtidig er det påfallende hvor ofte planer og bøker ikke begrunner bruken av sang eller setter sangene inn i en didaktisk sammenheng. Artikkelen konkluderer derfor med at sanger ser ut til å representere et stort, men delvis uutnyttet potensial i engelskopplæringen på ungdomstrinnet.

  18. Synlig læring og læringens anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates.......Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates....

  19. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Avadí

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional, and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1, increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2, and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3. It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  20. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  1. Informe final. Peces pelágicos: anchoveta XV-II regiones 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Serra Beherns, J.; Canales Ramírez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Los desembarques de anchoveta presentan fuertes variaciones en Chile, generando alta inestabilidad en la actividad productiva. Uno de los factores que influyen en las fluctuaciones de las capturas es la alta variabilidad oceanográfica que ocurre en el área (fenómenos El Niño y La Niña) y que incide en la distribución y abundancia del recurso, haciéndolo vulnerable al efecto al efecto de la pesca. Por esta razón es de fundamental importancia actualizar todos los años el diagnóstico del recurso...

  2. Informe FIP 96-12. Bases biológicas para prevenir la sobreexplotación de sardina común y anchoveta.

    OpenAIRE

    Barría Martínez, P. L.; Gili V., R.; Zuleta V., A.

    1998-01-01

    El presente informe establece las bases biológicas que permiten identificar estrategias de explotación y umbrales para prevenir la sobreexplotación en el recurso sardina común y anchoveta en Chile.

  3. Hvilke faktorer er viktige for innføringen av en ITIL-prosess. Studier på innføringen av konfigurasjonsstyring hos norske virksomheter.

    OpenAIRE

    Synnevåg, Rune

    2008-01-01

    Jeg har igjennom dette studiet tatt prosessuksessmodellen til Sedere, Gable et al. (2004) ogtilpasset denne for å finne viktige faktorer for innføringen av ITIL prosessenkonfigurasjonsstyring. Modellen ble så revidert gjennom et kasusstudie med det formålet åverifisere mine opprinnelige ideer samt påvise nye faktorer som var viktige ved en slikinnføring.

  4. In Memoriam doctora Augusta Noemí Ochoa López (1937-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rouillon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La Doctora Augusta Noemí Ochoa López, nació un martes 4 de mayo de 1937 en Cañete, Lima. Empezó los estudios de la carrera de biología en la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, en 1953, también llevo cursos de la carrera de Educación. Obtuvo su grado de Bachiller en Biología en el año 1966 con la Tesis “Observaciones sobre el Desove de la Anchoveta, Engraulis ringens J., en la zona del Callao”.

  5. Lønnsomheten i petroleumsnæringen 1981-97

    OpenAIRE

    Gjesdal, Frøystein

    2000-01-01

    I denne rapporten presenteres en analyse av den økonomiske lønnsomheten i petroleumsnæringen i perioden 1981-97. Bransjens lønnsomhet sammenlignes med lønnsomheten i industrien. Analysen er basert på data som er tilgjengelig i Statistisk Sentralbyrås Regnskapsstatistikk. Rapporten inneholder også en relativt omfattende drøfting av beregningsmetoder. Spesielt drøftes problemer knyttet til regnskapsføring av skatt, valuta og avskrivinger. Selv om datagrunnlaget har svakheter, er konklusjonen at...

  6. Evaluation of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus Population by Age and Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERINA KOLITARI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anchovy (Engraulis enchrasicholus, is a member of small pelagic fish group in the waters of the Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea with important economic value for all regional countries, including Albania. The purpose of this study was to define the age of Anchovy, as one of the important indicators for the assessment of fishing reserves. Age evaluation was based on sagital otoliths, found in the inner ear of the fish. The study was conducted at the Aquaculture and Fishery Laboratory in Durres, during the period January 2008 - December 2009. At this time, 863 fish were analysed. For each individual was kept records for weight and height then, otoliths were removed, and finally watched in stereomicroscope (40 X annual assessment circles around the otoliths opaque core. Age of fish is equal to the number of annual rings. The study showed that the average age was 2.22 year, and 70% were 2+ and 3+ years. The average length was 13.98 cm. About 58% of anchovy fish were with length 12.5 - 15 cm. This study will help determine the population dynamics of anchovy fish and more accurate predictions for the amount of fish to hunt in defined time periods.

  7. Bioactive fractions from cantabrian anchovy (Engraulis encrarischolus viscera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando BURGOS-HERNÁNDEZ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The potential of cantabrian anchovy (Engraulis encrarischolus viscera as a source of bioactive compounds is of interest for both, pharmaceutical and food industries. Cantabrian anchovy guts and heads were freeze-dried, extracted with methanol and subjected to fractionation by solvent partitioning using hexane, ethyl acetate, and butanol. Fractions were tested for antimutagenic, antioxidant, antifungal, and antibacterial activity using the Ames test; DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays; the radial grown inhibition assay; and the microbroth dilution method, respectively. Five fractions were obtained from the anchovy gut methanolic extract, in addition to the hexane- (HF, ethyl acetate- (EAF, and butanol-soluble (BF fractions, an aqueous-soluble fraction (ALF and precipitated crystals (ACF in this were also obtained. HF and EAF resulted to be antimutagenic, HF and ALF showed antifungal activity, BF and ACF showed the highest antioxidant potential, and HF and BF were antibacterial against several strains. Anchovy gut, which to the present study had not been reported for any bioactivity, has antimutagenic, antifungal, antioxidant, and antibacterial compounds, which need to be isolated for full characterization and study.

  8. Regeringserklæringen og PET's registreringer på det politiske område 1968-1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den 30. september 1968 udsendte VKR-regeringen en erklæring, hvis hovedsynspunkt var "...at registrering af danske statsborgere ikke længere må finde sted alene på grundlag af lovlig politisk virksomhed." Det fremgik ydermere af erklæringen, at såfremt tjenesten lå inde med sådanne registreringer...

  9. El recurso anchoveta en el sur del Perú bajo condiciones de "El Niño"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Quiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las características oceanográficas (temperatura, salinidad, fosfatos y silicatos, volumen de zooplancton, y la abundancia de la anchoa hasta 5 millas lejos de la costa en el sur de Perú (entre Atico y la frontera sur, del 27 de febrero y marzo 3a de 1998. las condiciones oceanográficas mostró tanto la presencia de agua superficial subtropical hasta el 70 de profundidad y la evidencia de la rica afloramiento de nutrientes a gran profundidad. La población de anchoveta fue la escasez hacia fuera y formando pequeños núcleos cercanos a la costa, y los menores de edad constituye el 72% de la población.

  10. Belastung von Trinkwassertalsperren in Sachsen und Thüringen mit Parasitendauerformen und ausgewählten Bakterien

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Kathrin

    2006-01-01

    Von Oktober 1996 bis Januar 2000 wurden an 9 Trinkwassertalsperrensystemen mit unterschiedlich genutztem Einzugsgebiet in Sachsen und Thüringen mikrobiologisch-trinkwasserhygienische Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Schwerpunkt der Arbeiten war die Ermittlung der Belastungsquellen und der Eintrittspfade von durch Wasser übertragbaren Krankheitserregern, besonders von Parasitendauerformen, in Zuflüssen, Vorsperren und die Talsperrenwässer selbst. Trotz nachgewiesener hoher mikrobiologischer Belast...

  11. Identificación de puntos de pesca en los viajes pesqueros de anchoveta monitoreados por satélites mediante redes neuronales artificiales.

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Rocío

    2008-01-01

    La sostenibilidad de los recursos marinos y de su ecosistema hace necesario un manejo responsable de las pesquerías. Conocer la distribución espacial del esfuerzo pesquero y en particular de las operaciones de pesca es indispensable para mejorar el monitoreo pesquero y el análisis de la vulnerabilidad de las especies frente a la pesca. Actualmente en la pesquería de anchoveta peruana, se recoge información del esfuerzo y capturas mediante un programa de observadores a bordo, pero esta solo re...

  12. Fecundidad de la anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus (pisces: engraulidae) en la población de la parte interna del Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Kehrson Ruiz G.; Jorge Arturo Rodríguez M.; Rosa Soto

    2016-01-01

    La anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus es utilizada como carnada por la flota pesquera artesanal tradicional. Se estudiaron sus aspectos reproductivos durante los picos de desove de 1997 y 1998. La talla reproductiva en esa época se estimó en 14,6 cm y la proporción sexual fue de 1:1,2 (machos: hembras). En el análisis de fecundidad, se encontraron hembras maduras entre las tallas de 16,2 y 21,3 cm de longitud. La fecundidad relativa varió del 1,867 oocitos por gramo de pez en el grupo de talla...

  13. Shelf life of anchovy products (Engraulis encrasicolus: evaluation of sensory, microbiological and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fishery products have always been an important food in Italy. In the past, increased consumption was mainly due to the good quality of the products, easiness of use and their beneficial effects on health. Recently, owing to the national financial crisis, there has been a decline in the consumption of fish. In fact, in 2013, according to data from ISMEA, the consumption of fresh fish suffered a sharp contraction (-5%. This decline also concerns anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus. This species, partly because of its low price, is a mainstay of traditional Italian food. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensorial, chemical and microbiological properties of anchovy-based (Engraulis encrasicolus products during storage at 4 and -20°C. Fresh anchovies, obtained from the wholesale fish market of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy were cut into small pieces and hand-prepared using bread, eggs, cheese and lemon juice. Samples were analysed after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of storage at 4°C. An aliquot was quickly frozen and analysed after 34 days at -20°C. Sensory assessment, microbiological (specific spoilage organisms, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. and chemical (histamine, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid, pH and aw analyses were performed. Results showed that the shelf life of anchovy products was less than 5 days for the samples stored at 4°C. At -20°C, all anchovies preparations showed good sensory, microbiological and chemical properties for 34 days.

  14. Avaliação funcional de bases proteicas desidratadas de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita Functional evaluation of two dehydrated anchovy (Engraulis anchoita Protein bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Garcia-Torchelsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerou-se neste trabalho a avaliação funcional de bases proteicas desidratadas de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita foi considerada neste trabalho. A polpa do pescado foi separada mecanicamente e submetida à lavagem com dois solventes, água e ácido fosfórico. A secagem em camada delgada das bases proteicas foi conduzida em temperaturas de 40, 60 e 70°C e espessuras de amostra de 5mm. O produto foi avaliado considerando a determinação de proteínas solúveis, composição centesimal e propriedades funcionais, expressas pela solubilidade protéica, capacidade de retenção de água, capacidade de retenção de gordura e capacidade emulsificante. Os resultados indicaram que a obtenção da base proteica de anchoita usando ácido fosfórico como solvente de lavagem apresentou melhores características, se consideradas as operações de extração de proteínas solúveis, secagem e propriedades funcionais do produto final. Com relação à secagem, verificou-se que esta operação origina um produto com melhores características funcionais quando são empregadas temperaturas de 40 e 60°C.The functional evaluation of two dehydrated anchovy (Engraulis anchoita protein bases was considered in this work. The fish meat was mechanically separated and subjected to washing with two solvents, water and phosphoric acid, to obtain the protein bases. Thin layer drying of the protein bases was carried out at temperatures of 40, 60 and 70 °C, with a sample thickness of 5mm. The products were evaluated considering the determinations of the soluble proteins, proximate composition and the functional properties such as protein solubility, water holding capacity, fat holding capacity and emulsifying capacity. The results indicated that obtaining the anchovy protein base using phosphoric acid as the washing solvent resulted in better characteristics, when considering the operations of extracting and drying the soluble proteins and the functional properties of

  15. Living with uncertainty: genetic imprints of climate shifts in east Pacific Anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) population

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, Frederic; W. Stewart Grant; Dodson, J.J.; Rodríguez Sánchez, Rubén; Bowen, B W

    2004-01-01

    In the upwelling zone of the northeastern Pacific, cold nutrient-rich conditions alternate with warm nutrient-poor intervals on timescales ranging from months to millennia. In this setting, the abundances of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) fluctuate by several orders of magnitude, with sardine dominating during warm conditions and anchovy dominating during cool conditions. Two population models can explain the response of these fishes to adverse condi...

  16. Modifications in the chemical compounds and sensorial attributes of Engraulis anchoita fillet during marinating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Yeannes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Marinated fish are fish products preserved by the combined action of salt and organic acids. The objective of this work was to analyze the variations in the chemical compounds of anchovy fillets that give them sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of Engraulis anchoita. The protein content decreased slightly and the TVB-N level decreased significantly in both the brining and marinating stages. In the marinating stage an increase in the total free aminoacids was observed. The NBV level in the brining and marinating solutions increased during these stages due to the solubilization of the non-protein nitrogenous compounds and the degradation of some protein compounds.The decrease of the contents of protein and TVB-N, and the increase of the acidity and the free aminoacids content during the marinating process give the marinated fillets the characteristic texture and aroma.Peixes marinados são produtos obtidos pela ação combinada de sal e ácidos orgânicos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações químicas e sensoriais em filés de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita durante o processo de marinado. O conteúdo de proteína apresentou decréscimo significativo durante a salga. O teor de Bases Voláteis Totais-N-BVT, apresentou uma diminuição considerável durante a salga e marinacão. Na fase de marinado, foi observado um aumento em aminoácidos livres totais. Foi constatada a presença de N-BVT na salmoura e na solução oriunda do processo de obtenção de marinado, devido à solubilização de nitrogênio não protéico, que podem ter sido acrescidos de alguns compostos de degradação protéica. A redução do conteúdo de proteína e N-BVT e o aumento de acidez e de aminoácidos livres gerados durante ou processo de elaboração do marinado fazem com que os filés marinados adquiram textura e aroma característicos.

  17. {sup 2}10Po in engraulis encrasilocus in the North of the Valencian community; {sup 2}10Po en Engraulis Encrasilocus en el Norte de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Belmar, V.; Camara Garcia, T.; Ferrero Calabuig, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    Within the scope of natural radiation, one of the most studied radionuclides is currently radon and their descendants. The doses due to this radionuclide are the most high and dangerous, not only in areas where there is radon this is already inhaled by the population but it also swallowed their descendants via food, contributing to a dose rate more. The objective of this work is the study of the concentration of {sup 2}10Po in anchovy (Engraulis Encrasilocus) in an area with a coastal lagoon with high concentration of {sup 2}22 Rn. (Author)

  18. Fecundidad de la anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus (pisces: engraulidae en la población de la parte interna del Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehrson Ruiz G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus es utilizada como carnada por la flota pesquera artesanal tradicional. Se estudiaron sus aspectos reproductivos durante los picos de desove de 1997 y 1998. La talla reproductiva en esa época se estimó en 14,6 cm y la proporción sexual fue de 1:1,2 (machos: hembras. En el análisis de fecundidad, se encontraron hembras maduras entre las tallas de 16,2 y 21,3 cm de longitud. La fecundidad relativa varió del 1,867 oocitos por gramo de pez en el grupo de tallas superiores a 921 oocitos por gramo de pez en el grupo de menor talla. La relación entre el número de oocitos y la talla del pez fue para la fecundidad total de 1,10 *LT4,55 y para la fecundidad relativa de 0,17 * PT1,19. Los índices gonadosomáticos fueron calculados para machos y hembras en los diferentes estadios de madurez, obteniéndose los valores máximos en el estadio IV, siendo a la vez mayores en machos que en hembras.

  19. Clupeiformes' Egg Envelope Proteins characterization: The case of Engraulis encrasicolus as a proxy for stock assessment through a novel molecular tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Andrea; Leonori, Iole; Estonba, Andone; De Felice, Andrea; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-07-01

    Zona radiata proteins are essential for ensuring bactericidal resistance, oocyte nutrients uptake and functional buoyancy, sperm binding and guidance to the micropyle, and protection to the growing oocyte or embryo from the physical environment. Such glycoproteins have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, protein composition and phylogenetics in several chordate models. Nevertheless, research on teleost has not been extensive. In Clupeiformes, one of the most biologically relevant and commercially important order which accounts for over 400 species and totally contributes to more than a quarter of the world fish catch, Egg Envelope Protein (EEP) information exist only for the Clupea pallasii and Engraulis japonicus species. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, the target of a well-consolidated fishery in the Mediterranean Sea, has been ignored until now and the interest on the Otocephala superorder has been fragmentally limited to some Cypriniformes and Gonorynchiformes, as well. The aim of the present study was to fill the ZP protein-wise gap of knowledge afflicting the understanding of the European anchovy's reproductive process and to expand the background on Clupeiformes. We cloned the five Engraulis encrasicolus' zp genes and deduced their products, determined their tissue distribution, quantified their mRNA expression throughout the reproductive cycle and provided an insight into their evolution through phylogenetic tools. Furthermore, we proposed a multivariate statistics-based method to objectively infer and/or confirm the classification of Engraulis encrasicolus' sexual maturity stages by analyzing data of zp mRNAs' relative abundance. PMID:27060425

  20. Macrozooplankton predation impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) eggs mortality at the Bay of Biscay shelf break spawning centre

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, Aitor

    2014-11-23

    A real-time PCR based method involving a species-specific probe was applied to detect Engraulis encrasicolus eggs predation by the macrozooplankton community during the 2011 spawning season. Three locations along the shelf break presenting contrasting but high prey densities were sampled. A total of 840 individuals from 38 taxa of potential macrozooplankton predators were assayed for E. encrasicolus DNA presence and 27 presented at least one positive signal. Carnivorous copepods were responsible for the most predation events (66%) followed by euphausiids (16%), chaetognaths (5%), and myctophid fish (4%). Macrozooplankton predation on anchovy eggs followed a type-I functional response with daily mortalities <4% of available prey abundance suggesting a negligible impact on the species recruitment at the shelf break spawning centre. © 2014 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. An analysis of the impacts of climatic variability and hydrology on the coastal fisheries, Engraulis encrasicolus and Sepia officinalis, of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Hadayet; Leitao, F.; Baptista, Vânia; Chícharo, Luís

    2012-01-01

    The notion that climate change may impact coastal fish production suggests a need to understand how climatic variables may influence fish catches at different time scales. Evidence suggests that the effect of climatic variability and fishing effort on landed catches (as proxy of fish abundance) may vary at the regional scale. This study aims to assess the sensibility of two commercial species with a short life cycle (Engraulis encrasicolus and Sepia officinalis) to climatic and fisheries effe...

  2. Acid and salt uptake during the marinatig process of Engraulis anchoita fillets influence of the solution: fish ratio and agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Capaccioni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the effect of different conditions of the marination stage on the salt and acid uptake, immersion time, and sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita. Different solution:fish ratios and the agitation effect during this stage were analyzed. The ratios used were: 0.77:1, 3:1 and 10:1 (with and without agitation. An increase of marinating solution:fish ratio causes a higher speed of acid and salt penetration The product obtained with the 10:1 ratio had a dry and fibrous texture and a slightly salty taste. Salt concentration was statistically significantly lower (p < 0.01 in the samples with agitation. Agitation did not influence the acid uptake, and the salt penetration speed decreased, but rancidity was detected in this product. The ratio 3:1 decreases the marinating time without damaging sensory attributes and can be used in the fish marinating process.

  3. Monthly variation in the fat content of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea: implications for acoustic abundance estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; ZHAO Xianyong; DAI Fangqun

    2011-01-01

    Anchovy is a key species in the Yellow Sea ecosystem. An accurate estimate of anchovy abundance is vital for the management of the anchovy stock and measurement of the ecosystem response to changes in anchovy abundance. However, the acoustic fish abundance estimate may be biased by 30%-40% if the fat-content induced target strength variation is not taken into account. We measured the monthly variation in the fat content of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea, and evaluated the potential effect of variation in fat content on the acoustic assessment of anchovy abundance. The fat content of anchovy varied seasonally, with two maxima and two minima in a year. The highest fat content (14.75%) was measured in the pre-spawning period in May, and the lowest fat content (2.48%) was measured during the post-spawning period in October. Fat content appeared to correlate with water content,but not body size. Assuming that the target strength is decreased by 0.2dB for every 1% increase in fat content, the seasonal difference in the target strength of anchovy may be as high as 2.45 dB. Given this,the acoustic abundance estimate may be biased by between 43% and 76%. Our results highlight the need for more information on the changes in fat content of fishes whose abundance is estimated by acoustic surveys.

  4. No loss of genetic diversity in the exploited and recently collapsed population of Bay of Biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.)

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-04-11

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the Bay of Biscay suffered a collapse in census population size (Nc) starting in 2002, from which it did not recover until 2010. The slow recovery raised concern over sustainability, potential reduction in adaptive potential, and vulnerability to local extirpation. Long- and short-term effective population size (Ne), Ne/Nc ratio, and other genetic parameters were estimated to evaluate demographic signals of population decline. A total of 349 neutral single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in 330 anchovy individuals from the Bay of Biscay distributed across a 20-year period. We show that Nc fluctuations have not significantly affected short-term Ne, and therefore, genetic diversity has remained stable throughout the recent collapse. This study illustrates that Ne estimates should be incorporated into management plans. Our results on short-term Ne suggested that the anchovy in the Bay of Biscay has not faced any recent severe threat of losing evolutionary potential due to genetic drift. However, differences between short- and long-term Ne estimates suggested that the Bay of Biscay anchovy population may be currently much smaller than in the historical past. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  5. Análisis de la pesquería del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del jurel Trachurus murphyi ha sido registrado en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal en Perú desde 1907. A partir del año 2000, las capturas de T. murphyise ubicaron en el tercer lugar después de la anchoveta Engraulis ringensy el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas. Las capturas de T. murphyison realizadas por la flota artesanal, industrial cerquera y barcos arrastreros factoría. En el año 2011, la flota industrial cerquera con permiso de pesca para T. murphyien la costa peruana estaba constituida por 62 embarcaciones industriales de acero (30177 m 3 y 42 industriales de madera (3082 m 3 . Las capturas de T. murphyituvieron un notable incremento a partir de 1972, alcanzando sus máximos valores en 1977, 1996-97 y 2001, a los que siguieron años de muy baja disponibilidad que llevó al mínimo registro en las capturas en 2010. Sin embargo en el 2011 se revirtió esta baja disponibilidad y las capturas alcanzaron casi las 260000 toneladas. En el periodo 1972 – 2012 se observó una relación inversa entre los estimados de biomasa acústica del jurel T. murphyiy los desembarques anuales de anchoveta E. ringens. Las capturas mensuales de T. murphyipor la flota industrial y artesanal antes del 2002 fueron altas en la zona norte de Perú (Mancora-Chimbote, mientras que después del 2002 las capturas fueron altas en la zona centro-sur (Huacho-Ilo.

  6. Spatial, temporal and ontogenetic variation in diet of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) on the Algerian coast (SW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, M.; Amara, R.

    2009-11-01

    The diet of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus was studied in three regions (Béjaia, Bénisaf and Ghazaouet) along the Algerian coast. Ontogenetic, spatial and seasonal variations in anchovy diet were investigated using multivariate analyses and analysed in relation with sea surface temperature and chlorophyll- a. 46 prey taxa of varying size between 0.57 mm ( Euterpina acutifrons) and 6.8 mm (fish larvae) were recorded. Whatever the season, the region or the fish size, anchovy is exclusively zooplanktivorous and copepods were the most present prey, constituting 87% by number of the prey taken and found in 98% of the anchovy stomachs examined. However, their occurrence and number varied according to the different areas, seasons and fish size. During its first year of life, anchovy feeds almost exclusively on copepods (mainly small and medium size prey). As anchovy grows, copepods are gradually substituted by large crustaceans such as decapods and amphipods. Hierarchical cluster analysis, analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) and similarities percentage (SIMPER) indicated a distinct diet of anchovy of the bay of Bejaia from those of the bays of Bénisaf and Ghazaouet probably due to differences in hydrologic conditions. Diet differences also occurred between seasons. Summer and spring have distinct prey assemblages each and showed low diet similarities with the two other seasons. More prey species were found in the diet during winter (36) and autumn (30) and the vacuity index was lower in winter. Temporal variability in satellite-derived chlorophyll- a matched the seasonal variability in the diversity of the anchovy prey and feeding intensity as reflected by the vacuity index, suggesting further investigation of the potential use of satellite-derived chlorophyll- a data as a proxy for anchovy feeding intensity.

  7. Descripción de la pesquería artesanal de peces, en tres puertos pesqueros de la IV región, Coquimbo, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Víquez Portuguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un seguimiento de la pesca artesanal de peces en las caletas de Coquimbo, Guanaqueros y Tongoy en la IV región, Chile, entre junio de 1995 y junio de 1996. El estudio comprendió un análisis de las especies capturadas , biomasa de ellas, artes de pesca empleadas y desembarque en cada caleta por medio de formularios acordados en un proyecto convenio tripartito entre la Federación de Trabajadores del Mar (FETRAMAR de la provincia de Elqui F.G., el Servicio Nacional de Pesca de la IV región (SERNAP y la Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN. Se capturó un total de 27 especies de interés comercial y las especies de mayor relevancia fueron la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y el jurel (Trachurus murphyi, capturadas con red de cerco; la merluza (Merluccius gayi y la reineta (Brama austalis capturadas con espinel.

  8. Living with uncertainty: genetic imprints of climate shifts in East Pacific anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and sardine (Sardinops sagax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, F; Grant, W S; Dodson, J J; Rodriguez-Sanchez, R; Bowen, B W

    2004-08-01

    In the upwelling zone of the northeastern Pacific, cold nutrient-rich conditions alternate with warm nutrient-poor intervals on timescales ranging from months to millennia. In this setting, the abundances of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) fluctuate by several orders of magnitude, with sardine dominating during warm conditions and anchovy dominating during cool conditions. Two population models can explain the response of these fishes to adverse conditions. Under the basin model, species distributions contract to a central (optimal) range during population crashes. Expectations of this model may include a single range-wide population with a decline in genetic diversity on both sides of a central refuge. In contrast, the self-recruitment model invokes a series of local oceanographic domains that maintain semi-isolated subpopulations. During adverse conditions, some subpopulations cannot complete the life cycle within the local environment and are extirpated. Expectations of this model include some degree of population genetic structure and no clear gradient in genetic diversity. We examined mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences to assess these competing models for anchovy (N = 196; 539 bp) and sardine (N = 107; 425 bp). The mitochondrial DNA gene genealogies are shallow but diverse for both species. Haplotype frequencies are homogeneous among subpopulations, but genetic diversities peak for both species along Baja California and adjacent southern California. Mismatch distributions and Tajima's D-values reveal distinctive signatures of population bottlenecks and expansions. Sardine haplotypes coalesce at approximately 241,000 years bp, with an initial female effective population size Nf0 = 0 followed by exponential growth to Nf1 = 115 million. Anchovy haplotypes coalesce at approximately 282,000 years bp, with an initial population size of Nf0 = 14,000, followed by exponential growth to Nf1 = 2.3 million. These results

  9. Zwischen Reichsstandschaft und Standesherrschaft. Die Grafen zu Stolberg und ihr Verhältnis zu den Landgrafen von Thüringen und späteren Herzögen, Kurfürsten bzw. Königen von Sachsen (1210 - 1815)

    OpenAIRE

    Brückner, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Gegenstand der Dissertation ist die Darstellung der Entwicklung der im Südharz und in Nordthüringen ansässigen Grafen zu Stolberg seit ihrer Ersterwähnung im Jahre 1210 bis zum Wiener Kongress 1815. Über einen Zeitraum von mehr als 600 Jahren wird das Beziehungsverhältnis zwischen diesem Harzgrafengeschlecht und den Landgrafen von Thüringen und den nachfolgenden Herzögen, Kurfürsten bzw. Königen von Sachsen näher untersucht. Breiten Raum nimmt dabei der handbuchartige Überblick über die Entwi...

  10. Determination of cholesterol oxides in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus treated with a commercial mixture of citric acid, trisodium acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniello Anastasio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new additive formulation containing hydrogen peroxide, citric acid and trisodium acid is illegally used in fishery products due its whitening and antioxidant features. Aim of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of COPs and their role as markers of illegal treatment in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus stored at different temperatures. Sensory analysis was also performed by the specific QIM test. The quantitative determinations (% of cholesterol oxides (COPs showed changing amounts during storage. Not always The COPs measured in the treated samples were significantly higher than control samples. Considering the volatility of hydrogen peroxide and the poor repeatability of COPs analyses, as shown in the present study, it is crucial to intensify the control by the Authorities.

  11. Coupling between the environment and the pelagic resources exploited off northern Chile: ecosystem indicators and a conceptual model Acoplamiento entre el ambiente y los recursos pelágicos explotados en el norte de Chile: un modelo conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2008-01-01

    pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens; en tanto, desde mediado de los 70's los desembarques de sardina (Sardinops sagax aumentan notablemente. Un segundo cambio de régimen se observa a finales de los 80's, representado principalmente por la notable recuperación de anchovy y disminución de sardina. Se presenta un modelo conceptual integrador de los diferentes fenómenos locales y de gran escala que afectan el ambiente marino del norte de Chile, y la distribución y abundancia de recursos pelágicos. El modelo considera análisis de datos ambientales y bio-pesqueros a distintas escalas, y describe como las fluctuaciones interdecadales (asociadas a cambios de régimen e interanuales (asociadas a los eventos El Niño del Pacífico Ecuatorial se manifiestan en el Pacífico Sur Oriental y por tanto en la zona norte de Chile, afectando el ciclo anual, la dinámica de las ondas atrapadas a la costa y la surgencia costera. En este marco, las fluctuaciones interdecadales estarían jugando un rol importante en la secuencia del reemplazo anchoveta-sardina-anchoveta.

  12. El zooplancton del hábitat reproductivo de la población bonaerense de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita), con especial énfasis en crustáceos

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas, M.D.; Marrari, M.; R. Di Mauro; Cepeda, G.D.; Padovani, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    The information gathered in Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) Northern population assessment cruises allowed to perform studies on the zooplankton community of the Buenos Aires shelf since 1995. In this work the most relevant results as regards the taxonomy and size structure of the community, faunistic areas, and 'key' species in relation to the hydrographic conditions and frontal systems of the region are presented. Besides, the consequences those results might have on Argentine anchov...

  13. Effect of strong winds on the nutritional condition of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) larvae in the Bay of Biscay, Northeast Atlantic, as inferred from an early field application of the DNA/C index

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Jean-pierre

    2000-01-01

    A new biochemical index was used to assess larval fish nutritional condition during a. survey cruise in the Bay of Biscay in early June 1993. This period corresponds to the breeding season of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.). The analysis of samples taken at grid points indicated a clear spatial pattern in nutritional condition, which increased from the middle shelf to the shelf edge. A relatively large fraction of the larval population proved to be in poor condition. Strong w...

  14. Efecto de la predación de Noctiluca scintillans Macartney, Sagitta friderici Ritter-Záhony y larvas de Engraulis anchoita Hubbs-Marini sobre la comunidad planctónica costera bonaerense

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    Studied the effect of the predation of Noctiluca scintillans, Sagitta friderici and larvae of Engraulis anchoita in planktonic community of the coastal waters off Buenos Aires province from samples obtained of a permanent station EPEA (38°28’ S, 57°41’ W, 48 m depth) from March 2000 through April 2001. The composition of the diet of the three species predators considering appearances quantitative and qualitative was determined. It found that N. scintillans consumed mainly diatoms and copepod ...

  15. Spatial distribution, sampling precision and survey design optimisation with non-normal variables: The case of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) recruitment in Spanish Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugores, M. Pilar; Iglesias, Magdalena; Oñate, Dolores; Miquel, Joan

    2016-02-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) displays a key role in ecological and economical terms. Ensuring stock sustainability requires the provision of crucial information, such as species spatial distribution or unbiased abundance and precision estimates, so that management strategies can be defined (e.g. fishing quotas, temporal closure areas or marine protected areas MPA). Furthermore, the estimation of the precision of global abundance at different sampling intensities can be used for survey design optimisation. Geostatistics provide a priori unbiased estimations of the spatial structure, global abundance and precision for autocorrelated data. However, their application to non-Gaussian data introduces difficulties in the analysis in conjunction with low robustness or unbiasedness. The present study applied intrinsic geostatistics in two dimensions in order to (i) analyse the spatial distribution of anchovy in Spanish Western Mediterranean waters during the species' recruitment season, (ii) produce distribution maps, (iii) estimate global abundance and its precision, (iv) analyse the effect of changing the sampling intensity on the precision of global abundance estimates and, (v) evaluate the effects of several methodological options on the robustness of all the analysed parameters. The results suggested that while the spatial structure was usually non-robust to the tested methodological options when working with the original dataset, it became more robust for the transformed datasets (especially for the log-backtransformed dataset). The global abundance was always highly robust and the global precision was highly or moderately robust to most of the methodological options, except for data transformation.

  16. Variation in the distribution of wintering anchovy Engraulis japonicus and its relationship with water temperature in the central and southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingxiang; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a shift in the spatial distribution of wintering anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and its relationship with water temperature, using data collected by bottom trawl surveys and remote sensing in the central and southern Yellow Sea, during 2000-2015. Our results indicate that the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy varied between years, but there was no consistent pattern in the direction of change (north or south). Wintering anchovy did not move northward with increasing water temperature. However, the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy correlated well with 10°C and 11°C isotherms. The results of both a one-step and a two-step generalized additive model indicated that water temperature was associated with both presence and biomass of wintering anchovy. This paper is the first to systematically examine the relationship between anchovy distribution and water temperature using a variety of techniques. All the findings confirm the impact of water temperature on wintering anchovy distribution, which has important implications for the continued management of the anchovy resource and the enhancement of marine fishery resources in the Yellow Sea, especially as the climate changes. However water temperature only partly explains the species distribution of anchovy, and stock characteristics also affect fishery distribution. Therefore, other factors should be considered in future research.

  17. Identification and distribution of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) isoforms in the brain of a clupeiform fish, Engraulis japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhan, Zahid Parvez; Kitano, Hajime; Selvaraj, Sethu; Yoneda, Michio; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2013-12-01

    To gain a better understanding of the reproductive endocrinology of a primitive order clupeiform fish (Japanese anchovy, Engraulis japonicus), cDNAs encoding three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) isoforms were isolated from the brain, and their distribution was analyzed using insitu hybridization (ISH). The three GnRH isoforms include GnRH1 (herring GnRH), GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-ll) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH), and their full-length cDNAs encode 88, 86, and 89 deduced amino acids (aa), respectively. Alignment analysis of Japanese anchovy GnRH isoforms showed lower identities with other teleost fish. The major population of GnRH1 neurons was localized in the ventral telencephalon (VT) and nucleus preopticus (NPO) of the preoptic area (POA) with minor population in the anterior olfactory bulb (OB). GnRH2 neurons were restricted to the midbrain tegmentum (MT), specific to the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF). GnRH3 neurons were localized in the olfactory nerve (ON), ventral OB, and transitional area between OB and ON. Interestingly, GnRH1 neurons were also localized in the olfactory bulb, in addition to its major population in the preoptic area. These results indicate the differential distribution of three GnRH isoforms expressed in the brain of the Japanese anchovy. PMID:24320187

  18. Spatial distribution and reconstruction potential of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) based on scale deposition records in recent anaerobic sediment of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiansheng; SUN Yao; JIA Haibo; YANG Qian; TANG Qisheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have revealed that anchovy has exhibited large variability in population size on decadal tim-escales. However, such works concerning anchovy population are mainly based on short historical catch records. In order to understand the causes of variability in fish stocks (natural and/or anthropogenic) and calibrate the error between catches and standing stocks, it is essential to develop long-term time series of fish stocks from the time when human impacts are minimal or negligible. Well preserved fish scales from sediment record are regarded as useful indicators revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries. Anchovy scales was first analyzed over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea and the largest abundance was found in the central South Yellow Sea where is regarded as the largest overwintering ground for Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicas). Thus in the central South Yellow Sea, two cores covering the last 150 years were collected for estimating fish scale flux. The scale deposition rate (SDR) records show that the decadal scale SDRs were obviously coherent between cores with independent chronologies. Thecalibration of downcore SDRs to the standing stocks of anchovy further validated that SDR is a reliable proxy to recon-struct the long-term anchovy population dynamic in the central South Yellow Sea where anoxic conditions prevail in the sediment. When assembled with other productivity proxies, it would be expected that SDR could be associated with changes in oceanic productivity and may make a contribution to determine the forcing factors and elucidate the mechanism of the process in future.

  19. Effect of food type and concentration on growth and fatty acid composition of early larvae of the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) reared under laboratory conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, Susana

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were conducted during the summer of 2008 and 2009 to study the growth of early post yolk-sac European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) larvae reared under different food regimes. The fatty acid composition was used to assess nutritional condition of the larvae. Prey items used in the experiments were Gymnodinium sanguineum, Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the copepods Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons. Food type and concentration affected the growth of the larvae. Mixed diets composed of rotifers and copepod nauplii at high concentration resulted in higher anchovy larvae growth rates in comparison with single-prey diets using either rotifers or copepod nauplii. The addition of the dinoflagellate G. sanguineum (25-50cellsml -1) to the prey offered did not enhance significantly larval growth. Highest growth rates of anchovy larvae (0.28mmd -1) were obtained using high concentrations of a mixed diet, particularly the combination of rotifers and A. grani nauplii. Fatty acid composition at hatch was similar to the composition observed in the field, but during larvae ontogeny there was a marked decrease in the contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Such difference reflects the high requirements of these PUFA for larvae development, and suggests that the food offered failed to fulfill the larvae nutritional requirements. The growth rates obtained in our experiments were, overall, in the lower range of those observed in natural conditions. Taking into considerations the fact that larvae in the field are expected to encounter lower prey concentrations, we discuss the reasons for such disagreement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  20. Fatty acids and stable isotopes of a marine ecosystem: Study on the Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) food web in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ruijing; Wu, Ying; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Lei; Wang, Na

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, the decline of the fish resource in the Yellow Sea has been dramatic. The fish community structure is changing. We determined the stable isotope and fatty acids composition in the Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) (dominant species) food web in the Yellow Sea, China, to study the ecological variation especially in the shifting trophic level. The major fatty acids found in the species were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:0, 18:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3, which made up 60-80% of the total fatty acids (FA). Scomberomorus niphonius and Conger myriaster were richer in 18:1 n-9. A higher percentage of saturated FA and lower percentage of polyunsaturated FA were found in Pseudosciaena polyactis, Chelidonichthys kumu, and Priacanthus macracanthus. A special feature of the grassfish was the high level of 20:4 n-6. An enrichment of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes was observed from phytoplankton and zooplankton to fishes; the stable nitrogen isotope varied in the range 2.9-13.9‰ and the mean values of stable carbon isotopes of fishes tended to vary within a limited range (-19.4 to -17.9‰). Both δ 15N and specific fatty acids (such as 18:1 n-9, DHA, EPA) showed a good relationship with trophic level. A distinct change in the fatty acids signature and stable isotopes was observed for the Japanese anchovy with the increase in body length, which was independent of the variety of geographic locations. Egg and postlarva samples were richer in 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and C22:6 n-3. The major fatty acids were 16:0 and 18:1 n-9, followed by 20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3, and 20:4 n-6, in young and adult Japanese anchovy. The shift in diet between the different life stages could be the explanation for this observation. Variations in trophic levels can be proven using stable isotope and fatty acids compositions, but this should be done with caution, such as with the application of principal components analysis in this study.

  1. Importance of the Río de la Plata estuarine front (southwestern Atlantic Ocean in the feeding ecology of Argentine anchovy, Engraulis anchoita (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae Importancia del frente estuarial del Río de la Plata (Océano Atlántico sudoccidental en la ecología trófica de la anchoíta argentina, Engraulis anchoita (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano N Padovani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The feeding of Engraulis anchoita was studied in the coastal reproductive habitat of the northern population during the spawning period. Stomach contents of anchovy adults and plankton samples taken during a research cruise were examined. The highest stomach fullness values were found in the Rio de la Plata estuary, particularly at stations close to the surface salinity front. Copepods, particularly those 1 mm total length. This might be explained by a low gill rakers efficiency of adult anchovies to retain small prey. In the Rio de la Plata front, both the reported large biomasses of zooplankton and the observed intense anchovy feeding revealed the ecological significance of this front, especially when compared with the contiguous "poor in food" coastal areas.Se estudió la alimentación de la población norteña de Engraulis anchoita en el hábitat reproductivo costero durante su periodo de desove. Se analizaron los contenidos estomacales de adultos de anchoíta y muestras de zooplancton tomados durante un crucero de investigación. Los mayores valores de repleción estomacal se encontraron en el estuario del Río de la Plata, particularmente en estaciones cercanas al frente salino de superficie. Los copépodos fueron las presas más abundantes, particularmente especímenes 1 mm de longitud total. Esto se puede explicar por la baja eficiencia del aparato branquial de anchoítas adultas para retener pequeñas presas. En el frente del Río de la Plata, las altas biomasas de zooplancton reportadas y la intensa alimentación observada, evidencian su significancia ecológica, especialmente cuando se compara con aguas costeras adyacentes pobres en alimento.

  2. Efectos ambientales sobre la variabilidad espacial del ictioplancton de Chile austral durante noviembre de 2005 Environmental effects on the spatial variability of the ichthyoplankton from southern Chile during November 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A BUSTOS

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución y abundancia del ictioplancton de Chile austral (41-45° S durante noviembre de 2005 en relación a las características oceanógraficas de la columna de agua (temperatura, salinidad y estratificación. Durante el periodo de estudio, se recolectó un total de 44.606 huevos de peces y 2.016 larvas correspondientes a 28 taxa. Los estados tempranos de peces pelágicos pequeños dominaron en las muestras, con densidades de ~ 14.000 huevos 10 m-2 de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y > 100 larvas 10 m-2 de clupeidos. Análisis multivariados indicaron la formación de dos grupos de estaciones, uno asociado a la zona de fiordos, de mayor profundidad, con fuertes gradientes verticales de temperatura y salinidad y mayor estratificación, y otro grupo asociado al borde oriental de la isla Chiloé, de menor profundidad y mayor mezcla en la columna de agua. En las zonas de mayor estratificación (Le., mayor frecuencia de Brunt-Váisála, N-2, se encontraron mayores densidades de huevos y larvas de peces pelágicos y mesopelágicos (Strangomera bentincki y Maurolicus parvipinnis. Al comparar esta información con un crucero oceanógrafico llevado a cabo 10 años antes en la misma zona (octubre de 1995, se detectaron cambios en la composición específica de ictioplancton, lo que puede indicar diferencias en las especies de peces marinos que utilizan la zona de fiordos y canales como área de desove y crianza larval.The distribution and abundance of ichthyoplankton from southern Chile (41-45°S during November 2005 were analyzed, in relation to the oceanographic features of the water column (temperature, salinity, stratification. During the sampling period, 44.606 fish eggs and 2.016 fish larvae were collected, belonging to 28 taxa. Early life stages of small pelagic fishes dominated the plankton samples, with mean densities of ~ 14,000 eggs 10 m-2 of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and > 100 larvae 10 m-2of clupleids. Multivariate analysis

  3. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from δ13C and δ15N values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Mornet, F.; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay, through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA). Mesozooplankton and individuals of sardines and anchovies were collected during one season (spring 2010), over spatially contrasted stations within the study area. First, the potential effect of preservation (ethanol vs. freezing) and of delipidation (by cyclohexane) on mesozooplankton δ13C and δ15N values was assessed. Results demonstrated the necessity to correct for the preservation effect and for lipid contents in mesozooplankton for further analyses of sardines' and anchovies' diet through SIA. Next, this study highlighted the interest of working on identified mesozooplanktonic organisms instead of undetermined assemblages when unravelling food sources of planktivorous fish using stable isotopes. The inter-specific variability of isotope values within a planktonic assemblage was effectively high, probably depending on the various feeding behaviours that can occur among mesozooplankton species. Intra-specific variability was also significant and related to the spatial variations of baseline signatures in the area. To investigate the foraging areas and potential diet overlap of S. pilchardus and E. encrasicolus, mixing models (SIAR) were applied. Both fish species appeared to feed mainly in the neritic waters of the Bay of Biscay in spring and to select mainly small- to medium-sized copepods (e.g. Acartia sp., Temora sp.). However, E. encrasicolus showed a greater trophic plasticity by

  4. Preservación y abundancia de escamas de peces en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile (21-36° S Fish scale preservation and abundance in sediments from the continental margin off Chile (21-36° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A DÍAZ-OCHOA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la relación entre la preservación de escamas de peces y las variaciones en las condiciones redox en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile, este trabajo presenta recuentos de escamas de peces y concentraciones normalizadas de elementos redox sensibles (Mo/Al, S/Al, Fe/Al en ocho testigos de sedimento recolectados en la zona de minimo oxígeno frente a Chile (Iquique: 20°15' S, bahía de Mejillones: 23° S y Concepción: 36° S. En el norte de Chile (Iquique y Mejillones predominan las escamas de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y de peces de la familia Myctophidae (media = 90 y 120 escamas 1.000 cm-3, respectivamente mientras que en Chile centro-sur (Concepción son más abundantes las escamas de jurel (Trachurus murphy; media = 140 escamas 1.000 cm-3. La abundancia de escamas de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi y de sardina (Sardinops sagax es aproximadamente un orden de magnitud más baja que la de anchoveta o jurel. En general, los valores más altos y los rangos más amplios de variación en las razones Mo/Al, S/Al y Fe/Al se encuentran en Mejillones (Mo/Al ~0,8-12 mg g-1, S/Al 0,2-4,6 g g-1, Fe/Al 0,3-0,7 g g-1 seguidos por Iquique (Mo/Al -0,2-1,8; S/Al 0,2-0,7, Fe/Al 0,5-0,8, mientras que Concepción revela valores más bajos y poco variables (Mo/Al ~0,07, S/Al ~0,15 y Fe/Al ~0,5. La razón Mo/Al, utilizada como indicador de paleo-oxigenación, permite inferir condiciones reductoras relativamente más intensas en los sedimentos de la Bahía de Mejillones e Iquique que en Concepción. En las tres localidades de muestreo se evidencia una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la abundancia de escamas de anchoveta y el logaritmo de la razón Mo/Al (r²= 0,46; P 1 mg g-1.The relationship between fish scale preservation and variations in the sediment redox conditions on Chile's continental shelf are evaluated herein through fish scale counts and normalized concentrations of redox sensitive elements

  5. Study on membrane concentration process and flavor compounds analysis in fish Engraulis japonicus soup%鳀鱼蒸煮液膜浓缩工艺研究及风味物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建友; 林龙; 王斌; 丁玉庭

    2013-01-01

    采用微滤(MF)、超滤(UF)、纳滤(NF)组合膜浓缩技术进行鳀鱼蒸煮液营养风味物质的高效冷浓缩.结果表明:无机陶瓷微滤膜通量较高、浓缩时间较短,MF-NF工艺的蛋白质和氨基酸回收率分别为70.74%和39.83%~46.64%.MF截留液的蛋白质浓度提高3.30倍,腥味增强.NF截留液的氨基酸浓度提高2.71倍,其中谷氨酸和天冬氨酸含量分别增加了3.36倍和6.72倍,鱼腥味基本消失,蒸煮液的风味有效改善.MF-NF工艺比MF-UF-NF工艺经济简便可行,适合于鳀鱼蒸煮液船上浓缩.%A membrane process involving microfiltration (MF),ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) was used to concentrate nutrition and flavor compounds in Engraulis japonicus cooking soup.Results showed that inorganic ceramic microfiltration membrane had higher flux volume and shorter concentration time.Protein and amino acid recoveries were 70.74% and 39.83% ~46.64% for MF-NF process.The content of protein increased 3.30 times in the retentate by microfiltration process,but the fishy odor was increased.Meantime,the content of amino acid increased 2.71 times in the retentate by nanofiltration process,especially glutamate and aspartate were increased 336%and 672 %.Moreover,the fishy odor was disappeared,the flavor of the cooking soup has been effectively improved.MF-NF process was more simple and available than MF-UF-NF process and suitable for concentrating the cooking soup on the fishing boat.

  6. Preservation effect of ozone water on anchovy (Engraulis japonius) during controlled freezing-point storage%冰温臭氧水对鳀保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁石强; 李来好; 岑剑伟; 吴燕燕

    2011-01-01

    该研究通过测定鲜鲲(Engraulis japonius)在臭氧水冰温条件下贮藏保鲜过程中的微生物、理化指标和感官品质的变化来评价保鲜效果.试验表明,采用ρ(臭氧)为2~3 mg·L-1的臭氧水,在-1.1~0 ℃冰温条件下保鲜鳀能有效地抑制细菌繁殖,减缓脂肪氧化,延缓腐败变质,从而有效延长了保鲜期,在保鲜第3天仍能取得高品质的保鲜效果,达到海水鱼国家一级鲜度标准,保鲜第4天达到海水鱼国家二级鲜度标准,其菌落总数、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)和感官评定得分都明显优于对照组,保鲜期比用普通冰藏的对照组能延长1~2 d.%This study evaluated the preservation effect of ozone water on anchovy (Engraulisjaponius) preserved at controlled freezingpoint by observing the variation of microbe, physicochemical indices and sensory quality. Results show that ozone water treatment for fresh anchovy at concentration of 2 ~ 3 mg·L-1 and under -1.1 ~ 0 ℃ can effectively inhibit bacterial growth, retard the oxidation of lipid and delay spoilage of anchovy, achieving a longer shelf life of anchovy. After 3-day and 4-day preservations, the quality of anchovy meets the national standards of first and second grade of freshness for marine fish, respectively. The aerobic plate count, TVB-N and TBA value as well as sensory scores are significantly better than those of the control (ordinary chilled storage), and the shelf life can be extended 1 ~ 2 d compared with the control.

  7. Marknadsföringen biblioteket : En fallstudie av Broby bibliotek

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Karolina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to use marketing theory on the library’s activities. The marketing theory used is the 4Ps; product, price, promotion and place, as it's presented by Philip Kotler. Because the library can be seen as a service oriented organization Christian Gronroos theory of marketing in the service industry also has been used. A case study of the public library in Broby was made to illustrate how the public libraries’ activities can appear in the light of marketing theor...

  8. Energieffektivisering i byggenæringen, en vurdering av passivhuskonseptet

    OpenAIRE

    Flaatten, Torgeir

    2011-01-01

    Norske myndigheter har signalisert at det jobbes for å innføre passivhusnivå som forskriftskrav i 2020. Dette er et resultat av internasjonalt fokus på energieffektivisering i bygebransjen, og Norge har forpliktet seg til store kutt gjennom klimaforliket. Det har ført til hyppigere oppdateringer av teknisk forskrift som blant annet inneholder bestemmelser om energibruk i nybygg. Myndighetene har også innført støtteordninger og energimerking av bygninger for å motivere til energireduserende ti...

  9. ‘Styles of Renaissance, renaissances of style’. Review of: L’idée du style dans l’historiographie artistique. Variantes nationales et transmissions, edited by Sabine Frommel and Antonio Brucculeri, Roma: Campisano Editore, 2012, 343 pp, 91 b & w ills., € 40,00, ISBN 9788888168982. Was war Renaissance? Bilder einer Erzählform von Vasari bis Panofsky, edited by Hans Christian Hönes, Léa Kuhn, Elizabeth J. Petcu, Susanne Thüringen, with a foreword by Ulrich Pfisterer and Wolf Tegethoff, Passau: Dietmar Klinger Verlag, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pinotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume L’idée du style dans l’historiographie artistique. Variantes nationales et transmissions, edited by Sabine Frommel and Antonio Brucculeri (Roma: Campisano Editore, 2012, testifies to the crucial role played by the category ‘style’ in shaping the art historiographical, critical and theoretical discourse, and offers a very useful and stimulating reconstruction of some of the most important stations in the two centuries-development of the ‘history of styles’ from Winckelmann to Wölfflin. The catalogue Was war Renaissance? Bilder einer Erzählform von Vasari bis Panofsky, edited by Hans Christian Hönes, Léa Kuhn, Elizabeth J. Petcu, Susanne Thüringen (Passau: Dietmar Klinger Verlag, 2013, gives a wide spectrum of the different interpretations of a fundamental and controversial historiographical category like the ‘Renaissance’, focusing on the narrative forms and on the strategies of visualisation in art historiography.

  10. DETERMINATION HISTAMINE IN SALTED ANCHOVY (ENGRAULIS ENCRASICHOLUS) BY ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    TERZİ, Göknur; GÜCÜKOĞLU, Ali

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Histamine is an organic compound with low molecule weight which is formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids as a result of microbiological activity or by animation of aldehydes and ketones. Histamin is present in normally compound of various foods such as fish and fish products, meat and fermented meat products, chicken, cheese, wine and beer. Histamine is formed as a result of the enzymatic decarboxylation of histidine. Histamine causes food poisoning when intake high levels in ...

  11. Læringsstile flytter fokus fra selve læringen - Om informationsbehandling over for socialkonstruktivisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Teorier om læringsstile kan være medvirkende til at flytte fokus fra selve læreprocessen, idet de i høj grad sætter fokus på omstændigheder for læreprocesser. Konsekvensen er, at fokus i mindre grad er på de læringssyn, teorierne baserer sig på. Formålet med artiklen er at sætte fokus på læringss...

  12. Tjernobyl och rennäringen - Lägesrapport från Sverige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Åhman

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Status report about Chernobyl and reindeer husbandry in Sweden including participants' discussion.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Den 1 juli hojdes grånsvårdet for Cs-137 i bl a renkott från 300 till 1 500 Bq/kg. Efter hojningen av grånsvårdet friklassades nåstan alla samebyar i Norrbottens lån under sarvslakten. Samtliga fjållsamebyar i Norrbottens lån utom den sydligaste år tills vidare helt friklassade. Tre samebyar i sodra delen av Jåmtlands lån var friklassade under sarvslakten. I ovrigt omfattas all renslakt i Våsterbottens och Jåmtlands lån av kontroll betråffande Cs-137. Under juli - aug i år var cesiumhalten lågre ån vid motsvarande tidpunkt i f jol (tabell 1 och figur 1. Under juli - aug slaktades drygt 1 000 renar i skogslandet i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3. Fr.o.m. andra veckan i juli godkåndes de fiesta slaktkropparna. Halveringstiden for Cs-137 i renarna, som betade i skogslandet kring inlandsbanan i sodra delen av Våsterbottenslån, har beråknats till ca en vecka. Genom tidigarelåggning av sarvslakter i Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3 och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån (tabell 5 minskades kassationen med ett par tusen slaktkroppar. Under senare delen av september steg cesiumhalten till ungefår samma nivå som i f jol. En långsiktig prognos har utarbetats betråffande halten Cs-137 i renar på naturbete. Prognosen visar att omfattande åtgårder kommer att behova vidtagas under de nårmaste 15 - 25 åren om ren-kottet från samebyarna i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån skall kunna god-kånnas som livsmedel vid ett riktvårde på 1 500 Bq Cs-137/kg kott.

  13. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.;

    2013-01-01

    concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.......The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted...... the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...

  14. Sociala media i marknadsföringen : Vägen från fenomen till marknadsföringsverktyg

    OpenAIRE

    Lindvall, Eivor

    2012-01-01

    Konsumenterna har tagit sociala media i användning och därmed har sociala mediernas betydelse vuxit som en marknadsplats, där även företagen kan ha nytta av att delta i PR- och marknadsföringssyfte. Min målsättning med detta examensarbete var att undersöka vilken nytta företag eftersträvar genom sin aktivitet i sociala media. Nyttan och riskerna med sociala media diskuterades ur en marknadsföringssynpunkt. Sociala media blir ofta beskrivna som ett fenomen för att dess historia är kort, me...

  15. Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in the spawning ground of anchovy (Engraulis japanicus) in the southern Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoshou; ZHANG Zhinan; HUANG Yong

    2005-01-01

    A grid of 22 stations, giving a broad coverage of the spawning ground of anchovy in the southern Huanghai Sea was selected. Undisturbed sediments were taken from sampling stations during the cruise in June 2003. The average abundance of meiofauna is (1 584 ±686) ind./10cm2, with corresponding biomass (dwt) of(1 086+425) μg/10cm2. The pattem of abundance of meiofauna is similar to the pattern ofbiomass. There are 65.88% meiofauna in 0~2 cm sediments, 27.66% in 2~5 cm sediments and 6.47% in 5~8 cm sediments.The Spearman correlation analysis between meiofauna and environmental factors shows that abundance of meiofauna, free living marine nematodes, benthic copepods has significant positive correlations with Chl-a. And the abundance of copepods has significant positive correlations with several factors such as Chl-a, Pha-a, Chl-a plus Pha-a and organic matter. A total of 18 meiofauna groups are identified. Nematode is the most dominant group, average abundance (1 404 ± 670) ind/10cm2, accounting for 88.65%, and the following groups are also important: benthic copepods (5.48%), kinorhyncha (1.26%), polychaeta (1.07%). By biomass, dominant groups are nematodes (51.72%), polychaeta (21.84%), copepods (14.87%), ostracoda (4.92%), kinorhyncha (3.67%). A total of 90 species of nematodes are identified. The species composition of nematodes is listed based on selected two stations 7794 (coastal area) and 10694(cold water mass in deep waters).

  16. Seasonal comparison of the diets of juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, David; Palomera, Isabel; Tirelli, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Anchovy and sardine in the Mediterranean are known to share the same habitat and, consequently, to interact with one another. These two sympatric pelagic species are planktivorous and consume a wide range of planktonic prey items during all their developmental stages, potentially overlapping their ecological niches, although the feeding interactions between these species have been poorly investigated. Here we compare the dietary habits of the juvenile phases of anchovy and sardine during different seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, through analysis of their stomach contents and of their feeding-related anatomical characteristics. In this study we show that juveniles of anchovy and sardine do not compete for food, and we describe significant dietary differences between anchovy and sardine due to their different alimentary tract morphology.

  17. Population Genetics of European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L. in the Seas of Turkey Based on Microsatellite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fevzi Bardakci

    2014-06-01

    Results: In this study, 13 microsatellite loci in 541 samples were analysed for determination of genetic structure of anchovy along Turkish coasts. The genetic variability was high among population, the average alleles numbers per locus per population ranged from 11.0 to 22.8. Observed heterozygosity per population was ranged from 0.612 (Mersin to 0.733 (İstanbul while expected heterozygosity was ranged from 0.774 (Mersin to 0.823 (Perşembe. The highest genetic distance was found between Antalya and Trabzon populations (FST=0.06949, the lowest between Antalya and İskenderun populations (0,00010. Analyses of 13 microsatellite loci were showed that there was low population structuring among all anchovy population (Fst: 0,024; SE 0,005. Although high genetic diversities was detected, for most loci with most populations were showed Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. Genetic distance analyses showed up Mediterranean specimens were highly distinct from Aegean and Black sea populations. Aegean populations were closer to Black sea populations because of higher gene flow between them rather than Mediterranean. A STRUCTURE computer program was indicated the presence of four possible genetic groups in Turkish territorial waters. Conclusions: Data to obtained from this study has found useful for the identification of genetic structuring of European anchovy distributed along the coasts of Turkish Seas. Results are also useful for planning of fishery management of anchovies in Turkey.

  18. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  19. Spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-28

    Previous studies have shown that the survival of larval and juvenile anchovy off the continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay is not significantly different from that observed on the shelf, even though the food concentration is significantly higher on the shelf. In this paper we investigate the causes for the lack of relationship between food and survival for anchovy juvenile through analyses of feeding activity versus zooplankton distribution (in the transition from summer to fall from 2003 to 2010). The spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy in relation to body size on and off the shelf revealed higher stomach fullness in areas off the shelf, where less zooplankton biomass was available. This result indicates that the food concentration is not always the main factor determining ingestion in fish. A situation of comparatively lesser prey abundance may provide better feeding conditions when combined with lower predation risk and lower light attenuation. In addition, the relatively heavier stomachs found in anchovies caught in years of higher recruitment indices suggest a large stomach content may be a symptom of good biological condition that may favour the winter survival of a larger fraction of the juvenile stock. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  20. Multiple SNP markers reveal fine-scale population and deep phylogeographic structure in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.).

    KAUST Repository

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2012-07-30

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian-Atlantic coast appear to have been founded by secondary waves of migrants from a southern refuge.

  1. Empirische Befunde zur Entwicklung der Lebensverhältnisse in den Ländern Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt und Thüringen

    OpenAIRE

    Paepke, Margit

    2010-01-01

    Ein wesentliches Leitziel der Raumordnungspolitik in Deutschland ist es, gleichwertige Lebensverhältnisse in allen Teilräumen herzustellen. Die Frage, was heute unter diesem in § 1 Abs. 2 ROG formuliertem Leitziel zu verstehen ist, wird unter Fachleuten und im politischen Raum intensiv diskutiert. Das Sozialstaatsprinzip (Art. 20 Abs. 1 GG) und Artikel 72 Abs. 2 GG gelten allgemein als politische Forderung, zurückgebliebene Regionen so zu entwickeln, dass sie einen Anschluss an die Gebiete fi...

  2. Fish larvae retention linked to abrupt bathymetry at Mejillones Bay (northern Chile during coastal upwelling events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of oceanic circulation and bathymetry on the fish larvae retention inside Mejillones Bay, northern Chile, was examined. Fish larvae were collected during two coastal upwelling events in November 1999 and January 2000. An elevated fish larvae accumulation was found near an oceanic front and a zone of low-speed currents. Three groups of fish larvae were identified: the coastal species (Engraulis ringens and Sardinops sagax, associated with high chlorophyll-a levels; larvae from the families Phosichthyidae (Vinciguerria lucetia and Myctophidae (Diogenichthys laternatus and Triphoturus oculeus, associated with the thermocline (12°C, and finally, larvae of the families Myctophidae (Diogenichthys atlanticus and Bathylagidae (Bathylagus nigrigenys, associated with high values of temperature and salinity. The presence of a seamount and submarine canyon inside Mejillones Bay appears to play an important role in the circulation during seasonal upwelling events. We propose a conceptual model of circulation and particles retention into Mejillones Bay. The assumption is that during strong upwelling conditions the flows that move along the canyon emerge in the centre of Mejillones Bay, producing a fish larvae retention zone. Understanding the biophysical interactions responsible to trap and/or concentrate particles is essential to protect these fragile upwelling ecosystems.

  3. Algunas consideraciones biogeograficas sobre el Pacifico Sudoriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vegas-Velez

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The improved study of the Eastern South Pacific undertaken in the last years enables us to have a better view of the marine communities' biogeography. The author, elaborating on several ideas of previous studies, proposes four subdivisions or districts in that region: 1 tropical of the Panamic-Pacific province up to 3º 30'S; 2 intermediate, from approximately 3º 30' to 7º S, where tropical and southern waters influence the presence of organisms; 3 temperate, of the Peruvian Coastal Current or Humboldt Current; and 4 tropical, in the waters off this last Current Joining the Peruvian Oceanic Current. The author, consulting extensive literature, examines the presence of molluscs and fishes, in order to select a characterization of each biogeographical district. Some of the proposals are, for instance, Littorina peruviana, Ocypode guadichaudii and Engraulis ringens for the temperate district; Littorina paytensis, Olivella broggi and Scorpaena afuerae for the intermediate one; the thunids and Exocoetus volitans for the tropical oceanic waters; and Anadara tuberculosa, Littorina varia, Pomadasys panamensis and Sciades troschelli for the tropical waters north of 3º 30'.

  4. Analyzing Fish Condition Factor Index Through Skew-Gaussian Information Theory Quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Javier E.

    2016-06-01

    Biological-fishery indicators have been widely studied. As such the condition factor (CF) index, which interprets the fatness level of a certain species based on length and weight, has been investigated, too. However, CF has been studied without considering its temporal features and distribution. In this paper, we analyze the CF time series via skew-gaussian distributions that consider the asymmetry produced by extreme events. This index is characterized by a threshold autoregressive model and corresponds to a stationary process depending on the shape parameter of the skew-gaussian distribution. Then we use the Jensen-Shannon (JS) distance to compare CF by length classes. This distance has mathematical advantages over other divergences such as Kullback-Leibler and Jeffrey’s, and the triangular inequality property. Our results are applied to a biological catalogue of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) from the northern coast of Chile, for the period 1990-2010 that consider monthly CF time series by length classes and sex. We find that for high values of shape parameter, JS distance tends to be more sensible to detect discrepancies than Jeffrey’s divergence. In addition, the body condition of male anchovies with higher lengths coincides with the ending of the moderate-strong El Niño event 91-92 and for both males and females, the smaller lengths coincide with the beginning of the strong El Niño event 97-98.

  5. Pelagic resources landings in central-southern Chile under the A2 climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Eleuterio; Plaza, Francisco; Silva, Claudio; Sánchez, Felipe; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict landings of anchovy ( Engraulis ringens), common sardine ( Strangomera bentincki), and jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi) in central-southern Chile. Twelve environmental variables were considered along with fishing effort (fe) and landing statistics from 1973 to 2012. During external validation, the best models with all of the selected variables gave r 2 values of 90 % for anchovy, 96 % for common sardine, and 88 % for jack mackerel. The models were simplified by considering only fe and sea surface temperature from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (SST-NOAA), and very similar fits were achieved (87, 92, and 88 %, respectively). Future SSTs were obtained from the A2 climate change scenario and regionalized using statistical downscaling techniques. The downscaled SSTs were used as input for landings predictions using ANN simplified models. In addition, three scenarios of future fishing efforts (2010-2012 average, average + 50 %, and average - 50 %) were used as the input data for landing simulations. The results of the predictions show a decrease of 9 % in future landings of sardine and an increase of 17 % for jack mackerel when comparing 2015 and 2065 monthly projections. However, no significant differences are shown when comparing the estimated landings for the three fishing effort scenarios. Finally, more integrative and complex conceptual models that consider oceanographic-biophysical, physiological, environmental-resource, and interspecies processes need to be implemented.

  6. Broodstock management of the fine flounder Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 using recirculating aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Carrera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the methodology used at IMARPE for the capture, acclimation and management of P. adspersus broodstock using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. RAS improved the water quality and maintained the environmental parameters during the acclimation period, temperature (17.2±1°C, oxygen (8.1±0.7 mg L-1, pH (7.3±0.2, ammonia (0.004±0.003 mg L-1, nitrite (0.52±0.2 mg L-1 and nitrate (3.45±2.6 mg L-1. Fish began to be fed normally from day 15 post-capture, once or twice a day using live fish (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus, crustacean (Emerita analoga, fresh food (Engraulis ringens and Dosidicus gigas and artificial feed. A significant loss in the weight of the fish was registered during the first days of captivity, followed by a continuous increase in both sexes. The specific growth rate was positive from the third month of captivity, being the relative growth rate 24.5% and 16.2% in August 2010 in males and females, respectively. Different internal and external parasites were detected in the fish, being Entobdella sp. and Philometra sp. the prevailing parasites observed during samplings.

  7. Diel variation in the vertical distribution of fish larvae forced by upwelling filaments off Punta Angamos (northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of daily vertical migration (DVM of ichthyoplanktonic associations off Punta Angamos, in northern Chile, was examined. In September 1998 and January 1999, two oceanographic surveys were conducted during coastal upwelling events. Fish larvae were collected during the day/night in three depth strata (0-20, 20-80 and 80-200 m and inside/outside of upwelling filaments. The study area was dominated by a southward flow along 200 m depth; meanwhile, the Ekman layer did not exceed 20 m depth. The greatest accumulation of larvae was found in the middle layer (20-80 m, where the current velocity was low and did not interact with the circulation associated with upwelling the filament formation. Most fish larvae were found in non-upwelling waters in the middle stratum. Independent of the origin of water (upwelling/non-upwelling, larvae of Dioge-nichthys laternatus (Myctophidae, Engraulis ringens (Engraulidae and Bathylagus nigrigenys (Bathylagidae showed a deeper vertical distribution during the day, suggesting a daily vertical migration. This behavior can potentially increase retention of larvae near the coast in productive areas through vertical evasion of the Ekman layer during upwelling events.

  8. Ecología trófica del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú entre 1977 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alegre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la dieta de jurel Trachurus murphyi frente a Perú de 1977 a 2011. Un total de 21058 estómagos fueron analizados utilizando métodos bivariados y el Modelo de Árbol de Regresión Multivariado (ARM. Se utilizó como variable respuesta la composición gravimétrica de la dieta, con respecto a diferentes variables predictivas como años, profundidad de la isoterma de 15 °C, Índice de Oscilación del Sur (IOS, Índice de Oscilación Decadal del Pacífico (PDO, anomalía de la temperatura superficial del mar, zona (norte, centro y sur y distancia de la costa. Nuestros resultados nos permitieron identificar dos escenarios diferentes, uno desde el año 1977 al 2000, donde la dieta del jurel T. murphyi estuvo fuertemente dominada por Euphausiidae, y otro escenario después del 2000, donde el jurel T. murphyi consumió mayor diversidad de presas, principalmente Euphausiidae, camaroncito rojo Pleuroncodes monodon y Zoeas. Se destaca que el primer escenario corresponde a condiciones cálidas y el segundo a condiciones frías, ambas coincidentes con los periodos multidecadales. A diferencia de estudios anteriores que muestran que la anchoveta Engraulis ringenses una presa abundante, en este estudio no fue significativamente importante. Espacialmente, los Euphausiidae dominaron la dieta en el norte-centro de Perú, mientras que al sur, la composición de las presas fue más diversa. La dieta también varió significativamente según la distancia a la costa, con mayor proporción de P. monodoncerca a la costa y con respecto a su etapas de desarrollo ontogenético.

  9. Daily otolith growth and ontogenetic geochemical signatures of age-0 anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. CATALÁN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European anchovy fishery in the Gulf of Cádiz (ICES Division IXa South is largely influenced by age-0 individuals. Knowledge of young of the year growth dynamics is crucial for management, yet data on daily growth are lacking in the area. Linking growth patterns to the environment requires information on habitat occupancy through ontogeny of the fish that reach the fishery, as anchovy use different areas of the Gulf and the Guadalquivir Estuary through development. We describe the growth dynamics of age-0 anchovy through otolith microstructure analysis, and couple these data with data on microchemical signals in the otoliths to shed light into habitat use and growth dynamics in the area. Age-0 anchovy captured in September, 2011 in the Gulf ranged from 3 to 6 months old for similar sizes, with average growth rates varying twofold. Individual non-linear growth curves showed that maximum otolith growth was positively correlated with the date of spawning, which in turn was negatively correlated with the time to reach maximum growth. There was no correlation between growth parameters and body length or condition (Fulton K at capture. The strontium:calcium (Sr/Ca and magnesium:calcium (Mg/Ca ratios were significantly lower at the edge of the otolith (approximately the age of capture than at ages corresponding to larval and early juveniles (<60 days old, but values fell within typical estuarine-dwelling species. The barium:calcium ratio (Ba/Ca increased significantly in the edge of the otolith, which possibly resulted from residency in highly productive coastal waters or from ontogenetic effects. The variance in otolith elemental ratios was larger at otolith back-calculated ages around 50 days old, age which coincides with the presumed closer dependence of estuarine waters. Our data are a first step towards understanding the contribution of the estuarine system to the fishery of anchovy in the Gulf. The limitations of the approach and future steps are discussed. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  10. Cambios en la morfometría bucal y su relación con la dieta de Thyrsites atun (Euphrasen, 1791 en el centro-sur de Chile Changes in mouth morphometries as related to the diet of Thyrsites atun (Euphrasen, 1791 from south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DUARTE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias especies de peces carnívoros, a medida que crecen, tanto el tamaño corporal como el de la boca, se relacionan positivamente con el tamaño de las presas. Sin embrago, el número y la biomasa de las presas consumidas por los peces no presentan un patrón tan claro. Para verificar estas relaciones en el pez Thyrsites atun, se recolectaron entre los meses de febrero y abril de 2004, un total de 140 ejemplares, desde desembarques de naves pesqueras industriales y semiindustriales en la región centro-sur de Chile. Se estableció la dieta de T. atun mediante descriptores cuantitativos de frecuencia, número y peso de las presas, los cuales se compararon entre peces subadultos y adultos. También registramos medidas morfométricas bucales para compararlas con el tamaño del pez y de las presas, y también se estimó el volumen de la boca para relacionarlo con el número y peso de las presas ingeridas. En sus tractos digestivos se encontraron cuatro especies de presas, Euphausia sp., Todarodes filippovae, Strangomera bentincki y Engraulis ringens, siendo esta última la presa más frecuente (99,9 %. Las medidas bucales resultaron dependientes del tamaño del depredador. Igualmente el tamaño de las presas resultó ser dependiente del tamaño del depredador, así como de las medidas bucales. Además, el volumen de la boca se relacionó positivamente con la longitud del depredador, y tanto el número como el peso de las presas se correlacionaron con el tamaño y volumen de la boca. Thyrsites atun se alimenta en la zona nerítica de peces de pequeño tamaño que viven en cardúmenes. Al aumentar de tamaño T. atun se alimentaría de presas más grandes, y consecuentemente al incrementarse el volumen de la boca puede comer una mayor cantidad y biomasa de presasIn several species of carnivorous fishes, as they grow, body size and that of the mouth are related positively with prey size, however, the number and biomass of preys consumed by the fish

  11. Trophic modeling of Eastern Boundary Current Systems: a review and prospectus for solving the “Peruvian Puzzle”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc H. Taylor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Current systems (EBCSs are among the most productive fishing areas in the world. High primary and secondary productivity supports a large biomass of small planktivorous pelagic fish, “small pelagics”, which are important drivers of production to the entire system whereby they can influence both higher and lower trophic levels. Environmental variability causes changes in plankton (food quality and quantity, which can affect population sizes, distribution and domi-nance among small pelagics. This variability combined with impacts from the fishery complicate the development of management strategies. Consequently, much recent work has been in the development of multispecies trophic models to better understand interdependencies and system dynamics. Despite similarities in extent, structure and primary productivity between EBCSs, the Peruvian system greatly differs from the others in the magnitude of fish catches, due mainly to the incredible production of the anchovy Engraulis ringens. This paper reviews literature concerning EBCSs dynamics and the state-of-the-art in the trophic modeling of EBCSs. The objective is to critically analyze the potential of this approach for system understanding and management and to adapt existing steady-state models of the Peruvian system for use in (future dynamic simulations. A guideline for the construction of trophodynamic models is presented taking into account the important trophic and environmental interactions. In consideration of the importance of small pelagics for the system dynamics, emphasis is placed on developing appropriate model compartmentalization and spatial delineation that facilitates dynamic simulations. Methods of model validation to historical changes are presented to support hypotheses concerning EBCS dynamics and as a critical step to the development of predictive models. Finally, the identification of direct model links to easily obtainable abiotic parameters is

  12. Comprehensive model of Jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas trophic ecology in the Northern Humboldt current system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alegre

    Full Text Available The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?. Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters.

  13. Comprehensive model of Jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas trophic ecology in the Northern Humboldt current system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Ana; Ménard, Frédéric; Tafur, Ricardo; Espinoza, Pepe; Argüelles, Juan; Maehara, Víctor; Flores, Oswaldo; Simier, Monique; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?). Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters. PMID:24465788

  14. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  15. Oxygen: a fundamental property regulating pelagic ecosystem structure in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.

  16. Effekter av födokvalitet på djurplanktons tillväxt och på energiöverföringen i födovävar i sjöar

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Poor food quality can have large negative effects on zooplankton growth and this can also affect food web interactions. The main aims of this thesis were to study the importance of different food quality aspects in Daphnia, to identify potentially important differences among zooplankton taxa, and to put food quality research into a natural context by identifying the importance of food quality and quantity in lakes of different nutrient content. In the first experiment, the RNA:DNA ratio was p...

  17. Effektiviserad kunskapsöverföring : En utvärdering av olika system som förbättrar kunskapsöverföringen mellan Stockholms stads kontor

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, André; Zakeri, Moien

    2015-01-01

    I denna rapport undersöks olika system för hanteringen av forskning och utvecklingsprojekt som Stockholms stad kan använda som en gemensam plattform med syfte att sprida information och kunskap gällande projekt. Målet med rapporten var att hitta en anpassad kravspecifikation som summerade de tre kontorens gemensamma arbetsprocesser. Kravspecifikationen var ett hjälpmedel för att finna och utvärdera olika system som främjar hanteringen av Stockholms stads forskning och utvecklingsprojekt. En k...

  18. Modelling the spatio-temporal distribution of age-1 bay of biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) at spawning time [Distribución espacio-temporal de la edad 1 de anchoa del golfo de Bizkaia (Engraulis Encrasicolus) en el momento de puesta

    KAUST Repository

    Ibaibarriaga, Leire

    2013-09-13

    To efficiently manage and maintain fish stock abundance and age structure, it is necessary to understand variability in its spatial distribution. The main objective of this study was to describe the demographic structure of the Bay of Biscay anchovy during the main spawning period based on adult samples from 15 daily egg production method surveys. The proportion of age-1 individuals was modelled using generalized additive models with a binomial distribution and a logit link in relation to geographical and environmental covariates. The possibility of obtaining different models depending on the average age-1 proportion (low or high) was also explored. In general, age-1 individuals were found in shallow waters close to the coast, especially associated with the Gironde and Adour river plumes, whereas older individuals were prevalent on the shelf break and in oceanic waters. However, in years with a high age-1 proportion the younger individuals were also dominant in oceanic waters. These results could be used for management purposes, such as defining protected areas for particular age groups.

  19. Obtenção dos tempos de equilíbrio e coeficientes de difusão de ácido e de sal para desenhar o processo de marinado de filés de Engraulis anchoita Obtainment of equilibrium times and diffusion coefficients of acid and salt to design the marinating process of Engraulis anchoita fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Casales

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a difusão simultânea de cloreto de sódio e ácido acético em filés de anchoíta. Os resultados mostram que foram alcançadas condições de equilíbrio entre os filés e a solução de marinado, de acordo com os valores K obtidos para fechar a unidade. A solução de marinado precisou de agitação para evitar a formação de uma camada superficial diluída nos filés de pescado. Os tempos de equilíbrio para ácido e sal foram maiores para as amostras agitadas durante o marinado. O gasto de cloreto de sódio e ácido acético durante o marinado dos filés de anchoíta pode ser explicado pela lei de Fick. Os valores do coeficiente de difusão para ácido acético a 20 °C foram 3,39 × 10-6 e 3,49 × 10-6 cm²/segundos para marinado com e sem agitação, respectivamente. O valor do coeficiente de difusão de cloreto de sódio para marinado sem agitação foi de 2,39 × 10-7 cm²/segundos, contudo, para marinado com agitação, não pôde ser fixado.Simultaneous diffusion of sodium chloride and acetic acid in anchovy fillets was studied. The results show that equilibrium conditions between the fillets and the marinating solution were reached according to the K values obtained close to unity. The marinating solution was stirred to prevent the formation of a diluted surface layer on the fish fillets. The equilibrium times for acid and salt were higher for the samples stirred during marinating. The sodium chloride and acetic acid uptake during marinating of anchovy fillets can be explained by Fick's law. The values of the diffusion coefficient for acetic acid at 20 °C were 3.39 × 10-6 and 3.49 × 10-6 cm²/seconds for marinating with and without agitation, respectively. The value of the diffusion coefficient for sodium chloride for marinating without agitation was 2.39 × 10-7 cm²/seconds, while it could not be obtained for marinating with agitation.

  20. Impact of El Niño events on pelagic fisheries in Peruvian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ñiquen, Miguel; Bouchon, Marilú

    2004-03-01

    Using data from stock assesment surveys on pelagic resources during El Niño events of 1972/73, 1982/83, 1997/98, we analyze biological changes on pelagic ecosystems and pelagic fisheries during different stages of development of El Niño phenomenon: emergence, full, final and post-Niño. Results indicate changes in spatial distribution of resources, their concentration and size structure. In anchovy (Engraulis ringens) a decrease in biomass was observed, which was estimated at 1.2 million tons in September 1998, the lowest throughout the 1990s. This resource showed an asymmetric distribution towards the south of Peru. Other pelagic resources increased their biomass during or after Niño events, primarily sardine (Sardinops sagax), jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus). At the end of the El Niño phenomenon we found less productivity but more diversity in the pelagic ecosystem. During the 1997/98 El Niño, the diversity index (Manual de Ecologia, 1a Edition, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, 267pp) increased from 0.87 to 1.23-1.70. In both the emergence stage and fully developed stages of El Niño we found large numbers of sardine and longnose anchovy present simultaneously. Size structure of sardine, jack mackerel, and pacific mackerel showed an increase in juveniles. Anchovy during El Niño showed a single modal group composed of adults, but the post-Niño phase indicated an increase in juveniles with an average length of 6-7 cm. In El Niño conditions spawning among anchovy was low, but among sardine and pacific mackerel it was high. We observed, for the first time during full spawning, juvenile sardines with a total length of 18-20 cm. The anchovy spawning season during the post-Niño phase was considerably lengthened, from April to December 1998. Drastic change occurred in fisheries when monospecific fisheries, based on anchovy before El Niño, became multispecific fisheries based on sardine, jack

  1. Motivation og æstetik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austring, Bennyé D.; Sørensen, Merete

    2007-01-01

    I de tilfælde, hvor læringen også skaber fokus på barnet og inkluderer dets udtryksbehov, er motivation umiddelbart nem at etablere. Frem for at "bogliggøre" læringen yderligere bør vi i stedet i højere grad udnytte æstetikkens fascinationskraft og udtryksstyrke som motivationsfaktor.......I de tilfælde, hvor læringen også skaber fokus på barnet og inkluderer dets udtryksbehov, er motivation umiddelbart nem at etablere. Frem for at "bogliggøre" læringen yderligere bør vi i stedet i højere grad udnytte æstetikkens fascinationskraft og udtryksstyrke som motivationsfaktor....

  2. Video i VIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver et udviklingsprojekt, hvor 13 grupper af lærere på tværs af fag og uddannelser producerede video til undervsioningsbrug. Der beskrives forskellige tilgange og anvendelser samt læringen i projektet......Artiklen beskriver et udviklingsprojekt, hvor 13 grupper af lærere på tværs af fag og uddannelser producerede video til undervsioningsbrug. Der beskrives forskellige tilgange og anvendelser samt læringen i projektet...

  3. Parámetros biológicos relevantes para las pesquerías de anchoíta argentina (Engraulis anchoita). Estimaciones resultantes de reunir datos de campañas de investigación (1993 a 2008) y de muestras de capturas comerciales (1986 a 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J E

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to accurately estimate population parameters of northern (“bonaerensis”, latitude < 41° S) and southern (“patagonic”, latitude 41° S) Argentine anchovy stocks and to describe some aspects of their behaviour. The research surveys allowed to obtain data on length, total weight, sex, maturity and age of 27,853 specimens of the northern and 12,787 of the southern stocks. Besides, 20,717 age determinations stemmed from commercial landing samplings of the northern stock we...

  4. SAMUDRA Report No. 64, March 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Contents: At a crossroads: England’s small-scale fisheries are being integrated within a national system. Diversionary tactics: Most of Peru’s anchoveta catches meant for human consumption are being diverted. Fair, sustainable? The new EU-Mauritania Fisheries Agreement has been welcomed—and spurned. A weighty responsibility: A fisheries reform process is under way in several parts of Africa. Sri Lanka. Restoring past glory: The Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme foc...

  5. Unge jenters påvirkning av retusjert reklame

    OpenAIRE

    Farsjø, Margrethe; Jankovic, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Debatter i media og tidligere forskning den senere tid har gjenspeilet en bekymring for den offentlige markedsføringen i dagens samfunn. Det blir hevdet at markedsføringen har blitt preget av seksualisering og gjemte budskap bak retusjerte reklamer som man er bekymret for i unge jenters hverdag. Gjennom visuelle fremstillinger gis det signaler om hva som forventes om hvordan en skal se ut og det er spesielt motebransjen og dagens skjønnhetsideal som har fått kritikk. Markedsføring med retusje...

  6. Lokalbefolkning og turismeutvikling - konflikt eller verdifull sameksistens? Caseanalyse fra Tinn kommune.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Karianne

    2014-01-01

    Etter en lang periode med fokus på å verne sårbare naturområder fra bruk er det nå en endring i forvaltningsfokuset til norske myndigheter. «Bruk og vern» er blitt et allmennkjent begrep. Reiselivsnæringen har fått et solid feste i verneområder over hele verden, og nå også i norske nasjonalparker. Myndighetene ser at denne næringen har store muligheter som verdiskaper i distriktene, samtidig som vernebestemmelsene ivaretas. Lokalbefolkningen er en viktig brikke i reiselivsatsningen i bygd...

  7. Ajourføring af ISA 610

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ole; Kiertzner, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Ajourføringen af ISA 610 indebærer generelle skærpelser i relation til den eksterne revisors risikovurderingshandlinger i forhold til intern revision samt til ekstern revisors revisionshandlinger på områder med væsentlig risiko og skønsmæssig usikkerhed.......Ajourføringen af ISA 610 indebærer generelle skærpelser i relation til den eksterne revisors risikovurderingshandlinger i forhold til intern revision samt til ekstern revisors revisionshandlinger på områder med væsentlig risiko og skønsmæssig usikkerhed....

  8. Opgavesamling Biokemi 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjergegaard, Charlotte

    Opgavesamling til bachelorkurset LKEB10077 Biokemi 1. Opgaverne er et supplement til forelæsninger og øvelser og har til formål at støtte op om indlæringen af biokemien. Der er inkluderet ret grundige løsninger til de enkelte opgaver.......Opgavesamling til bachelorkurset LKEB10077 Biokemi 1. Opgaverne er et supplement til forelæsninger og øvelser og har til formål at støtte op om indlæringen af biokemien. Der er inkluderet ret grundige løsninger til de enkelte opgaver....

  9. Tysk højreekstremisme i nye gevandter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Massakren på Utøya samt afsløringen af en nynazistisk terrorcelle i november 2011 har i Tyskland ført til en fornyet debat om højreekstremisme og radikaliseringstendenser. Artiklen skildrer den forandring som de højreekstremistiske grupperinger undergår i disse år, og de strategier med hensyn til...

  10. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  11. Kapitel 1-7, 13, 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    2009-01-01

    Den 30. september 1968 udsendte VKR-regeringen en erklæring, hvis hovedsynspunkt var "...at registrering af danske statsborgere ikke længere må finde sted alene på grundlag af lovlig politisk virksomhed." Det fremgik ydermere af erklæringen, at såfremt tjenesten lå inde med sådanne registreringer...

  12. Er iPad digital udeskole?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Hvor ’konkret’ skal en oplevelse være, for at intuitionen om, at det selvoplevede styrker læringen, holder? Er brug af tablets (e.g. iPads) et ligebyrdigt alternativ til den konkrete oplevelse?...

  13. Wagner: myte og revolutionær bevidsthed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    1983-01-01

    100-året for Wagners død (1983) markeres på behørig og mangfoldig vis - med bl.a.tv-transmissioner af "Hundredeårs-Ringen" fra Bayreuth og en lang TV-serie om Wagners liv. Denne artikel diskuterer temaet 'myten' og dens placering i Wagners musikdramatiske teori og praksis...

  14. Revisors afdækning af besvigelser set i et nyt lys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Revisors opgave er naturligvis at sikre den økonomiske rapporterings validitet. Finanskrisen og afsløringen af nogle af de mere fantasifulde aktører har naturlighvis rejst spørgsmål om revisors mulighed for at afsløre forhold, hvor overfladen tilsyneladende er pletfri, mens det kniber mere med de...

  15. Hop på toget nu!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2012-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility er ofte løsrevet fra virksomhedens salgs- org marketingstrategi på trods af, at det skaber langsigtede konkurrencefordele at tænke samfundsansvaret ind i salget og markedsføringen. Lav en CSR-salgspakke, foreslår forsker, Annabeth Aagaard fra SDU....

  16. Harry Potter som transmedia storytelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, Anne Marit; Toft-Nielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Hvordan kan vi begribe og analysere store blockbustere som f.eks. Ringenes Herre og Star Wars? Hvordan kan vi forholde os analytisk til populære tv-serier som f.eks. Sex and the City, LOST, Game of Thrones og Walking Dead? Hvordan kan vi forstå og analysere den hype som disse store megahit...

  17. Dicty_cDB: SLE320 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY524011 |pid:none) Paulownia tomentosa deficiens (DEF... 33 6.1 protein upda...2 mRNA, p... 221 2e-56 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens deficiens (DEF) mR... 34 4.7 AY524011

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLH545 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY524011 |pid:none) Paulownia tomentosa deficiens (DEF... 33 6.6 protein update 2009. 1.24 PSORT psg: 0....0539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens deficiens (DEF) mR... 34 5.0 AY524011

  19. Læring og mening

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeller, Jörg

    2009-01-01

    særegne, rekursive eller refleksive struktur - at være en videnskabende proces hvis resultat viser sig at være anvendeligt for selve processen. For bedre at forstå læringens transformative karakter vil jeg hente inspiration fra Kants refleksions- og Peirces abduktionslogik. Hvor ønskelige de værdier og...

  20. I samme sjø : - Struktur og nettverksendringer blant fiskeoppdretterne i Austevoll.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En analyse av hvordan det lokale fiskeoppdrettsmiljøet i Austevoll har utviklet seg som følge av de strukturelle endringene som har funnet sted de siste femten årene. Industrielle distrikt, nettverk, forankring, lokalt/eksternt, local buzz, fiskeoppdrettsnæringen.

  1. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise de Lima Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  2. Upper-Pliocene Proboscidea out of the Scheldt and the Lower-Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, A.

    1944-01-01

    An upper molar of Anancus arvernensis (Croiz. & Job.), fished out of the Eastern Scheldt, near Ierseke, and belonging to the so-called black fossils, shows more affinity with the specimens from the English Crags than with those from Thüringen. Another upper molar of the species has been dredged out

  3. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467

  4. Plan de Investigación y validación para el desarrollo futuro de los cultivos marinos en Panamá.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En términos de crecimiento, la acuicultura ha tenido anualmente un incremento sostenido de 6.9 % en cantidad y del 7.7 por ciento en valor; mientras el total de las capturas mundiales, si se excluye las de anchovetas, se mantuvo relativamente estable, FAO 2006 La producción mundial de la acuicultura (pescado y plantas acuáticas para la alimentación humana, ha crecido notablemente durante los últimos 50 años, pasando de menos de 1 millón de toneladas al comienzos del decenio de 1950, a 59.4...

  5. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13965-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available d:none) Kudoa thyrsites clone KtCL26 cathe... 112 4e-23 AB081844_1( AB081844 |pid:none) Engraulis japonicus ...03 1e-20 CT005247_105( CT005247 |pid:none) Leishmania major strain Friedlin... 103 1e-20 AB081845_1( AB081845 |pid:none) Engrau

  6. Efectos del fenómeno "El Niño 1997-98" sobre los principales recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el período abril 1997 setiembre 1998 fueron realizados 5 cruceros de evaluación de los recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana, éstos permitieron observar cambios en la composición por especies, distribución, estructura por tamaño, reproducción y niveles poblacionales de los principales recursos pelágicos. Estos cambios guardan similitud con los observados en los eventos El Niño 1972-73 y 1982-83, especialmente en cuanto a la disminución de la biomasa de anchoveta y el incremento de otras especies pelágicas. En el período post-Niño se observó cambios notables en la estructura por tallas de anchoveta, mientras que la sardina, samas a y caballa coincidieron en mostrar buenos reclutamientos. La actividad reproductiva también se incrementó, inclusive en tallas juveniles, destacando la incidencia de sardinas sexualmente maduras con longitudes de 18-20 cm, situación que no había sido antes registrada.

  7. Ekologiska byggmaterial – ett alternativ? : En analys av några ekologiska byggmaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Furenberg, Andreas; Jörneman, Olof; Holm, Petter

    2007-01-01

    Miljöförstöringen håller på att få allt för stora proportioner, vilket genom bland annat växthuseffekten leder till att vår planet snart är obeboelig för människan. Byggbranschens andel i miljöförstöringen är onödigt stor genom transporter, energianvändning, maskinanvändning och miljömässigt dåliga material. Vår frågeställning är: går det att ersätta de konventionella byggmaterialen med ekologiska sådana? JM vill även få beprövat om de är så bra, miljömässigt, som de tror. Detta ska besvaras ...

  8. Fra overmenneske til UNESCO-menneske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl, Poul

    I årene efter Anden Verdenskrig og Holocaust var FNs særorganisation for uddannelse, videnskab og kultur, UNESCO, omdrejningspunkt for en semantisk kamp i den internationale, videnskabelige verden om den rette definition af racebegrebet. En kamp der i sin essens handlede om naturvidenskabernes...... for UNESCO i perioden var at udforme en erklæring, som indeholdt en almengyldig definition af racebegrebet. Det skete i troen på, at erklæringen kunne fjerne fordomme og bringe menneskeheden tættere sammen. Filosoffen Alain Finkielkraut har karakteriseret erklæringen som et politisk projekt. Afhandlingen...... også en rehabilitering, men her var der snarere tale om et særligt dansk initiativ uden UNESCOs indblanding, eftersom ledende medarbejdere i organisationen var tilhængere af eugenisk lovgivning. Afhandlingen viser, at en række begivenheder, ikke mindst Holocaust og afkoloniseringen, dannede baggrund...

  9. Die Europäische Union: Partner oder Vorbild für Ostasien?

    OpenAIRE

    Reiterer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    'Die außenpolitischen Interessen der EU erstrecken sich wegen politischer und wirtschaftlicher Interdependenz bis nach Ostasien. Die Auswirkungen politischer und wirtschaftlicher Probleme (Taiwan, koreanische Halbinsel, Nichtweiterverbreitung von Nuklearwaffen) machen sich unmittelbar in Europa bemerkbar. Die politische und strategische Balance ist im Umbruch. Japan, China und, mit Einschränkungen, Indien, ringen um die Vorherrschaft. Die EU ist wirtschaftlich präsent, entwickelt verschiedens...

  10. Continuity and Change in Norwegian Vocational Education and Training (VET)

    OpenAIRE

    Høst, Håkon

    2008-01-01

    This report, which is an English edition of NIFU STEP Report 20/2008: Fag- og yrkesopplæringen i Norge – noen sentrale utviklingstrekk, addresses some important developments in the vocational education and training (VET) in Norway. The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training commissioned the report, in seeking a basis for its own reporting within this field to Cedefop. The NIFU STEP report includes topics on how access to apprenticeships develops in the conflicting relationship betwe...

  11. Ethnographic Discourse Analysis and Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Van Hout, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse werden in den Sozialwissenschaften zunehmend kombiniert. In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst ein Überblick gegeben über das entstehende Feld der mit den Epistemologien und Methoden der Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse arbeitenden Forschung. Im zweiten Schritt werden zentral Aspekte eines neuen, computergestützten Ansatzes zur ethnografischen Diskursanalyse vorgestellt. Dieser mikroanalytische Ansatz bietet die Möglichkeit, Erkenntnisse über das Ringen um Deutungsmuste...

  12. Ethnografische Diskursanalyse und Sozialwissenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Van Hout, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse werden in den Sozialwissenschaften zunehmend kombiniert. In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst ein Überblick gegeben über das entstehende Feld der mit den Epistemologien und Methoden der Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse arbeitenden Forschung. Im zweiten Schritt werden zentral Aspekte eines neuen, computergestützten Ansatzes zur ethnografischen Diskursanalyse vorgestellt. Dieser mikroanalytische Ansatz bietet die Möglichkeit, Erkenntnisse über das Ringen um Deutungsmuste...

  13. Ein Fund von Buxbaumia viridis (Moug. ex Lam. & DC.) Brid. ex Moug. & Nestl. im Thüringer Muschelkalk-Hügelland

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ein überraschender Fund von B. viridis gelang dem Autor am 14. Januar 2007 in der Umgebung von Jena. In Deutschland wird Buxbaumia viridis als "stark gefährdet" eingestuft; aktuelle Vorkommen beschränken sind auf Baden-Württemberg und Bayern. In Thüringen wurde die Art zuletzt 1975 südwestlich von Suhl nachgewiesen. Der Fundort bei Jena liegt im Muschelkalk-Hügelland im Naturraum der Ilm-Saale-Platte.

  14. De halvstuderede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth; Feldt, Jakob Egholm

    2014-01-01

    Studerende tager ikke længere en uddannelse. Studerende får en uddannelse. Det bærer debatten præg af, for den handler om det, de studerende skal modtage, og hvad universitetet skal gøre for at få læringen til at ske for de studerende. Enten i form af variationer over temaet »at komme de studerende...

  15. Fremmedspråk på barnetrinnet - quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Bjørke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen har som hovedtema fremmedspråk på barnetrinnet, og tar for seg muntlig kompetanse elever på 7. trinn har tilegnet seg i faget spansk. Fokus er på lytte- og samtalestrategier samt ulike læringsarenaer og språklig input. I artikkelen belyses også hvilke kompetanser forfatterne mener vil bli viktige i fremmedspråkopplæringen på barnetrinnet i årene framover.

  16. Depositional environment, ichnological features and oxygenation of Permian to earliest Triassic marine sediments in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Uchman, Alfred; Hanken, Nils-Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Kresten; Piasecki, Stefan; Grundvåg, Sten-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Late Early Permian–lowermost Triassic carbonate, siliceous (spiculites) and clastic marine sediments in the Marmierfjellet area (Isfjorden, central Spitsbergen) contain a relatively diverse and abundant trace fossil assemblage providing important information about the depositional processes. The Vøringen Member (Late Artinskian–Kungurian) of the Kapp Starostin Formation (Late Artinskian–? Changhsingian) contains trace fossils (Nereites, Phycosiphon, Zoophycos and Arenicolites—common in tempes...

  17. Et studium av samfunnsansvar (CSR) for norske utenlandsetablerte akvakulturselskaper; Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream i Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven er et studium av samfunnsansvar for norsk utenlandsetablert akvakulturnæring. Valg av tema er motivert av interessen for den eksisterende samfunnsdebatten omkring næringen og internasjonale næringsstrukturer med fotfeste i utviklingsland. Norsk tilstedeværelse i Chile eksemplifisert ved Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream er anvendt som case studium. Presentasjon og drøfting av Corporate social responsibility (CSR), oversatt til norsk som Selskapers samfunnsansvar, ...

  18. Bevölkerungsumfrage "Soziale Unternehmensverantwortung" : pragmatische Überlegungen zur unternehmensethischen Forschung als Interaktionsprozess zwischen Akademikern und Wirtschaftsvertretern

    OpenAIRE

    Lunau, York; Wettstein, Florian

    2004-01-01

    Das Ringen um anerkennenswerte Handlungsorientierungen wird immer mehr zum Bestandteil des Unternehmensalltags. Akademische Inputs hierzu gelingen nicht immer in konstruktiver Weise. Illustriert mit Bezügen auf eine derzeit entstehende Studie zur sozialen Unternehmensverantwortung stellt dieser ‚Praxisbeitrag‘ hierzu einige Grundüberlegungen an - themenbedingt bewusst von akademisch-pragmatischer Natur. Englisches Abstract: Public Survey "Corporate Social Responsibility" - The challenge for a...

  19. Giv talordene ny navne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejersbo, Lisser Rye

    2009-01-01

    Forskning viser læring af titalssystemet hænger sammen med navnene på talord. De danske talord er ikke logiske i forholdt til titalssystemet og besværliggør på en uhensigtsmæssig måde læringen af dette system. I Asien bruges logiske talord, som repræsenterer værdien af tallet. Det viser sig at væ...

  20. Produktivitetsutvikling i norsk lakseoppdrett: En analyse av perioden 2006-2013 ved bruk av DEA, Malmquist og Bootstrapping

    OpenAIRE

    Wikeland, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Oppgaven analyserer effektiviteten og produktivitetsutviklingen i norsk lakseoppdrett i perioden 2006-2013. Norge er verdensledende i produksjon av laks, som er en av landets største eksportartikler. Bransjen er preget av økende konkurranse fra andre land, og er i tillegg styrt av reguleringen. Produktiviteten i næringen har i lang tid steget, men viste en stagnering i utviklingen i perioden 2005-2008. Effektiviteten estimeres ved bruk av Data Envelopment Analysis, og produktivitetsutviklinge...

  1. Klingende tidsrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergård, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen indledes med en kort indføring i bl.a. sammenhænge mellem notationssystemer og musikforståelse. Indføringen konstaterer, at nutiden byder på musikformer, der kun vanskeligt kan forstås på dette grundlag og åbner for en forståelse af musik som kommunikation. Efter en kort beskrivelse af n...

  2. Reality Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Arvidsson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager ’reality branding’ som udgangspunkt for at diskutere markedsføringens kultur- og livsstilsproducerende potentialer på en mediearena, hvor den kommercielle og hverdagslige virkelighed smelter sammen i virksomheders og konsumenters ’joint effort’ i at skabe meningsfyldte historier. Tankegangen er, at forbrugere har gennemskuet reklamernes mere eller mindre fantasifulde tegnkon- struktioner og forholder sig blasert til budskaberne. Som modsvar til denne ligegyldighed forsøger den moderne og avancerede markeds- føring at skabe nye involverende mediemiljøer og nye brugssituatio- ner for produktet – for eksempel er Polle fra Snave debuteret i film- mediet, og Starbucks skabte et nyt fysisk og symbolsk rum for kaffe og kaffedrikning så godt som uden hjælp af traditionel reklame. Artik- lens ærinde er at diskutere denne udvikling i markedsføringen – ikke ud fra traditionelle sociologiske og psykologiske antagelser om foran- dringer i mentalitetsformer, men ud fra en historisk belysning af mar- kedsføringens diskurser set i relation til udviklingen i mediesystemerne.

  3. Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities.

  4. Seasonal Investigations into the Level of Toxic Elements in Marine Organisms (Fish and Mollusk along the Coast of Ghana Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sarsah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal investigation was conducted into the occurrence and extent of potentially toxic heavy metals along the coast of Ghana using marine organisms as bioindicators of pollution. The marine organisms sampled were analysed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis coupled with conventional counting system. All the four samples (Dentex macrophthalmus, Sardinella maderensis, Engraulis encrasicolus and Cymbium cymbium recorded detectable levels of potentially toxic elements which fluctuates between <0.07mg/kg Cd and 699 mg/kg Al. Cymbium cymbium recorded the highest level of (As, Co, Cu, Zn whiles Engraulis encrasicolus accumulated appreciable amount of V. Al was the most abundant of all the elements. The coast of Ghana was found to be mildly polluted with respect to the elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, V and Zn.

  5. Thermal adaptation and clinal mitochondrial DNA variation of European anchovy

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gonçalo; Lima, Fernando P.; Martel, Paulo; Castilho, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations of widely distributed organisms often exhibit genetic clinal variation over their geographical ranges. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, illustrates this by displaying a two-clade mitochondrial structure clinally arranged along the eastern Atlantic. One clade has low frequencies at higher latitudes, whereas the other has an anti-tropical distribution, with frequencies decreasing towards the tropics. The distribution pattern of these clades has been explained as...

  6. Earthworm and maggots meals as potential fishmeal replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqub, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three meals were formulated from the earthworm (Endrilus eugineae) and maggot (Musca domestica) and fish (Engraulis encrosicolus). These meals were evaluated as a potential replacement for fishmeal. This is because fishmeal could be very expensive at times. The three meals were used in feeding the catfish (Heterobranchus isopterus) fry for 30 days. The study was conducted in 1991 at the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources Farm, University of Science and Technology. Two replicate...

  7. Histamini i biogeni amini kao indikatori svježine ribe i ribljih proizvoda

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović, Tanja; Lelas, Sanja; Listeš, Edy; Šimat, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Povecane koncentracije biogenih amina u hrane morskog porijekla predstavljaju toksikološki rizik. Uz histamin, ostali biogeni amini kao putrescin, kadaverin, tiramin, /-feniletilamin, su jednako znacajni u toksikološkom smislu, jer pojacavaju negativno djelovanje samog histamina. U sklopu ovog rada posebno su izdvojeni uzorci triju razlicitih šarži soljenih incuna (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.) pri cijoj je obradi došlo do reakcije na koži radnica tijekom finalizacije proizvoda. Koncen...

  8. Possible upwelling phenomenon off the Nigerian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Ibe, A.C.; Ajayi, T.O.

    1985-01-01

    Published information favour the occurrence in certain years of wind related upwelling in Nigeria's inshore waters especially between July and September. This is corroborated by the prevalence of petroleum source beds, glauconite, phosphorite and periodic abundance of some fish including Engraulis encrassicolus, Sardinella maderensis and the bonga Ethalmosa fimbriata which are pelagic and are associated with upwelling phenomena. Examination of temperature and salinity data for 1978 - 81 sug...

  9. Estudio comparado de la alimentación entre algunos predadores de alto nivel trófico de la comunidad marina del norte y centro de patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Alonso, M.

    1999-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the food habits between top predator allows the evaluation of how these species use the trophic resources. They also make possible the study of potentially competitive relationships and the role of these predators in the regulation and structure of the community. The marine community of northern and central Patagonia is structured on the tri-trophic system composed by the Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita), the Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argent...

  10. Feeding and ecomorphology of three clupeoids in the N Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. KARACHLE; K. I. STERGIOU

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the feeding habits of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita). The results are combined with previously published information on feeding-related morphological features (i.e. mouth area, intestine length and tail area) in order to explore morphological affinities between species and the effect of ecomorphology on their co-existence. These species were mainly zooplanktivorous and no dietary differences we...

  11. Kapasiteten til trevirke ved trykk tvers på fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Moseng, Morten; Hagle, David Alexander Avann

    2012-01-01

    Sammendrag I denne masteroppgaven er det sett på problematikken ved trykk tvers på fiber i materialer av lim- og heltre. Ved innføringen av den nye trestandarden Eurocode 5 med nye beregningsmetoder og reduserte fasthetsegenskaper, har dette medført utfordringer for treindustrien. Dette har først og fremst ført til en dyrere byggeprosess, men også til mer eller mindre frustrasjon. Derfor er det skapt et ønske om en enklere og mer nøyaktig beregningsmetode for bæreevnen ved trykk tvers på ...

  12. En kartläggning av videobloggar med fokus på turism

    OpenAIRE

    Vuori, Jannika

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka rese-videobloggars struktur, marknadsföring och personlighet. Jag använde mig av kvalitativ undersökning med en observation och en e-postintervju. Mitt resultat bevisar att det finns mycket gemensamma drag i struk-turen och marknadsföringen i vloggarna. Videorna är strukturerade så att det finns en intro och/eller en outro, specialeffekter och en viss längd. Handlingen är reserelaterad. Google AdSense marknadsför olika företag i deras vloggar och ger ...

  13. Industriarvet i skärningspunkten mellan kulturarv och turism

    OpenAIRE

    Wedin, Ida

    2006-01-01

    I detta arbete studerar jag vilken bild av det industriella kulturarvet som förmedlas när kulturarv och turism tillsammans skapar kulturarvsturism, i synnerhet vid Världsarvet i Falun. Jag har för att ta reda på detta gjort litteraturstudier, genomfört intervjuer och studerat förmedlandet av världsarvet i text och på plats vid gruvområdet i Falun.Kulturarvsturismen faller mellan å ena sidan kulturmiljövården och å andra sidan turismnäringen och samarbete mellan dessa två sektorer har ofta vis...

  14. Pins som belønning - Et casestudie i fast food-bransjen

    OpenAIRE

    Schulzki, Suzanne; Thorvaldsen, Karoline; Ahlin, Norea

    2015-01-01

    Den overordnede problemstillingen i denne oppgaven er: Hvordan opplever ansatte i en fast-food restaurant pins som belønning? Denne besvarte vi ved hjelp av et casestudie hvor vi gjennomførte kvalitative dybdeintervjuer med ansatte i en fast-food restaurant, både før og etter innføringen av et pinssystem. Pinssystemet, som belønningssystemer generelt, hadde til formål å øke de ansattes motivasjon. Dette ledet til vårt første forskningsspørsmål, som var: Hvordan opplever ansatte i en fast-food...

  15. Kunst og kultur som felles møteplass En studie av bruken av kunst og kultur på Verdensmester’n mottaksskole i Larvik.

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Rise Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Denne oppgavens intensjon har vært å vise hvordan kunst og kultur brukes i opplæringen av de fremmedspråkelige elevene på Verdensmester’n mottaksskole i Larvik kommune. I rammen av nye kulturstudier ser jeg på hvordan det å gjøre kunst og kultur bidrar til elevenes utvikling og innhenting av kunnskap. Begrepene opplæring og integrering førte meg til postmoderne tilnærminger til barndom, kropp, bruk av kunst og kultur, kommunikasjon og forståelse. Ulike perspektiver fra blant ...

  16. En studie av organisatoriske og ledelsesmessige utfordringer ved implementering av IO i Statoil

    OpenAIRE

    Gravdal, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Flere forskere understreker at for alle virksomheter, utgjør endringsledelse en avgjørende kompetanse. Stadig flere organisasjoner beveger seg fra sekvensielle arbeidsmetoder mot mer parallelle og integrerte måter å jobbe på. En innføring av IO i oljeindustrien er en del av denne endringsprosessen (OLF, 2007). Statoil ønsker å bli verdensledende innenfor IO. Siden 2005 har Statoil utført en rekke steg for å muliggjøre integrerte operasjoner. Dette inkluderer blant annet innføringen av Fell...

  17. 国内外苏芸金杆菌的研究简述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣瑞

    1991-01-01

    @@ 苏芸金杆菌是害虫的一种病原菌,学名:Bacillus thuringiensis,简称B.t,它是1911年Berliner在德国苏芸金城(Thüringen)的地中海粉螟(Anagasta kühniella Zeller)上分离获得而定名的.其杀虫作用乃由于其产生一种具有杀虫活性的糖蛋白.

  18. Effektivare försäljning av stamkundsprogrammet Priority Club Rewards på Holiday Inn Turku

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Ronja

    2012-01-01

    Inom turismbranschen råder det stor konkurrens. Det är viktigt att få nya kunder men det är kanske ännu viktigare att hålla fast vid sina gamla kunder. Ett sätt att uppnå detta är att utveckla olika stamkundsprogram. Detta examensarbete handlar om hur man kunde effektivera försäljningen och marknadsföringen av stamkundsprogrammet Priority Club Rewards i hotellet Holiday Inn Turku. Syftet med detta arbete är att ta reda på om stamkunderna blir behandlade och betjänade som de skall och att ...

  19. Teoretisk gjennomgang av Budsjettnemndas lønnsomhetsundersøkelser

    OpenAIRE

    Gjesdal, Frøystein

    2003-01-01

    Formålet med denne rapporten er å foreta en teoretisk gjennomgang av de årlige lønnsomhetsundersøkelsene som utarbeides av Budsjettnemnda for fiskenæringen. Det fokuseres spesielt på tre problemstillinger. Dette er for det første behandling av fiskerettigheter. Budsjettnemnda har i sine lønnsomhetsberegninger eliminert konsesjonsverdiene fra foretakets kapital. En sentral problemstilling i rapporten er om dette er riktig, og om det er gjort på en riktig måte. Rapporten tar videre opp valg av ...

  20. Anna Freud

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, T.I.

    2007-01-01

    Die Herausgeberin Brigitte Spreitzer macht die literarischen Texte von Sigmund Freuds jüngster Tochter Anna Freud zum ersten Mal vollständig zugänglich und liest sie in der Einführung zur Edition als paradigmatische Dokumente der Aus-einandersetzung einer jungen Frau aus dem assimilierten jüdischen Bürgertum mit den sozi¬alhistorischen und kulturellen Bedingungen im Wien der Jahrhundertwende. Damit werden sie als Teil eines historischen Prozesses begreifbar gemacht, der durch das Ringen von F...

  1. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-02-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen's and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl's seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, higher democratic quality can be attributed to institutional characteristics of consensus democracy, especially proportional representation. PMID:21258634

  2. Fra arbeidsskrift til tidsskrift. En analyse av de første tretti årene av NOA. Norsk som andrespråk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbrandstad, Lise Iversen

    2015-01-01

    Det første nummeret av NOA. Norsk som andrespråk ble utgitt i 1985 ved det som den gangen het Institutt for norsk som fremmedspråk ved Universitetet i Oslo. Bakgrunnen var blant annet et behov for å få publisert mer omfattende forskningsarbeider som var relevante for norskopplæringen av innvandrere, et fagområde som hadde vokst fram raskt i tråd med den økte migrasjonen til Norge på slutten av 1970-tallet. I denne artikkelen analyseres utviklingen av NOA som publiseringskana...

  3. En kunnskapsbasert IT-næring: aktivitet og effekt

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Espen

    2012-01-01

    Norsk IT-næring er stor, lønnsom, svært innovativ og kunnskapsbasert, men i liten grad en kunnskapsklynge. Den er svært sentralisert – mest til Oslo/Akershus, med Trondheim og Horten som mindre sentra. Få norske IT-selskaper konkurrerer globalt. De som gjør det, selges ofte ut av landet når de når en viss størrelse og modenhet, men kompetansen blir ofte igjen i Norge. Næringens viktigste samfunnsbidrag ligger i å tilby en kompetitiv arena og en strategisk ressurs fo...

  4. Salong Estheticas närvaro i sociala medier : engranskning av marknadskommunikation i sociala medier

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfors, Nina

    2015-01-01

    (- en granskning av marknadskommunikation i sociala medier) Jag har gjort ett arbete gällande Salong Esthetica, Axxell Utbildnings övningssalong i Pargas, där blivande kosmetologer övar sina praktiska färdigheter. Syftet med mitt arbete är att utreda hur företag kan bedriva marknadskommunikation via sociala medier. Vad är relevant i marknadsföringen till kunder i sociala medier? Närmare bestämt vill jag granska hur vi bör marknadsföra salong Esthetica via Sociala medier. Kosmetologutbildni...

  5. Systemdynamisk analyse av vannkraftsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Rydning, Anja

    2007-01-01

    I denne oppgaven er det gjennomført en dynamisk analyse av vannkraftverket Fortun kraftverk. Tre fenomener er særlig vurdert i denne oppgaven: Sjaktsvingninger mellom svingesjakt og magasin, trykkstøt ved turbinen som følge av retardasjonstrykk ved endring i turbinvannføringen og reguleringsstabilitet. Sjaktsvingningene og trykkstøt beregnes analytisk ut fra kontinuitets- og bevegelsesligningen. Modeller av Fortun kraftverk er laget for å beregne trykkstøt og sjaktsvingninger. En modell e...

  6. «Den treffer så brutalt…» - en kvalitativ studie av digital mobbing på ungdomstrinnet : skolens erfaringer og strategier for forebygging av digital mobbing

    OpenAIRE

    Esperås, Åshild Nymark

    2014-01-01

    I løpet av de siste årene har det vært økende fokus på fenomenet mobbing. Både regjeringen, Utdanningsforbundet, Kommunenes Sentralforbund (KS) og Foreldreutvalget for grunnopplæringen har undertegnet et nasjonalt manifest mot mobbing (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2011). Media, forskningsmiljøet og skolen har i den senere tid også rettet oppmerksomhet mot en ny type mobbing, nemlig digital mobbing. Dette dreier seg om mobbing utført via elektroniske hjelpemidler, som for eksempel mobil og/eller in...

  7. Kan forskningsbibliotekernes e-materialer være e-læringsmaterialer? – tilgængeliggørelse og formidling i elektroniske læreomgivelser

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmar Engerer

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen er et forsøg på at koble de studerendes informationshandlinger (at søge og håndtere videnskabelig information) til deres læringsaktiviteter som læsning af tekster og diskursiv forarbejdning af stoffet. Der tages udgangspunkt i e-læringens hybride sammenknytning af ressourcer af forskellige type i én læringsplatform, herunder primære ressourcer (især videnskabelige artikler og bøger) og sekundære som bibliografiske baser og andet hjælpemateriale. At disse ressourcer er organiseret i é...

  8. Narkotika, stabilitet og menneskerettigheter : En analyse av USAs krav og interesser ved demobiliseringen av de paramilitære i Colombia 2002-2005

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven forsøker å definere og analysere USAs krav og interesser i forbindelse med demobiliseringen av den paramilitære paraplyorganisasjonen, Autodefensa Unidas de Colombia (AUC), i tidsrommet 2002-2005. USAs støttet disse forhandlingene politisk, men satte krav om at deres utleveringsbegjæringene ikke måtte blokkeres som følge av forhandlingene. I lys av neorealismen og sosialkonstruktivistisk teori forsøker oppgaven å underbygge hypotesen: USA krevde et lovverk som ga...

  9. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than spring (55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton hiomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters (29°30'N,125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  10. Some Observations on Gastric Emptying in the Black Sea Whiting, Merlangius merlangus euxinus, (N. 1840) Fed on Natural Prey

    OpenAIRE

    SEYHAN, Kadir; BAŞÇINAR, N. Selda; Düzgüneş(2), Ertug

    1998-01-01

    In this study a new perspective on the feeding physiology of whiting, Merlangius merlangus euxinus, N. 1840 was investigated. The effects of the skin of the prey, double feeding and prey type on the gastric emptying rate (GER) of whiting fed on natural prey, namely anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicholus) and mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis), were investigated. Return of appetite was also studied. It was found that in laboratory conditions, whiting (48.0±8.30 g, n=12) had consumed about 10.2...

  11. Algunos resultados de las campañas primaverales de evaluación anual de anchoíta bonaerense efectuadas entre 1993 y 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J E; Madirolas, A.

    1999-01-01

    Information resulting from four spring acoustic surveys carried out between 1993 - 1996 to assess bonaerensis anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) biomass (34°- 41°30´S) is presented. Annual estimates, successively higher, went from 1.5 to 5.3 millon tons and the respective coefficient of variability that followed the same trend ranged between 7.4. and 28.0. . In general terms, the largest abundances were those recorded within the coastal strata off the Río de la Plata followed by those of the most...

  12. Alimentación de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) en el Golfo San Jorge y aguas adyacentes

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, F.

    2009-01-01

    The information obtained in summer research cruises carried out in 1995, 1999 and 2002 allowed to determine the trophic spectrum of common hake (Merluccius hubbsi) and to estimate anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) and hake consumption in the nursery area of the San Jorge Gulf and shelf adjacent waters (Argentine Sea, SW Atlantic). The area surveyed extended from 44ºS to 47ºS and between the 50-100 m isobaths. In the stomach content the most frequent items were crustaceans followed by fish. In all ...

  13. Biological investigations of anchovy and some selected fish species caught during the R/V “Bei Dou” surveys 1984-1999%鳀鱼及其他重要经济鱼类生物学特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with growth of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and variations in length by area and maturity of anchovy and some selected fish species obtained during surveys with R/V “Bei Dou” in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea,in 1984-1999.Demersal trawl catch rates for some selected fish species from the same surveys are also included.No density-dependent growth in length or weight of anchovy was found.Reduced length at maturity of small yellow croaker was apparent from 1986 to 1994.

  14. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Preliminarni podaci o morfologiji otolita pet pelagičnih vrsta riba iz Jadranskog mora (Hrvatska)

    OpenAIRE

    ZORICA, Barbara; Sinovčić, Gorenka; Čikeš Keč, Vanja

    2010-01-01

    U radu se iznose rezultati morfometrijske analize otolita brgljuna Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758), srdele Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792), skuše Scomber scombrus Linnaeus, 1758, lokarde Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1780 i iglice Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1761). Za svaku je istraživanu vrstu analizirano po 30 jedinki koje potječu iz lovina ostvarenih na području istočnog dijela Jadrana tijekom razdoblja siječanj - prosinac 2005. godine. Na temelju analize triju faktora oblika otolita...

  16. Bioecología de huevos y larvas de peces Cetengraulis mysticetus (Chuhueco), Opisthonema sp. (Pinchagua) y Anchoas en la reserva ecológica manglares Cayapas-Mataje - Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Luzuriaga de Cruz, M.; Solano Ch., F.; Cevallos, D.

    2007-01-01

    La presente investigación es parte del Convenio de Cooperación Técnica entre el Fondo Ecuatoriano Populorum Pregressio (FEPP) y el Instituto Nacional de Pesca (INP) y tiene como fin principal el estudio de huevos y larvas de chuhueco (Cetengraulis mysticetus), anchoas (Anchoa sp., Anchovia sp. y Engraulis) y pinchagua (Opisthonema sp.) en relación con abundancia y distribución de la microfauna zooplanctónica presente en los esteros durante el período comprendido entre abril del 2000 y diciemb...

  17. Multivariate characterization of spawning and larval environment of small pelagic fishes in the Gulf of California

    OpenAIRE

    Saldierna Martínez, Ricardo Javier; Robinson, Carlos Jorge; Gómez Gutiérrez, Jaime; Palomares García, José Ricardo; Aceves Medina, Gerardo

    2009-01-01

    Spawning and nursery areas of Sardinops sagax (Pacific sardine) and Engraulis mordax (northern anchovy) were characterized during early winter in the Gulf of California, using near-surface horizontal and oblique Bongo tows. The main spawning area for anchovy was located near the islands of Tiburón and Angel de la Guarda and for sardine near both coasts on either side of the central region of the gulf. A hydroacoustic survey showed a close spatial overlap between the distribution of small pela...

  18. The Humboldt Current System: Ecosystem components and processes, fisheries, and sediment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, Vivian; Lange, Carina B.

    2009-12-01

    In the Humboldt Current System (HCS), biological and non-biological components, ecosystem processes, and fisheries are known to be affected by multi-decadal, inter-annual, annual, and intra-seasonal scales. The interplay between atmospheric variability, the poleward undercurrent, the shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), and the fertilizing effect of coastal upwelling and overall high primary production rates drive bio-physical interactions, the carbon biomass, and fluxes of gases and particulate and dissolved matter through the water column. Coastal upwelling (permanent and seasonally modulated off Peru and northern Chile, and markedly seasonal between 30°S and 40°S) is the key process responsible for the high biological productivity in the HCS. At present, the western coast of South America produces more fish per unit area than any other region in the world ocean (i.e. ∼7.5 × 10 6 t of anchoveta were landed in 2007). Climate changes on different temporal scales lead to alterations in the distribution ranges of anchoveta and sardine populations and shifts in their dominance throughout the HCS. The factors affecting the coastal marine ecosystem that reverberate in the fisheries are crucial from a social perspective, since the economic consequences of mismanagement can be severe. Fish remains are often well-preserved in sediment settings under the hypoxic conditions of the OMZ off Peru and Chile, and reveal multi-decadal variability and centennial-scale changes in fish populations. Sediment studies from the Chilean continental margin encompassing the last 20,000 years of deposition reveal changes in sub-surface conditions in the HCS during deglaciation, interpreted to include: a major reorganization of the OMZ; a deglacial increase in denitrification decoupled from local marine productivity; and higher deglacial and Holocene paleoproductivities compared to the Last Glacial Maximum in central-south Chile (35-37°S) while this scheme is reversed for north

  19. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-09-01

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet.

  20. Carbon storage potential by four macrophytes as affected by planting diversity in a created wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Korol, Alicia R; Williams, Lisa D

    2016-01-01

    Wetland creation has become a commonplace method for mitigating the loss of natural wetlands. Often mitigation projects fail to restore ecosystem services of the impacted natural wetlands. One of the key ecosystem services of newly created wetlands is carbon accumulation/sequestration, but little is known about how planting diversity (PD) affects the ability of herbaceous wetland plants to store carbon in newly created wetlands. Most mitigation projects involve a planting regime, but PD, which may be critical in establishing biologically diverse and ecologically functioning wetlands, is seldom required. Using a set of 34 mesocosms (∼1 m(2) each), we investigated the effects of planting diversity on carbon storage potential of four native wetland plant species that are commonly planted in created mitigation wetlands in Virginia - Carex vulpinoidea, Eleocharis obtusa, Juncus effusus, and Mimulus ringens. The plants were grown under the four distinctive PD treatments [i.e., monoculture (PD 1) through four different species mixture (PD 4)]. Plant biomass was harvested after two growing seasons and analyzed for tissue carbon content. Competition values (CV) were calculated to understand how the PD treatment affected the competitive ability of plants relative to their biomass production and thus carbon storage potentials. Aboveground biomass ranged from 988 g/m(2) - 1515 g/m(2), being greatest in monocultures, but only when compared to the most diverse mixture (p = 0.021). However, carbon storage potential estimates per mesocosm ranged between 344 g C/m(2) in the most diverse mesocosms (PD 4) to 610 g C/m(2) in monoculture ones with no significant difference (p = 0.089). CV of E. obtusa and C. vulpinoidea showed a declining trend when grown in the most diverse mixtures but J. effusus and M. ringens displayed no difference across the PD gradient (p = 0.910). In monocultures, both M. ringens, and J. effusus appeared to store carbon as biomass more

  1. Nutrients, Recycling, and Biological Populations in Upwelling Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Nutrient recycling has been studied in the upwelling areas of Baja California, Northwest Africa, and Peru. Regeneration by biological populations in these areas contributes significant quantities of recycled nitrogen which is utilized in productivity processes. Each area has a different combination of organisms which leads to differences in the relative contributions of zooplankton, nekton, or benthos to the nutrient cycles. Comparisons of ammonium regeneration rates of zooplankton and nekton-micronekton populations in the three upwelling areas show that zooplankton recycle relatively less nitrogen in the Baja California and Peru systems than nekton. In the Northwest Africa upwelling region, however, zooplankton, fish, and benthic inputs are all substantial. In recent years the Peruvian upwelling system has been altered with the decline of the anchoveta population and an increase in the importance of zooplankton in nutrient recycling. The distribution of recycled nitrogen (ammonium and urea) in transects across the shelf at 10°S and 15°S indicates that regeneration is relatively more important at 10°S in the region of the wide shelf. In both areas the distribution of ammonium and urea are not entirely coincident thereby indicating differences in their production and/or utilization.

  2. Vem är turisten? : En studie av föreställningar om turism och målgrupper för turism i Värmland

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Ihsan

    2007-01-01

    Denna studie undersöker frågan om vem som anses vara turisten, d v s, vem turist subjektet är, hur denna föreställs i turismstudier och turismnäringen, samt varför. Intresse för denna fråga väcktes av personliga erfarenheter. Det har att göra med hur jag inte fick samma uppmärksamhet som andra svenska turister både när jag turistade i mitt eget land (Turkiet) och även när jag turistade i Sverige handlar om varför jag inte ansågs vara turist och behandlades annorlunda. Varför och vad är de bak...

  3. Incitamentsstruktur för kunskapsöverföringi ett företag

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jonas; Bilich, Paul

    2011-01-01

    En god kunskapsöverföring inom produktionsföretag är idag en central fråga. Inom industrinses arbetskraften inte längre enbart som en inkomstbringande källa utan även som en insamlingsbas av kunskap och erfarenheter. Detta har sin förklaring i att allt fler företag hargått ifrån en totalfokus på själva produktionsenheterna till att konkurrerar med sina anställdaserfarenheter och kunskaper. Kunskapsöverföring kan ses som en nyckel för ett företags fortlöpandevälmående. Om kunskapsöverföringen ...

  4. Jämförelse av de nya och gamla Incotermerna

    OpenAIRE

    Soinio, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Detta arbete är en jämförelse mellan de nya Incotermerna från år 2010 och de gamla Incotermerna från 2000. Huvudsyftet är att forska ifall det finns ett behov för uppdate-ringen av termerna samt ifall uppdateringen påverkar logistikbranschen. Som delsyfte forskas ifall Incotermerna är tillräckligt klara, eller vad det är som gör Incotermerna så svåra att förstå. Forskningen är begränsad till en jämförelse mellan Incoterm 2000 och 2010. Angående de nya Incotermernas påverkan på branschen så gr...

  5. Tegnfunktioner og markedsføring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Ulrik Kragh

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available I sin indledning til bogen "Marketing and Semiotics. New Directions in the Study of Signs for Sale" (anmeldt i dette nummer fremfører Jean Umiker-Sebeok, at markedsvidenskab og semiotik er "komplementære". Simon Ulrik Kragh videreudvikler i sin artikel denne grundtanke: At "semiotikken og erhvervsøkonomien kan udnytte hinandens indsigter til at kompensere for egne svagheder". Begge parter vil derfor have fordel af, at man "krydser de to traditioner i integrerede erhvervs- økonomiske og semiotiske analyser". Artiklens "markedssemiotik" udvider bl.a. de velkendte begreber om denotation og konnotation til at omfatte ikke blot visuelle og verbale tegn, men også forbrugernes oplevede produktbetydning. Herefter diskuteres det, hvilken erhvervsøkonomisk effekt det har at anvende de forskellige tegnfunktioner som handlingsparametre i markedsføringen.

  6. Udvikling af sensorsystem for robotbaseret rengøring af svinestalde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Sørensen, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    Manuel rengøring af svinestalde er både meget sundhedsskadeligt og samtidig meget uinspirerende. Arbejdsmiljøet forværres løbende under arbejdet da der under rengøringen (med en højtryksrenser) hvirvles snavs, mikroorganismer og vand op, som personalet derefter indånder. DTU er derfor i samarbejde...... med Forskningscenter Bygholm ved at udvikle et sensorsystem til detektering af renhedsgraden med mere, således at dette beskidte staldvaskarbejde kan automatiseres med en vaskerobot. Med et fleksibelt sensorsystem bliver vaskerobotten en intelligent servicerobotløsning til rengøring af svinestalde og...... forbedre de nuværende arbejdsbetingelser for staldpersonalet. Selvom der her fokuseres på rensning af svinestalde forventes det, at sensorsystemet på sigt ville kunne anvendes i forbindelse med rensning af en bred vifte af bygninger inden for fødevareindustrien og andre industrier med et lignende behov....

  7. Coopetition i destinationsnätverk : En studie om att samarbeta & konkurrera samtidigt

    OpenAIRE

    Anestedt, Lotta; Westberg, Frida

    2012-01-01

    Detta är en studie om coopetition inom destinationsnätverk, det vill säga när aktörer på en turistdestination ingår i ett nätverk där samarbete och konkurrens sker samtidigt. Studien är gjord på Visit Gellivare Lapland (VGL), ett destinationsnätverk i Gällivare i norra Lappland som består av ett destinationsbolag, turistbyrån samt ca 55 stycken medlemmar som verkar inom besöksnäringen. Coopetition är en sammansättning av engelskans cooperation och competition och är ett fenomen som uppkommit ...

  8. Jag har själv varit ung och blivit betraktad som bromskloss : En undersökande studie om kompetensöverföring i och med generationsväxlingen

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Johanna; Johansson, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    I och med den stora generationsväxlingen som den svenska arbetsmarknaden står inför ville vi undersöka kompetensöverföringen mellan de avgående 40 – talisterna och den nya arbetskraft som ska ta över. Vi utförde vår undersökning på Uddeholms AB i Hagfors och undersökningen berörde de anställdas syn på kompetens, vad de tyckte var viktigt att föra över till nästa generation samt vilka skillnader som fanns generationerna emellan. Som utgångspunkt har vi använt oss av fem stycken teoriområden so...

  9. Kundnöjdheten i Hotel Anna

    OpenAIRE

    Boije, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    I dagens läge värderas kundrelationer högt inom marknadsföringen. Kundnöjdhet förknippas med lönsamhet och ses som en långsiktig investering. Hotel Anna är ett litet hotell i centrala Helsingfors och fungerar som min uppdragsgivare. Syftet med detta arbete är att utreda kundnöjdheten samt hur kundbetjäning och kvalitet upplevs i hotellet. Delsyftet är också att hitta kundnöjdhets förbättringsförslag för hotellet. Den teoretiska referensramen består av teori som behandlar tjänster, kvalitet, k...

  10. En granskning av content marketing : En kvalitativ studie om innehållsbaserad marknadsföring med en rekommendation för tillämpning

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvar, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Människor är trötta på reklam och företagen har börjat förstå att deras kommunikation till kunderna behöver förbättras. Content marketing, även kallat innehållsmarknadsföring har kommit att bli en populär metod, dock med en svag definition i grunden som bäddar för olika åsikter för vad content marketing innebär. Content marketing är ett hett begrepp i den svenska marknadsföringen, men vad krävs för att lyckas? Den här uppsatsen kartlägger begreppet, varför det är svårdefinierat samt ger en re...

  11. Presencia de moluscos tropicales de la provincia panameña en la costa central del Perú y su relación con los eventos "El Niño"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el hallazgo de moluscos cuya distribución conocida se encuentra dentro de los límites de la Provincia Panameña, en diversas localidades de la Provincia Peruana entre los años 1972 y 1994, período en el que se presentaron varios eventos "El Niño". Fue posible determinar 15 especies de moluscos que ampliaron su distribución: Pteria stema, Orobitella peruviana, Cryptornya califomica, Cerithium (T stercusmuscarum, Malea ringens, Hexaplex brassica, Thais styllmanberryi, T (M. triangularis, T (T callaoensis, Acanthina brevidentata, Purpura pansa, Neorapana muricata, Anachis (C. nigricans, Cancellaria (C. decussata y C. (B. chrysostorna. Se postula una variabilidad en los límites de las provincias biogeográficas de la costa peruana, controlada por el ENSO.

  12. Digitalisering af færdighedstræning og laboratorieøvelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dahl, Mads R; Fridorff-Jens, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Dette temanummer af “Læring og Medier” sætter fokus på digitalisering af færdighedstræning og laboratorieøvelser på universiteter og UC’er. Der er mange krav og hensyn, som skal tilgodeses, når vi digitaliserer, og det har altid indflydelse på arbejdsgange, kommunikation og læringen. Helt....... Af eksempler kan nævnes simulerede rollespil, virtuel case undervisning, sproglig færdighedstræning, simulatorer og digitale laboratorier. I dette temanummer lægges der op til, at dele erfaringer og best practice man har gjort sig med digitalisering af færdighedstræning og anden inddragelse af medier...

  13. Vårddjur och deras effekter på hälsan : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg Kalmering, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Bakgrund: Ett grundläggande emotionellt behov hos människan är fysisk beröring, som vid vissa sjukdomstillstånd kan vara svåra att tillfredsställa inom vården. Effekten av beröringen gör att människan blir mer avslappnad, samma effekt kan en person få från fysisk beröring av sällskapsdjur. Djurassisterad terapi kan användas som en kompletteringsbehandling inom sjukvården. Syfte: Att beskriva vilka djurarter som används i djurassisterad terapi och på vilket sätt de kan användas i vården för re...

  14. Undervisning i håndskrivning. Interview med dansklærer Anne Mette Fræhr Møller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    På Thomasskolen i Skovlunde har indskolingslærer i dansk Anne Mette Fræhr Møller de sidste mange år arbejdet fokuseret med at udvikle sine elevers håndskrivning. Relevansen af undervisningen er hun ikke et sekund i tvivl om: det er en sikker vej ind i bogstavindlæringen og giver børnene et godt...... redskab at kommunikere med. Dog er hun mere usikker på, hvorvidt håndskrivningen bibeholder sin vigtighed i undervisningen, når eleverne starter på mellemtrinnet, og computeren kommer på banen. Til tidsskriftet Viden om Literacy nr 19 med tema om skrift har redaktør Henriette Romme Lund interviewet 5...

  15. Xanthichthys greenei, a new species of triggerfish (Balistidae from the Line Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Pyle

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Xanthichthys greenei sp. n. is described from six specimens, 97-154 mm standard length (SL collected from mesophotic coral ecosystems (90-100 m at Kiritimati (Christmas Island, Line Islands, part of the Republic of Kiribati in the Central Pacific. Of the six species of Xanthichthys, it is most similar to the Atlantic X. ringens and the Indo-West Pacific X. lineopunctatus, sharing with these species the character of three pigmented cheek grooves. It is distinctive in its low body scale row count (33-35, other Xanthichthys species with 39 or more, small size (maximum SL 154 mm, other species over 225 mm, and color pattern of scattered dark spots sub-dorsally and no other spots or lines on body.

  16. 1 Stress hos tamrein 2 Arbeidsgruppe om forskning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available 1 NOR har adoptert et opprinnelig svensk prosjekt for å klarlegge i hvilken grad moderne reindriftsteknologi kan tenkes å påvirke reinen slik at det utvikles symptomer på stress. Det er særlig to forhold som har gjort NOR interessert i et slikt prosjekt, nemlig stressforandringers innvirkning på kjøttkvalitet samt i hvilken grad stresspåvirkninger kan medføre langtidseffekter som har innvirkning på dyrenes overlevelsesevne under vanskelige vinterforhold, altså på reintapenes størrelse. Begge disse to momenter har direkte innvirkning på reinnæringens økonomi.2 Forskning, veiledning og utdanning i reindriften i Norge.Den arbeidsgruppe som det norske Landbruksdepartementet den 30. august 1983 oppnevnte for å utrede ovennevnte tema, avga 14. mai 1985 sin betenkning. Denne skisserer gruppens forslag til langtidsplan.

  17. Karl Lagerfeld for H&M : En studie av Hennes & Mauritz varumärkesstrategi

    OpenAIRE

    Serrander, Oskar; Wärnåker, Ted

    2004-01-01

    A1226 Varumärket har under de senaste åren kommit att utgöra en av företagens viktigaste strategiska resurser. För att differentiera sig gentemot en allt hårdare konkurrens krävs en ständig förnyelse av marknadsföringen. Den svenska detaljhandelskedjan Hennes & Mauritz agerar på en marknad där varumärkesidentiteten har en stor betydelse för målgruppen. När företaget lanserade kollektionen Karl Lagerfeld for H&M lyckades de i varumärkesalliansen med designern Karl Lagerfeld kombinera t...

  18. Varumärkesbyggande inom hotellbranschen : En studie av tre hotell i Norrbotten

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlqvist, Malin; Makslahti, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    Resandet i Europa prognostiseras att öka med 2,3 procent varje år fram till år 2030. Den svenska turismnäringen tros ha stora möjligheter att ta del av ökningen. De norrbottniska lokaltidningarna har under det senaste året rapporterat om nyetableringar inom hotell- och restaurangbranschen. Eftersom både konkurrensen och gästnätterna ökar i Norrbotten ligger större vikt vid att erbjuda rätt koncept till rätt pris. Vi ser att starka ledare som Steve Jobs hos Apple och Dave Horton hos Hilton Hot...

  19. CropSAT

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Mats; Stadig, Henrik; Nissen, Knud; Piikki, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Vi utvecklade CropSAT, ett webbaserat system för tillhandahållande av satellitdata över åkermarken där tilldelningsfiler kan laddas ned och användas för styrning av gödselspridare. Systemet testades under 2014 och vidareutvecklades under 2015 inom ramen för Greppa Näringen. Vår slutsats är att satellitdata som omräknats till vegetationsindexkartor kan användas i praktiken för anpassning av kvävegivan inom fält. Det är ett mycket kostnadseffektivt sätt att skapa underlag för bättre kvävehushål...

  20. SOCIALA MEDIER: ETT SÄTT FÖR SMÅFÖRETAG ATT MARKNADSFÖRA SIG. : J & K Hotels and Resorts; Hotel Epoque

    OpenAIRE

    Laukka, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Målsättningen med det här examensarbetet var att undersöka om sociala medier lämpar sig som marknadsföringsmetod för tjänster på internationella marknader, speciellt små företag. Oftast har företaget en färdig tjänst då det gäller börjar marknadsföra internationellt. Marknadsföringen kan kräva anpassning men även ge märkbar ökning i omsättningen om den lyckas. De olika externa faktorerna som behandlades var politiska och kulturella skillnader och vad man bör tänka på när man marknadsför sina ...

  1. Kroppen i læringsrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Engelsrud, Gunn; Stelter, Reinhard;

    Billenstein Schriver samt Staffan Josephsson (sidstnævnte bidrager dog ikke til antologien). Antologien indeholder de præsenterede oplæg i artikelform inklusiv en artikel baseret på Kropslighedsprojektet. God læselyst! Lars Emmerik Damgaard Knudsen, Agnete Sillesen, Dorthe Varning Poulsen og Mette Schmidt...... Litteratur Gallagher, Shaun. 2002. Født med en krop. Fænomenologisk og eksperimentel forskning om oplevelse af kroppen. I: Kirsten Kaya Roessler m.fl. (red.). Krop og læring. Sport & Psyke, nr. 29. Århus. Dansk Idrætspsykologisk Forum & Forlaget Klim. Hermansen, Mads. 2005. Læringens Univers. Århus. Klim....... Illeris, Knud. 2009. Læring. Frederiksberg. Roskilde Universitetsforlag. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 2002. Phenemenology of Perception. London. Routledge. Moser, Thomas. 2007. Kropsforankret læring og aktivitet som pædagogiske begreber. I: T. Schillab og B. Steffensen (red.). Nervepirrende pædagogik – En...

  2. Growth hacking för e-butiker : Framtagande av en modell för growth hacking av e-butiker

    OpenAIRE

    Oksman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    I takt med digitala marknadsföringens utveckling och dagens ökade marknadsföringsbrus har growth hacking uppstått. Growth hacking är en ny marknadsföringsmetod som fokuserar på tillväxt för företag. Den information och fakta som finns att tillgå om growth hacking är ofta relaterade till specifika företag eller projekt. Väldigt lite hjälp för planeringen av growth hacking erbjuds. Extra sällsynt är information eller modeller om growth hacking för e-butiker. Syftet med denna studie är att skapa...

  3. Konstens natt på svenska : Utvecklingsförslag

    OpenAIRE

    Ekholm, Viktoria

    2013-01-01

    Jag hade i år möjlighet att vara med och ordna evenemanget Konstens natt på svenska. Evenemanget ordnas alltid på Gillesgården och är ett evenemang som är en del av Konstens natt i Åbo vilket ordnas varje år i augusti. Evenemanget har i år för första gången ordnats av studerande från Yrkeshögskolan Novia och kommer att fortsätta att ordnas av studerande från Yrkeshögskolan Novia i framtiden. Därför är syftet med mitt examensarbete att ta fram utvecklingsförslag för marknadsföringen av evenema...

  4. Språkfagenes fremtid i et organisasjonsteoretisk perspektiv. Er det liv laga for fremmedspråk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Brox Larsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen drøfter ulike fremtidsscenarier for organiseringen av engelsk- og fremmedspråkopplæringen i den norske skolen. Med bakgrunn i organisasjonsteoretisk translasjonsteori og randomiserte studier av et utvalg nasjonal og internasjonal styrings- og praksisdokumentasjon gis det en sannsynlighetsvurdering av hva vi kan forvente oss i Norge. Selv om det tilsynelatende ser ut som om mange er enige om at vi skal ha mer og bedre språkundervisning så kan vi i realiteten ende opp med mindre og dårligere undervisning fordi vi introduserer andre fremmedspråk for sent, fordi vi lar det være et valgfag og fordi vi ikke innfører CLIL som en obligatorisk arbeidsform.

  5. Kantzonsvegetationens inverkan på dieten hos öring (Salmo trutta) i en skogsbäck

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Effekterna på öringens (Salmo trutta) diet till följd av en avverkning av kantzonsvegetationen har undersökts i ett fältexperiment, där två av de potentiella effekterna av en skogsavverkning simulerades. Fokus låg på de två faktorerna ökad ljusinstrålning och minskat nedfall av terrestra evertebrater. Ökad ljusinstrålning har simulerats med hjälp av montage av lysrör och nedfall av terrestra evertebrater med hjälp av plasttält. Frågeställningarna rör andelen terrester föda i olika behandlinga...

  6. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10658-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 066525 |pid:none) Radix peregra cathepsin-L-like cys... 70 5e-11 AF098670_1( AF098670 |pid:none) Tethya aurantia silica...L c... 67 8e-10 EU909156_1( EU909156 |pid:none) Latrunculia oparinae silicatein A...id:none) Petrosia ficiformis silicatein mRN... 64 5e-09 AB081844_1( AB081844 |pid:none) Engraulis japonicus ...97_1( AY333297 |pid:none) Branchiostoma lanceolatum isolate ... 63 9e-09 DQ364228_1( DQ364228 |pid:none) Hymeniacidon perlevis silica...psin L-like cy... 63 1e-08 EU909158_1( EU909158 |pid:none) Latrunculia oparinae silica

  7. Quality changes in irradiated and nonirradiated boiled-dried anchovies after inter-country transportation and storage at 25degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of nonirradiated and irradiated (5 kGy) dried anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus) were transported from Korea to India for evaluation of microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptic parameters during storage. The nonirradiated anchovies showed mould growth and an increase in total bacterial count by three log cycles over the initial load, after four months of storage at 25degC. However, 5 kGy irradiated samples packed with a laminated nylon/polyethylene (NY/PE) film exhibited 102 bacterial cells per g even after 6 months storage. Hunter's colour value, total volatile basic nitrogen, browning and lipid oxidation showed a good correlation with the organoleptic quality of stored anchovies. Partial changes in irradiated anchovies did not influence organoleptic acceptability. Differences in the levels of total volatile basic nitrogen and total volatile acid values in irradiated and nonirradiated samples may prove useful in distinguishing irradiated Korean anchovies from nonirradiated samples. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  8. 水产资源与捕捞技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    040047基于个体的模型(IBM)模拟本格拉南部南非鳀鱼卵在产卵场向孵化场传送的过程中的浮性效果=Modelling the effect of buoyancy on the transport of anchovy(En- graulis capensis)eggs from spawning to nurs- ery grounds in the muthern Bengueta:an IBM approach[刊,英]/Parada C,van der Lin- gen C D,Mullon C…//Fish.Oceanogr..- 2003,12(3).-170-184 用基于个体的模型(IBM)研究本格拉南部南非鳀Engraulis capensis鱼卵在产卵场向孵化场由急流传送的过程中发生的物理

  9. Condições de secagem de uma pasta de anchoita modificada enzimaticamente na oxidação lipídica, lisina disponível e atividade antioxidante do produto Drying conditions of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy in the lipid oxidation, available lisina and antioxidant activity of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly de Moraes; Luiz Antônio de Almeida Pinto

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as condições da secagem convectiva de uma pasta de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita) modificada enzimaticamente, através da metodologia de superfícies de resposta, sendo as respostas consideradas: a oxidação lipídica (TBA), a redução da lisina disponível e a perda da atividade antioxidante específica. A pasta de anchoita modificada foi obtida por hidrólise enzimática da fração muscular (filés) do pescado por Neutrase®. Foram avaliadas na operação de secagem, a ...

  10. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulisjaponicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than s pring ( 55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton biomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters ( 29°30′N, 125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  11. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  12. Asociaciones de larvas de peces en relación a cambios ambientales en las Bahías Chamela, Jalisco y Santiago-Manzanillo, Colima (2001-2002 Larval fish associations related to environmental changes in Bahía Chamela, Jalisco and Santiago-Manzanillo, Colima (2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Silva-Segundo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la influencia de los factores ambienta les sobre las asociaciones espacio-temporales de larvas de peces frente a Bahía Chamela, Jalisco y el conjunto de bahías Santiago-Manzanillo, Colima, durante un ciclo anual (2001-2002. Se identificaron dos agrupaciones relacionadas con la fisiografía de la costa y el hábitat de los adultos, una frente a Bahía Chamela integrada por una mezcla de especies de hábitats costero, demersal e intermareal-submareal (Bregmaceros bathymaster, Bairdiella sp., Cynoscion sp., Engraulis mordax y Labrisomidae tipo 1 y otra en Santiago-Manzanillo compuesta por especies de origen lagunar e intermareal-submareal (Eucinostomus sp., Abudefduf troschelii, Haemulidae tipos 2 y 3, así como Enneanectes sexmaculatus. La organización temporal estuvo influenciada por la alternancia entre dos periodos (cálido y templado definidos por la variabilidad ambiental regional. El periodo cálido estuvo caracterizado por especies principalmente tropicales (Harengula thrissina, Eucinostomus sp., Auxis sp. y Haemulidae tipo 3, relacionadas con una mayor temperatura y precipitación pluvial, en cambio durante el periodo templado dominaron las especies de afinidad tropical-subtropical (B. bathymaster, Bairdiella sp., Cynoscion sp. y E. mordax, relacionadas con una menor temperatura e incrementos en las concentraciones de nutrimentos, clorofila-a y zooplancton.Spatial and temporal structure of fish larvae associations and their relationship to the environmental variability were studied at Bahía Chamela, Jalisco, and Santiago-Manzanillo complex, Colima, during 2001-2002. Two spatial aggregations were found, related to the coastal physiography and to the adult habitat. The first was observed at Bahía Chamela, which integrated a combination of species belonging to coastal, demersal and inshore habitats (Bregmaceros bathymaster, Bairdiella sp., Cynoscion sp., Engraulis mordax, and Labrisomidae type 1 and the other in Santiago

  13. Condições de secagem de uma pasta de anchoita modificada enzimaticamente na oxidação lipídica, lisina disponível e atividade antioxidante do produto Drying conditions of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy in the lipid oxidation, available lisina and antioxidant activity of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Moraes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as condições da secagem convectiva de uma pasta de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita modificada enzimaticamente, através da metodologia de superfícies de resposta, sendo as respostas consideradas: a oxidação lipídica (TBA, a redução da lisina disponível e a perda da atividade antioxidante específica. A pasta de anchoita modificada foi obtida por hidrólise enzimática da fração muscular (filés do pescado por Neutrase®. Foram avaliadas na operação de secagem, a temperatura do ar (60, 70 e 80°C e a espessura das amostras (1,5; 2,5 e 3,5mm. A análise estatística da secagem mostrou efeitos significativos da temperatura do ar e da espessura das amostras (PThe aim of the work was to analyze the conditions of the convective drying of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita through the response surfaces methodology, and the responses were the lipid oxidation (TBA, reduction of the available lisina and loss of the specific antioxidant activity. The modified paste of anchovy was obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of the fish muscular fraction (fillets by Neutrase®. In drying operation the air temperature (60, 70 and 80°C and the samples thickness (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5mm were studied. The statistical analysis of the drying showed significant effects of the air temperature and samples thickness (P<0.05. The best drying condition was obtained in the air temperature of 60°C and samples thickness of 2.5mm. In this condition the TBA index was of 0.93mgMDA kg-1, available lisina reduction of 16% and loss of the specific antioxidant activity of 20.2%.

  14. Klima og turisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2014-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en række koblinger mellem klima og turisme med det formål at pege på, hvorledes klima og turisme i fremtiden kan tænkes. Jeg beskriver, hvorledes man i turismeforskningen har fokuseret på at blotlægge særligt to kausale forbindelser mellem klima og turisme, nemlig hvordan...... klimaforandringer vil ændre turistdestinationer og rejsemønstre og hvorledes turismeindustriens CO2-udledninger påvirker klimaet. Med henblik på at opnå en bedre forståelse af, hvorledes klima og turisme gensidigt forbindes og transformeres på et utal af måder, gives der eksempler på kommercialiseringen af...... klimaforandringer i en række turismesammenhænge, såsom i markedsføringen af rejser til ’klimatruede’ turistdestinationer. En række klimavenlige fremtidsscenarier for turismen præsenteres dernæst, hvori klima/turisme-relationen udfordres. På den baggrund argumenteres der afslutningsvis for, at man i forskningen ikke...

  15. Tilpasset opplæring: politisk dragkamp om pedagogisk praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik S. Jenssen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tilpasset opplæring er et populært politisk virkemiddel når skolen skal reformeres og gjøres i stand til å møte endrede betingelser. Det er et begrep som hentes frem når politikerne skal nå mål som inkludering, sosial utjevning eller økt læringsutbytte. Evalueringer viser at skoler opplever tilpasset opplæring som et uklart og problematisk begrep. Vi viser i denne artikkelen at lærerne har god grunn til å synes at tilpasset opplæring er vanskelig å praktisere. Dette gjør vi ved å vise hvordan tilpasset opplæring har skiftet meningsinnhold med skiftende regjeringer i perioden 1975 og frem til i dag. Vi har identifisere fire ulike epoker i tilpasset opplæring som hver fremhever ulike sider ved opplæringen og forfekter ulike løsninger.

  16. Kan forskningsbibliotekernes e-materialer være e-læringsmaterialer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen er et forsøg på at koble de studerendes informationshandlinger (at søge og håndtere videnskabelig information) til deres læringsaktiviteter som læsning af tekster og diskursiv forarbejdning af stoffet. Der tages udgangspunkt i e-læringens hybride sammenknytning af ressourcer af forskellige...... almindeligvis forbindes med biblioteksdomænet, kan få status af læringsobjekter på lige fod med de traditionelle, primære dokumenter. – På baggrund af e-materialernes integrationsgrad i virtuelle læringsomgivelser introduceres begrebet ”læringspotentiale”, som undersøges i form af klassiske emneredskaber...... (tesaurus og klassifikation) i hybride materialetyper, både primære (fx e-bogspakker) og sekundære (bibliografier). Der kan bl.a. konkluderes, at biblioteker i vid udstrækning har den viden, der hører til for at formidle disse ressourcer i de virtuelle læringsmiljøer....

  17. Kritisk-rationel pædagogik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    ’Kritisk-rationel pædagogik’ er baseret på Karl Poppers erkendelses- og dannelsesteoretiske tanker. Bogen bygger derfor i lige grad på den kritisk-rationelle metode og på Poppers arbejde imod de totalitære regimer og tendenser i de moderne og senmoderne samfund. Forudsætningen for ethvert...... pædagogisk arbejde med den lærendes erkendelse er den grundlæggende forståelse af læringens natur, det vil sige af hvordan læring foregår inde i hovedet på den lærende. Popper vover at sætte denne proces på formel! Sideløbende med det erkendelsesmæssige arbejde er der et dannelsesmæssigt perspektiv, der...... blandt andet afhænger af den måde undervisningen tilrettelægges på. I denne bog trækkes der især på Poppers arbejde med begreberne individualisme og altruisme som modvægt til den totalitære praksis i fascismen og socialismen. Det er praksisformer, der igen begynder at vise sig i et økonomisk svækket...

  18. Medien - Macht - Pädagogik. Konturen einer Cultural-Studies-basierten Medienpädagogik, illustriert an Reality-TV-Sendungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Hipfl

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorin beschreibt die Medienpädagogik im Spannungsfeld zwischen der kritischen Beobachtung von Medien und der Aufgabe, zu einem handlungsfähigen, kompetenten Umgang mit Medien zu erziehen. Hierzu bedarf die Medienpädagogik eines Theoriegerüsts, für das sie die Cultural Studies empfiehlt. Im folgenden macht sie am Beispiel von zwei Reality TV-Sendeformaten deutlich, wie Machtverhältnisse mit der Produktion von Fernsehsendungen und den Auswirkungen auf die Rezipienten zusammen hängen. Das neoliberale Menschenbild, wonach jeder Einzelne für den persönlichen (Misserfolg verantwortlich ist und Identität flexibel inszeniert werden kann, spiegelt sich in Sendungen wie "Big Brother". Da diese Formate in zahlreiche Länder adaptiert werden, passen sie in das Zeitalter der Globalisierung. Die öffentlich-rechtlichen Sendeanstalten ringen um Einschaltquoten, produzieren ähnliche Formate und geraten in eine Legitimationskrise. Die Cultural Studies setzen eine Evaluation von Fernsehsendungen dagegen, der Medienpädagogik kommt dabei eine Regulierungsfunktion zu, indem sie zu einer kritischen Rezipientenhaltung ermutigt.

  19. Om den uformelle (misbrug af medier i det formelle uddannelsessystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paulsen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En kombination af uddannelsesforskning og medieforskning anvendes til at forstå gymnasieelevers brug af nye digitale medier. På baggrund af elev- og lærerinterview fremlægger forfatterne en tolkning af mediebrugens betydning for de formelle læreprocesser. Artiklen kommer frem til, at medierne afleder elevernes opmærksomhed og fører til afhængighedsproblemer. Forfatterne fremlægger en tolkning af, hvordan eleverne afledes, og hvad de afledes til. Igennem denne tolkning kommer artiklen frem til, at medier som Messenger ikke blot afleder opmærksomhed, men også dekonstruerer forskellen mellem formelle og uformelle læreprocesser. I modsætning til, hvad eleverne og lærerne selv fortæller, indikerer tolkningen, at der finder en læring sted via elevernes dekonstruerende brug af de nye medier, men at lærerne ekskluderes fra de processer, hvorigennem læringen initieres. Artiklen konkluderer, at der bør udvikles en mediedidaktik, der dels afhjælper elevers afhængighedsproblemer, dels giver lærerne styrke til at spille en aktiv rolle ift. den sociale interaktion og læring, som de nye medier muliggør.

  20. Veiledning i praksis. Om praksisopplæring i norsk allmennlærerutdannelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Skagen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen presenterer to nyere studier av veiledning i praksisopplæring i allmennlærerutdannelsen. Hovedfunnene drøftes i forhold til noen tidligere nordiske forskningsstudier. Studiene redegjør for intensjoner og realiteter i praksisopplæringen med fokus på mål, innhold og form i praksisveiledningen. Materialet er ramme- og fagplaner og intervjuer og observasjoner ved tre praksisskoler. Veiledningen drøftes i forhold til teori om veiledning. De to studiene som presenteres, konkluderer med at avstanden mellom teoridel og praksisdel i lærerutdannelsen fortsatt eksisterer. Det blir konstatert både fellestrekk og forskjeller mellom skolene når det gjelder graden av individuell veiledning og gruppeveiledning og individuell studentundervisning. Innholdsfokus i veiledningen varierte. Veilederrollen varierte mellom ettergivenhet og pågåenhet. Noen forskningsstudier hevder at øvingslærere praktiserer teknologisk veiledning. Artikkelen argumenterer for at innvielse i undervisningstradisjonen er nødvendig.

  1. Affärsresenärers måltidsval : En multimetodologisk studie i hur affärsresenärer gör sina måltidsval

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlund, Andrea; Moschna, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Varje dag gör vi ca 220 val relaterade till vad vi äter och dessa val påverkas av faktorer så som hur mycket pengar eller vilka smakpreferenser vi har. Affärsresenärer är en köpkraftig grupp inom turistnäringen och ett intresse väcktes att studera denna grupp ur ett måltidsperspektiv. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur affärsresenärer gör sina måltidsval, urskilja vad som påverkar valet och på så sätt få en förståelse för hur och vad affärsresenärer väljer för måltid när de reser i tjän...

  2. Engaging with German history: Reactions of the third post-war generation to cinematic representations of the Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kopf-Beck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the number of surviving contemporary witnesses of the Holocaust is rapidly declining, media reports are increasingly important for transmitting history to the “Third Generation.” The focus of this quasi-experimental study is on the recipient-side effects for school pupils of viewing TV documentaries that use different strategies to represent the Holocaust. For this purpose, 12 school classes (N = 184 were asked by questionnaire about their national identification and previous engagement with the Holocaust. Three weeks later, the study participants were shown one of six different film excerpts, whereby each film excerpt was viewed by respectively one group from Baden-Württemberg and one from Thüringen. The different reactions to the excerpts were sampled using standardized items and open-response essay questions. The results point to the conditions under which TV documentaries elicit contra-indexed effects and how enlightenment on past injustice can be achieved using cinematic material, without eliciting defensive reactions, and thereby make possible a constructive engagement with history.

  3. DCE’s kommentarer vedr. markedsførings-anmeldelsen: EFSA-GMO-NL-2012-107 (MON810-pollen)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2012-01-01

    Markedsføringsanmeldelsen omhandler import og anvendelse af MON810-pollen direkte i fødemidler eller til videreforarbejdning til fødemidler (Anmeldelsen part 1 og 2.). Der indgår således ikke dyrkning eller foderanvendelse. Risikoen for spredningen af pollen ud i naturen, ved transportulykker og...... lignende, er ubetydelig da materialet ikke indeholder levende genmodificeret materiale (LMO), (Anmeldelsen part 3). Materiale der indeholder og/eller er produceret af MON810-pollen vil blive mærket: ”produced from genetically modified maize”(Anmeldelsen part 4). Desuden skal materialet mærkes med den...... unikke kode: MON-ØØ81Ø-6. Der findes en event-specifik indsamlings og ELISA-metode til påvisning af MON810-pollen (Anmeldelsen, part 5). DCE´s konklusioner til markedsføringen af MON810-pollen til fødemidler DCE vurderer samlet at der ikke kan forventes nogen uønskede økologiske konsekvenser ved...

  4. Impact of winter oceanographic conditions on zooplankton abundance in northern Adriatic with implications on Adriatic anchovy stock prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Romina; Supić, Nastjenjka; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica

    2015-12-01

    Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (L.), is commercially one of the most important Adriatic small pelagic fish. Despite the prevailing oligotrophication trend in the northern Adriatic (NA), the anchovy catch increased after 2000, coinciding with an increased number of the winter type A occurrences, when Po River waters are favoured to spread across the NA. Namely, winter type A is characterised by conditions resulting with Po River waters spreading across the NA along with salinity decrease. On the contrary, in winters of type B, salinity is high. We hypothesized in previous paper, based on correlation between circulation patterns and phytoplankton with anchovy catch, that excess feeding of anchovy in this winter pre-spawning period (February) can lead to increased amounts of the anchovy eggs two months later and subsequently to the total fish catch of the same year. In this paper, we investigate in more details and based on longer time series the relation between anchovy catch and winter circulation patterns of the NA. Additionally, we studied the association between anchovy catch and zooplankton, as anchovy is predominantly zooplanktivorous. We found that zooplankton abundances in winters of A type enhance and that ciliates play an important role in the NA anchovy food web and enrichment of the region with anchovy. Finally, the results of our investigation might in time represent the basics for a sustainable anchovy management in the Adriatic Sea as they enable the development of prediction models of the anchovy stock.

  5. Histology as a Valid Tool To Differentiate Fresh from Frozen-Thawed Marinated Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meistro, Serena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Muscolino, Daniele; Giarratana, Filippo; Baioni, Elisa; Panebianco, Antonio; Bozzetta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    European Commission Regulation (EU) 1276/2011 requires that fishery products intended for raw consumption be frozen at -20°C for not less than 24 h or at -35°C for at least 15 h in order to kill viable parasites other than trematodes. But because marinating processes are not always effective in destroying nematode larvae, raw marinated fish preparations should be frozen before consumption. This study evaluated the performance of a standardized histological method to distinguish between fresh and frozen-thawed raw marinated fish. Sixty anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fillets were sampled: 30 were marinated at +4°C for 24 h, and 30 were frozen at -20°C for 24 h before being marinated for 24 h. All 60 samples were fixed in formalin, processed for paraffin embedding, cut, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The slide preparations were examined microscopically by three independent histopathologists and classified as frozen-thawed or negative according to standard operating procedure criteria in use at our laboratory. Performance evaluation of the method showed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.4 to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 88.4 to 100%), and the interrater agreement (Cohen's kappa) was 1 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1). Histology proved a valid and reliable tool to distinguish fresh from frozen-thawed marinated fish. It can be applied to deliver safe raw fishery products to consumers in order to minimize the risk of anisakidosis.

  6. Implementation of a reduced order Kalman filter to assimilate ocean color data into a coupled physical-biochemical model of the North Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaroni, Sofia; Tsiaras, Kostas; Economou-Amilli, Athena; Petihakis, George; Politikos, Dimitrios; Triantafyllou, George

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the European project OPEC (Operational Ecology), a data assimilation system was implemented to describe chlorophyll-a concentrations of the North Aegean, as well the impact on the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) biomass distribution provided by a bioenergetics model, related to the density of three low trophic level functional groups of zooplankton (heterotrophic flagellates, microzooplankton and mesozooplankton). The three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model comprises two on-line coupled sub-models: the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The assimilation scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter and its variant that uses a fixed correction base (SFEK). For the initialization, SEEK filter uses a reduced order error covariance matrix provided by the dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) of model. The assimilation experiments were performed for year 2003 using SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a data during which the physical model uses the atmospheric forcing obtained from the regional climate model HIRHAM5. The assimilation system is validated by assessing the relevance of the system in fitting the data, the impact of the assimilation on non-observed biochemical parameters and the overall quality of the forecasts.

  7. Acoustic surveys for juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: Abundance estimate as an indicator of the next year's recruitment and spatial distribution patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2013-08-16

    A series of acoustic surveys (JUVENA) began in 2003 targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. A specific methodology was designed for mapping and estimating juvenile abundance annually, four months after the spawning season. After eight years of the survey, a consistent picture of the spatial pattern of the juvenile anchovy has emerged. Juveniles show a vertical and horizontal distribution pattern that depends on size. The younger individuals are found isolated from other species in waters closer to the surface, mainly off the shelf within the mid-southern region of the bay. The largest juveniles are usually found deeper and closer to the shore in the company of adult anchovy and other pelagic species. In these eight years, the survey has covered a wide range of juvenile abundances, and the estimates show a significant positive relationship between the juvenile biomasses and the one-year-old recruits of the following year. This demonstrates that the JUVENA index provides an early indication of the strength of next year\\'s recruitment to the fishery and can therefore be used to improve the management advice for the fishery of this short-lived species. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  8. Thermal adaptation and clinal mitochondrial DNA variation of European anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gonçalo; Lima, Fernando P; Martel, Paulo; Castilho, Rita

    2014-10-01

    Natural populations of widely distributed organisms often exhibit genetic clinal variation over their geographical ranges. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, illustrates this by displaying a two-clade mitochondrial structure clinally arranged along the eastern Atlantic. One clade has low frequencies at higher latitudes, whereas the other has an anti-tropical distribution, with frequencies decreasing towards the tropics. The distribution pattern of these clades has been explained as a consequence of secondary contact after an ancient geographical isolation. However, it is not unlikely that selection acts on mitochondria whose genes are involved in relevant oxidative phosphorylation processes. In this study, we performed selection tests on a fragment of 1044 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using 455 individuals from 18 locations. We also tested correlations of six environmental features: temperature, salinity, apparent oxygen utilization and nutrient concentrations of phosphate, nitrate and silicate, on a compilation of mitochondrial clade frequencies from 66 sampling sites comprising 2776 specimens from previously published studies. Positive selection in a single codon was detected predominantly (99%) in the anti-tropical clade and temperature was the most relevant environmental predictor, contributing with 59% of the variance in the geographical distribution of clade frequencies. These findings strongly suggest that temperature is shaping the contemporary distribution of mitochondrial DNA clade frequencies in the European anchovy. PMID:25143035

  9. From bonito to anchovy: a reconstruction of Turkey’s marine fisheries catches (1950-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ULMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s marine fisheries catches were estimated for the 1950-2010 time period using a reconstruction approach, which estimated all fisheries removals, including unreported landings, recreational landings and discards.  We added these estimates to the ‘official’ data, as reported in TURKSTAT, which are also available from the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO.  The total reconstructed catch for the 1950-2010 time period (inclusive of the reported data is approximately 32 million t, or 74% more than the 18.4 million t of reported data. This added approximately 13.6 million t to the reported data, consisting of 6.9 million t of unreported landings, 2.6 million t of discards, 2.4 million t of recreational catches, and 1.7 million t of subsistence catches.  In 2010, total reported marine landings for Turkey were 445,680 t and the total reconstructed catch was 763,760 t, or 73% more than the reported data.   The main unreported taxon by tonnage was European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus due to its sheer high proportion of catch.  The major reasons for underreporting include a general distrust fishers have towards the taxing system combined with inefficient fisheries monitoring and surveillance capabilities.  Accounting for all fisheries components is crucial in understanding the development of fisheries resources, improving management, and reducing threats to the domestic food security of Turkey.

  10. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension. - Highlights: • Marinated anchovies were γ-irradiated at 2, 3 and 4 kGy and stored at 4 °C (10 months). • Irradiation slightly hardened the texture and reduced its softening during storage. • Irradiated marinades had good sensory acceptability without differences with controls. • Irradiation improved the quality by reducing texture softening and color changes

  11. Feeding and ecomorphology of three clupeoids in the N Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the feeding habits of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine (Sardina pilchardus and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita. The results are combined with previously published information on feeding-related morphological features (i.e. mouth area, intestine length and tail area in order to explore morphological affinities between species and the effect of ecomorphology on their co-existence. These species were mainly zooplanktivorous and no dietary differences were found with sex and season. Anchovy preyed mainly on Crustacea larvae, whereas sardine and round sardinella on Copepoda. In the majority of cases (>90%, the individual fractional trophic level of all species ranged between 3.0 and 3.5, classifying them as omnivores with preference to animals. The feeding-related morphological features differed between anchovy and the two other species, whereas only intestine length differed between sardine and round sardinella. The fact that round sardinella’s diet and morphology show a greater resemblance to those of sardine, further support the hypothesis that is a particulate feeder as sardine. Hence the three species tend to exploit the same food resources differently throughout the year. Thus, they make best use of the environment and its resources, in order to avoid competition and achieve optimum feeding conditions throughout their life cycles

  12. Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.

    2015-06-01

    We used stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central California Current system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, δ15N and δ13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.

  13. Increase of marine juvenile fish abundances in the middle Gironde estuary related to warmer and more saline waters, due to global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Béguer, Mélanie; Larsen, Maja Hjort; Chaalali, Aurélie; Cabral, Henrique; Lobry, Jérémy

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries have an essential ecological function for several marine fish species, that use these systems as nurseries. Previous studies in the Gironde estuary have reported an increase in water temperature and an extended seawater intrusion associated to global changes. In this study, we evaluated whether these changes impact the nursery function in the middle part of the system, based on the analyses of long-term data series (1991-2009) collected in that area. Trend analysis, correlations and generalized additive models (GAM) were computed in order to study the influence of water temperature and salinity changes on marine juveniles occurrence/densities. Results showed that densities of all the studied species (i.e. Engraulis encrasicolus, Sprattus sprattus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Solea solea, Argyrosomus regius, Merlangius merlangus) significantly increased over the period considered. Changes in water temperature and seawater intrusion contributed to explain the variability in presence/absence and in densities of the majority of these species. However, the deviance explained by GAM and the relevance of these two explanatory variables differed considerably according to species. For most species, it was suggested that the interaction of these two factors, and their effects on other variables, may explain the increase in abundance in the middle part of the Gironde. The effects of global changes in this estuarine system may favour its nursery function for marine juveniles, but some evidence of effects at a wider scale (community and ecosystem levels) may alter the structure and functioning of this system.

  14. Atmospheric-induced variability of hydrological and biogeochemical signatures in the NW Alboran Sea. Consequences for the spawning and nursery habitats of European anchovy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, D.; Catalán, I. A.; Solé, J.; Morales-Nin, B.; Ruiz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The north-western Alboran Sea is a highly dynamic region in which the hydrological processes are mainly controlled by the entrance of the Atlantic Jet (AJ) through the Strait of Gibraltar. The biological patterns of the area are also related to this variability in which atmospheric pressure distributions and wind intensity and direction play major roles. In this work, we studied how changes in atmospheric forcing (from high atmospheric pressure over the Mediterranean to low atmospheric pressure) induced alterations in the physical and biogeochemical environment by re-activating coastal upwelling on the Spanish shore. The nursery area of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the NW Alboran Sea, confirmed to be the very coastal band around Malaga Bay, did not show any drastic change in its biogeochemical characteristics, indicating that this coastal region is somewhat isolated from the rest of the basin. Our data also suggests that anchovy distribution is tightly coupled to the presence of microzooplankton rather than mesozooplankton. Finally, we use detailed physical and biological information to evaluate a hydrological-biogeochemical coupled model with a specific hydrological configuration to represent the Alboran basin. This model is able to reproduce the general circulation patterns in the region forced by the AJ movements only including two variable external forcings; atmospheric pressure over the western Mediterranean and realistic wind fields.

  15. A real-time PCR assay to estimate invertebrate and fish predation on anchovy eggs in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, A.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of predation on eggs and larvae in the recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and 52 macrozooplankton taxa were assayed for anchovy remains in the gut during the 2010 spawning season using a molecular method. This real-time PCR based assay was capable of detecting 0.005. ng of anchovy DNA (roughly 1/100 of a single egg assay) in a reliable way and allowed detecting predation events up to 6. h after ingestion by small zooplankton taxa. A total of 1069 macrozooplankton individuals, 237 sardines and 213 sprats were tested. Both fish species and 32 macrozooplankton taxa showed remains of anchovy DNA within their stomach contents. The two main findings are (1) that the previously neglected macrozooplankton impact in anchovy eggs/larvae mortality is in the same order of magnitude of that due to planktivorous fishes and that, (2) the predation pressure was notably different in the two main spawning centers of Bay of Biscay anchovy. While relatively low mortality rates were recorded at the shelf-break spawning center, a higher predation pressure from both fish and macrozooplankton was exerted at the shelf one.

  16. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  17. Parallel genetic divergence among coastal-marine ecotype pairs of European anchovy explained by differential introgression after secondary contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moan, A; Gagnaire, P-A; Bonhomme, F

    2016-07-01

    Ecophenotypic differentiation among replicate ecotype pairs within a species complex is often attributed to independent outcomes of parallel divergence driven by adaptation to similar environmental contrasts. However, the extent to which parallel phenotypic and genetic divergence patterns have emerged independently is increasingly questioned by population genomic studies. Here, we document the extent of genetic differentiation within and among two geographic replicates of the coastal and marine ecotypes of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) gathered from Atlantic and Mediterranean locations. Using a genome-wide data set of RAD-derived SNPs, we show that habitat type (marine vs. coastal) is the most important component of genetic differentiation among populations of anchovy. By analysing the joint allele frequency spectrum of each coastal-marine ecotype pair, we show that genomic divergence patterns between ecotypes can be explained by a postglacial secondary contact following a long period of allopatric isolation (c. 300 kyrs). We found strong support for a model including heterogeneous migration among loci, suggesting that secondary gene flow has eroded past differentiation at different rates across the genome. Markers experiencing reduced introgression exhibited strongly correlated differentiation levels among Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. These results support that partial reproductive isolation and parallel genetic differentiation among replicate pairs of anchovy ecotypes are largely due to a common divergence history prior to secondary contact. They moreover provide comprehensive insights into the origin of a surprisingly strong fine-scale genetic structuring in a high gene flow marine fish, which should improve stock management and conservation actions.

  18. Volatile compounds of some popular Mediterranean seafood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. GIOGIOS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of highly commercialised fresh Mediterranean seafood species, including seven fish (sand-smelt Atherina boyeri, picarel Spicara smaris, hake Merluccius merluccius, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, bogue Boobps boops, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and striped-mullet Mullus barbatus, squid (Loligo vulgaris, shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, were evaluated by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and subsequent GC-MS analysis. A total of 298 volatile compounds were detected. The mussels contained the highest total concentration of volatile compounds, while pilchard among fish species contained the highest number and concentrations of volatile compounds. Individual patterns of volatile compounds have been distinguished. The fish species when compared to the shellfish species studied, contained 6 to 30 times more 1-penten-3-ol, higher quantities of 2-ethylfuran, and 2,3-pentanedione, which was absent from the shellfish species. Pilchard is characterized by a high concentration of alcohols, shrimps by the high presence of amines and S-compounds, while mussels by high amounts of aldehydes, furans, and N-containing compounds (pyridine, pyrazines and pyrrols. The fatty acid-originating carbonyl compounds in fish seem to be related to the species’ fat content.

  19. Spatial variations in feeding habits and trophic levels of two small pelagic fish species in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumolo, P; Bonanno, A; Barra, M; Fanelli, E; Calabrò, M; Genovese, S; Ferreri, R; Mazzola, S; Basilone, G

    2016-04-01

    Trophic ecology of adults of European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) was examined and compared among various regions of central Mediterranean Sea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were adopted as a tool to determine changes in feeding behaviour of adults of sardines and anchovies. In the study period (summer) a clear geographical pattern was recognized in the isotopic composition of both species, with an increasing trend northward. The highest variations in isotopic signal were linked to the geographical positions of the samples and, especially, between pairs of areas: South Sicily/South Campania and Gulf of Gaeta/South Elba. Higher isotope values were found in the anchovies and sardines caught in northern Tyrrhenian Sea, while lower values were mostly estimated in the southern region. Higher carbon and nitrogen isotopes may reflect a more coastal behaviour of both species, being (13)C-enriched source from benthic primary producers in addition to phytoplankton. Variations in the nitrogen isotope ratio may reflect not only differences in the trophic level of prey species, but also variations in the baseline level of food webs. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behaviour of both species is directly or indirectly influenced by local factors, or by resource partitioning based on zooplankton size. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis. PMID:26895386

  20. Detection of Anthropogenic Particles in Fish Stomachs: An Isolation Method Adapted to Identification by Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, France; Gilbert, Bernard; Eppe, Gauthier; Parmentier, Eric; Das, Krishna

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic particles (MP) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Ingestion combined with food intake is generally reported. However, data interpretation often is circumvented by the difficulty to separate MP from bulk samples. Visual examination often is used as one or the only step to sort these particles. However, color, size, and shape are insufficient and often unreliable criteria. We present an extraction method based on hypochlorite digestion and isolation of MP from the membrane by sonication. The protocol is especially well adapted to a subsequent analysis by Raman spectroscopy. The method avoids fluorescence problems, allowing better identification of anthropogenic particles (AP) from stomach contents of fish by Raman spectroscopy. It was developed with commercial samples of microplastics and cotton along with stomach contents from three different Clupeiformes fishes: Clupea harengus, Sardina pilchardus, and Engraulis encrasicolus. The optimized digestion and isolation protocol showed no visible impact on microplastics and cotton particles while the Raman spectroscopic spectrum allowed the precise identification of microplastics and textile fibers. Thirty-five particles were isolated from nine fish stomach contents. Raman analysis has confirmed 11 microplastics and 13 fibers mainly made of cellulose or lignin. Some particles were not completely identified but contained artificial dyes. The novel approach developed in this manuscript should help to assess the presence, quantity, and composition of AP in planktivorous fish stomachs. PMID:26289815

  1. Determining the causes behind the collapse of a small pelagic fishery using Bayesian population modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboadai, Fernando G; Anadón, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Small pelagic fish species present complex dynamics that challenge population biologists and prevent effective management. Huge fluctuations in abundance have traditionally been associated with external environmental forcing on recruitment, exempting other processes from contributing to fisheries collapse. On the other hand, theory predicts that density dependence and overexploitation can increase the likelihood of population oscillations. Here, we combined nonlinear population modeling with Bayesian analysis to examine the importance of different regulatory mechanisms on the collapse of European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. The approach relied on detailed population data and in a careful characterization of changes in the environment experienced by anchovy early stages based mainly on satellite remote sensing. Alternative hypotheses about external forcing on recruitment determined prediction skill and provided alternative interpretations of the causes behind the collapse. Density dependence was weak and unable to generate huge oscillations. Instead, models considering changes in phytoplankton phenology or in larval drift presented the best prediction skill. Nevertheless, an extensive surrogate analysis showed that environmental fluctuations alone barely explain anchovy collapse without considering the impact of fishing. Our results highlight the effectiveness of a Bayesian approach to analyze the dynamics and collapse of managed populations. PMID:27411258

  2. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  3. Levels of 210Po in some commercial fish species consumed in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey and the related dose assessment to the coastal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 210Po were determined in the edible muscle tissue of five species of marine fish: Sardine (Sardine plichardus) and Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata) collected from five stations in the Aegean Sea Region of Turkey during the fishery season 2010. The 210Po concentrations in the fish samples were found to vary from not detected levels to 389 ± 45 Bq kg−1 dry wt. These variations in 210Po content in different species are probably due to differences in metabolism and feeding patterns. The highest levels for 210Po were observed in Anchovy (E. encrasicolus) species. -- Highlights: ► This study was determined the 210Po levels in the fish. ► Different fish species were collected in the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea. ► Higher 210Po concentrations were found in Anchovy. ► The annual dose from the consumption of the fish samples was calculated. ► The ingestion dose was found in the range 0.041–14.66 μSv y−1

  4. Dose dependent oxidation kinetics of lipids in fish during irradiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tukenmez, I.; Ersen, M.S.; Bakioglu, A.T. [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Ankara (Turkey). Lalahan Nuclear Research Inst.; Bicer, A.; Pamuk, V. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Kinetic aspects of the development of lipid oxidation in complex foods as fish in the course of irradiation were analyzed with respect to the associated formation of malonaldehyde (MA) through the reactions modified so as to be consistent with those in complex foods as fish. Air-packed anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples in polyethylene pouches were irradiated at the doses of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15,20 and 25 kGy at 20{sup o} C in a Cs-137 gamma irradiator of 1.806 kGy/h dose rate. Immediately after each irradiation, MA contents of irradiated and unirradiated samples were determined by thiobarbituric acid test. Based on the MA formation, a kinetic model to simulate the apparent oxidation of lipid in fish as a function of irradiation dose was derived from the rate equations consistent with modified reactions. Kinetic parameters and simulation were related to conditions of lipid oxidation, and associated rancidity state of fish with respect to the doses applied in different irradiation-preservation processes. Numerical values of kinetic parameters based on the MA formation were found as a threshold dose of 0.375 kGy, an apparent yield of 1.871 {mu}mol/kg kGy, and a maximum attainable concentration of 15.853 {mu}mol/kg which may be used for process control and dosimetry. (author).

  5. RÉGIME ALIMENTAIRE DE LA GRANDE ALOSE ALOSA ALOSA (LINNÉ, 1766 ET DE L’ALOSE FEINTE ALOSA FALLAX (LACÉPÈDE, 1803 DANS LE GOLFE DE GASCOGNE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAVERNY C.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available L’examen de contenus stomacaux de 193 spécimens d’Alosa alosa (longueur totale Lt 181 à 538 mm / 2 à 4 ans et de 175 d’Alosa fallax (Lt 204 à 486 mm / 2 à 6 ans pêchés au niveau du plateau continental océanique français de l’Atlantique Ouest montre que les aloses sont en mer des prédateurs sélectifs d’espèces essentiellement pélagiques. A. alosa est à dominante zooplanctonophage. Les euphausiacés sont la composante alimentaire principale avec les copépodes, dans une moindre part. Les poissons avec l’anchois et le sprat (Engraulis encrasicolus et Sprattus sprattus restent des proies accidentelles toute l’année. A. fallax est nettement plus piscivore. L’anchois constitue sa proie préférentielle tout au long de l’année. Les euphausiacés, mieux représentés dans le bol alimentaire au moment du printemps, restent des proies secondaires. La saison d’alimentation la moins intense se situe en été chez les deux espèces, période où l’embonpoint des aloses chute. L’activité alimentaire de l’alose feinte montre une augmentation durant les 4 à 8 heures qui suivent le lever du soleil.

  6. Post-release feeding and growth of hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus: relevance to stocking effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, T; Watanabe, M; Kawata, G; Ebe, K

    2011-05-01

    The feeding and growth of hatchery-reared (HR) Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus of c. 100 mm total length (L(T) ) released off the coast of Fukushima, Japan, were investigated. From 2 to 15 days after release, the HR P. olivaceus frequently exhibited high empty-stomach frequency (>40%), low stomach-content mass (<1% of body mass), reduced somatic condition from release (c.-10%) and negligible growth. Thereafter, empty-stomach frequency decreased, the stomach-content mass of HR fish increased to 2-8% of body mass, the somatic condition recovered and growth rate increased to 0·5-1·5 mm day(-1) . Prey items were initially mysids, shifting thereafter to fishes such as the Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonica, as observed similarly in wild counterparts. The proportion of mysids decreased with time after release irrespective of size at release, indicating the importance of mysids for adaptation to natural food. Recapture rates at age 1 year, derived from fish market surveys, varied greatly among release years (4-11%). The variation in the recapture rates was largely accounted for by the post-release growth rates (r(2) = 0·5), suggesting a relationship between the post-release growth of HR fish and their survival and subsequent stocking effectiveness.

  7. Comparison of the effects of two bongo net mesh sizes on the estimation of abundance and size of Engraulidae eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies of ichthyoplankton retention by nets of different mesh sizes are important because they help in choosing a sampler when planning collection and the establishment of correction factors. These factors make it possible to compare studies performed with nets of different mesh sizes. In most studies of mesh retention of fish eggs, the taxonomic identification is done at the family level, resulting in the loss of detailed information. We separated Engraulidae eggs, obtained with 0.333 mm and 0.505 mm mesh bongo nets at 172 oceanographic stations in the southeastern Brazilian Bight, into four groups based on their morphometric characteristics. The difference in the abundance of eggs caught by the two nets was not significant for those groups with highest volume, types A and B, but in type C (Engraulis anchoita, the most eccentric, and in type D, of the smallest volume, the difference was significant. However, no significant difference was observed in the egg size sampled with each net for E. anchoita and type D, which exhibited higher abundance in the 0.333 mm mesh net and minor axis varying from 0.45-0.71 mm, smaller than the 0.505 mm mesh aperture and the mesh diagonal.

  8. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  9. Neural, cognitive, and neuroimaging markers of the suicidal brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobanski T

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Thomas Sobanski,1 Karl-Jürgen Bär,2 Gerd Wagner2 1Department of Psychiatry, Psychotherapy and Psychosomatic Medicine, Thüringen-Kliniken "Georgius Agricola" GmbH, Saalfeld, Germany; 2Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Psychiatric Brain and Body Research Group Jena, Jena University Hospital, Jena, GermanyAbstract: Suicidal behavior (SB is characterized by the occurrence of suicide attempts with substantial intent to die. SB is a major health problem worldwide. In the great majority of cases, SB occurs in patients suffering from psychiatric disorders, mainly from affective disorders or schizophrenia. Despite this high association, there is growing evidence from genetic studies that SB might represent a psychiatric condition on its own. This review provides an overview of the most significant neurobiological and neurocognitive findings in SB. We provide evidence for specific dysfunctions within the serotonergic system, for distinct morphological abnormalities in the gray and white matter composition as well as for neurofunctional alterations in the fronto-striatal network. Additionally, the putative role of impulsivity and hopelessness as trait-like risk factors for SB is outlined. Both the personality traits are associated with altered prefrontal cortex function and deficits in cognitive and affective control similar to the findings in SB. Given the difficulties of clinical risk assessment, there is a need to identify specific markers that can predict SB more reliably. Some recent neurocognitive and functional/structural neuroimaging findings might be appropriate to use as SB indicators in the close future.Keywords: suicidal behavior, biological markers, serotonin, hopelessness, impulsivity, major depressive disorder, fMRI, PET, SPECT

  10. Ein Versuch, Naturverhältnisse aus feministischer Sicht zu interpretieren

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Purgand

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem vorliegenden Sammelband Geschlechterverhältnisse – Naturverhältnisse wird nach dem innovativen Beitrag der feministischen Debatte für umweltsoziologisches Denken gefragt und nach Überschneidungen, Grenzen und Zwischenräumen zwischen „Geschlecht“ und „Natur“ gesucht. In ihm wird der lobenswerte Versuch unternommen, einen Zusammenhang zwischen Geschlechter- und Naturverhältnissen herzustellen „die in der Umweltsoziologie bislang stark vernachlässigte feministische Diskussion und Geschlechterforschung einzubeziehen und als genderbezogene Perspektive zu etablieren“. (S. 9 Das Buch enthält Beiträge von 15 Autorinnen, die unterschiedliche Natur- und Geschlechtsverhältnisse facettenreich, überwiegend kreativ und theoretisch anspruchsvoll betrachten. Das Buch enthält Zugänge aus der allgemeinen Soziologie, den Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften, aus politik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Zusammenhängen. Den ausdrücklich formulierten Anspruch, von multi- zu einer inter-disziplinären Durchdringung zu gelangen, erfüllt es nur in Ansätzen (besonders mit der Einleitung und den theoretischen Problemexplikationen. Das zustande gekommene „Nach-, Zusammen- und Querdenken“ über Begriffe, Theorien und neuere Forschungsansätze (von Foucault über Butler bis zu Donna Haraway belegt die Notwendigkeit, die naturwissenschaftlichen Annahmen „immanent zu dekonstruieren“. Sehr aufschlussreich sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Beiträge von Irmgard Schultz, Elvira Scheich, aber auch von Mary Mellor und besonders von Paula-Irene Villa, die interessante und kreative Gedanken zur Klärung des Verhältnisses von Natur, Kultur und Geschlecht anbieten. Deutlich wurde, dass weiterhin ein kontroverses Ringen um angemessene konzeptionelle Fassungen von Geschlechts- und Naturverhältnissen und die Integration von Gender als zentraler analytischer Querschnitts-Kategorie nötig sind. Insgesamt ist dem Buch ist eine schnelle Verbreitung und

  11. Interdisciplinary Approaches at Institutions of Higher Education: Teaching Information Systems Concepts to Students of Non-Computer Science Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schwald

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a curriculum development concept for teaching information systems content to students enrolled in non-computer science programs by presenting examples from the Business Administration programs at Albstadt-Sigmaringen University, a state university located in Southern Germany. The main focus of this paper therefore is to describe this curriculum development concept. Since this concept involves two disciplines, i.e. business administration and computer science, the author argues that it is necessary to define the roles of one discipline for the other and gives an example on how this could be done. The paper acknowledges that the starting point for the development of a curriculum such as one for a business administration program will be the requirements of the potential employers of the graduates. The paper continues to recommend the assignment of categorized skills and qualifications, such as knowledge, social, methodological, and decision making skills to the different parts of the curricula in question for the development of such a curriculum concept. After the mapping of skills and courses the paper describes how specific information systems can be used in courses, especially those with a specific focus on methodological skills. Two examples from Albstadt-Sigma-ringen University are being given. At the end of the paper the author explains the implications and limitations of such a concept, especially for programs that build on each other, as is the case for some Bachelor and Master programs. The paper concludes that though some elements of this concept are transferable, it is still necessary that every institution of higher education has to take into consideration its own situation to develop curricula concepts. It provides recommendations what issues every institution should solve for itself.

  12. Depositional environment, ichnological features and oxygenation of Permian to earliest Triassic marine sediments in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Uchman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Late Early Permian–lowermost Triassic carbonate, siliceous (spiculites and clastic marine sediments in the Marmierfjellet area (Isfjorden, central Spitsbergen contain a relatively diverse and abundant trace fossil assemblage providing important information about the depositional processes. The Vøringen Member (Late Artinskian–Kungurian of the Kapp Starostin Formation (Late Artinskian–? Changhsingian contains trace fossils (Nereites, Phycosiphon, Zoophycos and Arenicolites—common in tempestites typical of the proximal–archetypal Cruziana ichnofacies, which indicates lower shoreface. Nereites, Phycosiphon and Zoophycos, accompanied by other rare trace fossils, characterize the Svenskegga and Hovtinden members of the Kapp Starostin Formation. They are interpreted as the distal Cruziana ichnofacies, possibly transitional to the Zoophycos ichnofacies typical of the lower offshore zone. However, the sporadic occurrences of Arenicolites and Macaronichnus can point to episodic shallowing to upper offshore–lower shoreface. The lowest part of the Triassic Vikinghøgda Formation (Induan–Olenekian contains a very low-diverse ichnoassemblage composed of a few simple and branched forms ascribed to the impoverished Cruziana ichnofacies (lower to upper offshore environment, which is attributed to the early recovery stage after the Permian–Triassic extinction. The trace fossils and loss of primary sedimentary structures caused by intense bioturbation throughout most of the section point to generally oxygenated pore waters on the sea floor. However, some horizons, especially laminated black shales, display reduced or no bioturbational activity. These horizons also show high V/(V+Ni ratios, which indicate oxygen-depleted sediments with periods of anoxic conditions. A remarkable black shale unit deposited under anoxic and sulphidic conditions occurs at the Permian–Triassic transition.

  13. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  14. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  15. Utilization by fishes of the Alviso Island ponds and adjacent waters in south san francisco bay following restoration to tidal influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Mejia, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Earthen levees of three isolated salt ponds known locally as the Alviso Island Ponds were intentionally breached in March 2006 to allow tidal exchange of the ponds with water from Coyote Creek. The water exchange transformed the previously fishless hypersaline ponds into lower salinity habitats suitable for fish life. This study documented fish utilization of the ponds, adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek, and an upstream reach in nearby Artesian Slough during May-July 2006. By the time the study was initiated, water quality conditions in the ponds were similar to conditions in adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek. The only variable exhibiting a strong gradient within the study area was salinity, which increased progressively from upstream to downstream in Coyote Creek. A total of 4,034 fish represented by 18 species from 14 families was caught during the study. Judging from cluster analysis of presence-absence data that excluded rare fish species, the 10 sampling units (3 ponds, 6 reaches in Coyote Creek, and 1 reach in Artesian Slough) formed two clusters or groups, suggesting two species assemblages. The existence of two groups was also suggested by ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). One group, which was composed of the three ponds and four of the lowermost reaches of Coyote Creek, was characterized by mostly estuarine or marine species (e.g., topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis). The second group, which was composed of the two uppermost reaches of Coyote Creek and the one reach of Artesian Slough, was characterized by freshwater species (e.g., Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) and by an absence of the estuarine/marine species noted in the first assemblage. Judging from a joint plot of selected water quality variables overlaying the ordination results, salinity was the only important variable associated with spatial distribution of fish species. Water

  16. Mass-balance ecosystem model of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua Cheng; William W.L. Cheung; Tony J. Pitcher

    2009-01-01

    Using the Ecopath mass-balance trophodynamic model, this paper analyzed the trophic levels, flows, food web structure and ecosys-tem maturity of the East China Sea, and identified ecologically important functional groups in the ecosystem. The model is based on fishery resource surveys of the East China Sea in 2000, studies on diet composition and global databases such as FishBase and the Sea Around Us Project Database. The results showed that trophic levels of the functional groups are between 2.86 and 4.37, with an average of 3.32. Anchocy (Engraulis japonicus), small fishes and benthic crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs are important groups in terms of the trophic structure and flow dynamics in the East China Sea. Energy flows of most groups are between specific trophic levels, except file fish (Thamnaconus spp.), pomfret (Pampus spp.) and cephalopods. Trophic transfer efficiency of levels Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and more than Ⅴ are 11.8%, 21.1%, 17.4% and 22.1-22.5%, respectively. Effects of fishery-the largest 'consumer' of the ecosystem -are much stronger than those exerted by biological groups in the system. The model suggests that the current fishery can further reduce the complexity of the ecosystem. Evaluations of the system indices suggest that maturity of the ecosystem is low. The conclusion of this model indicates that it was the overfishing that caused the ecosystem of the East China Sea declined, which should be taken into account as a critical reference for fisheries management in the future.

  17. The impact of extreme turbidity events on the nursery function of a temperate European estuary with regulated freshwater inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortegón, E.; Subida, M. D.; Cuesta, J. A.; Arias, A. M.; Fernández-Delgado, C.; Drake, P.

    2010-04-01

    Estuaries are used as nursery grounds by numerous marine species despite being usually subject to strong anthropogenic disturbances. Abundances of marine recruits (fish and crustacean decapods) and their main prey (mysids) were monitored by monthly sampling, from June 1997 to February 2009, in the lower reaches of the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain). During that period, unusually high and persistent turbidity events (HPTEs) were observed twice. Both HPTEs started with strong and sudden freshwater discharges after relatively long periods of very low freshwater inflow. Data from this time-series were used to test the hypothesis that HPTEs may negatively impact the nursery function of estuaries either by decreasing prey availability or by decreasing survival/arrival of marine recruits. During HPTEs, the commonest mysid ( Mesopodopsis slabberi), a key species in the estuarine food web, showed a significant decrease in abundance. Likewise, some marine recruits that prey on M. slabberi and whose peaks of abundance within the estuary occur in summer-autumn ( Engraulis encrasicolus and Pomadasys incisus) were less abundant during HPTEs. It is also suggested that HPTEs might have triggered a shift in the distribution of the most euryhaline prey ( Neomysis integer) and predator ( Dicentrarchus punctatus and Crangon crangon) species, towards more saline waters. This could have contributed to an increase in the inter-specific competition (for food/habitat) within the estuarine nursery area. The results discussed in this study call attention to the need to reduce as much as possible the anthropogenic pressures that may stimulate the occurrence of high and persistent turbidity events (HPTEs) in order to preserve the nursery function of temperate estuaries.

  18. Dealing with the identification of protein species in ancient amphorae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Garnier, Nicolas; Casasola, Dario Bernal; Bonifay, Michel; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-03-01

    This manuscript deals with the identification of protein residues in amphorae, including particularly identification of protein species. The work described was performed on fishes, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and bonito (Sarda sarda) species frequently found in the Mediterranean area. Based on proteomic techniques, the analytical strategy was adapted to analysis of protein residues from tiny ceramic fragments. The major difficulty was to extract proteins and limit their hydrolysis during the sample preparation; consequently, multiple soft extraction techniques were evaluated. The most valuable results were obtained using a solution containing high amounts of denaturing agents, urea and thiourea, reducing agent, dithiothreitol, and detergent, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The analysis using nano liquid chromatography-nano electrospray ionization double quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of up to 200 proteins for the anchovy and bonito species, among which 73 peptides were found to be fish-specific. Because bonito and anchovy species are not documented and fully sequenced in genomic databases, the preliminary protein identification was realized via sequence homology to other fish sequenced species. Amino acid substitutions of peptides were assigned on the basis of the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry spectra using de novo sequencing; these peptides, not reported up to now in databases, constitute species-specific markers. The method developed was finally applied to an archaeological sample replica impregnated with a mixture of fish tissue from both species; this experiment successfully led to the identification of 17 fish proteins, including 33 fish-specific peptides. This work shows that the analytical method developed has great potential for the identification of protein species in complex archaeological samples. PMID:20890751

  19. Stay off the motorway: Resolving the pre-recruitment life history dynamics of the European anchovy in the SW Mediterranean through a spatially-explicit individual-based model (SEIBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Macías, Diego; Solé, Jordi; Ospina-Álvarez, Andrés; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-04-01

    We explore the underlying mechanisms of the early life history dynamics of the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the SW Mediterranean. By using a 3D ROMS hydrodynamic model coupled to an individual-based model (IBM) of the larval stages of the European anchovy, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) the plausible effective spawning zones (those generating late larvae to the known nursery grounds) are mainly found in the vicinity of Malaga Bay, as suggested by published empirical data; (2) the observed, back-calculated growth of larvae sampled in the nursery grounds can be reasonably simulated by a simple temperature-dependent growth model; and (3) the inclusion of biological behavior in the IBM significantly improves the match between the observed and modeled late-larval recruitment and/or growth patterns. We performed simulations for the peak spawning season in 2008, for which survey data were available, and an average climatological run. Hypothesis 1 was accepted, whereas hypothesis 2 resulted in a good imitation of anchovy growth only after 10 days post-hatch. The inclusion of an empirically derived equation for egg buoyancy in the model (hypothesis 3) resulted in a slight improvement of the model of late-larval recruitment patterns. Finally, our model was used to explore possible retention-based nursery areas in the whole Alboran Sea. Our simulations showed to agree well with the existing data both in the European and in the African coast and confer the physics a dominant role in shaping the spatial dynamics of early life stages of anchovy in the area.

  20. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker Develi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. These changes in food chain may promote the rise of jellyfishes rather than fish in the environment. In addition, decrease in planktivorous fish abundance as a consequence of overfishing also triggers the increase of newly introduced comb jellies, which were possibly introduced via ballast waters of ships, in the ecosystem. Increase in abundance of M. leidyi, which compete with planktivorous fishes (anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus in the Black Sea, kilka, Clupeonella spp. in the Caspian Sea for their food, causes to decrease of planktivorous fish stocks which have already been vulnerable due to overfishing. Another reason for successfully adaption of M. leidyi to its new ecosystems could be linked to global warming which provides favourable temperature ranges for reproduction and growth of this ctenophore. Although there are still many debates related to possible negative effects, one of the ways to reduce harmful impacts of invaders might be the transport of natural predators of these invaders to the new ecosystems of invaders. For example, it was reported that the abun¬dance of Mnemiopsis leidyi decreased to very low levels during 1999-2004 in the Black Sea following the introduction of another comb jelly, Beroe ovata, which feed on this ctenophore.

  1. Survey of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus in wild fishes in the southeastern Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogut, H; Altuntas, C

    2014-05-13

    Species diversity in the Black Sea ecosystem has been declining rapidly over the last 2 decades. To assess the occurrence and distribution of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) in various wild fish species, a wild marine fish survey was carried out in 2009, 2010, and 2011. The pooled or individual samples of kidney, liver, and spleen of 5025 specimens, belonging to 17 fish species, were examined virologically using cell culture. The cells showing cytopathic effects (CPE) were subjected to ELISA and multiplex reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-mPCR), for VHSV and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV), after blind passaging to determine the virus species causing CPE. The virus species and possibility of co-infection with IPNV were verified by the RT-mPCR developed in this study. Twelve species of fish (pontic shad Alosa immaculata, red mullet Mullus barbatus, three-bearded rockling Gaidropsarus vulgaris, black scorpionfish Scorpaena porcus, Mediterranean horse mackerel Trachurus mediterraneus, whiting Merlangius merlangus euxinus, stargazer Uranoscopus scaber, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, garfish Belone belone, round goby Neogobius melanostomus, thornback ray Raja clavata, and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus) tested positive for VHSV Genotype Ie (VHSV-Ie). Except whiting, pilchard, and round goby, the rest are new host records for VHSV. The extent and spread of VHSV-Ie was significantly higher among bottom fish than among pelagic fish. Sensitivity and specificity of the RT-mPCR developed was sufficiently high, suggesting that this assay may be used for both diagnostic and surveillance testing. According to the RT-mPCR results, IPNV was not present in wild fish. These results support the hypothesis that the VHSV-Ie genotype, highly prevalent among fish species in the Black Sea, may have a serious impact on the population dynamics of wild fish stocks. PMID:24991737

  2. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton–zooplankton–anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on 210Po, 210Pb activity concentrations and 210Po/210Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that 210Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while 210Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and 210Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence 210Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. - Highlights: • 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in plankton vary up to a factor of two in the Gulf of Lion (East vs West). • 210Po and 210Pb variability is connected to local specific pelagic habitats. • Bio-magnification of 210Po is evidenced in anchovy/sardine foodwebs

  3. A day in the life of fish larvae: modeling foraging and growth using quirks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus B Huebert

    Full Text Available This article introduces "Quirks," a generic, individual-based model synthesizing over 40 years of empirical and theoretical insights into the foraging behavior and growth physiology of marine fish larvae. In Quirks, different types of larvae are defined by a short list of their biological traits, and all foraging and growth processes (including the effects of key environmental factors are modeled following one unified set of mechanistic rules. This approach facilitates ecologically meaningful comparisons between different species and environments. We applied Quirks to model young exogenously feeding larvae of four species: 5.5-mm European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, 7-mm Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, 13-mm Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, and 7-mm European sprat (Sprattus sprattus. Modeled growth estimates explained the majority of variability among 53 published empirical growth estimates, and displayed very little bias: 0.65% ± 1.2% d(-1 (mean ± standard error. Prey organisms of ∼ 67% the maximum ingestible prey length were optimal for all larval types, in terms of the expected ingestion per encounter. Nevertheless, the foraging rate integrated over all favorable prey sizes was highest when smaller organisms made up >95% of the prey biomass under the assumption of constant normalized size spectrum slopes. The overall effect of turbulence was consistently negative, because its detrimental influence on prey pursuit success exceeded its beneficial influence on prey encounter rate. Model sensitivity to endogenous traits and exogenous environmental factors was measured and is discussed in depth. Quirks is free software and open source code is provided.

  4. First molecular identification of the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae in a paraffin-embedded granuloma taken from a case of human intestinal anisakiasis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palumbo Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anisakiasis is an important fish-borne zoonosis provoked by larval stages of nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis. The detection and identification of human infections is difficult. This is due to: a the low specificity of the clinical features and symptomatology related to human infections; b the paucity of diagnostic features of larvae found in granulomatous lesions characteristic of "invasive anisakiasis"; and c the lack morphological characters diagnostic at the specific level when larvae of Anisakis are detected. Thus, molecular-based diagnostic approaches are warranted. Method We have developed a PCR method that amplifies the DNA of Anisakis spp. in fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. This method was applied to a granuloma removed from a human case of intestinal anisakiasis in Italy. Specific primers of the mtDNA cox2 gene were used and sequence analysis was performed according to the procedures already established for species of Anisakis. Results The sequence obtained (629 bp was compared with those of the other species of Anisakis which have so far been genetically characterized and with sequences obtained from larval stages of Anisakis collected from the Mediterranean fish Engraulis encrasicolus. This enabled the genetic identification of the larva in the human tissue as A. pegreffii. This is the first instance of human intestinal anisakiasis diagnosed using PCR of DNA purified from a fixed eosinophilic granuloma embedded in paraffin. Conclusion The case of human anisakiasis presented reinforces the pathological significance of the species A. pegreffii to humans. The molecular/genetic methodological approach based on mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis, described here, can allow easy and rapid identification of Anisakis spp. in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues removed from cases of either gastric or intestinal human anisakiasis.

  5. Parallel genetic divergence among coastal-marine ecotype pairs of European anchovy explained by differential introgression after secondary contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moan, A; Gagnaire, P-A; Bonhomme, F

    2016-07-01

    Ecophenotypic differentiation among replicate ecotype pairs within a species complex is often attributed to independent outcomes of parallel divergence driven by adaptation to similar environmental contrasts. However, the extent to which parallel phenotypic and genetic divergence patterns have emerged independently is increasingly questioned by population genomic studies. Here, we document the extent of genetic differentiation within and among two geographic replicates of the coastal and marine ecotypes of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) gathered from Atlantic and Mediterranean locations. Using a genome-wide data set of RAD-derived SNPs, we show that habitat type (marine vs. coastal) is the most important component of genetic differentiation among populations of anchovy. By analysing the joint allele frequency spectrum of each coastal-marine ecotype pair, we show that genomic divergence patterns between ecotypes can be explained by a postglacial secondary contact following a long period of allopatric isolation (c. 300 kyrs). We found strong support for a model including heterogeneous migration among loci, suggesting that secondary gene flow has eroded past differentiation at different rates across the genome. Markers experiencing reduced introgression exhibited strongly correlated differentiation levels among Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. These results support that partial reproductive isolation and parallel genetic differentiation among replicate pairs of anchovy ecotypes are largely due to a common divergence history prior to secondary contact. They moreover provide comprehensive insights into the origin of a surprisingly strong fine-scale genetic structuring in a high gene flow marine fish, which should improve stock management and conservation actions. PMID:27027737

  6. Po 210 in the Turkish coast of the Aegean sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Po 210 is a natural radionuclide which constitutes the major source of natural radiation received by humans through the consumption of food and contributes more to the total radiation dose than environmental levels of anthropogenic radionuclides, such as Cs 137 and Pu 239, 240. For Turkish Coast of Aegean Sea Ecosystem, although there some investigations presently available on some natural radionuclides and gross radioactivity concentrations, data on Po 210 in the sea water, bottom sediment and marine biota are very scarce. The aim of the present study is to improve our knowledge about the levels of radioactive polonium along Aegean Turkish Coastal zone and also assess its enhancement from the fosil fuel industry like coal-fired power plants (CPPs), oil industry and from phosphate industry, all located along the coast and also from the discharge of a number streams and rivers in the region. This paper introduces an extensive set of data and related results on Po 210 in surface sea water, bottom sediments, fishes and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) obtained from 6 stations (Canakkale, Dikili, Foca, Ceshme, Didim and Bodrum) along the coast in the period of 2004-2005. In the bottom sediments, Po 210 concentration varies between 21±1 and 214±24 Bq kg-1 dry wt with an average value of 70±7 Bq kg-1. The concentrations in surface water of the sea during the sampling period are around 0.016±0.001 Bq l-1. Amongst the fishes, small pelagic plankton feding fish like anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardine plichardus) tend to accumulate more Po 210. The concentration of Po 210 in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) varies between 55±5 and 2288±124 Bq kg-1 which is in general higher than those given in literature for other countries. The highest Po 210 concentration belongs to Didim mussels for winter time with a shell length of 4-6 cm

  7. Analysis of the cultivable bacterial community in jeotgal, a Korean salted and fermented seafood, and identification of its dominant bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Ling; Cho, Kyeung Hee; Lee, Jong-Hoon

    2011-02-01

    Jeotgal or jeot, a traditional Korean salted and fermented food, is made by adding 20-30% (w/w) salt to various types of seafood. To develop a more complete overview of the bacterial community present in jeotgal, 610 pure colonies were isolated from Myeolchi-jeot and Saeu-jeot, the most commonly consumed varieties of jeotgal, which are made with anchovy (Engraulis japonicas) and tiny shrimp (Acetes japonicas), respectively. The bacterial isolates were identified by 16S rDNA sequence analysis. A total of 104 species comprising 47 genera and 31 previously unknown species were identified. Eleven genera were isolated from both jeotgal samples, including species in the genera Staphylococcus, Bacillus, Halomonas, and Kocuria, with Staphylococcus spp. constituting the highest number. The most populous genus detected in Myeolchi-jeot was Bacillus and its relatives, while the most populous in Saeu-jeot was Staphylococcus. These were isolated from both jeotgal samples, but their proportion in the bacterial community may be influenced by matrix composition and fermentation parameters. Among the proteolytic isolates, although Virgibacillus halodenitrificans KM2100 and Staphylococcus spp. maintained their growth in 20% NaCl, protease activities were not detected in these conditions. This suggests that bacteria are not the major source of the proteolytic enzyme involved in protein hydrolysis in high-salt-containing jeotgal. However, the Staphylococcus spp. isolated from Saeu-jeot were too numerous for us to ignore their possible role in jeotgal fermentation. Staphylococcus spp. may not be hugely involved in proteolysis, but they may play a significant role in the ripening of jeotgal. Bacteria of the genus Bacillus and its relatives and of the genus Staphylococcus may be the major organisms involved in jeotgal fermentation. PMID:21056781

  8. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  9. Lyd og billede i undervisningen – et uddannelsespolitisk aspekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Søren Kjærsgaard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Det sker ofte, når talen falder på teknik, herunder lyd og video i undervisningen, at de tekniske aspekter kommer i fokus så som; hvad er teknisk muligt, og hvilke platforme kan det bruges på osv.? Det er selvsagt vigtige spørgsmål. Men det må ikke skygge for andre synsvinkler, herunder de ergonomiske , for eksempel hvordan anvendelse af lyd og video påvirker deltagerne i undervisning, underviseren og selve læringen. I denne artikel vil jeg fremdrage en tredje synsvinkel, nemlig den politiske. Anvendelse af undervisningsteknologi i bredeste forstand er - som al anden teknologi - ikke værdineutral. Den kan anvendes til at fremme eller bremse nogle mål, som samfundets beslutningstagere, det være sig politikere, interesseorganisationer og i sidste instans os alle, har. Den politiske synsvinkel spiller også en rolle i henseende til, hvordan de nævnte parter, undervisere og underviste, agerer. Baggrunden for denne artikel er et forsøg, som jeg som studieleder for et mindre sprogfag, fransk, har taget initiativ til eller medvirket i med henblik på at forny faget og med henblik på såvel at tiltrække studerende som at gøre det muligt for flere at studere dette fag. Disse forsøg beskrives i artiklen med kortfattede tekniske specifikationer og i forhold til den politiske synsvinkel. I betydeligt omfang har disse initiativer været en fiasko i den forstand, at de ikke har ført til det tilsigtede resultat - i hvert fald ikke umiddelbart og på kort sigt. Det gælder ikke mindst, fordi det politiske system ikke har villet eller ikke har kunnet se formålet hermed. Jeg foreslår i artiklen at tolke dette resultat som en konflikt mellem en række modsatrettede politiske dagsordener.

  10. The new German Recycling and Waste management Act (KrWG). Chances and perspectives for the secondary raw materials industry; Das neue Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz. Chancen und Perspektiven fuer die Sekundaerrohrstoffwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, Burkhard [Bundesverband Sekundaerrohstoffe und Entsorgung e.V. (BVSE), Bonn (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    After long discussions concerning wordings, the new German Act on Recycling and Waste Management (KrWG) came into force with the decision of the arbitration panel of 8 February 2012 and the agreement of the German Bundestag and Bundesrat. It took more than two years from the first draft to the new act, and discussions and lawsuits can be expected to continue. The new act still follows the structure of its predecessor, but private industries, especially medium-sized ones, have not been given sufficient scope for action. Politicians were unable to find a fair balance between private and communal interests. Now, with the introduction of a new standard recycling bin, the legislator is held to take account of the interests of the private waste management industry, whose labour and innovative power made a decisive contribution to the success of waste management and recycling in Germany. (orig.) [German] Der letzte Schlusspunkt ist nach zaehem Ringen um einzelne Formulierungen des Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetzes (KrWG) mit dem Beschluss des Vermittlungsausschusses am 8. Februar 2012 und mit der anschliessenden Zustimmung des Deutschen Bundestages sowie des Bundesrates gesetzt worden. Damit sind seit dem ersten Arbeitsentwurf des Bundesministeriums fuer die Novellierung des Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallrechts mehr als zwei Jahre vergangen, und es bedarf keiner hellseherischen Faehigkeiten um vorherzusagen, dass die Auseinandersetzung ueber einzelne Bestimmungen und nachrangige Verordnungen des Gesetzes vor Gericht und in der Politik noch lange nicht ihren Abschluss gefunden hat. Trotz aller Diskussionen waehrend des Gesetzgebungsverfahrens sind die wesentlichen Grundstrukturen des alten Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes auch im neuen KrWG erhalten geblieben. Der Privatwirtschaft, vor allem in der Breite aus vielen mittelstaendischen Unternehmen bestehend, ist jedoch nicht genuegend Handlungsspielraum gewaehrt worden. Der Politik ist es nicht gelungen, einen fairen

  11. Universell utforming og den vanskelige avgrensingen av «alle»

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    Lars Christian Risan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Universell utforming er et prinsipp hvor målsetningen er at «utforming av produkter og omgivelser [skal skje] på en slik måte at de kan brukes av alle mennesker, i så stor utstrekning som mulig, uten behov for tilpassing og en spesiell utforming.» (Aslaksen mfl, 1997, den første norske definisjonen I løpet av de siste 15 årene har dette prinsippet blitt fremmet i Norge som et utvetydig fremskritt. Det kan imidlertid være farlig å tro at en ren teknisk løsning kan bygge bro over politiske kontroverser (Imrie 2012, og i denne artikkelen vil vi vise hvordan viktige ideologiske premisser er skjult under paraplyen om universalitet. Vårt empiriske felt er norsk boligpolitikk fra etterkrigstiden og fram til i dag. Innenfor dette feltet ser vi at det har vært argumentert for ulike versjoner av «universell utforming» de siste 40 årene, selv om navnet «universell utforming» er av nyere dato. Vi vil vise hvordan prinsippet har endret seg fra å ha et sosialdemokratisk innhold – før det ble omdøpt til «universell utforming» – for å bli inkorporert i et nyliberalt boligpolitisk paradigme de siste 15 årene. De sosialdemokratiske forgjengerne til «universell utforming» ble til dels formulert som videreutviklinger av en boligpolitikk for sosial rettferdighet og økonomisk likhet. Med innføringen av begrepet «universell utforming» har denne brede sosiale rammen forsvunnet, men under dekke av universalitet og entydig framskrittsoptimisme har denne politiske endringen blitt underkommunisert.[i] [i] Prosjektet er finansiert av Husbanken. Prosjektmedarbeiderne har bestått av NIBR-forskerne Erik Henningsen, Siri Nørve og Lars Risan. Underveis har disse forskerne intervjuet og snakket med en rekke personer innenfor feltene funksjonshemming- og boligpolitikk. Vi takker også Jon Guttu, Olav Rand Bringa, Tore Lange for mange konstruktive innspill. 

  12. Digital storytelling in teacher education: A meaningful way of integrating ICT in ESL teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Mørk Røkenes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hensikten med denne studien er å utforske hvordan bruken av digitale fortellinger i lærerutdanningen kan bidra til å utvikle lektorstudenters digitale kompetanse og fremme innovativ bruk av IKT i engelskundervisningen. Gjennom bruken av kasusstudie og en design-basert forskningstilnærming beskriver denne studien to gjennomføringer og design-sykluser av et verksted med bruk av digitale fortellinger ved en norsk lærerutdanning hvor det overordnede målet var å vise innovative og hensiktsmessige måter å integrere IKT i engelskundervisningen. En digital kompetansemodell er brukt som linse i dataanalysen hvor datamaterialet kommer fra en kvantitativ spørre-undersøkelse, feltobservasjoner, refleksjonslogger, digitale artefakter og semi-strukturerte intervjuer. Studiens funn viser en rekke tilnærmingsmåter som kan tas i bruk i gjennomføringen av verksted i digitale fortellinger, slik som modellering av integrering av IKT og vurdering med IKT, stillasbygging ved studentaktive læringsopplevelser med IKT, og brobygging mellom teori og praksis gjennom refleksjon. Implikasjoner for lærerutdanningen blir diskutert.Nøkkelord: profesjonsfaglig digital kompetanse, digitale fortellinger, lærer-studenter, lærerutdannere, lærerutdanning, engelsk fagdidaktikkAbstractThe purpose of this study is to examine how the use of digital storytelling (DST in teacher education can help develop digital competence in secondary school English as a second language (ESL student teachers, and promote the innovative use of information and communications technology (ICT in ESL teaching. Following a case methodology and a design-based research approach, the study reports on two iterative design cycles of a DST workshop held at a Norwegian teacher education program where the aim was to promote secondary ESL student teachers’ digital competence and showcase innovative ways of integrating ICT into ESL teaching. A digital competence model is used as a research lens

  13. An observing system for the collection of fishery and oceanographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Falco

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fishery Observing System (FOS was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP. The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters also represents a crucial point towards forecasting. Eight fishing vessels were progressively equipped with FOS instrumentation to collect fishery and oceanographic data. The vessels belonged to different harbours of the Central and Northern Adriatic Sea. For this pilot application, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L. was chosen as the target species. Geo-referenced catch data, associated with in-situ temperature and depth, were the FOS products but other parameters were associated with catch data as well. MFSTEP numerical circulation models provide many of these data. In particular, salinity was extracted from re-analysis data of numerical circulation models. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll were also used as independent variables. Catch and effort data were used to estimate an abundance index (CPUE – Catch per Unit of Effort. Considering that catch records were gathered by different fishing vessels with different technical characteristics and operating on different fish densities, a standardized value of CPUE was calculated. A spatial and temporal average CPUE map was obtained together with a monthly mean time series in order to characterise the variability of anchovy abundance during the period of observation (October 2003–August 2005. In order to study the relationship between abundance and oceanographic parameters, Generalized Additive Models (GAM were used. Preliminary results revealed a complex scenario: the southern sector of the domain is characterised by a stronger relationship than the central and northern sector where the interactions between the environment and the anchovy

  14. A shift in the dominant toxin-producing algal species in central California alters phycotoxins in food webs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jester, R.; Lefebvre, K.; Langlois, G.; Vigilant, V.; Baugh, K.; Silver, M.W.

    2009-01-01

    In California, the toxic algal species of primary concern are the dinoflagellate Alexandrium catenella and members of the pennate diatom genus Pseudo-nitzschia, both producers of potent neurotoxins that are capable of sickening and killing marine life and humans. During the summer of 2004 in Monterey Bay, we observed a change in the taxonomic structure of the phytoplankton community-the typically diatom-dominated community shifted to a red tide, dinoflagellate-dominated community. Here we use a 6-year time series (2000-2006) to show how the abundance of the dominant harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in the Bay up to that point, Pseudo-nitzschia, significantly declined during the dinoflagellate-dominated interval, while two genera of toxic dinoflagellates, Alexandrium and Dinophysis, became the predominant toxin producers. This change represents a shift from a genus of toxin producers that typically dominates the community during a toxic bloom, to HAB taxa that are generally only minor components of the community in a toxic event. This change in the local HAB species was also reflected in the toxins present in higher trophic levels. Despite the small contribution of A. catenella to the overall phytoplankton community, the increase in the presence of this species in Monterey Bay was associated with an increase in the presence of paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) toxins in sentinel shellfish and clupeoid fish. This report provides the first evidence that PSP toxins are present in California's pelagic food web, as PSP toxins were detected in both northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax) and Pacific sardines (Sardinops sagax). Another interesting observation from our data is the co-occurrence of DA and PSP toxins in both planktivorous fish and sentinel shellfish. We also provide evidence, based on the statewide biotoxin monitoring program, that this increase in the frequency and abundance of PSP events related to A. catenella occurred not just in Monterey Bay, but also

  15. Studies on the Community Structures of Meiofauna and Marine Nematode at Six Stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; ZHANG Zhinan; LIU Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162± 0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum2.35 g dwtm-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537 g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified.Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 indm-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from 0.01μg to 31.32μg with an average of 0.261μg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp. 1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (H), evenness index (J) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdφ). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  16. Abrupt shifts in the fish community of the hydrologically variable upper estuary of the Swan River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanandjembo, A. N.; Potter, I. C.; Platell, M. E.

    2001-09-01

    Fish were sampled in nearshore, shallow waters (fish species caught during the study spawn in the upper estuaries. These species, which include the semi-anadromous Nematalosa vlaminghi, comprised 50·0% of the number of species and 88·8% of the number of fish in shallow waters and 43·8 and 89·9%, respectively, of those in deeper waters. The two most abundant species in shallow waters, Engraulis australis and N. vlaminghi, contributed 36·0 and 19·6%, respectively, to the total numbers of fish in those waters, and the latter species comprised nearly 50% of the catch in deeper waters. During winter, when freshwater discharge increased sharply and salinities declined precipitously, the number of species and abundance of fish in shallow and deeper waters were generally at their lowest and the species composition was the most discrete. This reflected the downstream movement out of the upper estuary of substantial numbers of individuals of species such as N. vlaminghi, Acanthopagrus butcheri, Amniataba caudavittata, Atherinomorus ogilbyi, Atherinosoma elongata and Craterocephalus mugiloides and the upstream movement into the upper estuary of juvenile Mugil cephalus. The overall fish fauna then changed quite abruptly in spring, when large N. vlaminghi, A. butcheri and A. caudavittata became abundant as they migrated into the upper estuary where they then spawned. During summer and autumn, the fauna in the shallows then changed more gradually through, inter alia, the recruitment of juvenile fish community in winter contrasts with the gradual, cyclical changes undergone during the year by the ichthyofaunas of holarctic, macrotidal estuaries, such as the Severn Estuary in the UK, in which the hydrology does not undergo such sudden, extreme seasonal changes and the ichthyofauna is dominated by marine and diadromous species that each enter the estuary at specific, but varying times of the year. Differences between the fish faunas of the shallow waters of the Swan and

  17. Are tidal lagoons ecologically relevant to larval recruitment of small pelagic fish? An approach using nutritional condition and growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chícharo, M. A.; Amaral, A.; Faria, A.; Morais, P.; Mendes, C.; Piló, D.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Chícharo, L.

    2012-10-01

    There are numerous studies dealing with larvae of Small Pelagic Fish (SPF), but only a few have actually addressed advanced larval phases. Temperate coastal lagoons are particularly understudied, due to the absence of standard method to capture advanced larval fish in these near shore shallow habitats. Accordingly, this study aims to describe abundances, nutritional condition and in situ growth of post-flexion (SPF) from the Ria Formosa, a tidal coastal lagoon in southern Portugal. The nutritional condition and in situ growth were determined through cohort analysis and standardized RNA:DNA ratio (sRD), complemented with feeding incidence (gut content) and fatty acids (FAs, trophic biomarkers) of postflexion larvae sampled sequentially with light traps, from spring 2005 to summer 2006. Simultaneously, environmental parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were measured. Post-larvae of SPF were captured through the year in important numbers. The dominant species were Sardina pilchardus (50.7%), Engraulis encrasicolus and Atherina presbyter (11.4%). These results are distinct from those based on adult/juvenile surveys or early planktonic phases in the Ria Formosa where clupeiformes were occasionally reported. Sardines were captured mainly in winter, spring and early summer and anchovies mainly during summer and autumn. Sand smelt, a resident species, was present throughout the year. In the early summer, the three species were present and during this period some diet overlapping occurred, the feeding incidence of the clupeiformes was very low, but atherinids always exhibited full guts reflecting the different gut morphology or indicating different life-cycle strategies. The bulk of the diet was mollusks, crustaceans and appendicularians, for sand smelts, sardines and anchovies, respectively. The results of FA analyses showed some contribution of phytoplankton to SPF in the area. All SPF exhibited higher condition (sRD) and

  18. Marine bird aggregations associated with the tidally-driven plume and plume fronts of the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamon, Jeannette E.; Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Guy, Troy J.

    2014-09-01

    tidal plume and plume front to enter the ocean. Because murres and shearwaters eat primarily planktivorous fish such as the northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), aggregation of these birds in the plume supports the hypothesis that it is the plume region as a whole, and not just the plume fronts, which enhances trophic transfer to piscivorous predators via planktivorous fishes.

  19. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  20. Studies on the community structures of meiofauna and marine nematode at six stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhinan; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162±0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum 2.35g dwt m-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified. Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 ind m-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2 cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from O.Ol µg to 31.32f*g with an average of 0.261 µg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp.1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (J), evenness index (d) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdø). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  1. Anisákiasis en pescados frescos comercializados en el norte de Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela de la Torre Molina

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La anisakiasis es una zoonosis parasitaria producida por larvas vivas de nematodos de la Familia Anisakidae, que se localizan en la cavidad corporal y el sistema muscular de peces teleósteos y moluscos cefalópodos. El hombre las ingiere accidentalmente al consumir pescado infestado crudo o poco cocinado. El cuadro clínico está caracterizado por síndrome gástrico-intestinal. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer la frecuencia de parasitación por larvas de anisákidos en pescados frescos comercializados en el norte de la provincia de Córdoba. Métodos: Durante un período de 9 meses se tomaron muestras de las especies más comercializadas de pescados marinos en todas los establecimientos del sector. El análisis parasitológico se realizó en el Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Peñarroya mediante el método de la disección. Se analizaron un total de 1.261 muestras de 18 especies distintas. Resultados: La frecuencia total de parasitación fue del 15,8%. La especie más parasitada fue la bacaladilla (Micromesistius poutassou, con un porcentaje de parasitación del 42%, y se detectaron también larvas de Anisakidos en: pijota (Merlucius merlucius un 27,5%, pescadilla (Merlucius sp. un 26%, Caballa (Scomber scombrus un 20,6%, brótola (Phycis blennoides un 6,2%, boquerón (Engraulis encrasicolus un 5,6% y faneca (Trisopterus luscus un 5,5% de muestras parasitadas. La distribución mensual de los resultados refleja un aumento de la parasitación en los meses de primavera, descendiendo progresivamente hasta los últimos meses del año. Conclusiones: Existe una incidencia significativa de infestación por anisakidos en las especies de pescados comercializadas en el norte de Córdoba. No obstante, la dificultad para detectar el parásito, la valoración imprecisa del grado de parasitación tolerable o inaceptable que señala el marco normativo, la circunstancia de que algunos platos tradicionales elaborados con pescado crudo

  2. 广西猫儿山自然保护区蜻蜒目昆虫初步研究%A Preliminary Study of Odonata in Mao'er Mt.Nature Reserve of Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春文; 杨瑞刚; 陈嫒; 张兵兰; 黄建华; 周善义

    2012-01-01

    All the odonate specimens in the Insect Collections of Guangxi Normal University were studied and identified. The result shows that all specimens belong to 57 species,40 genera, 12 families and 2 suborders from Mao'er Mt. Nature Reserve of Guangxi. Among them,4 genera and 19 species were newly recorded in Guangxi. The 4 newly recorded genera are: Cephalaeschna Selys, Somatochlora Selys, Asi-agomphus Asahina,and Amphigomphus Chao. The 19 newly recorded species are: Orthetrum testaceum Burmeister,Orthetrum lineostigma Serlys,Sympetrum ruptum Needham,Sympetrum kunckeli Selys, Lyrio-themis flava Oguma, Zygonyx iris insignis Kirby, ldionyx victor Hamalainen, Somatochlora dido Need-ham , Anotogaster kuchenbiseri Foerster, Cephalaeschna acutifrons Martin, Gynacantha bayadera Selys, Planaeschna shanxiensis Zhu et Zhang, Asiagomphus hainanensis Chao, Asiagomphus pacificus Chao, Lamelligomphus ringens Needham, Amphigomphus hansoni Chao, Gomphidia kelloggi Needham, Mnais andersoni McLachlan, and Coeliccia sexmaculata Wang. The analytical result of species component shows that Libellulidae,Aeshnidae,Gomphinae,Gomphinae are dominant families. According to the fauna analysis, there were 6 distribution patterns in the world animal geographic fauna distribution and 12 distribution patterns in Chinese animal geographic fauna. The result also shows that the oriental species,the oriental and palearctic species were the principal part in Mao'er Mt.. Meanwhile,the odonata in South China, Central China,North China and Southwest China have the most closely relationship with others.%对广西师范大学昆虫标本室收藏的广西猫儿山蜻蜒目昆虫标本进行鉴定,共57种,隶属于2亚目12科40属,其中4属19种为广西新记录.4个广西新记录属是:金光伪蜻属Somatochlora Selys、头蜒属Cephalaeschna Selys、亚春蜒属Asiagomphus Asahina、安春蜒属Amphigomphus Chao.19个广西新记录种是:黄翅灰蜻Orthetrum testaceum Burmeister

  3. Species composition and distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton within and outside artificial reefs in Laizhou Bay%莱州湾人工鱼礁区及附近海域鱼卵和仔稚鱼的种类组成与数量分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高东奎; 赵静; 张秀梅; 张沛东; 李文涛

    2014-01-01

    In fishery research, the study of ichthyoplankton is important in evaluating the ecological restorative effect of artificial reefs. During 2010 and 2011, the species composition and distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton on two arti-ficial reefs in the Laizhou and Zhaoyuan area and in Laizhou Bay were investigated to provide reference data for re-search on the fish attraction and ichthyoplankton shelter effects of artificial reefs. Within the Laizhou (37°15′-37°18′N, 119°49′-119°53′E) and Zhaoyuan (37°31′-37°33′N, 120°11′-120°13′E) investigation areas, six sampling stations were established inside the artificial reef areas and, as references, three and one stations were established outside the reef areas, respectively. The distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton were investigated by horizontal tows associated with vertical tows via a zooplankton net (145 cm in length, mouth diameter 50 cm, and mouth area 0.2 m2). The horizontal tows were carried out at a speed of 2.0 nmile/h for 10 min at the sea surface, while the vertical tows were carried out from the bottom to the surface at a speed of 0.5 m/s at each sampling station. The results indicated that 16088 eggs and 2487 fish larvae, belonging to seven orders, 14 families, 19 genera and 19 species, were collected in 2010. Among fish eggs, the majority were Clupeiformes, followed by Mugiliformes. Among fish larvae, the majority were Mugiliformes samples, followed by Beloniformes. In 2011, 9 948 eggs and 1 778 fish larvae, belonging to four orders, 14 families, 21 genera and 21 species, were collected, of which the majority were Perciformes for both fish eggs and larvae, followed by Clupeiformes. The unique dominant fish egg species in both the Laizhou and Zhaoyuan investigation area was En-graulis japonicus. Sphyraena pinguis had the highest dominance but was not the dominant fish larval species in the two areas. Ichthyoplankton community stability was greater in summer, followed by spring

  4. Evidence of parapox-, alphaherpes- and pestivirus infections in carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus from Finnmark, Norway

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    Morten Tryland

    2005-03-01

    alfaherpes- og pestivirus i blod(serologi og tilstedeværelse av parapoxvirus-DNA i vev (Polymerase kjedereaksjon, PCR; parapoxvirus B2L genet. Obduksjonen viste at 39 av de 48 dyrene (81% hadde dødd av avmagring. Parapoxvirus-spesifikt DNA ble funnet i prøver av lever, spyttkjertel (Gl. parotis og/eller lungelymfeknuter fra 6 av de 48 dyrene (12,5%. En DNA sekvens på 376 basepar fra PCR-oppformeringsproduktet fra en leverprøve hadde 98-99% likhet med orf-virus (Orf-11 og parapoxvirus isolert fra reinsdyr i Norge og Finland (1992 og 1994, 92-93% likhet med pseudocowpoxvirus og 87% likhet med bovint papulær stomatittvirus, hvorav de to siste parapoxvirusartene er assosiert med storfé. Disse resultatene viser at også reinsdyr i Finnmark er infisert av parapoxvirus, til tross for at sykdommen munnskurv ikke ennå er rapportert hos rein i dette fylket. Alfaherpes- og pestivirus antistoffer ble funnet hos henholdsvis 10% og 33% av dyrene. Dette er i samsvar med tidligere funn på slaktedyr, og viser at disse virusinfeksjonene er endemiske hos rein i Finnmark. Det er viktig å avklare hvilken rolle disse virusinfeksjonene spiller for reinsdyrenes helse og næringens økonomi. Videre bør det avklares i hvilken grad disse virustypene er i stand til å smitte mellom rein og husdyr.

  5. Lesson Study og lærerstudenters fokus på elevers læring i veiledningssamtaler

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    Raymond Bjuland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Søkelyset settes her på norsk lærerutdanning og på grunnskolelærerstudenters veiledningssamtaler i praksisopplæring hvor Lesson Study ble innført som arbeidsmetode. Analysen fra studentenes veiledningssamtaler forsøker å identifisere muligheter og begrensninger ved innføring av Lesson Study der samtalefokus er elevers læring knyttet til et bestemt tema i en forskningstime. Et teoretisk og analytisk rammeverk benyttes (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000 for å identifisere elevsentrerte, kunnskapssentrerte, vurderingssentrerte og felleskapssentrerte ytringer i veiledningssamtalene. Slike ytringer blir knyttet til tre sentrale aspekter ved planlegging og gjennomføring av en forskningstime i en Lesson Study syklus: Elevobservasjon, prediksjon og forskningsspørsmål. Resultater fra analysene av veiledningssamtaler fra to studentgrupper tilknyttet naturfag og matematikk viste store forskjeller med tanke på gruppenes planlegging av en Lesson Study syklus. Studentene i matematikk valgte å legge opp undervisningen ut ifra lærebokens nivåinndeling av lærestoffet, noe som ser ut til å virke hemmende med tanke på elevobservasjon og prediksjon knyttet til det faglige emnet. Studentene i naturfag var mye mer opptatt av å formulere gode læringsmål og forskningsspørsmål. I denne veiledningssamtalen var det også et tydelig fokus på prediksjon samt aktiv elevobservasjon under gjennomføringen av undervisningsøkten. Resultater fra denne studien påpeker behov for et grundig forarbeid på campus av faglærere ved utdanningsinstitusjonen slik at studentene får muligheten til å forberede en Lesson Study syklus der forskningsspørsmål, elevobservasjon og prediksjon er sentrale hovedmomenter som løftes fram. Videre er det behov for et godt samarbeid mellom faglærere og praksislærere ved skolene for at implementering av Lesson Study skal være vellykket.Abstract In this article, we present a study of field practice during Initial

  6. Professional Feedback Loop: How Can Practising Teachers’ Reflection Inform English Language Teacher Education?

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    Mona Evelyn Flognfeldt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen presenterer en studie av den type læring praktiserende engelsklærere i norsk grunnskole selv rapporterer etter et års videreutdanningsstudium i engelsk. Et pedagogisk utviklingsprosjekt på egen skole inngikk som en sentral del av studiet. Studien gir et innblikk i hvilke aspekter ved skolefaget engelsk som erfarne lærere definerer som hoved­utfordringer i undervisningen og utbyttet de har hatt av prosjektene sine. Artikkelen bygger på data fra den kritiske refleksjonen som lærerne gir uttrykk for mot slutten av prosjektene sine. På bakgrunn av kvalitativ innholdsanalyse av prosjektrapportene identifiseres vesentlige felles språkdidaktiske elementer i lærernes konseptualisering av sin egen rolle og egne prioriteringer overfor elevenes læring. Denne typen lærerforskning kan få viktige følger for opplæringen i studiefaget engelsk i lærerutdanningen. Relevante forestillinger blant praktiserende lærere kan kanaliseres tilbake til lærerutdanningen for på den måten å mediere studentenes profesjonsforberedelse og deres framtidige arbeid som engelsklærere. Sentrale språkdidaktiske tema blir trukket fram, som i sin tur kan fungere som analytiske begreper og verktøy for engelskstudentene i forberedelsen til de komplekse praktiske utfordringer i klasse­rommet. Kontakt med denne typen forskning på egen undervisning som erfarne lærere har gjennomført med fokus på det de opplever som engelskfaglige utfordringer, kan hjelpe lærerstudentene til å knytte sammen teori og praksis og bidra til å senke deres affektive filter når de starter som lærere. Denne artikkelen munner ut i en diskusjon om hvilke former denne tilbakemeldingen fra praksisfeltet kan ta.Nøkkelord: utdanning av engelsklærere, profesjonsutvikling, læreres forskning, læreres læring, språkdidaktikkAbstractThis article presents a study of the learning reported by practising teachers of English in Norwegian primary and lower secondary schools

  7. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

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    Cameron M. Bell

    2010-03-01

    rein fra Sør-Georgia i 2001 ut fra en målsetting om å 1 bevare genetiske ressurser fra minst en av de to reinflokkene, og 2 øke mulighetene innenfor landbrukssektoren på Falklandsøyene ved å etablere en kommersiell reinflokk der. Overføringen ble utført med metoder som hadde vist seg formålstjenlige ved flytting og nylokalisering av kalver i Nord-Amerika. Totalt ble 59 kalver overført i 2001 derav 26 hunndyr. De overførte reinene produserte kalver i 2003. God driftspraksis og biologisk og atferdsmessig forståelse var viktig for en vellykket overføring.

  8. Mõisakingsepa isikukogemuse lugu Rõngu kirikuraamatus ja muistendikogumikes

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    Mare Kalda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Next to folklore archives and outside the oral circulation, folklore texts can also be found in quite different narrative sources. In addition to church documents and other information, the church registers of the historical parish of Rõngu from 1710-1742 include some recorded materials which could be categorised as legends and a memorate. One of the texts is a local place legend, a story how Lake Andresjärv (lit. ‘Lake of Andres’, a small inland body of water, got its name. Recorded material on the legend of Andresjärv has been analysed using the historical research method by Jürgen Beyer in his article published in 2003. Renditions of incidents associated with the Tödvens and the Tiesenhausens, once renowned families of nobility of Rannu [Randen in German] and Rõngu [Ringen in German], have been included in more recent folklore collections and the topic has been discussed in the Estonian written press in the 1920s. Furthermore, the church records of Rõngu include the tale of suffering of Torsten Grön, a Swedish manor cobbler, who lived in the late 17th century. In his youth, the man had lived and worked in Lithuania and had come upon a hidden treasure. Years later, after he had settled in Livonia, this past experience was forced upon the cobbler by haunting women who danced and tormented him in the manor hall at nights. As a result, Grön fell ill and died. Before his death he had promised a considerable donation to the local church, but his fortune was nowhere to be found. All the tales were published in 1764 in the cultural and academic journal Gelehrte Beyträge zu den Rigischen Anzeigen. The materials held in the Folklore Archives and a few legend anthologies give some idea of the fate of the tales in time and under new circumstances, which is one of the research aspects of the article. The legend of Andresjärv was published in several editions of M. J. Eisen’s book Esivanemate varandus (‘Forefathers’ Treasure’ and

  9. Approaches to estimate body condition from slaughter records in reindeer

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    Anna Olofsson

    2008-12-01

    ända rutinregistreringar och extra registreringar vid slakt som konditionsindikatorer och därmed indikatorer för betestillstånd i sommarland inom rennäringen. Registreringar från 696 renar, slaktade under säsongen 2003/2003 användes i studien. Vi utvecklade en modell där slaktvikt var den enda indikatorn på kroppskondition, samt två modeller som kombinerade fett- och formklassificeringen med slaktvikt och kroppsstorlek som indikatorer på kroppskondition. Resultaten visade att renarnas ålder och kön ger skillnader i de olika variablerna och att modellernas noggrannhet ökar om djuren grupperas med tanke på ålder och kön. Att korrigera slaktvikten för kroppsstorlek ökade precisionen för vikt som konditionsindikator för vuxna djur. Fett- och formklassificeringen överensstämde väl med storlekskorrigerad slaktvikt och skulle med fördel kunna inkluderas tillsammans med slaktvikt och storlek för skattning avkroppskondition från slaktkroppar. Våra analyser visar att användning avslaktregistreringar är en bra och billig metod för att skatta kroppskonditionen hos renhjorden.

  10. Multivariate clustering of reindeer herding districts in Sweden according to range prerequisites for reindeer husbandry

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    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-01-01

    samebyar i tio grupper. Den största gruppen, som bestod av 14 samebyar, delades vidare in i 4 undergrupper. Klusteranalyser med 4 olika linkage-varianter användes till att gruppera samebyarna. Principalkomponentsanalys användes för att kartlägga undersökta variabler och de resulterande samebygruppernas karaktär. Samebygrupperna följde inte länsgränser och tre samebyar föll ut som enskilda grupper. Denna undersökning ger underlag för jämförelser mellan samebyar med beaktande av likheter och olikheter i fråga om produktivitet och funktionella särdrag istället för länsgränser och historik. Vi föreslår en ny administrativ indelning i sex områden som skulle kunna fungera som ett alternativt underlag för planering och beslut som rör produktionsaspekter i rennäringen. Resultaten ger också underlag för förutsägelser av förändringar i samebyars produktionsförutsättningar till följd av klimatförändringar.

  11. 枸杞岛岩礁生境主要鱼类的食物组成及食物竞争%Dietary composition and food competition of six main fish species in rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 章守宇; 汪振华; 赵静; 许敏; 林军

    2012-01-01

    基于2009年3月-2010年2月枸杞岛沿岸岩礁生境渔业资源调查数据,对岩礁生境中的3种定居性鱼类(褐菖鲉、大泷六线鱼和斑头六线鱼)和3种非定居性鱼类(花鲈、黄姑鱼和小黄鱼)的食物组成及食物关系进行了研究.结果表明:麦秆虫、钩虾、褐菖鲉幼鱼、鳀鱼和中国毛虾等是6种鱼类的主要饵料生物,且饵料组成随季节而变化.3种定居性鱼类中,大泷六线鱼和斑头六线鱼在秋季食物竞争激烈;3种非定居性鱼类中,黄姑鱼和小黄鱼在夏季食物竞争激烈;非定居性鱼类和定居性鱼类之间,黄姑鱼分别与褐菖鲉(秋季)和大泷六线鱼(冬季)食物竞争激烈.黄姑鱼是引起岩礁生境中6种主要鱼类食物竞争的关键鱼种.枸杞岛岩礁生境中6种主要鱼类的摄食活动对褐菖鲉幼鱼的资源量有一定影响.%Based on the monthly investigation data of fish resources in the rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island from March 2009 to February 2010, this paper studied the dietary composition of three native fish species ( Sebasticus marmoratus, Hexagrammos otakii and Hexagrammos agrammus) and three non-native fish species ( Lateolabrax japonica, Nibea albiflora and Larindchthys polyactis). The analysis of gut content indicated that the main prey items of these six dominant fish species were Caprellidae, Gammaridea, juvenile S. marmoratus, Engraulis japonicas and Acetes chinensis and the dietary composition of each of the 6 fish species had obvious seasonal variation. There was an intense food competition between native species H. otakii and H. agrammus in autumn, between non-native species N. albiflora and L. polyactis in summer, between non-native species N. albiflora and native species S. marmoratus in autumn, and between non-native species N. albiflora and native species H. otakii in winter. It was suggested the non-native species N. albiflora was the key species in the food competition among the six dominant

  12. Lærerstudenters kommentatorkompetanse om flerkultur og undervisning av flerspråklige elever drøftet i lys av kritisk multikulturalisme

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    Wenche Elisabeth Thomassen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grunnskolelærerutdanningen har som mål å utdanne studenter med både aktør- og kommentatorkompetanse. Kommentatorkompetanse innebærer evnen til kritisk refleksjon. Planer, forskrifter og retningslinjer for grunnskolelærer-utdanningene fastslår at studentene skal ha kunnskaper om flerkultur og undervisning av minoritetsspråklige elever. Slik kompetanse er fortsatt etterspurt, også blant nyutdannede lærere.I denne undersøkelsen er “kritisk multikulturalisme” brukt som teoretisk tilnærming for å analysere gruppeintervjuer med lærerstudenter. Drøftingen inkluderer også hvordan begreper fra denne teoretiske tilnærmingen fungerer for å forstå lærerstudentenes kommentatorkompetanse. Kritisk multikulturalisme er opptatt av å gi en analyse av undertrykking og institusjonalisering av ulike maktrelasjoner innen utdanning. Begreper som er særlig framtredende, er systemmakt, definisjonsmakt og avmakt. Empirien er en del av et større forskningsprosjekt ved UiS, som studerer praksis i grunnskolelærerutdanningen.Undersøkelsen viser at lærerstudentene viser oppmerksomhet og grad av kritisk kommentatorkompetanse når det gjelder systemnivå og pedagogiske praksiser, men ikke har nødvendigvis tilstrekkelig kunnskap om lover og regler for opplæringen. De savner mer oppmerksomhet på temaet innen lærerutdanningen, særlig konkret didaktikk. Funn i materialet indikerer at det ville være av betydning med en dypere forståelse og mer faglige begreper som grunnlag for refleksjon.Analysebegrepene fra kritisk multikulturalisme kan bidra til å sette studentenes utsagn inn i en større sammenheng og peke på potensielt diskriminerende diskurser, men fanger ikke alt studentene er opptatt av. Dette er et område som det ikke er mye forskning på i Norge, artikkelen er et bidrag til økt kunnskap om flerkultur i grunnskolelærerutdanningene.Nøkkelord: lærerstudenter, flerkultur, flerspråklige elever, kritisk multikulturalisme Abstract

  13. ”Fra passivitet til aktivitet” – En oversikt over utvikling og endringer på folketrygdens områder de senere årene

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    Grete Damberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Det har i de senere år skjedd store forandringer på folketrygdens område. Det har blitt lagt mer og mer vekt på viktigheten av å kunne være i aktivitet hvis det ikke er medisinske hindringer for dette. I endringene som er foretatt, er det fokus på den enkeltes muligheter til å være i arbeid mer enn på eventuelle begrensninger. Dette kommer fram gjennom endringer på sykefraværsområdet med innføring av aktivitetsplikt for den sykmeldte og gjennom ny sykefraværsmodell med fokus på oppfølging, involvering av arbeidsgiver, behandler og NAV. Arbeidsplassen er hovedarena for sykefraværsoppfølging, og arbeidsgiver og arbeidstaker er hovedaktører. Dette er en videreføring av føringene i Intensjonsavtalen om et inkluderende arbeidsliv. Også på området for rehabiliteringspenger, yrkesrettet attføring og uføreytelser legges det vekt på at den enkelte skal forsøke seg i arbeid hvis det medisinsk sett er mulig. I 2010 skjer det en større endring ved at rehabiliteringspenger, yrkesrettet attføring og tidsbegrenset uførestønad fjernes og erstattes med arbeidsavklaringspenger, en ytelse hvor det også legges vekt på aktivitet. Samtidig innføres arbeidsevnevurdering med full tyngde som arbeidsmetode internt i NAV. På yrkesskadeområdet har det skjedd få endringer, men organiseringen av yrkesskadeordningen i Norge er under utredning. Samhandling med og kompetansetilbud til sykmeldere er gjennomført i de siste årene. Det er også utviklet statistikk over sykmeldinger skrevet ut av fastleger, et verktøy som kan benyttes i dialog med den enkelte fastlege. Fortsatt er mange sykmeldt eller på varige ytelser. Årsakene til dette er sammensatte. Det er behov for videre forskning på folketrygdens områder. Damberg G. "From inactivity to action" - a review of development and changes in the national insurance scheme in recent years. Nor J Epidemiol 2009; 19 (2: 139-146. ENGLISH SUMMARYRecent years have seen major changes within

  14. Ein Versuch, Naturverhältnisse aus feministischer Sicht zu interpretieren Another attempt to explain the natural environment from a feminist perspective

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    Helga Purgand

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem vorliegenden Sammelband Geschlechterverhältnisse – Naturverhältnisse wird nach dem innovativen Beitrag der feministischen Debatte für umweltsoziologisches Denken gefragt und nach Überschneidungen, Grenzen und Zwischenräumen zwischen „Geschlecht“ und „Natur“ gesucht. In ihm wird der lobenswerte Versuch unternommen, einen Zusammenhang zwischen Geschlechter- und Naturverhältnissen herzustellen „die in der Umweltsoziologie bislang stark vernachlässigte feministische Diskussion und Geschlechterforschung einzubeziehen und als genderbezogene Perspektive zu etablieren“. (S. 9 Das Buch enthält Beiträge von 15 Autorinnen, die unterschiedliche Natur- und Geschlechtsverhältnisse facettenreich, überwiegend kreativ und theoretisch anspruchsvoll betrachten. Das Buch enthält Zugänge aus der allgemeinen Soziologie, den Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften, aus politik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Zusammenhängen. Den ausdrücklich formulierten Anspruch, von multi- zu einer inter-disziplinären Durchdringung zu gelangen, erfüllt es nur in Ansätzen (besonders mit der Einleitung und den theoretischen Problemexplikationen. Das zustande gekommene „Nach-, Zusammen- und Querdenken“ über Begriffe, Theorien und neuere Forschungsansätze (von Foucault über Butler bis zu Donna Haraway belegt die Notwendigkeit, die naturwissenschaftlichen Annahmen „immanent zu dekonstruieren“. Sehr aufschlussreich sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Beiträge von Irmgard Schultz, Elvira Scheich, aber auch von Mary Mellor und besonders von Paula-Irene Villa, die interessante und kreative Gedanken zur Klärung des Verhältnisses von Natur, Kultur und Geschlecht anbieten. Deutlich wurde, dass weiterhin ein kontroverses Ringen um angemessene konzeptionelle Fassungen von Geschlechts- und Naturverhältnissen und die Integration von Gender als zentraler analytischer Querschnitts-Kategorie nötig sind. Insgesamt ist dem Buch ist eine schnelle Verbreitung und

  15. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

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    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  16. 广东省恩平市锦江河上游野生鱼类资源群落生态特征调查%A preliminary study on the structure of wild fish community in the upstream of Jinjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭乾开; 黎华寿; 崔科; 贺鸿志

    2012-01-01

    Zuiew), Silurus asotus Linnaeus, Ophicephalus argus, Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky), Siniperca scherzeri Steindacho, Micropterus salmoides, Misgurnus anguillieaudatu and so forth which take a percentage of 30.61% of the captured fishes are economical ; other 8 species, including Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), Tilapia nilotica, Xenocypris argentea, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmmichthy-srnolitrix, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson), Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cirrhinus molitorella and so on which take a percentage of 16. 32% are common economical; the else taking 53.06%, including 26 species and 2 known ones are non-economical. Among the Cypriniformes, Cyprinus carpio and Pseudolaubuca sinensis are dominant species (IRIS500) while Carassius auratus, Pseudoperilampus lighti Wu, P. engraulis, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Hemiculter bleekeri and Pseudoperilarnpus lighti are common ones ; as for the Perciforrnes, Oreochromis and Ctenogobius giurinus are dominant (IRI≥500) while Channa asiatica, Ophicephalus argus, Micropterus salmoides , Macropodus opercuiaris , Rhinogobius duospilus , Mugilogoblus myxodermus and Hypseleotris swinhonis are commone; and for the Cyprinodontirormes, Gambusra affinis and Clarias batrachus are dominant (IRI≥ 500) while Ymbranchiformes monopterusalba, Plecostous Punctatus and Silurus asotus are common. We expect that our surveys and analysis would provide scientific proof for the protection and the implementation of the fish resources in Jinjiang River in Enping.

  17. Health-threatening hazard evaluation of heavy-metal and oil-residue concentration in the organisms in the offshore area in Dagang, Tianjin%天津大港近岸海域生物体内重金属、石油烃含量及其安全风险评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李厦; 刘宪斌; 田胜艳; 任丽君; 王晨; 郑吴柯; 顾世民

    2013-01-01

    ocellatus.The sequential order of the heavy metal contents in the organisms stands as follows:Scapharca subcrenata > Oratosquilla oratoria > Neverita didyma > Trachypenaeus curvirostris > Octopus ocellatus > Engraulis japonius > Charybdis japonica.As is known,there exist some few assessment standards available for such analysis both at home or abroad.In order to keep the safe living of such marine creatures,the sea-food use-safety and security standards makers have always been trying to take the minimalist limit on illustrating pollution indexes concerned.At the same time,there is also the single factor index method to be applied to analyze the heavy metal contamination and that of the oil-residue in the body of organisms.According to the results of the single factor index,the contamination of Pb and Cd is the main pollution factors.In all kinds of the organisms,Scapharca subcrenata were found suffering most among the contamination facors.Therefore,we should pay greater attention to this kind of pollution.However,the average content of the heavy metals and oil-residue hydrocarbon in those organisms in the offshore area of Dagang has been found lower than the industrial standard of China of "The limited quantity of poisonous and harmful substance in Safe Food of aquatic products",and the marine animals can be taken as still safe for human consumption.

  18. Fish community structure and its seasonal change in subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island%枸杞岛潮下带沙地生境鱼类群落结构和季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪振华; 王凯; 赵静; 章守宇

    2011-01-01

    To understand the characteristics of fish community structure in sandy beach habitats of island reef water areas. and to evaluate the potential capacity of these habitats in local fish stock maintenance. fishes were monthly collected with multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009 from the subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island, taking the adjacent rocky reef habitat as the control.α and β species diversity indices. index of relative importance (IRI) . relative catch rate. and dominance curve for abundance and biomass ( ABC curve) were adopted to compare the fish species composition , diversity , and community pattern between the two habitats ,and multivariate statistical analyses such as non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and cluster were conducted to discuss the fish assemblage patterns. A total of 63 fish species belonging to ll orders, 38 families,and 56 genera were collected, of which. 46 fish species were appeared in the two habitats. Due to the appearance of more warm water species in sandy bottom . the fishes in subtidal sandy beach habitat showed much higher richness. and the abundance catch rate ( ACR) from May to July was higher than that in rocky reef habitat. In most rest months. the ACR in subtidal sandy beach habitat also showed the similar trend. However. the species richness and diversity in spring and summer were significantly lower in subtidal sandy beach habitat than in rocky reef habitat. because of the high species dominance and low evenness in the sandy beach habitat. Japanese tonguefish ( Parapl-agusia japonica) was the indicator species in the sandy beach habitat. and dominated in early spring, later summer, autumn, and winter when the fishing pressure was not strong. In sandy bottom, a unique community structure was formed and kept in dynamic, due to the nursery use of sandy beach by Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) from May to July, the gathering of gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) in most months for feeding, and the

  19. ANALYSIS ON THE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FISHERY ANIMALS IN DAIQUYANG%岱衢洋渔业动物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪亮; 梁君; 贺舟挺; 王伟定; 周永东

    2012-01-01

    The Daiquyang locates between the Daishan and Qushan Islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago. Due to its optimal location and suitable environmental characteristics, it is the spawning and feeding ground of Larimichthys cro-cea of the Daiqu Race, and also of other fishery animals (fish species such as Larimichthys polyactis, Trichiurus ja-ponicus, Pampus argenteus and Engraulis japonicus, crustacean species such as Portunus trituberculatus, Charyhdis japonica, Exopalaemon carinicauda, Acetes chinensis and Oratosquilla oratoria, cephalopods such as Sepiella main-droni, Octopus variabilis, Octopus ocellatus and Loligo duvaucelii, and other animal species such as Nassarius variciferus, Sliqua minima, Cantharus cecillei and Moerella irideseens). For a long time, although the Daiquyang plays an important role in marine fisheries in the East China Sea, there have been no studies focused on the species diversity of its fishery animals. In recent years, both the environment and fishery resources in the Daiquyang have been facing new threats arisen from rapid development of harbor industries and a mass of shore reclamation in the Zhoushan Archipelago District, Zhejiang. Therefore it is necessary to study the species diversity of fishery animals in this area. We analyzed fishery animal diversity and the status of fishery resources based on four surveys conducted by bottom trawl, setting gillnet and crab pot from April to November 2007 in the Daiquyang. Three analytical methods including sweep-area method, biodiversity analysis and analysis of variance were used. The results showed that: 1) a total of 98 fishery animals were sampled, including fishes (58 species), crustaceans (32 species), cephalopods (3 species) and other species (6 species), belonging to 53 families of 20 orders, 7 classes and 4 phylums. 2) In our trawl collections, a total of 68 fishery animals were obtained, including fishes (38 species), crustaceans (23 species), cephalopods (2 species) and other species (5

  20. Variation in feeding ecology within the fish community in the north Yellow Sea%黄海北部鱼类群落的摄食生态及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 吴强; 牛明香; 金显仕

    2011-01-01

    根据2010年5月和8月对黄海北部渔业资源的底拖网调查,分析了黄海北部鱼类群落的摄食生态及其变化.结果表明,黄海北部鱼类群落共有9种重要种类,与5月相比,8月没有游泳动物食性鱼类,广食性鱼类减少,浮游动物食性鱼类的比例大大增加.黄海北部鱼类群落在5月和8月总摄食量分别为0.5万t和19.6万t,细长脚虫戎、中华哲水蚤、脊腹褐虾、中华安乐虾、小黄鱼和鳀是黄海北部鱼类群落被摄食量最高的6种主要饵料种类.1985年至2010年的25年间,黄海北部鱼类群落的优势种更替,游泳动物食性鱼类减少,广食性鱼类增多;鱼类群落的平均营养级每10年下降0.24,尽管近10年的下降速度有所放慢,但仍远远高于渤海和黄海中南部的下降速度.%Our objective was to evaluate ecosystem status before and after fishery enhancement. We analyzed the feeding habits, food consumption, and trophic level of the species constituting 90% of total biomass in bottom trawl surveys conducted in May and August of 2010. We compared the traits of the five dominant species (by total biomass) with those collected in 1985 and 2000. In addition, we evaluated decadal-scale variation in the mean TL of the fish community in the north Yellow Sea.The fish community in the north Yellow Sea was dominated by nine species, though these differed between May and August. The most dominant species in May included small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, elongate eelpout Enchelyopus elongates, half-fin anchovy Setipinna taty, angler Lophius litulon, pointhead plaice Cleisthenes herzensteini, Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus, and sea perch Lateolabrax japonicus. Conversely, in August the fishery was dominated by anchovy Engraulis japonicus, sea snail Liparis tanakae, small yellow croaker, elongate eelpout, and Pacific cod. Thus, the assemblage in May was characterized by a lack of nektivores, a decrease in the proportion of generalist

  1. 黄海中南部细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性及其变化%Feeding habits and their variation of seasnail( Liparis tanakae )in the central and southern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 金显仕; 戴芳群

    2011-01-01

    利用2006年1月-2009年7月在黄海中南部进行的7个月的底拖网调查,采集了体长在18~525mm范围的细纹狮子鱼样品3 005尾.通过胃含物分析、聚类分析以及营养级计算等方法,研究了细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性,周年变化和体长变化.结果表明,除3月份外,细纹狮子鱼是各月份黄海生态系统食物网的重要种类;目前脊腹褐虾仍是细纹狮子鱼的优势饵料生物,而方氏云鳚替代鳀成为其优势饵料生物.细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性和摄食强度都有显著的周年变化和体长变化,体长是导致细纹狮子鱼摄食习性周年变化的主要因素.随着体长增加,细纹狮子鱼发生了3次显著的食性转换,体长在50mm从底栖动物食性转换为广食性;大于100 mm转换为底层虾食性;大于350 mm转换为虾/鱼食性.不同体长的细纹狮子鱼归属不同的营养功能群,因此,细纹狮子鱼在不同月份的黄海生态系统中处于不同的营养地位.%Based on seven bottom trawl surveys conducted in the central and southern Yellow Sea, which covered the range of 120° -124°E,33° -37. 5°N,in seven months from January 2006 to July 2009,total of 3 005 stomach samples of seasnail Liparis tanakae with body length of 18 -525 mm were collected. Stomach content analysis, cluster analysis and trophic level were used to study the feeding habits and their ontogenetic variation and monthly variation. The results showed that seasnail is important fish species in food web and plays an important role in the marine ecosystems of the Yellow Sea. Seasnail fed on more than 60 prey species. Crangon affinis was the dominant prey item of seasnail, and Enedrias fangi became the dominant prey item instead of anchovy Engraulis japonicus. The feeding habits of seasnail had significant monthly and ontogenetic variations. Seasnail mainly fed on benthon at less than 50 mm body length; on zooplankton, benthon and demersal shrimps at 51 -100 mm body length; When

  2. Reindeer husbandry and forestry in the reindeer herding district of Poikajärvi during the years 1963 — 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kupiainen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer husbandry and forestry are practised in Finland in the same areas and practisers of these sources of livelihood not been able to avoid conflicts. Large clear-cutting and ploughed areas especially have diminshed the reindeer's winter ranges. In winter the reindeer digs ground lichens (Cladina spp under the snow and when the snow surface becomes harder it begins to pasture upon arboreal lichens (Alectoria and Bryoria spp.. Fields of lichen are, however, very worn and the best forests with arboreal lichens have been cut. The area of the reindeer herding district of Poikajarvi (66°30' — 67°10'N is 2507 km2 of which state owned land is 1474 km2 (59%. The average reindeer density (counted reindeer of the years 1963 — 1984 has been 1.5 reindeer/km2. During the last 20 years 9.8% of the state owned land of Poikajarvi has been treated with regeneration cutting, mostly with clear-cuttings, and 10.6% with thinning cuttings. With different soil preparation methods 8.7% has been treated, most of it by ploughing. About 24% of the damp sites have been clearcut and ploughed. The estimated cutting quantity of state owned forests has continually increased since 1976 and in 1984 it was about 140 600 m3. Since 1963 the number of counted reindeer of the reindeer herding district has decreased by 60 reindeer yearly. It has varied between 4939 and 2866 reindeer. In the years 1963 — 1984 on average 1425 reindeer were slaughtered yearly. The calves' share of the slaughtered reindeer has increased and in the last few years it has been almost 80%. The average reindeer meat production has been 36 400 kg a year. In Poikajarvi supplemental feeding of reindeer has been practised since 1969. The amount of hay used for it has increased from about 5.5 kg to nearly 20 kg per counted reindeer. At the same time the number of counted and slaughtered reindeer and. meat production has decreased.Rennäringen och skogsbruket i Poikajärvis Renbeteslag under åren 1963

  3. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    sterk verlaagt. Tevens worden de zogenaamde weke delen (pakkingen en rubberen O-ringen) uit het gasnet aangetast. Naast de invloed op de integriteit van het gasnet, maskeren terpenen ook de geur van het odorant THT. Hierdoor kunnen gaslekkages bijvoorbeeld niet meer als zodanig gedetecteerd worden, wat een significant veiligheidsrisico met zich meebrengt. Verder kan de aanwezigheid van terpenen in biogas leiden tot vervuiling van installaties die voor het drogen van groengas gebruikt worden, evenals adsorptievloeistoffen en membranen, die in het opwerkingsproces gebruikt worden. Momenteel worden terpenen verwijderd door middel van actieve koolfilters. De standtijd van een dergelijk filter kan relatief kort zijn bij hoge concentraties terpenen in het biogas, waardoor de operationele kosten, ten gevolge van het vervangen van de kool, sterk toenemen. In dit onderzoek is gekeken naar alternatieve technieken die op eenvoudige manier een groot deel van de terpenen uit biogas kunnen verwijderen. In een workshop met stakeholders is voor twee technieken gekozen die op labschaal getest werden om het 'proof of principle' aan te tonen: foto-oxidatie en gaswassing. De testen zijn op labschaal uitgevoerd door toevoeging van limoneen aan schone lucht. Van de onderzochte technieken lijkt de verwijdering van limoneen via fotolyse de meest belovende techniek door de eenvoud van het proces, de hoge bereikte efficientie (tot 94%), de vergelijkbare operationele kosten met actief kool (6,7-9,5 euro/kg limoneen verwijderd, in vergelijking met 10 euro/kg limoneen verwijderd voor actief kool) en de mogelijkheid om zuurstof in biogas om te zetten en te verwijderen. Echter, de invloed van andere biogascomponenten zoals H2O en CO2 op de efficientie van het proces (en de kosten) dienen voor praktijksituaties nog onderzocht te worden. De inzet van een gaswasproces is ook een optie voor de verwijdering van limoneen. De efficientie van het proces bleek in de uitgevoerde proeven lager te zijn

  4. Community structure of fish resources in spring and autumn in the Yellow Sea off Shandong%黄海山东海域春、秋季鱼类群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕振波; 李凡; 王波; 徐炳庆; 魏振华; 张焕君; 张培超

    2011-01-01

    Fishery science and management are progressively switching their attention from single species to ecosystems,and increasing the need for research of fish community.Based on the data collected by trawl surveys in May and October of 2006 in the Yellow Sea off Shandong, fish community patterns such as species compositions and spatial pattern were analyzed.In the investigated area,35°00’ -38°00’N,120°30’- 124°00’E,45 sample stations were set up.The survey data were standardized by sweep area and capture coefficient.The capture coefficient was set to 0.55 for pelagic fish and 0.35 for near demersal fish and 0.25 for demersal fish.The index of relative importance ( IRI ) was calculated to determine the importance of the species.Species were defined as dominant species when IRI value is more than 1 000.Important species were defined for those IRI value being grealer than 100 but no more than 1000.The multivariate statistical analyses include cluster analysis, NMDS,SIMPER and BIOENV to analyze the pattern of community compositions.The species,whose cumulative biomass less than 0.01% or frequency less than 5% ,were excluded from multivariate statistical analyses.The abundance biomass comparison( ABC)curves and W-statistic,generated by PRIMER,were used to analyze the communities'disturbed states.The results showed that a total number of 61 species belonging to 57 genera,37 families and 13 orders were collected,50 in springs and 50 in autumns.The dominant species were Pacific sandeel (Ammodytes personatus) ,Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicas ) and fang' s blenny ( Enedrias fangi ) in spring, and were Japanese anchovy and Japanese sardinella ( Sardinella zunasi)in autumn.The important species were Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus ) in spring, and were yellow croaker ( Larimichthys polyactis ), silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) ,Pacific sandeel and rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis)in autumn.The fish communities were predominant by little

  5. Blood composition of the reindeer . II. Blood chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1983-05-01

    uppnådde nivån hos en vuxen ren vid 5 månaders ålder (respektive medeltal 5,1 g/1, 0,4 mmol/1, 2,7 mmol. Halterna av kolesterol, fettsyra, myristinsyra och palmitinsyra var hogre i kalvarnas serum, emedan halterna av stearinsyra och oljesyra var lagre ån hos vajor. Under de forstå levnadsdygnen producerar kalven katekolaminer i rikliga mångder. Dåremot år serumdopamid - B - hydroxylas-aktiviteten ganska låg. En fritt betande vajas blodsockerhalt (3,4 - 4,6 mmol/1, totalåggvitehalt i serum (63 - 87 g/1, albuminhalt (39 - 43 g/1, globulinhalt (23 - 44 g/1, urea (5,7- 9 mmol/1, totala lipidhalt (2,7 - 5,2 g/1, triglyceridhalt (0,17-0,33 mmol/1, fettsyrehalt (0,89 - 1,54 g/1, kalciumhalt (2,2 - 2,6 mmol/1, fosforhalt (1,6 - 2,2 mmol/1, magnesiumhalt (0,8 - 1,2 mmol/1 och kopparhalt (6,7 - 17 Jmol/l var hogst under sommaren och hosten emedan de sjonk under vintern. De lågsta halterna mattes hos u-tsvultna vajor på våren. Den hoga ureahalten i serum samt CPK-, LDH- och SAP-aktiviteterna återspeglar åggviteåmnens och våvnaders upplosning i kroppen. Årstiderna och nåringen inverkade varken på halterna av T4 kreatinin, natrium eller klorid i serum. De hoga siffrorna for kroppsvikt och blodets kemiska varden mattes hos vajor som under vintersåsongen matats med pressfoder och melassflis.