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Sample records for anchoveta engraulis ringens

  1. Alimentación de la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en el norte de Chile (18°25'-25°40'S en diciembre de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la dieta de Engraulis ringens para determinar posibles diferencias en su comportamiento alimentario por longitud y gradiente latitudinal. Las muestras se obtuvieron entre 18°25'S y 24°40'S durante el crucero de evaluación hidroacústica del reclutamiento de E. ringens, realizado entre el 1 y 20 de diciembre de 2010. El análisis comprendió la determinación de la dieta contenida en un total de 294 estómagos, provenientes de 18 estaciones de muestreo y distribuidos en tres clases de longitud (pre-reclutas, reclutas y adultos. La dieta se describió mediante los métodos numéricos de frecuencia de ocurrencia e índice de importancia relativa, además de la similitud dietaria por longitud y latitud, y especialización trófica. E. ringens registró un amplio espectro trófico, tanto de presas fitoplanctónicas como zooplanctónicas, con una alta predominancia de fitoplancton por sobre zooplancton en 2,5 órdenes de magnitud, por rango de longitud y latitud. Los componentes de mayor importancia relativa en la dieta fueron las diatomeas de los géneros Rhizosolenia y Chaetoceros, y Copepoda dentro del zooplancton. El análisis de la similitud trófica intraespecífica mostró una alta sobreposición entre los grupos de longitud, conformando una "unidad trófica". Mientras que el análisis latitudinal reveló una alta sobreposición trófica con tendencia a formar dos "unidades tróficas", pero sin seguir un patrón definido. Los resultados, confirman el carácter de depredador generalista y oportunista de E. ringens en la zona norte de Chile durante el periodo analizado.

  2. Bases conceptuales para la aplicación de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM en sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona centro-sur de Chile

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    Marcos Arteaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican los factores claves a considerar en el desarrollo de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM para los recursos pequeños pelágicos en la zona de centro-sur de Chile, sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens. En Chile, la EEM no ha sido aplicada al manejo de estas pesquerías y la asesoría científica se ha desarrollado sobre la evaluación de estrategias de explotación utilizando modelos de evaluación mono-específicos. Para ambas especies se analizan los siguientes tópicos: i alternancia en la abundancia poblacional asociada a los pulsos de reclutamientos y capturas, ii variabilidad temporal en la fuerza del reclutamiento, iii estacionalidad del crecimiento cohorte y especie-específico, y iv relación ambiente-recurso. Los resultados evidencian que los tópicos analizados debieran ser considerados en la construcción de un modelo operativo y/o en la regla de cosecha, dado el carácter mixto de ambas pesquerías, su marcada alternancia y la influencia de las condiciones ambientales. Por lo tanto, se propone que el diseño e implementación de una EEM para sardina común y anchoveta, incluya los elementos señalados en un marco de evaluación multi-especifico y de manejo de carácter mixto.

  3. Efecto de la ración alimenticia sobre la maduración gonadal y acumulación de grasa de anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 en cautiverio Effect of feeding ration on gonad maturation and fat accumulation in Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la ración alimenticia sobre la tasa de maduración gonadal, el desempeño de las gónadas maduras y la redistribución de la energía consumida en gónada, músculo o grasa corporal en ejemplares de anchoveta peruana Engraulis ringens en condiciones de cautiverio Estos resultados ayudan a comprender los procesos reproductivos ocurridos en el medio natural ante alteraciones de factores ambientales tales como los eventos El Niño y La Niña, de gran implicancia en el ecosistema y las pesquerías del Pacífico oriental. El tiempo trascurrido desde el estadio inmaduro hasta vitelogénico fue de 45 días bajo condiciones alimenticias energéticamente óptimas y temperatura alrededor de 16,5°C (46,1 cal g-1 pez día-1 . Las hembras alimentadas con 138,3 cal g-1 pez día-1 alcanzaron la máxima vitelogénesis en 30 días y, aunque el alimento fue excesivo, no incrementaron su masa muscular pero si presentaron mayor acumulación de grasa corporal y presencia de ovocitos más grandes, lo cual indica un incremento en el almacenamiento energético en la hembra y su progenie. Los ovocitos vitelogénicos de los peces alimentados con 46,1 cal g-1 pez día-1 presentaron atresia más rápido que los ovocitos vitelogénicos de peces alimentados con 138,3 cal g-1 pez día-1 . Aunque la cantidad de alimento fue adecuada, las hembras no desovaron durante el experimento. En machos, la disponibilidad de alimento también aceleró la maduración gonadal pero la expulsión de espermatozoides parece haber estado condicionada por la presencia de hembras con ovocitos en máximo estado de vitelogénesis.We analyzed the effect that feeding rations have on gonad maturation, mature gonad performance, and the redistribution of the energy taken up by the gonads, muscle, and body fat in captive specimens of Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens. These results help us understand the reproductive processes occurring in the natural environment given changes

  4. Revisiting Peruvian anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) trophodynamics provides a new vision of the Humboldt Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinoza, Pepe; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2008-10-01

    The Peruvian anchovy or anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) forages on plankton and is a main prey for marine mammals, seabirds, fish, and fishers, and is therefore a key element of the food web in the Humboldt Current system (HCS). Here, we present results from the analysis of 21,203 anchoveta stomach contents sampled during 23 acoustic surveys over the period 1996-2003. Prey items were identified to the genus level, and the relative dietary importance of different prey was assessed by determination of their carbon content. Variability in stomach fullness was examined relative to the diel cycle, the distance from the coast, sea surface temperature, and latitude, using generalized additive models (GAMs). Whereas phytoplankton largely dominated anchoveta diets in terms of numerical abundance and comprised >99% of ingested prey items, the carbon content of prey items indicated that zooplankton was by far the most important dietary component, with euphausiids contributing 67.5% of dietary carbon followed by copepods (26.3%). Stomach fullness data showed that anchoveta feed mainly during daytime between 07h00 and 18h00, although night-time feeding also made a substantial contribution to total food consumption. Stomach fullness also varied with latitude, distance from the coast, and temperature, but with substantial variability indicating a high degree of plasticity in anchoveta feeding behaviour. The results suggest an ecological role for anchoveta that challenges current understanding of its position in the foodweb, the functioning of the HCS, and trophic models of the HCS.

  5. Clasificación acústica de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki mediante máquinas de vectores soporte en la zona centro-sur de Chile: efecto de la calibración de los parámetros en la matriz de confusión Acoustic classification of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Strangomera bentincki using support vector machines in central-southern Chile: effect of parameter calibration on the confusion matrix

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    Hugo Robotham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se clasificó la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki detectadas mediante equipos acústicos en la zona centro-sur de Chile, mediante el método de Máquinas de Vectores Soporte (SVM. Para esto se utilizaron descriptores de cardúmenes extraídos desde ecogramas, que fueron clasificados como morfológicos, batimétricos, energéticos y posicional espacial. Para lograr clasificaciones precisas mediante la utilización de esta metodología, fue necesario optimizar parámetros correspondientes al Kernel-Gaussiano, γ y de penalización del modelo C, mediante el análisis del efecto de la calibración sobre las matrices de confusión resultantes de la clasificación de las especies analizadas. El método SVM ajustó correctamente el 95,3% de los cardúmenes de anchoveta y sardina común. Los parámetros óptimos del Kernel-Gaussiano γ y de penalización C obtenidos mediante la metodología propuesta fueron γ = 450 y C = 0,95, respectivamente. Los parámetros mencionados incidieron de manera importante en la matriz de confusión y los porcentajes de clasificación final, por lo que se sugiere establecer, en aplicaciones futuras de este método, un protocolo experimental de calibración. La sardina común fue la especie con menor error de clasificación en el conjunto de las matrices de confusión. El descriptor correspondiente a profundidad del fondo fue el más sensible al SVM, la segunda variable en importancia es el descriptor distancia a la costa.The support vector machines (SVM method was used to classify the anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki species detected in south-central Chile by means of acoustic equipment. For this, descriptors of fish schools (morphology, bathymetry, energy, spatial position extracted from ecograms were used. In order to obtain precise classifications using this methodology, it was necessary to optimize the parameters Gaussian-Kernel γ and penalty term

  6. Development of free neuromasts in Engraulis ringens and Strangomera bentincki (Teleostei, Clupeiformes early larvae

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    Alejandra Llanos-Rivera

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuromast morphology and distribution are characterized during early ontogeny of anchoveta (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki. Although both species share morphological features, they show several differences during their early ontogeny, such as size at hatching and yolk absorption. Larvae were obtained from incubation of planktonic eggs (at 12°C, collected during the spawning season 2001 (August-September at Coliumo Bay. The neuromasts were observed from hatching to 25 days, and the pattern of neuromast appearance, in newly hatched larva, until yolk absorption, was determined using Janus Green staining and scanning electronic microscope. Results showed a similar pattern of neuromast development in both species. At hatching, two pairs of neuromasts were observed in the cephalic area and 8-9 in the rest of the body, which increased to 19 pairs and to 30-39 pairs at a larval size of 11 mm, respectively. On the average, 12 hair cells per neuromast were counted, with little variation among neuromasts. The polarity of these hair cells was closest to multiple polarity. Neuromast positioning for both species, anchoveta and common sardine larvae, are similar to those of Engraulis mordax and Clupea harengus, respectively. The similar development pattern of these species seems to be related to similar functional constraints and close taxonomic affinity.

  7. Efecto de la inyección de un análogo de GnRH sobre la maduración final ovocitaria y los perfiles plasmáticos de esteroides gonadales en anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens).

    OpenAIRE

    Cisneros Linares, Paola Bianca

    2007-01-01

    Se determinó el efecto de un análogo de GnRH sobre la maduración final ovocitaria y los perfiles plasmáticos de testosterona (T), 17β Estradiol (E2) y 17α, 20β dihidroxiprogesterona (17α, 20β DP) en ejemplares de E. ringens. Para ello, individuos de esta especie fueron capturados en la Bahía del Callao fueron acondicionados al cautiverio en tanques de 10 m3 con aeración constante, temperatura del agua de 16 ºC, recirculación de agua de mar y alimentación ad libitum durante un periodo de un me...

  8. Análisis bioeconómico de la pesquería de sardina (Sardinops sagax y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens de la zona norte de Chile Bioeconomic analysis of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax and anchovy (Engraulis ringens fishery from northern Chile

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    Bernardo Aliaga R.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó bioeconómicamente la pesquería pelágica industrial de sardina y anchoveta de la zona norte de Chile, integrando información biológico-pesquera (período 1980-1991 y económica (período 1988-1995 mediante el modelo Gordon-Schaefer. Los datos económicos indican que los costos totales de la flota y las plantas de proceso mostraron una tendencia general decreciente durante el período estudiado. En cuanto a las inversiones, es posible identificar dos etapas: de 1988 a 1990 con un moderado aumento de las inversiones, y de 1992 a 1995, con una caída de la inversión neta explicable por la baja en los rendimientos físicos de la producción de harina, la caída en las capturas globales de la pesquería y la caída en el tipo de cambio. Los puntos de referencia biológicos y económicos determinados con el modelo Gordon-Schaefer, muestran que la flota ha operado utilizando un esfuerzo mayor al correspondiente en el punto de máximo rendimiento económico (E MRE y en el punto de equilibrio de libre acceso (E LA, en tanto que las capturas han sobrepasado el Máximo Rendimiento Sustentable (MRS. Se discuten estos resultados en términos de las limitaciones del modelo teórico al tratar de explicar el comportamiento de la flota en esta pesquería para el período analizado, bajo condiciones de integración vertical en la actividad económica. De resultar efectiva esta hipótesis, modelos bioeconómicos más complejos estarían sujetos a idéntica limitación, al no representar adecuadamente la racionalidad económica integrada de la empresa pesquera industrial. Se proponen futuras líneas de trabajo en esta temáticaThe industrial pelagic fishery of pacific sardine and anchovy from northern Chile was analysed through a bioeconomic approach including statistical data from the fishery (catch and effort between 1980 and 1991 and economic data (costs, revenues, investment and employment between 1988 and 1995 using a Gordon-Schaefer model

  9. A set of sustainability performance indicators for seafood : direct human consumption products from Peruvian anchoveta fisheries and freshwater aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    Avadi, A.; Fréon, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Different seafood products based on Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fisheries and freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum), contribute at different scales to the socio-economic development, environmental degradation and nutrition of the Peruvian population. Various indicators have been used in the literature to assess the performance of these industries regarding different aspects of sustainability, notably ...

  10. Poder de pesca, esfuerzo de pesca y cambios estacionales e interanuales en la abundancia relativa de Strangomera bentincki y Engraulis ringens en el área frente a Talcahuano, Chile (1990-97 Fishing power, fishing effort and seasonal and interannual changes in the relative abundance of Strangomera bentincki and Engraulis ringens in the area off Talcahuano, Chile (1990-97

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    Luis Cubillos S.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza el poder de pesca de la flota de cerco que orienta su esfuerzo hacia la sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en el área de Talcahuano (37°S-73°W durante el período 1990-97. Se estandariza el esfuerzo de pesca y se analizan los cambios estacionales e interanuales de la captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE. Las tasas de captura se analizan mediante un modelo lineal generalizado, el cual considera como variable independiente la capacidad de bodega (CB de las embarcaciones y como factores los años y meses, además de un factor denominado período que toma en cuenta la época invernal (abril-septiembre y la estival (octubre-marzo. Se utiliza el concepto de poder de pesca relativo para estandarizar las tasas de captura, utilizando como estándar el estrato 40-59 m³ de CB. Las tasas de captura mensuales se relacionan significativamente con la CB y con varias combinaciones de interacción entre los factores. La estacionalidad de la pesquería se observa con valores máximos en las capturas, esfuerzo de pesca y abundancia relativa durante la época estival. Este comportamiento estacional se debe al reclutamiento de S. bentincki que ocurre en noviembre-diciembre, a las mejores condiciones climáticas de la época que facilitan la operación de la flota y a la reorientación temporal del esfuerzo de pesca de una fracción de la flota industrial que extrae jurel (Trachurus symmetricus murphyi en invierno. Interanualmente el esfuerzo de pesca estándar no presenta tendencias significativas, pero se observan cambios en la abundancia relativa de ambos recursos. La CPUE de S. bentincki declina desde comienzos de 1991 hasta mediados de 1995, recuperándose en 1996-97. En cambio, la CPUE de E. ringens, fue mayor en el período 1993-94, declina en 1995 y se estabiliza en 1996-97. An analysis of the fishing power of the purse-seine fleet fishing for common sardine (Strangomera bentincki and anchovy (Engraulis ringens

  11. Epoca reproductiva y talla media de primera madurez sexual de Strangomera bentincki y Engraulis ringens en el período 1993-1997, en la zona centro-sur de Chile Reproductive period and mean size at first maturity for Strangomera bentincki and Engraulis ringens from 1993 to 1997 off central-southern Chile

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    Luis Cubillos S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la época reproductiva de Strangomera bentincki y Engraulis ringens y se estima la talla promedio de primera madurez sexual (Lm50% para el período 1993-1997. Los indicadores reproductivos utilizados para analizar la época reproductiva son el índice gonadosomático (IGS y la frecuencia temporal de los estados de madurez sexual macroscópicos de las hembras maduras e hidratadas. La Lm50% se determinó sobre la base del 50% de hembras maduras ajustando un modelo logístico. El mes en que ocurre el máximo IGS, en el período de mayor actividad reproductiva que se extiende entre julio y septiembre, presenta una baja variabilidad interanual, i.e. coeficientes de variación de 5,1% y 14,6% para S. bentincki y E. ringes, respectivamente. En tanto, la posición relativa del máximo estival del IGS presenta una variación de 45% para S. bentincki y de 35,3% para E. ringens. La Lm50% se estimó en 10 cm para S. bentincki y en 11,5 cm para E. ringens, la que es alcanzada en julio al término del primer año de vida en S. bentincki y en diciembre, al año y medio en E. ringens. Se postula que la mayor actividad reproductiva poblacional de ambas especies, centrada en agosto, es una respuesta adaptativa de las poblaciones al sistema de surgencia costera estacional de la zona centro-sur de Chile. La mayor productividad asociada al período de surgencias que comienza a mediados de septiembre y que se extiende hasta fines de marzo, sería favorable tanto para la sobrevivencia y crecimiento de estados larvales y juveniles como para el almacenamiento de energía de los adultos para ser utilizada en la reproducción durante el período invernalThe reproductive period of Strangomera bentincki and Engraulis ringens and the size at first maturity (Lm50% are analyzed for the period 1993-1997. The reproductive indicators used are the gonadosomatic index (GSI and the temporal frequency of macroscopic sexual maturity stages for mature and hydrated females

  12. Estructura térmica superficial del mar asociada a la distribución espacio-temporal de sardina y anchoveta en la zona norte de Chile entre 1987 y 1992 Sea surface thermal structure associated to the space-temporal distribution of sardine and anchovy in northern Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Eleuterio Yáñez R; Antonio González C; María Angela Barbieri B

    1995-01-01

    Utilizando un sistema de información geográfica (SIG), se analizan los cambios de la estructura térmica superficial del mar asociados a las variaciones espaciales y mensuales de sardina (Sardinops sagax) y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens), en la zona norte de Chile (18°21'-24°00'S) entre 1987 y 1992. Para tal efecto se toma en cuenta el índice de abundancia CPUE, estimado para ambas especies a partir de la información de una flota cerquera industrial. y datos de temperatura superficial del mar (...

  13. Aktionslæringens DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Benedicte

    Aktionslæringen DNA giver en række redskaber til læring i fællesskaber, uanset om der arbejdes med individuelle eller kollektive projekter i offentlig eller privat regi. Metoden danner modvægt til de mere individuelistiske traditioner inden for voksenpædagogikken. DNA-metaforen bruges bogen igennem...

  14. Using indicators and models for an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture management: the anchovy fishery and Pacific oyster culture in Chile: case studies Aplicación de indicadores y modelos para un enfoque ecosistémico de la pesca y la acuicultura: pesquería de anchoveta y cultivo de ostra del Pacífico en Chile: casos de estudio

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    Claudio Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrate the use of indicators and models to support the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture management using two case studies in Chile: prediction of environmental variability effects upon anchovy (Engraulis ringens fishery of northern Chile and prediction of suitable sites and carrying capacity of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas culture using FARM and geographic information system (GIS models in the Valdivia estuary. A three stage approach was applied: Stage 1 considers spatiotemporal ecosystem indicators (fisheries, aquaculture, environmental, and regulatory, Stage 2 uses statistical relationships between indicators, GIS, and other simulation models (e.g., artificial neural networks and FARM of environment-resources interaction, and Stage 3 is the analysis and validation of models outputs. The methodology illustrates how indicators and models may be used to assist decision-makers in developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture. The application of these approaches provides an integrative methodology for abundance prediction of anchovy and site selection for shellfish aquaculture, despite limitations in the available data.Este trabajo muestra el uso de indicadores y modelos para apoyar la aplicación del enfoque ecosistémico en la gestión de la pesca y la acuicultura, mediante dos casos de estudios en Chile: predicción de los efectos de la variabilidad ambiental en la pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona norte de Chile y la predicción de sitios aptos y capacidad de carga para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico (Crassostrea gigas en el estuario de Valdivia. Se aplicó un enfoque metodológico de tres etapas: etapa 1 considera indicadores espacio-temporales del ecosistema (pesca, acuicultura, medio ambiente y legislación; etapa 2 utiliza relaciones estadísticas entre los indicadores, funciones de SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica, y otros modelos de simulación (Redes

  15. Trends in spatio-temporal distribution of Peruvian anchovy and other small pelagic fish biomass from 1966-2009 Tendencias espacio-temporales en la distribución de la biomasa de anchoveta peruana y de otros peces pelágicos pequenos entre 1966 y 2009

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    Mariano Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in abundance and distribution of anchovy and other species of pelagic fish of the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS are driven by environmental forcing variations in different time and spatial scales between the coastal 'cold' ecosystem and the 'warm' oceanic one. Data to study these fluctuations have come mostly from the fishery to show how anchovy (Engraulis ringens increases when sardine (Sardinops sagax declines and vice versa. However, using acoustic data on latitudinal biomass we show that other species as mackerel (Scomber japonicus and jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi also follow the same opposed trend, then the fishery data hides the true dimension of the balance of abundance among species. Based on Hovmoller diagrams we scrutinized the changes in interannual latitudinal acoustic biomass, landings and influence of El Nino events from 1966 to 2009 in order to describe: 1 how the anchovy decadal distribution pattern moved from south to north since the 1960's; 2 how there have been produced concomitant changes in the latitudinal abundance and distribution of other species such as sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel before, during and after El Nino events; and 3 what was the overall effect of the succession of El Nino events on all these pelagic species. We concluded that: a every El Nino event has had an effect on the expansion or contraction of pelagic species distribution and abundance, with different latitudinal effects; and b the El Nino 1997-98 did not trigger but accelerated a decline phase on the abundance of sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel by a reduction of their ideal habitat due to an expansion of the coastal ecosystem caused by a shallower location of the upper limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ These findings observed using past data might be taken into consideration for fishery management purposes when considering future scenarios.Los cambios en la abundancia y distribución de anchoveta y de otras especies

  16. Estructura térmica superficial del mar asociada a la distribución espacio-temporal de sardina y anchoveta en la zona norte de Chile entre 1987 y 1992 Sea surface thermal structure associated to the space-temporal distribution of sardine and anchovy in northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez R

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Utilizando un sistema de información geográfica (SIG, se analizan los cambios de la estructura térmica superficial del mar asociados a las variaciones espaciales y mensuales de sardina (Sardinops sagax y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens, en la zona norte de Chile (18°21'-24°00'S entre 1987 y 1992. Para tal efecto se toma en cuenta el índice de abundancia CPUE, estimado para ambas especies a partir de la información de una flota cerquera industrial. y datos de temperatura superficial del mar (TSM recolectados con satélites NOAA. Además se analizan datos de TSM y nivel del mar de estaciones de mareógrafos, y de viento e insolación de estaciones meteorológicas. En 1987 y 1992 la TSM presenta anomalías positivas asociadas a eventos El Niño, en tanto que 1990 se presenta como el año más frío del período de estudio. Se destaca la marcada señal anual de la TSM, con una estación cálida entre noviembre y abril, mientras que entre julio y septiembre se registran las TSM más bajas. Al comparar las distribuciones anuales de CPUE se determinan diferencias significativas entre ambas especies. A su vez, cada especie presenta distribuciones de CPUE diferentes entre años. Las dos especies presentan un patrón de migración norte-sur de la estación fría a la estación cálida, el cual se alteraría cuando se producen fuertes anomalías de TSMIn order to establish the space-temporal variability of the distribution of the sardine (Sardinops sagax and the anchovy (Engraulis ringens in association with the sea surface thermal structure in northern Chile (18°21'-24°00'S, a study was conducted with satellite and fisheries data between 1987 and 1992. Information was processed by using a geographic information system (GIS. Variables considered in the analysis included the abundance index CPUE as estimated for both species from a purse seine industrial fleet data, satellite records of sea surface temperature (SST, tidal gauge temperature and sea

  17. Miljøsertifisering i oppdrettsnæringen

    OpenAIRE

    Kringstad, Lisbeth

    2016-01-01

    Oppdrettsnæringen har de siste tiårene opplevd en solid utvikling, og fremstår i dag som en viktig næring i Norge. Bærekraftbegrepet har fått en sentral rolle i næringslivet, og i likhet med andre næringen opplever også oppdrettsnæringen utfordringer knyttet til å imøtekomme dette. Miljøsertifiseringen Aquaculture Stewardship Council (ASC) ble etablert for å bidra til en bærekraftig oppdrettsnæring, og selskapene i studien har alle valgt å ASC sertifisere sine anlegg. Denne studien har til he...

  18. Environmental assessment of Peruvian anchoveta food products : is less refined better ?

    OpenAIRE

    Avadi, A.; Fréon, Pierre; Quispe, I.

    2014-01-01

    Life cycle assessments (LCAs) of various anchovy (anchoveta) direct human consumption products processed in Peru were carried out, to evaluate their relative environmental performance as alternative products to enhance nutrition of communities with low access to fish products in the country. LCA was carried out for fresh, frozen, canned, salted and cured anchoveta products, both at plant gate and featuring local and national distribution over non-refrigerated, chilled and fully refrigerated d...

  19. Predicting habitat suitability and geographic distribution of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) due to climate change in the coastal areas off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Andrade, Isabel; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Hormazabal, Samuel; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio; Böhm, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    The effects of climate change on ocean conditions will have impacts on fish stocks, primarily through physiological and behavioural effects, such as changes in growth, reproduction, mortality and distribution. Habitat and distribution predictions for marine fishery species under climate change scenarios are important for understanding the overall impacts of such global changes on the human society and on the ecosystem. In this study, we examine the impacts of climate change on anchovy fisheries off Chile using predicted changes in global models according to the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) and IPCC high future CO2 emission scenario A2, habitat suitability index (HSI) models and satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates from high-resolution regional models for the simulation period 2015-2065. Predictions of SST from global climate models were regionalised using the Delta statistical downscaling technique. Predictions of chlorophyll-a were developed using historical Chl-a and SST (2003-2013) satellite data and applying a harmonic model. The results show an increase in SST of up to 2.5 °C by 2055 in the north and central-south area for an A2 scenario. The habitat suitability index model was developed using historical (2001-2011) monthly fisheries and environmental data. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) was used as an abundance index in developing the HSI models and was calculated as the total catch (ton) by hold capacity (m3) in a 10‧ × 10‧ fishing grid square of anchovy, integrated over one month of fishing activity. The environmental data included the distance to coast (DC), thermal (SST) and food availability (Chl-a) conditions. The HSI modelling consists of estimating SI curves based on available evidence regarding the optimum range of environmental conditions for anchovy and estimating an integrated HSI using the Arithmetic Mean Model (AMM) method. The results of this work show that the model has produced robust estimates of habitat suitability and geographic distribution off Chile and has been especially effective in capturing the spatial and temporal variability of CPUE. Using IDRISI geographical information system (GIS), these HSI models simulated monthly changes in the habitat suitability (i.e., relative abundance) and distribution of anchovy off Chile forced by changes in the regionalised SST and Chl-a as projected by the NCAR model under the A2 emission scenario. The simulations predicted a moderate negative change of 17% and 13% for the north and central-south areas, respectively, in the habitat suitability (i.e., potential relative abundance) of anchovy by 2055.

  20. Harvesting for food versus feed : a review of Peruvian fisheries in a global context

    OpenAIRE

    Fréon, Pierre; Sueiro, J.C.; Iriarte, F.; Evar, O. F. M.; Landa, Y.; Mittaine, J. F.; Bouchon, M.

    2014-01-01

    Peru is the top exporter of fishmeal and fish oil (FMFO) worldwide and is responsible for half and a third of global production, respectively. Landings of "anchoveta" (Engraulis ringens) are used nearly exclusively for FMFO production, despite a proactive national food policy aimed at favoring the direct human consumption of this inexpensive species. It may be surprising that in a country where malnutrition and caloric deficit constitute major issues, a low-priced and highly nutritious fish s...

  1. ESTANDARIZACION DE LAS TASAS DE CAPTURA DE RECURSOS PELAGICOS DE LA ZONA NORTE DE CHILE STANDARDIZATION OF CATCH RATES OF THE PELAGIC FISH RESOURCES IN THE NORTHERN CHILE

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela Böhm; Eleuterio Yáñez; Fernando Espíndola

    2005-01-01

    Se usó el modelo lineal generalizado (MLG) para estandarizar el índice de abundancia relativa, captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE) de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens), sardina (Sardinops sagax) y jurel (Trachurus murphyi), en la zona norte de Chile (18º21-24ºS), entre 1987 y 1997. Para la anchoveta se toma en cuenta la categoría de embarcación, la zona de pesca, la fase lunar, la estación del año, el año y la temperatura superficial del mar (TSM). En tanto que para la sardina y el jurel se tom...

  2. Synlig læring og læringens anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates.......Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates....

  3. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Avadí

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional, and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1, increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2, and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3. It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  4. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities. PMID:25003196

  5. Informe final. Peces pelágicos: anchoveta XV-II regiones 2013.

    OpenAIRE

    Serra Beherns, J.; Canales Ramírez, C.

    2013-01-01

    Los desembarques de anchoveta presentan fuertes variaciones en Chile, generando alta inestabilidad en la actividad productiva. Uno de los factores que influyen en las fluctuaciones de las capturas es la alta variabilidad oceanográfica que ocurre en el área (fenómenos El Niño y La Niña) y que incide en la distribución y abundancia del recurso, haciéndolo vulnerable al efecto al efecto de la pesca. Por esta razón es de fundamental importancia actualizar todos los años el diagnóstico del recurso...

  6. Informe FIP 96-12. Bases biológicas para prevenir la sobreexplotación de sardina común y anchoveta.

    OpenAIRE

    Barría Martínez, P. L.; Gili V., R.; Zuleta V., A.

    1998-01-01

    El presente informe establece las bases biológicas que permiten identificar estrategias de explotación y umbrales para prevenir la sobreexplotación en el recurso sardina común y anchoveta en Chile.

  7. Hvilke faktorer er viktige for innføringen av en ITIL-prosess. Studier på innføringen av konfigurasjonsstyring hos norske virksomheter.

    OpenAIRE

    Synnevåg, Rune

    2008-01-01

    Jeg har igjennom dette studiet tatt prosessuksessmodellen til Sedere, Gable et al. (2004) ogtilpasset denne for å finne viktige faktorer for innføringen av ITIL prosessenkonfigurasjonsstyring. Modellen ble så revidert gjennom et kasusstudie med det formålet åverifisere mine opprinnelige ideer samt påvise nye faktorer som var viktige ved en slikinnføring.

  8. In Memoriam doctora Augusta Noemí Ochoa López (1937-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rouillon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La Doctora Augusta Noemí Ochoa López, nació un martes 4 de mayo de 1937 en Cañete, Lima. Empezó los estudios de la carrera de biología en la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, en 1953, también llevo cursos de la carrera de Educación. Obtuvo su grado de Bachiller en Biología en el año 1966 con la Tesis “Observaciones sobre el Desove de la Anchoveta, Engraulis ringens J., en la zona del Callao”.

  9. Evaluation of Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus Population by Age and Length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JERINA KOLITARI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Anchovy (Engraulis enchrasicholus, is a member of small pelagic fish group in the waters of the Mediterranean and Adriatic Sea with important economic value for all regional countries, including Albania. The purpose of this study was to define the age of Anchovy, as one of the important indicators for the assessment of fishing reserves. Age evaluation was based on sagital otoliths, found in the inner ear of the fish. The study was conducted at the Aquaculture and Fishery Laboratory in Durres, during the period January 2008 - December 2009. At this time, 863 fish were analysed. For each individual was kept records for weight and height then, otoliths were removed, and finally watched in stereomicroscope (40 X annual assessment circles around the otoliths opaque core. Age of fish is equal to the number of annual rings. The study showed that the average age was 2.22 year, and 70% were 2+ and 3+ years. The average length was 13.98 cm. About 58% of anchovy fish were with length 12.5 - 15 cm. This study will help determine the population dynamics of anchovy fish and more accurate predictions for the amount of fish to hunt in defined time periods.

  10. Zooplankton and forage fish species off Peru: Large-scale bottom-up forcing and local-scale depletion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayón, Patricia; Swartzman, Gordon; Bertrand, Arnaud; Gutiérrez, Mariano; Bertrand, Sophie

    2008-10-01

    The Humboldt Current System, like all upwelling systems, has dramatic quantities of plankton-feeding fish, which suggested that their population dynamics may ‘drive’ or ‘control’ ecosystem dynamics. With this in mind we analysed the relationship between forage fish populations and their main prey, zooplankton populations. Our study combined a zooplankton sampling program (1961-2005) with simultaneous acoustic observations on fish from 40 pelagic surveys (1983-2005) conducted by the Peruvian Marine Research Institute (IMARPE) and landing statistics for anchoveta ( Engraulis ringens) and sardine ( Sardinops sagax) along the Peruvian coast from 1961 to 2005. The multi-year trend of anchoveta population abundance varied consistently with zooplankton biovolume trend, suggesting bottom-up control on anchovy at the population scale (since oceanographic conditions and phytoplankton production support the changes in zooplankton abundance). For a finer-scale analysis (km) we statistically modelled zooplankton biovolume as a function of geographical (latitude and distance from the 200-m isobath), environmental (sea surface temperature), temporal (year, month and time-of-day) and biological (acoustic anchovy and sardine biomass within 5 km of each zooplankton sample) covariates over all survey using both classification and regression trees (CART) and generalized additive models (GAM). CART showed local anchoveta density to have the strongest effect on zooplankton biovolume, with significantly reduced levels of biovolume for higher neighbourhood anchoveta biomass. Additionally, zooplankton biovolume was higher offshore than on the shelf. GAM results corroborated the CART findings, also showing a clear diel effect on zooplankton biovolume, probably due to diel migration or daytime net avoidance. Apparently, the observed multi-year population scale bottom-up control is not inconsistent with local depletion of zooplankton when anchoveta are locally abundant, since the

  11. El recurso anchoveta en el sur del Perú bajo condiciones de "El Niño"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Quiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las características oceanográficas (temperatura, salinidad, fosfatos y silicatos, volumen de zooplancton, y la abundancia de la anchoa hasta 5 millas lejos de la costa en el sur de Perú (entre Atico y la frontera sur, del 27 de febrero y marzo 3a de 1998. las condiciones oceanográficas mostró tanto la presencia de agua superficial subtropical hasta el 70 de profundidad y la evidencia de la rica afloramiento de nutrientes a gran profundidad. La población de anchoveta fue la escasez hacia fuera y formando pequeños núcleos cercanos a la costa, y los menores de edad constituye el 72% de la población.

  12. Belastung von Trinkwassertalsperren in Sachsen und Thüringen mit Parasitendauerformen und ausgewählten Bakterien

    OpenAIRE

    Bischoff, Kathrin

    2006-01-01

    Von Oktober 1996 bis Januar 2000 wurden an 9 Trinkwassertalsperrensystemen mit unterschiedlich genutztem Einzugsgebiet in Sachsen und Thüringen mikrobiologisch-trinkwasserhygienische Untersuchungen durchgeführt. Schwerpunkt der Arbeiten war die Ermittlung der Belastungsquellen und der Eintrittspfade von durch Wasser übertragbaren Krankheitserregern, besonders von Parasitendauerformen, in Zuflüssen, Vorsperren und die Talsperrenwässer selbst. Trotz nachgewiesener hoher mikrobiologischer Belast...

  13. Larval and juvenile growth of two Patagonian small pelagic fishes: Engraulis anchoita and Sprattus fuegensis

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, D.R.; Sánchez, R.P.

    2010-01-01

    Patagonian anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) and sprat (Sprattus fuegensis) constitute the two most important pelagic resources of the Argentine Patagonian shelf (SW Atlantic). Age and growth parameters of larvae and juveniles of both species were determined analyzing otoliths daily increments. A total of 404 anchovies (4.1-33 mm SL) and 157 sprats (5-41 mm SL) were analyzed. The Laird-Gompertz growth model was fitted to the length-at-age data of anchovies: L(t) = 4.2 exp (2.28 (1-(-0.034 t))). Th...

  14. Identificación de puntos de pesca en los viajes pesqueros de anchoveta monitoreados por satélites mediante redes neuronales artificiales.

    OpenAIRE

    Joo, Rocío

    2008-01-01

    La sostenibilidad de los recursos marinos y de su ecosistema hace necesario un manejo responsable de las pesquerías. Conocer la distribución espacial del esfuerzo pesquero y en particular de las operaciones de pesca es indispensable para mejorar el monitoreo pesquero y el análisis de la vulnerabilidad de las especies frente a la pesca. Actualmente en la pesquería de anchoveta peruana, se recoge información del esfuerzo y capturas mediante un programa de observadores a bordo, pero esta solo re...

  15. Fecundidad de la anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus (pisces: engraulidae) en la población de la parte interna del Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    OpenAIRE

    Kehrson Ruiz G.; Jorge Arturo Rodríguez M.; Rosa Soto

    2016-01-01

    La anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus es utilizada como carnada por la flota pesquera artesanal tradicional. Se estudiaron sus aspectos reproductivos durante los picos de desove de 1997 y 1998. La talla reproductiva en esa época se estimó en 14,6 cm y la proporción sexual fue de 1:1,2 (machos: hembras). En el análisis de fecundidad, se encontraron hembras maduras entre las tallas de 16,2 y 21,3 cm de longitud. La fecundidad relativa varió del 1,867 oocitos por gramo de pez en el grupo de talla...

  16. Shelf life of anchovy products (Engraulis encrasicolus: evaluation of sensory, microbiological and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fishery products have always been an important food in Italy. In the past, increased consumption was mainly due to the good quality of the products, easiness of use and their beneficial effects on health. Recently, owing to the national financial crisis, there has been a decline in the consumption of fish. In fact, in 2013, according to data from ISMEA, the consumption of fresh fish suffered a sharp contraction (-5%. This decline also concerns anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus. This species, partly because of its low price, is a mainstay of traditional Italian food. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensorial, chemical and microbiological properties of anchovy-based (Engraulis encrasicolus products during storage at 4 and -20°C. Fresh anchovies, obtained from the wholesale fish market of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy were cut into small pieces and hand-prepared using bread, eggs, cheese and lemon juice. Samples were analysed after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of storage at 4°C. An aliquot was quickly frozen and analysed after 34 days at -20°C. Sensory assessment, microbiological (specific spoilage organisms, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. and chemical (histamine, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid, pH and aw analyses were performed. Results showed that the shelf life of anchovy products was less than 5 days for the samples stored at 4°C. At -20°C, all anchovies preparations showed good sensory, microbiological and chemical properties for 34 days.

  17. Living with uncertainty: genetic imprints of climate shifts in east Pacific Anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and sardine (Sardinops sagax) population

    OpenAIRE

    Lecomte, Frederic; W. Stewart Grant; Dodson, J.J.; Rodríguez Sánchez, Rubén; Bowen, B W

    2004-01-01

    In the upwelling zone of the northeastern Pacific, cold nutrient-rich conditions alternate with warm nutrient-poor intervals on timescales ranging from months to millennia. In this setting, the abundances of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) fluctuate by several orders of magnitude, with sardine dominating during warm conditions and anchovy dominating during cool conditions. Two population models can explain the response of these fishes to adverse condi...

  18. Modifications in the chemical compounds and sensorial attributes of Engraulis anchoita fillet during marinating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Yeannes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Marinated fish are fish products preserved by the combined action of salt and organic acids. The objective of this work was to analyze the variations in the chemical compounds of anchovy fillets that give them sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of Engraulis anchoita. The protein content decreased slightly and the TVB-N level decreased significantly in both the brining and marinating stages. In the marinating stage an increase in the total free aminoacids was observed. The NBV level in the brining and marinating solutions increased during these stages due to the solubilization of the non-protein nitrogenous compounds and the degradation of some protein compounds.The decrease of the contents of protein and TVB-N, and the increase of the acidity and the free aminoacids content during the marinating process give the marinated fillets the characteristic texture and aroma.Peixes marinados são produtos obtidos pela ação combinada de sal e ácidos orgânicos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações químicas e sensoriais em filés de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita durante o processo de marinado. O conteúdo de proteína apresentou decréscimo significativo durante a salga. O teor de Bases Voláteis Totais-N-BVT, apresentou uma diminuição considerável durante a salga e marinacão. Na fase de marinado, foi observado um aumento em aminoácidos livres totais. Foi constatada a presença de N-BVT na salmoura e na solução oriunda do processo de obtenção de marinado, devido à solubilização de nitrogênio não protéico, que podem ter sido acrescidos de alguns compostos de degradação protéica. A redução do conteúdo de proteína e N-BVT e o aumento de acidez e de aminoácidos livres gerados durante ou processo de elaboração do marinado fazem com que os filés marinados adquiram textura e aroma característicos.

  19. Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita stock identification and incipient exploitation in southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M Carvalho

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita is an essential species in the pelagic ecosystem of the southwest Atlantic Ocean, and a potentially important fishery resource. Exploitation has recently started in southern Brazil, so it requires a better understanding of their structure and population dynamics. This work aims to update the information on the population identification of E. anchoita. Parameters such as age and size composition, length-at-age data and other parameters using sagittae otoliths were used to compare anchovy of the continental shelf between 20° and 32°S. The results indicate the existence of different populations in the southeastern and southern regions of Brazil: the bonaerense stock in southern Brazil is shared with Argentina and Uruguay and exhibits migratory behavior, while in the southeast there is a population confined to this region and shows different population characteristics. This has implications for the management of this species and should be taken into account by the institutions responsible for the assessment and management of fisheries in Brazil.

  20. {sup 2}10Po in engraulis encrasilocus in the North of the Valencian community; {sup 2}10Po en Engraulis Encrasilocus en el Norte de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Belmar, V.; Camara Garcia, T.; Ferrero Calabuig, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    Within the scope of natural radiation, one of the most studied radionuclides is currently radon and their descendants. The doses due to this radionuclide are the most high and dangerous, not only in areas where there is radon this is already inhaled by the population but it also swallowed their descendants via food, contributing to a dose rate more. The objective of this work is the study of the concentration of {sup 2}10Po in anchovy (Engraulis Encrasilocus) in an area with a coastal lagoon with high concentration of {sup 2}22 Rn. (Author)

  1. Intraretinal variability and specialization of cones in Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus, Engraulidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashev, S L; Kornienko, M S; Gnyubkina, V P; Frolova, L T

    2016-04-01

    The retina of anchovies is characterized by an unusual arrangement and ultrastructure of cones. In the retina of Japanese anchovies, Engraulis japonicus, three types of cones are distributed into rows. The nasal, central, temporal, and ventro-temporal regions of the retina were occupied exclusively by the long and short cones. Triple cones, made up of two lateral components and one smaller central component, were found only in the dorsal and ventro-nasal retinal regions. In the outer segments of all short and long cones from the ventro-temporal region, the lamellae were oriented along the cell axis and were perpendicular to the lamellae in the long cones, providing a morphological basis for the detection of polarization. This lamellar orientation is unique to all vertebrates. The cones were examined with respect to regional differentiation in their size and spectral properties via light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and microspectrophotometry. Various dimensions of cones were measured in preparations of isolated cells. The cones from the ventro-temporal region had different dimensions than cones of the same type located in other retinal regions. Triple cones from the dorsal region were significantly larger than triple cones from the ventro-nasal region. The spectral absorbance of the lateral components of triple cones in the ventro-nasal retina was identical to the absorbance of all long and short cones from the ventro-temporal region. These are shifted to shorter wavelengths relative to the absorbance of the lateral components of the triple cones located in the dorsal retina. Thus, the retina of the Japanese anchovy shows some features of regional specialization common in other fishes that improves spatial resolution for the upwards and forwards visual axis and provides spectral tuning in downwelling light environment. That results from the differentiation of cone types by size and by different spectral sensitivity of various retinal areas. J

  2. Clupeiformes' Egg Envelope Proteins characterization: The case of Engraulis encrasicolus as a proxy for stock assessment through a novel molecular tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccoli, Andrea; Leonori, Iole; Estonba, Andone; De Felice, Andrea; Piccinetti, Chiara Carla; Carnevali, Oliana

    2016-07-01

    Zona radiata proteins are essential for ensuring bactericidal resistance, oocyte nutrients uptake and functional buoyancy, sperm binding and guidance to the micropyle, and protection to the growing oocyte or embryo from the physical environment. Such glycoproteins have been characterized in terms of molecular structure, protein composition and phylogenetics in several chordate models. Nevertheless, research on teleost has not been extensive. In Clupeiformes, one of the most biologically relevant and commercially important order which accounts for over 400 species and totally contributes to more than a quarter of the world fish catch, Egg Envelope Protein (EEP) information exist only for the Clupea pallasii and Engraulis japonicus species. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, the target of a well-consolidated fishery in the Mediterranean Sea, has been ignored until now and the interest on the Otocephala superorder has been fragmentally limited to some Cypriniformes and Gonorynchiformes, as well. The aim of the present study was to fill the ZP protein-wise gap of knowledge afflicting the understanding of the European anchovy's reproductive process and to expand the background on Clupeiformes. We cloned the five Engraulis encrasicolus' zp genes and deduced their products, determined their tissue distribution, quantified their mRNA expression throughout the reproductive cycle and provided an insight into their evolution through phylogenetic tools. Furthermore, we proposed a multivariate statistics-based method to objectively infer and/or confirm the classification of Engraulis encrasicolus' sexual maturity stages by analyzing data of zp mRNAs' relative abundance. PMID:27060425

  3. Fecundidad de la anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus (pisces: engraulidae en la población de la parte interna del Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehrson Ruiz G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus es utilizada como carnada por la flota pesquera artesanal tradicional. Se estudiaron sus aspectos reproductivos durante los picos de desove de 1997 y 1998. La talla reproductiva en esa época se estimó en 14,6 cm y la proporción sexual fue de 1:1,2 (machos: hembras. En el análisis de fecundidad, se encontraron hembras maduras entre las tallas de 16,2 y 21,3 cm de longitud. La fecundidad relativa varió del 1,867 oocitos por gramo de pez en el grupo de tallas superiores a 921 oocitos por gramo de pez en el grupo de menor talla. La relación entre el número de oocitos y la talla del pez fue para la fecundidad total de 1,10 *LT4,55 y para la fecundidad relativa de 0,17 * PT1,19. Los índices gonadosomáticos fueron calculados para machos y hembras en los diferentes estadios de madurez, obteniéndose los valores máximos en el estadio IV, siendo a la vez mayores en machos que en hembras.

  4. Portfolioarbeit in der zweiten Phase der Lehramtsausbildung in den Bundesländern Hamburg, Schleswig-Holstein und Thüringen

    OpenAIRE

    Müller, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In einer Reihe von Bundesländern ist in der zweiten Ausbildungsphase von Lehrer/innen Portfolioarbeit als Begleit- und Beurteilungsinstrument vorgesehen. Am Beispiel der Bundesländer Hamburg, Thüringen und Schleswig-Holstein wird die gegenwärtige Praxis beim Einsatz von Portfolios dokumentiert und bewertet. Ausgehend von den jeweiligen gesetzlichen Rahmen und den zugrunde liegenden Konzepten werden jeweils die Einführung, die Begleitung und schließlich Nutzung der Portfolios bei der Leistungs...

  5. Macrozooplankton predation impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) eggs mortality at the Bay of Biscay shelf break spawning centre

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, Aitor

    2014-11-23

    A real-time PCR based method involving a species-specific probe was applied to detect Engraulis encrasicolus eggs predation by the macrozooplankton community during the 2011 spawning season. Three locations along the shelf break presenting contrasting but high prey densities were sampled. A total of 840 individuals from 38 taxa of potential macrozooplankton predators were assayed for E. encrasicolus DNA presence and 27 presented at least one positive signal. Carnivorous copepods were responsible for the most predation events (66%) followed by euphausiids (16%), chaetognaths (5%), and myctophid fish (4%). Macrozooplankton predation on anchovy eggs followed a type-I functional response with daily mortalities <4% of available prey abundance suggesting a negligible impact on the species recruitment at the shelf break spawning centre. © 2014 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Relaciones entre la distribución de recursos pelágicos pequeños y la temperatura superficial del mar registrada con satélites NOAA en la zona central de Chile Relationships between the small pelagic resources distribution and the sea surface temperatures recorded by NOAA satellites from Chile central zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez R

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realiza un estudio exploratorio para determinar la posibilidad de introducir el uso de imágenes de temperatura superficial del mar (TSM, confeccionadas con datos de satélites NOAA, en las pesquerías de recursos pelágicos pequeños de la zona central de Chile. Se determinan significativas relaciones entre los rendimientos de las especies analizadas y los gradientes térmicos (GRT en forma particular. Estos se asocian a aguas oceánicas en el caso del jurel (Trachurus murphyi, y a surgencias costeras en relación con la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Clupea bentincki. Se concluye que el uso de imágenes de TSM-NOAA puede jugar un papel importante en la operación de flotas, particularmente de las del tipo de embarcaciones consideradas en el presente trabajo.A survey study was conducted to assess the possibility of introducing the use of sea surface temperatures (SST, obtained from NOAA satellite data, for the small pelagic fisheries resources. Relationships between species yields and thermal gradients (TGR were found significant. Jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi yields were largely related with a strong thermal gradient next to oceanic waters, while anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Clupea bentincki yields were mainly associated to the development of coastal upwelling events. It is concluded that the use of SST-NOAA images can play an important role in fleet operations, particularly in the case ot the type of boats considered in this paper.

  7. An analysis of the impacts of climatic variability and hydrology on the coastal fisheries, Engraulis encrasicolus and Sepia officinalis, of Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Ullah, Hadayet; Leitao, F.; Baptista, Vânia; Chícharo, Luís

    2012-01-01

    The notion that climate change may impact coastal fish production suggests a need to understand how climatic variables may influence fish catches at different time scales. Evidence suggests that the effect of climatic variability and fishing effort on landed catches (as proxy of fish abundance) may vary at the regional scale. This study aims to assess the sensibility of two commercial species with a short life cycle (Engraulis encrasicolus and Sepia officinalis) to climatic and fisheries effe...

  8. Population – genetic structure on European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Engraulide from Mediterranean Basin and Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. IVANOVA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle proteins of the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus L. were analyzed using starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing on thin polyacrylamide ampholine gel. Twenty-two protein loci were analyzed and polymorphism was found in six of them. Based on genetic-biochemical data, we hypothesize that there are two anchovy subspecies, European and African. The former inhabits the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean coast of Europe, and the Aegean, Marmora, Black, and Azov Seas. The latter is found in the Cape Blank region of the Atlantic Ocean and, probably, along the northwestern part of the African coast. The Aegean anchovy consists of hybrid populations, resulting from introgressive hybridization between the European and the African populations. No evidence for subspecies differentiation between the populations from the European coast of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean was found. Genetic distances between the Azov and Black Sea populations show that the former probably entered the Black Sea during the Karangad period and the latter during the last connection of the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The genetic distance between the Black Sea anchovy and the Azov anchovy shows that they could be specified as two different populations. Probably some earlier subspecies differences disappeared as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  9. A COI Nonsynonymous Mutation as Diagnostic Tool for Intraspecific Discrimination in the European Anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, Anna Maria; Federico, Concetta; Sabella, Giorgio; Saccone, Salvatore; Ferrito, Venera

    2015-01-01

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, is currently one of the principal target species for commercial fisheries in Europe. In this study, the mitochondrial Control Region (CR) and the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial gene were analyzed in 74 specimens of E. encrasicolus from four localities in the central Mediterranean. In both populations, the two markers revealed the presence of two main haplogroups, A and B, already detected in previous investigations of different classes of molecular markers. Both CR and COI markers consistently identified two haplogroups. The COI sequence analysis identified a non-synonymous transversion (T to G) at position 116 of the translated sequence, resulting in an amino acid change. All COI sequences of haplogroup A had an amino acid sequence with alanine in this position, while serine was present in the same position in haplogroup B. The two haplogroups A and B were also discriminated by the variable number of TACA elements at the 5’-end of the mitochondrial CR. The selection tests applied to the COI dataset revealed that codon 116 was not under positive selection, that seven amino acid changes were under purifying selection, and that two amino acids were under episodic positive selection. PMID:26599908

  10. Acid and salt uptake during the marinatig process of Engraulis anchoita fillets influence of the solution: fish ratio and agitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Capaccioni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research were to determine the effect of different conditions of the marination stage on the salt and acid uptake, immersion time, and sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita. Different solution:fish ratios and the agitation effect during this stage were analyzed. The ratios used were: 0.77:1, 3:1 and 10:1 (with and without agitation. An increase of marinating solution:fish ratio causes a higher speed of acid and salt penetration The product obtained with the 10:1 ratio had a dry and fibrous texture and a slightly salty taste. Salt concentration was statistically significantly lower (p < 0.01 in the samples with agitation. Agitation did not influence the acid uptake, and the salt penetration speed decreased, but rancidity was detected in this product. The ratio 3:1 decreases the marinating time without damaging sensory attributes and can be used in the fish marinating process.

  11. Monthly variation in the fat content of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea: implications for acoustic abundance estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; ZHAO Xianyong; DAI Fangqun

    2011-01-01

    Anchovy is a key species in the Yellow Sea ecosystem. An accurate estimate of anchovy abundance is vital for the management of the anchovy stock and measurement of the ecosystem response to changes in anchovy abundance. However, the acoustic fish abundance estimate may be biased by 30%-40% if the fat-content induced target strength variation is not taken into account. We measured the monthly variation in the fat content of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea, and evaluated the potential effect of variation in fat content on the acoustic assessment of anchovy abundance. The fat content of anchovy varied seasonally, with two maxima and two minima in a year. The highest fat content (14.75%) was measured in the pre-spawning period in May, and the lowest fat content (2.48%) was measured during the post-spawning period in October. Fat content appeared to correlate with water content,but not body size. Assuming that the target strength is decreased by 0.2dB for every 1% increase in fat content, the seasonal difference in the target strength of anchovy may be as high as 2.45 dB. Given this,the acoustic abundance estimate may be biased by between 43% and 76%. Our results highlight the need for more information on the changes in fat content of fishes whose abundance is estimated by acoustic surveys.

  12. Análisis de la pesquería del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del jurel Trachurus murphyi ha sido registrado en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal en Perú desde 1907. A partir del año 2000, las capturas de T. murphyise ubicaron en el tercer lugar después de la anchoveta Engraulis ringensy el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas. Las capturas de T. murphyison realizadas por la flota artesanal, industrial cerquera y barcos arrastreros factoría. En el año 2011, la flota industrial cerquera con permiso de pesca para T. murphyien la costa peruana estaba constituida por 62 embarcaciones industriales de acero (30177 m 3 y 42 industriales de madera (3082 m 3 . Las capturas de T. murphyituvieron un notable incremento a partir de 1972, alcanzando sus máximos valores en 1977, 1996-97 y 2001, a los que siguieron años de muy baja disponibilidad que llevó al mínimo registro en las capturas en 2010. Sin embargo en el 2011 se revirtió esta baja disponibilidad y las capturas alcanzaron casi las 260000 toneladas. En el periodo 1972 – 2012 se observó una relación inversa entre los estimados de biomasa acústica del jurel T. murphyiy los desembarques anuales de anchoveta E. ringens. Las capturas mensuales de T. murphyipor la flota industrial y artesanal antes del 2002 fueron altas en la zona norte de Perú (Mancora-Chimbote, mientras que después del 2002 las capturas fueron altas en la zona centro-sur (Huacho-Ilo.

  13. Descripción de la pesquería artesanal de peces, en tres puertos pesqueros de la IV región, Coquimbo, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Víquez Portuguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un seguimiento de la pesca artesanal de peces en las caletas de Coquimbo, Guanaqueros y Tongoy en la IV región, Chile, entre junio de 1995 y junio de 1996. El estudio comprendió un análisis de las especies capturadas , biomasa de ellas, artes de pesca empleadas y desembarque en cada caleta por medio de formularios acordados en un proyecto convenio tripartito entre la Federación de Trabajadores del Mar (FETRAMAR de la provincia de Elqui F.G., el Servicio Nacional de Pesca de la IV región (SERNAP y la Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN. Se capturó un total de 27 especies de interés comercial y las especies de mayor relevancia fueron la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y el jurel (Trachurus murphyi, capturadas con red de cerco; la merluza (Merluccius gayi y la reineta (Brama austalis capturadas con espinel.

  14. Living with uncertainty: genetic imprints of climate shifts in East Pacific anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and sardine (Sardinops sagax).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lecomte, F; Grant, W S; Dodson, J J; Rodriguez-Sanchez, R; Bowen, B W

    2004-08-01

    In the upwelling zone of the northeastern Pacific, cold nutrient-rich conditions alternate with warm nutrient-poor intervals on timescales ranging from months to millennia. In this setting, the abundances of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) fluctuate by several orders of magnitude, with sardine dominating during warm conditions and anchovy dominating during cool conditions. Two population models can explain the response of these fishes to adverse conditions. Under the basin model, species distributions contract to a central (optimal) range during population crashes. Expectations of this model may include a single range-wide population with a decline in genetic diversity on both sides of a central refuge. In contrast, the self-recruitment model invokes a series of local oceanographic domains that maintain semi-isolated subpopulations. During adverse conditions, some subpopulations cannot complete the life cycle within the local environment and are extirpated. Expectations of this model include some degree of population genetic structure and no clear gradient in genetic diversity. We examined mitochondrial DNA cytochrome b sequences to assess these competing models for anchovy (N = 196; 539 bp) and sardine (N = 107; 425 bp). The mitochondrial DNA gene genealogies are shallow but diverse for both species. Haplotype frequencies are homogeneous among subpopulations, but genetic diversities peak for both species along Baja California and adjacent southern California. Mismatch distributions and Tajima's D-values reveal distinctive signatures of population bottlenecks and expansions. Sardine haplotypes coalesce at approximately 241,000 years bp, with an initial female effective population size Nf0 = 0 followed by exponential growth to Nf1 = 115 million. Anchovy haplotypes coalesce at approximately 282,000 years bp, with an initial population size of Nf0 = 14,000, followed by exponential growth to Nf1 = 2.3 million. These results

  15. Zwischen Reichsstandschaft und Standesherrschaft. Die Grafen zu Stolberg und ihr Verhältnis zu den Landgrafen von Thüringen und späteren Herzögen, Kurfürsten bzw. Königen von Sachsen (1210 - 1815)

    OpenAIRE

    Brückner, Jörg

    2003-01-01

    Gegenstand der Dissertation ist die Darstellung der Entwicklung der im Südharz und in Nordthüringen ansässigen Grafen zu Stolberg seit ihrer Ersterwähnung im Jahre 1210 bis zum Wiener Kongress 1815. Über einen Zeitraum von mehr als 600 Jahren wird das Beziehungsverhältnis zwischen diesem Harzgrafengeschlecht und den Landgrafen von Thüringen und den nachfolgenden Herzögen, Kurfürsten bzw. Königen von Sachsen näher untersucht. Breiten Raum nimmt dabei der handbuchartige Überblick über die Entwi...

  16. Determination of cholesterol oxides in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus treated with a commercial mixture of citric acid, trisodium acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniello Anastasio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new additive formulation containing hydrogen peroxide, citric acid and trisodium acid is illegally used in fishery products due its whitening and antioxidant features. Aim of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of COPs and their role as markers of illegal treatment in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus stored at different temperatures. Sensory analysis was also performed by the specific QIM test. The quantitative determinations (% of cholesterol oxides (COPs showed changing amounts during storage. Not always The COPs measured in the treated samples were significantly higher than control samples. Considering the volatility of hydrogen peroxide and the poor repeatability of COPs analyses, as shown in the present study, it is crucial to intensify the control by the Authorities.

  17. Estandarización de tasas de captura de pesquerías pelágicas de la zona norte de Chile durante 1987-92 Standardization of catch rates for the northern Chile pelagic fishery during 1987-92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez R.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Se usó el modelo lineal general para estandarizar el índice de abundancia relativa, captura por unidad de esfuerzo (CPUE, de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina (Sardinops sagax en el norte de Chile (18º21'-24ºS, entre 1987 y 1992. Para anchoveta se toma en cuenta la categoría de embarcación, la zona de pesca, la estación del año, el año y la temperatura superficial del mar (TSM. Para sardina se considera la categoría de embarcación, la zona de pesca, la estación del año y el año. Estas variables muestran en general efectos bastante significativos en el logaritmo de la CPUE. Además, interacciones significativas son identificadas para anchoveta entre año*estación, año*zona, estación*zona, zona*TSM, estación*año*zona, estación*año*TSM, estación*zona*TSM y año*zona*TSM. Para sardina las interacciones significativas identificadas son estación*año, estación*zona, año*zona y estación*año*zona. En conclusión, cerca del 35% y 45% de la variación total observada de la CPUE no fueron explicadas por los modelos planteados para ambas especies, debido probablemente al carácter aleatorio de la pescaWe used a general linear model for the standarization of the index of relative abundance catch per unit of effort (CPUE. The analysis was performed for anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax in northern Chile (18º21'-24ºS, for the years 1987 through 1992. For anchovy we have considered ship hold capacity, fishing area, season, year and the sea surface temperature (SST. For sardine, we have considered ship's hold capacity, fishing area, season and year. These variables individually have a significant effect in the CPUE logarithms. For the anchovy, we identified a significant interaction between year*season, year*fishing area, season*fishing area, fishing area*SST, season*year*fishing area, season*year*SST, season*fishing area*SST, and year*fishing area*SST. In the case of the sardine the significant

  18. El zooplancton del hábitat reproductivo de la población bonaerense de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita), con especial énfasis en crustáceos

    OpenAIRE

    Viñas, M.D.; Marrari, M.; R. Di Mauro; Cepeda, G.D.; Padovani, L.N.

    2013-01-01

    The information gathered in Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) Northern population assessment cruises allowed to perform studies on the zooplankton community of the Buenos Aires shelf since 1995. In this work the most relevant results as regards the taxonomy and size structure of the community, faunistic areas, and 'key' species in relation to the hydrographic conditions and frontal systems of the region are presented. Besides, the consequences those results might have on Argentine anchov...

  19. Effect of strong winds on the nutritional condition of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) larvae in the Bay of Biscay, Northeast Atlantic, as inferred from an early field application of the DNA/C index

    OpenAIRE

    Bergeron, Jean-pierre

    2000-01-01

    A new biochemical index was used to assess larval fish nutritional condition during a. survey cruise in the Bay of Biscay in early June 1993. This period corresponds to the breeding season of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.). The analysis of samples taken at grid points indicated a clear spatial pattern in nutritional condition, which increased from the middle shelf to the shelf edge. A relatively large fraction of the larval population proved to be in poor condition. Strong w...

  20. Efecto de la predación de Noctiluca scintillans Macartney, Sagitta friderici Ritter-Záhony y larvas de Engraulis anchoita Hubbs-Marini sobre la comunidad planctónica costera bonaerense

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, N.E.

    2008-01-01

    Studied the effect of the predation of Noctiluca scintillans, Sagitta friderici and larvae of Engraulis anchoita in planktonic community of the coastal waters off Buenos Aires province from samples obtained of a permanent station EPEA (38°28’ S, 57°41’ W, 48 m depth) from March 2000 through April 2001. The composition of the diet of the three species predators considering appearances quantitative and qualitative was determined. It found that N. scintillans consumed mainly diatoms and copepod ...

  1. Spatial distribution, sampling precision and survey design optimisation with non-normal variables: The case of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) recruitment in Spanish Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugores, M. Pilar; Iglesias, Magdalena; Oñate, Dolores; Miquel, Joan

    2016-02-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) displays a key role in ecological and economical terms. Ensuring stock sustainability requires the provision of crucial information, such as species spatial distribution or unbiased abundance and precision estimates, so that management strategies can be defined (e.g. fishing quotas, temporal closure areas or marine protected areas MPA). Furthermore, the estimation of the precision of global abundance at different sampling intensities can be used for survey design optimisation. Geostatistics provide a priori unbiased estimations of the spatial structure, global abundance and precision for autocorrelated data. However, their application to non-Gaussian data introduces difficulties in the analysis in conjunction with low robustness or unbiasedness. The present study applied intrinsic geostatistics in two dimensions in order to (i) analyse the spatial distribution of anchovy in Spanish Western Mediterranean waters during the species' recruitment season, (ii) produce distribution maps, (iii) estimate global abundance and its precision, (iv) analyse the effect of changing the sampling intensity on the precision of global abundance estimates and, (v) evaluate the effects of several methodological options on the robustness of all the analysed parameters. The results suggested that while the spatial structure was usually non-robust to the tested methodological options when working with the original dataset, it became more robust for the transformed datasets (especially for the log-backtransformed dataset). The global abundance was always highly robust and the global precision was highly or moderately robust to most of the methodological options, except for data transformation.

  2. Identification and distribution of three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) isoforms in the brain of a clupeiform fish, Engraulis japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhan, Zahid Parvez; Kitano, Hajime; Selvaraj, Sethu; Yoneda, Michio; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Matsuyama, Michiya

    2013-12-01

    To gain a better understanding of the reproductive endocrinology of a primitive order clupeiform fish (Japanese anchovy, Engraulis japonicus), cDNAs encoding three gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) isoforms were isolated from the brain, and their distribution was analyzed using insitu hybridization (ISH). The three GnRH isoforms include GnRH1 (herring GnRH), GnRH2 (chicken GnRH-ll) and GnRH3 (salmon GnRH), and their full-length cDNAs encode 88, 86, and 89 deduced amino acids (aa), respectively. Alignment analysis of Japanese anchovy GnRH isoforms showed lower identities with other teleost fish. The major population of GnRH1 neurons was localized in the ventral telencephalon (VT) and nucleus preopticus (NPO) of the preoptic area (POA) with minor population in the anterior olfactory bulb (OB). GnRH2 neurons were restricted to the midbrain tegmentum (MT), specific to the nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus (nMLF). GnRH3 neurons were localized in the olfactory nerve (ON), ventral OB, and transitional area between OB and ON. Interestingly, GnRH1 neurons were also localized in the olfactory bulb, in addition to its major population in the preoptic area. These results indicate the differential distribution of three GnRH isoforms expressed in the brain of the Japanese anchovy. PMID:24320187

  3. Irradiación gamma en anillas de calamar (Illex argentinus) y filetes marinados de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita) : Aspectos tecnológicos y de calidad

    OpenAIRE

    Tomac, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    Se estudió desde un abordaje multidisciplinario el efecto de la irradiación gamma sobre dos productos pesqueros, a fin de analizar la factibilidad de extender su vida comercial en refrigeración. Se utilizaron dos productos que difieren en su composición y preservación: anillas de calamar (Illex argentinus) frescas y filetes marinados de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita). En distintas experiencias se aplicó la irradiación gamma mediante una fuente de Cobalto-60, en la planta de irradiación semi...

  4. Spatial distribution and reconstruction potential of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) based on scale deposition records in recent anaerobic sediment of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiansheng; SUN Yao; JIA Haibo; YANG Qian; TANG Qisheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have revealed that anchovy has exhibited large variability in population size on decadal tim-escales. However, such works concerning anchovy population are mainly based on short historical catch records. In order to understand the causes of variability in fish stocks (natural and/or anthropogenic) and calibrate the error between catches and standing stocks, it is essential to develop long-term time series of fish stocks from the time when human impacts are minimal or negligible. Well preserved fish scales from sediment record are regarded as useful indicators revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries. Anchovy scales was first analyzed over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea and the largest abundance was found in the central South Yellow Sea where is regarded as the largest overwintering ground for Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicas). Thus in the central South Yellow Sea, two cores covering the last 150 years were collected for estimating fish scale flux. The scale deposition rate (SDR) records show that the decadal scale SDRs were obviously coherent between cores with independent chronologies. Thecalibration of downcore SDRs to the standing stocks of anchovy further validated that SDR is a reliable proxy to recon-struct the long-term anchovy population dynamic in the central South Yellow Sea where anoxic conditions prevail in the sediment. When assembled with other productivity proxies, it would be expected that SDR could be associated with changes in oceanic productivity and may make a contribution to determine the forcing factors and elucidate the mechanism of the process in future.

  5. Effect of food type and concentration on growth and fatty acid composition of early larvae of the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) reared under laboratory conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, Susana

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were conducted during the summer of 2008 and 2009 to study the growth of early post yolk-sac European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) larvae reared under different food regimes. The fatty acid composition was used to assess nutritional condition of the larvae. Prey items used in the experiments were Gymnodinium sanguineum, Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the copepods Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons. Food type and concentration affected the growth of the larvae. Mixed diets composed of rotifers and copepod nauplii at high concentration resulted in higher anchovy larvae growth rates in comparison with single-prey diets using either rotifers or copepod nauplii. The addition of the dinoflagellate G. sanguineum (25-50cellsml -1) to the prey offered did not enhance significantly larval growth. Highest growth rates of anchovy larvae (0.28mmd -1) were obtained using high concentrations of a mixed diet, particularly the combination of rotifers and A. grani nauplii. Fatty acid composition at hatch was similar to the composition observed in the field, but during larvae ontogeny there was a marked decrease in the contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Such difference reflects the high requirements of these PUFA for larvae development, and suggests that the food offered failed to fulfill the larvae nutritional requirements. The growth rates obtained in our experiments were, overall, in the lower range of those observed in natural conditions. Taking into considerations the fact that larvae in the field are expected to encounter lower prey concentrations, we discuss the reasons for such disagreement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Informe final FIP 96-05. Análisis de la captura y del esfuerzo de pesca en las unidades de pesquerías pelágicas de sardina española y anchoveta de la I a IV regiones.

    OpenAIRE

    Böhm Stoffel, M. G.; Catasti Barraza, V. C.; Barría Martínez, P. L.; Serra Beherns, J. R.; Rosson Villalobos, G.E.

    1998-01-01

    En esta investigación se entregan los principales resultados de los análisis correspondientes a la selección de las variables asociadas al poder de pesca y del esfuerzo de las embarcaciones industriales; clasificación de la flota por categorías de embarcación, selección de la categoría estándar y determinación del índice de desarrollo tecnológico de dicha categoría en la s pesquerías de sardina española y anchoveta para el período 1994-96.

  7. Fatty acids and stable isotopes of a marine ecosystem: Study on the Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) food web in the Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ruijing; Wu, Ying; Huang, Liang; Zhang, Jing; Gao, Lei; Wang, Na

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, the decline of the fish resource in the Yellow Sea has been dramatic. The fish community structure is changing. We determined the stable isotope and fatty acids composition in the Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) (dominant species) food web in the Yellow Sea, China, to study the ecological variation especially in the shifting trophic level. The major fatty acids found in the species were 14:0, 16:0, 16:1 n-7, 18:0, 18:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, 20:5 n-3, and 22:6 n-3, which made up 60-80% of the total fatty acids (FA). Scomberomorus niphonius and Conger myriaster were richer in 18:1 n-9. A higher percentage of saturated FA and lower percentage of polyunsaturated FA were found in Pseudosciaena polyactis, Chelidonichthys kumu, and Priacanthus macracanthus. A special feature of the grassfish was the high level of 20:4 n-6. An enrichment of stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes was observed from phytoplankton and zooplankton to fishes; the stable nitrogen isotope varied in the range 2.9-13.9‰ and the mean values of stable carbon isotopes of fishes tended to vary within a limited range (-19.4 to -17.9‰). Both δ 15N and specific fatty acids (such as 18:1 n-9, DHA, EPA) showed a good relationship with trophic level. A distinct change in the fatty acids signature and stable isotopes was observed for the Japanese anchovy with the increase in body length, which was independent of the variety of geographic locations. Egg and postlarva samples were richer in 16:1 n-7, 18:1 n-9, and C22:6 n-3. The major fatty acids were 16:0 and 18:1 n-9, followed by 20:5 n-3, 22:6 n-3, and 20:4 n-6, in young and adult Japanese anchovy. The shift in diet between the different life stages could be the explanation for this observation. Variations in trophic levels can be proven using stable isotope and fatty acids compositions, but this should be done with caution, such as with the application of principal components analysis in this study.

  8. İzmir Körfezi (Orta Ege Denizi)’ndeki Hamsi Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) Yumurta ve Larvalarının Bolluk ve Dağılımı

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Taylan; Belgin Hoşsucu

    2014-01-01

    Bu çalışmada Hamsi Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758) balığına ait yumurta ve larvaların İzmir Körfezi’nde 2013 yılındaki bolluk ve dağılımları incelenmiştir. Bu amaçla körfezde belirlenmiş 11 istasyondan mevsimsel olarak plankton çekimleri yapılmıştır. Hamsi yumurta ve larvaları kış mevsimi hariç ilkbahar, yaz ve sonbahar mevsimlerinde elde edilmiştir. Araştırma sonucunda toplam 6889 birey/m² yumurta, 3231 birey/m² larva elde edilmiştir. Elde edilen hamsi yumurtalarında minimum ve maksi...

  9. Trophic ecology of European sardine Sardina pilchardus and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic) inferred from δ13C and δ15N values of fish and identified mesozooplanktonic organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouvelon, T.; Chappuis, A.; Bustamante, P.; Lefebvre, S.; Mornet, F.; Guillou, G.; Violamer, L.; Dupuy, C.

    2014-01-01

    European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) are two species of economical and ecological significance in the Bay of Biscay (north-east Atlantic). However, the trophic ecology of both species is still poorly known in the area, and more generally, few studies have considered the potential trophic overlap between sardines and anchovies worldwide. This study aims to highlight the trophic links between the mesozooplankton and adults of these two pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay, through carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis (SIA). Mesozooplankton and individuals of sardines and anchovies were collected during one season (spring 2010), over spatially contrasted stations within the study area. First, the potential effect of preservation (ethanol vs. freezing) and of delipidation (by cyclohexane) on mesozooplankton δ13C and δ15N values was assessed. Results demonstrated the necessity to correct for the preservation effect and for lipid contents in mesozooplankton for further analyses of sardines' and anchovies' diet through SIA. Next, this study highlighted the interest of working on identified mesozooplanktonic organisms instead of undetermined assemblages when unravelling food sources of planktivorous fish using stable isotopes. The inter-specific variability of isotope values within a planktonic assemblage was effectively high, probably depending on the various feeding behaviours that can occur among mesozooplankton species. Intra-specific variability was also significant and related to the spatial variations of baseline signatures in the area. To investigate the foraging areas and potential diet overlap of S. pilchardus and E. encrasicolus, mixing models (SIAR) were applied. Both fish species appeared to feed mainly in the neritic waters of the Bay of Biscay in spring and to select mainly small- to medium-sized copepods (e.g. Acartia sp., Temora sp.). However, E. encrasicolus showed a greater trophic plasticity by

  10. Preservación y abundancia de escamas de peces en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile (21-36° S Fish scale preservation and abundance in sediments from the continental margin off Chile (21-36° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A DÍAZ-OCHOA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la relación entre la preservación de escamas de peces y las variaciones en las condiciones redox en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile, este trabajo presenta recuentos de escamas de peces y concentraciones normalizadas de elementos redox sensibles (Mo/Al, S/Al, Fe/Al en ocho testigos de sedimento recolectados en la zona de minimo oxígeno frente a Chile (Iquique: 20°15' S, bahía de Mejillones: 23° S y Concepción: 36° S. En el norte de Chile (Iquique y Mejillones predominan las escamas de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y de peces de la familia Myctophidae (media = 90 y 120 escamas 1.000 cm-3, respectivamente mientras que en Chile centro-sur (Concepción son más abundantes las escamas de jurel (Trachurus murphy; media = 140 escamas 1.000 cm-3. La abundancia de escamas de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi y de sardina (Sardinops sagax es aproximadamente un orden de magnitud más baja que la de anchoveta o jurel. En general, los valores más altos y los rangos más amplios de variación en las razones Mo/Al, S/Al y Fe/Al se encuentran en Mejillones (Mo/Al ~0,8-12 mg g-1, S/Al 0,2-4,6 g g-1, Fe/Al 0,3-0,7 g g-1 seguidos por Iquique (Mo/Al -0,2-1,8; S/Al 0,2-0,7, Fe/Al 0,5-0,8, mientras que Concepción revela valores más bajos y poco variables (Mo/Al ~0,07, S/Al ~0,15 y Fe/Al ~0,5. La razón Mo/Al, utilizada como indicador de paleo-oxigenación, permite inferir condiciones reductoras relativamente más intensas en los sedimentos de la Bahía de Mejillones e Iquique que en Concepción. En las tres localidades de muestreo se evidencia una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la abundancia de escamas de anchoveta y el logaritmo de la razón Mo/Al (r²= 0,46; P 1 mg g-1.The relationship between fish scale preservation and variations in the sediment redox conditions on Chile's continental shelf are evaluated herein through fish scale counts and normalized concentrations of redox sensitive elements

  11. Marknadsföringen biblioteket : En fallstudie av Broby bibliotek

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Karolina

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this master thesis is to use marketing theory on the library’s activities. The marketing theory used is the 4Ps; product, price, promotion and place, as it's presented by Philip Kotler. Because the library can be seen as a service oriented organization Christian Gronroos theory of marketing in the service industry also has been used. A case study of the public library in Broby was made to illustrate how the public libraries’ activities can appear in the light of marketing theor...

  12. Oplysningens begyndelse: Afsløringen af de tre bedragere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stjernfelt, Frederik

    Indledning til den anonyme Traktat om de Tre Bedragere, et "klandestint" ateistisk skrift fra den tidlige oplysning.......Indledning til den anonyme Traktat om de Tre Bedragere, et "klandestint" ateistisk skrift fra den tidlige oplysning....

  13. Energieffektivisering i byggenæringen, en vurdering av passivhuskonseptet

    OpenAIRE

    Flaatten, Torgeir

    2011-01-01

    Norske myndigheter har signalisert at det jobbes for å innføre passivhusnivå som forskriftskrav i 2020. Dette er et resultat av internasjonalt fokus på energieffektivisering i bygebransjen, og Norge har forpliktet seg til store kutt gjennom klimaforliket. Det har ført til hyppigere oppdateringer av teknisk forskrift som blant annet inneholder bestemmelser om energibruk i nybygg. Myndighetene har også innført støtteordninger og energimerking av bygninger for å motivere til energireduserende ti...

  14. Drosjenæringen under lupen : kontrollpluralisme i praksis?

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Paul; Sørli, Vanja Lundgren

    2012-01-01

    The article deals with attempts to regulate the Norwegian taxi industry. Over the past thirty years there has been periodic focus on different forms of tax-related crime during which counter measures in the form of regulation have been heavy in the taxi industry. Despite this the biggest complex of tax-related crimes and other forms of fraud ever detected in Norway was recently uncovered in the industry. This article asks and tries to explain why it is so difficult to regulate ...

  15. Opel, Thüringen und das Kaspische Meer

    OpenAIRE

    Jaenichen, Sebastian; Steinrücken, Torsten

    2006-01-01

    In einem föderalen System werden den einzelnen Gebietskörperschaften Entscheidungs- und Gestaltungskompetenzen übertragen. Diese können sie zum Nutzen oder Schaden von ansässigen und neu siedelnden Unternehmen einsetzen. Für Investoren besteht das Problem, dass Standorte ex ante Rahmenbedingungen in Aussicht stellen können, die sie ex post nicht realisieren oder deren Realisierung sie nicht glaubwürdig zusichern können. Für Unternehmen geht es mithin nicht nur darum, möglichst gute Investitio...

  16. DETERMINATION HISTAMINE IN SALTED ANCHOVY (ENGRAULIS ENCRASICHOLUS) BY ELISA

    OpenAIRE

    TERZİ, Göknur; GÜCÜKOĞLU, Ali

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT Histamine is an organic compound with low molecule weight which is formed by the decarboxylation of amino acids as a result of microbiological activity or by animation of aldehydes and ketones. Histamin is present in normally compound of various foods such as fish and fish products, meat and fermented meat products, chicken, cheese, wine and beer. Histamine is formed as a result of the enzymatic decarboxylation of histidine. Histamine causes food poisoning when intake high levels in ...

  17. Paris-erklæringen om Bistandseffektivitet - et speciale om hvordan Paris-erklæringen muliggør bistandsstyring og vanskeliggør kritik

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Søren Engberg

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In 2005 Ministers of developed and developing countries responsible for promoting development and Heads of multilateral and bilateral institutions, decided to take far-reaching and monitorable actions to reform the way aid is delivered and managed. These actions resulted in the Paris declaration of aid effectiveness - A declaration with a widespread ambition in supporting partner countries (developing countries), to strengthen governance and improve development performance. Th...

  18. Reduserer snittføringen ved implantasjon av bakflofenpumpe sensibiliteten over påfyllingsporten?

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Bakground Knowledge: Baclofen pump treatment is used with patients with spasms and spasticity. The pump is implanted subcutaneous on the abdomen, and a spinal catheter continuously delivers the medication to the cerebrospinal fluid. Current practice is to implant the pump with an angular incision. Hypothesis: In this project we have examined patients with a baclofen pump with a view to the impact of the incision to the sensibility over the pump. Our hypothesis was that the a...

  19. Tjernobyl och rennäringen - Lägesrapport från Sverige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Åhman

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Status report about Chernobyl and reindeer husbandry in Sweden including participants' discussion.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Den 1 juli hojdes grånsvårdet for Cs-137 i bl a renkott från 300 till 1 500 Bq/kg. Efter hojningen av grånsvårdet friklassades nåstan alla samebyar i Norrbottens lån under sarvslakten. Samtliga fjållsamebyar i Norrbottens lån utom den sydligaste år tills vidare helt friklassade. Tre samebyar i sodra delen av Jåmtlands lån var friklassade under sarvslakten. I ovrigt omfattas all renslakt i Våsterbottens och Jåmtlands lån av kontroll betråffande Cs-137. Under juli - aug i år var cesiumhalten lågre ån vid motsvarande tidpunkt i f jol (tabell 1 och figur 1. Under juli - aug slaktades drygt 1 000 renar i skogslandet i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3. Fr.o.m. andra veckan i juli godkåndes de fiesta slaktkropparna. Halveringstiden for Cs-137 i renarna, som betade i skogslandet kring inlandsbanan i sodra delen av Våsterbottenslån, har beråknats till ca en vecka. Genom tidigarelåggning av sarvslakter i Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3 och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån (tabell 5 minskades kassationen med ett par tusen slaktkroppar. Under senare delen av september steg cesiumhalten till ungefår samma nivå som i f jol. En långsiktig prognos har utarbetats betråffande halten Cs-137 i renar på naturbete. Prognosen visar att omfattande åtgårder kommer att behova vidtagas under de nårmaste 15 - 25 åren om ren-kottet från samebyarna i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån skall kunna god-kånnas som livsmedel vid ett riktvårde på 1 500 Bq Cs-137/kg kott.

  20. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H. G.;

    2013-01-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the...... of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg...... analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils...

  1. Informe Final FIP 96-04. Programa de marcaje de anchoveta Fase I: Marcación

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Farías, C.; Aranis Rodríguez, A.F.; Baros Pinto, V.; Barría Martínez, P. L.; Blanco García, J. L.; Böhm Stoffel, M. G.

    1998-01-01

    En la actualidad, los programas de mercaje son necesarios para estudios de vital importancia en la biología de poblaciones, como los patrones de migración; ya que es un hecho aceptado desde hace casi un siglo que los peces pelágicos especialmente los clupeideos presentan un ciclo migratorio anual, lo que se manifiesta en la pesquería como cambios espaciales y temporales en las zonas de pesca, con las respectivas oscilaciones en la magnitud de sus capturas. Las técnicas de marcación también pe...

  2. Microbial communities and biogeochemistry in an area of Engraulis encrasicolus spawning in the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosabruna La Ferla

    2014-06-01

    The rates of production, hydrolysis and degradation activities were quite low, in agreement with the general oligotrophy of the area and in agreement with this findings, picophytoplankton contribution to total production amounted to over than 65%. In terms of metabolic activities, different spatial distributions were observed between the autotrophic and heterotrophic components. In particular, heterotrophic metabolism showed high values in the layer located below the thermocline and above the DCM. Concerning the enzymatic activities, total leucine aminopeptidase activity showed the highest rates, followed by alkaline phosphatase and beta-Glucosidase (Caruso et al., 2014. Distribution of the dissolved enzymatic activities acting on proteins varied widely along the column, accounting for 5 to 90% of the total enzymatic activity and always prevailed on dissolved b-GLU. Total enzymatic activity rates were comparable to those obtained in the oligotrophic zones of Ionian and Mediterranean Sea (Zaccone et al., 2012, while the analysis of the dissolved fraction was the first report for the Mediterranean. In conclusion, the multidisciplinary scientific approach used in this study depicted a complex picture of the study area evidencing a high heterogeneity and dynamism of plankton communities, probably associated to peculiar hydrology of this ecosystem. On the whole, the study area appeared to be characterized by a relatively efficient microbial food web. However, low trophic conditions were stressed by all the biological and biochemical patterns, suggesting an important role of heterotrophic processes in this area in the examined summer period. Consequently, how and how much the microbial web sustains fish reproduction and larval survival need a more comprehensive analysis and will be focused in further research.

  3. Sociala media i marknadsföringen : Vägen från fenomen till marknadsföringsverktyg

    OpenAIRE

    Lindvall, Eivor

    2012-01-01

    Konsumenterna har tagit sociala media i användning och därmed har sociala mediernas betydelse vuxit som en marknadsplats, där även företagen kan ha nytta av att delta i PR- och marknadsföringssyfte. Min målsättning med detta examensarbete var att undersöka vilken nytta företag eftersträvar genom sin aktivitet i sociala media. Nyttan och riskerna med sociala media diskuterades ur en marknadsföringssynpunkt. Sociala media blir ofta beskrivna som ett fenomen för att dess historia är kort, me...

  4. Seasonal comparison of the diets of juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, David; Palomera, Isabel; Tirelli, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Anchovy and sardine in the Mediterranean are known to share the same habitat and, consequently, to interact with one another. These two sympatric pelagic species are planktivorous and consume a wide range of planktonic prey items during all their developmental stages, potentially overlapping their ecological niches, although the feeding interactions between these species have been poorly investigated. Here we compare the dietary habits of the juvenile phases of anchovy and sardine during different seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, through analysis of their stomach contents and of their feeding-related anatomical characteristics. In this study we show that juveniles of anchovy and sardine do not compete for food, and we describe significant dietary differences between anchovy and sardine due to their different alimentary tract morphology.

  5. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  6. Spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-28

    Previous studies have shown that the survival of larval and juvenile anchovy off the continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay is not significantly different from that observed on the shelf, even though the food concentration is significantly higher on the shelf. In this paper we investigate the causes for the lack of relationship between food and survival for anchovy juvenile through analyses of feeding activity versus zooplankton distribution (in the transition from summer to fall from 2003 to 2010). The spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy in relation to body size on and off the shelf revealed higher stomach fullness in areas off the shelf, where less zooplankton biomass was available. This result indicates that the food concentration is not always the main factor determining ingestion in fish. A situation of comparatively lesser prey abundance may provide better feeding conditions when combined with lower predation risk and lower light attenuation. In addition, the relatively heavier stomachs found in anchovies caught in years of higher recruitment indices suggest a large stomach content may be a symptom of good biological condition that may favour the winter survival of a larger fraction of the juvenile stock. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  7. Multiple SNP markers reveal fine-scale population and deep phylogeographic structure in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.).

    KAUST Repository

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2012-07-30

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian-Atlantic coast appear to have been founded by secondary waves of migrants from a southern refuge.

  8. Population Genetics of European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L. in the Seas of Turkey Based on Microsatellite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fevzi Bardakci

    2014-06-01

    Results: In this study, 13 microsatellite loci in 541 samples were analysed for determination of genetic structure of anchovy along Turkish coasts. The genetic variability was high among population, the average alleles numbers per locus per population ranged from 11.0 to 22.8. Observed heterozygosity per population was ranged from 0.612 (Mersin to 0.733 (İstanbul while expected heterozygosity was ranged from 0.774 (Mersin to 0.823 (Perşembe. The highest genetic distance was found between Antalya and Trabzon populations (FST=0.06949, the lowest between Antalya and İskenderun populations (0,00010. Analyses of 13 microsatellite loci were showed that there was low population structuring among all anchovy population (Fst: 0,024; SE 0,005. Although high genetic diversities was detected, for most loci with most populations were showed Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. Genetic distance analyses showed up Mediterranean specimens were highly distinct from Aegean and Black sea populations. Aegean populations were closer to Black sea populations because of higher gene flow between them rather than Mediterranean. A STRUCTURE computer program was indicated the presence of four possible genetic groups in Turkish territorial waters. Conclusions: Data to obtained from this study has found useful for the identification of genetic structuring of European anchovy distributed along the coasts of Turkish Seas. Results are also useful for planning of fishery management of anchovies in Turkey.

  9. Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in the spawning ground of anchovy (Engraulis japanicus) in the southern Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoshou; ZHANG Zhinan; HUANG Yong

    2005-01-01

    A grid of 22 stations, giving a broad coverage of the spawning ground of anchovy in the southern Huanghai Sea was selected. Undisturbed sediments were taken from sampling stations during the cruise in June 2003. The average abundance of meiofauna is (1 584 ±686) ind./10cm2, with corresponding biomass (dwt) of(1 086+425) μg/10cm2. The pattem of abundance of meiofauna is similar to the pattern ofbiomass. There are 65.88% meiofauna in 0~2 cm sediments, 27.66% in 2~5 cm sediments and 6.47% in 5~8 cm sediments.The Spearman correlation analysis between meiofauna and environmental factors shows that abundance of meiofauna, free living marine nematodes, benthic copepods has significant positive correlations with Chl-a. And the abundance of copepods has significant positive correlations with several factors such as Chl-a, Pha-a, Chl-a plus Pha-a and organic matter. A total of 18 meiofauna groups are identified. Nematode is the most dominant group, average abundance (1 404 ± 670) ind/10cm2, accounting for 88.65%, and the following groups are also important: benthic copepods (5.48%), kinorhyncha (1.26%), polychaeta (1.07%). By biomass, dominant groups are nematodes (51.72%), polychaeta (21.84%), copepods (14.87%), ostracoda (4.92%), kinorhyncha (3.67%). A total of 90 species of nematodes are identified. The species composition of nematodes is listed based on selected two stations 7794 (coastal area) and 10694(cold water mass in deep waters).

  10. Analyzing Fish Condition Factor Index Through Skew-Gaussian Information Theory Quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Javier E.

    2016-06-01

    Biological-fishery indicators have been widely studied. As such the condition factor (CF) index, which interprets the fatness level of a certain species based on length and weight, has been investigated, too. However, CF has been studied without considering its temporal features and distribution. In this paper, we analyze the CF time series via skew-gaussian distributions that consider the asymmetry produced by extreme events. This index is characterized by a threshold autoregressive model and corresponds to a stationary process depending on the shape parameter of the skew-gaussian distribution. Then we use the Jensen-Shannon (JS) distance to compare CF by length classes. This distance has mathematical advantages over other divergences such as Kullback-Leibler and Jeffrey’s, and the triangular inequality property. Our results are applied to a biological catalogue of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) from the northern coast of Chile, for the period 1990-2010 that consider monthly CF time series by length classes and sex. We find that for high values of shape parameter, JS distance tends to be more sensible to detect discrepancies than Jeffrey’s divergence. In addition, the body condition of male anchovies with higher lengths coincides with the ending of the moderate-strong El Niño event 91-92 and for both males and females, the smaller lengths coincide with the beginning of the strong El Niño event 97-98.

  11. Algunas consideraciones biogeograficas sobre el Pacifico Sudoriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vegas-Velez

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The improved study of the Eastern South Pacific undertaken in the last years enables us to have a better view of the marine communities' biogeography. The author, elaborating on several ideas of previous studies, proposes four subdivisions or districts in that region: 1 tropical of the Panamic-Pacific province up to 3º 30'S; 2 intermediate, from approximately 3º 30' to 7º S, where tropical and southern waters influence the presence of organisms; 3 temperate, of the Peruvian Coastal Current or Humboldt Current; and 4 tropical, in the waters off this last Current Joining the Peruvian Oceanic Current. The author, consulting extensive literature, examines the presence of molluscs and fishes, in order to select a characterization of each biogeographical district. Some of the proposals are, for instance, Littorina peruviana, Ocypode guadichaudii and Engraulis ringens for the temperate district; Littorina paytensis, Olivella broggi and Scorpaena afuerae for the intermediate one; the thunids and Exocoetus volitans for the tropical oceanic waters; and Anadara tuberculosa, Littorina varia, Pomadasys panamensis and Sciades troschelli for the tropical waters north of 3º 30'.

  12. Broodstock management of the fine flounder Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 using recirculating aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Carrera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the methodology used at IMARPE for the capture, acclimation and management of P. adspersus broodstock using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. RAS improved the water quality and maintained the environmental parameters during the acclimation period, temperature (17.2±1°C, oxygen (8.1±0.7 mg L-1, pH (7.3±0.2, ammonia (0.004±0.003 mg L-1, nitrite (0.52±0.2 mg L-1 and nitrate (3.45±2.6 mg L-1. Fish began to be fed normally from day 15 post-capture, once or twice a day using live fish (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus, crustacean (Emerita analoga, fresh food (Engraulis ringens and Dosidicus gigas and artificial feed. A significant loss in the weight of the fish was registered during the first days of captivity, followed by a continuous increase in both sexes. The specific growth rate was positive from the third month of captivity, being the relative growth rate 24.5% and 16.2% in August 2010 in males and females, respectively. Different internal and external parasites were detected in the fish, being Entobdella sp. and Philometra sp. the prevailing parasites observed during samplings.

  13. Hur påverkar Gerillamarknadsföring Generation Y? : En studie av Gerillamarknadsföringens påverkan på Generation Y.

    OpenAIRE

    Gimdal, Gabriel; Johnson, Max

    2013-01-01

    Sammanfattning Titel: Hur påverkar Gerillamarknadsföring Generation Y?  Ämne/Kurs:  Företagsekonomi - Kandidatuppsats Handledare:  Lars Haglund Nyckelord: Marknadsföring, Gerillamarknadsföring, Generation Y, Annonsering, Word-of-mouth, Buzz- marknadsföring, varumärkesattityd, varumärkesengagemang, engagemang online, kommunikation. Bakgrund: Marknadsföring handlar om att skapa och utveckla lönsamma kundrelationer. I dagens samhälle så sker marknadsföring runtom omkring oss hela t...

  14. Empirische Befunde zur Entwicklung der Lebensverhältnisse in den Ländern Sachsen, Sachsen-Anhalt und Thüringen

    OpenAIRE

    Paepke, Margit

    2010-01-01

    Ein wesentliches Leitziel der Raumordnungspolitik in Deutschland ist es, gleichwertige Lebensverhältnisse in allen Teilräumen herzustellen. Die Frage, was heute unter diesem in § 1 Abs. 2 ROG formuliertem Leitziel zu verstehen ist, wird unter Fachleuten und im politischen Raum intensiv diskutiert. Das Sozialstaatsprinzip (Art. 20 Abs. 1 GG) und Artikel 72 Abs. 2 GG gelten allgemein als politische Forderung, zurückgebliebene Regionen so zu entwickeln, dass sie einen Anschluss an die Gebiete fi...

  15. Beiarelva og Saltdalselva 2008-2012. Bestandsovervåkingav laks og påvirkning fra oppdrettsnæringen

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Arne Johan; Karlsson, Sten; Lamberg, Anders; Hanssen, Øyvind Kanstad; Jensås, Jan Gunnar

    2013-01-01

    I 2008 ble det satt i gang et prosjekt som hadde som mål å kartlegge den totale oppvandringen av laks i Beiarelva og Saltdalselva over en periode på fem år (2008-2012). Dessuten skulle innslaget av rømt oppdrettslaks i vassdragene registreres, og eventuell forekomst av rømt oppdrettslaks fra lokale oppdrettsanlegg skulle kartlegges ved genetiske analyser. Oppvandringen av voksen laksefisk skulle registreres ved videoovervåking. Videoovervåking viste seg imidlertid vanskelig å g...

  16. Ecología trófica del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú entre 1977 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alegre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la dieta de jurel Trachurus murphyi frente a Perú de 1977 a 2011. Un total de 21058 estómagos fueron analizados utilizando métodos bivariados y el Modelo de Árbol de Regresión Multivariado (ARM. Se utilizó como variable respuesta la composición gravimétrica de la dieta, con respecto a diferentes variables predictivas como años, profundidad de la isoterma de 15 °C, Índice de Oscilación del Sur (IOS, Índice de Oscilación Decadal del Pacífico (PDO, anomalía de la temperatura superficial del mar, zona (norte, centro y sur y distancia de la costa. Nuestros resultados nos permitieron identificar dos escenarios diferentes, uno desde el año 1977 al 2000, donde la dieta del jurel T. murphyi estuvo fuertemente dominada por Euphausiidae, y otro escenario después del 2000, donde el jurel T. murphyi consumió mayor diversidad de presas, principalmente Euphausiidae, camaroncito rojo Pleuroncodes monodon y Zoeas. Se destaca que el primer escenario corresponde a condiciones cálidas y el segundo a condiciones frías, ambas coincidentes con los periodos multidecadales. A diferencia de estudios anteriores que muestran que la anchoveta Engraulis ringenses una presa abundante, en este estudio no fue significativamente importante. Espacialmente, los Euphausiidae dominaron la dieta en el norte-centro de Perú, mientras que al sur, la composición de las presas fue más diversa. La dieta también varió significativamente según la distancia a la costa, con mayor proporción de P. monodoncerca a la costa y con respecto a su etapas de desarrollo ontogenético.

  17. Spawning ecology of the anchovy Engraulis japonicus in the spawning ground of the Southern Shandong PeninsulaⅡ. Spawning habits and embryonic developmental characteristics of the anchovy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WAN Rui-Jing

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The investigations on the spawning ground of the Southern Shandong Peninsula by water mass drift experiments were carried out from May to July during 2000–2004. Spawning habits and embryonic development characteristics of anchovy are studied from these observations. It is shown that duration for the germ cells fully developed from spawning to hatch are different under different temperature. The durations are 42–44 hours when the water temperature is 21.78℃–22.68℃ (averaged 22.05℃)and 50–52 hours while the water temperature is 17.05℃–18.88℃ (averaged 17.90℃)at the surface layer. In the upper mixed layer, the durations for fully development are 44–46 hours and 50–54 hours under the water temperature of 21.26℃–22.05℃ (averaged 21.70℃) and 17.02℃–17.90℃ (averaged 17.50℃) respectively. While in the thermocline, the water temperature are 16.22℃–21.26℃ (averaged 18.70℃)and 14.42℃–17.02℃ (averaged 15.72℃), the durations are 46–48 hours and 68–72 hours respectively. One-way ANOVA showed that the anchovy embryonic development duration observed from in situ data was not significantly different from that calculated academic (P > 0.05, which indicates that both the in situ observation and academic estimation methods applied in the present study are reliable. Water temperature in the spawning ground in late June of 2003 is 1.80℃–3.80℃ lower than that of 2002. It makes the duration of anchovy embryonic development 8–24 hours longer. Developmental threshold temperature of anchovy germ cells is 10.26℃ and the sum of effective temperature is 423.1 h·℃. At the spawning season, adult anchovy produce new eggs from 19:00 in the evening till next 5:00 in the early morning. The spawning duration will last 10 hours. At night time from 21:00 to next 2:00 am is the peak spawn time. The adult anchovy mainly spawn in the thermocline [Acta Zoologica Sinica 54(6):988–997, 2008].

  18. Spawning ecology of the anchovy Engraulis japonicus in the spawning ground of the Southern Shandong PeninsulaⅡ. Spawning habits and embryonic developmental characteristics of the anchovy

    OpenAIRE

    WAN Rui-Jing; ZHAO Xian-Yong; Wei, Hao

    2008-01-01

    The investigations on the spawning ground of the Southern Shandong Peninsula by water mass drift experiments were carried out from May to July during 2000–2004. Spawning habits and embryonic development characteristics of anchovy are studied from these observations. It is shown that duration for the germ cells fully developed from spawning to hatch are different under different temperature. The durations are 42–44 hours when the water temperature is 21.78℃–22.68℃ (averaged 22.05℃)and 50–52 ho...

  19. Daily otolith growth and ontogenetic geochemical signatures of age-0 anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. CATALÁN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European anchovy fishery in the Gulf of Cádiz (ICES Division IXa South is largely influenced by age-0 individuals. Knowledge of young of the year growth dynamics is crucial for management, yet data on daily growth are lacking in the area. Linking growth patterns to the environment requires information on habitat occupancy through ontogeny of the fish that reach the fishery, as anchovy use different areas of the Gulf and the Guadalquivir Estuary through development. We describe the growth dynamics of age-0 anchovy through otolith microstructure analysis, and couple these data with data on microchemical signals in the otoliths to shed light into habitat use and growth dynamics in the area. Age-0 anchovy captured in September, 2011 in the Gulf ranged from 3 to 6 months old for similar sizes, with average growth rates varying twofold. Individual non-linear growth curves showed that maximum otolith growth was positively correlated with the date of spawning, which in turn was negatively correlated with the time to reach maximum growth. There was no correlation between growth parameters and body length or condition (Fulton K at capture. The strontium:calcium (Sr/Ca and magnesium:calcium (Mg/Ca ratios were significantly lower at the edge of the otolith (approximately the age of capture than at ages corresponding to larval and early juveniles (<60 days old, but values fell within typical estuarine-dwelling species. The barium:calcium ratio (Ba/Ca increased significantly in the edge of the otolith, which possibly resulted from residency in highly productive coastal waters or from ontogenetic effects. The variance in otolith elemental ratios was larger at otolith back-calculated ages around 50 days old, age which coincides with the presumed closer dependence of estuarine waters. Our data are a first step towards understanding the contribution of the estuarine system to the fishery of anchovy in the Gulf. The limitations of the approach and future steps are discussed. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  20. Cambios en la morfometría bucal y su relación con la dieta de Thyrsites atun (Euphrasen, 1791 en el centro-sur de Chile Changes in mouth morphometries as related to the diet of Thyrsites atun (Euphrasen, 1791 from south-central Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FREDDY DUARTE

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Varias especies de peces carnívoros, a medida que crecen, tanto el tamaño corporal como el de la boca, se relacionan positivamente con el tamaño de las presas. Sin embrago, el número y la biomasa de las presas consumidas por los peces no presentan un patrón tan claro. Para verificar estas relaciones en el pez Thyrsites atun, se recolectaron entre los meses de febrero y abril de 2004, un total de 140 ejemplares, desde desembarques de naves pesqueras industriales y semiindustriales en la región centro-sur de Chile. Se estableció la dieta de T. atun mediante descriptores cuantitativos de frecuencia, número y peso de las presas, los cuales se compararon entre peces subadultos y adultos. También registramos medidas morfométricas bucales para compararlas con el tamaño del pez y de las presas, y también se estimó el volumen de la boca para relacionarlo con el número y peso de las presas ingeridas. En sus tractos digestivos se encontraron cuatro especies de presas, Euphausia sp., Todarodes filippovae, Strangomera bentincki y Engraulis ringens, siendo esta última la presa más frecuente (99,9 %. Las medidas bucales resultaron dependientes del tamaño del depredador. Igualmente el tamaño de las presas resultó ser dependiente del tamaño del depredador, así como de las medidas bucales. Además, el volumen de la boca se relacionó positivamente con la longitud del depredador, y tanto el número como el peso de las presas se correlacionaron con el tamaño y volumen de la boca. Thyrsites atun se alimenta en la zona nerítica de peces de pequeño tamaño que viven en cardúmenes. Al aumentar de tamaño T. atun se alimentaría de presas más grandes, y consecuentemente al incrementarse el volumen de la boca puede comer una mayor cantidad y biomasa de presasIn several species of carnivorous fishes, as they grow, body size and that of the mouth are related positively with prey size, however, the number and biomass of preys consumed by the fish

  1. Comprehensive model of Jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas trophic ecology in the Northern Humboldt current system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Ana; Ménard, Frédéric; Tafur, Ricardo; Espinoza, Pepe; Argüelles, Juan; Maehara, Víctor; Flores, Oswaldo; Simier, Monique; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?). Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters. PMID:24465788

  2. Comprehensive model of Jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas trophic ecology in the Northern Humboldt current system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alegre

    Full Text Available The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?. Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters.

  3. Trophic modeling of Eastern Boundary Current Systems: a review and prospectus for solving the “Peruvian Puzzle”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc H. Taylor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Current systems (EBCSs are among the most productive fishing areas in the world. High primary and secondary productivity supports a large biomass of small planktivorous pelagic fish, “small pelagics”, which are important drivers of production to the entire system whereby they can influence both higher and lower trophic levels. Environmental variability causes changes in plankton (food quality and quantity, which can affect population sizes, distribution and domi-nance among small pelagics. This variability combined with impacts from the fishery complicate the development of management strategies. Consequently, much recent work has been in the development of multispecies trophic models to better understand interdependencies and system dynamics. Despite similarities in extent, structure and primary productivity between EBCSs, the Peruvian system greatly differs from the others in the magnitude of fish catches, due mainly to the incredible production of the anchovy Engraulis ringens. This paper reviews literature concerning EBCSs dynamics and the state-of-the-art in the trophic modeling of EBCSs. The objective is to critically analyze the potential of this approach for system understanding and management and to adapt existing steady-state models of the Peruvian system for use in (future dynamic simulations. A guideline for the construction of trophodynamic models is presented taking into account the important trophic and environmental interactions. In consideration of the importance of small pelagics for the system dynamics, emphasis is placed on developing appropriate model compartmentalization and spatial delineation that facilitates dynamic simulations. Methods of model validation to historical changes are presented to support hypotheses concerning EBCS dynamics and as a critical step to the development of predictive models. Finally, the identification of direct model links to easily obtainable abiotic parameters is

  4. Oxygen: a fundamental property regulating pelagic ecosystem structure in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.

  5. Fish scales in sediments from off Callao, central Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Ochoa, J. A.; Lange, C. B.; Pantoja, S.; De Lange, G. J.; Gutiérrez, D.; Muñoz, P.; Salamanca, M.

    2009-07-01

    We study fish scales as a proxy of fish abundance and preservation biases together with phosphorus from fish remains (P fish) in a sediment core retrieved off Callao, Peru (12°1'S, 77°42'W; water depth=179 m; core length=52 cm). We interpret our results as a function of changing redox conditions based on ratios of redox-sensitive trace elements (Cu/Al, Mo/Al, Ni/Al, Zn/Al, V/Al), terrigenous indicators (Fe in clays, Ti, Al), and biogenic proxies (CaCO 3, biogenic opal, total nitrogen, organic carbon, barite Ba). The core covers roughly 700 years of deposition, based on 210Pb activities extrapolated downcore and 14C dating at selected intervals. Our fish-scale record is dominated by anchovy ( Engraulis ringens) scales followed by hake ( Merluccius gayii) scales. The core presented an abrupt lithological change at 17 cm (corresponding to the early 19th century). Above that depth, it was laminated and was more organic-rich (10-15% organic carbon) than below, where the core was partly laminated and less organic-rich (<10%). The lithological shift coincides with abrupt changes in dry bulk density and in the contents of terrigenous and redox-sensitive trace elements, biogenic proxies, and fish scales. The remarkable increase in redox-sensitive trace elements in the upper 17 cm of the core suggests more reducing conditions when compared with deeper and older horizons, and is interpreted as an intensification of the oxygen minimum zone off Peru beginning in the early 19th century. Higher fish-scale contents and higher P fish/P total ratios were also observed within the upper 17 cm of the core. The behavior of biogenic proxies and redox-sensitive trace elements was similar; more reduced conditions corresponded to higher contents of CaCO 3, C org, total nitrogen and fish scales, suggesting that these proxies might convey an important preservation signal.

  6. Obtenção dos tempos de equilíbrio e coeficientes de difusão de ácido e de sal para desenhar o processo de marinado de filés de Engraulis anchoita Obtainment of equilibrium times and diffusion coefficients of acid and salt to design the marinating process of Engraulis anchoita fillets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Rosa Casales

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a difusão simultânea de cloreto de sódio e ácido acético em filés de anchoíta. Os resultados mostram que foram alcançadas condições de equilíbrio entre os filés e a solução de marinado, de acordo com os valores K obtidos para fechar a unidade. A solução de marinado precisou de agitação para evitar a formação de uma camada superficial diluída nos filés de pescado. Os tempos de equilíbrio para ácido e sal foram maiores para as amostras agitadas durante o marinado. O gasto de cloreto de sódio e ácido acético durante o marinado dos filés de anchoíta pode ser explicado pela lei de Fick. Os valores do coeficiente de difusão para ácido acético a 20 °C foram 3,39 × 10-6 e 3,49 × 10-6 cm²/segundos para marinado com e sem agitação, respectivamente. O valor do coeficiente de difusão de cloreto de sódio para marinado sem agitação foi de 2,39 × 10-7 cm²/segundos, contudo, para marinado com agitação, não pôde ser fixado.Simultaneous diffusion of sodium chloride and acetic acid in anchovy fillets was studied. The results show that equilibrium conditions between the fillets and the marinating solution were reached according to the K values obtained close to unity. The marinating solution was stirred to prevent the formation of a diluted surface layer on the fish fillets. The equilibrium times for acid and salt were higher for the samples stirred during marinating. The sodium chloride and acetic acid uptake during marinating of anchovy fillets can be explained by Fick's law. The values of the diffusion coefficient for acetic acid at 20 °C were 3.39 × 10-6 and 3.49 × 10-6 cm²/seconds for marinating with and without agitation, respectively. The value of the diffusion coefficient for sodium chloride for marinating without agitation was 2.39 × 10-7 cm²/seconds, while it could not be obtained for marinating with agitation.

  7. Modelling the spatio-temporal distribution of age-1 bay of biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) at spawning time [Distribución espacio-temporal de la edad 1 de anchoa del golfo de Bizkaia (Engraulis Encrasicolus) en el momento de puesta

    KAUST Repository

    Ibaibarriaga, Leire

    2013-09-13

    To efficiently manage and maintain fish stock abundance and age structure, it is necessary to understand variability in its spatial distribution. The main objective of this study was to describe the demographic structure of the Bay of Biscay anchovy during the main spawning period based on adult samples from 15 daily egg production method surveys. The proportion of age-1 individuals was modelled using generalized additive models with a binomial distribution and a logit link in relation to geographical and environmental covariates. The possibility of obtaining different models depending on the average age-1 proportion (low or high) was also explored. In general, age-1 individuals were found in shallow waters close to the coast, especially associated with the Gironde and Adour river plumes, whereas older individuals were prevalent on the shelf break and in oceanic waters. However, in years with a high age-1 proportion the younger individuals were also dominant in oceanic waters. These results could be used for management purposes, such as defining protected areas for particular age groups.

  8. Effekter av födokvalitet på djurplanktons tillväxt och på energiöverföringen i födovävar i sjöar

    OpenAIRE

    Persson, Jonas

    2007-01-01

    Poor food quality can have large negative effects on zooplankton growth and this can also affect food web interactions. The main aims of this thesis were to study the importance of different food quality aspects in Daphnia, to identify potentially important differences among zooplankton taxa, and to put food quality research into a natural context by identifying the importance of food quality and quantity in lakes of different nutrient content. In the first experiment, the RNA:DNA ratio was p...

  9. Effektiviserad kunskapsöverföring : En utvärdering av olika system som förbättrar kunskapsöverföringen mellan Stockholms stads kontor

    OpenAIRE

    Danielsson, André; Zakeri, Moien

    2015-01-01

    I denna rapport undersöks olika system för hanteringen av forskning och utvecklingsprojekt som Stockholms stad kan använda som en gemensam plattform med syfte att sprida information och kunskap gällande projekt. Målet med rapporten var att hitta en anpassad kravspecifikation som summerade de tre kontorens gemensamma arbetsprocesser. Kravspecifikationen var ett hjälpmedel för att finna och utvärdera olika system som främjar hanteringen av Stockholms stads forskning och utvecklingsprojekt. En k...

  10. Zwei bemerkenswerte Orobanche-Funde in Mitteldeutschland : Orobanche artemisiae-campestris Vaucher ex Gaudin am Wendelstein bei Nebra (Sachsen-Anhalt) und Orobanche bohemica Čelak. am Spaten bei Hemleben (Thüringen)

    OpenAIRE

    Pusch, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Es werden zwei bemerkenswerte Orobanche-Funde in Mitteldeutschland vorgestellt. Zum einen wird über einen Fund der in Sachsen-Anhalt seit Jahrzehnten verschollen geglaubten Panzer-Sommerwurz (Orobanche artemisiae-campestris) bei Wendelstein und zum anderen über einen weiteren Thüringer Nachweis der Böhmischen Sommerwurz (Orobanche bohemica) bei Hemleben berichtet.

  11. Redusert petroleumsaktivitet: En utfordring for norsk økonomi?

    OpenAIRE

    Cappelen, Ådne; Eika, Torbjørn; Prestmo, Joakim

    2011-01-01

    Nedbyggingen av petroleumsnæringen vil i seg selv neppe innebære store makroøkonomiske utfordringer for norsk økonomi. Bare åtte prosent av dagens sysselsetting er direkte eller indirekte knyttet til petroleumsnæringen. Aktivitetsnedgangen i petroleumsnæringen vil foregå over lang tid. Norge vil antakelig ha en betydelig aktivitet på sokkelen også om 20 år.

  12. Motivation og æstetik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austring, Bennyé D.; Sørensen, Merete

    2007-01-01

    I de tilfælde, hvor læringen også skaber fokus på barnet og inkluderer dets udtryksbehov, er motivation umiddelbart nem at etablere. Frem for at "bogliggøre" læringen yderligere bør vi i stedet i højere grad udnytte æstetikkens fascinationskraft og udtryksstyrke som motivationsfaktor....

  13. Molluscan and Vertebrate Successions from the Velká Ružínská Cave (East Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ložek, Vojen; Horáček, I.

    Thüringen : Beier und Beran, 2007, s. 224-232. ISBN 978-3-937517-79-7. - (Neue Ausgrabungen und Funde in Thüringen) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : molluscs * Mollusca * zoology * caves * Velká Ružínská Cave (Slovakia) Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  14. Klimatische Entwicklung in der Vorgeschichte Evidenz aus Höhlen und Abris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bouzek, J.; Ložek, Vojen

    Thüringen : Beier und Beran, 2007, s. 116-124. ISBN 978-3-937517-79-7. - (Neue Ausgrabungen und Funde in Thüringen) Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : geology * climate * caves * rockshelters * zoology Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  15. Kontrolle durch Konkurrenz und Kritik? Das »wissenschaftliche Feld« bei Pierre Bourdieu

    OpenAIRE

    Fröhlich, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    Nach Pierre Bourdieu sind die einzelnen sozialen Felder Kraft- und Konkurrenzfelder. Sie üben auf alle Eintretenden Zwang aus. Zugleich ringen die Akteure um Kräfteverhältnisse und Spielregeln. Konkurrenten seien Komplizen: In ihrem Ringen konstituieren sie gemeinsam das jeweilige Spiels. In den relativ autonomen Feldern seien jeweils unterschiedliche Kapitalsorten in Kurs. Im Wissenschaftsfeld gehe es um die Akkumulation von symbolischem Kapital (Reputation), untrennbar verknüpft mit dem...

  16. Video i VIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Hanne Wacher; Jelsbak, Vibe Alopaeus

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver et udviklingsprojekt, hvor 13 grupper af lærere på tværs af fag og uddannelser producerede video til undervsioningsbrug. Der beskrives forskellige tilgange og anvendelser samt læringen i projektet......Artiklen beskriver et udviklingsprojekt, hvor 13 grupper af lærere på tværs af fag og uddannelser producerede video til undervsioningsbrug. Der beskrives forskellige tilgange og anvendelser samt læringen i projektet...

  17. Zooplankton standing and diversity in the Gulf of Kachchh with special reference to larvae of decapoda and pisces

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Paulinose, V.T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Nair, V.R.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    during monson, whereas Acetes indicus dominated in the collections during premonsoon and postmonsoon. Among the fish larvae, majority of them were in the early stages of development and the size varied from 1 mm to 5 mm. Boleopthalmus glaucus, Engraulis...

  18. Parámetros biológicos relevantes para las pesquerías de anchoíta argentina (Engraulis anchoita). Estimaciones resultantes de reunir datos de campañas de investigación (1993 a 2008) y de muestras de capturas comerciales (1986 a 2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J E

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to accurately estimate population parameters of northern (“bonaerensis”, latitude < 41° S) and southern (“patagonic”, latitude 41° S) Argentine anchovy stocks and to describe some aspects of their behaviour. The research surveys allowed to obtain data on length, total weight, sex, maturity and age of 27,853 specimens of the northern and 12,787 of the southern stocks. Besides, 20,717 age determinations stemmed from commercial landing samplings of the northern stock we...

  19. SAMUDRA Report No. 64, March 2013

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Contents: At a crossroads: England’s small-scale fisheries are being integrated within a national system. Diversionary tactics: Most of Peru’s anchoveta catches meant for human consumption are being diverted. Fair, sustainable? The new EU-Mauritania Fisheries Agreement has been welcomed—and spurned. A weighty responsibility: A fisheries reform process is under way in several parts of Africa. Sri Lanka. Restoring past glory: The Regional Fisheries Livelihoods Programme foc...

  20. Støy fra tunnelåpninger ved Nordre avlastningsveg, Ilsvika

    OpenAIRE

    Storeheier, Svein Ådne

    2005-01-01

    STF90 A05003 I forbindelse med utbygging av Nordre avlastningsveg gjennom Trondheim, har SINTEF IKT fått i oppdrag av Statens vegvesen å vurdere støyen fra tunnelåpningene mot rundkjøringen i delområde Skjæringen. Dette gjelder åpningen mot nord for Steinbergtunnelen, og åpningen mot vest for kulverten mot delområde Nedre Ila. Rapporten kommenterer kort beregningsgrunnlaget for støy fra tunnelåpninger, og de forutsetninger og begrensninger som ligger i den beregningsmetoden som er brukt. Støy...

  1. Unge jenters påvirkning av retusjert reklame

    OpenAIRE

    Farsjø, Margrethe; Jankovic, Dragana

    2014-01-01

    Debatter i media og tidligere forskning den senere tid har gjenspeilet en bekymring for den offentlige markedsføringen i dagens samfunn. Det blir hevdet at markedsføringen har blitt preget av seksualisering og gjemte budskap bak retusjerte reklamer som man er bekymret for i unge jenters hverdag. Gjennom visuelle fremstillinger gis det signaler om hva som forventes om hvordan en skal se ut og det er spesielt motebransjen og dagens skjønnhetsideal som har fått kritikk. Markedsføring med retusje...

  2. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise de Lima Silva

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  3. Tysk højreekstremisme i nye gevandter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Massakren på Utøya samt afsløringen af en nynazistisk terrorcelle i november 2011 har i Tyskland ført til en fornyet debat om højreekstremisme og radikaliseringstendenser. Artiklen skildrer den forandring som de højreekstremistiske grupperinger undergår i disse år, og de strategier med hensyn til...

  4. Revisors afdækning af besvigelser set i et nyt lys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Revisors opgave er naturligvis at sikre den økonomiske rapporterings validitet. Finanskrisen og afsløringen af nogle af de mere fantasifulde aktører har naturlighvis rejst spørgsmål om revisors mulighed for at afsløre forhold, hvor overfladen tilsyneladende er pletfri, mens det kniber mere med de...

  5. Hop på toget nu!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Annabeth

    2012-01-01

    Corporate social responsibility er ofte løsrevet fra virksomhedens salgs- org marketingstrategi på trods af, at det skaber langsigtede konkurrencefordele at tænke samfundsansvaret ind i salget og markedsføringen. Lav en CSR-salgspakke, foreslår forsker, Annabeth Aagaard fra SDU....

  6. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments. PMID:25195467

  7. I samme sjø : - Struktur og nettverksendringer blant fiskeoppdretterne i Austevoll.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    En analyse av hvordan det lokale fiskeoppdrettsmiljøet i Austevoll har utviklet seg som følge av de strukturelle endringene som har funnet sted de siste femten årene. Industrielle distrikt, nettverk, forankring, lokalt/eksternt, local buzz, fiskeoppdrettsnæringen.

  8. Er iPad digital udeskole?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Hvor ’konkret’ skal en oplevelse være, for at intuitionen om, at det selvoplevede styrker læringen, holder? Er brug af tablets (e.g. iPads) et ligebyrdigt alternativ til den konkrete oplevelse?...

  9. ISA 402 & ISAE 3402 Lessons Learned

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berthing, Hans Henrik

    Denne præsentation inddrager erfaringer med anvendelse af de internationale revisionsstandarder ISA 402 & ISAE 3402, herunder hvilke forholdsregler brugervirkomhedens revisor skal tage sig af. Præsentationen viser hvilke periode erklæringen skal dække, samt revisors ansvar for perioden efter erkl...

  10. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  11. Plan de Investigación y validación para el desarrollo futuro de los cultivos marinos en Panamá.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    En términos de crecimiento, la acuicultura ha tenido anualmente un incremento sostenido de 6.9 % en cantidad y del 7.7 por ciento en valor; mientras el total de las capturas mundiales, si se excluye las de anchovetas, se mantuvo relativamente estable, FAO 2006 La producción mundial de la acuicultura (pescado y plantas acuáticas para la alimentación humana, ha crecido notablemente durante los últimos 50 años, pasando de menos de 1 millón de toneladas al comienzos del decenio de 1950, a 59.4...

  12. Evaluación de la contaminación y calidad microbiologica del agua de mar en las bahías de Ferrol y Samanco. 12-15 febrero 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Orozco, Rita; Castillo, Sonia; Enriquéz, Edgardo; Fernández, Elizabeth; Morón, Octavio; Córdova, José

    1997-01-01

    En el mes de febrero de 1996, epoca de veda de la pesca de anchoveta, en la zona norte y centro del país, se realizó el muestreo para evaluar Ia calidad microbiológica del agua de mar, la demanda bioquímica de oxigeno y los efectos de la contaminación sobre las comunidades benticas en las bahías de Chimbote y Samanco. De acuerdo a los resultados, la cali dad microbiol6gica, se mantiene en valores elevados de coliformes totales y fecales por encima de los Ifmites permisibles establecidos en...

  13. Efectos del fenómeno "El Niño 1997-98" sobre los principales recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el período abril 1997 setiembre 1998 fueron realizados 5 cruceros de evaluación de los recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana, éstos permitieron observar cambios en la composición por especies, distribución, estructura por tamaño, reproducción y niveles poblacionales de los principales recursos pelágicos. Estos cambios guardan similitud con los observados en los eventos El Niño 1972-73 y 1982-83, especialmente en cuanto a la disminución de la biomasa de anchoveta y el incremento de otras especies pelágicas. En el período post-Niño se observó cambios notables en la estructura por tallas de anchoveta, mientras que la sardina, samas a y caballa coincidieron en mostrar buenos reclutamientos. La actividad reproductiva también se incrementó, inclusive en tallas juveniles, destacando la incidencia de sardinas sexualmente maduras con longitudes de 18-20 cm, situación que no había sido antes registrada.

  14. Ekologiska byggmaterial – ett alternativ? : En analys av några ekologiska byggmaterial

    OpenAIRE

    Furenberg, Andreas; Jörneman, Olof; Holm, Petter

    2007-01-01

    Miljöförstöringen håller på att få allt för stora proportioner, vilket genom bland annat växthuseffekten leder till att vår planet snart är obeboelig för människan. Byggbranschens andel i miljöförstöringen är onödigt stor genom transporter, energianvändning, maskinanvändning och miljömässigt dåliga material. Vår frågeställning är: går det att ersätta de konventionella byggmaterialen med ekologiska sådana? JM vill även få beprövat om de är så bra, miljömässigt, som de tror. Detta ska besvaras ...

  15. Fra overmenneske til UNESCO-menneske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl, Poul

    I årene efter Anden Verdenskrig og Holocaust var FNs særorganisation for uddannelse, videnskab og kultur, UNESCO, omdrejningspunkt for en semantisk kamp i den internationale, videnskabelige verden om den rette definition af racebegrebet. En kamp der i sin essens handlede om naturvidenskabernes...... eller samfundsvidenskabernes fortrinsret, når det gjaldt fortolkningen af menneskets oprindelse, inddeling og værdi. Afhandlingen afdækker UNESCOs initiativer og vurderer deres virkningshistorie i tiden fra 1945 og frem til 1965, hvor FN vedtog sin konvention mod racediskrimination. En central opgave...... for UNESCO i perioden var at udforme en erklæring, som indeholdt en almengyldig definition af racebegrebet. Det skete i troen på, at erklæringen kunne fjerne fordomme og bringe menneskeheden tættere sammen. Filosoffen Alain Finkielkraut har karakteriseret erklæringen som et politisk projekt...

  16. En studie i restaurangmarknadsföring : restauratör och kundsynvinkel på marknadsföring

    OpenAIRE

    Osmala, Emma

    2011-01-01

    Konkurrensen mellan restaurangerna i Helsingfors är hård och ett måste för att lyckas är att marknadsföringen når de potentiella kunderna. Syftet med arbetet är att redogöra för hur det lönar sig för en restaurang belägen i centrala Helsingfors att marknadsföra sig i dagens läge. Detta med hjälp av att utreda hur redan existerande restauranger marknadsför sig, hur de ser på marknadsföringen av en restaurang och hur de anser att de slutliga kunderna finner dem, och med att även utreda hur priv...

  17. Kan en computer lære dig sprog?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas K.

    ….tja, du vælger faktisk selv. Fans af Ringenes Herre må have haft kronede dage efter ”The Fellowship of the Ring” så biografernes lys tilbage i 2001 og Star Trek tilhængere har vel haft det siden internettet blev hvermandseje. Googler man det ene får man 370.000 hits og det andet giver 879.000. Før...

  18. De halvstuderede

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Tove Elisabeth; Feldt, Jakob Egholm

    2014-01-01

    Studerende tager ikke længere en uddannelse. Studerende får en uddannelse. Det bærer debatten præg af, for den handler om det, de studerende skal modtage, og hvad universitetet skal gøre for at få læringen til at ske for de studerende. Enten i form af variationer over temaet »at komme de studerende...

  19. Ethnografische Diskursanalyse und Sozialwissenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Hout, Tom Van

    2011-01-01

    Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse werden in den Sozialwissenschaften zunehmend kombiniert. In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst ein Überblick gegeben über das entstehende Feld der mit den Epistemologien und Methoden der Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse arbeitenden Forschung. Im zweiten Schritt werden zentral Aspekte eines neuen, computergestützten Ansatzes zur ethnografischen Diskursanalyse vorgestellt. Dieser mikroanalytische Ansatz bietet die Möglichkeit, Erkenntnisse über das Ringen um Deutungsmuste...

  20. Ethnographic Discourse Analysis and Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Hout, Tom Van

    2011-01-01

    Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse werden in den Sozialwissenschaften zunehmend kombiniert. In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst ein Überblick gegeben über das entstehende Feld der mit den Epistemologien und Methoden der Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse arbeitenden Forschung. Im zweiten Schritt werden zentral Aspekte eines neuen, computergestützten Ansatzes zur ethnografischen Diskursanalyse vorgestellt. Dieser mikroanalytische Ansatz bietet die Möglichkeit, Erkenntnisse über das Ringen um Deutungsmuste...

  1. Realkompetence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helms, Niels Henrik

    Realkompetencebegrebet sætter fokus på, at læring sker i andre sammenhænge end inden for det formelle uddannelsessystem, og videre, at der er et samspil mellem den læring, der sker i forskellige sammenhænge. Realkompetencevurderingen sætter fokus på, at læringen fra andre sam- menhænge end den fo...

  2. Die Europäische Union: Partner oder Vorbild für Ostasien?

    OpenAIRE

    Reiterer, Michael

    2006-01-01

    'Die außenpolitischen Interessen der EU erstrecken sich wegen politischer und wirtschaftlicher Interdependenz bis nach Ostasien. Die Auswirkungen politischer und wirtschaftlicher Probleme (Taiwan, koreanische Halbinsel, Nichtweiterverbreitung von Nuklearwaffen) machen sich unmittelbar in Europa bemerkbar. Die politische und strategische Balance ist im Umbruch. Japan, China und, mit Einschränkungen, Indien, ringen um die Vorherrschaft. Die EU ist wirtschaftlich präsent, entwickelt verschiedens...

  3. Farvel til fabriksundervisning, goddag til fremtidens fleksible læring

    OpenAIRE

    Mehlsen, Camilla

    2011-01-01

    Erhvervslivets mantra om innovation forgrener sig langt ind i uddannelsessystemet. Den innovative skole er tidens herskende ideal, og det sætter sine tydelige spor på skolens nye fleksible og futuristiske rum. Den skal indbyde til nytænkning og gøre op med det gamle. Men skaber innovationsboomet en bedre skoler, eller smadrer den læringens højborg?

  4. Unkonventionelle Kommunikationsformen im Marketing : die Wirkung von Guerilla-Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Hutter, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    Angesichts gesättigter Märkte und homogener Produkte kommt der Unternehmenskommunikation eine immer bedeutendere Rolle zu. Unter steigendem Wettbewerbsdruck ringen Unternehmen um die Aufmerksamkeit von Konsumenten, was sich in der steigenden Anzahl von Kommunikationsmaßnahmen widerspiegelt. Zahlreiche Konsumenten empfinden diese Flut an Werbeinformationen jedoch zunehmend als Belastung. Um dennoch die Aufmerksamkeit der Zielgruppe zu erlangen, greifen Unternehmen immer häufiger auf unkonventi...

  5. Dicty_cDB: SLE216 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLE216 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLE216Z (Link to Original ... 48 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 4.4 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 5.8 protein update 2009. 1.22 PSO ...

  6. Dicty_cDB: CHK723 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHK723 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 | Contig-U16344-1 CHK723P ... 57 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 6.9 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 9.1 protein update 2008.11. 2 PSO ...

  7. Dicty_cDB: SLE412 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLE412 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLE412Z (Link to Original ... 59 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 4.8 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 6.3 protein update 2009. 1.23 PSO ...

  8. Dicty_cDB: CHP682 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHP682 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 | Contig-U16344-1 CHP682P ... 28 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 6.9 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 9.0 protein update 2008.11. 7 PSO ...

  9. Dicty_cDB: SHB379 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHB379 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 | Contig-U16344-1 SHB379P ... 50 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 7.6 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 9.9 protein update 2008.11.12 PSO ...

  10. Dicty_cDB: SLB147 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB147 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLB147Z (Link to Original ... 66 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 5.1 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 6.7 protein update 2009. 1.20 PSO ...

  11. Dicty_cDB: SLH545 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLH545 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLH545Z (Link to Original ... 62 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 5.0 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 6.6 protein update 2009. 1.24 PSO ...

  12. Dicty_cDB: SHF354 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SH (Link to library) SHF354 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 68 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 4.8 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 6.3 protein update 2009. 1.16 PSO ...

  13. Dicty_cDB: SLC716 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLC716 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLC716Z (Link to Original ... 40 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 3.1 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 4.0 protein update 2009. 1.22 PSO ...

  14. Dicty_cDB: SLB358 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLB358 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLB358Z (Link to Original ... 48 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 3.0 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 3.9 EU960363_1( EU960363 |pid:non ...

  15. Dicty_cDB: CHS493 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CH (Link to library) CHS493 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 - (Link to Original site) ... 67 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 4.7 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 6.1 protein update 2009. 1. 4 PSO ...

  16. Dicty_cDB: SLE342 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLE342 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLE342Z (Link to Original ... 77 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 4.6 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 6.0 protein update 2009. 1.23 PSO ...

  17. Dicty_cDB: SLA427 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLA427 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLA427Z (Link to Original ... 48 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 4.1 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 5.4 protein update 2009. 1.19 PSO ...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLH621 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLH621 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLH621Z (Link to Original ... Y524011_1( AY524011 |pid:none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 3.7 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:non ... e) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 33 3.7 protein update 2009. 1.24 ...

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLE320 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SL (Link to library) SLE320 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SLE320Z (Link to Original ... 56 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 4.7 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 6.1 protein update 2009. 1.23 PSO ...

  20. Dicty_cDB: SFE291 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available SF (Link to library) SFE291 (Link to dictyBase) - - - Contig-U13024-1 SFE291P (Link to Original ... .3 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens def iciens (DEF ) mR... 34 7.4 AY524011_1( AY524011 |pid ... :none) Paulownia tomentosa def iciens (DEF ... 33 9.6 protein update 2009. 5.23 PSO ...

  1. Continuity and Change in Norwegian Vocational Education and Training (VET)

    OpenAIRE

    Høst, Håkon

    2008-01-01

    This report, which is an English edition of NIFU STEP Report 20/2008: Fag- og yrkesopplæringen i Norge – noen sentrale utviklingstrekk, addresses some important developments in the vocational education and training (VET) in Norway. The Norwegian Directorate for Education and Training commissioned the report, in seeking a basis for its own reporting within this field to Cedefop. The NIFU STEP report includes topics on how access to apprenticeships develops in the conflicting relationship betwe...

  2. Et studium av samfunnsansvar (CSR) for norske utenlandsetablerte akvakulturselskaper; Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream i Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Sæther, Malin

    2010-01-01

    Oppgaven er et studium av samfunnsansvar for norsk utenlandsetablert akvakulturnæring. Valg av tema er motivert av interessen for den eksisterende samfunnsdebatten omkring næringen og internasjonale næringsstrukturer med fotfeste i utviklingsland. Norsk tilstedeværelse i Chile eksemplifisert ved Marine Harvest og Cermaq Mainstream er anvendt som case studium. Presentasjon og drøfting av Corporate social responsibility (CSR), oversatt til norsk som Selskapers samfunnsansvar, ...

  3. Bevölkerungsumfrage "Soziale Unternehmensverantwortung" : pragmatische Überlegungen zur unternehmensethischen Forschung als Interaktionsprozess zwischen Akademikern und Wirtschaftsvertretern

    OpenAIRE

    Lunau, York; Wettstein, Florian

    2004-01-01

    Das Ringen um anerkennenswerte Handlungsorientierungen wird immer mehr zum Bestandteil des Unternehmensalltags. Akademische Inputs hierzu gelingen nicht immer in konstruktiver Weise. Illustriert mit Bezügen auf eine derzeit entstehende Studie zur sozialen Unternehmensverantwortung stellt dieser ‚Praxisbeitrag‘ hierzu einige Grundüberlegungen an - themenbedingt bewusst von akademisch-pragmatischer Natur. Englisches Abstract: Public Survey "Corporate Social Responsibility" - The challenge for a...

  4. Markedsføring av naturmidler- en vurdering

    OpenAIRE

    Tønnesen, Maria Høyland

    2008-01-01

    Hensikten med oppgaven var å undersøke og sammenligne markedsføringen av naturmidler i kommunikasjonskanalene apotek, helsekostforretninger, Internett, ukeblad og magasiner. I løpet av ti uker ble det samlet inn annonser, produktkataloger og annet skriftlig materiale der naturmidler presenteres innen anvendelsesområdene "immunforsvaret", "mage/tarm", "overgangsalderen/PMS" og "urinveiene". Produkter med innhold av dvergpalme (Serenoa repens) og tranebær (Vaccinium macrocarpon) ble vurder...

  5. Ein Fund von Buxbaumia viridis (Moug. ex Lam. & DC.) Brid. ex Moug. & Nestl. im Thüringer Muschelkalk-Hügelland

    OpenAIRE

    Eckstein, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Ein überraschender Fund von B. viridis gelang dem Autor am 14. Januar 2007 in der Umgebung von Jena. In Deutschland wird Buxbaumia viridis als "stark gefährdet" eingestuft; aktuelle Vorkommen beschränken sind auf Baden-Württemberg und Bayern. In Thüringen wurde die Art zuletzt 1975 südwestlich von Suhl nachgewiesen. Der Fundort bei Jena liegt im Muschelkalk-Hügelland im Naturraum der Ilm-Saale-Platte.

  6. Klingende tidsrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knakkergård, Martin

    2007-01-01

    Artiklen indledes med en kort indføring i bl.a. sammenhænge mellem notationssystemer og musikforståelse. Indføringen konstaterer, at nutiden byder på musikformer, der kun vanskeligt kan forstås på dette grundlag og åbner for en forståelse af musik som kommunikation. Efter en kort beskrivelse af n...

  7. Produktivitetsutvikling i norsk lakseoppdrett: En analyse av perioden 2006-2013 ved bruk av DEA, Malmquist og Bootstrapping

    OpenAIRE

    Wikeland, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Oppgaven analyserer effektiviteten og produktivitetsutviklingen i norsk lakseoppdrett i perioden 2006-2013. Norge er verdensledende i produksjon av laks, som er en av landets største eksportartikler. Bransjen er preget av økende konkurranse fra andre land, og er i tillegg styrt av reguleringen. Produktiviteten i næringen har i lang tid steget, men viste en stagnering i utviklingen i perioden 2005-2008. Effektiviteten estimeres ved bruk av Data Envelopment Analysis, og produktivitetsutviklinge...

  8. Depositional environment, ichnological features and oxygenation of Permian to earliest Triassic marine sediments in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Uchman, Alfred; Hanken, Nils-Martin; Nielsen, Jesper Kresten; Piasecki, Stefan; Grundvåg, Sten-Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Late Early Permian–lowermost Triassic carbonate, siliceous (spiculites) and clastic marine sediments in the Marmierfjellet area (Isfjorden, central Spitsbergen) contain a relatively diverse and abundant trace fossil assemblage providing important information about the depositional processes. The Vøringen Member (Late Artinskian–Kungurian) of the Kapp Starostin Formation (Late Artinskian–? Changhsingian) contains trace fossils (Nereites, Phycosiphon, Zoophycos and Arenicolites—common in tempes...

  9. Biogas-BHKW: Einflussparameter auf die Formaldehydemissionen

    OpenAIRE

    Neumann, Torsten; Beer, Volker; Wedwitschka, Harald

    2010-01-01

    An 11 Blockheizkraftwerken (BHKW) ohne Oxidationskatalysator und an 10 BHKW mit Oxidationskatalysator in Sachsen und Thüringen wurden die Einflussfaktoren auf die Formaldehydemissionen untersucht. Geprüft wurden insbesondere die Motorbetriebsparameter wie z.B. Zylindertemperaturen, Verbrennungsluftverhältnis, die Biogaszusammensetzung und die Biogasfeuchte. Im Ergebnis konnte kein bzw. nur ein geringer Einfluss der untersuchten Parameter auf die Formaldehydbildung festgestellt werden. Ebe...

  10. Reality Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Arvidsson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager ’reality branding’ som udgangspunkt for at diskutere markedsføringens kultur- og livsstilsproducerende potentialer på en mediearena, hvor den kommercielle og hverdagslige virkelighed smelter sammen i virksomheders og konsumenters ’joint effort’ i at skabe meningsfyldte historier. Tankegangen er, at forbrugere har gennemskuet reklamernes mere eller mindre fantasifulde tegnkon- struktioner og forholder sig blasert til budskaberne. Som modsvar til denne ligegyldighed forsøger den moderne og avancerede markeds- føring at skabe nye involverende mediemiljøer og nye brugssituatio- ner for produktet – for eksempel er Polle fra Snave debuteret i film- mediet, og Starbucks skabte et nyt fysisk og symbolsk rum for kaffe og kaffedrikning så godt som uden hjælp af traditionel reklame. Artik- lens ærinde er at diskutere denne udvikling i markedsføringen – ikke ud fra traditionelle sociologiske og psykologiske antagelser om foran- dringer i mentalitetsformer, men ud fra en historisk belysning af mar- kedsføringens diskurser set i relation til udviklingen i mediesystemerne.

  11. Pattern in Space and Time of Clupeoid Fish Eggs in the California Current Region

    OpenAIRE

    Curtis, Katherine A.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation examines spawning behavior and habitat in Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) and northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) in the Southern California Bight (SCB). The fine-scale horizontal and vertical distributions of anchovy and sardine eggs are characterized and their potentials for interaction with the predator Euphausia pacifica are assessed under varying environmental conditions. In Chapter 2, fine-scale horizontal pattern of sardine and anchovy eggs is characteriz...

  12. Possible upwelling phenomenon off the Nigerian coast

    OpenAIRE

    Ibe, A.C.; Ajayi, T.O.

    1985-01-01

    Published information favour the occurrence in certain years of wind related upwelling in Nigeria's inshore waters especially between July and September. This is corroborated by the prevalence of petroleum source beds, glauconite, phosphorite and periodic abundance of some fish including Engraulis encrassicolus, Sardinella maderensis and the bonga Ethalmosa fimbriata which are pelagic and are associated with upwelling phenomena. Examination of temperature and salinity data for 1978 - 81 sug...

  13. Estudio comparado de la alimentación entre algunos predadores de alto nivel trófico de la comunidad marina del norte y centro de patagonia

    OpenAIRE

    Koen Alonso, M.

    1999-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the food habits between top predator allows the evaluation of how these species use the trophic resources. They also make possible the study of potentially competitive relationships and the role of these predators in the regulation and structure of the community. The marine community of northern and central Patagonia is structured on the tri-trophic system composed by the Argentine anchovy (Engraulis anchoita), the Argentine shortfin squid (Illex argent...

  14. Histamini i biogeni amini kao indikatori svježine ribe i ribljih proizvoda

    OpenAIRE

    Bogdanović, Tanja; Lelas, Sanja; Listeš, Edy; Šimat, Vida

    2009-01-01

    Povecane koncentracije biogenih amina u hrane morskog porijekla predstavljaju toksikološki rizik. Uz histamin, ostali biogeni amini kao putrescin, kadaverin, tiramin, /-feniletilamin, su jednako znacajni u toksikološkom smislu, jer pojacavaju negativno djelovanje samog histamina. U sklopu ovog rada posebno su izdvojeni uzorci triju razlicitih šarži soljenih incuna (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.) pri cijoj je obradi došlo do reakcije na koži radnica tijekom finalizacije proizvoda. Koncen...

  15. Artificial neural networks to forecast biomass of Pacific sardine and its environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cisneros Mata, M.A.; Brey, T.; Jarre, Astrid; Garcia Franco, W.; Montemayor Lopez, G.

    1996-01-01

    temperature recorded at Scripps Institution of Oceanography pier. Annual spawning biomass of Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax caeruleus) was forecasted reasonably well one year in advance using time series of water temperature, wind speed cubed, egg and larval abundance, commercial catch, and spawning biomass...... of northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and Pacific sardine as predictors. We discuss our results and focus on the philosophy and potential problems faced during ANN modelling....

  16. Feeding and ecomorphology of three clupeoids in the N Aegean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. KARACHLE; K. I. STERGIOU

    2013-01-01

    The present study examines the feeding habits of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita). The results are combined with previously published information on feeding-related morphological features (i.e. mouth area, intestine length and tail area) in order to explore morphological affinities between species and the effect of ecomorphology on their co-existence. These species were mainly zooplanktivorous and no dietary differences we...

  17. Thermal adaptation and clinal mitochondrial DNA variation of European anchovy

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Gonçalo; Lima, Fernando P.; Martel, Paulo; Castilho, Rita

    2014-01-01

    Natural populations of widely distributed organisms often exhibit genetic clinal variation over their geographical ranges. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, illustrates this by displaying a two-clade mitochondrial structure clinally arranged along the eastern Atlantic. One clade has low frequencies at higher latitudes, whereas the other has an anti-tropical distribution, with frequencies decreasing towards the tropics. The distribution pattern of these clades has been explained as...

  18. Early life history traits of coastal pelagic fishes in the northern Benguela Current ecosystem off Namibia

    OpenAIRE

    Geist, Simon Joscha

    2013-01-01

    Several traits of larval stages of the three most important coastal pelagics species in the northern Benguela Current upwelling ecosystem (NBCE)- Sardinops sagax, Engraulis encrasicolus and Trachurus capensis were investigated. The study is based on samples from four consecutive research cruises conducted in the NBCE region during 2008 to 2011. All species showed maximum larval densities within the upper 50 m of the water column over the continental shelf during austral summer. Larvae fed mai...

  19. Earthworm and maggots meals as potential fishmeal replacement

    OpenAIRE

    Yaqub, H.B.

    1997-01-01

    Three meals were formulated from the earthworm (Endrilus eugineae) and maggot (Musca domestica) and fish (Engraulis encrosicolus). These meals were evaluated as a potential replacement for fishmeal. This is because fishmeal could be very expensive at times. The three meals were used in feeding the catfish (Heterobranchus isopterus) fry for 30 days. The study was conducted in 1991 at the Institute of Renewable Natural Resources Farm, University of Science and Technology. Two replicate...

  20. Kunst og kultur som felles møteplass En studie av bruken av kunst og kultur på Verdensmester’n mottaksskole i Larvik.

    OpenAIRE

    Moe, Rise Cecilie

    2016-01-01

    Denne oppgavens intensjon har vært å vise hvordan kunst og kultur brukes i opplæringen av de fremmedspråkelige elevene på Verdensmester’n mottaksskole i Larvik kommune. I rammen av nye kulturstudier ser jeg på hvordan det å gjøre kunst og kultur bidrar til elevenes utvikling og innhenting av kunnskap. Begrepene opplæring og integrering førte meg til postmoderne tilnærminger til barndom, kropp, bruk av kunst og kultur, kommunikasjon og forståelse. Ulike perspektiver fra blant ...

  1. En studie av organisatoriske og ledelsesmessige utfordringer ved implementering av IO i Statoil

    OpenAIRE

    Gravdal, Lena

    2012-01-01

    Flere forskere understreker at for alle virksomheter, utgjør endringsledelse en avgjørende kompetanse. Stadig flere organisasjoner beveger seg fra sekvensielle arbeidsmetoder mot mer parallelle og integrerte måter å jobbe på. En innføring av IO i oljeindustrien er en del av denne endringsprosessen (OLF, 2007). Statoil ønsker å bli verdensledende innenfor IO. Siden 2005 har Statoil utført en rekke steg for å muliggjøre integrerte operasjoner. Dette inkluderer blant annet innføringen av Fell...

  2. A journey beyond budgeting : påvirker det mellomlederes adferd og beslutninger? : en casestudie i StatoilHydro

    OpenAIRE

    Myrmell, Mette

    2009-01-01

    Bedrifter og organisasjoner søker gjennom sine styringssystem å påvirke ansattes adferd og beslutninger i retning av ønsket utfall og resultat. Dette er komplekse prosesser. Formålet med denne studien er å utforske hvordan mellomlederes tolkning og meningsdannelse knyttet til et nytt styringssystem kan ha påvirket deres adferd og beslutninger. Dette er utforsket gjennom å studere innføringen av Beyond Budgeting som styringssystem i StatoilHydro. Studien er gjennomført som en tverrsnitts cases...

  3. Beyond budgeting i Statoil : en analyse av implementering og bruk av nye prinsipper for virksomhetsstyring

    OpenAIRE

    Grostad, Kjersti Ressem

    2007-01-01

    Denne rapporten er skrevet på oppdrag fra Statoil ASA og inngår i prosjekt 7970 Styringssystemer. Rapporten omhandler innføringen av en ny styringsmodell i Statoil som innebærer å gå vekk fra tradisjonell budsjettstyring. Den nye styringsmodellen er basert på prinsippene for Beyond Budgeting, som beskrevet av Jeremy Hope og Robin Fraser (2003). Rapporten ser på implementering og bruk av den nye styringsmodellen i tre ulike enheter i selskapet, og hvilke endringer som har funnet sted i praksis...

  4. Pappa til (hjemme)tjeneste : hvilke fedre tar fødselspermisjon?

    OpenAIRE

    Lappegård, Trude

    2003-01-01

    En egen fedrekvote av fødselspermisjonen ble innført i 1993 med hensikt å få flere fedre til å ta del i barneomsorgen den første leveåret. Mange fedre benytter muligheten til å bruke sin eksklusive del av permisjonen, men få deler permisjonstiden som er felles for begge foreldrene. I en analyse av hva som påvirker fars bruk av fødselspermisjonen, finner vi at hvor foreldrene jobber, er viktig for hvorvidt far tar permisjon: Jobber mor innenfor næringen helse og sosiale tjenester og undervisni...

  5. Sykehusreformen : tankevekkende tilpasning av ØNH-kirurgi 1999-2002

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Hovedmålet med innføring av stykkprisfinansiering i 1997 var å stimulere til økt aktivitet, reduserte ventetider og bedre utnyttelse av ressursene. Med utgangspunkt i rater for øre-nese-halsprosedyrer har vi beskrevet aktiviteten innenfor et klinisk fagområde ØNH-faget etter innføringen av DRG. Spesielt ønsket vi å identifisere pasientgrupper som ikke har hatt ønsket behandlingsvekst. Materiale og metode: Nasjonale aktivitetstall på øre-nese-hals prosedyrer utført på innlagte el...

  6. Anna Freud

    OpenAIRE

    Oei, T.I.

    2007-01-01

    Die Herausgeberin Brigitte Spreitzer macht die literarischen Texte von Sigmund Freuds jüngster Tochter Anna Freud zum ersten Mal vollständig zugänglich und liest sie in der Einführung zur Edition als paradigmatische Dokumente der Aus-einandersetzung einer jungen Frau aus dem assimilierten jüdischen Bürgertum mit den sozi¬alhistorischen und kulturellen Bedingungen im Wien der Jahrhundertwende. Damit werden sie als Teil eines historischen Prozesses begreifbar gemacht, der durch das Ringen von F...

  7. Fra arbeidsskrift til tidsskrift. En analyse av de første tretti årene av NOA. Norsk som andrespråk.

    OpenAIRE

    Kulbrandstad, Lise Iversen

    2015-01-01

    Det første nummeret av NOA. Norsk som andrespråk ble utgitt i 1985 ved det som den gangen het Institutt for norsk som fremmedspråk ved Universitetet i Oslo. Bakgrunnen var blant annet et behov for å få publisert mer omfattende forskningsarbeider som var relevante for norskopplæringen av innvandrere, et fagområde som hadde vokst fram raskt i tråd med den økte migrasjonen til Norge på slutten av 1970-tallet. I denne artikkelen analyseres utviklingen av NOA som publiseringskana...

  8. Marknadsföring av en destination på Internet. Case: Förslag till webbplats för destinationen Kristinestad

    OpenAIRE

    Snickars, Kajsa

    2010-01-01

    Detta lärdomsprov tar fram innehåll och funktioner till en webbplats för destinationen Kristinestad. Syftet är att samla all relevant information riktad till turister på en enda webbplats. Den elektroniska marknadsföringen utvecklas i en mycket snabb takt i allt mer social riktning och uppdragsgivaren för detta lärdomsprov har sett ett behov av att förnya sin webbplats och få in mera information på den. På längre sikt betyder en välplanerad webbplats att destinationen Kristinestad förhoppning...

  9. Beyond Budgeting i Posten : en kvalitativ studie av hvorfor og hvordan selskapet implementerer og bruker en styringsmodell inspirert av Beyond Budgeting

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Anniken Teres

    2014-01-01

    Denne utredningen tar for seg innføringen av en ny styringsmodell, inspirert av Beyond Budgeting, i Posten. I en kvalitativ studie søker jeg svar på følgende hovedproblemstilling: Hvorfor og hvordan implementerer og bruker Posten en ny styringsmodell? I studien har jeg sett på hvorfor selskapet har valgt å endre styringsmodell, hvordan implementeringen er gjennomført og den praktiske bruken av modellen. I tillegg er sterke og svake sider ved modellen kartlagt. For å svare på sp...

  10. Bioakkumelering av sedimentassosiert PCB i torsk - Direkte eksponering og eksponering gjennom næringskjeden

    OpenAIRE

    Ruus, A.; Aarre, Ingrid; Hylland, K.

    2009-01-01

    Foreliggende undersøkelse har hatt som mål å evaluere bioakkumuleringen av sedimentassosiert PCB (polyklorerte bifenyler) i torsk, både gjennom næringskjeden og direkte fra diffusjon via vannfasen. Undersøkelsen ble gjennomført som to eksponeringseksperimenter med lang varighet (129 døgn). Gjennomføringen av eksperimentene har vist at det har latt seg gjøre å eksperimentelt undersøke bioakkumulering av fremmedstoffer fra sediment til fisk via ett trinn i næringskjeden når dette gjennomføres s...

  11. Heterogeneous catalysis in highly sensitive microreactors

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Jakob Lind; Hansen, Ole; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2010-01-01

    Denne afhandling præsenterer en silicium mikroreaktor med høj følsomhed og eksempler p_a dens brug til studier af katalyse. Det eksperimentelle setup bygget til behandling af reaktionsgasser og temperaturstyring beskrives. Implementeringen af kommunikation gennem LabView for alle komponenter, gør det muligt at automatisere eksperimenter og dataopsamling. Argon udskylning ved O-ringene (brugt til sammenkoblingen af silicium mikroreaktoren og gassystemet), som blev udviklet præsenteres, dette t...

  12. Pins som belønning - Et casestudie i fast food-bransjen

    OpenAIRE

    Schulzki, Suzanne; Thorvaldsen, Karoline; Ahlin, Norea

    2015-01-01

    Den overordnede problemstillingen i denne oppgaven er: Hvordan opplever ansatte i en fast-food restaurant pins som belønning? Denne besvarte vi ved hjelp av et casestudie hvor vi gjennomførte kvalitative dybdeintervjuer med ansatte i en fast-food restaurant, både før og etter innføringen av et pinssystem. Pinssystemet, som belønningssystemer generelt, hadde til formål å øke de ansattes motivasjon. Dette ledet til vårt første forskningsspørsmål, som var: Hvordan opplever ansatte i en fast-food...

  13. Forberedelse til å være kun delvis forberedt: - om læring av profesjonskunnskap for kroppsøvingslærerstudenter

    OpenAIRE

    Lundemo, Gunleif

    2009-01-01

    Denne oppgaven omhandler kroppsøvingsfaget som del av en fireårig allmennlærerutdanning. Det er foretatt kvalitative intervjuer med fire tidligere studenter med tilbakeblikk på det ene utdanningsåret i kroppsøving. Dette er nyutdannede lærere som er i sine første arbeidsår i skolen. De er intervjuet om nytten av utdanningsåret i forhold til nåværende arbeid som kroppsøvingslærer. To områder, som representerer hovedperspektiver i utdanningen, er gransket. Det ene er opplæringen av egenferdighe...

  14. Der Brahimi-Report - ein Jahr später

    OpenAIRE

    Kühne, Winrich

    2001-01-01

    Mit viel Lob wurden die Empfehlungen der Brahimi-Kommission zur Verbesserung der VN-Friedenseinsätze bedacht, als sie Ende Juli 2000 von Generalsekretär Kofi Annan der internationalen Öffentlichkeit übergeben wurden. Dann setzte ein zähes Ringen um ihre Verwirklichung ein. Eine unüberwindbare Kluft zwischen den Ländern des Nordens und des Südens bei der Fortentwicklung von Friedenseinsätzen und der Vereinten Nationen schien sich aufzutun, eingeleitet durch eine äußerst kritische Stellungnahme...

  15. Effektivare försäljning av stamkundsprogrammet Priority Club Rewards på Holiday Inn Turku

    OpenAIRE

    Sjöström, Ronja

    2012-01-01

    Inom turismbranschen råder det stor konkurrens. Det är viktigt att få nya kunder men det är kanske ännu viktigare att hålla fast vid sina gamla kunder. Ett sätt att uppnå detta är att utveckla olika stamkundsprogram. Detta examensarbete handlar om hur man kunde effektivera försäljningen och marknadsföringen av stamkundsprogrammet Priority Club Rewards i hotellet Holiday Inn Turku. Syftet med detta arbete är att ta reda på om stamkunderna blir behandlade och betjänade som de skall och att ...

  16. En kunnskapsbasert IT-næring: aktivitet og effekt

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Espen

    2012-01-01

    Norsk IT-næring er stor, lønnsom, svært innovativ og kunnskapsbasert, men i liten grad en kunnskapsklynge. Den er svært sentralisert – mest til Oslo/Akershus, med Trondheim og Horten som mindre sentra. Få norske IT-selskaper konkurrerer globalt. De som gjør det, selges ofte ut av landet når de når en viss størrelse og modenhet, men kompetansen blir ofte igjen i Norge. Næringens viktigste samfunnsbidrag ligger i å tilby en kompetitiv arena og en strategisk ressurs fo...

  17. Ursachen und Auswirkungen der Ausbreitung von Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl. im Bergwiesenökosystem der Rhön und Maßnahmen zu seiner Regulierung

    OpenAIRE

    Volz, Harald

    2003-01-01

    Das Naturschutzgebiet `Lange Rhön` (2666 ha) liegt im Grenzraum der Bundesländer Bayern, Hessen und Thüringen. Seit einigen Jahrzehnten überwächst dort die Stauden-Lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus) artenreiche Storchschnabel-Goldhaferwiesen und Borstgrasrasen und impliziert dadurch Habitatsveränderungen für die zentralen Leitarten der Rhön (Wiesenbrüter: Birkhuhn und Wachtelkönig). Die Erhaltung repräsentativer Ausschnitte dieser Kulturlandschaft wird damit gefährdet. In der vorliegenden Arbei...

  18. BIM-prosjektering – de ulike aktørenes oppfatning om effektiv gjennomføring

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsen, June

    2013-01-01

    Masteroppgaven har tittelen BIM-prosjektering – med særlig fokus på de ulike aktørenes oppfatning av effektiv gjennomføring. Hensikten med oppgaven er å se hvordan de ulike aktørene i ett og samme prosjekt korrelerer i deres oppfatning av BIM. Undersøkelsen blir gjennomført på bakgrunn av litteratursøk, teori, caseprosjekt, diskusjon og analyse. I tillegg er det interessant å få klarhet i bruken av BIM i gjennomføring av prosjekteringen og hvordan det påvirker den totale gjennomføringen av...

  19. Effektivt ingeniørarbeid med BIM

    OpenAIRE

    Haugsand, Magnus

    2010-01-01

    Byggebransjen har etter innføringen av datamaskiner hatt liten vekst i lønnsomhet sammenlignet med andre bransjer. BIM — bygningsinformasjonsmodellering — er en teknologi som kan fornye hele bransjen. Men selv om BIM har blitt innført, gjennomføres prosjekteringen fortsatt med tradisjonelle metoder. Denne masteroppgaven ønsker å undersøke hvordan informasjonen i en bygningsinformasjonsmodell kan utnyttes mer effektivt, og hvordan arbeidsmetodene må utformes for å oppnå dette. For å definere h...

  20. Narkotika, stabilitet og menneskerettigheter : En analyse av USAs krav og interesser ved demobiliseringen av de paramilitære i Colombia 2002-2005

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Denne masteroppgaven forsøker å definere og analysere USAs krav og interesser i forbindelse med demobiliseringen av den paramilitære paraplyorganisasjonen, Autodefensa Unidas de Colombia (AUC), i tidsrommet 2002-2005. USAs støttet disse forhandlingene politisk, men satte krav om at deres utleveringsbegjæringene ikke måtte blokkeres som følge av forhandlingene. I lys av neorealismen og sosialkonstruktivistisk teori forsøker oppgaven å underbygge hypotesen: USA krevde et lovverk som ga...

  1. Varig kompetansekraft : studie av en endringsprosess i DnB : med vekt på ledelse, mål og bruk av konsulenter

    OpenAIRE

    Paulsen, Ida

    2008-01-01

    Formålet med denne oppgaven var å se nærmere på hvordan teorien om de to strategiene kunne forklare gjennomføringen av en vellykket endring i DnB Marked/Produkt (Cash Management). Beer og Nohria(2000) og Jacobsen(2004) er oppgavens viktigste teoretiske bidrag. Jeg har benyttet kvalitativ innhenting av data for å gjennomføre denne casestudien. Gjennom undersøkelse av den gjennomførte endringen fant jeg at endringen Varig K først og fremst dreide seg om å endre ansattes virkemåte slik at en sku...

  2. «Den treffer så brutalt…» - en kvalitativ studie av digital mobbing på ungdomstrinnet : skolens erfaringer og strategier for forebygging av digital mobbing

    OpenAIRE

    Esperås, Åshild Nymark

    2014-01-01

    I løpet av de siste årene har det vært økende fokus på fenomenet mobbing. Både regjeringen, Utdanningsforbundet, Kommunenes Sentralforbund (KS) og Foreldreutvalget for grunnopplæringen har undertegnet et nasjonalt manifest mot mobbing (Kunnskapsdepartementet, 2011). Media, forskningsmiljøet og skolen har i den senere tid også rettet oppmerksomhet mot en ny type mobbing, nemlig digital mobbing. Dette dreier seg om mobbing utført via elektroniske hjelpemidler, som for eksempel mobil og/eller in...

  3. Systemdynamisk analyse av vannkraftsystem

    OpenAIRE

    Rydning, Anja

    2007-01-01

    I denne oppgaven er det gjennomført en dynamisk analyse av vannkraftverket Fortun kraftverk. Tre fenomener er særlig vurdert i denne oppgaven: Sjaktsvingninger mellom svingesjakt og magasin, trykkstøt ved turbinen som følge av retardasjonstrykk ved endring i turbinvannføringen og reguleringsstabilitet. Sjaktsvingningene og trykkstøt beregnes analytisk ut fra kontinuitets- og bevegelsesligningen. Modeller av Fortun kraftverk er laget for å beregne trykkstøt og sjaktsvingninger. En modell e...

  4. 国内外苏芸金杆菌的研究简述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣瑞

    1991-01-01

    @@ 苏芸金杆菌是害虫的一种病原菌,学名:Bacillus thuringiensis,简称B.t,它是1911年Berliner在德国苏芸金城(Thüringen)的地中海粉螟(Anagasta kühniella Zeller)上分离获得而定名的.其杀虫作用乃由于其产生一种具有杀虫活性的糖蛋白.

  5. Kan forskningsbibliotekernes e-materialer være e-læringsmaterialer? – tilgængeliggørelse og formidling i elektroniske læreomgivelser

    OpenAIRE

    Volkmar Engerer

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen er et forsøg på at koble de studerendes informationshandlinger (at søge og håndtere videnskabelig information) til deres læringsaktiviteter som læsning af tekster og diskursiv forarbejdning af stoffet. Der tages udgangspunkt i e-læringens hybride sammenknytning af ressourcer af forskellige type i én læringsplatform, herunder primære ressourcer (især videnskabelige artikler og bøger) og sekundære som bibliografiske baser og andet hjælpemateriale. At disse ressourcer er organiseret i é...

  6. EDI reducerar transaktionskostnader : En studie över faktorer som ökar andelen EDI-projekt i stora och små organisationer

    OpenAIRE

    Lindholm, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Trots långt driven datorisering sker fortfarande en stor del av informationsöverföringen mellan företag med hjälp av pappersdokument. I stort sett all information finns ursprungligen i ett datorsystem, men när det skall föras över till handelspartners eller myndigheter skrivs det ut på papper och skickas per fax, brev eller bud vidare till mottagaren. Denna registrerar till stor del samma uppgifter genom manuell inmatning i sitt datorsystem. Syftet med undersökningen är att identifiera viktig...

  7. Videreutvikling av transformasjonsmetoder i julestjerne for bedre kvalitet og produksjonsvilkår

    OpenAIRE

    Østerud, Camilla

    2013-01-01

    Det blir stadig laget nye varianter av prydplanter ettersom kjøpere blir fristet av nye variasjoner i farge, annet utseende, blomsterduft, og holdbarhet. Poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. ex Klotsch), kjent som julestjerne på norsk, er en svært ettertraktet potteplante som symboliserer julehøytid verden rundt. På grunn av sin popularitet er den et stort økonomisk bidrag i næringen, og blir produsert og solgt i Nord-Amerika, Europa, Asia og Australia, der Europa og Nord-Amerika er de le...

  8. En kartläggning av videobloggar med fokus på turism

    OpenAIRE

    Vuori, Jannika

    2016-01-01

    Syftet med detta arbete var att undersöka rese-videobloggars struktur, marknadsföring och personlighet. Jag använde mig av kvalitativ undersökning med en observation och en e-postintervju. Mitt resultat bevisar att det finns mycket gemensamma drag i struk-turen och marknadsföringen i vloggarna. Videorna är strukturerade så att det finns en intro och/eller en outro, specialeffekter och en viss längd. Handlingen är reserelaterad. Google AdSense marknadsför olika företag i deras vloggar och ger ...

  9. Industriarvet i skärningspunkten mellan kulturarv och turism

    OpenAIRE

    Wedin, Ida

    2006-01-01

    I detta arbete studerar jag vilken bild av det industriella kulturarvet som förmedlas när kulturarv och turism tillsammans skapar kulturarvsturism, i synnerhet vid Världsarvet i Falun. Jag har för att ta reda på detta gjort litteraturstudier, genomfört intervjuer och studerat förmedlandet av världsarvet i text och på plats vid gruvområdet i Falun.Kulturarvsturismen faller mellan å ena sidan kulturmiljövården och å andra sidan turismnäringen och samarbete mellan dessa två sektorer har ofta vis...

  10. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than spring (55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton hiomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters (29°30'N,125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  11. The Abundance and Distribution of Some Teleost Fishes’ Eggs and Larvae in Izmir Bay between the years 2011-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Burcu Taylan; Belgin Hoşsucu

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the samples were collected seasonally from 9 stations vertically by 57 cm diameter with 200 micron mesh size between 2011-2013. We obtained 23570 eggs/m2, 107 prelarvae/m2 and 8605 larvae/m2 identified 30 species belonging to 19 families. The eggs and larvae of the species Engraulis encrasicolus (21624 eggs/m2, 7169 larvae/m2) were found to be dominant in Izmir Bay. Maximum species diversity were detected in the spring (17 species) and summer (19 species).

  12. Preliminarni podaci o morfologiji otolita pet pelagičnih vrsta riba iz Jadranskog mora (Hrvatska)

    OpenAIRE

    ZORICA, Barbara; Sinovčić, Gorenka; Čikeš Keč, Vanja

    2010-01-01

    U radu se iznose rezultati morfometrijske analize otolita brgljuna Engraulis encrasicolus (Linnaeus, 1758), srdele Sardina pilchardus (Walbaum, 1792), skuše Scomber scombrus Linnaeus, 1758, lokarde Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1780 i iglice Belone belone (Linnaeus, 1761). Za svaku je istraživanu vrstu analizirano po 30 jedinki koje potječu iz lovina ostvarenih na području istočnog dijela Jadrana tijekom razdoblja siječanj - prosinac 2005. godine. Na temelju analize triju faktora oblika otolita...

  13. Biological investigations of anchovy and some selected fish species caught during the R/V “Bei Dou” surveys 1984-1999%鳀鱼及其他重要经济鱼类生物学特征的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The paper deals with growth of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and variations in length by area and maturity of anchovy and some selected fish species obtained during surveys with R/V “Bei Dou” in the Yellow Sea and East China Sea,in 1984-1999.Demersal trawl catch rates for some selected fish species from the same surveys are also included.No density-dependent growth in length or weight of anchovy was found.Reduced length at maturity of small yellow croaker was apparent from 1986 to 1994.

  14. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Algunos resultados de las campañas primaverales de evaluación anual de anchoíta bonaerense efectuadas entre 1993 y 1996.

    OpenAIRE

    Hansen, J E; Madirolas, A.

    1999-01-01

    Information resulting from four spring acoustic surveys carried out between 1993 - 1996 to assess bonaerensis anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) biomass (34°- 41°30´S) is presented. Annual estimates, successively higher, went from 1.5 to 5.3 millon tons and the respective coefficient of variability that followed the same trend ranged between 7.4. and 28.0. . In general terms, the largest abundances were those recorded within the coastal strata off the Río de la Plata followed by those of the most...

  16. Alimentación de la merluza (Merluccius hubbsi) en el Golfo San Jorge y aguas adyacentes

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, F.

    2009-01-01

    The information obtained in summer research cruises carried out in 1995, 1999 and 2002 allowed to determine the trophic spectrum of common hake (Merluccius hubbsi) and to estimate anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) and hake consumption in the nursery area of the San Jorge Gulf and shelf adjacent waters (Argentine Sea, SW Atlantic). The area surveyed extended from 44ºS to 47ºS and between the 50-100 m isobaths. In the stomach content the most frequent items were crustaceans followed by fish. In all ...

  17. Bioecología de huevos y larvas de peces Cetengraulis mysticetus (Chuhueco), Opisthonema sp. (Pinchagua) y Anchoas en la reserva ecológica manglares Cayapas-Mataje - Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    Luzuriaga de Cruz, M.; Solano Ch., F.; Cevallos, D.

    2007-01-01

    La presente investigación es parte del Convenio de Cooperación Técnica entre el Fondo Ecuatoriano Populorum Pregressio (FEPP) y el Instituto Nacional de Pesca (INP) y tiene como fin principal el estudio de huevos y larvas de chuhueco (Cetengraulis mysticetus), anchoas (Anchoa sp., Anchovia sp. y Engraulis) y pinchagua (Opisthonema sp.) en relación con abundancia y distribución de la microfauna zooplanctónica presente en los esteros durante el período comprendido entre abril del 2000 y diciemb...

  18. The Humboldt Current System: Ecosystem components and processes, fisheries, and sediment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montecino, Vivian; Lange, Carina B.

    2009-12-01

    In the Humboldt Current System (HCS), biological and non-biological components, ecosystem processes, and fisheries are known to be affected by multi-decadal, inter-annual, annual, and intra-seasonal scales. The interplay between atmospheric variability, the poleward undercurrent, the shallow oxygen minimum zone (OMZ), and the fertilizing effect of coastal upwelling and overall high primary production rates drive bio-physical interactions, the carbon biomass, and fluxes of gases and particulate and dissolved matter through the water column. Coastal upwelling (permanent and seasonally modulated off Peru and northern Chile, and markedly seasonal between 30°S and 40°S) is the key process responsible for the high biological productivity in the HCS. At present, the western coast of South America produces more fish per unit area than any other region in the world ocean (i.e. ∼7.5 × 10 6 t of anchoveta were landed in 2007). Climate changes on different temporal scales lead to alterations in the distribution ranges of anchoveta and sardine populations and shifts in their dominance throughout the HCS. The factors affecting the coastal marine ecosystem that reverberate in the fisheries are crucial from a social perspective, since the economic consequences of mismanagement can be severe. Fish remains are often well-preserved in sediment settings under the hypoxic conditions of the OMZ off Peru and Chile, and reveal multi-decadal variability and centennial-scale changes in fish populations. Sediment studies from the Chilean continental margin encompassing the last 20,000 years of deposition reveal changes in sub-surface conditions in the HCS during deglaciation, interpreted to include: a major reorganization of the OMZ; a deglacial increase in denitrification decoupled from local marine productivity; and higher deglacial and Holocene paleoproductivities compared to the Last Glacial Maximum in central-south Chile (35-37°S) while this scheme is reversed for north

  19. Nutrients, Recycling, and Biological Populations in Upwelling Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Nutrient recycling has been studied in the upwelling areas of Baja California, Northwest Africa, and Peru. Regeneration by biological populations in these areas contributes significant quantities of recycled nitrogen which is utilized in productivity processes. Each area has a different combination of organisms which leads to differences in the relative contributions of zooplankton, nekton, or benthos to the nutrient cycles. Comparisons of ammonium regeneration rates of zooplankton and nekton-micronekton populations in the three upwelling areas show that zooplankton recycle relatively less nitrogen in the Baja California and Peru systems than nekton. In the Northwest Africa upwelling region, however, zooplankton, fish, and benthic inputs are all substantial. In recent years the Peruvian upwelling system has been altered with the decline of the anchoveta population and an increase in the importance of zooplankton in nutrient recycling. The distribution of recycled nitrogen (ammonium and urea) in transects across the shelf at 10°S and 15°S indicates that regeneration is relatively more important at 10°S in the region of the wide shelf. In both areas the distribution of ammonium and urea are not entirely coincident thereby indicating differences in their production and/or utilization.

  20. Incitamentsstruktur för kunskapsöverföringi ett företag

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson, Jonas; Bilich, Paul

    2011-01-01

    En god kunskapsöverföring inom produktionsföretag är idag en central fråga. Inom industrinses arbetskraften inte längre enbart som en inkomstbringande källa utan även som en insamlingsbas av kunskap och erfarenheter. Detta har sin förklaring i att allt fler företag hargått ifrån en totalfokus på själva produktionsenheterna till att konkurrerar med sina anställdaserfarenheter och kunskaper. Kunskapsöverföring kan ses som en nyckel för ett företags fortlöpandevälmående. Om kunskapsöverföringen ...

  1. Jämförelse av de nya och gamla Incotermerna

    OpenAIRE

    Soinio, Nico

    2012-01-01

    Detta arbete är en jämförelse mellan de nya Incotermerna från år 2010 och de gamla Incotermerna från 2000. Huvudsyftet är att forska ifall det finns ett behov för uppdate-ringen av termerna samt ifall uppdateringen påverkar logistikbranschen. Som delsyfte forskas ifall Incotermerna är tillräckligt klara, eller vad det är som gör Incotermerna så svåra att förstå. Forskningen är begränsad till en jämförelse mellan Incoterm 2000 och 2010. Angående de nya Incotermernas påverkan på branschen så gr...

  2. Karl Lagerfeld for H&M : En studie av Hennes & Mauritz varumärkesstrategi

    OpenAIRE

    Serrander, Oskar; Wärnåker, Ted

    2004-01-01

    A1226 Varumärket har under de senaste åren kommit att utgöra en av företagens viktigaste strategiska resurser. För att differentiera sig gentemot en allt hårdare konkurrens krävs en ständig förnyelse av marknadsföringen. Den svenska detaljhandelskedjan Hennes & Mauritz agerar på en marknad där varumärkesidentiteten har en stor betydelse för målgruppen. När företaget lanserade kollektionen Karl Lagerfeld for H&M lyckades de i varumärkesalliansen med designern Karl Lagerfeld kombinera t...

  3. 1 Stress hos tamrein 2 Arbeidsgruppe om forskning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Skjenneberg (ed.

    1985-05-01

    Full Text Available 1 NOR har adoptert et opprinnelig svensk prosjekt for å klarlegge i hvilken grad moderne reindriftsteknologi kan tenkes å påvirke reinen slik at det utvikles symptomer på stress. Det er særlig to forhold som har gjort NOR interessert i et slikt prosjekt, nemlig stressforandringers innvirkning på kjøttkvalitet samt i hvilken grad stresspåvirkninger kan medføre langtidseffekter som har innvirkning på dyrenes overlevelsesevne under vanskelige vinterforhold, altså på reintapenes størrelse. Begge disse to momenter har direkte innvirkning på reinnæringens økonomi.2 Forskning, veiledning og utdanning i reindriften i Norge.Den arbeidsgruppe som det norske Landbruksdepartementet den 30. august 1983 oppnevnte for å utrede ovennevnte tema, avga 14. mai 1985 sin betenkning. Denne skisserer gruppens forslag til langtidsplan.

  4. Udvikling af sensorsystem for robotbaseret rengøring af svinestalde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Nils Axel; Braithwaite, Ian David; Sørensen, Torben;

    2005-01-01

    Manuel rengøring af svinestalde er både meget sundhedsskadeligt og samtidig meget uinspirerende. Arbejdsmiljøet forværres løbende under arbejdet da der under rengøringen (med en højtryksrenser) hvirvles snavs, mikroorganismer og vand op, som personalet derefter indånder. DTU er derfor i samarbejde...... med Forskningscenter Bygholm ved at udvikle et sensorsystem til detektering af renhedsgraden med mere, således at dette beskidte staldvaskarbejde kan automatiseres med en vaskerobot. Med et fleksibelt sensorsystem bliver vaskerobotten en intelligent servicerobotløsning til rengøring af svinestalde og...... forbedre de nuværende arbejdsbetingelser for staldpersonalet. Selvom der her fokuseres på rensning af svinestalde forventes det, at sensorsystemet på sigt ville kunne anvendes i forbindelse med rensning af en bred vifte af bygninger inden for fødevareindustrien og andre industrier med et lignende behov....

  5. Coopetition i destinationsnätverk : En studie om att samarbeta & konkurrera samtidigt

    OpenAIRE

    Anestedt, Lotta; Westberg, Frida

    2012-01-01

    Detta är en studie om coopetition inom destinationsnätverk, det vill säga när aktörer på en turistdestination ingår i ett nätverk där samarbete och konkurrens sker samtidigt. Studien är gjord på Visit Gellivare Lapland (VGL), ett destinationsnätverk i Gällivare i norra Lappland som består av ett destinationsbolag, turistbyrån samt ca 55 stycken medlemmar som verkar inom besöksnäringen. Coopetition är en sammansättning av engelskans cooperation och competition och är ett fenomen som uppkommit ...

  6. Jag har själv varit ung och blivit betraktad som bromskloss : En undersökande studie om kompetensöverföring i och med generationsväxlingen

    OpenAIRE

    Berg, Johanna; Johansson, Sofia

    2010-01-01

    I och med den stora generationsväxlingen som den svenska arbetsmarknaden står inför ville vi undersöka kompetensöverföringen mellan de avgående 40 – talisterna och den nya arbetskraft som ska ta över. Vi utförde vår undersökning på Uddeholms AB i Hagfors och undersökningen berörde de anställdas syn på kompetens, vad de tyckte var viktigt att föra över till nästa generation samt vilka skillnader som fanns generationerna emellan. Som utgångspunkt har vi använt oss av fem stycken teoriområden so...

  7. CropSAT

    OpenAIRE

    Söderström, Mats; Stadig, Henrik; Nissen, Knud; Piikki, Kristin

    2015-01-01

    Vi utvecklade CropSAT, ett webbaserat system för tillhandahållande av satellitdata över åkermarken där tilldelningsfiler kan laddas ned och användas för styrning av gödselspridare. Systemet testades under 2014 och vidareutvecklades under 2015 inom ramen för Greppa Näringen. Vår slutsats är att satellitdata som omräknats till vegetationsindexkartor kan användas i praktiken för anpassning av kvävegivan inom fält. Det är ett mycket kostnadseffektivt sätt att skapa underlag för bättre kvävehushål...

  8. Varumärkesbyggande inom hotellbranschen : En studie av tre hotell i Norrbotten

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlqvist, Malin; Makslahti, Sanna

    2014-01-01

    Resandet i Europa prognostiseras att öka med 2,3 procent varje år fram till år 2030. Den svenska turismnäringen tros ha stora möjligheter att ta del av ökningen. De norrbottniska lokaltidningarna har under det senaste året rapporterat om nyetableringar inom hotell- och restaurangbranschen. Eftersom både konkurrensen och gästnätterna ökar i Norrbotten ligger större vikt vid att erbjuda rätt koncept till rätt pris. Vi ser att starka ledare som Steve Jobs hos Apple och Dave Horton hos Hilton Hot...

  9. Presencia de moluscos tropicales de la provincia panameña en la costa central del Perú y su relación con los eventos "El Niño"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el hallazgo de moluscos cuya distribución conocida se encuentra dentro de los límites de la Provincia Panameña, en diversas localidades de la Provincia Peruana entre los años 1972 y 1994, período en el que se presentaron varios eventos "El Niño". Fue posible determinar 15 especies de moluscos que ampliaron su distribución: Pteria stema, Orobitella peruviana, Cryptornya califomica, Cerithium (T stercusmuscarum, Malea ringens, Hexaplex brassica, Thais styllmanberryi, T (M. triangularis, T (T callaoensis, Acanthina brevidentata, Purpura pansa, Neorapana muricata, Anachis (C. nigricans, Cancellaria (C. decussata y C. (B. chrysostorna. Se postula una variabilidad en los límites de las provincias biogeográficas de la costa peruana, controlada por el ENSO.

  10. En granskning av content marketing : En kvalitativ studie om innehållsbaserad marknadsföring med en rekommendation för tillämpning

    OpenAIRE

    Ingvar, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Människor är trötta på reklam och företagen har börjat förstå att deras kommunikation till kunderna behöver förbättras. Content marketing, även kallat innehållsmarknadsföring har kommit att bli en populär metod, dock med en svag definition i grunden som bäddar för olika åsikter för vad content marketing innebär. Content marketing är ett hett begrepp i den svenska marknadsföringen, men vad krävs för att lyckas? Den här uppsatsen kartlägger begreppet, varför det är svårdefinierat samt ger en re...

  11. Vårddjur och deras effekter på hälsan : En litteraturstudie

    OpenAIRE

    Högberg Kalmering, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Bakgrund: Ett grundläggande emotionellt behov hos människan är fysisk beröring, som vid vissa sjukdomstillstånd kan vara svåra att tillfredsställa inom vården. Effekten av beröringen gör att människan blir mer avslappnad, samma effekt kan en person få från fysisk beröring av sällskapsdjur. Djurassisterad terapi kan användas som en kompletteringsbehandling inom sjukvården. Syfte: Att beskriva vilka djurarter som används i djurassisterad terapi och på vilket sätt de kan användas i vården för re...

  12. Growth hacking för e-butiker : Framtagande av en modell för growth hacking av e-butiker

    OpenAIRE

    Oksman, Christopher

    2016-01-01

    I takt med digitala marknadsföringens utveckling och dagens ökade marknadsföringsbrus har growth hacking uppstått. Growth hacking är en ny marknadsföringsmetod som fokuserar på tillväxt för företag. Den information och fakta som finns att tillgå om growth hacking är ofta relaterade till specifika företag eller projekt. Väldigt lite hjälp för planeringen av growth hacking erbjuds. Extra sällsynt är information eller modeller om growth hacking för e-butiker. Syftet med denna studie är att skapa...

  13. Kantzonsvegetationens inverkan på dieten hos öring (Salmo trutta) i en skogsbäck

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsson, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Effekterna på öringens (Salmo trutta) diet till följd av en avverkning av kantzonsvegetationen har undersökts i ett fältexperiment, där två av de potentiella effekterna av en skogsavverkning simulerades. Fokus låg på de två faktorerna ökad ljusinstrålning och minskat nedfall av terrestra evertebrater. Ökad ljusinstrålning har simulerats med hjälp av montage av lysrör och nedfall av terrestra evertebrater med hjälp av plasttält. Frågeställningarna rör andelen terrester föda i olika behandlinga...

  14. SOCIALA MEDIER: ETT SÄTT FÖR SMÅFÖRETAG ATT MARKNADSFÖRA SIG. : J & K Hotels and Resorts; Hotel Epoque

    OpenAIRE

    Laukka, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Målsättningen med det här examensarbetet var att undersöka om sociala medier lämpar sig som marknadsföringsmetod för tjänster på internationella marknader, speciellt små företag. Oftast har företaget en färdig tjänst då det gäller börjar marknadsföra internationellt. Marknadsföringen kan kräva anpassning men även ge märkbar ökning i omsättningen om den lyckas. De olika externa faktorerna som behandlades var politiska och kulturella skillnader och vad man bör tänka på när man marknadsför sina ...

  15. En kort innføring i Excel. Kompendium for grunnleggende opplæring i Excel rettet inn for emnet «virksomhetens økonomi»

    OpenAIRE

    Romstad, Harald

    2015-01-01

    Kompendiets hovedmål er å gi en basis innføring i og forståelse av Excel som arbeidsverktøy i økonomiske og administrative fag. Kompendiet er ikke en fullverdig opplæring i Excel, men en målrettet opplæring i relasjon til å gi studentene tilstrekkelig kompetanse for å bruke Excel som arbeidsverktøy i og under eksamen i fagene «Virksomhetens økonomi» og «Budsjettering og driftsregnskap». Den primære og nødvendige opplæringen i Excel går fra kapittel 1 til og med kapittel 5. De resterende kapit...

  16. Utveckling av dagsresepaket för VisitSalo

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtinen, Hanna

    2015-01-01

    På begäran av VisitSalo har jag utvecklat en ny tjänst i form av dagsreseplaner. VisitSalo ansvarar för marknadsföringen av turismen och turisminformationen i Salo och samlar rese- och fritidstjänster på sina hemsidor. Dagsresepaketens målgrupper är barnfamiljer och vuxna par, det vill säga generation 50+, och de riktar sig till självständiga resenärer. Syftet med den nya tjänsten är att ge turister en intressant bild av Salo som en resedestination samt erbjuda ett färdigt skräddarsytt altern...

  17. Kundnöjdheten i Hotel Anna

    OpenAIRE

    Boije, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    I dagens läge värderas kundrelationer högt inom marknadsföringen. Kundnöjdhet förknippas med lönsamhet och ses som en långsiktig investering. Hotel Anna är ett litet hotell i centrala Helsingfors och fungerar som min uppdragsgivare. Syftet med detta arbete är att utreda kundnöjdheten samt hur kundbetjäning och kvalitet upplevs i hotellet. Delsyftet är också att hitta kundnöjdhets förbättringsförslag för hotellet. Den teoretiska referensramen består av teori som behandlar tjänster, kvalitet, k...

  18. Renforskning i Norden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Nordkvist

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available DebattinnleggJag vill begagna mig av denna möjlighet for en liten personlig betraktelse kring renforskningens nuvarande status och skönjbara utvecklingstendenser i våra tre nordiska länder med renforskning. Jag avser då i första hand de basresurser (personella och institutionella som respektive land synes vara beredda att stäla till renforskningens förfogande. Min syn på forskningen bygger på den fasta övertygelsen att utan en kvalificerad forskning kommer rennäringen på sikt att degenerera och förslummas och utgöra ett allt sämre försörjningsunderlag for allt färre näringsutövare och fungera allt sämre som grund för en levande samekultur.

  19. Gerillamarknadsföring  : En studie som granskar viral marketing och word of mouth

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Aleksandra; Kljunic, Marko

    2010-01-01

    Poängen med vår studie är att undersöka hur företag praktiskt använder sig av gerillamarknadsföring. Vi har valt att avgränsa oss till att studera de två främsta metoderna inom gerillamarknadsföringen: viral marketing samt word of mouth. Viral marketing är inriktat på Internetmarknadsföring medan word of mouth är en metod som är baserad på verbal spridning, där konsumenterna sprider ordet vidare. Vi kommer att göra oss insatta i dessa metoder genom att studera två företag som arbetar med resp...

  20. Vem är turisten? : En studie av föreställningar om turism och målgrupper för turism i Värmland

    OpenAIRE

    Yalcin, Ihsan

    2007-01-01

    Denna studie undersöker frågan om vem som anses vara turisten, d v s, vem turist subjektet är, hur denna föreställs i turismstudier och turismnäringen, samt varför. Intresse för denna fråga väcktes av personliga erfarenheter. Det har att göra med hur jag inte fick samma uppmärksamhet som andra svenska turister både när jag turistade i mitt eget land (Turkiet) och även när jag turistade i Sverige handlar om varför jag inte ansågs vara turist och behandlades annorlunda. Varför och vad är de bak...

  1. Marknadsföring via sociala medier : Instagram som marknadsföringskanal i köpcentret Forum

    OpenAIRE

    Hintze, Charlotta

    2014-01-01

    Sammandrag: För att företag skall nå sina potentiella kunder måste de kommunicera med sina kunder på rätt sätt. Den digitala utvecklingen har medfört stora förändringar inom marknadskommunikationen och den ser därmed annorlunda ut idag. Idag måste företaget ta hänsyn till utvecklingen som skett inom den digitala marknadsföringen. Användningen av sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal har blivit allt mera vardagligt och därmed har det även blivit aktuellt för företag att börja implemente...

  2. Radioactivity and heavy metal concentrations of some commercial fish species consumed in the Black Sea Region of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz Görür, F; Keser, R; Akçay, N; Dizman, S

    2012-04-01

    Marine fish is an important daily diet item for the people of Turkey. The Black Sea Region of Turkey was contaminated by the Chernobyl accident in 1986, a comprehensive study was planned and carried out to determine the radioactivity levels ((226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K and (137)Cs) and heavy metal concentrations (As, Mn, Fe, Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu and Pb) in four of the most common fish species: Engraulis encrasicholus (anchovy), Oncorhynchus mykiss (trout), Trachurus mediterranus (bluefin) and Merlangius merlangus (whiting) samples collected from eight stations in the Black Sea Region of Turkey during 2010. The dose due to consumption of fish by the public was estimated and it was shown that this dose imposes no threat to human healthy. The concentrations of heavy metal are below the daily intake recommended by the international organizations. PMID:22225706

  3. Quality changes in irradiated and nonirradiated boiled-dried anchovies after inter-country transportation and storage at 25degC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of nonirradiated and irradiated (5 kGy) dried anchovies (Engraulis encrasicholus) were transported from Korea to India for evaluation of microbiological, physico-chemical and organoleptic parameters during storage. The nonirradiated anchovies showed mould growth and an increase in total bacterial count by three log cycles over the initial load, after four months of storage at 25degC. However, 5 kGy irradiated samples packed with a laminated nylon/polyethylene (NY/PE) film exhibited 102 bacterial cells per g even after 6 months storage. Hunter's colour value, total volatile basic nitrogen, browning and lipid oxidation showed a good correlation with the organoleptic quality of stored anchovies. Partial changes in irradiated anchovies did not influence organoleptic acceptability. Differences in the levels of total volatile basic nitrogen and total volatile acid values in irradiated and nonirradiated samples may prove useful in distinguishing irradiated Korean anchovies from nonirradiated samples. (author). 24 refs., 2 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Condições de secagem de uma pasta de anchoita modificada enzimaticamente na oxidação lipídica, lisina disponível e atividade antioxidante do produto Drying conditions of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy in the lipid oxidation, available lisina and antioxidant activity of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly de Moraes; Luiz Antônio de Almeida Pinto

    2013-01-01

    O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as condições da secagem convectiva de uma pasta de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita) modificada enzimaticamente, através da metodologia de superfícies de resposta, sendo as respostas consideradas: a oxidação lipídica (TBA), a redução da lisina disponível e a perda da atividade antioxidante específica. A pasta de anchoita modificada foi obtida por hidrólise enzimática da fração muscular (filés) do pescado por Neutrase®. Foram avaliadas na operação de secagem, a ...

  5. 水产资源与捕捞技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    040047基于个体的模型(IBM)模拟本格拉南部南非鳀鱼卵在产卵场向孵化场传送的过程中的浮性效果=Modelling the effect of buoyancy on the transport of anchovy(En- graulis capensis)eggs from spawning to nurs- ery grounds in the muthern Bengueta:an IBM approach[刊,英]/Parada C,van der Lin- gen C D,Mullon C…//Fish.Oceanogr..- 2003,12(3).-170-184 用基于个体的模型(IBM)研究本格拉南部南非鳀Engraulis capensis鱼卵在产卵场向孵化场由急流传送的过程中发生的物理

  6. Modelling retention and dispersion mechanisms of bluefin tuna eggs and larvae in the Northwest Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mariani, Patrizio; MacKenzie, Brian; Iudicone, D.;

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of early life history of most fish species in the Mediterranean Sea is sparse and processes affecting their recruitment are poorly understood. This is particularly true for bluefin tuna, Thunnus thynnus, even though this species is one of the world's most valued fish species. Here we...... develop, apply and validate an individually based coupled biological-physical oceanographic model of fish early life history in the Mediterranean Sea. We first validate the general structure of the coupled model with a 12-day Lagrangian drift study of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) larvae in the Catalan...... locations of spawning bluefin tuna using hydrographic backtracking procedures; these locations were situated in a major salinity frontal zone and coincided with distributions of an electronically tagged bluefin tuna and commercial bluefin tuna fishing vessels. Moreover, we hypothesized that mesoscale...

  7. Investigating relationships between albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) CPUE and prey distribution in the Bay of Biscay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezama-Ochoa, Ainhoa; Boyra, Guillermo; Goñi, Nicolas; Arrizabalaga, Haritz; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2010-07-01

    The Bay of Biscay in the northeast Atlantic is an important feeding zone for juvenile albacore tuna ( Thunnus alalunga) during their summer migration northwards. Spatial distribution and abundance of their potential prey [planktonic organisms, anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) and other small pelagics] were investigated in the southeast Bay of Biscay during acoustic surveys in autumn from 2003 to 2005. The relationships between albacore tuna catch per unit of effort (CPUE), and prey abundance and sea surface temperature (SST) were studied at different spatiotemporal scales. We observed positive and significant correlations between albacore tuna CPUE and anchovy abundance and total prey abundance, at different spatial scales. However, in 2003, a year characterised by extreme temperatures compared to the other years of this study, the relationship between CPUE and prey abundance was much weaker. Instead, we found a significant negative correlation with SST.

  8. The Danish fish fauna during the warm Atlantic period (ca. 7000-3900 bc): Forerunner of future changes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, I.B.; MacKenzie, Brian; Eg Nielsen, Einar

    Vast amounts of fish bone lie preserved in Denmark's soil as remains of prehistoric fishing. Fishing was particularly important during the Atlantic period (ca. 7000-3900 bc, i.e. part of the Mesolithic Stone Age). At this time, sea temperature and salinity were higher in waters around Denmark than...... today. Analyses of more than 100,000 fish bones from various settlements from this period document which fish species were common in coastal Danish waters at this time. This study provides a basis for comparing the fish fauna in the warm Stone Age sea with the tendencies seen and predicted today as a...... result of rising sea temperatures. One example concerns the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), which lived in the Stone Age sea, and has become more numerous in Danish waters since the mid-1990s. Other warm water fishes represented among the Stone Age bone samples include smoothhound (Mustelus sp...

  9. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulisjaponicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than s pring ( 55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton biomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters ( 29°30′N, 125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  10. Utilización de la proteína dietaría por alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Walter Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento fue conducido para evaluar los efectos de cinco niveles de proteína (25,27, 29, 31 y 33% sobre el comportamiento productivo de alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas (2,7 kcal de ED/g. Los parámetros medidos fueron ganancia de peso (GP, conversión alimenticia (CA, proteína retenida (PR, razón de eficiencia proteica (REP y energía retenida (ER. En la preparación de las dietas experimentales se utilizaron como fuentes de proteína harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya y como fuentes de energía maíz amarillo duro, subproducto de trigo y aceite de pescado. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0,05 entre tratamientos para los parámetros GP, PR, REP y ER. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la CA. Los mejores rendimientos fueron obtenidos cuando las gamitanas fueron alimentadas con niveles dietarios de 25, 27 y 33% de proteína cruda. También se encontró que a medida que se elevó el nivel de proteína de la dieta, la REP decreció significativamente. Tomando en cuenta el costo de la proteína en la dieta, se concluye que la alimentación de la gamitana con niveles dietarios de 25 ó 27% de proteína cruda y 2,7 kcal de ED/g, garantizarán su exitoso crecimiento.

  11. Condições de secagem de uma pasta de anchoita modificada enzimaticamente na oxidação lipídica, lisina disponível e atividade antioxidante do produto Drying conditions of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy in the lipid oxidation, available lisina and antioxidant activity of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Moraes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as condições da secagem convectiva de uma pasta de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita modificada enzimaticamente, através da metodologia de superfícies de resposta, sendo as respostas consideradas: a oxidação lipídica (TBA, a redução da lisina disponível e a perda da atividade antioxidante específica. A pasta de anchoita modificada foi obtida por hidrólise enzimática da fração muscular (filés do pescado por Neutrase®. Foram avaliadas na operação de secagem, a temperatura do ar (60, 70 e 80°C e a espessura das amostras (1,5; 2,5 e 3,5mm. A análise estatística da secagem mostrou efeitos significativos da temperatura do ar e da espessura das amostras (PThe aim of the work was to analyze the conditions of the convective drying of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita through the response surfaces methodology, and the responses were the lipid oxidation (TBA, reduction of the available lisina and loss of the specific antioxidant activity. The modified paste of anchovy was obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of the fish muscular fraction (fillets by Neutrase®. In drying operation the air temperature (60, 70 and 80°C and the samples thickness (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5mm were studied. The statistical analysis of the drying showed significant effects of the air temperature and samples thickness (P<0.05. The best drying condition was obtained in the air temperature of 60°C and samples thickness of 2.5mm. In this condition the TBA index was of 0.93mgMDA kg-1, available lisina reduction of 16% and loss of the specific antioxidant activity of 20.2%.

  12. Kan forskningsbibliotekernes e-materialer være e-læringsmaterialer?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engerer, Volkmar Paul

    2013-01-01

    Artiklen er et forsøg på at koble de studerendes informationshandlinger (at søge og håndtere videnskabelig information) til deres læringsaktiviteter som læsning af tekster og diskursiv forarbejdning af stoffet. Der tages udgangspunkt i e-læringens hybride sammenknytning af ressourcer af forskellige...... almindeligvis forbindes med biblioteksdomænet, kan få status af læringsobjekter på lige fod med de traditionelle, primære dokumenter. – På baggrund af e-materialernes integrationsgrad i virtuelle læringsomgivelser introduceres begrebet ”læringspotentiale”, som undersøges i form af klassiske emneredskaber...... (tesaurus og klassifikation) i hybride materialetyper, både primære (fx e-bogspakker) og sekundære (bibliografier). Der kan bl.a. konkluderes, at biblioteker i vid udstrækning har den viden, der hører til for at formidle disse ressourcer i de virtuelle læringsmiljøer....

  13. Fruktbarhet hos simler: effekter av ernæring og vekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J.C. Tyler

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Tyler's article is published in English in Rangifer 7 (2, 1987: Fertility in female reindeer: the effect of nutrition and growth.Sammendrag: Drektighetsprosenten i ungrein varierer sterkt fra individ til individ og fra flokk til flokk. En høy fruktbarhet i reinflokken er selve grunnlaget for en vellykket reindrift. Overraskende er det derfor at man vet lite om hvilke faktorer som bestemmer om rein skal bli drektig eller ikke. I denne artikkelen blir effekten av ernæring på reinsimlenes fruktbarhet diskutert. Undersøkelser indikerer at rein er som andre pattedyr, der fruktbarheten er relatert til kroppsvekten. Forholdet mellom reinens kroppsvekt og fruktbarhet varierer likevel sterkt. Mye tyder på at drektighetsprosenten i ungrein er avhengig av reintettheten. Dette indikerer at ernæringen er en viktig faktor når det gjelder fruktbarhet i ungrein. Vektspesifikk fruktbarhet kan derfor være en brukbar indikator for reinflokkens fortilgang. I prinsippet vil slike fruktbarhetsundersøkelser gi et tidlig varsel om reintallet er for høyt i forhold til beitegrunnlaget før en markert nedgang i slaktevekten observeres. Etter foredraget til Nic. Tyler hadde Terje Skogland et forberedt innlegg som er gjengitt på norsk. Deretter fulgte en lengre diskusjon som også er gjengitt.

  14. Sosiale roller og lokale og globale interesser i vurderingen av språksituasjoner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Hiss

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE Kommer det samiske språket til å dø ut? Trusler mot det språklige mangfoldet og mulig språkdød er hyppig diskutert i det flerspråklige Nord-Norge. Deltakere i denne diskursen er talere, lokale aktører, forskere og fageksperter, statlige myndigheter, politikere og glo­bale organisasjoner som UNESCO. Denne studien tar utgangspunkt i tre ulike vurde­ringer av den samiske språksituasjonen og språkenes fremtidsperspektiver som ble presen­tert i forskjellige medietekster. Tekstanalysen viser hvordan disse representasjo­nene av språksituasjonen involverer ulike sosiale roller og rollesett, og hvordan evalue­ringene påvirkes av disse. Operasjonaliseringen av rollesett i diskursen kan innebære konflikter mellom ulike interesser og effekter i kommunikasjonsprosessen, blant annet mellom globale og lokale perspektiver. Analysen viser at det er viktig å betrakte den diskursive konstruksjonen av trusler og varsler om truende språkdød i lyset av de ulike sosiale rollene og interessene som på ulike nivå deltar i å lage diskursen.

  15. Engaging with German history: Reactions of the third post-war generation to cinematic representations of the Holocaust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Kopf-Beck

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Because the number of surviving contemporary witnesses of the Holocaust is rapidly declining, media reports are increasingly important for transmitting history to the “Third Generation.” The focus of this quasi-experimental study is on the recipient-side effects for school pupils of viewing TV documentaries that use different strategies to represent the Holocaust. For this purpose, 12 school classes (N = 184 were asked by questionnaire about their national identification and previous engagement with the Holocaust. Three weeks later, the study participants were shown one of six different film excerpts, whereby each film excerpt was viewed by respectively one group from Baden-Württemberg and one from Thüringen. The different reactions to the excerpts were sampled using standardized items and open-response essay questions. The results point to the conditions under which TV documentaries elicit contra-indexed effects and how enlightenment on past injustice can be achieved using cinematic material, without eliciting defensive reactions, and thereby make possible a constructive engagement with history.

  16. Medien - Macht - Pädagogik. Konturen einer Cultural-Studies-basierten Medienpädagogik, illustriert an Reality-TV-Sendungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Hipfl

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorin beschreibt die Medienpädagogik im Spannungsfeld zwischen der kritischen Beobachtung von Medien und der Aufgabe, zu einem handlungsfähigen, kompetenten Umgang mit Medien zu erziehen. Hierzu bedarf die Medienpädagogik eines Theoriegerüsts, für das sie die Cultural Studies empfiehlt. Im folgenden macht sie am Beispiel von zwei Reality TV-Sendeformaten deutlich, wie Machtverhältnisse mit der Produktion von Fernsehsendungen und den Auswirkungen auf die Rezipienten zusammen hängen. Das neoliberale Menschenbild, wonach jeder Einzelne für den persönlichen (Misserfolg verantwortlich ist und Identität flexibel inszeniert werden kann, spiegelt sich in Sendungen wie "Big Brother". Da diese Formate in zahlreiche Länder adaptiert werden, passen sie in das Zeitalter der Globalisierung. Die öffentlich-rechtlichen Sendeanstalten ringen um Einschaltquoten, produzieren ähnliche Formate und geraten in eine Legitimationskrise. Die Cultural Studies setzen eine Evaluation von Fernsehsendungen dagegen, der Medienpädagogik kommt dabei eine Regulierungsfunktion zu, indem sie zu einer kritischen Rezipientenhaltung ermutigt.

  17. Om den uformelle (misbrug af medier i det formelle uddannelsessystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paulsen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En kombination af uddannelsesforskning og medieforskning anvendes til at forstå gymnasieelevers brug af nye digitale medier. På baggrund af elev- og lærerinterview fremlægger forfatterne en tolkning af mediebrugens betydning for de formelle læreprocesser. Artiklen kommer frem til, at medierne afleder elevernes opmærksomhed og fører til afhængighedsproblemer. Forfatterne fremlægger en tolkning af, hvordan eleverne afledes, og hvad de afledes til. Igennem denne tolkning kommer artiklen frem til, at medier som Messenger ikke blot afleder opmærksomhed, men også dekonstruerer forskellen mellem formelle og uformelle læreprocesser. I modsætning til, hvad eleverne og lærerne selv fortæller, indikerer tolkningen, at der finder en læring sted via elevernes dekonstruerende brug af de nye medier, men at lærerne ekskluderes fra de processer, hvorigennem læringen initieres. Artiklen konkluderer, at der bør udvikles en mediedidaktik, der dels afhjælper elevers afhængighedsproblemer, dels giver lærerne styrke til at spille en aktiv rolle ift. den sociale interaktion og læring, som de nye medier muliggør.

  18. Affärsresenärers måltidsval : En multimetodologisk studie i hur affärsresenärer gör sina måltidsval

    OpenAIRE

    Söderlund, Andrea; Moschna, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    Varje dag gör vi ca 220 val relaterade till vad vi äter och dessa val påverkas av faktorer så som hur mycket pengar eller vilka smakpreferenser vi har. Affärsresenärer är en köpkraftig grupp inom turistnäringen och ett intresse väcktes att studera denna grupp ur ett måltidsperspektiv. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur affärsresenärer gör sina måltidsval, urskilja vad som påverkar valet och på så sätt få en förståelse för hur och vad affärsresenärer väljer för måltid när de reser i tjän...

  19. DCE’s kommentarer vedr. markedsførings-anmeldelsen: EFSA-GMO-NL-2012-107 (MON810-pollen)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Strandberg, Morten Tune

    2012-01-01

    Markedsføringsanmeldelsen omhandler import og anvendelse af MON810-pollen direkte i fødemidler eller til videreforarbejdning til fødemidler (Anmeldelsen part 1 og 2.). Der indgår således ikke dyrkning eller foderanvendelse. Risikoen for spredningen af pollen ud i naturen, ved transportulykker og...... lignende, er ubetydelig da materialet ikke indeholder levende genmodificeret materiale (LMO), (Anmeldelsen part 3). Materiale der indeholder og/eller er produceret af MON810-pollen vil blive mærket: ”produced from genetically modified maize”(Anmeldelsen part 4). Desuden skal materialet mærkes med den...... unikke kode: MON-ØØ81Ø-6. Der findes en event-specifik indsamlings og ELISA-metode til påvisning af MON810-pollen (Anmeldelsen, part 5). DCE´s konklusioner til markedsføringen af MON810-pollen til fødemidler DCE vurderer samlet at der ikke kan forventes nogen uønskede økologiske konsekvenser ved...

  20. Klima og turisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2014-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en række koblinger mellem klima og turisme med det formål at pege på, hvorledes klima og turisme i fremtiden kan tænkes. Jeg beskriver, hvorledes man i turismeforskningen har fokuseret på at blotlægge særligt to kausale forbindelser mellem klima og turisme, nemlig hvordan...... klimaforandringer vil ændre turistdestinationer og rejsemønstre og hvorledes turismeindustriens CO2-udledninger påvirker klimaet. Med henblik på at opnå en bedre forståelse af, hvorledes klima og turisme gensidigt forbindes og transformeres på et utal af måder, gives der eksempler på kommercialiseringen af...... klimaforandringer i en række turismesammenhænge, såsom i markedsføringen af rejser til ’klimatruede’ turistdestinationer. En række klimavenlige fremtidsscenarier for turismen præsenteres dernæst, hvori klima/turisme-relationen udfordres. På den baggrund argumenteres der afslutningsvis for, at man i forskningen ikke...

  1. Impact of winter oceanographic conditions on zooplankton abundance in northern Adriatic with implications on Adriatic anchovy stock prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Romina; Supić, Nastjenjka; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica

    2015-12-01

    Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (L.), is commercially one of the most important Adriatic small pelagic fish. Despite the prevailing oligotrophication trend in the northern Adriatic (NA), the anchovy catch increased after 2000, coinciding with an increased number of the winter type A occurrences, when Po River waters are favoured to spread across the NA. Namely, winter type A is characterised by conditions resulting with Po River waters spreading across the NA along with salinity decrease. On the contrary, in winters of type B, salinity is high. We hypothesized in previous paper, based on correlation between circulation patterns and phytoplankton with anchovy catch, that excess feeding of anchovy in this winter pre-spawning period (February) can lead to increased amounts of the anchovy eggs two months later and subsequently to the total fish catch of the same year. In this paper, we investigate in more details and based on longer time series the relation between anchovy catch and winter circulation patterns of the NA. Additionally, we studied the association between anchovy catch and zooplankton, as anchovy is predominantly zooplanktivorous. We found that zooplankton abundances in winters of A type enhance and that ciliates play an important role in the NA anchovy food web and enrichment of the region with anchovy. Finally, the results of our investigation might in time represent the basics for a sustainable anchovy management in the Adriatic Sea as they enable the development of prediction models of the anchovy stock.

  2. Chromosome mutagenesis in populations of aquatic biota in the Black Sea, Aegean Sea and Danube and Dnieper rivers, 1986-1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the level of structural mutagenesis in the reproductive and somatic cells of aquatic biota of various taxa from natural populations of neustic and benthic communities in the Black and Aegean Seas and the Dnieper and Danube rivers between 1986 and 1989. The cytogenetic research covered embryos, larvae and adult worms of Nereidae, Naididae, Tubificidae and Turbellaria, adult Sagitta setosa, young Bivalvia molluscs, embryos of Mysidacea, and growing roe of Engraulis encrasicholus, Sprattus sprattus, Diplodus annularis, Mullus barbatus, Trachurus trachurus, Scophthalmus maeoticus, Abramis brama, Blicca bjoerkna, Rutilus rutilus and Stizostedion lucioperca. It was established that aquatic biota in the open waters of the Black and Aegean Seas had a lower level of chromosome mutagenesis than representatives of the fluvial communities. The intensity of mutagenesis was compared with the data published in the literature on radioactive contamination/chemical pollution of the aqueous medium in these areas. The paper sets out statistical regularities in chromosome mutagenesis (inter-individual variability in the chromosome aberration rate and distribution of chromosome damage in cells), noting different patterns of chromosome aberration distribution among cells. On the basis of a large quantity on our own data from field and experimental cytogenetic studies involving aquatic biota, the paper considers the possibility of using - for the purposes of radiochemical-ecological monitoring - chromosome damage distribution in cells as an indicator of whether mutagens are radiation-related or not. (author)

  3. Implementation of a reduced order Kalman filter to assimilate ocean color data into a coupled physical-biochemical model of the North Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaroni, Sofia; Tsiaras, Kostas; Economou-Amilli, Athena; Petihakis, George; Politikos, Dimitrios; Triantafyllou, George

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the European project OPEC (Operational Ecology), a data assimilation system was implemented to describe chlorophyll-a concentrations of the North Aegean, as well the impact on the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) biomass distribution provided by a bioenergetics model, related to the density of three low trophic level functional groups of zooplankton (heterotrophic flagellates, microzooplankton and mesozooplankton). The three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model comprises two on-line coupled sub-models: the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The assimilation scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter and its variant that uses a fixed correction base (SFEK). For the initialization, SEEK filter uses a reduced order error covariance matrix provided by the dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) of model. The assimilation experiments were performed for year 2003 using SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a data during which the physical model uses the atmospheric forcing obtained from the regional climate model HIRHAM5. The assimilation system is validated by assessing the relevance of the system in fitting the data, the impact of the assimilation on non-observed biochemical parameters and the overall quality of the forecasts.

  4. From bonito to anchovy: a reconstruction of Turkey’s marine fisheries catches (1950-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ULMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s marine fisheries catches were estimated for the 1950-2010 time period using a reconstruction approach, which estimated all fisheries removals, including unreported landings, recreational landings and discards.  We added these estimates to the ‘official’ data, as reported in TURKSTAT, which are also available from the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO.  The total reconstructed catch for the 1950-2010 time period (inclusive of the reported data is approximately 32 million t, or 74% more than the 18.4 million t of reported data. This added approximately 13.6 million t to the reported data, consisting of 6.9 million t of unreported landings, 2.6 million t of discards, 2.4 million t of recreational catches, and 1.7 million t of subsistence catches.  In 2010, total reported marine landings for Turkey were 445,680 t and the total reconstructed catch was 763,760 t, or 73% more than the reported data.   The main unreported taxon by tonnage was European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus due to its sheer high proportion of catch.  The major reasons for underreporting include a general distrust fishers have towards the taxing system combined with inefficient fisheries monitoring and surveillance capabilities.  Accounting for all fisheries components is crucial in understanding the development of fisheries resources, improving management, and reducing threats to the domestic food security of Turkey.

  5. Spatial variations in feeding habits and trophic levels of two small pelagic fish species in the central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumolo, P; Bonanno, A; Barra, M; Fanelli, E; Calabrò, M; Genovese, S; Ferreri, R; Mazzola, S; Basilone, G

    2016-04-01

    Trophic ecology of adults of European sardine (Sardina pilchardus) and anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) was examined and compared among various regions of central Mediterranean Sea. Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) were adopted as a tool to determine changes in feeding behaviour of adults of sardines and anchovies. In the study period (summer) a clear geographical pattern was recognized in the isotopic composition of both species, with an increasing trend northward. The highest variations in isotopic signal were linked to the geographical positions of the samples and, especially, between pairs of areas: South Sicily/South Campania and Gulf of Gaeta/South Elba. Higher isotope values were found in the anchovies and sardines caught in northern Tyrrhenian Sea, while lower values were mostly estimated in the southern region. Higher carbon and nitrogen isotopes may reflect a more coastal behaviour of both species, being (13)C-enriched source from benthic primary producers in addition to phytoplankton. Variations in the nitrogen isotope ratio may reflect not only differences in the trophic level of prey species, but also variations in the baseline level of food webs. Our results support the hypothesis that feeding behaviour of both species is directly or indirectly influenced by local factors, or by resource partitioning based on zooplankton size. Findings can supply knowledge needed for improving fish stock management and promoting plans able to take into account also local ecosystem analysis. PMID:26895386

  6. Atmospheric-induced variability of hydrological and biogeochemical signatures in the NW Alboran Sea. Consequences for the spawning and nursery habitats of European anchovy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macías, D.; Catalán, I. A.; Solé, J.; Morales-Nin, B.; Ruiz, J.

    2011-12-01

    The north-western Alboran Sea is a highly dynamic region in which the hydrological processes are mainly controlled by the entrance of the Atlantic Jet (AJ) through the Strait of Gibraltar. The biological patterns of the area are also related to this variability in which atmospheric pressure distributions and wind intensity and direction play major roles. In this work, we studied how changes in atmospheric forcing (from high atmospheric pressure over the Mediterranean to low atmospheric pressure) induced alterations in the physical and biogeochemical environment by re-activating coastal upwelling on the Spanish shore. The nursery area of European anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) in the NW Alboran Sea, confirmed to be the very coastal band around Malaga Bay, did not show any drastic change in its biogeochemical characteristics, indicating that this coastal region is somewhat isolated from the rest of the basin. Our data also suggests that anchovy distribution is tightly coupled to the presence of microzooplankton rather than mesozooplankton. Finally, we use detailed physical and biological information to evaluate a hydrological-biogeochemical coupled model with a specific hydrological configuration to represent the Alboran basin. This model is able to reproduce the general circulation patterns in the region forced by the AJ movements only including two variable external forcings; atmospheric pressure over the western Mediterranean and realistic wind fields.

  7. A real-time PCR assay to estimate invertebrate and fish predation on anchovy eggs in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, A.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of predation on eggs and larvae in the recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and 52 macrozooplankton taxa were assayed for anchovy remains in the gut during the 2010 spawning season using a molecular method. This real-time PCR based assay was capable of detecting 0.005. ng of anchovy DNA (roughly 1/100 of a single egg assay) in a reliable way and allowed detecting predation events up to 6. h after ingestion by small zooplankton taxa. A total of 1069 macrozooplankton individuals, 237 sardines and 213 sprats were tested. Both fish species and 32 macrozooplankton taxa showed remains of anchovy DNA within their stomach contents. The two main findings are (1) that the previously neglected macrozooplankton impact in anchovy eggs/larvae mortality is in the same order of magnitude of that due to planktivorous fishes and that, (2) the predation pressure was notably different in the two main spawning centers of Bay of Biscay anchovy. While relatively low mortality rates were recorded at the shelf-break spawning center, a higher predation pressure from both fish and macrozooplankton was exerted at the shelf one.

  8. Species identification of small pelagic fish schools by means of hydroacoustics in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. TSAGARAKIS

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available   Reliable biomass estimates by means of hydroacoustics largely depend on the correct identification of acoustic targets. Data collected during five summer acoustic surveys (2004-2008 in the North Aegean Sea (Greece were analyzed to explore effective discrimination of small pelagic fish schools according to the species they belong. Discriminant Function Analyses (DFA using bathymetric, energetic and morphometric school descriptors as explanatory variables were applied per research cruise as well as to pooled data from all surveys. Results revealed that the schools can be successfully classified into the five species considered (anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine Sardina pilchardus, round sardinella Sardinella aurita, blue whiting Micromessistius poutassou, and Atlantic mackerel Scomber scombrus. The percentage of correct classifications in terms of number of schools was higher in the analyses of the annual cruises (75.6%-95.36% than in the analysis of pooled data (≈72%. This is because of (i the lower number of species, as well as (ii the reduced intraspecific variability, occurring in each separate cruise. Significant differences were detected among school descriptors for the different species, revealing discrete aspects of schooling behaviour for each species. The benefit of the specific approach is that the classification functions of the DFAs can be used to classify a larger set of schools, which has not been possible to assign to specific species. Overall the approach constitutes an objective, more automated and less time consuming procedure for the analysis of acoustic data and can contribute to the improvement of biomass estimates in the area.

  9. Feeding and ecomorphology of three clupeoids in the N Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the feeding habits of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine (Sardina pilchardus and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita. The results are combined with previously published information on feeding-related morphological features (i.e. mouth area, intestine length and tail area in order to explore morphological affinities between species and the effect of ecomorphology on their co-existence. These species were mainly zooplanktivorous and no dietary differences were found with sex and season. Anchovy preyed mainly on Crustacea larvae, whereas sardine and round sardinella on Copepoda. In the majority of cases (>90%, the individual fractional trophic level of all species ranged between 3.0 and 3.5, classifying them as omnivores with preference to animals. The feeding-related morphological features differed between anchovy and the two other species, whereas only intestine length differed between sardine and round sardinella. The fact that round sardinella’s diet and morphology show a greater resemblance to those of sardine, further support the hypothesis that is a particulate feeder as sardine. Hence the three species tend to exploit the same food resources differently throughout the year. Thus, they make best use of the environment and its resources, in order to avoid competition and achieve optimum feeding conditions throughout their life cycles

  10. Fine scale distribution constrains cadmium accumulation rates in two geographical groups of Franciscana dolphin from Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Fine scale distribution of two Argentine stocks constrains the Cd accumulation rates. • Cadmium levels and accumulation patterns were different between geographic groups. • Marine diet has a major influence than the impact degree of origin environment. • Engraulis anchoita is the main Cd vector species in Argentine shelf for Franciscana. • Information is valuable for the conservation of Franciscana, a vulnerable species. -- Abstract: Franciscana dolphin is an endemic cetacean in the southwestern Atlantic Ocean and is classified as Vulnerable A3d by the International Union for Conservation of Nature. Cadmium accumulation was assessed in two geographic groups from Argentina; one inhabits the La Plata River estuary, a high anthropogenic impacted environment, and the other is distributed in marine coastal, with negligible pollution. Despite the environment, marine dolphins showed an increase of renal Cd concentrations since trophic independence; while in estuarine dolphins was from 6 years. This is associated with dietary Argentine anchovy which was absent in the diet of estuarine dolphins, being a trophic vector of cadmium in shelf waters of Argentina. Cluster analysis also showed high levels of cd in association with the presence of anchovy in the stomach. The difference in the fine scale distribution of species influences dietary exposure to Cd and, along with other data, indicates two stocks in Argentina

  11. Volatile compounds of some popular Mediterranean seafood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. GIOGIOS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of highly commercialised fresh Mediterranean seafood species, including seven fish (sand-smelt Atherina boyeri, picarel Spicara smaris, hake Merluccius merluccius, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, bogue Boobps boops, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and striped-mullet Mullus barbatus, squid (Loligo vulgaris, shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, were evaluated by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and subsequent GC-MS analysis. A total of 298 volatile compounds were detected. The mussels contained the highest total concentration of volatile compounds, while pilchard among fish species contained the highest number and concentrations of volatile compounds. Individual patterns of volatile compounds have been distinguished. The fish species when compared to the shellfish species studied, contained 6 to 30 times more 1-penten-3-ol, higher quantities of 2-ethylfuran, and 2,3-pentanedione, which was absent from the shellfish species. Pilchard is characterized by a high concentration of alcohols, shrimps by the high presence of amines and S-compounds, while mussels by high amounts of aldehydes, furans, and N-containing compounds (pyridine, pyrazines and pyrrols. The fatty acid-originating carbonyl compounds in fish seem to be related to the species’ fat content.

  12. Levels of 210Po in some commercial fish species consumed in the Aegean Sea coast of Turkey and the related dose assessment to the coastal population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of 210Po were determined in the edible muscle tissue of five species of marine fish: Sardine (Sardine plichardus) and Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), Red mullet (Mullus barbatus), Horse mackerel (Trachurus trachurus) and Gilt-head sea bream (Sparus aurata) collected from five stations in the Aegean Sea Region of Turkey during the fishery season 2010. The 210Po concentrations in the fish samples were found to vary from not detected levels to 389 ± 45 Bq kg−1 dry wt. These variations in 210Po content in different species are probably due to differences in metabolism and feeding patterns. The highest levels for 210Po were observed in Anchovy (E. encrasicolus) species. -- Highlights: ► This study was determined the 210Po levels in the fish. ► Different fish species were collected in the Turkish coast of Aegean Sea. ► Higher 210Po concentrations were found in Anchovy. ► The annual dose from the consumption of the fish samples was calculated. ► The ingestion dose was found in the range 0.041–14.66 μSv y−1

  13. Thermal adaptation and clinal mitochondrial DNA variation of European anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Gonçalo; Lima, Fernando P; Martel, Paulo; Castilho, Rita

    2014-10-01

    Natural populations of widely distributed organisms often exhibit genetic clinal variation over their geographical ranges. The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, illustrates this by displaying a two-clade mitochondrial structure clinally arranged along the eastern Atlantic. One clade has low frequencies at higher latitudes, whereas the other has an anti-tropical distribution, with frequencies decreasing towards the tropics. The distribution pattern of these clades has been explained as a consequence of secondary contact after an ancient geographical isolation. However, it is not unlikely that selection acts on mitochondria whose genes are involved in relevant oxidative phosphorylation processes. In this study, we performed selection tests on a fragment of 1044 bp of the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene using 455 individuals from 18 locations. We also tested correlations of six environmental features: temperature, salinity, apparent oxygen utilization and nutrient concentrations of phosphate, nitrate and silicate, on a compilation of mitochondrial clade frequencies from 66 sampling sites comprising 2776 specimens from previously published studies. Positive selection in a single codon was detected predominantly (99%) in the anti-tropical clade and temperature was the most relevant environmental predictor, contributing with 59% of the variance in the geographical distribution of clade frequencies. These findings strongly suggest that temperature is shaping the contemporary distribution of mitochondrial DNA clade frequencies in the European anchovy. PMID:25143035

  14. Influence of summer conditions on the larval fish assemblage in the eastern coast of Tunisia (Ionian Sea, Southern Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrad, Rafik; Alemany, Francisco; Rodriguez, José-María; Jarboui, Othman; Lopez-Jurado, José-Luis; Balbin, Rosa

    2013-02-01

    The structure of the summer larval fish assemblage off the eastern coast of Tunisia and its relation to environmental conditions was studied, from ichthyoplankton samples taken during a survey conducted between 23rd June and 9th July 2008. A total of 68 larval fish taxa were identified, 52 to species level. The taxonomic composition and abundance of the larval fish assemblage showed high spatial heterogeneity. Mesoscale hydrographic features, such as eddies, seem to play an important role in the spatial distribution of fish larvae in the area, enhancing concentration and retention. The larval fish assemblage was dominated by the small pelagic species Sardinella aurita (26.6% of the total larval fish abundance), followed by Engraulis encrasicolus (22.6%), Spicara spp. (8.6%) and Mullus barbatus (6.8%). Shannon-Weaver index (H') ranged between 0 and 2.62. The highest values were found offshore, at 95 miles east of Sousse, over depths around 250 m. The diversity was higher in this region as a result of transport by currents and retention by eddies. It has also been shown that the eastern coast of Tunisia is a spawning ground for the tuna species Auxis rochei, Thunnus thynnus and Thunnus alalunga. Larvae of mesopelagic fishes represented 5.46% of the total abundance, with Cyclothone braueri, Ceratoscopelus maderensis and Lampanyctus crocodilus being the most important species. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) indicated that depth was the most important environmental factor in explaining species distribution.

  15. Tuna aggregation and feeding near fronts observed in satellite imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Paul C.; Bernard, Hannah J.

    1987-08-01

    Stomach contents of albacore ( Thunnus alalunga) and skipjack ( Katsuwonus pelamis) caught off California in August 1983 showed they were feeding on juvenile northern anchovy ( Engraulis mordax), other fishes, and planktonic crustaceans. The distribution and diet of these predators were related to mesoscale frontal features visible in satellite sea surface temperature and phytoplankton pigment imagery. Albacore were caught in the vicinity of a filament of cold, pigment-rich surface water that varied with the intensity of coastal upwelling on time scales of several days. Stomachs of albacore caught closer to the filament contained relatively more juvenile anchovy and fewer pelagic red crabs ( Pleuroncodes planipes). Skipjack were caught in warm water in the Southern California Bight, north of their normal range due to El Nin˜o warming. They appeared to be feeding most successfully near the strong frontal boundary of a productive, cold water mass south of Pt. Conception, where dense patches of euphausiids were available. Both species were feeding near variable, mesoscale centers of high productivity where prey abundance may be enhanced.

  16. Acoustic surveys for juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: Abundance estimate as an indicator of the next year's recruitment and spatial distribution patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2013-08-16

    A series of acoustic surveys (JUVENA) began in 2003 targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. A specific methodology was designed for mapping and estimating juvenile abundance annually, four months after the spawning season. After eight years of the survey, a consistent picture of the spatial pattern of the juvenile anchovy has emerged. Juveniles show a vertical and horizontal distribution pattern that depends on size. The younger individuals are found isolated from other species in waters closer to the surface, mainly off the shelf within the mid-southern region of the bay. The largest juveniles are usually found deeper and closer to the shore in the company of adult anchovy and other pelagic species. In these eight years, the survey has covered a wide range of juvenile abundances, and the estimates show a significant positive relationship between the juvenile biomasses and the one-year-old recruits of the following year. This demonstrates that the JUVENA index provides an early indication of the strength of next year\\'s recruitment to the fishery and can therefore be used to improve the management advice for the fishery of this short-lived species. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  17. Properties of the argentine anchovy and withemouth croaker muscle proteins obtained by alkali solubization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Rodrigues Freitas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate functional properties and microbiological characteristics of recovered proteins of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita and whitemouth croaker (Micropogonias furnieri through the process of alkaline solubilization and isoelectric precipitation, using different solubilization at pH 11 (NaOH and KOH and precipitation at pH 5.5 (HCl and H3PO4 reagents. Analyses of water holding capacity were carried out (at pH 3,5,7,9 and 11, oil holding capacity and Salmonella sp, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The water holding capacity was lowest at pH 5. The low value of the proteins recovered by alkaline solubilization process also indicates changes in the protein. The highest oil holding capacity was observed in whitemouth croaker concentrates (NaOH/H3PO4 at 5.6 ml oil/g protein. As for microbiological analyses, results showed no Salmonella in 25 g for all treatments and maximum count of 2.75 x 102 CFU/g for coagulase positive Staphylococcus for the muscle of anchovy concentrated. The protein concentrate obtained by combining NaOH/H3PO4 showed better functional quality. This process is an alternative to recover fish protein of low commercial value that may be used as an ingredient in foods.

  18. Detection of Anthropogenic Particles in Fish Stomachs: An Isolation Method Adapted to Identification by Raman Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, France; Gilbert, Bernard; Eppe, Gauthier; Parmentier, Eric; Das, Krishna

    2015-10-01

    Microplastic particles (MP) contaminate oceans and affect marine organisms in several ways. Ingestion combined with food intake is generally reported. However, data interpretation often is circumvented by the difficulty to separate MP from bulk samples. Visual examination often is used as one or the only step to sort these particles. However, color, size, and shape are insufficient and often unreliable criteria. We present an extraction method based on hypochlorite digestion and isolation of MP from the membrane by sonication. The protocol is especially well adapted to a subsequent analysis by Raman spectroscopy. The method avoids fluorescence problems, allowing better identification of anthropogenic particles (AP) from stomach contents of fish by Raman spectroscopy. It was developed with commercial samples of microplastics and cotton along with stomach contents from three different Clupeiformes fishes: Clupea harengus, Sardina pilchardus, and Engraulis encrasicolus. The optimized digestion and isolation protocol showed no visible impact on microplastics and cotton particles while the Raman spectroscopic spectrum allowed the precise identification of microplastics and textile fibers. Thirty-five particles were isolated from nine fish stomach contents. Raman analysis has confirmed 11 microplastics and 13 fibers mainly made of cellulose or lignin. Some particles were not completely identified but contained artificial dyes. The novel approach developed in this manuscript should help to assess the presence, quantity, and composition of AP in planktivorous fish stomachs. PMID:26289815

  19. A mechanistic approach to postirradiation spoilage kinetics of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In order to simulate postirradiation spoilage of fish, the mechanistic aspects of the growth of surviving microorganisms during chill storage and their product formation in irradiated fish were analyzed. Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples those unirradiated and irradiated at 1, 2 and 3 kGy doses of gamma radiation were stored at +2oC for 21 days. Total bacterial counts (TBC) and trimethylamine (TMA) analysis of the samples were done periodically during storage. Depending on the proposed spoilage mechanism, kinetic model equations were derived. By using experimental data of TBC and TMA in the developed model, the postirradiation spoilage parameters including growth rate constant, inital and maximum attainable TBC, lag time and TMA yield were evaluated and microbial spoilage of fish was simulated for postirradiation storage. Shelf life of irradiated fish was estimated depending on the spoilage kinetics. Dose effects on the kinetic parameters were analyzed. It is suggested that the kinetic evaluation method developed in this study may be used for quality assessment, shelf life determination and dose optimization for radiation preservation of fish

  20. Determining the causes behind the collapse of a small pelagic fishery using Bayesian population modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taboadai, Fernando G; Anadón, Ricardo

    2016-04-01

    Small pelagic fish species present complex dynamics that challenge population biologists and prevent effective management. Huge fluctuations in abundance have traditionally been associated with external environmental forcing on recruitment, exempting other processes from contributing to fisheries collapse. On the other hand, theory predicts that density dependence and overexploitation can increase the likelihood of population oscillations. Here, we combined nonlinear population modeling with Bayesian analysis to examine the importance of different regulatory mechanisms on the collapse of European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. The approach relied on detailed population data and in a careful characterization of changes in the environment experienced by anchovy early stages based mainly on satellite remote sensing. Alternative hypotheses about external forcing on recruitment determined prediction skill and provided alternative interpretations of the causes behind the collapse. Density dependence was weak and unable to generate huge oscillations. Instead, models considering changes in phytoplankton phenology or in larval drift presented the best prediction skill. Nevertheless, an extensive surrogate analysis showed that environmental fluctuations alone barely explain anchovy collapse without considering the impact of fishing. Our results highlight the effectiveness of a Bayesian approach to analyze the dynamics and collapse of managed populations. PMID:27411258

  1. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension. - Highlights: • Marinated anchovies were γ-irradiated at 2, 3 and 4 kGy and stored at 4 °C (10 months). • Irradiation slightly hardened the texture and reduced its softening during storage. • Irradiated marinades had good sensory acceptability without differences with controls. • Irradiation improved the quality by reducing texture softening and color changes

  2. Temporal and sex-specific variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet in the central California Current system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carle, Ryan D.; Beck, Jessie N.; Calleri, David M.; Hester, Michelle M.

    2015-06-01

    We used stable isotopes (δ15N and δ13C) and compared prey provided to chicks by each sex to evaluate seasonal and sex-specific diets in Rhinoceros Auklets (Cerorhinca monocerata) in the central California Current system during 2012-2013. Mixing models indicated northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax) were important prey for adults during fall/winter and juvenile rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) were important prey during incubation both years. Adult trophic level increased between incubation and chick-rearing periods in both years. During 2012, δ15N and δ13C of chick-rearing males and females differed significantly; mixing models indicated that females ate more Pacific saury (Cololabis saira) and less market squid (Doryteuthis opalescens) than males. Likewise, females delivered significantly more Pacific saury and less market squid to chicks than males during 2012. Chick growth (g d- 1) and chick survival to fledging were significantly lower during 2012 than 2013, likely because chicks were fed lesser quality prey or fed less frequently in 2012. Lesser body mass of females during incubation in 2012 indicated sex-specific diet differences may have been related to female energetic constraints. The observed variability in Rhinoceros Auklet diet underscores the importance of managing multiple prey populations in this system so that generalist predators have sufficient resources through changing conditions.

  3. Intervensjonsstudien "Forebyggelse av lårhalsbrudd". Metode og praktisk gjennomføring

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    Elisabeth Kvaavik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  Bakgrunn  3 kan forebygge brudd blant sykehjemsbeboere. Her beskrivesmetoden og den praktiske gjennomføringen av studien.Metode  mg vitamin D daglig som 5 ml tran og kontrollgruppa fikk 5 ml tran der vitamin D var fjernet. Endepunktenevar lårhalsbrudd og alle ikke-vertebrale brudd. Et enkelt studieopplegg ble vektlagt. På bakgrunnav styrkeberegningen var målsetningen å inkludere ca. 2000 deltakere.Resultater  Konklusjon  The intervention study”Prevention of hip fractures”. Nor J Epidemiol 2000; 10 (1: 79-85.  Background  3 can prevent suchfractures. Here we present the method and the implementation of the study.Method  mg vitamin D daily in 5 ml cod liver oil for 2 years and the control group received 5 ml cod liver oilwithout vitamin D. The endpoints were hip fractures and all non-vertebral fractures. It was consideredimportant to use a trial that the nursing homes would find easy to implement. According to power calculationthe aim was to include about 2000 participants.Results  Conclusion  : The participation was lower than expected as recruiting nursing homes and nursing homeresidents posed considerable difficulty. However, the great majority of the ward staff at the participatingwards did not find the intervention demanding. A total of 1144 was included in the study.: A total of 1144 residents from 51 nursing homes (of 106 invited in Oslo, Lier and Bergen participated.The participation rate at the individual nursing home varied from 3 to 57%. The participants were85 years old and 3/4 were women. Mean calcium intake from cheese and milk was 450 mg/day, more than40% used a vitamin D supplement while only 3% used a calcium supplement. 1/3 of the participants completedthe 2 years intervention, about 1/3 finished the intervention before 2 years because of death and 1/3finished before 2 years of other causes. The great majority of the wards did not find the interventiondemanding.: A randomised, double

  4. Ein Versuch, Naturverhältnisse aus feministischer Sicht zu interpretieren

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    Helga Purgand

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem vorliegenden Sammelband Geschlechterverhältnisse – Naturverhältnisse wird nach dem innovativen Beitrag der feministischen Debatte für umweltsoziologisches Denken gefragt und nach Überschneidungen, Grenzen und Zwischenräumen zwischen „Geschlecht“ und „Natur“ gesucht. In ihm wird der lobenswerte Versuch unternommen, einen Zusammenhang zwischen Geschlechter- und Naturverhältnissen herzustellen „die in der Umweltsoziologie bislang stark vernachlässigte feministische Diskussion und Geschlechterforschung einzubeziehen und als genderbezogene Perspektive zu etablieren“. (S. 9 Das Buch enthält Beiträge von 15 Autorinnen, die unterschiedliche Natur- und Geschlechtsverhältnisse facettenreich, überwiegend kreativ und theoretisch anspruchsvoll betrachten. Das Buch enthält Zugänge aus der allgemeinen Soziologie, den Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften, aus politik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Zusammenhängen. Den ausdrücklich formulierten Anspruch, von multi- zu einer inter-disziplinären Durchdringung zu gelangen, erfüllt es nur in Ansätzen (besonders mit der Einleitung und den theoretischen Problemexplikationen. Das zustande gekommene „Nach-, Zusammen- und Querdenken“ über Begriffe, Theorien und neuere Forschungsansätze (von Foucault über Butler bis zu Donna Haraway belegt die Notwendigkeit, die naturwissenschaftlichen Annahmen „immanent zu dekonstruieren“. Sehr aufschlussreich sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Beiträge von Irmgard Schultz, Elvira Scheich, aber auch von Mary Mellor und besonders von Paula-Irene Villa, die interessante und kreative Gedanken zur Klärung des Verhältnisses von Natur, Kultur und Geschlecht anbieten. Deutlich wurde, dass weiterhin ein kontroverses Ringen um angemessene konzeptionelle Fassungen von Geschlechts- und Naturverhältnissen und die Integration von Gender als zentraler analytischer Querschnitts-Kategorie nötig sind. Insgesamt ist dem Buch ist eine schnelle Verbreitung und

  5. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

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    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  6. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities. PMID:24701246

  7. Interdisciplinary Approaches at Institutions of Higher Education: Teaching Information Systems Concepts to Students of Non-Computer Science Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schwald

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a curriculum development concept for teaching information systems content to students enrolled in non-computer science programs by presenting examples from the Business Administration programs at Albstadt-Sigmaringen University, a state university located in Southern Germany. The main focus of this paper therefore is to describe this curriculum development concept. Since this concept involves two disciplines, i.e. business administration and computer science, the author argues that it is necessary to define the roles of one discipline for the other and gives an example on how this could be done. The paper acknowledges that the starting point for the development of a curriculum such as one for a business administration program will be the requirements of the potential employers of the graduates. The paper continues to recommend the assignment of categorized skills and qualifications, such as knowledge, social, methodological, and decision making skills to the different parts of the curricula in question for the development of such a curriculum concept. After the mapping of skills and courses the paper describes how specific information systems can be used in courses, especially those with a specific focus on methodological skills. Two examples from Albstadt-Sigma-ringen University are being given. At the end of the paper the author explains the implications and limitations of such a concept, especially for programs that build on each other, as is the case for some Bachelor and Master programs. The paper concludes that though some elements of this concept are transferable, it is still necessary that every institution of higher education has to take into consideration its own situation to develop curricula concepts. It provides recommendations what issues every institution should solve for itself.

  8. Depositional environment, ichnological features and oxygenation of Permian to earliest Triassic marine sediments in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

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    Alfred Uchman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Late Early Permian–lowermost Triassic carbonate, siliceous (spiculites and clastic marine sediments in the Marmierfjellet area (Isfjorden, central Spitsbergen contain a relatively diverse and abundant trace fossil assemblage providing important information about the depositional processes. The Vøringen Member (Late Artinskian–Kungurian of the Kapp Starostin Formation (Late Artinskian–? Changhsingian contains trace fossils (Nereites, Phycosiphon, Zoophycos and Arenicolites—common in tempestites typical of the proximal–archetypal Cruziana ichnofacies, which indicates lower shoreface. Nereites, Phycosiphon and Zoophycos, accompanied by other rare trace fossils, characterize the Svenskegga and Hovtinden members of the Kapp Starostin Formation. They are interpreted as the distal Cruziana ichnofacies, possibly transitional to the Zoophycos ichnofacies typical of the lower offshore zone. However, the sporadic occurrences of Arenicolites and Macaronichnus can point to episodic shallowing to upper offshore–lower shoreface. The lowest part of the Triassic Vikinghøgda Formation (Induan–Olenekian contains a very low-diverse ichnoassemblage composed of a few simple and branched forms ascribed to the impoverished Cruziana ichnofacies (lower to upper offshore environment, which is attributed to the early recovery stage after the Permian–Triassic extinction. The trace fossils and loss of primary sedimentary structures caused by intense bioturbation throughout most of the section point to generally oxygenated pore waters on the sea floor. However, some horizons, especially laminated black shales, display reduced or no bioturbational activity. These horizons also show high V/(V+Ni ratios, which indicate oxygen-depleted sediments with periods of anoxic conditions. A remarkable black shale unit deposited under anoxic and sulphidic conditions occurs at the Permian–Triassic transition.

  9. 210Po and 210Pb trophic transfer within the phytoplankton–zooplankton–anchovy/sardine food web: a case study from the Gulf of Lion (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transfer of 210Po and 210Pb in the food web of small pelagic fishes (from phytoplankton and zooplankton to anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus) is investigated in the Gulf of Lion (GoL). We present original data of 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations, C and N stable isotope ratios, measured (i) from different size classes of phytoplankton and zooplankton during spring and winter in different environments of the GoL, and (ii) in two fish species. Significant spatial patterns based on 210Po, 210Pb activity concentrations and 210Po/210Pb ratios in the different plankton size classes are evidenced by hierarchical clustering, both in spring and winter. This variability, also observed for C and N stable isotopes ratios, is connected to local specific pelagic habitats and hydrodynamics. The sampling strategy suggests that 210Po bioaccumulation in the GoL remains at a constant level from the first (dominated by phytoplankton) to the second trophic level (zooplankton), while 210Pb bioaccumulation shows an increase in winter. Based on stable N isotope ratios and 210Po activity concentrations measured in anchovies and sardines, we evidence 210Po bio-magnification along the trophic food web of these two planktivorous pelagic fishes. - Highlights: • 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in plankton vary up to a factor of two in the Gulf of Lion (East vs West). • 210Po and 210Pb variability is connected to local specific pelagic habitats. • Bio-magnification of 210Po is evidenced in anchovy/sardine foodwebs

  10. Dealing with the identification of protein species in ancient amphorae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallongeville, Sophie; Garnier, Nicolas; Casasola, Dario Bernal; Bonifay, Michel; Rolando, Christian; Tokarski, Caroline

    2011-03-01

    This manuscript deals with the identification of protein residues in amphorae, including particularly identification of protein species. The work described was performed on fishes, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and bonito (Sarda sarda) species frequently found in the Mediterranean area. Based on proteomic techniques, the analytical strategy was adapted to analysis of protein residues from tiny ceramic fragments. The major difficulty was to extract proteins and limit their hydrolysis during the sample preparation; consequently, multiple soft extraction techniques were evaluated. The most valuable results were obtained using a solution containing high amounts of denaturing agents, urea and thiourea, reducing agent, dithiothreitol, and detergent, 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate. The analysis using nano liquid chromatography-nano electrospray ionization double quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry resulted in the identification of up to 200 proteins for the anchovy and bonito species, among which 73 peptides were found to be fish-specific. Because bonito and anchovy species are not documented and fully sequenced in genomic databases, the preliminary protein identification was realized via sequence homology to other fish sequenced species. Amino acid substitutions of peptides were assigned on the basis of the interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry spectra using de novo sequencing; these peptides, not reported up to now in databases, constitute species-specific markers. The method developed was finally applied to an archaeological sample replica impregnated with a mixture of fish tissue from both species; this experiment successfully led to the identification of 17 fish proteins, including 33 fish-specific peptides. This work shows that the analytical method developed has great potential for the identification of protein species in complex archaeological samples. PMID:20890751

  11. Stay off the motorway: Resolving the pre-recruitment life history dynamics of the European anchovy in the SW Mediterranean through a spatially-explicit individual-based model (SEIBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalán, Ignacio A.; Macías, Diego; Solé, Jordi; Ospina-Álvarez, Andrés; Ruiz, Javier

    2013-04-01

    We explore the underlying mechanisms of the early life history dynamics of the European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the SW Mediterranean. By using a 3D ROMS hydrodynamic model coupled to an individual-based model (IBM) of the larval stages of the European anchovy, we tested the following hypotheses: (1) the plausible effective spawning zones (those generating late larvae to the known nursery grounds) are mainly found in the vicinity of Malaga Bay, as suggested by published empirical data; (2) the observed, back-calculated growth of larvae sampled in the nursery grounds can be reasonably simulated by a simple temperature-dependent growth model; and (3) the inclusion of biological behavior in the IBM significantly improves the match between the observed and modeled late-larval recruitment and/or growth patterns. We performed simulations for the peak spawning season in 2008, for which survey data were available, and an average climatological run. Hypothesis 1 was accepted, whereas hypothesis 2 resulted in a good imitation of anchovy growth only after 10 days post-hatch. The inclusion of an empirically derived equation for egg buoyancy in the model (hypothesis 3) resulted in a slight improvement of the model of late-larval recruitment patterns. Finally, our model was used to explore possible retention-based nursery areas in the whole Alboran Sea. Our simulations showed to agree well with the existing data both in the European and in the African coast and confer the physics a dominant role in shaping the spatial dynamics of early life stages of anchovy in the area.

  12. 210Po accumulations in marine organisms from the Spanish East Coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most radiotoxic natural radionuclides is 210Po. Its presence in the environment is mainly due to the 222Rn decay. The 222Rn is diffused, as a descendent of the natural Uranium chain, from the ground to the atmosphere and its daughters are deposited on the surface of the earth. Recent publications in the literature show anchovies (Engraulis encrasilocus) as the marine species with highest levels of 210Po. The aim of this work is the study of the 210Po concentrations in anchovies and other fish species from an area where radon contents is very high due to the influence of a coastal lagoon (measured radon contents in coastal lagoon water, by scintillation counter, shows 790 ±90 Bq m-3) that flows in the sea. The samples are being collected from different local markets and ports from March 2012. The fish samples were weighed and oven dry to a constant weigh at 70℃ and then thoroughly mixed. 208Po tracer was added to the samples which were digested using nitric and hydrochloric acid, after that samples were dissolved with hydrochloric acid and spontaneously plated onto a silver disc. 210Po is measured by á-particle spectrometry with a Si detector. The ratio between 210Po and 208Po peaks is used to determine the activity concentration of 210Po in the sample. First results of 210Po concentration in anchovies in the interesting area vary between 202 ± 22 Bq Kg-1 and 400 ± 49 Bq Kg-1 (d.w). (author)

  13. Estimation of natural mortality coefficient from fish abundance and catch data using Virtual Population Analysis (VPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yingbin; Liu, Qun; Wang, Yanjun

    2007-01-01

    Natural mortality coefficient ( M) was estimated from fish abundance ( N) and catch ( C) data using a Virtual Population Analysis (VPA) model. Monte Carlo simulations were used to evaluate the impact of different error distributions for the simulated data on the estimates of M. Among the four error structures (normal, lognormal, Poisson and gamma), simulations of normally distributed errors produced the most viable estimates for M, with the lowest relative estimation errors (REEs) and median mean absolute deviations (MADs) for the ratio of the true to the estimated Ms. In contrast, the lognormal distribution had the largest REE value. Errors with different coefficients of variation (CV) were added to N and C. In general, when CVs in the data were less than 10%, reliable estimates of M were obtained. For normal and lognormal distributions, the estimates of M were more sensitive to the CVs in N than in C; when only C had error the estimates were close to the true. For Poisson and gamma distributions, opposite results were obtained. For instance, the estimates were more sensitive to the CVs in C than in N, with the largest REE from the scenario of error only in C. Two scenarios of high and low fishing mortality coefficient ( F) were generated, and the simulation results showed that the method performed better for the scenario with low F. This method was also applied to the published data for the anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) of the Yellow Sea. Viable estimates of M were obtained for young groups, which may be explained by the fact that the great uncertainties in N and C observed for older Yellow Sea anchovy introduced large variation in the corresponding estimates of M.

  14. First molecular identification of the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae in a paraffin-embedded granuloma taken from a case of human intestinal anisakiasis in Italy

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    Palumbo Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anisakiasis is an important fish-borne zoonosis provoked by larval stages of nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis. The detection and identification of human infections is difficult. This is due to: a the low specificity of the clinical features and symptomatology related to human infections; b the paucity of diagnostic features of larvae found in granulomatous lesions characteristic of "invasive anisakiasis"; and c the lack morphological characters diagnostic at the specific level when larvae of Anisakis are detected. Thus, molecular-based diagnostic approaches are warranted. Method We have developed a PCR method that amplifies the DNA of Anisakis spp. in fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. This method was applied to a granuloma removed from a human case of intestinal anisakiasis in Italy. Specific primers of the mtDNA cox2 gene were used and sequence analysis was performed according to the procedures already established for species of Anisakis. Results The sequence obtained (629 bp was compared with those of the other species of Anisakis which have so far been genetically characterized and with sequences obtained from larval stages of Anisakis collected from the Mediterranean fish Engraulis encrasicolus. This enabled the genetic identification of the larva in the human tissue as A. pegreffii. This is the first instance of human intestinal anisakiasis diagnosed using PCR of DNA purified from a fixed eosinophilic granuloma embedded in paraffin. Conclusion The case of human anisakiasis presented reinforces the pathological significance of the species A. pegreffii to humans. The molecular/genetic methodological approach based on mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis, described here, can allow easy and rapid identification of Anisakis spp. in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues removed from cases of either gastric or intestinal human anisakiasis.

  15. Parallel genetic divergence among coastal-marine ecotype pairs of European anchovy explained by differential introgression after secondary contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moan, A; Gagnaire, P-A; Bonhomme, F

    2016-07-01

    Ecophenotypic differentiation among replicate ecotype pairs within a species complex is often attributed to independent outcomes of parallel divergence driven by adaptation to similar environmental contrasts. However, the extent to which parallel phenotypic and genetic divergence patterns have emerged independently is increasingly questioned by population genomic studies. Here, we document the extent of genetic differentiation within and among two geographic replicates of the coastal and marine ecotypes of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) gathered from Atlantic and Mediterranean locations. Using a genome-wide data set of RAD-derived SNPs, we show that habitat type (marine vs. coastal) is the most important component of genetic differentiation among populations of anchovy. By analysing the joint allele frequency spectrum of each coastal-marine ecotype pair, we show that genomic divergence patterns between ecotypes can be explained by a postglacial secondary contact following a long period of allopatric isolation (c. 300 kyrs). We found strong support for a model including heterogeneous migration among loci, suggesting that secondary gene flow has eroded past differentiation at different rates across the genome. Markers experiencing reduced introgression exhibited strongly correlated differentiation levels among Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. These results support that partial reproductive isolation and parallel genetic differentiation among replicate pairs of anchovy ecotypes are largely due to a common divergence history prior to secondary contact. They moreover provide comprehensive insights into the origin of a surprisingly strong fine-scale genetic structuring in a high gene flow marine fish, which should improve stock management and conservation actions. PMID:27027737

  16. Po 210 in the Turkish coast of the Aegean sea ecosystem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Po 210 is a natural radionuclide which constitutes the major source of natural radiation received by humans through the consumption of food and contributes more to the total radiation dose than environmental levels of anthropogenic radionuclides, such as Cs 137 and Pu 239, 240. For Turkish Coast of Aegean Sea Ecosystem, although there some investigations presently available on some natural radionuclides and gross radioactivity concentrations, data on Po 210 in the sea water, bottom sediment and marine biota are very scarce. The aim of the present study is to improve our knowledge about the levels of radioactive polonium along Aegean Turkish Coastal zone and also assess its enhancement from the fosil fuel industry like coal-fired power plants (CPPs), oil industry and from phosphate industry, all located along the coast and also from the discharge of a number streams and rivers in the region. This paper introduces an extensive set of data and related results on Po 210 in surface sea water, bottom sediments, fishes and mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) obtained from 6 stations (Canakkale, Dikili, Foca, Ceshme, Didim and Bodrum) along the coast in the period of 2004-2005. In the bottom sediments, Po 210 concentration varies between 21±1 and 214±24 Bq kg-1 dry wt with an average value of 70±7 Bq kg-1. The concentrations in surface water of the sea during the sampling period are around 0.016±0.001 Bq l-1. Amongst the fishes, small pelagic plankton feding fish like anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) and sardine (Sardine plichardus) tend to accumulate more Po 210. The concentration of Po 210 in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) varies between 55±5 and 2288±124 Bq kg-1 which is in general higher than those given in literature for other countries. The highest Po 210 concentration belongs to Didim mussels for winter time with a shell length of 4-6 cm

  17. A day in the life of fish larvae: modeling foraging and growth using quirks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus B Huebert

    Full Text Available This article introduces "Quirks," a generic, individual-based model synthesizing over 40 years of empirical and theoretical insights into the foraging behavior and growth physiology of marine fish larvae. In Quirks, different types of larvae are defined by a short list of their biological traits, and all foraging and growth processes (including the effects of key environmental factors are modeled following one unified set of mechanistic rules. This approach facilitates ecologically meaningful comparisons between different species and environments. We applied Quirks to model young exogenously feeding larvae of four species: 5.5-mm European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, 7-mm Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, 13-mm Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, and 7-mm European sprat (Sprattus sprattus. Modeled growth estimates explained the majority of variability among 53 published empirical growth estimates, and displayed very little bias: 0.65% ± 1.2% d(-1 (mean ± standard error. Prey organisms of ∼ 67% the maximum ingestible prey length were optimal for all larval types, in terms of the expected ingestion per encounter. Nevertheless, the foraging rate integrated over all favorable prey sizes was highest when smaller organisms made up >95% of the prey biomass under the assumption of constant normalized size spectrum slopes. The overall effect of turbulence was consistently negative, because its detrimental influence on prey pursuit success exceeded its beneficial influence on prey encounter rate. Model sensitivity to endogenous traits and exogenous environmental factors was measured and is discussed in depth. Quirks is free software and open source code is provided.

  18. Environmental conditions influencing the larval fish assemblage during summer in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia: South central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. KOCHED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An oceanographic survey was carried out during the summer of 2009, from June 25 to July 3 in the Gulf of Gabes. The study area is characterized by a wide continental shelf.A plankton sampling scheme was carried out to study the structure of the larval fish assemblages that characterizes the surface mixed layer, and to assess the influence of the environmental parameters on their spatial distribution.A total of 36 taxa were identified, 3 classified to the level of genus, 5 to family and 28 to species. The majority of identified fish larvae belonged to demersal species, mainly picarel Spicara smaris (23.76% of the total larval fish abundance, followed by red mullet Mullus barbatus (14.92% and several species of the Sparidae family (9.15%. Small pelagic species as Sardinella Sardinella aurita and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus were also abundant (27.75 % and dominated the fish larvae community in offshore stations. Five large pelagic species were found among the larvae, including bullet tuna Auxis rochei, Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus, albacore Thunnus alalunga, swordfish Xiphias gladius and the highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus. All these apex predator species appear in 38.5% of the sampling stations and contribute about 7.9% of the total larval catches. The larval fish assemblage of the Gulf of Gabes is predominantly composed of neritic species in correspondence with the shallow depths of the study area. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA showed that larval distributions were mainly conditioned by depth. However, other factors, like hydrographic processes, play also a very important role in shaping the spatial pattern of larval fish distribution.

  19. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker Develi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. These changes in food chain may promote the rise of jellyfishes rather than fish in the environment. In addition, decrease in planktivorous fish abundance as a consequence of overfishing also triggers the increase of newly introduced comb jellies, which were possibly introduced via ballast waters of ships, in the ecosystem. Increase in abundance of M. leidyi, which compete with planktivorous fishes (anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus in the Black Sea, kilka, Clupeonella spp. in the Caspian Sea for their food, causes to decrease of planktivorous fish stocks which have already been vulnerable due to overfishing. Another reason for successfully adaption of M. leidyi to its new ecosystems could be linked to global warming which provides favourable temperature ranges for reproduction and growth of this ctenophore. Although there are still many debates related to possible negative effects, one of the ways to reduce harmful impacts of invaders might be the transport of natural predators of these invaders to the new ecosystems of invaders. For example, it was reported that the abun¬dance of Mnemiopsis leidyi decreased to very low levels during 1999-2004 in the Black Sea following the introduction of another comb jelly, Beroe ovata, which feed on this ctenophore.

  20. Mass-balance ecosystem model of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua Cheng; William W.L. Cheung; Tony J. Pitcher

    2009-01-01

    Using the Ecopath mass-balance trophodynamic model, this paper analyzed the trophic levels, flows, food web structure and ecosys-tem maturity of the East China Sea, and identified ecologically important functional groups in the ecosystem. The model is based on fishery resource surveys of the East China Sea in 2000, studies on diet composition and global databases such as FishBase and the Sea Around Us Project Database. The results showed that trophic levels of the functional groups are between 2.86 and 4.37, with an average of 3.32. Anchocy (Engraulis japonicus), small fishes and benthic crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs are important groups in terms of the trophic structure and flow dynamics in the East China Sea. Energy flows of most groups are between specific trophic levels, except file fish (Thamnaconus spp.), pomfret (Pampus spp.) and cephalopods. Trophic transfer efficiency of levels Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and more than Ⅴ are 11.8%, 21.1%, 17.4% and 22.1-22.5%, respectively. Effects of fishery-the largest 'consumer' of the ecosystem -are much stronger than those exerted by biological groups in the system. The model suggests that the current fishery can further reduce the complexity of the ecosystem. Evaluations of the system indices suggest that maturity of the ecosystem is low. The conclusion of this model indicates that it was the overfishing that caused the ecosystem of the East China Sea declined, which should be taken into account as a critical reference for fisheries management in the future.

  1. Universell utforming og den vanskelige avgrensingen av «alle»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Christian Risan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Universell utforming er et prinsipp hvor målsetningen er at «utforming av produkter og omgivelser [skal skje] på en slik måte at de kan brukes av alle mennesker, i så stor utstrekning som mulig, uten behov for tilpassing og en spesiell utforming.» (Aslaksen mfl, 1997, den første norske definisjonen I løpet av de siste 15 årene har dette prinsippet blitt fremmet i Norge som et utvetydig fremskritt. Det kan imidlertid være farlig å tro at en ren teknisk løsning kan bygge bro over politiske kontroverser (Imrie 2012, og i denne artikkelen vil vi vise hvordan viktige ideologiske premisser er skjult under paraplyen om universalitet. Vårt empiriske felt er norsk boligpolitikk fra etterkrigstiden og fram til i dag. Innenfor dette feltet ser vi at det har vært argumentert for ulike versjoner av «universell utforming» de siste 40 årene, selv om navnet «universell utforming» er av nyere dato. Vi vil vise hvordan prinsippet har endret seg fra å ha et sosialdemokratisk innhold – før det ble omdøpt til «universell utforming» – for å bli inkorporert i et nyliberalt boligpolitisk paradigme de siste 15 årene. De sosialdemokratiske forgjengerne til «universell utforming» ble til dels formulert som videreutviklinger av en boligpolitikk for sosial rettferdighet og økonomisk likhet. Med innføringen av begrepet «universell utforming» har denne brede sosiale rammen forsvunnet, men under dekke av universalitet og entydig framskrittsoptimisme har denne politiske endringen blitt underkommunisert.[i] [i] Prosjektet er finansiert av Husbanken. Prosjektmedarbeiderne har bestått av NIBR-forskerne Erik Henningsen, Siri Nørve og Lars Risan. Underveis har disse forskerne intervjuet og snakket med en rekke personer innenfor feltene funksjonshemming- og boligpolitikk. Vi takker også Jon Guttu, Olav Rand Bringa, Tore Lange for mange konstruktive innspill. 

  2. Lyd og billede i undervisningen – et uddannelsespolitisk aspekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Søren Kjærsgaard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Det sker ofte, når talen falder på teknik, herunder lyd og video i undervisningen, at de tekniske aspekter kommer i fokus så som; hvad er teknisk muligt, og hvilke platforme kan det bruges på osv.? Det er selvsagt vigtige spørgsmål. Men det må ikke skygge for andre synsvinkler, herunder de ergonomiske , for eksempel hvordan anvendelse af lyd og video påvirker deltagerne i undervisning, underviseren og selve læringen. I denne artikel vil jeg fremdrage en tredje synsvinkel, nemlig den politiske. Anvendelse af undervisningsteknologi i bredeste forstand er - som al anden teknologi - ikke værdineutral. Den kan anvendes til at fremme eller bremse nogle mål, som samfundets beslutningstagere, det være sig politikere, interesseorganisationer og i sidste instans os alle, har. Den politiske synsvinkel spiller også en rolle i henseende til, hvordan de nævnte parter, undervisere og underviste, agerer. Baggrunden for denne artikel er et forsøg, som jeg som studieleder for et mindre sprogfag, fransk, har taget initiativ til eller medvirket i med henblik på at forny faget og med henblik på såvel at tiltrække studerende som at gøre det muligt for flere at studere dette fag. Disse forsøg beskrives i artiklen med kortfattede tekniske specifikationer og i forhold til den politiske synsvinkel. I betydeligt omfang har disse initiativer været en fiasko i den forstand, at de ikke har ført til det tilsigtede resultat - i hvert fald ikke umiddelbart og på kort sigt. Det gælder ikke mindst, fordi det politiske system ikke har villet eller ikke har kunnet se formålet hermed. Jeg foreslår i artiklen at tolke dette resultat som en konflikt mellem en række modsatrettede politiske dagsordener.

  3. Internet video - teknik og pædagogik mødes på nettet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Sidelmann Jørgensen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 3: Internet Video: Teknik og pædagogik mødes på nettet, april - juni 2004, red. Jens Dørup. ISSN 1603-5518.

    I nærværende UNEV tema som omhandler universiteternes brug af digital video tegnes en status over dette nye medies anvendelse rundt om i landet. En række af de flittigste brugere, som også har været iblandt de første på området, fortæller om deres praktiske erfaringer, som naturligt nok har været af både teknologisk og pædagogisk art. Som universitetsundervisere og forskere er vi vandt til et relativt lavt budget, og vi har måttet klare mange teknologiske opgaver uden professionel hjælp. Til gengæld stimulerer denne situation underviseren til at inddrage pædagogiske og teknologiske aspekter samtidigt, når videomediet og det nye potentialer skal afprøves og implementeres. Som læringsmedie adskiller Internet video sig på mange måder fra TV og analoge videobånd. De indlysende forskelle – om mulighederne for uafhængighed af tid og sted – kan snart erkendes og beskrives, men erfaringerne tyder på at disse forskelle, når det gælder om at stimulere læringen, måske er mindre betydningsfulde end mulighederne for at indarbejde, forankre og samvirke netbaseret video med øvrige læringsaktiviteter. Det aktuelle tema viser at de tekniske muligheder er tilgængelige og at vi mange steder er kommet godt i gang, men også at der er langt igen før danske universiteter til fulde har lært at udnytte potentialerne i digital video.

  4. Systematic review of diplommatinid land snails (Caenogastropoda, Diplommatinidae) endemic to the Palau Islands. (1) Generic classification and revision of Hungerfordia species with highly developed axial ribs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Kazunori; Yamazaki, Midori; Ueshima, Rei

    2013-01-01

    Diplommatinidae is a family of terrestrial caenogastropod snails that shows extensive species diversity and endemic radiation within the Palau (Belau) Islands. In this paper, we revised the taxonomy of Palauan endemic diplommatinids based on the comparative morphology of shell, operculum, radula, and genitalia. Although the generic classification of Palauan diplommatinids has been confusing, they are currently classified into two genera, Hungerfordia Beddome, 1889 and Palaina Semper, 1865. Palauan diplommatinids of these two genera are primarily distinguished by the radular, genital and operculum morphology. However, shell morphology, on which taxonomy has traditionally been based, does not provide definitive characters for generic identification, because shell shape and sculpture are highly variable within each genus. Although Hungerfordia has long been known as a monotypic genus, the current study redefines the endemic genus to include a wider range of species that were formerly placed in Diplommatina or Palaina. Following species are transferred to Hungerfordia: H. alata (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. lamellata (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. pyramis (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. ringens (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. polymorpha (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. inflatula (Crosse, 1866) comb. nov.; H. lutea (Beddome, 1889) comb. nov.; H. aurea (Beddome, 1889) comb. nov.; H. gibboni (Beddome, 1889) comb. nov.; H. crassilabris (Beddome, 1889) comb. nov. Pseudopalaina Moellendorff in Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1898 (synonym nov.) is demoted as a junior synonym of Hungerfordia. Palaina is also redefined based on the internal shell features and operculum morphology, in addition to the external shell characters. Furthermore, Eupalaina Kobelt & Moellendorff, 1898 is restored as a subgenus of Palaina for Palauan species on the basis of a genital character. The taxonomy of Hungerfordia species with highly developed axial ribs is revised. H. pelewensis Beddome, 1889, H. lamellata

  5. The new German Recycling and Waste management Act (KrWG). Chances and perspectives for the secondary raw materials industry; Das neue Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz. Chancen und Perspektiven fuer die Sekundaerrohrstoffwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, Burkhard [Bundesverband Sekundaerrohstoffe und Entsorgung e.V. (BVSE), Bonn (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    After long discussions concerning wordings, the new German Act on Recycling and Waste Management (KrWG) came into force with the decision of the arbitration panel of 8 February 2012 and the agreement of the German Bundestag and Bundesrat. It took more than two years from the first draft to the new act, and discussions and lawsuits can be expected to continue. The new act still follows the structure of its predecessor, but private industries, especially medium-sized ones, have not been given sufficient scope for action. Politicians were unable to find a fair balance between private and communal interests. Now, with the introduction of a new standard recycling bin, the legislator is held to take account of the interests of the private waste management industry, whose labour and innovative power made a decisive contribution to the success of waste management and recycling in Germany. (orig.) [German] Der letzte Schlusspunkt ist nach zaehem Ringen um einzelne Formulierungen des Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetzes (KrWG) mit dem Beschluss des Vermittlungsausschusses am 8. Februar 2012 und mit der anschliessenden Zustimmung des Deutschen Bundestages sowie des Bundesrates gesetzt worden. Damit sind seit dem ersten Arbeitsentwurf des Bundesministeriums fuer die Novellierung des Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallrechts mehr als zwei Jahre vergangen, und es bedarf keiner hellseherischen Faehigkeiten um vorherzusagen, dass die Auseinandersetzung ueber einzelne Bestimmungen und nachrangige Verordnungen des Gesetzes vor Gericht und in der Politik noch lange nicht ihren Abschluss gefunden hat. Trotz aller Diskussionen waehrend des Gesetzgebungsverfahrens sind die wesentlichen Grundstrukturen des alten Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes auch im neuen KrWG erhalten geblieben. Der Privatwirtschaft, vor allem in der Breite aus vielen mittelstaendischen Unternehmen bestehend, ist jedoch nicht genuegend Handlungsspielraum gewaehrt worden. Der Politik ist es nicht gelungen, einen fairen

  6. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  7. Anisákiasis en pescados frescos comercializados en el norte de Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre Molina Rafaela de la

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La anisakiasis es una zoonosis parasitaria producida por larvas vivas de nematodos de la Familia Anisakidae, que se localizan en la cavidad corporal y el sistema muscular de peces teleósteos y moluscos cefalópodos. El hombre las ingiere accidentalmente al consumir pescado infestado crudo o poco cocinado. El cuadro clínico está caracterizado por síndrome gástrico-intestinal. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer la frecuencia de parasitación por larvas de anisákidos en pescados frescos comercializados en el norte de la provincia de Córdoba. Métodos: Durante un período de 9 meses se tomaron muestras de las especies más comercializadas de pescados marinos en todas los establecimientos del sector. El análisis parasitológico se realizó en el Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Peñarroya mediante el método de la disección. Se analizaron un total de 1.261 muestras de 18 especies distintas. Resultados: La frecuencia total de parasitación fue del 15,8%. La especie más parasitada fue la bacaladilla (Micromesistius poutassou, con un porcentaje de parasitación del 42%, y se detectaron también larvas de Anisakidos en: pijota (Merlucius merlucius un 27,5%, pescadilla (Merlucius sp. un 26%, Caballa (Scomber scombrus un 20,6%, brótola (Phycis blennoides un 6,2%, boquerón (Engraulis encrasicolus un 5,6% y faneca (Trisopterus luscus un 5,5% de muestras parasitadas. La distribución mensual de los resultados refleja un aumento de la parasitación en los meses de primavera, descendiendo progresivamente hasta los últimos meses del año. Conclusiones: Existe una incidencia significativa de infestación por anisakidos en las especies de pescados comercializadas en el norte de Córdoba. No obstante, la dificultad para detectar el parásito, la valoración imprecisa del grado de parasitación tolerable o inaceptable que señala el marco normativo, la circunstancia de que algunos platos tradicionales elaborados con pescado crudo

  8. An observing system for the collection of fishery and oceanographic data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Falco

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Fishery Observing System (FOS was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP. The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters also represents a crucial point towards forecasting. Eight fishing vessels were progressively equipped with FOS instrumentation to collect fishery and oceanographic data. The vessels belonged to different harbours of the Central and Northern Adriatic Sea. For this pilot application, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L. was chosen as the target species. Geo-referenced catch data, associated with in-situ temperature and depth, were the FOS products but other parameters were associated with catch data as well. MFSTEP numerical circulation models provide many of these data. In particular, salinity was extracted from re-analysis data of numerical circulation models. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST and chlorophyll were also used as independent variables. Catch and effort data were used to estimate an abundance index (CPUE – Catch per Unit of Effort. Considering that catch records were gathered by different fishing vessels with different technical characteristics and operating on different fish densities, a standardized value of CPUE was calculated. A spatial and temporal average CPUE map was obtained together with a monthly mean time series in order to characterise the variability of anchovy abundance during the period of observation (October 2003–August 2005. In order to study the relationship between abundance and oceanographic parameters, Generalized Additive Models (GAM were used. Preliminary results revealed a complex scenario: the southern sector of the domain is characterised by a stronger relationship than the central and northern sector where the interactions between the environment and the anchovy

  9. Studies on the Community Structures of Meiofauna and Marine Nematode at Six Stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; ZHANG Zhinan; LIU Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162± 0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum2.35 g dwtm-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537 g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified.Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 indm-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from 0.01μg to 31.32μg with an average of 0.261μg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp. 1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (H), evenness index (J) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdφ). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  10. Studies on the community structures of meiofauna and marine nematode at six stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yong; Zhang, Zhinan; Liu, Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162±0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum 2.35g dwt m-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified. Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 ind m-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2 cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from O.Ol µg to 31.32f*g with an average of 0.261 µg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp.1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (J), evenness index (d) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdø). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  11. Are tidal lagoons ecologically relevant to larval recruitment of small pelagic fish? An approach using nutritional condition and growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chícharo, M. A.; Amaral, A.; Faria, A.; Morais, P.; Mendes, C.; Piló, D.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Chícharo, L.

    2012-10-01

    There are numerous studies dealing with larvae of Small Pelagic Fish (SPF), but only a few have actually addressed advanced larval phases. Temperate coastal lagoons are particularly understudied, due to the absence of standard method to capture advanced larval fish in these near shore shallow habitats. Accordingly, this study aims to describe abundances, nutritional condition and in situ growth of post-flexion (SPF) from the Ria Formosa, a tidal coastal lagoon in southern Portugal. The nutritional condition and in situ growth were determined through cohort analysis and standardized RNA:DNA ratio (sRD), complemented with feeding incidence (gut content) and fatty acids (FAs, trophic biomarkers) of postflexion larvae sampled sequentially with light traps, from spring 2005 to summer 2006. Simultaneously, environmental parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were measured. Post-larvae of SPF were captured through the year in important numbers. The dominant species were Sardina pilchardus (50.7%), Engraulis encrasicolus and Atherina presbyter (11.4%). These results are distinct from those based on adult/juvenile surveys or early planktonic phases in the Ria Formosa where clupeiformes were occasionally reported. Sardines were captured mainly in winter, spring and early summer and anchovies mainly during summer and autumn. Sand smelt, a resident species, was present throughout the year. In the early summer, the three species were present and during this period some diet overlapping occurred, the feeding incidence of the clupeiformes was very low, but atherinids always exhibited full guts reflecting the different gut morphology or indicating different life-cycle strategies. The bulk of the diet was mollusks, crustaceans and appendicularians, for sand smelts, sardines and anchovies, respectively. The results of FA analyses showed some contribution of phytoplankton to SPF in the area. All SPF exhibited higher condition (sRD) and

  12. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  13. Marine bird aggregations associated with the tidally-driven plume and plume fronts of the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamon, Jeannette E.; Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Guy, Troy J.

    2014-09-01

    tidal plume and plume front to enter the ocean. Because murres and shearwaters eat primarily planktivorous fish such as the northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), aggregation of these birds in the plume supports the hypothesis that it is the plume region as a whole, and not just the plume fronts, which enhances trophic transfer to piscivorous predators via planktivorous fishes.

  14. 广西猫儿山自然保护区蜻蜒目昆虫初步研究%A Preliminary Study of Odonata in Mao'er Mt.Nature Reserve of Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春文; 杨瑞刚; 陈嫒; 张兵兰; 黄建华; 周善义

    2012-01-01

    All the odonate specimens in the Insect Collections of Guangxi Normal University were studied and identified. The result shows that all specimens belong to 57 species,40 genera, 12 families and 2 suborders from Mao'er Mt. Nature Reserve of Guangxi. Among them,4 genera and 19 species were newly recorded in Guangxi. The 4 newly recorded genera are: Cephalaeschna Selys, Somatochlora Selys, Asi-agomphus Asahina,and Amphigomphus Chao. The 19 newly recorded species are: Orthetrum testaceum Burmeister,Orthetrum lineostigma Serlys,Sympetrum ruptum Needham,Sympetrum kunckeli Selys, Lyrio-themis flava Oguma, Zygonyx iris insignis Kirby, ldionyx victor Hamalainen, Somatochlora dido Need-ham , Anotogaster kuchenbiseri Foerster, Cephalaeschna acutifrons Martin, Gynacantha bayadera Selys, Planaeschna shanxiensis Zhu et Zhang, Asiagomphus hainanensis Chao, Asiagomphus pacificus Chao, Lamelligomphus ringens Needham, Amphigomphus hansoni Chao, Gomphidia kelloggi Needham, Mnais andersoni McLachlan, and Coeliccia sexmaculata Wang. The analytical result of species component shows that Libellulidae,Aeshnidae,Gomphinae,Gomphinae are dominant families. According to the fauna analysis, there were 6 distribution patterns in the world animal geographic fauna distribution and 12 distribution patterns in Chinese animal geographic fauna. The result also shows that the oriental species,the oriental and palearctic species were the principal part in Mao'er Mt.. Meanwhile,the odonata in South China, Central China,North China and Southwest China have the most closely relationship with others.%对广西师范大学昆虫标本室收藏的广西猫儿山蜻蜒目昆虫标本进行鉴定,共57种,隶属于2亚目12科40属,其中4属19种为广西新记录.4个广西新记录属是:金光伪蜻属Somatochlora Selys、头蜒属Cephalaeschna Selys、亚春蜒属Asiagomphus Asahina、安春蜒属Amphigomphus Chao.19个广西新记录种是:黄翅灰蜻Orthetrum testaceum Burmeister

  15. Species composition and distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton within and outside artificial reefs in Laizhou Bay%莱州湾人工鱼礁区及附近海域鱼卵和仔稚鱼的种类组成与数量分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高东奎; 赵静; 张秀梅; 张沛东; 李文涛

    2014-01-01

    In fishery research, the study of ichthyoplankton is important in evaluating the ecological restorative effect of artificial reefs. During 2010 and 2011, the species composition and distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton on two arti-ficial reefs in the Laizhou and Zhaoyuan area and in Laizhou Bay were investigated to provide reference data for re-search on the fish attraction and ichthyoplankton shelter effects of artificial reefs. Within the Laizhou (37°15′-37°18′N, 119°49′-119°53′E) and Zhaoyuan (37°31′-37°33′N, 120°11′-120°13′E) investigation areas, six sampling stations were established inside the artificial reef areas and, as references, three and one stations were established outside the reef areas, respectively. The distribution patterns of ichthyoplankton were investigated by horizontal tows associated with vertical tows via a zooplankton net (145 cm in length, mouth diameter 50 cm, and mouth area 0.2 m2). The horizontal tows were carried out at a speed of 2.0 nmile/h for 10 min at the sea surface, while the vertical tows were carried out from the bottom to the surface at a speed of 0.5 m/s at each sampling station. The results indicated that 16088 eggs and 2487 fish larvae, belonging to seven orders, 14 families, 19 genera and 19 species, were collected in 2010. Among fish eggs, the majority were Clupeiformes, followed by Mugiliformes. Among fish larvae, the majority were Mugiliformes samples, followed by Beloniformes. In 2011, 9 948 eggs and 1 778 fish larvae, belonging to four orders, 14 families, 21 genera and 21 species, were collected, of which the majority were Perciformes for both fish eggs and larvae, followed by Clupeiformes. The unique dominant fish egg species in both the Laizhou and Zhaoyuan investigation area was En-graulis japonicus. Sphyraena pinguis had the highest dominance but was not the dominant fish larval species in the two areas. Ichthyoplankton community stability was greater in summer, followed by spring

  16. Influencia del medio ambiente en evaluación de stock: una aproximación con modelos globales de producción The influence of environment on stock assessment: an approach with surplus production models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Fréon

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Los modelos de producción convencionales no son adecuados para ciertos stocks, porque las variaciones del esfuerzo de pesca explican sólo una parte de la variabilidad total de las capturas anuales. A menudo la variación residual es originada por fenómenos ambientales, que afectan la abundancia y/o la capturabilidad del stock de un año a otro. En consecuencia, se ha incluido en los modelos convencionales una variable ambiental para mejorar la exactitud. Esta variable aparece en las fórmulas a nivel de la abundancia, de la capturabilidad, o de ambas. Estos modelos son desarrollados a partir del modelo de producción lineal de Schaefer, del exponencial de Fox o del generalizado de Pella y Tomlinson. CLlMPROD es un sistema-experto experimental que proporciona una descripción estadística y gráfica de los datos y permite la selección del modelo correspondiente según los criterios objetivos del usuario. El software ajusta los modelos usando rutinas de regresión no-lineal, evalúa el ajuste a través de tests paramétricos y no-paramétricos, y proporciona una representación gráfica de los resultados. Se consideran las limitaciones de este tipo de modelos. No obstante, éstos pueden proporcionar una interpretación bastante acertada de la historia de la pesquería, particularmente en el caso de stocks que colapsan inesperadamente sin ningún aumento apreciable del esfuerzo de pesca. Estos modelos también pueden ser útil en el manejo eficiente de este tipo de pesquerías, cuando los fenómenos climáticos pueden ser pronosticados o cuando su influencia esté restringida a la explotación del año(s anterior. Finalmente se presenta el análisis de dos pesquerías colapsadas por una combinación de sobrepesca y cambios ambientales: la pesquería de sardina de Senegal y la de anchoveta del Pacífico surorientalConventional global production models are not suitable for certain stocks, because fishing effort variations explain only a part of

  17. Mõisakingsepa isikukogemuse lugu Rõngu kirikuraamatus ja muistendikogumikes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mare Kalda

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Next to folklore archives and outside the oral circulation, folklore texts can also be found in quite different narrative sources. In addition to church documents and other information, the church registers of the historical parish of Rõngu from 1710-1742 include some recorded materials which could be categorised as legends and a memorate. One of the texts is a local place legend, a story how Lake Andresjärv (lit. ‘Lake of Andres’, a small inland body of water, got its name. Recorded material on the legend of Andresjärv has been analysed using the historical research method by Jürgen Beyer in his article published in 2003. Renditions of incidents associated with the Tödvens and the Tiesenhausens, once renowned families of nobility of Rannu [Randen in German] and Rõngu [Ringen in German], have been included in more recent folklore collections and the topic has been discussed in the Estonian written press in the 1920s. Furthermore, the church records of Rõngu include the tale of suffering of Torsten Grön, a Swedish manor cobbler, who lived in the late 17th century. In his youth, the man had lived and worked in Lithuania and had come upon a hidden treasure. Years later, after he had settled in Livonia, this past experience was forced upon the cobbler by haunting women who danced and tormented him in the manor hall at nights. As a result, Grön fell ill and died. Before his death he had promised a considerable donation to the local church, but his fortune was nowhere to be found. All the tales were published in 1764 in the cultural and academic journal Gelehrte Beyträge zu den Rigischen Anzeigen. The materials held in the Folklore Archives and a few legend anthologies give some idea of the fate of the tales in time and under new circumstances, which is one of the research aspects of the article. The legend of Andresjärv was published in several editions of M. J. Eisen’s book Esivanemate varandus (‘Forefathers’ Treasure’ and

  18. Multivariate clustering of reindeer herding districts in Sweden according to range prerequisites for reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-01-01

    samebyar i tio grupper. Den största gruppen, som bestod av 14 samebyar, delades vidare in i 4 undergrupper. Klusteranalyser med 4 olika linkage-varianter användes till att gruppera samebyarna. Principalkomponentsanalys användes för att kartlägga undersökta variabler och de resulterande samebygruppernas karaktär. Samebygrupperna följde inte länsgränser och tre samebyar föll ut som enskilda grupper. Denna undersökning ger underlag för jämförelser mellan samebyar med beaktande av likheter och olikheter i fråga om produktivitet och funktionella särdrag istället för länsgränser och historik. Vi föreslår en ny administrativ indelning i sex områden som skulle kunna fungera som ett alternativt underlag för planering och beslut som rör produktionsaspekter i rennäringen. Resultaten ger också underlag för förutsägelser av förändringar i samebyars produktionsförutsättningar till följd av klimatförändringar.

  19. Approaches to estimate body condition from slaughter records in reindeer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Olofsson

    2008-12-01

    ända rutinregistreringar och extra registreringar vid slakt som konditionsindikatorer och därmed indikatorer för betestillstånd i sommarland inom rennäringen. Registreringar från 696 renar, slaktade under säsongen 2003/2003 användes i studien. Vi utvecklade en modell där slaktvikt var den enda indikatorn på kroppskondition, samt två modeller som kombinerade fett- och formklassificeringen med slaktvikt och kroppsstorlek som indikatorer på kroppskondition. Resultaten visade att renarnas ålder och kön ger skillnader i de olika variablerna och att modellernas noggrannhet ökar om djuren grupperas med tanke på ålder och kön. Att korrigera slaktvikten för kroppsstorlek ökade precisionen för vikt som konditionsindikator för vuxna djur. Fett- och formklassificeringen överensstämde väl med storlekskorrigerad slaktvikt och skulle med fördel kunna inkluderas tillsammans med slaktvikt och storlek för skattning avkroppskondition från slaktkroppar. Våra analyser visar att användning avslaktregistreringar är en bra och billig metod för att skatta kroppskonditionen hos renhjorden.

  20. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M. Bell

    2010-03-01

    rein fra Sør-Georgia i 2001 ut fra en målsetting om å 1 bevare genetiske ressurser fra minst en av de to reinflokkene, og 2 øke mulighetene innenfor landbrukssektoren på Falklandsøyene ved å etablere en kommersiell reinflokk der. Overføringen ble utført med metoder som hadde vist seg formålstjenlige ved flytting og nylokalisering av kalver i Nord-Amerika. Totalt ble 59 kalver overført i 2001 derav 26 hunndyr. De overførte reinene produserte kalver i 2003. God driftspraksis og biologisk og atferdsmessig forståelse var viktig for en vellykket overføring.

  1. Evidence of parapox-, alphaherpes- and pestivirus infections in carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus from Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland

    2005-03-01

    alfaherpes- og pestivirus i blod(serologi og tilstedeværelse av parapoxvirus-DNA i vev (Polymerase kjedereaksjon, PCR; parapoxvirus B2L genet. Obduksjonen viste at 39 av de 48 dyrene (81% hadde dødd av avmagring. Parapoxvirus-spesifikt DNA ble funnet i prøver av lever, spyttkjertel (Gl. parotis og/eller lungelymfeknuter fra 6 av de 48 dyrene (12,5%. En DNA sekvens på 376 basepar fra PCR-oppformeringsproduktet fra en leverprøve hadde 98-99% likhet med orf-virus (Orf-11 og parapoxvirus isolert fra reinsdyr i Norge og Finland (1992 og 1994, 92-93% likhet med pseudocowpoxvirus og 87% likhet med bovint papulær stomatittvirus, hvorav de to siste parapoxvirusartene er assosiert med storfé. Disse resultatene viser at også reinsdyr i Finnmark er infisert av parapoxvirus, til tross for at sykdommen munnskurv ikke ennå er rapportert hos rein i dette fylket. Alfaherpes- og pestivirus antistoffer ble funnet hos henholdsvis 10% og 33% av dyrene. Dette er i samsvar med tidligere funn på slaktedyr, og viser at disse virusinfeksjonene er endemiske hos rein i Finnmark. Det er viktig å avklare hvilken rolle disse virusinfeksjonene spiller for reinsdyrenes helse og næringens økonomi. Videre bør det avklares i hvilken grad disse virustypene er i stand til å smitte mellom rein og husdyr.

  2. 枸杞岛岩礁生境主要鱼类的食物组成及食物竞争%Dietary composition and food competition of six main fish species in rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王凯; 章守宇; 汪振华; 赵静; 许敏; 林军

    2012-01-01

    基于2009年3月-2010年2月枸杞岛沿岸岩礁生境渔业资源调查数据,对岩礁生境中的3种定居性鱼类(褐菖鲉、大泷六线鱼和斑头六线鱼)和3种非定居性鱼类(花鲈、黄姑鱼和小黄鱼)的食物组成及食物关系进行了研究.结果表明:麦秆虫、钩虾、褐菖鲉幼鱼、鳀鱼和中国毛虾等是6种鱼类的主要饵料生物,且饵料组成随季节而变化.3种定居性鱼类中,大泷六线鱼和斑头六线鱼在秋季食物竞争激烈;3种非定居性鱼类中,黄姑鱼和小黄鱼在夏季食物竞争激烈;非定居性鱼类和定居性鱼类之间,黄姑鱼分别与褐菖鲉(秋季)和大泷六线鱼(冬季)食物竞争激烈.黄姑鱼是引起岩礁生境中6种主要鱼类食物竞争的关键鱼种.枸杞岛岩礁生境中6种主要鱼类的摄食活动对褐菖鲉幼鱼的资源量有一定影响.%Based on the monthly investigation data of fish resources in the rocky reef habitat off Gouqi Island from March 2009 to February 2010, this paper studied the dietary composition of three native fish species ( Sebasticus marmoratus, Hexagrammos otakii and Hexagrammos agrammus) and three non-native fish species ( Lateolabrax japonica, Nibea albiflora and Larindchthys polyactis). The analysis of gut content indicated that the main prey items of these six dominant fish species were Caprellidae, Gammaridea, juvenile S. marmoratus, Engraulis japonicas and Acetes chinensis and the dietary composition of each of the 6 fish species had obvious seasonal variation. There was an intense food competition between native species H. otakii and H. agrammus in autumn, between non-native species N. albiflora and L. polyactis in summer, between non-native species N. albiflora and native species S. marmoratus in autumn, and between non-native species N. albiflora and native species H. otakii in winter. It was suggested the non-native species N. albiflora was the key species in the food competition among the six dominant

  3. Larval fish distribution and their relationship with environmental factors in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (central Mediterranean during two years of sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Profeta

    2014-06-01

    The results of this study could have implications for the management of marine resources, because the investigated area has already been identified as a nursery area for many pelagic and coastal fishes and a natural habitat for many species of high commercial interest. Fig. 1. Results of CCA analysis for larval fish species and sampled stations during June 2006. Two first axes (CCA1 and CCA2 are represented. Species abbreviations in alphabetical order: An_a (Anthias anthias, Ap_i (Apogon imberbis, Ar_k (Arnoglossus kessleri, Ar_h (Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Ar_l (Arnoglossus laterna, Ar_r (Arnoglossus rueppelii, Ar_t (Arnoglossus thori, Be_g (Benthosema glaciale, Bl_o (Blennius ocellaris, Bo_b (Boops boops, Bo_p (Bothus podas, Ca_a (Capros aper, Ca_p (Callyonimus maculatus, Ce_m (Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Ce_m1(Cepola macrophtalma, Ci_l (Citharus linguatula, Co_j (Coris julis, Co_n (Ophidion barbatum, Cy_b (Cyclothone braueri, Cy_p (Cyclothone pygmaea, En_e (Engraulis encrasicolus, Di_a (Diplodus annularis, Di_h (Diaphus holti, Di_r (Diaphus rafinesquei, El_r (Electrona rissoi, Go_n (Gobius niger, He_d (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Hy_b (Hygophum benoiti, Hy_h (Hygophum hygomii, La_c (Lampanyctus crocodilus, La_p (Lampanyctus pusillus, Le_c (Lepidotrigla cavillone, Le_j (Lestidiops jayakari, Lo_d (Lobianchia dofleini, Ma_m (Maurolicus muelleri, Ma_s (Macrorhamphosus scolopax, Me_m (Merluccius merluccius, Mi_p (Micromesistius poutassou, My_p (Myctophum punctatum, Mu_s (Mullus surmuletus, Ne_s (Nemichthys scolopaceus, No_b (Notoscopelus bolini, No_e (Notoscopelus elongatus, No_r (Arctozenus risso, Ob_m (Oblada melanura, Pa_s (Paralepis speciosa. Sc_p (Scorpaena porcus, Sc_s (Scorpaena scrofa, Se_c (Serranus cabrilla, Se_h (Serranushepatus, Sp_f (Spicara maena, Sp_s (Spicara smaris, Sy sp. (Symphurus nigrescens, Sy_v, (Symphurus ligulatus, St_b (Stomias boa boa, Tr_d (Trachinus draco, Tr_me (Trachurus mediterraneus, Tr_t (Trachurus trachurus, Ur_s (Uranoscopus scaber

  4. Trophic transfer and accumulation of mercury in ray species in coastal waters affected by historic mercury mining (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Milena; Degenek, Nina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-03-01

    Total mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were analysed in the gills, liver and muscle of four cartilaginous fish species (top predators), namely, the eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), the bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus), the pelagic stingray (Dasyatis violacea) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), collected in the Gulf of Trieste, one of the most Hg-polluted areas in the Mediterranean and worldwide due to past mining activity in Idrija (West Slovenia). The highest Hg and MMHg concentrations expressed on a dry weight (d.w.) basis were found in the muscle of the pelagic stingray (mean, 2.529 mg/kg; range, 1.179-4.398 mg/kg, d.w.), followed by the bull ray (mean, 1.582 mg/kg; range, 0.129-3.050 mg/kg d.w.) and the eagle ray (mean, 0.222 mg/kg; range, 0.070-0.467 mg/kg, d.w.). Only one specimen of the common stingray was analysed, with a mean value in the muscle of 1.596 mg/kg, d.w. Hg and MMHg contents in the bull ray were found to be positively correlated with species length and weight. The highest MMHg accumulation was found in muscle tissue. Hg and MMHg were also found in two embryos of a bull ray, indicating Hg transfer from the mother during pregnancy. The number of specimens and the size coverage of the bull rays allowed an assessment of Hg accumulation with age. It was shown that in bigger bull ray specimens, the high uptake of inorganic Hg in the liver and the slower MMHg increase in the muscle were most probably due to the demethylation of MMHg in the liver. The highest Hg and MMHg contents in all organs were found in the pelagic stingray, which first appeared in the northern Adriatic in 1999. High Hg and MMHg concentrations were also found in prey species such as the banded murex (Hexaplex trunculus), the principal prey of the eagle rays and bull rays, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) and the red bandfish (Cepola rubescens), which are preyed upon by the pelagic stingray, as well as in zooplankton and seawater. Based on previously published

  5. Ein Versuch, Naturverhältnisse aus feministischer Sicht zu interpretieren Another attempt to explain the natural environment from a feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Purgand

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem vorliegenden Sammelband Geschlechterverhältnisse – Naturverhältnisse wird nach dem innovativen Beitrag der feministischen Debatte für umweltsoziologisches Denken gefragt und nach Überschneidungen, Grenzen und Zwischenräumen zwischen „Geschlecht“ und „Natur“ gesucht. In ihm wird der lobenswerte Versuch unternommen, einen Zusammenhang zwischen Geschlechter- und Naturverhältnissen herzustellen „die in der Umweltsoziologie bislang stark vernachlässigte feministische Diskussion und Geschlechterforschung einzubeziehen und als genderbezogene Perspektive zu etablieren“. (S. 9 Das Buch enthält Beiträge von 15 Autorinnen, die unterschiedliche Natur- und Geschlechtsverhältnisse facettenreich, überwiegend kreativ und theoretisch anspruchsvoll betrachten. Das Buch enthält Zugänge aus der allgemeinen Soziologie, den Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften, aus politik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Zusammenhängen. Den ausdrücklich formulierten Anspruch, von multi- zu einer inter-disziplinären Durchdringung zu gelangen, erfüllt es nur in Ansätzen (besonders mit der Einleitung und den theoretischen Problemexplikationen. Das zustande gekommene „Nach-, Zusammen- und Querdenken“ über Begriffe, Theorien und neuere Forschungsansätze (von Foucault über Butler bis zu Donna Haraway belegt die Notwendigkeit, die naturwissenschaftlichen Annahmen „immanent zu dekonstruieren“. Sehr aufschlussreich sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Beiträge von Irmgard Schultz, Elvira Scheich, aber auch von Mary Mellor und besonders von Paula-Irene Villa, die interessante und kreative Gedanken zur Klärung des Verhältnisses von Natur, Kultur und Geschlecht anbieten. Deutlich wurde, dass weiterhin ein kontroverses Ringen um angemessene konzeptionelle Fassungen von Geschlechts- und Naturverhältnissen und die Integration von Gender als zentraler analytischer Querschnitts-Kategorie nötig sind. Insgesamt ist dem Buch ist eine schnelle Verbreitung und

  6. ”Fra passivitet til aktivitet” – En oversikt over utvikling og endringer på folketrygdens områder de senere årene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Damberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Det har i de senere år skjedd store forandringer på folketrygdens område. Det har blitt lagt mer og mer vekt på viktigheten av å kunne være i aktivitet hvis det ikke er medisinske hindringer for dette. I endringene som er foretatt, er det fokus på den enkeltes muligheter til å være i arbeid mer enn på eventuelle begrensninger. Dette kommer fram gjennom endringer på sykefraværsområdet med innføring av aktivitetsplikt for den sykmeldte og gjennom ny sykefraværsmodell med fokus på oppfølging, involvering av arbeidsgiver, behandler og NAV. Arbeidsplassen er hovedarena for sykefraværsoppfølging, og arbeidsgiver og arbeidstaker er hovedaktører. Dette er en videreføring av føringene i Intensjonsavtalen om et inkluderende arbeidsliv. Også på området for rehabiliteringspenger, yrkesrettet attføring og uføreytelser legges det vekt på at den enkelte skal forsøke seg i arbeid hvis det medisinsk sett er mulig. I 2010 skjer det en større endring ved at rehabiliteringspenger, yrkesrettet attføring og tidsbegrenset uførestønad fjernes og erstattes med arbeidsavklaringspenger, en ytelse hvor det også legges vekt på aktivitet. Samtidig innføres arbeidsevnevurdering med full tyngde som arbeidsmetode internt i NAV. På yrkesskadeområdet har det skjedd få endringer, men organiseringen av yrkesskadeordningen i Norge er under utredning. Samhandling med og kompetansetilbud til sykmeldere er gjennomført i de siste årene. Det er også utviklet statistikk over sykmeldinger skrevet ut av fastleger, et verktøy som kan benyttes i dialog med den enkelte fastlege. Fortsatt er mange sykmeldt eller på varige ytelser. Årsakene til dette er sammensatte. Det er behov for videre forskning på folketrygdens områder. Damberg G. "From inactivity to action" - a review of development and changes in the national insurance scheme in recent years. Nor J Epidemiol 2009; 19 (2: 139-146. ENGLISH SUMMARYRecent years have seen major changes within

  7. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  8. ANALYSIS ON THE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FISHERY ANIMALS IN DAIQUYANG%岱衢洋渔业动物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪亮; 梁君; 贺舟挺; 王伟定; 周永东

    2012-01-01

    The Daiquyang locates between the Daishan and Qushan Islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago. Due to its optimal location and suitable environmental characteristics, it is the spawning and feeding ground of Larimichthys cro-cea of the Daiqu Race, and also of other fishery animals (fish species such as Larimichthys polyactis, Trichiurus ja-ponicus, Pampus argenteus and Engraulis japonicus, crustacean species such as Portunus trituberculatus, Charyhdis japonica, Exopalaemon carinicauda, Acetes chinensis and Oratosquilla oratoria, cephalopods such as Sepiella main-droni, Octopus variabilis, Octopus ocellatus and Loligo duvaucelii, and other animal species such as Nassarius variciferus, Sliqua minima, Cantharus cecillei and Moerella irideseens). For a long time, although the Daiquyang plays an important role in marine fisheries in the East China Sea, there have been no studies focused on the species diversity of its fishery animals. In recent years, both the environment and fishery resources in the Daiquyang have been facing new threats arisen from rapid development of harbor industries and a mass of shore reclamation in the Zhoushan Archipelago District, Zhejiang. Therefore it is necessary to study the species diversity of fishery animals in this area. We analyzed fishery animal diversity and the status of fishery resources based on four surveys conducted by bottom trawl, setting gillnet and crab pot from April to November 2007 in the Daiquyang. Three analytical methods including sweep-area method, biodiversity analysis and analysis of variance were used. The results showed that: 1) a total of 98 fishery animals were sampled, including fishes (58 species), crustaceans (32 species), cephalopods (3 species) and other species (6 species), belonging to 53 families of 20 orders, 7 classes and 4 phylums. 2) In our trawl collections, a total of 68 fishery animals were obtained, including fishes (38 species), crustaceans (23 species), cephalopods (2 species) and other species (5

  9. 黄海中南部细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性及其变化%Feeding habits and their variation of seasnail( Liparis tanakae )in the central and southern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 金显仕; 戴芳群

    2011-01-01

    利用2006年1月-2009年7月在黄海中南部进行的7个月的底拖网调查,采集了体长在18~525mm范围的细纹狮子鱼样品3 005尾.通过胃含物分析、聚类分析以及营养级计算等方法,研究了细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性,周年变化和体长变化.结果表明,除3月份外,细纹狮子鱼是各月份黄海生态系统食物网的重要种类;目前脊腹褐虾仍是细纹狮子鱼的优势饵料生物,而方氏云鳚替代鳀成为其优势饵料生物.细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性和摄食强度都有显著的周年变化和体长变化,体长是导致细纹狮子鱼摄食习性周年变化的主要因素.随着体长增加,细纹狮子鱼发生了3次显著的食性转换,体长在50mm从底栖动物食性转换为广食性;大于100 mm转换为底层虾食性;大于350 mm转换为虾/鱼食性.不同体长的细纹狮子鱼归属不同的营养功能群,因此,细纹狮子鱼在不同月份的黄海生态系统中处于不同的营养地位.%Based on seven bottom trawl surveys conducted in the central and southern Yellow Sea, which covered the range of 120° -124°E,33° -37. 5°N,in seven months from January 2006 to July 2009,total of 3 005 stomach samples of seasnail Liparis tanakae with body length of 18 -525 mm were collected. Stomach content analysis, cluster analysis and trophic level were used to study the feeding habits and their ontogenetic variation and monthly variation. The results showed that seasnail is important fish species in food web and plays an important role in the marine ecosystems of the Yellow Sea. Seasnail fed on more than 60 prey species. Crangon affinis was the dominant prey item of seasnail, and Enedrias fangi became the dominant prey item instead of anchovy Engraulis japonicus. The feeding habits of seasnail had significant monthly and ontogenetic variations. Seasnail mainly fed on benthon at less than 50 mm body length; on zooplankton, benthon and demersal shrimps at 51 -100 mm body length; When

  10. Early concepts and charts of ocean circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. G.; Stramma, L.; Kortum, G.

    in the 1860s and 1870s (i.e. Lightning; Porcupine; Challenger; Gazelle; Vøringen), as well as mounting evidence for the existence of a deep and global thermohaline circulation (Carpenter; Prestwich). The dynamical method for calculating geostrophic flow in the atmosphere (Guldberg and Mohn) and a precursor to our present formulation for quantizing surface wind stress (Zöppritz) were introduced in the 1870s. On a regional scale for the Norwegian Sea, the dynamical method was applied to marine measurements made at depth to yield a three-dimensional view of flow patterns (Mohn). Further insight into the deep circulation came slowly, but with ever increasing numbers of observations being made at and near the surface, the upper-layer circulation in non-polar latitudes was approximately described by the late 1880s (Krümmel).

  11. Reindeer husbandry and forestry in the reindeer herding district of Poikajärvi during the years 1963 — 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kupiainen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer husbandry and forestry are practised in Finland in the same areas and practisers of these sources of livelihood not been able to avoid conflicts. Large clear-cutting and ploughed areas especially have diminshed the reindeer's winter ranges. In winter the reindeer digs ground lichens (Cladina spp under the snow and when the snow surface becomes harder it begins to pasture upon arboreal lichens (Alectoria and Bryoria spp.. Fields of lichen are, however, very worn and the best forests with arboreal lichens have been cut. The area of the reindeer herding district of Poikajarvi (66°30' — 67°10'N is 2507 km2 of which state owned land is 1474 km2 (59%. The average reindeer density (counted reindeer of the years 1963 — 1984 has been 1.5 reindeer/km2. During the last 20 years 9.8% of the state owned land of Poikajarvi has been treated with regeneration cutting, mostly with clear-cuttings, and 10.6% with thinning cuttings. With different soil preparation methods 8.7% has been treated, most of it by ploughing. About 24% of the damp sites have been clearcut and ploughed. The estimated cutting quantity of state owned forests has continually increased since 1976 and in 1984 it was about 140 600 m3. Since 1963 the number of counted reindeer of the reindeer herding district has decreased by 60 reindeer yearly. It has varied between 4939 and 2866 reindeer. In the years 1963 — 1984 on average 1425 reindeer were slaughtered yearly. The calves' share of the slaughtered reindeer has increased and in the last few years it has been almost 80%. The average reindeer meat production has been 36 400 kg a year. In Poikajarvi supplemental feeding of reindeer has been practised since 1969. The amount of hay used for it has increased from about 5.5 kg to nearly 20 kg per counted reindeer. At the same time the number of counted and slaughtered reindeer and. meat production has decreased.Rennäringen och skogsbruket i Poikajärvis Renbeteslag under åren 1963

  12. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    sterk verlaagt. Tevens worden de zogenaamde weke delen (pakkingen en rubberen O-ringen) uit het gasnet aangetast. Naast de invloed op de integriteit van het gasnet, maskeren terpenen ook de geur van het odorant THT. Hierdoor kunnen gaslekkages bijvoorbeeld niet meer als zodanig gedetecteerd worden, wat een significant veiligheidsrisico met zich meebrengt. Verder kan de aanwezigheid van terpenen in biogas leiden tot vervuiling van installaties die voor het drogen van groengas gebruikt worden, evenals adsorptievloeistoffen en membranen, die in het opwerkingsproces gebruikt worden. Momenteel worden terpenen verwijderd door middel van actieve koolfilters. De standtijd van een dergelijk filter kan relatief kort zijn bij hoge concentraties terpenen in het biogas, waardoor de operationele kosten, ten gevolge van het vervangen van de kool, sterk toenemen. In dit onderzoek is gekeken naar alternatieve technieken die op eenvoudige manier een groot deel van de terpenen uit biogas kunnen verwijderen. In een workshop met stakeholders is voor twee technieken gekozen die op labschaal getest werden om het 'proof of principle' aan te tonen: foto-oxidatie en gaswassing. De testen zijn op labschaal uitgevoerd door toevoeging van limoneen aan schone lucht. Van de onderzochte technieken lijkt de verwijdering van limoneen via fotolyse de meest belovende techniek door de eenvoud van het proces, de hoge bereikte efficientie (tot 94%), de vergelijkbare operationele kosten met actief kool (6,7-9,5 euro/kg limoneen verwijderd, in vergelijking met 10 euro/kg limoneen verwijderd voor actief kool) en de mogelijkheid om zuurstof in biogas om te zetten en te verwijderen. Echter, de invloed van andere biogascomponenten zoals H2O en CO2 op de efficientie van het proces (en de kosten) dienen voor praktijksituaties nog onderzocht te worden. De inzet van een gaswasproces is ook een optie voor de verwijdering van limoneen. De efficientie van het proces bleek in de uitgevoerde proeven lager te zijn

  13. Community structure of fish resources in spring and autumn in the Yellow Sea off Shandong%黄海山东海域春、秋季鱼类群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕振波; 李凡; 王波; 徐炳庆; 魏振华; 张焕君; 张培超

    2011-01-01

    Fishery science and management are progressively switching their attention from single species to ecosystems,and increasing the need for research of fish community.Based on the data collected by trawl surveys in May and October of 2006 in the Yellow Sea off Shandong, fish community patterns such as species compositions and spatial pattern were analyzed.In the investigated area,35°00’ -38°00’N,120°30’- 124°00’E,45 sample stations were set up.The survey data were standardized by sweep area and capture coefficient.The capture coefficient was set to 0.55 for pelagic fish and 0.35 for near demersal fish and 0.25 for demersal fish.The index of relative importance ( IRI ) was calculated to determine the importance of the species.Species were defined as dominant species when IRI value is more than 1 000.Important species were defined for those IRI value being grealer than 100 but no more than 1000.The multivariate statistical analyses include cluster analysis, NMDS,SIMPER and BIOENV to analyze the pattern of community compositions.The species,whose cumulative biomass less than 0.01% or frequency less than 5% ,were excluded from multivariate statistical analyses.The abundance biomass comparison( ABC)curves and W-statistic,generated by PRIMER,were used to analyze the communities'disturbed states.The results showed that a total number of 61 species belonging to 57 genera,37 families and 13 orders were collected,50 in springs and 50 in autumns.The dominant species were Pacific sandeel (Ammodytes personatus) ,Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicas ) and fang' s blenny ( Enedrias fangi ) in spring, and were Japanese anchovy and Japanese sardinella ( Sardinella zunasi)in autumn.The important species were Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus ) in spring, and were yellow croaker ( Larimichthys polyactis ), silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) ,Pacific sandeel and rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis)in autumn.The fish communities were predominant by little

  14. Herd composition and slaughtering strategy in reindeer husbandry – revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Holand

    2007-04-01

    øyt innslag av voksne dyr sikret kontroll over flokken da de var lettere å gjete og bedre i stand til å takle harde vintre. Det materielle grunnlaget for omleggingen av flokkstruktur og slaktestrategi var innføringen av mekanisert trekkraft; særlig snøskuteren på 1960-tallet, kombinert med en markedsøkonomi basert på kjøttproduksjon. Det biologiske utgangspunktet er en begrenset beiteressurs som må utnyttes optimalt. Dette gjøres primært gjennom å tilpasse beitebelegget til ressursgrunnlaget. Men også flokksammensetningen og en tilpasset slaktestrategi er avgjørende for hvor mange kilo kjøtt en kan høste på et gitt areal. Innen reindrifta var en høy simleandel kombinert med slakt av kalver allerede utprøvd i Sovjetunionen på 1930-tallet og vant innpass i finsk reindrift på 1960-tallet. En slik omlegging ble modifisert og utprøvd også i enkelte områder i Norge og Sverige, og diskusjonen gikk høyt om dens berettigelse. Arbeidet med å utvikle og etterprøve denne nye strategien basert på moderne produksjonsteori og tradisjonellkunnskap startet for fullt i Riast/Hylling reinbeitedistrikt i Sør-Norge i begynnelsen av 1970-tallet og ble avsluttet rundt 1985. Dette arbeidet ble videreført i Ruvhten Sitje (tidligere Tännäs Sameby. I sin rendyrkede form innebærer den nye flokkstrukturen en høyest mulig andel simler i vinterflokken. Disse reproduserer og fostrer årlig opp kalver slik at flest mulig er i live og i godt hold første høst. Antall bukker holdes på et minimum, men høyt nok til å sikre full bedekking. Slaktestrategien tilpasses denne flokkstrukturen ved at de fleste kalvene slaktes; bare de beste settes på til livdyr eller parringsbukker. Dette betyr at simlene utrangeres når aldringen begynner å påvirke reproduksjonen negativt, normalt ved 12 års alder. Bruk av 1,5-årige parringsbukker innebærer at disse kan slaktes etter brunst. Som et resultat blir vinterflokken bestående av produktive simler pluss påsettet av simlekalver

  15. Blood composition of the reindeer . II. Blood chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1983-05-01

    uppnådde nivån hos en vuxen ren vid 5 månaders ålder (respektive medeltal 5,1 g/1, 0,4 mmol/1, 2,7 mmol. Halterna av kolesterol, fettsyra, myristinsyra och palmitinsyra var hogre i kalvarnas serum, emedan halterna av stearinsyra och oljesyra var lagre ån hos vajor. Under de forstå levnadsdygnen producerar kalven katekolaminer i rikliga mångder. Dåremot år serumdopamid - B - hydroxylas-aktiviteten ganska låg. En fritt betande vajas blodsockerhalt (3,4 - 4,6 mmol/1, totalåggvitehalt i serum (63 - 87 g/1, albuminhalt (39 - 43 g/1, globulinhalt (23 - 44 g/1, urea (5,7- 9 mmol/1, totala lipidhalt (2,7 - 5,2 g/1, triglyceridhalt (0,17-0,33 mmol/1, fettsyrehalt (0,89 - 1,54 g/1, kalciumhalt (2,2 - 2,6 mmol/1, fosforhalt (1,6 - 2,2 mmol/1, magnesiumhalt (0,8 - 1,2 mmol/1 och kopparhalt (6,7 - 17 Jmol/l var hogst under sommaren och hosten emedan de sjonk under vintern. De lågsta halterna mattes hos u-tsvultna vajor på våren. Den hoga ureahalten i serum samt CPK-, LDH- och SAP-aktiviteterna återspeglar åggviteåmnens och våvnaders upplosning i kroppen. Årstiderna och nåringen inverkade varken på halterna av T4 kreatinin, natrium eller klorid i serum. De hoga siffrorna for kroppsvikt och blodets kemiska varden mattes hos vajor som under vintersåsongen matats med pressfoder och melassflis.

  16. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    comparison to convergent developed sirenia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (in review). Diedrich, 2010b. The vertebrate fauna of the Lower Ladinian (Middle Triassic) from Lamerden (Germany) and contribution to the palaeoecology, anatomy and palaeogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (in review). Diedrich, 2010c. The palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled carbonatic Germanic Basin of Central Europe - a northern Tethys connected cratonic marine Basin - coastal basin margin mappings by the use of reptile footprint rich intertidal and sabkha environments. Abstract, Fifth International Conference on the Geology of the Tethys Realm, Quena-Luxor,Egypt), 3-5. Diedrich, in prep. The shallow marine fish and sauropterygian reptile vertebrate fauna of the Germanic Basin from the atavus/pulcher Bonebeds in the Bad Sulza Fm (Illyrian, Middle Triassic) of Bad Sulza (Central Germany). Diedrich, C. and Trostheide, F. 2007. Auf den Spuren der terresten Muschelkalksaurier und aquatischen Sauropterygier vom obersten Röt bis zum Mittleren Muschelkalk (Unter-/Mitteltrias) von Sachsen-Anhalt. Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde, 30, 5-56. Föhlisch, K. 2007. Überlieferungen seismischer Aktivität im Unteren Muschelkalk. Beiträge zur Geologie Thüringens, N.F. 14, 55-83. Furrer, H. 1995. The Kalkschieferzone (Upper Meride estone Ladinian) near Meride (Canton Ticino, Southern Switzerland) and the evolution of a Middle Triassic intraplatform basin. Eclogae geolicae Helvetiae, 88(3), 827-852. Hagdorn, H. 1990. Das Muschelkalk/Keuper-Bonebed von Crailsheim. In: Weidert, W. K. (Ed.), Klassische Fundstellen der Paläontologie, Band 2. 78-88. Goldschneck-Verlag, Stuttgart. Hagdorn, H., E. Nitsch, Aigner, T. and Simon, T. 2009. Field guide 6th international Triassic field workshop (Pan-European Correlation of the Triassic) Triassic of Southwest Germany. September 7-11, 2009, www