WorldWideScience

Sample records for anchoveta engraulis ringens

  1. Alimentación de la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en el norte de Chile (18°25'-25°40'S en diciembre de 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianela Medina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la dieta de Engraulis ringens para determinar posibles diferencias en su comportamiento alimentario por longitud y gradiente latitudinal. Las muestras se obtuvieron entre 18°25'S y 24°40'S durante el crucero de evaluación hidroacústica del reclutamiento de E. ringens, realizado entre el 1 y 20 de diciembre de 2010. El análisis comprendió la determinación de la dieta contenida en un total de 294 estómagos, provenientes de 18 estaciones de muestreo y distribuidos en tres clases de longitud (pre-reclutas, reclutas y adultos. La dieta se describió mediante los métodos numéricos de frecuencia de ocurrencia e índice de importancia relativa, además de la similitud dietaria por longitud y latitud, y especialización trófica. E. ringens registró un amplio espectro trófico, tanto de presas fitoplanctónicas como zooplanctónicas, con una alta predominancia de fitoplancton por sobre zooplancton en 2,5 órdenes de magnitud, por rango de longitud y latitud. Los componentes de mayor importancia relativa en la dieta fueron las diatomeas de los géneros Rhizosolenia y Chaetoceros, y Copepoda dentro del zooplancton. El análisis de la similitud trófica intraespecífica mostró una alta sobreposición entre los grupos de longitud, conformando una "unidad trófica". Mientras que el análisis latitudinal reveló una alta sobreposición trófica con tendencia a formar dos "unidades tróficas", pero sin seguir un patrón definido. Los resultados, confirman el carácter de depredador generalista y oportunista de E. ringens en la zona norte de Chile durante el periodo analizado.

  2. Bases conceptuales para la aplicación de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM en sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona centro-sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Arteaga

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Se identifican los factores claves a considerar en el desarrollo de una evaluación de estrategias de manejo (EEM para los recursos pequeños pelágicos en la zona de centro-sur de Chile, sardina común (Strangomera bentincki y anchoveta (Engraulis ringens. En Chile, la EEM no ha sido aplicada al manejo de estas pesquerías y la asesoría científica se ha desarrollado sobre la evaluación de estrategias de explotación utilizando modelos de evaluación mono-específicos. Para ambas especies se analizan los siguientes tópicos: i alternancia en la abundancia poblacional asociada a los pulsos de reclutamientos y capturas, ii variabilidad temporal en la fuerza del reclutamiento, iii estacionalidad del crecimiento cohorte y especie-específico, y iv relación ambiente-recurso. Los resultados evidencian que los tópicos analizados debieran ser considerados en la construcción de un modelo operativo y/o en la regla de cosecha, dado el carácter mixto de ambas pesquerías, su marcada alternancia y la influencia de las condiciones ambientales. Por lo tanto, se propone que el diseño e implementación de una EEM para sardina común y anchoveta, incluya los elementos señalados en un marco de evaluación multi-especifico y de manejo de carácter mixto.

  3. Efecto de la ración alimenticia sobre la maduración gonadal y acumulación de grasa de anchoveta peruana (Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 en cautiverio Effect of feeding ration on gonad maturation and fat accumulation in Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens Jenyns, 1842 in captivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Espinoza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó el efecto de la ración alimenticia sobre la tasa de maduración gonadal, el desempeño de las gónadas maduras y la redistribución de la energía consumida en gónada, músculo o grasa corporal en ejemplares de anchoveta peruana Engraulis ringens en condiciones de cautiverio Estos resultados ayudan a comprender los procesos reproductivos ocurridos en el medio natural ante alteraciones de factores ambientales tales como los eventos El Niño y La Niña, de gran implicancia en el ecosistema y las pesquerías del Pacífico oriental. El tiempo trascurrido desde el estadio inmaduro hasta vitelogénico fue de 45 días bajo condiciones alimenticias energéticamente óptimas y temperatura alrededor de 16,5°C (46,1 cal g-1 pez día-1 . Las hembras alimentadas con 138,3 cal g-1 pez día-1 alcanzaron la máxima vitelogénesis en 30 días y, aunque el alimento fue excesivo, no incrementaron su masa muscular pero si presentaron mayor acumulación de grasa corporal y presencia de ovocitos más grandes, lo cual indica un incremento en el almacenamiento energético en la hembra y su progenie. Los ovocitos vitelogénicos de los peces alimentados con 46,1 cal g-1 pez día-1 presentaron atresia más rápido que los ovocitos vitelogénicos de peces alimentados con 138,3 cal g-1 pez día-1 . Aunque la cantidad de alimento fue adecuada, las hembras no desovaron durante el experimento. En machos, la disponibilidad de alimento también aceleró la maduración gonadal pero la expulsión de espermatozoides parece haber estado condicionada por la presencia de hembras con ovocitos en máximo estado de vitelogénesis.We analyzed the effect that feeding rations have on gonad maturation, mature gonad performance, and the redistribution of the energy taken up by the gonads, muscle, and body fat in captive specimens of Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens. These results help us understand the reproductive processes occurring in the natural environment given changes

  4. Clasificación acústica de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki mediante máquinas de vectores soporte en la zona centro-sur de Chile: efecto de la calibración de los parámetros en la matriz de confusión Acoustic classification of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Strangomera bentincki using support vector machines in central-southern Chile: effect of parameter calibration on the confusion matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Robotham

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Se clasificó la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y sardina común (Strangomera bentincki detectadas mediante equipos acústicos en la zona centro-sur de Chile, mediante el método de Máquinas de Vectores Soporte (SVM. Para esto se utilizaron descriptores de cardúmenes extraídos desde ecogramas, que fueron clasificados como morfológicos, batimétricos, energéticos y posicional espacial. Para lograr clasificaciones precisas mediante la utilización de esta metodología, fue necesario optimizar parámetros correspondientes al Kernel-Gaussiano, γ y de penalización del modelo C, mediante el análisis del efecto de la calibración sobre las matrices de confusión resultantes de la clasificación de las especies analizadas. El método SVM ajustó correctamente el 95,3% de los cardúmenes de anchoveta y sardina común. Los parámetros óptimos del Kernel-Gaussiano γ y de penalización C obtenidos mediante la metodología propuesta fueron γ = 450 y C = 0,95, respectivamente. Los parámetros mencionados incidieron de manera importante en la matriz de confusión y los porcentajes de clasificación final, por lo que se sugiere establecer, en aplicaciones futuras de este método, un protocolo experimental de calibración. La sardina común fue la especie con menor error de clasificación en el conjunto de las matrices de confusión. El descriptor correspondiente a profundidad del fondo fue el más sensible al SVM, la segunda variable en importancia es el descriptor distancia a la costa.The support vector machines (SVM method was used to classify the anchovy (Engraulis ringens and common sardine (Strangomera bentincki species detected in south-central Chile by means of acoustic equipment. For this, descriptors of fish schools (morphology, bathymetry, energy, spatial position extracted from ecograms were used. In order to obtain precise classifications using this methodology, it was necessary to optimize the parameters Gaussian-Kernel γ and penalty term

  5. Estimación del descarte por exceso de captura en la pesquería industrial de cerco del stock Norte-Centro de la anchoveta peruana Engraulis ringens a partir de un programa de observación a bordo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josymar Torrejón-Magallanes

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la estimación del descarte por exceso de captura en la pesquería industrial de cerco del stock Norte-Centro de anchoveta peruana. Se define el descarte por exceso de captura, como la porción de captura que se arroja al mar cuando se ha capturado más de lo que la capacidad de bodega de la embarcación puede almacenar. El análisis de estimación para el periodo 2005 - 2014, se realizó a partir del “Programa de observadores a bordo de la flota de cerco” que ejecuta el Instituto del Mar del Perú (IMARPE, en donde 5 837 viajes, que representan el 1.6% de los viajes totales, fueron muestreados. Las metodologías utilizadas en la estimación fueron: Modelo Lineal Generalizado (GLM y el Modelo Delta. Las estimaciones por el Modelo Delta y el GLM fueron diferentes en magnitudes pero similares en tendencias, sin embargo la evaluación del funcionamiento del Modelo Delta, indica que este modelo se ajusta mejor a los datos. El Modelo Delta estimó que la pesquería descarta por exceso de captura entre 2 954 y 199 164 toneladas, con un promedio de 121 312 toneladas para el periodo de estudio, el cual representó una tasa del 2.6% en relación a los desembarques. Se sugiere la incorporación de variables espaciales (p. ej. distancia a la costa, latitud, longitud, físicas (TSM y del comportamiento del cardumen (p.e. agregación, para mejorar el análisis y comprender mejor el comportamiento de este tipo de descarte.

  6. A set of sustainability performance indicators for seafood : direct human consumption products from Peruvian anchoveta fisheries and freshwater aquaculture

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Different seafood products based on Peruvian anchoveta (Engraulis ringens) fisheries and freshwater aquaculture of trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) and black pacu (Colossoma macropomum), contribute at different scales to the socio-economic development, environmental degradation and nutrition of the Peruvian population. Various indicators have been used in the literature to assess the performance of these industries regarding different aspects of sustainability, notably ...

  7. 秘鲁沿岸秘鲁鳀渔场及渔汛分析%Analysis on fishing season and fishing ground of Engraulis ringens in the coastal waters of Peru

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈芃; 汪金涛; 陈新军

    2016-01-01

    秘鲁鳀(Engraulis ringens)是栖息于东南太平洋沿岸的小型中上层鱼类,了解秘鲁鳀渔场和渔汛的状况有助于渔情预报工作的开展进而实现资源的合理利用。利用2005~2014年秘鲁各港口的上岸量数据,以上岸量(landings)、总捕捞努力量(fishing effort)和单位捕捞努力量渔获量(CPUE)为指标分析秘鲁鳀渔场分布及渔汛;结合二因素方差分析(two-factor analysis of variance)探究渔场月份和纬度上的显著性差异;利用分位数的方法,找出各年的旺汛时间。研究表明,每年的4~6月和11~12月为秘鲁鳀的主汛期;主要的捕捞区域分布在7°S ~13°S;渔汛的前中期,上岸量和捕捞努力量有着明显的年间差异,而 CPUE 在渔汛后期年间差异明显。方差分析表明,不同月份和不同纬度对捕捞努力量[ln(effort +1)]有极显著的影响(P <0.01);5月为一年中最主要的捕捞阶段。旺汛期分析表明,第一渔汛阶段的旺汛一般在5月出现,而第二渔汛阶段的旺汛一般在11月出现。研究结果有助于对秘鲁沿岸秘鲁鳀渔场及渔汛的认识。%Anchoveta (Engraulis ringens)is a kind of small pelagic fish living in the Southeast Pacific.This fish forms the largest single-fish fishery in the world.However,its’yield has huge yearly difference. Understanding its fishing season and fishing ground is essential in developing fishery forecast and sustainable utilization of this resource.Therefore,based on the Peru ports’anchoveta fishery data from 2005 to 2014, landings,fishing effort and catch per unit effort (CPUE)were used as fishery indices to analyze the changes of fishing conditions and fishing seasons.The means and standard deviation of fishery indices were calculated to study the changes in month and latitude.Significant differences of fishing grounds in different months and latitudes were explored by two-factor analysis of

  8. Ringenes herres entusiastiske publikum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Dan

    2005-01-01

    Præsentation af resultater om publikummer til "Kongen vender tilbage" fra forskningsprojektet "Ringenes Herre i Danmark"......Præsentation af resultater om publikummer til "Kongen vender tilbage" fra forskningsprojektet "Ringenes Herre i Danmark"...

  9. Regeringserklæringen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    2012-01-01

    Regeringserklæringen Det er en spændende, men på sin vis også en utaknemmelig opgave at deltage i en historisk kommissionsundersøgelse af PET’s efterforskning på det politiske område. Det spændende består i, at man gives uhindret adgang til dokumenter fra regeringen og landets efterregnings- og s...

  10. Aktionslæringens DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Benedicte

    Aktionslæringen DNA giver en række redskaber til læring i fællesskaber, uanset om der arbejdes med individuelle eller kollektive projekter i offentlig eller privat regi. Metoden danner modvægt til de mere individuelistiske traditioner inden for voksenpædagogikken. DNA-metaforen bruges bogen igennem...

  11. Using indicators and models for an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture management: the anchovy fishery and Pacific oyster culture in Chile: case studies Aplicación de indicadores y modelos para un enfoque ecosistémico de la pesca y la acuicultura: pesquería de anchoveta y cultivo de ostra del Pacífico en Chile: casos de estudio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Silva

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study illustrate the use of indicators and models to support the Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries and Aquaculture management using two case studies in Chile: prediction of environmental variability effects upon anchovy (Engraulis ringens fishery of northern Chile and prediction of suitable sites and carrying capacity of Pacific oyster (Crassostrea gigas culture using FARM and geographic information system (GIS models in the Valdivia estuary. A three stage approach was applied: Stage 1 considers spatiotemporal ecosystem indicators (fisheries, aquaculture, environmental, and regulatory, Stage 2 uses statistical relationships between indicators, GIS, and other simulation models (e.g., artificial neural networks and FARM of environment-resources interaction, and Stage 3 is the analysis and validation of models outputs. The methodology illustrates how indicators and models may be used to assist decision-makers in developing an ecosystem approach to fisheries and aquaculture. The application of these approaches provides an integrative methodology for abundance prediction of anchovy and site selection for shellfish aquaculture, despite limitations in the available data.Este trabajo muestra el uso de indicadores y modelos para apoyar la aplicación del enfoque ecosistémico en la gestión de la pesca y la acuicultura, mediante dos casos de estudios en Chile: predicción de los efectos de la variabilidad ambiental en la pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens en la zona norte de Chile y la predicción de sitios aptos y capacidad de carga para el cultivo de la ostra del Pacífico (Crassostrea gigas en el estuario de Valdivia. Se aplicó un enfoque metodológico de tres etapas: etapa 1 considera indicadores espacio-temporales del ecosistema (pesca, acuicultura, medio ambiente y legislación; etapa 2 utiliza relaciones estadísticas entre los indicadores, funciones de SIG (Sistemas de Información Geográfica, y otros modelos de simulación (Redes

  12. Trends in spatio-temporal distribution of Peruvian anchovy and other small pelagic fish biomass from 1966-2009 Tendencias espacio-temporales en la distribución de la biomasa de anchoveta peruana y de otros peces pelágicos pequenos entre 1966 y 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariano Gutiérrez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Changes in abundance and distribution of anchovy and other species of pelagic fish of the Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS are driven by environmental forcing variations in different time and spatial scales between the coastal 'cold' ecosystem and the 'warm' oceanic one. Data to study these fluctuations have come mostly from the fishery to show how anchovy (Engraulis ringens increases when sardine (Sardinops sagax declines and vice versa. However, using acoustic data on latitudinal biomass we show that other species as mackerel (Scomber japonicus and jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi also follow the same opposed trend, then the fishery data hides the true dimension of the balance of abundance among species. Based on Hovmoller diagrams we scrutinized the changes in interannual latitudinal acoustic biomass, landings and influence of El Nino events from 1966 to 2009 in order to describe: 1 how the anchovy decadal distribution pattern moved from south to north since the 1960's; 2 how there have been produced concomitant changes in the latitudinal abundance and distribution of other species such as sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel before, during and after El Nino events; and 3 what was the overall effect of the succession of El Nino events on all these pelagic species. We concluded that: a every El Nino event has had an effect on the expansion or contraction of pelagic species distribution and abundance, with different latitudinal effects; and b the El Nino 1997-98 did not trigger but accelerated a decline phase on the abundance of sardine, jack mackerel and mackerel by a reduction of their ideal habitat due to an expansion of the coastal ecosystem caused by a shallower location of the upper limit of the Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ These findings observed using past data might be taken into consideration for fishery management purposes when considering future scenarios.Los cambios en la abundancia y distribución de anchoveta y de otras especies

  13. Rundt om Ringen - veje til Wagners verdensteater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Artikler om Ringen af Lars Ole Bonde, Villy Sørensen, Peter Kjærulff, John Christiansen, udgivet i forbindelse med Den Jyske Operas Ring-opførelser. Interviews med Francesco Cristofoli og Klaus Hoffmeier....

  14. Predicting habitat suitability and geographic distribution of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) due to climate change in the coastal areas off Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Claudio; Andrade, Isabel; Yáñez, Eleuterio; Hormazabal, Samuel; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio; Böhm, Gabriela

    2016-08-01

    The effects of climate change on ocean conditions will have impacts on fish stocks, primarily through physiological and behavioural effects, such as changes in growth, reproduction, mortality and distribution. Habitat and distribution predictions for marine fishery species under climate change scenarios are important for understanding the overall impacts of such global changes on the human society and on the ecosystem. In this study, we examine the impacts of climate change on anchovy fisheries off Chile using predicted changes in global models according to the National Centre for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Community Climate System Model 3.0 (CCSM3) and IPCC high future CO2 emission scenario A2, habitat suitability index (HSI) models and satellite-based sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) estimates from high-resolution regional models for the simulation period 2015-2065. Predictions of SST from global climate models were regionalised using the Delta statistical downscaling technique. Predictions of chlorophyll-a were developed using historical Chl-a and SST (2003-2013) satellite data and applying a harmonic model. The results show an increase in SST of up to 2.5 °C by 2055 in the north and central-south area for an A2 scenario. The habitat suitability index model was developed using historical (2001-2011) monthly fisheries and environmental data. The catch per unit effort (CPUE) was used as an abundance index in developing the HSI models and was calculated as the total catch (ton) by hold capacity (m3) in a 10‧ × 10‧ fishing grid square of anchovy, integrated over one month of fishing activity. The environmental data included the distance to coast (DC), thermal (SST) and food availability (Chl-a) conditions. The HSI modelling consists of estimating SI curves based on available evidence regarding the optimum range of environmental conditions for anchovy and estimating an integrated HSI using the Arithmetic Mean Model (AMM) method. The results of this work show that the model has produced robust estimates of habitat suitability and geographic distribution off Chile and has been especially effective in capturing the spatial and temporal variability of CPUE. Using IDRISI geographical information system (GIS), these HSI models simulated monthly changes in the habitat suitability (i.e., relative abundance) and distribution of anchovy off Chile forced by changes in the regionalised SST and Chl-a as projected by the NCAR model under the A2 emission scenario. The simulations predicted a moderate negative change of 17% and 13% for the north and central-south areas, respectively, in the habitat suitability (i.e., potential relative abundance) of anchovy by 2055.

  15. Sing English: Om sangens potensial i engelskopplæringen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragnhild Elisabeth Lund

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sang er en åpenbar kilde til læring av fremmedspråk. Læreplaner for engelskfaget opp gjennom tidene har påpekt dette, og læreverkene i engelsk inneholder mange sanger. Men nøyaktig hva er det sang kan bidra med? Hva slags sanger er tatt med i bøkene, og hvilke målsettinger ser ut til å være knyttet til dem? Artikkelen besvarer disse spørsmålene ved å vise til læreplaner og utvalgte lærebøker fra perioden 1885 – 2008 og hvordan de legger opp til at sang skal brukes som en del av opplæringen i engelsk. Undersøkelsen er begrenset til ungdomstrinnet. Innledningsvis refererer artikkelen til ulike begrunnelser for bruk av sang i fremmedspråkopplæringen. Når sang nevnes i læreplanene eller innlemmes i lærebøkene, reflekteres enkelte av disse begrunnelsene. Samtidig er det påfallende hvor ofte planer og bøker ikke begrunner bruken av sang eller setter sangene inn i en didaktisk sammenheng. Artikkelen konkluderer derfor med at sanger ser ut til å representere et stort, men delvis uutnyttet potensial i engelskopplæringen på ungdomstrinnet.

  16. Synlig læring og læringens anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates.......Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates....

  17. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Avadí

    Full Text Available Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional, and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1, increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2, and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3. It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  18. Coupled ecosystem/supply chain modelling of fish products from sea to shelf: the Peruvian anchoveta case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avadí, Angel; Fréon, Pierre; Tam, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability assessment of food supply chains is relevant for global sustainable development. A framework is proposed for analysing fishfood (fish products for direct human consumption) supply chains with local or international scopes. It combines a material flow model (including an ecosystem dimension) of the supply chains, calculation of sustainability indicators (environmental, socio-economic, nutritional), and finally multi-criteria comparison of alternative supply chains (e.g. fates of landed fish) and future exploitation scenarios. The Peruvian anchoveta fishery is the starting point for various local and global supply chains, especially via reduction of anchoveta into fishmeal and oil, used worldwide as a key input in livestock and fish feeds. The Peruvian anchoveta supply chains are described, and the proposed methodology is used to model them. Three scenarios were explored: status quo of fish exploitation (Scenario 1), increase in anchoveta landings for food (Scenario 2), and radical decrease in total anchoveta landings to allow other fish stocks to prosper (Scenario 3). It was found that Scenario 2 provided the best balance of sustainability improvements among the three scenarios, but further refinement of the assessment is recommended. In the long term, the best opportunities for improving the environmental and socio-economic performance of Peruvian fisheries are related to sustainability-improving management and policy changes affecting the reduction industry. Our approach provides the tools and quantitative results to identify these best improvement opportunities.

  19. Norsk pelsdyrhold – bærekraftig utvikling eller styrt avvikling? — Gjennomgang av pelsdyrnæringen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamre, Anne Karin; Steine, Torstein; Tveito, Guri

    2014-01-01

    Utvalget for gjennomgang av pelsdyrnæringen i Norge ble oppnevnt ved kongelig resolusjon 4. oktober 2013. Utvalget gir med dette sin utredning.......Utvalget for gjennomgang av pelsdyrnæringen i Norge ble oppnevnt ved kongelig resolusjon 4. oktober 2013. Utvalget gir med dette sin utredning....

  20. In Memoriam doctora Augusta Noemí Ochoa López (1937-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Rouillon

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available La Doctora Augusta Noemí Ochoa López, nació un martes 4 de mayo de 1937 en Cañete, Lima. Empezó los estudios de la carrera de biología en la Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos, en 1953, también llevo cursos de la carrera de Educación. Obtuvo su grado de Bachiller en Biología en el año 1966 con la Tesis “Observaciones sobre el Desove de la Anchoveta, Engraulis ringens J., en la zona del Callao”.

  1. Variabilidad milenial de las poblaciones de peces inferida a partir de escamas y restos óseos en sedimentos laminados frente a chimbote, desde la última deglaciación al inicio del holoceno

    OpenAIRE

    Campusano Baltazar, Félix Arturo

    2013-01-01

    Se infiere la variabilidad milenial de las abundancias locales de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens), merluza (Merluccius gayi peruanus) y otras especies de peces frente a Chimbote, a partir de los flujos de escamas y restos óseos a los sedimentos marinos desde la última deglaciación al inicio del Holoceno. Se usaron dos testigos de sedimentos laminados colectados en el talud continental superior frente a Chimbote (~09°30’S), una localidad que se encuentra actualmente en el núcleo de la principal ...

  2. El recurso anchoveta en el sur del Perú bajo condiciones de "El Niño"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Quiroz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se estudiaron las características oceanográficas (temperatura, salinidad, fosfatos y silicatos, volumen de zooplancton, y la abundancia de la anchoa hasta 5 millas lejos de la costa en el sur de Perú (entre Atico y la frontera sur, del 27 de febrero y marzo 3a de 1998. las condiciones oceanográficas mostró tanto la presencia de agua superficial subtropical hasta el 70 de profundidad y la evidencia de la rica afloramiento de nutrientes a gran profundidad. La población de anchoveta fue la escasez hacia fuera y formando pequeños núcleos cercanos a la costa, y los menores de edad constituye el 72% de la población.

  3. Influence of temperature and food availability on juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus at its northern boundary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raab, K.E.; Llope, M.; Nagelkerke, L.A.J.; Rijnsdorp, A.D.; Teal, L.R.; Licandro, P.; Ruardij, P.; Dickey-Collas, M.

    2013-01-01

    The European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus population of the North Sea has increased and spread in recent decades, probably in response to the relaxation of limiting factors in its life history. We use models and empirical data to explore the effects of temperature and food availability during the

  4. Regeringserklæringen og PET's registreringer på det politiske område 1968-1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Den 30. september 1968 udsendte VKR-regeringen en erklæring, hvis hovedsynspunkt var "...at registrering af danske statsborgere ikke længere må finde sted alene på grundlag af lovlig politisk virksomhed." Det fremgik ydermere af erklæringen, at såfremt tjenesten lå inde med sådanne registreringer......, ville de blive slettet og de underliggende oplysninger tilintetgjort. Der er i den offentlige debat forud for Kommissionens nedsættelse rejst en mistanke om, at PET's registreringspraksis efter den 30. september 1968 er foregået i strid med regeringserklæringen. Et centralt spørgsmål i denne debat har...... danske ambassade i Washington. Dette bind er en tilbundsgående undersøgelse af PET's registreringer på det politiske område i perioden 1968-1989....

  5. Seasonal variability of the essential oil of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth. Epling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. G. Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was developed to evaluate the effect of seasonality on the yield and chemical composition of the essential oil (EO of Hesperozygis ringens (Benth. Epling, a native species from the Brazilian Pampa. Leaves were collected from four specimens of a single population in each of the four seasons for a year and were extracted in triplicate by hydro-distillation for 2 hours. The yield of EO (% w/w was calculated on fresh weight basis (FWB, and the 16 oil samples were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS and gas chromatography with flame ionization detector (GC-FID. Hierarchical Cluster Analysis (HCA and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used as statistical tools to evaluate differences in chemical composition. The highest yields were obtained in autumn, spring and summer (2.32-4.38%, while the lowest yields were detected in winter, ranging from 1.15 to 1.91%. Oxygenated monoterpenoids were the predominant class of chemical constituents in the EO obtained in all seasons, showing the highest contents in autumn and summer, and pulegone was identified as a major compound, whose contents varied between 54.13 and 81.17%. The EO samples were divided into three chemical groups by HCA and PCA and were assigned to the same group, except for the three samples gathered in winter. The results showed a seasonal influence on the yield and chemical composition of the EO.

  6. METALES PESADOS (CD Y PB) Y COMPUESTOS ORGANICLORADOS (PESTICIDAS ORGANOCLORADOS Y BIFENILOS POLICLORADOS) EN PECES DE DIFERENTES NIVELES TROFICOS (ENGRAULIS RINGENS, TRACHURUS MURPHYI Y MERLUCCIUS GAYI), EN LA REGION DEL BIOBIO, CHILE.

    OpenAIRE

    FUENTEALBA CRUZ, MARTA

    1998-01-01

    Las hipótesis que explican la presencia de contaminantes en los tejidos de organismos visos, incluyen la biomagnificación y la hidrot'ohicidad la prinlera, señala que algunos contaminantes pueden aumentar sus niveles a través de las cadenas tróficas, por 91p.

  7. Shelf life of anchovy products (Engraulis encrasicolus: evaluation of sensory, microbiological and chemical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Ariano

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Fishery products have always been an important food in Italy. In the past, increased consumption was mainly due to the good quality of the products, easiness of use and their beneficial effects on health. Recently, owing to the national financial crisis, there has been a decline in the consumption of fish. In fact, in 2013, according to data from ISMEA, the consumption of fresh fish suffered a sharp contraction (-5%. This decline also concerns anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus. This species, partly because of its low price, is a mainstay of traditional Italian food. The aim of this study was to evaluate sensorial, chemical and microbiological properties of anchovy-based (Engraulis encrasicolus products during storage at 4 and -20°C. Fresh anchovies, obtained from the wholesale fish market of Pozzuoli (Southern Italy were cut into small pieces and hand-prepared using bread, eggs, cheese and lemon juice. Samples were analysed after 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 days of storage at 4°C. An aliquot was quickly frozen and analysed after 34 days at -20°C. Sensory assessment, microbiological (specific spoilage organisms, Listeria spp. and Salmonella spp. and chemical (histamine, total volatile basic nitrogen, trimethylamine, thiobarbituric acid, pH and aw analyses were performed. Results showed that the shelf life of anchovy products was less than 5 days for the samples stored at 4°C. At -20°C, all anchovies preparations showed good sensory, microbiological and chemical properties for 34 days.

  8. Avaliação funcional de bases proteicas desidratadas de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita Functional evaluation of two dehydrated anchovy (Engraulis anchoita Protein bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liziane Garcia-Torchelsen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Considerou-se neste trabalho a avaliação funcional de bases proteicas desidratadas de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita foi considerada neste trabalho. A polpa do pescado foi separada mecanicamente e submetida à lavagem com dois solventes, água e ácido fosfórico. A secagem em camada delgada das bases proteicas foi conduzida em temperaturas de 40, 60 e 70°C e espessuras de amostra de 5mm. O produto foi avaliado considerando a determinação de proteínas solúveis, composição centesimal e propriedades funcionais, expressas pela solubilidade protéica, capacidade de retenção de água, capacidade de retenção de gordura e capacidade emulsificante. Os resultados indicaram que a obtenção da base proteica de anchoita usando ácido fosfórico como solvente de lavagem apresentou melhores características, se consideradas as operações de extração de proteínas solúveis, secagem e propriedades funcionais do produto final. Com relação à secagem, verificou-se que esta operação origina um produto com melhores características funcionais quando são empregadas temperaturas de 40 e 60°C.The functional evaluation of two dehydrated anchovy (Engraulis anchoita protein bases was considered in this work. The fish meat was mechanically separated and subjected to washing with two solvents, water and phosphoric acid, to obtain the protein bases. Thin layer drying of the protein bases was carried out at temperatures of 40, 60 and 70 °C, with a sample thickness of 5mm. The products were evaluated considering the determinations of the soluble proteins, proximate composition and the functional properties such as protein solubility, water holding capacity, fat holding capacity and emulsifying capacity. The results indicated that obtaining the anchovy protein base using phosphoric acid as the washing solvent resulted in better characteristics, when considering the operations of extracting and drying the soluble proteins and the functional properties of

  9. Modifications in the chemical compounds and sensorial attributes of Engraulis anchoita fillet during marinating process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Isabel Yeannes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Marinated fish are fish products preserved by the combined action of salt and organic acids. The objective of this work was to analyze the variations in the chemical compounds of anchovy fillets that give them sensorial characteristics during the marinating process of Engraulis anchoita. The protein content decreased slightly and the TVB-N level decreased significantly in both the brining and marinating stages. In the marinating stage an increase in the total free aminoacids was observed. The NBV level in the brining and marinating solutions increased during these stages due to the solubilization of the non-protein nitrogenous compounds and the degradation of some protein compounds.The decrease of the contents of protein and TVB-N, and the increase of the acidity and the free aminoacids content during the marinating process give the marinated fillets the characteristic texture and aroma.Peixes marinados são produtos obtidos pela ação combinada de sal e ácidos orgânicos. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar as alterações químicas e sensoriais em filés de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita durante o processo de marinado. O conteúdo de proteína apresentou decréscimo significativo durante a salga. O teor de Bases Voláteis Totais-N-BVT, apresentou uma diminuição considerável durante a salga e marinacão. Na fase de marinado, foi observado um aumento em aminoácidos livres totais. Foi constatada a presença de N-BVT na salmoura e na solução oriunda do processo de obtenção de marinado, devido à solubilização de nitrogênio não protéico, que podem ter sido acrescidos de alguns compostos de degradação protéica. A redução do conteúdo de proteína e N-BVT e o aumento de acidez e de aminoácidos livres gerados durante ou processo de elaboração do marinado fazem com que os filés marinados adquiram textura e aroma característicos.

  10. Effect of different preservation processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerner, Marina; Agustinelli, Silvina P; Guccione, Silvana; Yeannes, María I

    2015-01-01

    The effects of salting-ripening, canning and marinating processes on chemical composition and fatty acid profile of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita) were evaluated (p = 0.01), with emphasis on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Fresh anchovy showed a high proportion of PUFAs (∼45 g/100 g total lipid) with an eicosapentaenoic (EPA) + docosahexaenoic (DHA) content of 27.08 g/100 g total lipid. The salting-ripening process led to the largest changes in the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile, which resulted in a reduction of ∼70% on the total EPA and DHA contents (g/100 g edible portion). Contrary, canned and marinated anchovy presented a fatty acid profile similar to that of fresh anchovy. The use of vegetable oil as covering liquid led to final products with increased ω-6 PUFAs content. Despite the modifications observed, the total amount of essential EPA and DHA fatty acids provided by these products remained high compared with values reported in literature for other foods.

  11. Modeling the behavior of the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, as a schooling predator exploiting patchy prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonacs, Peter; Smith, Paul E.; Bouskila, Amos; Luttbeg, Barney

    Extensive data sets on the bioenergetics of the northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax, and the patchy food distribution in its natural habitat allow its foraging dynamics to be inferred by modeling using techniques from population biology and behavioral ecology. The behavioral model consistently predicts that E. mordax grows much more slowly than would be expected with a pure, net-energy intake rate maximization strategy. The reduced growth rates could result from the fish avoiding zooplankton patches, where they are under increased predation risk, by swimming slowly in the waters between zooplankton patches. The combinations of growth rates and daily instantaneous mortality rates generated by the behavioral model are internally consistent with a Lefkovitch matrix population model, which includes an early juvenile stage of a stable and stationary population. Several novel and testable predictions are made by the behavioral model, including: (1) anchovies swim very slowly between zooplankton patch encounters; (2) within a patch fish swim very rapidly while searching for prey; and (3) fish often leave zooplankton patches before totally filling their stomachs. Given these encouraging initial results, the behavioral modeling approach appears to be a valuable technique for examining how potential habitat changes due to global warming may affect fish behavior and populations. Several such scenarios are proposed and discussed.

  12. Pollination by sexual mimicry in Mormolyca ringens: a floral chemistry that remarkably matches the pheromones of virgin queens of Scaptotrigona sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, Adriana; Marsaioli, Anita J; Singer, Rodrigo B; Amaral, Maria do Carmo E; Menezes, Cristiano; Kerr, Warwick Estevam; Batista-Pereira, Luciane G; Corrêa, Arlene G

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of some volatile (2-heptanol) and nonvolatile constituents (a homologous 9-alkene/alkane series) of Mormolyca ringens flowers and Scaptotrigona sp. queen waxes (homologous 9-alkene/alkane series) and cephalic extracts (homologous series of 2-alkanols, including 2-heptanol) involved with the pseudocopulation or sexual mimicry in Orchidaceae pollination is compared. The similarity in chemical composition of flowers and insects is assigned to the chemically induced copulatory activity in Scaptotrigona males.

  13. {sup 2}10Po in engraulis encrasilocus in the North of the Valencian community; {sup 2}10Po en Engraulis Encrasilocus en el Norte de la Comunidad Valenciana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado Belmar, V.; Camara Garcia, T.; Ferrero Calabuig, J. L.

    2013-07-01

    Within the scope of natural radiation, one of the most studied radionuclides is currently radon and their descendants. The doses due to this radionuclide are the most high and dangerous, not only in areas where there is radon this is already inhaled by the population but it also swallowed their descendants via food, contributing to a dose rate more. The objective of this work is the study of the concentration of {sup 2}10Po in anchovy (Engraulis Encrasilocus) in an area with a coastal lagoon with high concentration of {sup 2}22 Rn. (Author)

  14. Fecundidad de la anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus (pisces: engraulidae en la población de la parte interna del Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kehrson Ruiz G.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available La anchoveta Cetengraulis mysticetus es utilizada como carnada por la flota pesquera artesanal tradicional. Se estudiaron sus aspectos reproductivos durante los picos de desove de 1997 y 1998. La talla reproductiva en esa época se estimó en 14,6 cm y la proporción sexual fue de 1:1,2 (machos: hembras. En el análisis de fecundidad, se encontraron hembras maduras entre las tallas de 16,2 y 21,3 cm de longitud. La fecundidad relativa varió del 1,867 oocitos por gramo de pez en el grupo de tallas superiores a 921 oocitos por gramo de pez en el grupo de menor talla. La relación entre el número de oocitos y la talla del pez fue para la fecundidad total de 1,10 *LT4,55 y para la fecundidad relativa de 0,17 * PT1,19. Los índices gonadosomáticos fueron calculados para machos y hembras en los diferentes estadios de madurez, obteniéndose los valores máximos en el estadio IV, siendo a la vez mayores en machos que en hembras.

  15. Macrozooplankton predation impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) eggs mortality at the Bay of Biscay shelf break spawning centre

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, Aitor

    2014-11-23

    A real-time PCR based method involving a species-specific probe was applied to detect Engraulis encrasicolus eggs predation by the macrozooplankton community during the 2011 spawning season. Three locations along the shelf break presenting contrasting but high prey densities were sampled. A total of 840 individuals from 38 taxa of potential macrozooplankton predators were assayed for E. encrasicolus DNA presence and 27 presented at least one positive signal. Carnivorous copepods were responsible for the most predation events (66%) followed by euphausiids (16%), chaetognaths (5%), and myctophid fish (4%). Macrozooplankton predation on anchovy eggs followed a type-I functional response with daily mortalities <4% of available prey abundance suggesting a negligible impact on the species recruitment at the shelf break spawning centre. © 2014 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Uncertainties in Stock Assessment and the Precautionary Management Suggestions for the Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) Stock in the Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) is an abundant fish species in the Yellow Sea, and its natural stock is decreasing rapidly in recent years. Based on the stock-recruitment (SR) data from 1987 to 2002 published in Zhao et al. (2003), the criterion BIC (Bayesian Information Criterion) is applied to selecting a suitable model from six normal and lognormal error structured SR statistical models, the age-structured model is used to calculate the biological reference points (BRPs), and the precision of the SR parameters and BRPs are calculated using bootstrap method. The results indicate that the anchovy fishery resource in the Yellow Sea is in an over-fished state. The precaution management principle requires that the fishery should be closed immediately.

  17. Tough controversy; Zaehes Ringen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boenning, C.; Seltmann, T.

    2001-02-01

    Most cases that came to court lately were concerned with the safety of investments made by operators of solar power systems. Investors fear that a change in the pertinent legislation may result in a less favourable reimbursement situation. [German] Bei den juristischen Streitfaellen geht es im Kern um die Investitionssicherheit der Betreiber von Solarstromanlagen. Die Sorgen der Investoren betreffen den Fall einer Gesetzesaenderung, die die Einspeisebedingungen verschlechtern koennte. (orig.)

  18. No loss of genetic diversity in the exploited and recently collapsed population of Bay of Biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.)

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-04-11

    The European anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, in the Bay of Biscay suffered a collapse in census population size (Nc) starting in 2002, from which it did not recover until 2010. The slow recovery raised concern over sustainability, potential reduction in adaptive potential, and vulnerability to local extirpation. Long- and short-term effective population size (Ne), Ne/Nc ratio, and other genetic parameters were estimated to evaluate demographic signals of population decline. A total of 349 neutral single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were screened in 330 anchovy individuals from the Bay of Biscay distributed across a 20-year period. We show that Nc fluctuations have not significantly affected short-term Ne, and therefore, genetic diversity has remained stable throughout the recent collapse. This study illustrates that Ne estimates should be incorporated into management plans. Our results on short-term Ne suggested that the anchovy in the Bay of Biscay has not faced any recent severe threat of losing evolutionary potential due to genetic drift. However, differences between short- and long-term Ne estimates suggested that the Bay of Biscay anchovy population may be currently much smaller than in the historical past. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  19. Monthly variation in the fat content of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea: implications for acoustic abundance estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Bo; ZHAO Xianyong; DAI Fangqun

    2011-01-01

    Anchovy is a key species in the Yellow Sea ecosystem. An accurate estimate of anchovy abundance is vital for the management of the anchovy stock and measurement of the ecosystem response to changes in anchovy abundance. However, the acoustic fish abundance estimate may be biased by 30%-40% if the fat-content induced target strength variation is not taken into account. We measured the monthly variation in the fat content of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea, and evaluated the potential effect of variation in fat content on the acoustic assessment of anchovy abundance. The fat content of anchovy varied seasonally, with two maxima and two minima in a year. The highest fat content (14.75%) was measured in the pre-spawning period in May, and the lowest fat content (2.48%) was measured during the post-spawning period in October. Fat content appeared to correlate with water content,but not body size. Assuming that the target strength is decreased by 0.2dB for every 1% increase in fat content, the seasonal difference in the target strength of anchovy may be as high as 2.45 dB. Given this,the acoustic abundance estimate may be biased by between 43% and 76%. Our results highlight the need for more information on the changes in fat content of fishes whose abundance is estimated by acoustic surveys.

  20. Enhancement of non-heme iron absorption by anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate involves a nanoparticle-mediated mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haohao; Zhu, Suqin; Zeng, Mingyong; Liu, Zunying; Dong, Shiyuan; Zhao, Yuanhui; Huang, Hai; Lo, Y Martin

    2014-08-27

    The mechanisms by which meat enhances human absorption of non-heme iron remain unknown. Recently, anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) muscle protein hydrolysate (AMPH) was found to mediate the formation of nanosized ferric hydrolysis products in vitro. The current paper evaluates the effects of AMPH on the bioavailability and the intestinal speciation of non-heme iron in rats, followed by an investigation of cellular uptake pathways of in vitro-formed AMPH-stabilized nanosized ferric hydrolysis products (ANPs) by polarized human intestinal epithelial (Caco-2) cells. The hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies in anemic rats followed the order ferric citrate (9.79 ± 2.02%) iron in the groups of FC+AMPH, FeSO4, and ANPs were significantly lower than the corresponding hemoglobin regeneration efficiencies (P iron in intestinal iron absorption from FC+AMPH, FeSO4, and ANPs. Calcein-fluorescence measurements of the labile iron pool of polarized Caco-2 cells revealed the involvement of both divalent transporter 1 and endocytosis in apical uptake of ANPs, with endocytosis dominating at acidic extracellular pH. Overall, AMPH enhancement of non-heme iron absorption involves a nanoparticle-mediated mechanism.

  1. Population – genetic structure on European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758 (Osteichthyes: Engraulide from Mediterranean Basin and Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petya P. IVANOVA

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Muscle proteins of the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus L. were analyzed using starch gel electrophoresis and isoelectric focusing on thin polyacrylamide ampholine gel. Twenty-two protein loci were analyzed and polymorphism was found in six of them. Based on genetic-biochemical data, we hypothesize that there are two anchovy subspecies, European and African. The former inhabits the Atlantic Ocean, the Mediterranean coast of Europe, and the Aegean, Marmora, Black, and Azov Seas. The latter is found in the Cape Blank region of the Atlantic Ocean and, probably, along the northwestern part of the African coast. The Aegean anchovy consists of hybrid populations, resulting from introgressive hybridization between the European and the African populations. No evidence for subspecies differentiation between the populations from the European coast of the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean was found. Genetic distances between the Azov and Black Sea populations show that the former probably entered the Black Sea during the Karangad period and the latter during the last connection of the Black Sea to the Mediterranean. The genetic distance between the Black Sea anchovy and the Azov anchovy shows that they could be specified as two different populations. Probably some earlier subspecies differences disappeared as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  2. Spatial, temporal and ontogenetic variation in diet of anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicolus) on the Algerian coast (SW Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacha, M.; Amara, R.

    2009-11-01

    The diet of anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus was studied in three regions (Béjaia, Bénisaf and Ghazaouet) along the Algerian coast. Ontogenetic, spatial and seasonal variations in anchovy diet were investigated using multivariate analyses and analysed in relation with sea surface temperature and chlorophyll- a. 46 prey taxa of varying size between 0.57 mm ( Euterpina acutifrons) and 6.8 mm (fish larvae) were recorded. Whatever the season, the region or the fish size, anchovy is exclusively zooplanktivorous and copepods were the most present prey, constituting 87% by number of the prey taken and found in 98% of the anchovy stomachs examined. However, their occurrence and number varied according to the different areas, seasons and fish size. During its first year of life, anchovy feeds almost exclusively on copepods (mainly small and medium size prey). As anchovy grows, copepods are gradually substituted by large crustaceans such as decapods and amphipods. Hierarchical cluster analysis, analysis of similarities (ANOSIM) and similarities percentage (SIMPER) indicated a distinct diet of anchovy of the bay of Bejaia from those of the bays of Bénisaf and Ghazaouet probably due to differences in hydrologic conditions. Diet differences also occurred between seasons. Summer and spring have distinct prey assemblages each and showed low diet similarities with the two other seasons. More prey species were found in the diet during winter (36) and autumn (30) and the vacuity index was lower in winter. Temporal variability in satellite-derived chlorophyll- a matched the seasonal variability in the diversity of the anchovy prey and feeding intensity as reflected by the vacuity index, suggesting further investigation of the potential use of satellite-derived chlorophyll- a data as a proxy for anchovy feeding intensity.

  3. Análisis de la pesquería del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available La presencia del jurel Trachurus murphyi ha sido registrado en los desembarques de la pesca artesanal en Perú desde 1907. A partir del año 2000, las capturas de T. murphyise ubicaron en el tercer lugar después de la anchoveta Engraulis ringensy el calamar gigante Dosidicus gigas. Las capturas de T. murphyison realizadas por la flota artesanal, industrial cerquera y barcos arrastreros factoría. En el año 2011, la flota industrial cerquera con permiso de pesca para T. murphyien la costa peruana estaba constituida por 62 embarcaciones industriales de acero (30177 m 3 y 42 industriales de madera (3082 m 3 . Las capturas de T. murphyituvieron un notable incremento a partir de 1972, alcanzando sus máximos valores en 1977, 1996-97 y 2001, a los que siguieron años de muy baja disponibilidad que llevó al mínimo registro en las capturas en 2010. Sin embargo en el 2011 se revirtió esta baja disponibilidad y las capturas alcanzaron casi las 260000 toneladas. En el periodo 1972 – 2012 se observó una relación inversa entre los estimados de biomasa acústica del jurel T. murphyiy los desembarques anuales de anchoveta E. ringens. Las capturas mensuales de T. murphyipor la flota industrial y artesanal antes del 2002 fueron altas en la zona norte de Perú (Mancora-Chimbote, mientras que después del 2002 las capturas fueron altas en la zona centro-sur (Huacho-Ilo.

  4. Descripción de la pesquería artesanal de peces, en tres puertos pesqueros de la IV región, Coquimbo, Chile.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigoberto Víquez Portuguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un seguimiento de la pesca artesanal de peces en las caletas de Coquimbo, Guanaqueros y Tongoy en la IV región, Chile, entre junio de 1995 y junio de 1996. El estudio comprendió un análisis de las especies capturadas , biomasa de ellas, artes de pesca empleadas y desembarque en cada caleta por medio de formularios acordados en un proyecto convenio tripartito entre la Federación de Trabajadores del Mar (FETRAMAR de la provincia de Elqui F.G., el Servicio Nacional de Pesca de la IV región (SERNAP y la Universidad Católica del Norte (UCN. Se capturó un total de 27 especies de interés comercial y las especies de mayor relevancia fueron la anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y el jurel (Trachurus murphyi, capturadas con red de cerco; la merluza (Merluccius gayi y la reineta (Brama austalis capturadas con espinel.

  5. Mortandad de aves marinas durante "El Niño 1997-98" en el litoral sur de San Juan de Marcona, Ica -Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Apaza

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Entre agosto de 1997 y abril de 1998, se evaluó, al sur de la punta guanera de San Juan de Marcona, la mortandad de las poblaciones de aves marinas. Especies de alimentación exclusivamente pelágica y de distribución restringida al ámbito de la Corriente Peruana, como las aves guaneras Pelecanus thagus, Sula variegata y Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, el pingüino Spheniscus humboldti y el zarcillo Larosterna inca, mostraron una correlación significativa en el comportamiento mensual, relacionados con la temperatura superficial del mar y con la ausencia del recurso anchoveta Engraulis ringens durante el evento "El Niño". Otras especies consideradas en el análisis presentaron una mortandad diferente, como la gaviota de Franklin Larus pipixcan y la gaviota gris Larus modestus, en ambos casos, las especies se alimentaron de recursos alternativos, como Calosoma sp. y Emeríta analoga, respectivamente.

  6. Determination of cholesterol oxides in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus treated with a commercial mixture of citric acid, trisodium acid and hydrogen peroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniello Anastasio

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available A new additive formulation containing hydrogen peroxide, citric acid and trisodium acid is illegally used in fishery products due its whitening and antioxidant features. Aim of this study was to evaluate the possible presence of COPs and their role as markers of illegal treatment in anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus stored at different temperatures. Sensory analysis was also performed by the specific QIM test. The quantitative determinations (% of cholesterol oxides (COPs showed changing amounts during storage. Not always The COPs measured in the treated samples were significantly higher than control samples. Considering the volatility of hydrogen peroxide and the poor repeatability of COPs analyses, as shown in the present study, it is crucial to intensify the control by the Authorities.

  7. Coupling between the environment and the pelagic resources exploited off northern Chile: ecosystem indicators and a conceptual model Acoplamiento entre el ambiente y los recursos pelágicos explotados en el norte de Chile: un modelo conceptual

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eleuterio Yáñez

    2008-01-01

    pesquería de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens; en tanto, desde mediado de los 70's los desembarques de sardina (Sardinops sagax aumentan notablemente. Un segundo cambio de régimen se observa a finales de los 80's, representado principalmente por la notable recuperación de anchovy y disminución de sardina. Se presenta un modelo conceptual integrador de los diferentes fenómenos locales y de gran escala que afectan el ambiente marino del norte de Chile, y la distribución y abundancia de recursos pelágicos. El modelo considera análisis de datos ambientales y bio-pesqueros a distintas escalas, y describe como las fluctuaciones interdecadales (asociadas a cambios de régimen e interanuales (asociadas a los eventos El Niño del Pacífico Ecuatorial se manifiestan en el Pacífico Sur Oriental y por tanto en la zona norte de Chile, afectando el ciclo anual, la dinámica de las ondas atrapadas a la costa y la surgencia costera. En este marco, las fluctuaciones interdecadales estarían jugando un rol importante en la secuencia del reemplazo anchoveta-sardina-anchoveta.

  8. Spatial distribution, sampling precision and survey design optimisation with non-normal variables: The case of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) recruitment in Spanish Mediterranean waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugores, M. Pilar; Iglesias, Magdalena; Oñate, Dolores; Miquel, Joan

    2016-02-01

    In the Mediterranean Sea, the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) displays a key role in ecological and economical terms. Ensuring stock sustainability requires the provision of crucial information, such as species spatial distribution or unbiased abundance and precision estimates, so that management strategies can be defined (e.g. fishing quotas, temporal closure areas or marine protected areas MPA). Furthermore, the estimation of the precision of global abundance at different sampling intensities can be used for survey design optimisation. Geostatistics provide a priori unbiased estimations of the spatial structure, global abundance and precision for autocorrelated data. However, their application to non-Gaussian data introduces difficulties in the analysis in conjunction with low robustness or unbiasedness. The present study applied intrinsic geostatistics in two dimensions in order to (i) analyse the spatial distribution of anchovy in Spanish Western Mediterranean waters during the species' recruitment season, (ii) produce distribution maps, (iii) estimate global abundance and its precision, (iv) analyse the effect of changing the sampling intensity on the precision of global abundance estimates and, (v) evaluate the effects of several methodological options on the robustness of all the analysed parameters. The results suggested that while the spatial structure was usually non-robust to the tested methodological options when working with the original dataset, it became more robust for the transformed datasets (especially for the log-backtransformed dataset). The global abundance was always highly robust and the global precision was highly or moderately robust to most of the methodological options, except for data transformation.

  9. Variation in the distribution of wintering anchovy Engraulis japonicus and its relationship with water temperature in the central and southern Yellow Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Mingxiang; Wang, Jun

    2016-09-01

    In the present study, we investigated a shift in the spatial distribution of wintering anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) and its relationship with water temperature, using data collected by bottom trawl surveys and remote sensing in the central and southern Yellow Sea, during 2000-2015. Our results indicate that the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy varied between years, but there was no consistent pattern in the direction of change (north or south). Wintering anchovy did not move northward with increasing water temperature. However, the latitudinal distribution of wintering anchovy correlated well with 10°C and 11°C isotherms. The results of both a one-step and a two-step generalized additive model indicated that water temperature was associated with both presence and biomass of wintering anchovy. This paper is the first to systematically examine the relationship between anchovy distribution and water temperature using a variety of techniques. All the findings confirm the impact of water temperature on wintering anchovy distribution, which has important implications for the continued management of the anchovy resource and the enhancement of marine fishery resources in the Yellow Sea, especially as the climate changes. However water temperature only partly explains the species distribution of anchovy, and stock characteristics also affect fishery distribution. Therefore, other factors should be considered in future research.

  10. Spatial distribution and reconstruction potential of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) based on scale deposition records in recent anaerobic sediment of the Yellow Sea and East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Jiansheng; SUN Yao; JIA Haibo; YANG Qian; TANG Qisheng

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have revealed that anchovy has exhibited large variability in population size on decadal tim-escales. However, such works concerning anchovy population are mainly based on short historical catch records. In order to understand the causes of variability in fish stocks (natural and/or anthropogenic) and calibrate the error between catches and standing stocks, it is essential to develop long-term time series of fish stocks from the time when human impacts are minimal or negligible. Well preserved fish scales from sediment record are regarded as useful indicators revealing the history of fish population dynamics over the last centuries. Anchovy scales was first analyzed over the Yellow Sea and East China Sea and the largest abundance was found in the central South Yellow Sea where is regarded as the largest overwintering ground for Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicas). Thus in the central South Yellow Sea, two cores covering the last 150 years were collected for estimating fish scale flux. The scale deposition rate (SDR) records show that the decadal scale SDRs were obviously coherent between cores with independent chronologies. Thecalibration of downcore SDRs to the standing stocks of anchovy further validated that SDR is a reliable proxy to recon-struct the long-term anchovy population dynamic in the central South Yellow Sea where anoxic conditions prevail in the sediment. When assembled with other productivity proxies, it would be expected that SDR could be associated with changes in oceanic productivity and may make a contribution to determine the forcing factors and elucidate the mechanism of the process in future.

  11. Effect of food type and concentration on growth and fatty acid composition of early larvae of the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) reared under laboratory conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Garrido, Susana

    2012-12-01

    Experiments were conducted during the summer of 2008 and 2009 to study the growth of early post yolk-sac European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, Linnaeus, 1758) larvae reared under different food regimes. The fatty acid composition was used to assess nutritional condition of the larvae. Prey items used in the experiments were Gymnodinium sanguineum, Brachionus plicatilis and nauplii of the copepods Acartia grani and Euterpina acutifrons. Food type and concentration affected the growth of the larvae. Mixed diets composed of rotifers and copepod nauplii at high concentration resulted in higher anchovy larvae growth rates in comparison with single-prey diets using either rotifers or copepod nauplii. The addition of the dinoflagellate G. sanguineum (25-50cellsml -1) to the prey offered did not enhance significantly larval growth. Highest growth rates of anchovy larvae (0.28mmd -1) were obtained using high concentrations of a mixed diet, particularly the combination of rotifers and A. grani nauplii. Fatty acid composition at hatch was similar to the composition observed in the field, but during larvae ontogeny there was a marked decrease in the contribution of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) and DHA (docosahexaenoic acid). Such difference reflects the high requirements of these PUFA for larvae development, and suggests that the food offered failed to fulfill the larvae nutritional requirements. The growth rates obtained in our experiments were, overall, in the lower range of those observed in natural conditions. Taking into considerations the fact that larvae in the field are expected to encounter lower prey concentrations, we discuss the reasons for such disagreement. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  12. Avaliação da eficiência de extração de compostos nitrogenados da polpa de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita Evaluation of the efficiency of nitrogen compounds extraction from the anchovy (Engraulis anchoita pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valcenir Júnior Mendes Furlan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência da extração de compostos nitrogenados, como proteínas solúveis (PS, nitrogênio total (NT, nitrogênio não proteico (NNP e nitrogênio proteico (NP da polpa de anchoíta (Engraulis anchoita, bem como obter informações a respeito de sua composição proximal e do frescor em relação ao seu local de captura. A polpa de anchoíta foi submetida a tratamento de extração de nitrogenados utilizando como soluções NaHCO3 (0,1; 0,2; 0,3 e 0,5%, NaCl 0,3% e água destilada. O ciclo de lavagem da polpa utilizando 0,1% de NaHCO3, dois ciclos de água destilada e um ciclo de NaCl 0,3% demonstrou maior eficiência na extração dos compostos nitrogenados, assim como das proteínas sarcoplasmáticas. Na determinação da composição proximal, a anchoíta in natura apresentou valores de umidade de 77,2%, proteína 16,8%, lipídios 3,4% e cinzas 2,4% e, para a polpa de anchoíta, foram encontrados valores de umidade de 78,1%, proteína 17,5%, lipídios 2,4% e cinzas 2,0%. A avaliação do frescor foi determinada através do pH, bases voláteis totais (N-BVT e trimetilamina (N-TMA, encontrando-se valores de 6,3; 11,5 mg.100 g-1 e 2,8 mg.100 g-1 para a anchoíta in natura e 6,7; 20,2 mg.100 g-1; 3,1 mg.100 g-1 para a polpa, respectivamente.The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of the nitrogen compounds extraction like soluble proteins (SP, total nitrogen (TN, non protein nitrogen (NPN, and nitrogen protein (NP from the anchovy pulp (Engraulis anchoita, as well to investigate their proximal composition and freshness alteration based on the capture place. The anchovy pulp was submitted to nitrogen extraction treatment using NaHCO3 (0.1; 0.2; 0.3 and 0.5%, NaCl 0.3% as solutions and distilled water. The pulp washing cycles using 0.1% NaHCO3, two cycles of distilled water, and one of NaCl 0.3% demonstrated improved efficiency in the extraction of the nitrogenous compounds and

  13. Importance of the Río de la Plata estuarine front (southwestern Atlantic Ocean in the feeding ecology of Argentine anchovy, Engraulis anchoita (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae Importancia del frente estuarial del Río de la Plata (Océano Atlántico sudoccidental en la ecología trófica de la anchoíta argentina, Engraulis anchoita (Clupeiformes, Clupeidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano N Padovani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The feeding of Engraulis anchoita was studied in the coastal reproductive habitat of the northern population during the spawning period. Stomach contents of anchovy adults and plankton samples taken during a research cruise were examined. The highest stomach fullness values were found in the Rio de la Plata estuary, particularly at stations close to the surface salinity front. Copepods, particularly those 1 mm total length. This might be explained by a low gill rakers efficiency of adult anchovies to retain small prey. In the Rio de la Plata front, both the reported large biomasses of zooplankton and the observed intense anchovy feeding revealed the ecological significance of this front, especially when compared with the contiguous "poor in food" coastal areas.Se estudió la alimentación de la población norteña de Engraulis anchoita en el hábitat reproductivo costero durante su periodo de desove. Se analizaron los contenidos estomacales de adultos de anchoíta y muestras de zooplancton tomados durante un crucero de investigación. Los mayores valores de repleción estomacal se encontraron en el estuario del Río de la Plata, particularmente en estaciones cercanas al frente salino de superficie. Los copépodos fueron las presas más abundantes, particularmente especímenes 1 mm de longitud total. Esto se puede explicar por la baja eficiencia del aparato branquial de anchoítas adultas para retener pequeñas presas. En el frente del Río de la Plata, las altas biomasas de zooplancton reportadas y la intensa alimentación observada, evidencian su significancia ecológica, especialmente cuando se compara con aguas costeras adyacentes pobres en alimento.

  14. Efectos ambientales sobre la variabilidad espacial del ictioplancton de Chile austral durante noviembre de 2005 Environmental effects on the spatial variability of the ichthyoplankton from southern Chile during November 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CLAUDIA A BUSTOS

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se analiza la distribución y abundancia del ictioplancton de Chile austral (41-45° S durante noviembre de 2005 en relación a las características oceanógraficas de la columna de agua (temperatura, salinidad y estratificación. Durante el periodo de estudio, se recolectó un total de 44.606 huevos de peces y 2.016 larvas correspondientes a 28 taxa. Los estados tempranos de peces pelágicos pequeños dominaron en las muestras, con densidades de ~ 14.000 huevos 10 m-2 de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y > 100 larvas 10 m-2 de clupeidos. Análisis multivariados indicaron la formación de dos grupos de estaciones, uno asociado a la zona de fiordos, de mayor profundidad, con fuertes gradientes verticales de temperatura y salinidad y mayor estratificación, y otro grupo asociado al borde oriental de la isla Chiloé, de menor profundidad y mayor mezcla en la columna de agua. En las zonas de mayor estratificación (Le., mayor frecuencia de Brunt-Váisála, N-2, se encontraron mayores densidades de huevos y larvas de peces pelágicos y mesopelágicos (Strangomera bentincki y Maurolicus parvipinnis. Al comparar esta información con un crucero oceanógrafico llevado a cabo 10 años antes en la misma zona (octubre de 1995, se detectaron cambios en la composición específica de ictioplancton, lo que puede indicar diferencias en las especies de peces marinos que utilizan la zona de fiordos y canales como área de desove y crianza larval.The distribution and abundance of ichthyoplankton from southern Chile (41-45°S during November 2005 were analyzed, in relation to the oceanographic features of the water column (temperature, salinity, stratification. During the sampling period, 44.606 fish eggs and 2.016 fish larvae were collected, belonging to 28 taxa. Early life stages of small pelagic fishes dominated the plankton samples, with mean densities of ~ 14,000 eggs 10 m-2 of anchovy (Engraulis ringens and > 100 larvae 10 m-2of clupleids. Multivariate analysis

  15. Preservación y abundancia de escamas de peces en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile (21-36° S Fish scale preservation and abundance in sediments from the continental margin off Chile (21-36° S

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVIER A DÍAZ-OCHOA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objetivo de evaluar la relación entre la preservación de escamas de peces y las variaciones en las condiciones redox en sedimentos del margen continental de Chile, este trabajo presenta recuentos de escamas de peces y concentraciones normalizadas de elementos redox sensibles (Mo/Al, S/Al, Fe/Al en ocho testigos de sedimento recolectados en la zona de minimo oxígeno frente a Chile (Iquique: 20°15' S, bahía de Mejillones: 23° S y Concepción: 36° S. En el norte de Chile (Iquique y Mejillones predominan las escamas de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens y de peces de la familia Myctophidae (media = 90 y 120 escamas 1.000 cm-3, respectivamente mientras que en Chile centro-sur (Concepción son más abundantes las escamas de jurel (Trachurus murphy; media = 140 escamas 1.000 cm-3. La abundancia de escamas de merluza común (Merluccius gayi gayi y de sardina (Sardinops sagax es aproximadamente un orden de magnitud más baja que la de anchoveta o jurel. En general, los valores más altos y los rangos más amplios de variación en las razones Mo/Al, S/Al y Fe/Al se encuentran en Mejillones (Mo/Al ~0,8-12 mg g-1, S/Al 0,2-4,6 g g-1, Fe/Al 0,3-0,7 g g-1 seguidos por Iquique (Mo/Al -0,2-1,8; S/Al 0,2-0,7, Fe/Al 0,5-0,8, mientras que Concepción revela valores más bajos y poco variables (Mo/Al ~0,07, S/Al ~0,15 y Fe/Al ~0,5. La razón Mo/Al, utilizada como indicador de paleo-oxigenación, permite inferir condiciones reductoras relativamente más intensas en los sedimentos de la Bahía de Mejillones e Iquique que en Concepción. En las tres localidades de muestreo se evidencia una asociación estadísticamente significativa entre la abundancia de escamas de anchoveta y el logaritmo de la razón Mo/Al (r²= 0,46; P 1 mg g-1.The relationship between fish scale preservation and variations in the sediment redox conditions on Chile's continental shelf are evaluated herein through fish scale counts and normalized concentrations of redox sensitive elements

  16. Preservation effect of ozone water on anchovy (Engraulis japonius) during controlled freezing-point storage%冰温臭氧水对鳀保鲜效果的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刁石强; 李来好; 岑剑伟; 吴燕燕

    2011-01-01

    该研究通过测定鲜鲲(Engraulis japonius)在臭氧水冰温条件下贮藏保鲜过程中的微生物、理化指标和感官品质的变化来评价保鲜效果.试验表明,采用ρ(臭氧)为2~3 mg·L-1的臭氧水,在-1.1~0 ℃冰温条件下保鲜鳀能有效地抑制细菌繁殖,减缓脂肪氧化,延缓腐败变质,从而有效延长了保鲜期,在保鲜第3天仍能取得高品质的保鲜效果,达到海水鱼国家一级鲜度标准,保鲜第4天达到海水鱼国家二级鲜度标准,其菌落总数、挥发性盐基氮(TVB-N)、硫代巴比妥酸(TBA)和感官评定得分都明显优于对照组,保鲜期比用普通冰藏的对照组能延长1~2 d.%This study evaluated the preservation effect of ozone water on anchovy (Engraulisjaponius) preserved at controlled freezingpoint by observing the variation of microbe, physicochemical indices and sensory quality. Results show that ozone water treatment for fresh anchovy at concentration of 2 ~ 3 mg·L-1 and under -1.1 ~ 0 ℃ can effectively inhibit bacterial growth, retard the oxidation of lipid and delay spoilage of anchovy, achieving a longer shelf life of anchovy. After 3-day and 4-day preservations, the quality of anchovy meets the national standards of first and second grade of freshness for marine fish, respectively. The aerobic plate count, TVB-N and TBA value as well as sensory scores are significantly better than those of the control (ordinary chilled storage), and the shelf life can be extended 1 ~ 2 d compared with the control.

  17. Study on membrane concentration process and flavor compounds analysis in fish Engraulis japonicus soup%鳀鱼蒸煮液膜浓缩工艺研究及风味物质分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建友; 林龙; 王斌; 丁玉庭

    2013-01-01

    采用微滤(MF)、超滤(UF)、纳滤(NF)组合膜浓缩技术进行鳀鱼蒸煮液营养风味物质的高效冷浓缩.结果表明:无机陶瓷微滤膜通量较高、浓缩时间较短,MF-NF工艺的蛋白质和氨基酸回收率分别为70.74%和39.83%~46.64%.MF截留液的蛋白质浓度提高3.30倍,腥味增强.NF截留液的氨基酸浓度提高2.71倍,其中谷氨酸和天冬氨酸含量分别增加了3.36倍和6.72倍,鱼腥味基本消失,蒸煮液的风味有效改善.MF-NF工艺比MF-UF-NF工艺经济简便可行,适合于鳀鱼蒸煮液船上浓缩.%A membrane process involving microfiltration (MF),ultrafiltration (UF) and nanofiltration (NF) was used to concentrate nutrition and flavor compounds in Engraulis japonicus cooking soup.Results showed that inorganic ceramic microfiltration membrane had higher flux volume and shorter concentration time.Protein and amino acid recoveries were 70.74% and 39.83% ~46.64% for MF-NF process.The content of protein increased 3.30 times in the retentate by microfiltration process,but the fishy odor was increased.Meantime,the content of amino acid increased 2.71 times in the retentate by nanofiltration process,especially glutamate and aspartate were increased 336%and 672 %.Moreover,the fishy odor was disappeared,the flavor of the cooking soup has been effectively improved.MF-NF process was more simple and available than MF-UF-NF process and suitable for concentrating the cooking soup on the fishing boat.

  18. Styr på læringen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vaaben, Nana Katrine

    2016-01-01

    Hvem interesserer sig ikke for, om børn lærer noget i skolerne? Kapitlet undersøger hvordan forskellige bestræbelser på at følge den enkelte elevs læring tæt resulterer i at lærere, skoleledere og politikere ser efter forskellige ”tegn på læring”. Men de er ikke nødvendigvis enige om, hvilke tegn...

  19. Mellomlederes strategiske innvirkning i den maritime næringen

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Oppgaven tar for seg hvordan Solstad sine mellomledere påvirker rederiets sin strategi. I teoriseksjonen vises fire måter mellomlederen kan påvirke organisasjonens strategi: Gjennom å ”kjempe frem alternativer”, ”frembringe informasjon”, ”tilrettelegge for tilpasning” og ”implementere forsettlig strategi”. For å få svar på vår problemstilling har vi gjennomført en casestudie, hvor vi har samlet inn data i form av en spørreundersøkelse til mellomledere i Solstad. Spørreundersøke...

  20. 产气荚膜梭菌ε毒素的细胞毒机制及致病机理的研究进展%Research progress of the cytotoxic mechanisms and pathogenesis mediated by epsilon toxin of Clostridium per f ringens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李庆伟; 石碧玥; 韩英伦; 刘欣

    2015-01-01

    产气荚膜梭菌ε毒素(Epsilon toxin ,ETX)由B、D型产气荚膜梭菌产生并分泌至宿主动物体内,在临床上主要症状为肠毒血症.ETX属于以七聚体形式存在的β‐样成孔毒素,它能够形成由14个β折叠片组成的“β‐桶状”结构,这个“β‐桶状”结构可以插入真核细胞的质膜形成穿孔.在细胞水平,ETX能够迅速使细胞膜肿胀、多种细胞器破坏,最终导致靶细胞的坏死.在哺乳动物体内,ETX能够使哺乳动物血管产生水肿,从而穿透血脑屏障而聚积在动物肾和脑中,导致机体随着谷氨酸盐的释放而产生过度兴奋,这一系列反应的发生可以引起机体出现脑水肿和肾衰竭,最终导致动物的死亡.目前, ETX备受关注的主要原因不仅仅因为它是一种β‐样成孔毒素,而是可以作为潜在的一种工具类药物,经改造后可以携带治疗药物在短时间内靶向性地到达哺乳动物脑和中枢神经系统,继而为脑和中枢神经系统疾病的治疗提供新的方向.结合国内外相关研究,对ETX细胞毒机制及致病机理进行了综和评述.%Epsilon toxin (ETX) ,a pore‐forming toxin secreted by type B and D strains of Clostridium perf ringens ,mediates severe enterotoxemia in their host .ETX forms a heptamer which consists of aβ‐barrel of 14 amphipathicβ‐strands through the plasma membrane of eukaryotic cells .At the cellu‐lar level ,ETX can quickly make the cell membrane swelling ,damage various organelles ,eventually lead target cells to necrosis .ETX binds to endothelial cells of kidney and brain capillary vessels be‐fore passing through the blood‐brain barrier .Moreover ,it induces perivascular oedema and perme‐ates into and accumulates at brain and kidney .Therefore ,ETX induces releasing of glutamate and other transmitters ,leading to firing of neural network and resulting in animal death .At present ,the main reason for

  1. ‘Styles of Renaissance, renaissances of style’. Review of: L’idée du style dans l’historiographie artistique. Variantes nationales et transmissions, edited by Sabine Frommel and Antonio Brucculeri, Roma: Campisano Editore, 2012, 343 pp, 91 b & w ills., € 40,00, ISBN 9788888168982. Was war Renaissance? Bilder einer Erzählform von Vasari bis Panofsky, edited by Hans Christian Hönes, Léa Kuhn, Elizabeth J. Petcu, Susanne Thüringen, with a foreword by Ulrich Pfisterer and Wolf Tegethoff, Passau: Dietmar Klinger Verlag, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pinotti

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The volume L’idée du style dans l’historiographie artistique. Variantes nationales et transmissions, edited by Sabine Frommel and Antonio Brucculeri (Roma: Campisano Editore, 2012, testifies to the crucial role played by the category ‘style’ in shaping the art historiographical, critical and theoretical discourse, and offers a very useful and stimulating reconstruction of some of the most important stations in the two centuries-development of the ‘history of styles’ from Winckelmann to Wölfflin. The catalogue Was war Renaissance? Bilder einer Erzählform von Vasari bis Panofsky, edited by Hans Christian Hönes, Léa Kuhn, Elizabeth J. Petcu, Susanne Thüringen (Passau: Dietmar Klinger Verlag, 2013, gives a wide spectrum of the different interpretations of a fundamental and controversial historiographical category like the ‘Renaissance’, focusing on the narrative forms and on the strategies of visualisation in art historiography.

  2. Læringsstile flytter fokus fra selve læringen - Om informationsbehandling over for socialkonstruktivisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Teorier om læringsstile kan være medvirkende til at flytte fokus fra selve læreprocessen, idet de i høj grad sætter fokus på omstændigheder for læreprocesser. Konsekvensen er, at fokus i mindre grad er på de læringssyn, teorierne baserer sig på. Formålet med artiklen er at sætte fokus på læringss...

  3. Tjernobyl och rennäringen - Lägesrapport från Sverige

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Åhman

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Status report about Chernobyl and reindeer husbandry in Sweden including participants' discussion.Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Den 1 juli hojdes grånsvårdet for Cs-137 i bl a renkott från 300 till 1 500 Bq/kg. Efter hojningen av grånsvårdet friklassades nåstan alla samebyar i Norrbottens lån under sarvslakten. Samtliga fjållsamebyar i Norrbottens lån utom den sydligaste år tills vidare helt friklassade. Tre samebyar i sodra delen av Jåmtlands lån var friklassade under sarvslakten. I ovrigt omfattas all renslakt i Våsterbottens och Jåmtlands lån av kontroll betråffande Cs-137. Under juli - aug i år var cesiumhalten lågre ån vid motsvarande tidpunkt i f jol (tabell 1 och figur 1. Under juli - aug slaktades drygt 1 000 renar i skogslandet i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3. Fr.o.m. andra veckan i juli godkåndes de fiesta slaktkropparna. Halveringstiden for Cs-137 i renarna, som betade i skogslandet kring inlandsbanan i sodra delen av Våsterbottenslån, har beråknats till ca en vecka. Genom tidigarelåggning av sarvslakter i Våsterbottens lån (tabell 3 och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån (tabell 5 minskades kassationen med ett par tusen slaktkroppar. Under senare delen av september steg cesiumhalten till ungefår samma nivå som i f jol. En långsiktig prognos har utarbetats betråffande halten Cs-137 i renar på naturbete. Prognosen visar att omfattande åtgårder kommer att behova vidtagas under de nårmaste 15 - 25 åren om ren-kottet från samebyarna i sodra delen av Våsterbottens lån och norra delen av Jåmtlands lån skall kunna god-kånnas som livsmedel vid ett riktvårde på 1 500 Bq Cs-137/kg kott.

  4. Microbial communities and biogeochemistry in an area of Engraulis encrasicolus spawning in the Sicilian Channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosabruna La Ferla

    2014-06-01

    The rates of production, hydrolysis and degradation activities were quite low, in agreement with the general oligotrophy of the area and in agreement with this findings, picophytoplankton contribution to total production amounted to over than 65%. In terms of metabolic activities, different spatial distributions were observed between the autotrophic and heterotrophic components. In particular, heterotrophic metabolism showed high values in the layer located below the thermocline and above the DCM. Concerning the enzymatic activities, total leucine aminopeptidase activity showed the highest rates, followed by alkaline phosphatase and beta-Glucosidase (Caruso et al., 2014. Distribution of the dissolved enzymatic activities acting on proteins varied widely along the column, accounting for 5 to 90% of the total enzymatic activity and always prevailed on dissolved b-GLU. Total enzymatic activity rates were comparable to those obtained in the oligotrophic zones of Ionian and Mediterranean Sea (Zaccone et al., 2012, while the analysis of the dissolved fraction was the first report for the Mediterranean. In conclusion, the multidisciplinary scientific approach used in this study depicted a complex picture of the study area evidencing a high heterogeneity and dynamism of plankton communities, probably associated to peculiar hydrology of this ecosystem. On the whole, the study area appeared to be characterized by a relatively efficient microbial food web. However, low trophic conditions were stressed by all the biological and biochemical patterns, suggesting an important role of heterotrophic processes in this area in the examined summer period. Consequently, how and how much the microbial web sustains fish reproduction and larval survival need a more comprehensive analysis and will be focused in further research.

  5. The point of no return and pectoral angle of Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) larvae during growth and starvation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    At a temperature of 23.0~24.8℃, the mixed feeding of Japanese anchovy larvae was initiated 24 h before the yolk-sac was exhausted. The point of no return (PNR) was reached on the 6th day after hatching. On the 4th day after hatching, the pectoral angle appeared in both fed and unfed anchovy larvae although it was more evident and sharper in the starved and the PNR stage larvae than in the fed ones. According to observations of larvae collected in the sea, the pectoral angles were evident not only in the larvae of 3.62~7.44 mm in standard length, but also in the larvae of 2.70 mm in standard length with remnants of yolk. The pectoral angles became diffuse when the larvae reached 7.84 mm and vanished at 9.86 mm. The pectoral angle cannot be used as a criterion to distinguish healthy from starving larvae.

  6. Abundance and biomass of meiobenthos in the spawning ground of anchovy (Engraulis japanicus) in the southern Huanghai Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiaoshou; ZHANG Zhinan; HUANG Yong

    2005-01-01

    A grid of 22 stations, giving a broad coverage of the spawning ground of anchovy in the southern Huanghai Sea was selected. Undisturbed sediments were taken from sampling stations during the cruise in June 2003. The average abundance of meiofauna is (1 584 ±686) ind./10cm2, with corresponding biomass (dwt) of(1 086+425) μg/10cm2. The pattem of abundance of meiofauna is similar to the pattern ofbiomass. There are 65.88% meiofauna in 0~2 cm sediments, 27.66% in 2~5 cm sediments and 6.47% in 5~8 cm sediments.The Spearman correlation analysis between meiofauna and environmental factors shows that abundance of meiofauna, free living marine nematodes, benthic copepods has significant positive correlations with Chl-a. And the abundance of copepods has significant positive correlations with several factors such as Chl-a, Pha-a, Chl-a plus Pha-a and organic matter. A total of 18 meiofauna groups are identified. Nematode is the most dominant group, average abundance (1 404 ± 670) ind/10cm2, accounting for 88.65%, and the following groups are also important: benthic copepods (5.48%), kinorhyncha (1.26%), polychaeta (1.07%). By biomass, dominant groups are nematodes (51.72%), polychaeta (21.84%), copepods (14.87%), ostracoda (4.92%), kinorhyncha (3.67%). A total of 90 species of nematodes are identified. The species composition of nematodes is listed based on selected two stations 7794 (coastal area) and 10694(cold water mass in deep waters).

  7. Multiple SNP markers reveal fine-scale population and deep phylogeographic structure in European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.).

    KAUST Repository

    Zarraonaindia, Iratxe

    2012-07-30

    Geographic surveys of allozymes, microsatellites, nuclear DNA (nDNA) and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have detected several genetic subdivisions among European anchovy populations. However, these studies have been limited in their power to detect some aspects of population structure by the use of a single or a few molecular markers, or by limited geographic sampling. We use a multi-marker approach, 47 nDNA and 15 mtDNA single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), to analyze 626 European anchovies from the whole range of the species to resolve shallow and deep levels of population structure. Nuclear SNPs define 10 genetic entities within two larger genetically distinctive groups associated with oceanic variables and different life-history traits. MtDNA SNPs define two deep phylogroups that reflect ancient dispersals and colonizations. These markers define two ecological groups. One major group of Iberian-Atlantic populations is associated with upwelling areas on narrow continental shelves and includes populations spawning and overwintering in coastal areas. A second major group includes northern populations in the North East (NE) Atlantic (including the Bay of Biscay) and the Mediterranean and is associated with wide continental shelves with local larval retention currents. This group tends to spawn and overwinter in oceanic areas. These two groups encompass ten populations that differ from previously defined management stocks in the Alboran Sea, Iberian-Atlantic and Bay of Biscay regions. In addition, a new North Sea-English Channel stock is defined. SNPs indicate that some populations in the Bay of Biscay are genetically closer to North Western (NW) Mediterranean populations than to other populations in the NE Atlantic, likely due to colonizations of the Bay of Biscay and NW Mediterranean by migrants from a common ancestral population. Northern NE Atlantic populations were subsequently established by migrants from the Bay of Biscay. Populations along the Iberian-Atlantic coast appear to have been founded by secondary waves of migrants from a southern refuge.

  8. Seasonal comparison of the diets of juvenile European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and sardine Sardina pilchardus in the Gulf of Lions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costalago, David; Palomera, Isabel; Tirelli, Valentina

    2014-05-01

    Anchovy and sardine in the Mediterranean are known to share the same habitat and, consequently, to interact with one another. These two sympatric pelagic species are planktivorous and consume a wide range of planktonic prey items during all their developmental stages, potentially overlapping their ecological niches, although the feeding interactions between these species have been poorly investigated. Here we compare the dietary habits of the juvenile phases of anchovy and sardine during different seasons in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, through analysis of their stomach contents and of their feeding-related anatomical characteristics. In this study we show that juveniles of anchovy and sardine do not compete for food, and we describe significant dietary differences between anchovy and sardine due to their different alimentary tract morphology.

  9. Spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2012-11-28

    Previous studies have shown that the survival of larval and juvenile anchovy off the continental shelf in the Bay of Biscay is not significantly different from that observed on the shelf, even though the food concentration is significantly higher on the shelf. In this paper we investigate the causes for the lack of relationship between food and survival for anchovy juvenile through analyses of feeding activity versus zooplankton distribution (in the transition from summer to fall from 2003 to 2010). The spatial distribution of the stomach weights of juvenile anchovy in relation to body size on and off the shelf revealed higher stomach fullness in areas off the shelf, where less zooplankton biomass was available. This result indicates that the food concentration is not always the main factor determining ingestion in fish. A situation of comparatively lesser prey abundance may provide better feeding conditions when combined with lower predation risk and lower light attenuation. In addition, the relatively heavier stomachs found in anchovies caught in years of higher recruitment indices suggest a large stomach content may be a symptom of good biological condition that may favour the winter survival of a larger fraction of the juvenile stock. © 2012 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  10. Population Genetics of European Anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L. in the Seas of Turkey Based on Microsatellite DNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fevzi Bardakci

    2014-06-01

    Results: In this study, 13 microsatellite loci in 541 samples were analysed for determination of genetic structure of anchovy along Turkish coasts. The genetic variability was high among population, the average alleles numbers per locus per population ranged from 11.0 to 22.8. Observed heterozygosity per population was ranged from 0.612 (Mersin to 0.733 (İstanbul while expected heterozygosity was ranged from 0.774 (Mersin to 0.823 (Perşembe. The highest genetic distance was found between Antalya and Trabzon populations (FST=0.06949, the lowest between Antalya and İskenderun populations (0,00010. Analyses of 13 microsatellite loci were showed that there was low population structuring among all anchovy population (Fst: 0,024; SE 0,005. Although high genetic diversities was detected, for most loci with most populations were showed Hardy-Weinberg disequilibrium. Genetic distance analyses showed up Mediterranean specimens were highly distinct from Aegean and Black sea populations. Aegean populations were closer to Black sea populations because of higher gene flow between them rather than Mediterranean. A STRUCTURE computer program was indicated the presence of four possible genetic groups in Turkish territorial waters. Conclusions: Data to obtained from this study has found useful for the identification of genetic structuring of European anchovy distributed along the coasts of Turkish Seas. Results are also useful for planning of fishery management of anchovies in Turkey.

  11. Intraguild predation between small pelagic fish in the Bay of Biscay: impact on anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus L.) egg mortality

    KAUST Repository

    Bachiller, Eneko

    2015-05-12

    Small pelagic fish can play an important role in various ecosystems linking lower and upper trophic levels. Among the factor behind the observed inter-annual variations in small pelagic fish abundance, intra- and inter-specific trophic interactions could have a strong impact on the recruitment variability (e.g. anchovy). Egg cannibalism observed in anchovies has been postulated to be a mechanism that determines the upper limit of the population density and self-regulates the population abundance of the species. On the other hand, predation by other guild species is commonly considered as a regulation mechanism between competing species. This study provides empirical evidence of anchovy cannibalism and predation of the main small pelagic fish species on anchovy eggs and estimates the effect of intraguild predation on the anchovy egg mortality rate. Results show that, depending on the year (2008–2009), up to 33 % of the total anchovy egg mortality was the result of sardine predation and up to 4 % was the result of egg cannibalism together with predation by Atlantic and Atlantic Chub mackerel and sprat. Results also indicate that in the Bay of Biscay, fluctuations in the survival index of the early life stages of anchovy are likely to be attributable at least in part to egg cannibalism and especially to a high sardine predation on anchovy eggs. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg

  12. "Be a traveler, not a tourist" - AirBnb’s påvirkning på hotellnæringen

    OpenAIRE

    Duggmo, Ole Charles; Smedsland, Lena Gislefoss; Andersson, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    I denne oppgaven har vi forsket rundt hvorvidt en relativt ny distribusjonskanal som AirBnb kan komme til å påvirke hotellbransjen. Konsumenter er mer prisbevisste enn før og har større oppfatning om verdi. At hotellene har kjennskap til verdi er derfor viktig for å kunne holde tritt med det som skjer på markedet og for å kunne stå i konkurransen. Vår problemstilling er derfor «Hva må hotellene ta for seg for å konkurrere mot fordelene som AirBnb gir?». For å besvare problemstillingen h...

  13. Analyzing Fish Condition Factor Index Through Skew-Gaussian Information Theory Quantifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Reyes, Javier E.

    2016-06-01

    Biological-fishery indicators have been widely studied. As such the condition factor (CF) index, which interprets the fatness level of a certain species based on length and weight, has been investigated, too. However, CF has been studied without considering its temporal features and distribution. In this paper, we analyze the CF time series via skew-gaussian distributions that consider the asymmetry produced by extreme events. This index is characterized by a threshold autoregressive model and corresponds to a stationary process depending on the shape parameter of the skew-gaussian distribution. Then we use the Jensen-Shannon (JS) distance to compare CF by length classes. This distance has mathematical advantages over other divergences such as Kullback-Leibler and Jeffrey’s, and the triangular inequality property. Our results are applied to a biological catalogue of anchovy (Engraulis ringens) from the northern coast of Chile, for the period 1990-2010 that consider monthly CF time series by length classes and sex. We find that for high values of shape parameter, JS distance tends to be more sensible to detect discrepancies than Jeffrey’s divergence. In addition, the body condition of male anchovies with higher lengths coincides with the ending of the moderate-strong El Niño event 91-92 and for both males and females, the smaller lengths coincide with the beginning of the strong El Niño event 97-98.

  14. Broodstock management of the fine flounder Paralichthys adspersus (Steindachner, 1867 using recirculating aquaculture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lili Carrera

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes the methodology used at IMARPE for the capture, acclimation and management of P. adspersus broodstock using recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS. RAS improved the water quality and maintained the environmental parameters during the acclimation period, temperature (17.2±1°C, oxygen (8.1±0.7 mg L-1, pH (7.3±0.2, ammonia (0.004±0.003 mg L-1, nitrite (0.52±0.2 mg L-1 and nitrate (3.45±2.6 mg L-1. Fish began to be fed normally from day 15 post-capture, once or twice a day using live fish (Odonthestes regia regia, Mugil cephalus, crustacean (Emerita analoga, fresh food (Engraulis ringens and Dosidicus gigas and artificial feed. A significant loss in the weight of the fish was registered during the first days of captivity, followed by a continuous increase in both sexes. The specific growth rate was positive from the third month of captivity, being the relative growth rate 24.5% and 16.2% in August 2010 in males and females, respectively. Different internal and external parasites were detected in the fish, being Entobdella sp. and Philometra sp. the prevailing parasites observed during samplings.

  15. Algunas consideraciones biogeograficas sobre el Pacifico Sudoriental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Vegas-Velez

    1980-12-01

    Full Text Available The improved study of the Eastern South Pacific undertaken in the last years enables us to have a better view of the marine communities' biogeography. The author, elaborating on several ideas of previous studies, proposes four subdivisions or districts in that region: 1 tropical of the Panamic-Pacific province up to 3º 30'S; 2 intermediate, from approximately 3º 30' to 7º S, where tropical and southern waters influence the presence of organisms; 3 temperate, of the Peruvian Coastal Current or Humboldt Current; and 4 tropical, in the waters off this last Current Joining the Peruvian Oceanic Current. The author, consulting extensive literature, examines the presence of molluscs and fishes, in order to select a characterization of each biogeographical district. Some of the proposals are, for instance, Littorina peruviana, Ocypode guadichaudii and Engraulis ringens for the temperate district; Littorina paytensis, Olivella broggi and Scorpaena afuerae for the intermediate one; the thunids and Exocoetus volitans for the tropical oceanic waters; and Anadara tuberculosa, Littorina varia, Pomadasys panamensis and Sciades troschelli for the tropical waters north of 3º 30'.

  16. A Bayesian approach to estimate the biomass of anchovies off the coast of Perú.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiroz, Zaida C; Prates, Marcos O; Rue, Håvard

    2015-03-01

    The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is the world's most productive ecosystem in terms of fish. In particular, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens) is the major prey of the main top predators, like seabirds, fish, humans, and other mammals. In this context, it is important to understand the dynamics of the anchovy distribution to preserve it as well as to exploit its economic capacities. Using the data collected by the "Instituto del Mar del Perú" (IMARPE) during a scientific survey in 2005, we present a statistical analysis that has as main goals: (i) to adapt to the characteristics of the sampled data, such as spatial dependence, high proportions of zeros and big size of samples; (ii) to provide important insights on the dynamics of the anchovy population; and (iii) to propose a model for estimation and prediction of anchovy biomass in the NHCS offshore from Perú. These data were analyzed in a Bayesian framework using the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) method. Further, to select the best model and to study the predictive power of each model, we performed model comparisons and predictive checks, respectively. Finally, we carried out a Bayesian spatial influence diagnostic for the preferred model.

  17. Fish larvae retention linked to abrupt bathymetry at Mejillones Bay (northern Chile during coastal upwelling events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Rojas

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of oceanic circulation and bathymetry on the fish larvae retention inside Mejillones Bay, northern Chile, was examined. Fish larvae were collected during two coastal upwelling events in November 1999 and January 2000. An elevated fish larvae accumulation was found near an oceanic front and a zone of low-speed currents. Three groups of fish larvae were identified: the coastal species (Engraulis ringens and Sardinops sagax, associated with high chlorophyll-a levels; larvae from the families Phosichthyidae (Vinciguerria lucetia and Myctophidae (Diogenichthys laternatus and Triphoturus oculeus, associated with the thermocline (12°C, and finally, larvae of the families Myctophidae (Diogenichthys atlanticus and Bathylagidae (Bathylagus nigrigenys, associated with high values of temperature and salinity. The presence of a seamount and submarine canyon inside Mejillones Bay appears to play an important role in the circulation during seasonal upwelling events. We propose a conceptual model of circulation and particles retention into Mejillones Bay. The assumption is that during strong upwelling conditions the flows that move along the canyon emerge in the centre of Mejillones Bay, producing a fish larvae retention zone. Understanding the biophysical interactions responsible to trap and/or concentrate particles is essential to protect these fragile upwelling ecosystems.

  18. Diel variation in the vertical distribution of fish larvae forced by upwelling filaments off Punta Angamos (northern Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo M Rojas

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The role of daily vertical migration (DVM of ichthyoplanktonic associations off Punta Angamos, in northern Chile, was examined. In September 1998 and January 1999, two oceanographic surveys were conducted during coastal upwelling events. Fish larvae were collected during the day/night in three depth strata (0-20, 20-80 and 80-200 m and inside/outside of upwelling filaments. The study area was dominated by a southward flow along 200 m depth; meanwhile, the Ekman layer did not exceed 20 m depth. The greatest accumulation of larvae was found in the middle layer (20-80 m, where the current velocity was low and did not interact with the circulation associated with upwelling the filament formation. Most fish larvae were found in non-upwelling waters in the middle stratum. Independent of the origin of water (upwelling/non-upwelling, larvae of Dioge-nichthys laternatus (Myctophidae, Engraulis ringens (Engraulidae and Bathylagus nigrigenys (Bathylagidae showed a deeper vertical distribution during the day, suggesting a daily vertical migration. This behavior can potentially increase retention of larvae near the coast in productive areas through vertical evasion of the Ekman layer during upwelling events.

  19. Acoustic observation of living organisms reveals the upper limit of the oxygen minimum zone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen minimum zones (OMZs are expanding in the World Ocean as a result of climate change and direct anthropogenic influence. OMZ expansion greatly affects biogeochemical processes and marine life, especially by constraining the vertical habitat of most marine organisms. Currently, monitoring the variability of the upper limit of the OMZs relies on time intensive sampling protocols, causing poor spatial resolution. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using routine underwater acoustic observations of the vertical distribution of marine organisms, we propose a new method that allows determination of the upper limit of the OMZ with a high precision. Applied in the eastern South-Pacific, this original sampling technique provides high-resolution information on the depth of the upper OMZ allowing documentation of mesoscale and submesoscale features (e.g., eddies and filaments that structure the upper ocean and the marine ecosystems. We also use this information to estimate the habitable volume for the world's most exploited fish, the Peruvian anchovy (Engraulis ringens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This opportunistic method could be implemented on any vessel geared with multi-frequency echosounders to perform comprehensive high-resolution monitoring of the upper limit of the OMZ. Our approach is a novel way of studying the impact of physical processes on marine life and extracting valid information about the pelagic habitat and its spatial structure, a crucial aspect of Ecosystem-based Fisheries Management in the current context of climate change.

  20. Pelagic resources landings in central-southern Chile under the A2 climate change scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Eleuterio; Plaza, Francisco; Silva, Claudio; Sánchez, Felipe; Barbieri, María Ángela; Aranis, Antonio

    2016-10-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict landings of anchovy ( Engraulis ringens), common sardine ( Strangomera bentincki), and jack mackerel ( Trachurus murphyi) in central-southern Chile. Twelve environmental variables were considered along with fishing effort (fe) and landing statistics from 1973 to 2012. During external validation, the best models with all of the selected variables gave r 2 values of 90 % for anchovy, 96 % for common sardine, and 88 % for jack mackerel. The models were simplified by considering only fe and sea surface temperature from NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data (SST-NOAA), and very similar fits were achieved (87, 92, and 88 %, respectively). Future SSTs were obtained from the A2 climate change scenario and regionalized using statistical downscaling techniques. The downscaled SSTs were used as input for landings predictions using ANN simplified models. In addition, three scenarios of future fishing efforts (2010-2012 average, average + 50 %, and average - 50 %) were used as the input data for landing simulations. The results of the predictions show a decrease of 9 % in future landings of sardine and an increase of 17 % for jack mackerel when comparing 2015 and 2065 monthly projections. However, no significant differences are shown when comparing the estimated landings for the three fishing effort scenarios. Finally, more integrative and complex conceptual models that consider oceanographic-biophysical, physiological, environmental-resource, and interspecies processes need to be implemented.

  1. Ecología trófica del jurel Trachurus murphyien el Perú entre 1977 – 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alegre

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la variabilidad espacio-temporal de la dieta de jurel Trachurus murphyi frente a Perú de 1977 a 2011. Un total de 21058 estómagos fueron analizados utilizando métodos bivariados y el Modelo de Árbol de Regresión Multivariado (ARM. Se utilizó como variable respuesta la composición gravimétrica de la dieta, con respecto a diferentes variables predictivas como años, profundidad de la isoterma de 15 °C, Índice de Oscilación del Sur (IOS, Índice de Oscilación Decadal del Pacífico (PDO, anomalía de la temperatura superficial del mar, zona (norte, centro y sur y distancia de la costa. Nuestros resultados nos permitieron identificar dos escenarios diferentes, uno desde el año 1977 al 2000, donde la dieta del jurel T. murphyi estuvo fuertemente dominada por Euphausiidae, y otro escenario después del 2000, donde el jurel T. murphyi consumió mayor diversidad de presas, principalmente Euphausiidae, camaroncito rojo Pleuroncodes monodon y Zoeas. Se destaca que el primer escenario corresponde a condiciones cálidas y el segundo a condiciones frías, ambas coincidentes con los periodos multidecadales. A diferencia de estudios anteriores que muestran que la anchoveta Engraulis ringenses una presa abundante, en este estudio no fue significativamente importante. Espacialmente, los Euphausiidae dominaron la dieta en el norte-centro de Perú, mientras que al sur, la composición de las presas fue más diversa. La dieta también varió significativamente según la distancia a la costa, con mayor proporción de P. monodoncerca a la costa y con respecto a su etapas de desarrollo ontogenético.

  2. Daily otolith growth and ontogenetic geochemical signatures of age-0 anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Spain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. CATALÁN

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The European anchovy fishery in the Gulf of Cádiz (ICES Division IXa South is largely influenced by age-0 individuals. Knowledge of young of the year growth dynamics is crucial for management, yet data on daily growth are lacking in the area. Linking growth patterns to the environment requires information on habitat occupancy through ontogeny of the fish that reach the fishery, as anchovy use different areas of the Gulf and the Guadalquivir Estuary through development. We describe the growth dynamics of age-0 anchovy through otolith microstructure analysis, and couple these data with data on microchemical signals in the otoliths to shed light into habitat use and growth dynamics in the area. Age-0 anchovy captured in September, 2011 in the Gulf ranged from 3 to 6 months old for similar sizes, with average growth rates varying twofold. Individual non-linear growth curves showed that maximum otolith growth was positively correlated with the date of spawning, which in turn was negatively correlated with the time to reach maximum growth. There was no correlation between growth parameters and body length or condition (Fulton K at capture. The strontium:calcium (Sr/Ca and magnesium:calcium (Mg/Ca ratios were significantly lower at the edge of the otolith (approximately the age of capture than at ages corresponding to larval and early juveniles (<60 days old, but values fell within typical estuarine-dwelling species. The barium:calcium ratio (Ba/Ca increased significantly in the edge of the otolith, which possibly resulted from residency in highly productive coastal waters or from ontogenetic effects. The variance in otolith elemental ratios was larger at otolith back-calculated ages around 50 days old, age which coincides with the presumed closer dependence of estuarine waters. Our data are a first step towards understanding the contribution of the estuarine system to the fishery of anchovy in the Gulf. The limitations of the approach and future steps are discussed. Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE

  3. Comprehensive model of Jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas trophic ecology in the Northern Humboldt current system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alegre

    Full Text Available The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?. Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters.

  4. Comprehensive model of Jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas trophic ecology in the Northern Humboldt current system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Ana; Ménard, Frédéric; Tafur, Ricardo; Espinoza, Pepe; Argüelles, Juan; Maehara, Víctor; Flores, Oswaldo; Simier, Monique; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?). Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters.

  5. Detection of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in a range of commercial fish oils by GC-ICPMS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sele, Veronika; Amlund, Heidi; Berntssen, Marc H G; Berntsen, Jannicke A; Skov, Kasper; Sloth, Jens J

    2013-06-01

    The present study describes the use of a simple solid-phase extraction procedure for the extraction of arsenic-containing hydrocarbons from fish oil followed by analysis using gas chromatography (GC) coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The procedure permitted the analysis of a small sample amount, and the method was applied on a range of different commercial fish oils, including oils of anchovy (Engraulis ringens), Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), sand eel (Ammodytes marinus), blue whiting (Micromesistius poutassou) and a commercial mixed fish oil (mix of oils of Atlantic herring, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) and saithe (Pollachius virens)). Total arsenic concentrations in the fish oils and in the extracts of the fish oils were determined by microwave-assisted acid digestion and ICPMS. The arsenic concentrations in the fish oils ranged from 5.9 to 8.7 mg kg(-1). Three dominant arsenic-containing hydrocarbons in addition to one minor unidentified compound were detected in all the oils using GC-ICPMS. The molecular structures of the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons, dimethylarsinoyl hydrocarbons (C17H38AsO, C19H42AsO, C23H38AsO), were verified using GC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), and the accurate masses of the compounds were verified using quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (qTOF-MS). Additionally, total arsenic and the arsenic-containing hydrocarbons were studied in decontaminated and in non-decontaminated fish oils, where a reduced arsenic concentration was seen in the decontaminated fish oils. This provided an insight to how a decontamination procedure originally ascribed for the removal of persistent organic pollutants affects the level of arsenolipids present in fish oils.

  6. Comprehensive Model of Jumbo Squid Dosidicus gigas Trophic Ecology in the Northern Humboldt Current System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alegre, Ana; Ménard, Frédéric; Tafur, Ricardo; Espinoza, Pepe; Argüelles, Juan; Maehara, Víctor; Flores, Oswaldo; Simier, Monique; Bertrand, Arnaud

    2014-01-01

    The jumbo squid Dosidicus gigas plays an important role in marine food webs both as predator and prey. We investigated the ontogenetic and spatiotemporal variability of the diet composition of jumbo squid in the northern Humboldt Current system. For that purpose we applied several statistical methods to an extensive dataset of 3,618 jumbo squid non empty stomachs collected off Peru from 2004 to 2011. A total of 55 prey taxa was identified that we aggregated into eleven groups. Our results evidenced a large variability in prey composition as already observed in other systems. However, our data do not support the hypothesis that jumbo squids select the most abundant or energetic taxon in a prey assemblage, neglecting the other available prey. Indeed, multinomial model predictions showed that stomach fullness increased with the number of prey taxa, while most stomachs with low contents contained one or two prey taxa only. Our results therefore question the common hypothesis that predators seek locally dense aggregations of monospecific prey. In addition D. gigas consumes very few anchovy Engraulis ringens in Peru, whereas a tremendous biomass of anchovy is potentially available. It seems that D. gigas cannot reach the oxygen unsaturated waters very close to the coast, where the bulk of anchovy occurs. Indeed, even if jumbo squid can forage in hypoxic deep waters during the day, surface normoxic waters are then required to recover its maintenance respiration (or energy?). Oxygen concentration could thus limit the co-occurrence of both species and then preclude predator-prey interactions. Finally we propose a conceptual model illustrating the opportunistic foraging behaviour of jumbo squid impacted by ontogenetic migration and potentially constrained by oxygen saturation in surface waters. PMID:24465788

  7. Trophic modeling of Eastern Boundary Current Systems: a review and prospectus for solving the “Peruvian Puzzle”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc H. Taylor

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Eastern Boundary Current systems (EBCSs are among the most productive fishing areas in the world. High primary and secondary productivity supports a large biomass of small planktivorous pelagic fish, “small pelagics”, which are important drivers of production to the entire system whereby they can influence both higher and lower trophic levels. Environmental variability causes changes in plankton (food quality and quantity, which can affect population sizes, distribution and domi-nance among small pelagics. This variability combined with impacts from the fishery complicate the development of management strategies. Consequently, much recent work has been in the development of multispecies trophic models to better understand interdependencies and system dynamics. Despite similarities in extent, structure and primary productivity between EBCSs, the Peruvian system greatly differs from the others in the magnitude of fish catches, due mainly to the incredible production of the anchovy Engraulis ringens. This paper reviews literature concerning EBCSs dynamics and the state-of-the-art in the trophic modeling of EBCSs. The objective is to critically analyze the potential of this approach for system understanding and management and to adapt existing steady-state models of the Peruvian system for use in (future dynamic simulations. A guideline for the construction of trophodynamic models is presented taking into account the important trophic and environmental interactions. In consideration of the importance of small pelagics for the system dynamics, emphasis is placed on developing appropriate model compartmentalization and spatial delineation that facilitates dynamic simulations. Methods of model validation to historical changes are presented to support hypotheses concerning EBCS dynamics and as a critical step to the development of predictive models. Finally, the identification of direct model links to easily obtainable abiotic parameters is

  8. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  9. Oxygen: a fundamental property regulating pelagic ecosystem structure in the coastal southeastern tropical Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Bertrand

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In the southeastern tropical Pacific anchovy (Engraulis ringens and sardine (Sardinops sagax abundance have recently fluctuated on multidecadal scales and food and temperature have been proposed as the key parameters explaining these changes. However, ecological and paleoecological studies, and the fact that anchovies and sardines are favored differently in other regions, raise questions about the role of temperature. Here we investigate the role of oxygen in structuring fish populations in the Peruvian upwelling ecosystem that has evolved over anoxic conditions and is one of the world's most productive ecosystems in terms of forage fish. This study is particularly relevant given that the distribution of oxygen in the ocean is changing with uncertain consequences. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A comprehensive data set is used to show how oxygen concentration and oxycline depth affect the abundance and distribution of pelagic fish. We show that the effects of oxygen on anchovy and sardine are opposite. Anchovy flourishes under relatively low oxygen conditions while sardine avoid periods/areas with low oxygen concentration and restricted habitat. Oxygen consumption, trophic structure and habitat compression play a fundamental role in fish dynamics in this important ecosystem. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: For the ocean off Peru we suggest that a key process, the need to breathe, has been neglected previously. Inclusion of this missing piece allows the development of a comprehensive conceptual model of pelagic fish populations and change in an ocean ecosystem impacted by low oxygen. Should current trends in oxygen in the ocean continue similar effects may be evident in other coastal upwelling ecosystems.

  10. Modelling the spatio-temporal distribution of age-1 bay of biscay anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) at spawning time [Distribución espacio-temporal de la edad 1 de anchoa del golfo de Bizkaia (Engraulis Encrasicolus) en el momento de puesta

    KAUST Repository

    Ibaibarriaga, Leire

    2013-09-13

    To efficiently manage and maintain fish stock abundance and age structure, it is necessary to understand variability in its spatial distribution. The main objective of this study was to describe the demographic structure of the Bay of Biscay anchovy during the main spawning period based on adult samples from 15 daily egg production method surveys. The proportion of age-1 individuals was modelled using generalized additive models with a binomial distribution and a logit link in relation to geographical and environmental covariates. The possibility of obtaining different models depending on the average age-1 proportion (low or high) was also explored. In general, age-1 individuals were found in shallow waters close to the coast, especially associated with the Gironde and Adour river plumes, whereas older individuals were prevalent on the shelf break and in oceanic waters. However, in years with a high age-1 proportion the younger individuals were also dominant in oceanic waters. These results could be used for management purposes, such as defining protected areas for particular age groups.

  11. Impact of El Niño events on pelagic fisheries in Peruvian waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ñiquen, Miguel; Bouchon, Marilú

    2004-03-01

    Using data from stock assesment surveys on pelagic resources during El Niño events of 1972/73, 1982/83, 1997/98, we analyze biological changes on pelagic ecosystems and pelagic fisheries during different stages of development of El Niño phenomenon: emergence, full, final and post-Niño. Results indicate changes in spatial distribution of resources, their concentration and size structure. In anchovy (Engraulis ringens) a decrease in biomass was observed, which was estimated at 1.2 million tons in September 1998, the lowest throughout the 1990s. This resource showed an asymmetric distribution towards the south of Peru. Other pelagic resources increased their biomass during or after Niño events, primarily sardine (Sardinops sagax), jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi), pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus), and longnose anchovy (Anchoa nasus). At the end of the El Niño phenomenon we found less productivity but more diversity in the pelagic ecosystem. During the 1997/98 El Niño, the diversity index (Manual de Ecologia, 1a Edition, Editorial Trillas, Mexico, 267pp) increased from 0.87 to 1.23-1.70. In both the emergence stage and fully developed stages of El Niño we found large numbers of sardine and longnose anchovy present simultaneously. Size structure of sardine, jack mackerel, and pacific mackerel showed an increase in juveniles. Anchovy during El Niño showed a single modal group composed of adults, but the post-Niño phase indicated an increase in juveniles with an average length of 6-7 cm. In El Niño conditions spawning among anchovy was low, but among sardine and pacific mackerel it was high. We observed, for the first time during full spawning, juvenile sardines with a total length of 18-20 cm. The anchovy spawning season during the post-Niño phase was considerably lengthened, from April to December 1998. Drastic change occurred in fisheries when monospecific fisheries, based on anchovy before El Niño, became multispecific fisheries based on sardine, jack

  12. Video i VIA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver et udviklingsprojekt, hvor 13 grupper af lærere på tværs af fag og uddannelser producerede video til undervsioningsbrug. Der beskrives forskellige tilgange og anvendelser samt læringen i projektet...

  13. Structural dynamics of PAH molecules upon energetic photon or ion interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Geert

    2014-01-01

    Polycyclische aromatische koolwaterstoffen (PAHs) vormen een hele bijzondere familie van moleculen. PAHs bestaan uit ringen van koolstofatomen en hebben waterstofatomen op de randen. Zo ontstaan platte en heel erg stabiele moleculen. Deze moleculen komen overal voor, bijvoorbeeld in uitlaatgassen en

  14. Motivation og æstetik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Austring, Bennyé D.; Sørensen, Merete

    2007-01-01

    I de tilfælde, hvor læringen også skaber fokus på barnet og inkluderer dets udtryksbehov, er motivation umiddelbart nem at etablere. Frem for at "bogliggøre" læringen yderligere bør vi i stedet i højere grad udnytte æstetikkens fascinationskraft og udtryksstyrke som motivationsfaktor.......I de tilfælde, hvor læringen også skaber fokus på barnet og inkluderer dets udtryksbehov, er motivation umiddelbart nem at etablere. Frem for at "bogliggøre" læringen yderligere bør vi i stedet i højere grad udnytte æstetikkens fascinationskraft og udtryksstyrke som motivationsfaktor....

  15. Intentionen und Legitimationsstrategien staatsbürgerlicher Erziehung und politischer Bildung

    OpenAIRE

    Schluss, Henning

    2001-01-01

    Der Artikel fragt nach den Intentionen politischer Bildung und den Legitimationsstrategien staatsbürgerlicher Erziehung am Beispiel des Faches Sozialkunde, das "Leitfach" der politischen Bildung in Thüringen ist. Die Lehrplanentwicklung im Bundesland Thüringen stellt aufgrund ihrer Besonderheit eine einmalige Möglichkeit dar, den Transformationsprozess von der DDR hin zu den neuen Ländern zu untersuchen. Da im Laufe der Untersuchung deutlich wurde, dass das herkömmliche Transformationsverstän...

  16. Ajourføring af ISA 610

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabricius, Ole; Kiertzner, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Ajourføringen af ISA 610 indebærer generelle skærpelser i relation til den eksterne revisors risikovurderingshandlinger i forhold til intern revision samt til ekstern revisors revisionshandlinger på områder med væsentlig risiko og skønsmæssig usikkerhed.......Ajourføringen af ISA 610 indebærer generelle skærpelser i relation til den eksterne revisors risikovurderingshandlinger i forhold til intern revision samt til ekstern revisors revisionshandlinger på områder med væsentlig risiko og skønsmæssig usikkerhed....

  17. Kapitel 1-7, 13, 15

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heiberg, Morten Rievers

    2009-01-01

    Den 30. september 1968 udsendte VKR-regeringen en erklæring, hvis hovedsynspunkt var "...at registrering af danske statsborgere ikke længere må finde sted alene på grundlag af lovlig politisk virksomhed." Det fremgik ydermere af erklæringen, at såfremt tjenesten lå inde med sådanne registreringer...

  18. Dicty_cDB: SLE320 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY524011 |pid:none) Paulownia tomentosa deficiens (DEF... 33 6.1 protein upda...2 mRNA, p... 221 2e-56 AY530539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens deficiens (DEF) mR... 34 4.7 AY524011

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLH545 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _1( AY524011 |pid:none) Paulownia tomentosa deficiens (DEF... 33 6.6 protein update 2009. 1.24 PSORT psg: 0....0539_1( AY530539 |pid:none) Mimulus ringens deficiens (DEF) mR... 34 5.0 AY524011

  20. Interim Regional Supplement to the Corps of Engineers Wetland Delineation Manual: Eastern Mountains and Piedmont Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    sedges ( Carex spp.), flatsedges (Cyperus spp.), and grasses (e.g., white grass [Leersia virginica], wildrye [Elymus spp.]) as common dominants...periclymenoides = R. nudiflorum). Herbaceous plants include sedges (e.g., Carex lurida and C. vulpinoidea), Allegheny monkeyflower (Mimulus ringens...silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), and common winterberry (Ilex verticillata). Some depression wetlands support a moderate ground cover of sedges

  1. Wagner: myte og revolutionær bevidsthed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonde, Lars Ole

    1983-01-01

    100-året for Wagners død (1983) markeres på behørig og mangfoldig vis - med bl.a.tv-transmissioner af "Hundredeårs-Ringen" fra Bayreuth og en lang TV-serie om Wagners liv. Denne artikel diskuterer temaet 'myten' og dens placering i Wagners musikdramatiske teori og praksis...

  2. The Incidence of Ankle Sprains in Orienteering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekstrand, Jan; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigates relationship between ankle sprains and participation time in competitive orienteering. Examined 15,474 competitors in races in the Swedish O-ringen 5-day event in 1987. Injuries requiring medical attention were analyzed, showing 137 (23.9 percent) ankle sprains. Injury incidence was 8.4/10,000 hours. Incidence of ankle sprains was…

  3. Er iPad digital udeskole?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schilhab, Theresa

    2014-01-01

    Hvor ’konkret’ skal en oplevelse være, for at intuitionen om, at det selvoplevede styrker læringen, holder? Er brug af tablets (e.g. iPads) et ligebyrdigt alternativ til den konkrete oplevelse?...

  4. Brands savner fotostil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Risager Rasmussen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    Logo, typografi, det 5. element og farver repræsenterer det visuelle udtryk for et brand, det ved vi. Vi ved også at billeder er et uhyre vigtigt virkemiddel i markeds- føringen af produkter, oplevelser og services. Alligevel mangler mange brand guidelines en definition af billedkoncept og fotostil....

  5. Tysk højreekstremisme i nye gevandter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Rikke Alberg

    2012-01-01

    Massakren på Utøya samt afsløringen af en nynazistisk terrorcelle i november 2011 har i Tyskland ført til en fornyet debat om højreekstremisme og radikaliseringstendenser. Artiklen skildrer den forandring som de højreekstremistiske grupperinger undergår i disse år, og de strategier med hensyn til...

  6. Anesthetic activity of Brazilian native plants in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenise de Lima Silva

    Full Text Available There is an increasing demand for inexpensive and safe anesthetics that can reduce fish stress caused by some procedures such as capture and handling. In this context, the present study evaluated the potential of essential oils (EO of three Brazilian native plants (Hesperozygis ringens, Lippia sidoides and Ocotea acutifolia as anesthetics for the silver catfish - Rhamdia quelen. Moreover, an analysis was made of the chemical composition of these oils and their influence on stress parameter. EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia were effective as anesthetics, without behavioral side effects. EO of O. acutifolia (150 µL L-1 promoted an increase in blood glucose level. Regarding to the composition, pulegone accounts for 96.63% of the EO of H. ringens, and caryophyllene oxide amounts to 56.90% of the EO of O. acutifolia. Two chemotypes, thymol and carvacrol (68.40% and 67.89%, respectively were verified for EO of L. sidoides. Both samples of EO of L. sidoides showed anesthetic activity in silver catfish, but exposure also caused loss of mucus and mortality. Thus, only the EO of H. ringens and O. acutifolia are advised for anesthetic use

  7. Upper-Pliocene Proboscidea out of the Scheldt and the Lower-Rhine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, A.

    1944-01-01

    An upper molar of Anancus arvernensis (Croiz. & Job.), fished out of the Eastern Scheldt, near Ierseke, and belonging to the so-called black fossils, shows more affinity with the specimens from the English Crags than with those from Thüringen. Another upper molar of the species has been dredged out

  8. Revisors afdækning af besvigelser set i et nyt lys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent

    2009-01-01

    Revisors opgave er naturligvis at sikre den økonomiske rapporterings validitet. Finanskrisen og afsløringen af nogle af de mere fantasifulde aktører har naturlighvis rejst spørgsmål om revisors mulighed for at afsløre forhold, hvor overfladen tilsyneladende er pletfri, mens det kniber mere med de...

  9. Larvicidal activity of Brazilian plant essential oils against Coenagrionidae larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D T; Silva, L L; Amaral, L P; Pinheiro, C G; Pires, M M; Schindler, B; Garlet, Q I; Benovit, S C; Baldisserotto, B; Longhi, S J; Kotzian, C B; Heinzmann, B M

    2014-08-01

    Odonate larvae can be serious pests that attack fish larvae, postlarvae, and fingerlings in fish culture tanks, causing significant loss in the supply and production of juveniles. This study reports a screen of the essential oils (EOs) of Nectandra megapotamica (Sprengel) Mez, Nectandra grandiflora Nees, Hesperozygis ringens (Bentham) Epling, Ocimum gratissimum L., Aloysia gratissima (Gillies & Hooker) Troncoso, and Lippia sidoides Chamisso against Coenagrionidae larvae. In addition, the most effective EO and its 50% lethal concentration (LC50) and chemical analysis are described. The larvae of Acanthagrion Selys, Homeoura Kennedy, Ischnura Charpentier, and Oxyagrion Selys were used to assess the EO effects. EO obtained from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed the highest larvicidal effects at 19 h of treatment. The major constituents of the EO of H. ringens include pulegone and limonene, while eugenol and Z-beta-ocimene predominate in the EO of O. gratissimum, and carvacrol and rho-cymene were the major compounds of the EO of L. sidoides. Leaf EOs from H. ringens, O. gratissimum, and L. sidoides showed activity against Coenagrionidae larvae at similar concentrations with LC50s of 62.92, 75.05, and 51.65 microl liter(-1), respectively, and these were considered the most promising treatments.

  10. Efectos del fenómeno "El Niño 1997-98" sobre los principales recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel Ñiquen; Marilú Bouchon; Sandra Cahuin; José Valdez

    2014-01-01

    En el período abril 1997 setiembre 1998 fueron realizados 5 cruceros de evaluación de los recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana, éstos permitieron observar cambios en la composición por especies, distribución, estructura por tamaño, reproducción y niveles poblacionales de los principales recursos pelágicos. Estos cambios guardan similitud con los observados en los eventos El Niño 1972-73 y 1982-83, especialmente en cuanto a la disminución de la biomasa de anchoveta y el incremento de otras e...

  11. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U15469-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available F358668 |pid:none) Oncorhynchus mykiss procathepsin L... 120 1e-25 AF410883_1( AF410883 |pid:none) Franklini...Engraulis japonicus aCatL mRNA for... 118 5e-25 AF410881_1( AF410881 |pid:none) Franklin

  12. Efectos del fenómeno "El Niño 1997-98" sobre los principales recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ñiquen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el período abril 1997 setiembre 1998 fueron realizados 5 cruceros de evaluación de los recursos pelágicos en la costa peruana, éstos permitieron observar cambios en la composición por especies, distribución, estructura por tamaño, reproducción y niveles poblacionales de los principales recursos pelágicos. Estos cambios guardan similitud con los observados en los eventos El Niño 1972-73 y 1982-83, especialmente en cuanto a la disminución de la biomasa de anchoveta y el incremento de otras especies pelágicas. En el período post-Niño se observó cambios notables en la estructura por tallas de anchoveta, mientras que la sardina, samas a y caballa coincidieron en mostrar buenos reclutamientos. La actividad reproductiva también se incrementó, inclusive en tallas juveniles, destacando la incidencia de sardinas sexualmente maduras con longitudes de 18-20 cm, situación que no había sido antes registrada.

  13. Fra overmenneske til UNESCO-menneske

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duedahl, Poul

    I årene efter Anden Verdenskrig og Holocaust var FNs særorganisation for uddannelse, videnskab og kultur, UNESCO, omdrejningspunkt for en semantisk kamp i den internationale, videnskabelige verden om den rette definition af racebegrebet. En kamp der i sin essens handlede om naturvidenskabernes...... for UNESCO i perioden var at udforme en erklæring, som indeholdt en almengyldig definition af racebegrebet. Det skete i troen på, at erklæringen kunne fjerne fordomme og bringe menneskeheden tættere sammen. Filosoffen Alain Finkielkraut har karakteriseret erklæringen som et politisk projekt. Afhandlingen...... også en rehabilitering, men her var der snarere tale om et særligt dansk initiativ uden UNESCOs indblanding, eftersom ledende medarbejdere i organisationen var tilhængere af eugenisk lovgivning. Afhandlingen viser, at en række begivenheder, ikke mindst Holocaust og afkoloniseringen, dannede baggrund...

  14. Ethnographic Discourse Analysis and Social Science

    OpenAIRE

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Van Hout, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse werden in den Sozialwissenschaften zunehmend kombiniert. In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst ein Überblick gegeben über das entstehende Feld der mit den Epistemologien und Methoden der Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse arbeitenden Forschung. Im zweiten Schritt werden zentral Aspekte eines neuen, computergestützten Ansatzes zur ethnografischen Diskursanalyse vorgestellt. Dieser mikroanalytische Ansatz bietet die Möglichkeit, Erkenntnisse über das Ringen um Deutungsmuste...

  15. Ethnografische Diskursanalyse und Sozialwissenschaften

    OpenAIRE

    Macgilchrist, Felicitas; Van Hout, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse werden in den Sozialwissenschaften zunehmend kombiniert. In diesem Beitrag wird zunächst ein Überblick gegeben über das entstehende Feld der mit den Epistemologien und Methoden der Ethnografie und Diskursanalyse arbeitenden Forschung. Im zweiten Schritt werden zentral Aspekte eines neuen, computergestützten Ansatzes zur ethnografischen Diskursanalyse vorgestellt. Dieser mikroanalytische Ansatz bietet die Möglichkeit, Erkenntnisse über das Ringen um Deutungsmuste...

  16. Final Environmental Assessment, Horse Creek Bridge Replacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    Allegheny monkeyflower (Mimulus ringens) and several species of sedges ( Carex spp.) and grasses. In floodplain areas that have been disturbed by...maple are also common in this vegetation type. Joor’s sedge ( Carex joorii), Carex lupuliformis, bladderworts (Utricularia spp.), and Tracy’s...cross vine (Bignonia capreolata) are all common here. Floodplain forests are also extremely rich in sedge ( Carex spp.). Some bottomland hardwood

  17. Digitalisering af færdighedstræning og laboratorieøvelser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dahl, Mads R; Fridorff-Jens, Peter K.

    2014-01-01

    Dette temanummer af “Læring og Medier” sætter fokus på digitalisering af færdighedstræning og laboratorieøvelser på universiteter og UC’er. Der er mange krav og hensyn, som skal tilgodeses, når vi digitaliserer, og det har altid indflydelse på arbejdsgange, kommunikation og læringen. Helt overord...

  18. Tabletteknologi i Fysioterapi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duus, Lene

    2016-01-01

    Projektet omhandler afprøvning og implementering af app’en; ”Technique” samt Digifys.coms træningsportal med tilhørende app’s i den kliniske undervisning på Fysioterapeutuddannelsen med det formål at højne refleksionen og dermed læringen i forhold til undersøgelse og i tilknytning hertil øvelser ...

  19. Erhvervsfaglig læring i et elevperspektiv

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Louw, Arnt Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    periode har vi har vi set lanceringen af en række initiativer rettet mod nedbringelse af det relativ høje frafald. Det er dog til dato ikke lykkedes at knække frafaldskurven på eud (Koudahl 2010). Med afsæt i mit igangværende ph.d.-projekt om undervisningen og læringen på tømreruddannelsen argumenteres...

  20. Fremmedspråk på barnetrinnet - quo vadis?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Bjørke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen har som hovedtema fremmedspråk på barnetrinnet, og tar for seg muntlig kompetanse elever på 7. trinn har tilegnet seg i faget spansk. Fokus er på lytte- og samtalestrategier samt ulike læringsarenaer og språklig input. I artikkelen belyses også hvilke kompetanser forfatterne mener vil bli viktige i fremmedspråkopplæringen på barnetrinnet i årene framover.

  1. SNS ønsker DMUs (eventuelle) bemærkninger til de nye oplysninger i sagen. Dianthus caryophyllus (123.2.38/ 123.2.2). Supplerende materiale til Nellike-sagen. Modtaget 23-09-2005, deadline 13-10-2005, svar 13-10-2005

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjellsson, Gøsta; Damgaard, Christian

    2005-01-01

    bl.a. af manglen på forvildede nellikearter i dyrkningsområderne i Sydeuropa. 3. Risiko for genspredning ved krydsninger. Det anføres at der kan ske genspredning fra Florigene-nelliken ved krydsninger med dyrkede D. sylvestris i fx Sydeuropa. DMU er, som det også fremgår af vores tidligere...... derfor ingen indsigelser mod markedsføringen i EU af Florigene nelliken som afskårne blomster. "...

  2. Bioactivity-guided study of antiproliferative activities of Salvia extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicsák, Gábor; Zupkó, István; Nikolovac, Milena T; Forgo, Peter; Vasas, Andrea; Mathé, Imre; Blunden, Gerald; Hohmann, Judit

    2011-05-01

    The cytotoxic activities of the n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanolic fractions prepared from the methanolic extract of the leaves of 23 Salvia taxa were studied for their cell growth-inhibitory activity against human cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), skin carcinoma (A431) and breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) cells using the MTT assay. The n-hexane fractions of six Salvia taxa (S. hispanica, S. nemorosa, S. nemorosa 1. albiflora, S. pratensis, S. recognita and S. ringens) and the chloroform fraction ofS. officinalis 1. albiflora produced over 50% growth inhibition of the skin carcinoma cell line. None of the tested extracts showed substantial (above 50%) antiproliferative effects against HeLa and MCF7 cells. S. ringens was the most powerful among the studied Salvia species with a 61.8% cell growth inhibitory activity on A431 cells. In the case of S. ringens, other plant parts were also tested for antiproliferative effect, and the highest activities were recorded for the root extract. This was subjected to bioactivity-guided fractionation, which yielded four abietane diterpenes (royleanone, horminone, 7-O-methyl-horminone and 7-acetyl-horminone), one triterpene (erythrodiol-3-acetate) and beta-sitosterol. Horminone, 7-acetyl-horminone and erythrodiol-3-acetate displayed marked concentration-dependent antiproliferative effects, while royleanone and 7-O-methyl-horminone produced weaker activities.

  3. Reality Branding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Arvidsson

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Artiklen tager ’reality branding’ som udgangspunkt for at diskutere markedsføringens kultur- og livsstilsproducerende potentialer på en mediearena, hvor den kommercielle og hverdagslige virkelighed smelter sammen i virksomheders og konsumenters ’joint effort’ i at skabe meningsfyldte historier. Tankegangen er, at forbrugere har gennemskuet reklamernes mere eller mindre fantasifulde tegnkon- struktioner og forholder sig blasert til budskaberne. Som modsvar til denne ligegyldighed forsøger den moderne og avancerede markeds- føring at skabe nye involverende mediemiljøer og nye brugssituatio- ner for produktet – for eksempel er Polle fra Snave debuteret i film- mediet, og Starbucks skabte et nyt fysisk og symbolsk rum for kaffe og kaffedrikning så godt som uden hjælp af traditionel reklame. Artik- lens ærinde er at diskutere denne udvikling i markedsføringen – ikke ud fra traditionelle sociologiske og psykologiske antagelser om foran- dringer i mentalitetsformer, men ud fra en historisk belysning af mar- kedsføringens diskurser set i relation til udviklingen i mediesystemerne.

  4. Seasonal Investigations into the Level of Toxic Elements in Marine Organisms (Fish and Mollusk along the Coast of Ghana Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Sarsah

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal investigation was conducted into the occurrence and extent of potentially toxic heavy metals along the coast of Ghana using marine organisms as bioindicators of pollution. The marine organisms sampled were analysed using Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis coupled with conventional counting system. All the four samples (Dentex macrophthalmus, Sardinella maderensis, Engraulis encrasicolus and Cymbium cymbium recorded detectable levels of potentially toxic elements which fluctuates between <0.07mg/kg Cd and 699 mg/kg Al. Cymbium cymbium recorded the highest level of (As, Co, Cu, Zn whiles Engraulis encrasicolus accumulated appreciable amount of V. Al was the most abundant of all the elements. The coast of Ghana was found to be mildly polluted with respect to the elements Al, As, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Ni, Hg, V and Zn.

  5. Environmental patterns and biomass distribution of gelatinous macrozooplankton. Three study cases in the South-western Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Mianzan, H. W.; R. A. Guerrero

    2000-01-01

    Periodic swarms or blooms of gelatinous macrozooplankton have a negative effect on many human activities such as tourism, fisheries, and industry, but for several reasons (sampling procedures, underestimation of their real abundance, etc.), they have often been neglected in the local literature. The high spatial resolution exercise of the South-western Atlantic anchovy Engraulis anchoita Recruitment Project (SARP) was therefore also suitable for estimating standing stocks of jelly macrozoopla...

  6. Analysis of fish diversion efficiency and survivorship in the fish return system at San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station

    OpenAIRE

    Love, Milton S.; Sandhu, Meenu; Stein, Jeffrey; Herbinson, Kevin T.; Moore, Robert H; Mullin, Michael; Stephens, John S.

    1989-01-01

    This study examined the efficiency of fish diversion and survivorship of diverted fishes in the San Onofre Nuclear Generating Station Fish Return System in 1984 and 1985. Generally, fishes were diverted back to the ocean with high frequency, particularly in 1984. Most species were diverted at rates of 80% or more. Over 90% of the most abundant species, Engraulis mordax, were diverted. The system worked particularly well for strong-swimming forms such as Paralobrax clothratus, Atherinopsis cal...

  7. Impacts of climate change on the complex life cycles of fish

    OpenAIRE

    Petitgas, Pierre; Rijnsdorp, Adriaan D; Dickey-Collas, Mark; ENGELHARD Georg; Peck, Myron A.; John K. Pinnegar; Drinkwater, Ken; Huret, Martin; Nash, Richard D. M.

    2013-01-01

    To anticipate the response of fish populations to climate change, we developed a framework that integrates requirements in all life stages to assess impacts across the entire life cycle. The framework was applied on plaice (Pleuronectes platessa) and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the North Sea, Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) in the Norwegian/Barents Seas and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. In each case study, we reviewed habitats required by each life stag...

  8. Democratic Quality in Stable Democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lijphart, Arend

    2011-02-01

    The major predecessor to Ringen's and my own efforts to measure democratic quality in terms of the purpose of democracy is Robert Dahl's seminal book Polyarchy (1971). Measuring the quality of democracy requires two prior judgments: (1) making sure that, in terms of institutional characteristics, a country is sufficiently democratic, and that, as a minimum, it has universal suffrage, and (2) that its democracy has been uninterrupted for a minimum number of years. To an important extent, higher democratic quality can be attributed to institutional characteristics of consensus democracy, especially proportional representation.

  9. 国内外苏芸金杆菌的研究简述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄荣瑞

    1991-01-01

    @@ 苏芸金杆菌是害虫的一种病原菌,学名:Bacillus thuringiensis,简称B.t,它是1911年Berliner在德国苏芸金城(Thüringen)的地中海粉螟(Anagasta kühniella Zeller)上分离获得而定名的.其杀虫作用乃由于其产生一种具有杀虫活性的糖蛋白.

  10. Salong Estheticas närvaro i sociala medier : engranskning av marknadskommunikation i sociala medier

    OpenAIRE

    Ahlfors, Nina

    2015-01-01

    (- en granskning av marknadskommunikation i sociala medier) Jag har gjort ett arbete gällande Salong Esthetica, Axxell Utbildnings övningssalong i Pargas, där blivande kosmetologer övar sina praktiska färdigheter. Syftet med mitt arbete är att utreda hur företag kan bedriva marknadskommunikation via sociala medier. Vad är relevant i marknadsföringen till kunder i sociala medier? Närmare bestämt vill jag granska hur vi bör marknadsföra salong Esthetica via Sociala medier. Kosmetologutbildni...

  11. Die Parasiten des Europäischen Iltisses Mustela putorius Linnaeus, 1758 in Deutschland

    OpenAIRE

    Kretschmar, Franz

    2016-01-01

    Untersucht wurden 118 Iltisse (ganze Tierkörper) auf einen Befall mit Parasiten. Es handelte sich dabei um 90 Rüden (1 Jahr, 20; 2- und 3jährig, 45; >3 Jahre, 25) und 28 Fähen (1 Jahr, 13; 2- und 3jährig, 7; >3 Jahre, 6; zwei Fähen mit nichtbestimmbarem Alter). Die Iltisse stammten aus den Bundesländer Bayern (zwei Tiere), Hessen (sieben Tiere), Niedersachen (30 Tiere), Nordrhein-Westfalen (76 Tiere), Rheinland-Pfalz (ein Tier) und Thüringen (zwei Tiere). Untersucht wurden Balg, Unterhaut, ...

  12. Kortisonskepsis : En studie om holdninger til kortisonkrem blant foreldre av barn med atopisk eksem

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsen, Hanne Engstrøm

    2010-01-01

    Bakgrunn: Kortisonkremer er en viktig del av behandlingen mot atopisk eksem. Mange foreldre er skeptiske til bruken av kortisonkremer, fordi de har lest eller hørt om bivirkninger. Pasienters og pårørendes holdninger til bruk av kortisonkrem kan påvirke gjennomføringen av behandlingen. Formål: Vi ønsket å undersøke holdninger til bruk av kortisonkrem blant foreldre og pårørende av barn med atopisk eksem. Vi ville også undersøke om det er en sammenheng mellom kunnskapsnivå om kortisonkreme...

  13. Cluster in Mitteldeutschland - Strukturen, Potenziale, Förderung. Tagungsband

    OpenAIRE

    Brachert, Matthias; Henn,Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    Regionale Cluster erfreuen sich seit geraumer Zeit großen Interesses von Seiten der Wissenschaft sowie der Regionalpolitik. An sie wird die Hoffnung auf die Steigerung der Gründungsrate, der regionalen Innovationsfähigkeit und der betrieblichen Produktivität geknüpft, was im Endeffekt zur Erhöhung der regionalen Wettbewerbsfähigkeit beitragen soll. Wenngleich auch in Mitteldeutschland (Sachsen-Anhalt, Sachsen, Thüringen) vielfältige Cluster existieren (z. B. in der Biotechnologie, der Solarte...

  14. Faaborgstolen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Anders V.

    2015-01-01

    Kaare Klint tegnede Faaborgstolen i samarbejde med arkitekten Carl Petersen som del af indretningen til Faaborg Museum, der stod færdig i 1915. I anledning af 100 års jubilæet er det værd at sammenligne stolen i sin oprindelige sammenhæng i museet med den status, den senere er blevet tillagt som ...... startpunkt for moderne dansk møbelkunst i form af Klint-skolen i designhistorien og som 'Danmarks første moderne designklassiker' i markedsføringen. Artiklen giver et bud på en skelnen mellem stolens rolle som ikon og som klassiker....

  15. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than spring (55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton hiomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters (29°30'N,125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  16. Part 1: Antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Thai plants in the family Acanthaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenchai, Panarat; Vajrodaya, Srunya; Somprasong, Winai; Mahidol, Chulabhorn; Ruchirawat, Somsak; Kittakoop, Prasat

    2010-11-01

    Crude extracts (CH(2)Cl(2) and MeOH) of 20 plants in the family Acanthaceae were screened for their antiplasmodial, cytotoxic, antioxidant, and radical scavenging activities. These plants included Asystasia nemorum, Barleria cristata, B. strigosa, Dicliptera burmanni, Eranthemum tetragonum, Hygrophila ringens, Justicia balansae, J. procumbens, Lepidagathis incurva, Peristrophe lanceolaria, Phaulopsis dorsiflora, Ruellia kerrii, Strobilanthes auriculata, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. dimorphotricha, S. karensium, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of A. nemorum, S. corrugata, S. cusia, S. maxwellii, S. pateriformis, and S. brandisii, as well as MeOH extracts of J. balansae and J. procumbens, showed antiplasmodial activity with IC(50) values of 10-100 µg/mL. CH(2)Cl(2) extracts of nine plants including D. burmanni, H. ringens, J. balansae, J. procumbens, L. incurva, P. lanceolaria, P. dorsiflora, S. corrugata, and S. maxwellii showed cytotoxic activity with IC(50) values of 3.5-46.0 µg/mL. MeOH extracts (at 100 µg/mL) of R. kerrii and S. auriculata could effectively scavenge DPPH free radicals (82-83% inhibition) and superoxide anion radicals (79% and 88% inhibition). In the ORAC antioxidant assay, MeOH extracts of B. cristata, J. procumbens, R. kerrii, and S. auriculata exhibited activity with ORAC units of 3.1-3.9.

  17. FoU som arbeidsform i yrkesfaglærerutdanningen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halvor Spetalen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen bygger på et FoU prosjekt gjennomført ved yrkesfaglærerutdanning i restaurant- og matfag (YFL RM-fag ved Høgskolen i Oslo og Akershus i perioden april 2011 til mai 2012. Prosjektet hadde flere formål: 1 styrke FoU kompetansen blant lærere som leder yrkesfaglærerutdanningen i restaurant- og matfag ved HiOA. 2 samle og systematisere grunnleggende kunnskap (baseline om forhold ved den skolebaserte delen av yrkesopplæringen i restaurant- og matfag (RM-fag, 3 knytte yrkesfaglærerstudentenes bachelorarbeider til den innsamlede empirien slik at resultatene fra baselineundersøkelsen utdypes gjennom studentenes bacheloroppgaver, og 4 utvikle yrkesfaglærerstudentenes FoU kompetanse gjennom aktiv deltakelse i konkrete forskningsoppgaver. Erfaringene så langt er at FoU-prosjektet har gitt mer systematisk kunnskap om den skolebaserte delen av yrkesopplæringen i restaurant- og matfag, økt kompetanse i å gjennomføre forskningsprosesser og samtidig utviklet en arbeidsform der yrkesfaglærerstudentene er medforskere på en naturlig måte.

  18. Møtet mellom fag og politikk i en læreplanprosess, eksemplifisert ved KRL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heid Leganger-Krogstad

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen vil drøfte møtet mellom fag og politikk i en læreplanprosess eksemplifisert med grunnskolefaget KRL. Det er særlig forholdet mellom ideologisk og formell læreplan som er i fokus. Av flere grunner var de politiske føringene på læreplanprosessen når det gjaldt KRL-faget innenfor Kunnskapsløftet ekstra tydelige. For det første fikk planen en pilotfunksjon i reformen fordi den ble innført et år før de øvrige planene, og dessuten fikk planen en særlig politisk interesse som følge av FNs menneskerettsdomstols uttalelse om KRL-faget i 2004 mens læreplanarbeidet var i gang. Den prosess planen var gjennom, har fornyet aktualitet etter EMD-dommen i juni 2007. Artikkelen drøfter hvordan juridiske og pedagogiske betraktningsmåter kan komme i konflikt knyttet til fagprofil, fagets formål og fritaksbestemmelsene i skolen. Artikkelen drøfter også føringene fra Kunnskapsløftet knyttet til ferdigheter og drøfter grunnferdighetenes funksjon som mål eller midler og hvilke ferdigheter som er relevante i KRL og hvorfor.

  19. Permanent genetic resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011-30 November 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Aluana G; Albaina, A; Alpermann, Tilman J; Apkenas, Vanessa E; Bankhead-Dronnet, S; Bergek, Sara; Berumen, Michael L; Cho, Chang-Hung; Clobert, Jean; Coulon, Aurélie; DE Feraudy, D; Estonba, A; Hankeln, Thomas; Hochkirch, Axel; Hsu, Tsai-Wen; Huang, Tsurng-Juhn; Irigoien, X; Iriondo, M; Kay, Kathleen M; Kinitz, Tim; Kothera, Linda; LE Hénanff, Maxime; Lieutier, F; Lourdais, Olivier; Macrini, Camila M T; Manzano, C; Martin, C; Morris, Veronica R F; Nanninga, Gerrit; Pardo, M A; Plieske, Jörg; Pointeau, S; Prestegaard, Tore; Quack, Markus; Richard, Murielle; Savage, Harry M; Schwarcz, Kaiser D; Shade, Jessica; Simms, Ellen L; Solferini, Vera N; Stevens, Virginie M; Veith, Michael; Wen, Mei-Juan; Wicker, Florian; Yost, Jennifer M; Zarraonaindia, I

    2012-03-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus.

  20. Some Observations on Gastric Emptying in the Black Sea Whiting, Merlangius merlangus euxinus, (N. 1840) Fed on Natural Prey

    OpenAIRE

    SEYHAN, Kadir; BAŞÇINAR, N. Selda; Düzgüneş(2), Ertug

    1998-01-01

    In this study a new perspective on the feeding physiology of whiting, Merlangius merlangus euxinus, N. 1840 was investigated. The effects of the skin of the prey, double feeding and prey type on the gastric emptying rate (GER) of whiting fed on natural prey, namely anchovy ( Engraulis encrasicholus) and mussels ( Mytilus galloprovincialis), were investigated. Return of appetite was also studied. It was found that in laboratory conditions, whiting (48.0±8.30 g, n=12) had consumed about 10.2...

  1. Contamination status and accumulation characteristics of metals and a metalloid in birds on Teuri Island, Hokkaido, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Chihiro; Ikenaka, Yoshinori; Nakayama, Shouta M M; Suzuki, Yuya; Watanuki, Yutaka; Watanabe, Yuji; Yohannes, Yared Beyene; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Ishizuka, Mayumi

    2014-08-01

    Teuri Island, Hokkaido in Japan is an important place for seabirds breeding. We measured the concentrations of heavy metals (Hg, Cd, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Pb) and a metalloid (As) in rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata) (n = 7), thick-billed murre (Uria lomvia) (n = 2), spectacled guillemot (Cepphus carbo) (n = 6), slaty-backed gull (Larus schistisagus) (n = 15), jungle crow (Corvus macrorhynchos) (n = 3), Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonica) (n = 6) and Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus azonus) (n = 2). Spectacled guillemot had high As concentrations, with its source being their feeding habitat. Concentration of Hg in kidney of jungle crow was higher than other seabird species at Teuri.

  2. Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 October 2011 - 30 November 2011

    KAUST Repository

    Abreu, Aluana Gonçalves

    2012-02-01

    This article documents the addition of 139 microsatellite marker loci and 90 pairs of single-nucleotide polymorphism sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Aglaoctenus lagotis, Costus pulverulentus, Costus scaber, Culex pipiens, Dascyllus marginatus, Lupinus nanus Benth, Phloeomyzus passerini, Podarcis muralis, Rhododendron rubropilosum Hayata var. taiwanalpinum and Zoarces viviparus. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Culex quinquefasciatus, Rhododendron pseudochrysanthum Hay. ssp. morii (Hay.) Yamazaki and R. pseudochrysanthum Hayata. This article also documents the addition of 48 sequencing primer pairs and 90 allele-specific primers for Engraulis encrasicolus. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Microplastic fragments and microbeads in digestive tracts of planktivorous fish from urban coastal waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kosuke; Takada, Hideshige

    2016-09-01

    We investigated microplastics in the digestive tracts of 64 Japanese anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) sampled in Tokyo Bay. Plastic was detected in 49 out of 64 fish (77%), with 2.3 pieces on average and up to 15 pieces per individual. All of the plastics were identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Most were polyethylene (52.0%) or polypropylene (43.3%). Most of the plastics were fragments (86.0%), but 7.3% were beads, some of which were microbeads, similar to those found in facial cleansers. Eighty percent of the plastics ranged in size from 150 μm to 1000 μm, smaller than the reported size range of floating microplastics on the sea surface, possibly because the subsurface foraging behavior of the anchovy reflected the different size distribution of plastics between surface waters and subsurface waters. Engraulis spp. are important food for many humans and other organisms around the world. Our observations further confirm that microplastics have infiltrated the marine ecosystem, and that humans may be exposed to them. Because microplastics retain hazardous chemicals, increase in fish chemical exposure by the ingested plastics is of concern. Such exposure should be studied and compared with that in the natural diet.

  4. Interannual variation of larval fish assemblages in the Gulf of Cádiz (SW Iberian Peninsula in relation to summer oceanographic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda Júnior Paulo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two ichthyoplankton surveys were conducted during July 1994 and July 1995 in the Gulf of Cádiz with the aim of describing composition, abundance, distribution patterns and interannual variations of larval fish assemblages. Interannual differences were found in this study. In 1994, higher salinities were observed at external sites, though in 1995, higher values were observed at intermediate sites. The upper water column was warmer in 1994 and had less fish larvae density. During 1994, Sardinella aurita and Engraulis encrasicolus were abundant but spatial location was opposite. In 1995, abundance of both species was very different, but with similar spatial pattern. Cluster analysis revealed well-defined groups of stations and assemblages of larvae, primarily related to bathymetry. The "inshore assemblage" occupied the shallow coast area; its characteristics species being closely related to the estuarine system, mainly comprising Engraulis encrasicolus and Gobiidae. The "shelf assemblage" occupied the continental shelf and its characteristics species consisted of larvae whose adults inhabited the shelf province and spawn in the same zone, like Sardinella aurita and Trachurus spp. Interannual variations in composition and extension of the subgroups could be attributed to the main circulation patterns, continental water discharge and spawning strategies of fishes.

  5. Carbon storage potential by four macrophytes as affected by planting diversity in a created wetland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Means, Mary M; Ahn, Changwoo; Korol, Alicia R; Williams, Lisa D

    2016-01-01

    Wetland creation has become a commonplace method for mitigating the loss of natural wetlands. Often mitigation projects fail to restore ecosystem services of the impacted natural wetlands. One of the key ecosystem services of newly created wetlands is carbon accumulation/sequestration, but little is known about how planting diversity (PD) affects the ability of herbaceous wetland plants to store carbon in newly created wetlands. Most mitigation projects involve a planting regime, but PD, which may be critical in establishing biologically diverse and ecologically functioning wetlands, is seldom required. Using a set of 34 mesocosms (∼1 m(2) each), we investigated the effects of planting diversity on carbon storage potential of four native wetland plant species that are commonly planted in created mitigation wetlands in Virginia - Carex vulpinoidea, Eleocharis obtusa, Juncus effusus, and Mimulus ringens. The plants were grown under the four distinctive PD treatments [i.e., monoculture (PD 1) through four different species mixture (PD 4)]. Plant biomass was harvested after two growing seasons and analyzed for tissue carbon content. Competition values (CV) were calculated to understand how the PD treatment affected the competitive ability of plants relative to their biomass production and thus carbon storage potentials. Aboveground biomass ranged from 988 g/m(2) - 1515 g/m(2), being greatest in monocultures, but only when compared to the most diverse mixture (p = 0.021). However, carbon storage potential estimates per mesocosm ranged between 344 g C/m(2) in the most diverse mesocosms (PD 4) to 610 g C/m(2) in monoculture ones with no significant difference (p = 0.089). CV of E. obtusa and C. vulpinoidea showed a declining trend when grown in the most diverse mixtures but J. effusus and M. ringens displayed no difference across the PD gradient (p = 0.910). In monocultures, both M. ringens, and J. effusus appeared to store carbon as biomass more

  6. Aspectos relevantes en la biología de Cetengraulis mysticetus (Günther (Pisces: Engraulidae en el Golfo de Nicoya, Costa Rica.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arturo Rodríguez

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Cetengraulis mistycetus es una anchoveta americana, que se encuentra localizada en la Costa Americana desde México hasta Perú. Su valor comercial es relevante en la parte interna del Golfo de Nicoya, ya que la flota artesanal tradicional la utiliza como carnada viva para la línea de anzuelos. En el presente estudio, se determinó la edad de la primera madurez sexual en 12,6 cm, la proporción sexual fue de 1:1,2 machos por hembra, para la época de mayor desove. La fecundidad total se estimo entre 48.498 oocitos en las tallas de 16 a 18,9 cm y de 98.278 oocitos en las tallas que van de 19 a 21,9 cm. La fecundidad relativa estimada fue de 813 oocitos por gramo de pez para el primer grupo de talla y de 1.145 oocitos por gramo de pez para el segundo. En el estudio biométrico, solamente la longitud dorsal fue la única relación que varió entre sexos siendo isométrica para hembras y alométrica negativa en machos, en el resto de relaciones el comportamiento entre sexos fue similar.

  7. Nutrients, Recycling, and Biological Populations in Upwelling Ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitledge, T. E.

    1980-01-01

    Nutrient recycling has been studied in the upwelling areas of Baja California, Northwest Africa, and Peru. Regeneration by biological populations in these areas contributes significant quantities of recycled nitrogen which is utilized in productivity processes. Each area has a different combination of organisms which leads to differences in the relative contributions of zooplankton, nekton, or benthos to the nutrient cycles. Comparisons of ammonium regeneration rates of zooplankton and nekton-micronekton populations in the three upwelling areas show that zooplankton recycle relatively less nitrogen in the Baja California and Peru systems than nekton. In the Northwest Africa upwelling region, however, zooplankton, fish, and benthic inputs are all substantial. In recent years the Peruvian upwelling system has been altered with the decline of the anchoveta population and an increase in the importance of zooplankton in nutrient recycling. The distribution of recycled nitrogen (ammonium and urea) in transects across the shelf at 10°S and 15°S indicates that regeneration is relatively more important at 10°S in the region of the wide shelf. In both areas the distribution of ammonium and urea are not entirely coincident thereby indicating differences in their production and/or utilization.

  8. Tilnærminger til teknologi og design i grunnskolen. – Nysgjerrig, skapende, kritisk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Austestad

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available SammendragHva skal elevene lære i emnet Teknologi og design (T&D i grunnskolen? Hvorfor skal elever lære T&D? I denne artikkelen undersøker vi hvilke didaktiske begrunnelser for T&D som gir seg til kjenne i undervisningsmateriell hentet fra sentrale aktører innen T&D. Det skisseres fire ulike tilnærminger i aksen mellom design og teknologi som svar på disse spørsmålene. Det argumenteres for at den teknologi- og designforståelse som ligger til grunn for under­vis­nings­praksis får konsekvenser for hvordan emneområdet begrunnes, operasjonal­iseres og hvilken kompetanse elevene sitter igjen med etter opplæringen.

  9. Kroppen i læringsrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Elise Bromann; Engelsrud, Gunn; Stelter, Reinhard;

    Billenstein Schriver samt Staffan Josephsson (sidstnævnte bidrager dog ikke til antologien). Antologien indeholder de præsenterede oplæg i artikelform inklusiv en artikel baseret på Kropslighedsprojektet. God læselyst! Lars Emmerik Damgaard Knudsen, Agnete Sillesen, Dorthe Varning Poulsen og Mette Schmidt...... Litteratur Gallagher, Shaun. 2002. Født med en krop. Fænomenologisk og eksperimentel forskning om oplevelse af kroppen. I: Kirsten Kaya Roessler m.fl. (red.). Krop og læring. Sport & Psyke, nr. 29. Århus. Dansk Idrætspsykologisk Forum & Forlaget Klim. Hermansen, Mads. 2005. Læringens Univers. Århus. Klim....... Illeris, Knud. 2009. Læring. Frederiksberg. Roskilde Universitetsforlag. Merleau-Ponty, Maurice. 2002. Phenemenology of Perception. London. Routledge. Moser, Thomas. 2007. Kropsforankret læring og aktivitet som pædagogiske begreber. I: T. Schillab og B. Steffensen (red.). Nervepirrende pædagogik – En...

  10. Presencia de moluscos tropicales de la provincia panameña en la costa central del Perú y su relación con los eventos "El Niño"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Se reporta el hallazgo de moluscos cuya distribución conocida se encuentra dentro de los límites de la Provincia Panameña, en diversas localidades de la Provincia Peruana entre los años 1972 y 1994, período en el que se presentaron varios eventos "El Niño". Fue posible determinar 15 especies de moluscos que ampliaron su distribución: Pteria stema, Orobitella peruviana, Cryptornya califomica, Cerithium (T stercusmuscarum, Malea ringens, Hexaplex brassica, Thais styllmanberryi, T (M. triangularis, T (T callaoensis, Acanthina brevidentata, Purpura pansa, Neorapana muricata, Anachis (C. nigricans, Cancellaria (C. decussata y C. (B. chrysostorna. Se postula una variabilidad en los límites de las provincias biogeográficas de la costa peruana, controlada por el ENSO.

  11. Læring fra forskningssamarbejdet 'Nordsøens Digitale Lag'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vistisen, Peter

    2015-01-01

    -Driven Creative Academy (U-CrAc) innovationsforløb i samarbejde med AAU og UCN. De enkeltestående forløb opsummeres, hvorfra læringen fra forløbet udtrækkes i principper, såvel som strategiske anbefalinger mod fremtidige projekter. Som baggrund og reference for principperne anvendes ‘Tre Domæners Modellen’ (3D...... 2025 strategi. Afrapporteringen skildrer følgende forløb: 1. Konceptudvikling, udvikling og implementering af den mobile applikation ‘Nordsøen Movie Maker’. 2.Konceptudvikling og strategisamarbejde omkring projektet ‘Fisk som Mad’ i samarbejde med projektgrupper fra AAU. 3. Deltagelsen i de to User...

  12. Undervisning i håndskrivning. Interview med dansklærer Anne Mette Fræhr Møller

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette

    2016-01-01

    På Thomasskolen i Skovlunde har indskolingslærer i dansk Anne Mette Fræhr Møller de sidste mange år arbejdet fokuseret med at udvikle sine elevers håndskrivning. Relevansen af undervisningen er hun ikke et sekund i tvivl om: det er en sikker vej ind i bogstavindlæringen og giver børnene et godt...... redskab at kommunikere med. Dog er hun mere usikker på, hvorvidt håndskrivningen bibeholder sin vigtighed i undervisningen, når eleverne starter på mellemtrinnet, og computeren kommer på banen. Til tidsskriftet Viden om Literacy nr 19 med tema om skrift har redaktør Henriette Romme Lund interviewet 5...

  13. Arkitekturundervisning og restaurasjonstenkning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Belinda Fauske

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available I perioden 2005-2007 publiserte redaksjonen i fagtids­skriftet FORM en artikkelserie om arkitektur og arkitekturundervisning. Publiseringen sammenfalt i tid med innføringen av Kunnskapsløftet hvor arkitektur fikk en styrket posisjon innenfor faget Kunst og håndverk. I denne artikkelen relateres artikkelserien i FORM til et kunst­historisk perspektiv på arkitektur. Videre argumenteres det for at serien kan knyttes opp mot et større skolepolitiske hele. Dette i form av en restaurasjons­tenkning hvor det å styrke faglig kunnskap, illustrert ved et tradisjonelt pensum der bruk av begrep som moral og disiplin står sentralt. Redaksjonen i FORM tillegges i denne artikkelen rollen som en aktør innenfor fagfeltet, som hadde mulighet til å øve innflytelse på fagets praksis etter ny læreplan.

  14. Språkfagenes fremtid i et organisasjonsteoretisk perspektiv. Er det liv laga for fremmedspråk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelise Brox Larsen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen drøfter ulike fremtidsscenarier for organiseringen av engelsk- og fremmedspråkopplæringen i den norske skolen. Med bakgrunn i organisasjonsteoretisk translasjonsteori og randomiserte studier av et utvalg nasjonal og internasjonal styrings- og praksisdokumentasjon gis det en sannsynlighetsvurdering av hva vi kan forvente oss i Norge. Selv om det tilsynelatende ser ut som om mange er enige om at vi skal ha mer og bedre språkundervisning så kan vi i realiteten ende opp med mindre og dårligere undervisning fordi vi introduserer andre fremmedspråk for sent, fordi vi lar det være et valgfag og fordi vi ikke innfører CLIL som en obligatorisk arbeidsform.

  15. Assessment of the labelling accuracy of spanish semipreserved anchovies products by FINS (forensically informative nucleotide sequencing).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Amaya; Aldrey, Anxela; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Sotelo, Carmen G

    2016-06-01

    Anchovies have been traditionally captured and processed for human consumption for millennia. In the case of Spain, ripened and salted anchovies are a delicacy, which, in some cases, can reach high commercial values. Although there have been a number of studies presenting DNA methodologies for the identification of anchovies, this is one of the first studies investigating the level of mislabelling in this kind of products in Europe. Sixty-three commercial semipreserved anchovy products were collected in different types of food markets in four Spanish cities to check labelling accuracy. Species determination in these commercial products was performed by sequencing two different cyt-b mitochondrial DNA fragments. Results revealed mislabelling levels higher than 15%, what authors consider relatively high considering the importance of the product. The most frequent substitute species was the Argentine anchovy, Engraulis anchoita, which can be interpreted as an economic fraud.

  16. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  17. CONTRIBUTION A L'ETUDE DE L'ANCHOIS Engrasdi8 enermicolits, L .1758) DE L'EXTREME OUEST ALGERIEN (GIIÂZAOUET ET BENI SAF). RECHERCHE DE QUELQUES METAUX LOURDS.

    OpenAIRE

    BENMANSOUR, Nasr-Eddine

    2014-01-01

    • çil JOI & Jiil il 4 RESUME L'absence de données'ur "anchois fréquentant l'extrême Ouest Algérien (Ghazaouet et Béni Saf) justifie l'étude quc nous avons entreprise. L'anchois Engraulis encrasicolus, Linné, (1758) est une espèce à rendement très important, dans les revenus de la pêcherie Algérienne, mais durant ces dernières années elle est considérée comme surexploitée, par conséquent, une bonne gestion de cette ressgurce Jaiieutique est l'assurance de son auto renouvellem...

  18. Distribution characteristics of zooplankton biomass in the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Zhaoli; CHAO Min; CHEN Yaqu

    2004-01-01

    On the basis of the data of oceanographic survey in the East China Sea in four seasons during 1997~2000 (23°30′~33°00′N,118°30′~ 128°E), the variation of total biomass and diet biomass of zooplankton and their spatial-temporal distribution and relationship with the fishing ground of Engraulisjaponicus are approached and analyzed. The results show that the average biomass is 65.32 mg/m3 in four seasons, autumn (86.18 mg/m3) being greater than summer (69.18 mg/m3) greater than s pring ( 55.67 mg/m3) greater than winter (50.33 mg/m3). The average value of diet zooplankton biomass is 40.9 mg/m3.The trends of horizontal distribution both in the total biomass and the diet biomass of zooplankton are similar. The high biomass region (250~500 mg/m3) is very limited, only accounting for 1% of the investigation area. Seasonal variation of the biomass is very remarkable in the west and north parts of East China Sea coastal waters ( 29°30′N, 125°E). The horizontal distribution of diet zooplankton depends on the abundance distribution of crustacean. The distribution of diet zooplankton is related to the fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus and the high-density area of young fish and larval. In spring, the central fishing ground of Engraulis japonicus (>100 kg/h) and the high-density area of young fish and larval (>100 individuals per net) are located at the same place of high-density (100~250 mg/m3)area of diet zooplankton in the middle-southern part of East China Sea or the edge of its waters.

  19. Utilización de la proteína dietaría por alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Walter Gutiérrez

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Un experimento fue conducido para evaluar los efectos de cinco niveles de proteína (25,27, 29, 31 y 33% sobre el comportamiento productivo de alevinos de la gamitana, Colossoma macropomum Cuvier 1818, alimentados con dietas isocalóricas (2,7 kcal de ED/g. Los parámetros medidos fueron ganancia de peso (GP, conversión alimenticia (CA, proteína retenida (PR, razón de eficiencia proteica (REP y energía retenida (ER. En la preparación de las dietas experimentales se utilizaron como fuentes de proteína harina de anchoveta y harina de torta de soya y como fuentes de energía maíz amarillo duro, subproducto de trigo y aceite de pescado. Se encontraron diferencias significativas (P<0,05 entre tratamientos para los parámetros GP, PR, REP y ER. No se encontraron diferencias significativas para la CA. Los mejores rendimientos fueron obtenidos cuando las gamitanas fueron alimentadas con niveles dietarios de 25, 27 y 33% de proteína cruda. También se encontró que a medida que se elevó el nivel de proteína de la dieta, la REP decreció significativamente. Tomando en cuenta el costo de la proteína en la dieta, se concluye que la alimentación de la gamitana con niveles dietarios de 25 ó 27% de proteína cruda y 2,7 kcal de ED/g, garantizarán su exitoso crecimiento.

  20. [Chemical diversity of the biological active ingredients of salvia officinalis and some closely related species].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Máthé, Imre; Hohmann, Judit; Janicsák, Gábor; Nagy, Gábor; Dora, Rédei

    2007-01-01

    Comparative studies on the volatile and non-volatile fractions of 6 species. i.e. Salvia officinalis, S. tomentosa, S. fruticosa, S. candelabrum, S. ringens, S. lavandulifolia of the Section Salvia (Lamiaceae) have been carried out. Both fractions provide the chemical pattern matches to the chemotaxonomic character of Subfamily Nepetoideae in Erdtmanr two subfamiliar system. S. lavandulifolia had the highest essential oil content, followed by S. fruticosa, S. tomentosa, S. officinalis and S. candelabrum. S. ringens contains volatile oil only in traces. The neurotoxin thujone content was the highest in the S. officinalis oils and in that of S. fruticosa. No thujone was detected in S. lavandulifolia. The other species, e.g.: S. tomentosa contain this compound only in moderate concentrations (less than 10%). Among the non-volatile fractions of the plant ingredients the triterpene ursolic and oleanolic acids had the highest concentration in the leaves. Despite some rare cases, ursolic acid dominates the tritepene fraction. Rosmarinic and caffeic acids were measured in similar concentrations, in all species. As the case of S. officinalis shows, these compounds vary significantly in all organs during the vegetation period. Caffeic acid is also ubiquitous in the genus Salvia but as our data suggest it occurs in an order of magnitude lower concentration than rosmarinic acid. The isolation of phenylethanolid martynoside, though obtained in a rather small concentration, is of great chemotaxonomic significance, as this is the first phenylethanolid type glycoside isolated not only from the Salvia genus but also from the entire Subfamily Nepetoideae. As pheylethanolids are rather common and accumulate in significant concentrations in plants of the Subfamily Lamioideae, our opinion that the chemical differences between the two subfamilies are less qualititative than quantitative, is confirmed. This holds true of other chemical markers like monoterpenes, ursolic and oleanolic

  1. Veiledning i praksis. Om praksisopplæring i norsk allmennlærerutdannelse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaare Skagen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen presenterer to nyere studier av veiledning i praksisopplæring i allmennlærerutdannelsen. Hovedfunnene drøftes i forhold til noen tidligere nordiske forskningsstudier. Studiene redegjør for intensjoner og realiteter i praksisopplæringen med fokus på mål, innhold og form i praksisveiledningen. Materialet er ramme- og fagplaner og intervjuer og observasjoner ved tre praksisskoler. Veiledningen drøftes i forhold til teori om veiledning. De to studiene som presenteres, konkluderer med at avstanden mellom teoridel og praksisdel i lærerutdannelsen fortsatt eksisterer. Det blir konstatert både fellestrekk og forskjeller mellom skolene når det gjelder graden av individuell veiledning og gruppeveiledning og individuell studentundervisning. Innholdsfokus i veiledningen varierte. Veilederrollen varierte mellom ettergivenhet og pågåenhet. Noen forskningsstudier hevder at øvingslærere praktiserer teknologisk veiledning. Artikkelen argumenterer for at innvielse i undervisningstradisjonen er nødvendig.

  2. Tilpasset opplæring: politisk dragkamp om pedagogisk praksis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eirik S. Jenssen

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tilpasset opplæring er et populært politisk virkemiddel når skolen skal reformeres og gjøres i stand til å møte endrede betingelser. Det er et begrep som hentes frem når politikerne skal nå mål som inkludering, sosial utjevning eller økt læringsutbytte. Evalueringer viser at skoler opplever tilpasset opplæring som et uklart og problematisk begrep. Vi viser i denne artikkelen at lærerne har god grunn til å synes at tilpasset opplæring er vanskelig å praktisere. Dette gjør vi ved å vise hvordan tilpasset opplæring har skiftet meningsinnhold med skiftende regjeringer i perioden 1975 og frem til i dag. Vi har identifisere fire ulike epoker i tilpasset opplæring som hver fremhever ulike sider ved opplæringen og forfekter ulike løsninger.

  3. Kritisk-rationel pædagogik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ydegaard, Torbjørn

    ’Kritisk-rationel pædagogik’ er baseret på Karl Poppers erkendelses- og dannelsesteoretiske tanker. Bogen bygger derfor i lige grad på den kritisk-rationelle metode og på Poppers arbejde imod de totalitære regimer og tendenser i de moderne og senmoderne samfund. Forudsætningen for ethvert...... pædagogisk arbejde med den lærendes erkendelse er den grundlæggende forståelse af læringens natur, det vil sige af hvordan læring foregår inde i hovedet på den lærende. Popper vover at sætte denne proces på formel! Sideløbende med det erkendelsesmæssige arbejde er der et dannelsesmæssigt perspektiv, der...... blandt andet afhænger af den måde undervisningen tilrettelægges på. I denne bog trækkes der især på Poppers arbejde med begreberne individualisme og altruisme som modvægt til den totalitære praksis i fascismen og socialismen. Det er praksisformer, der igen begynder at vise sig i et økonomisk svækket...

  4. Om den uformelle (misbrug af medier i det formelle uddannelsessystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paulsen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available En kombination af uddannelsesforskning og medieforskning anvendes til at forstå gymnasieelevers brug af nye digitale medier. På baggrund af elev- og lærerinterview fremlægger forfatterne en tolkning af mediebrugens betydning for de formelle læreprocesser. Artiklen kommer frem til, at medierne afleder elevernes opmærksomhed og fører til afhængighedsproblemer. Forfatterne fremlægger en tolkning af, hvordan eleverne afledes, og hvad de afledes til. Igennem denne tolkning kommer artiklen frem til, at medier som Messenger ikke blot afleder opmærksomhed, men også dekonstruerer forskellen mellem formelle og uformelle læreprocesser. I modsætning til, hvad eleverne og lærerne selv fortæller, indikerer tolkningen, at der finder en læring sted via elevernes dekonstruerende brug af de nye medier, men at lærerne ekskluderes fra de processer, hvorigennem læringen initieres. Artiklen konkluderer, at der bør udvikles en mediedidaktik, der dels afhjælper elevers afhængighedsproblemer, dels giver lærerne styrke til at spille en aktiv rolle ift. den sociale interaktion og læring, som de nye medier muliggør.

  5. Selektive utfordringer ved assistert befruktning for personer med Klinefelter syndrom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjørn Hofmann

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Ny bioteknologi gir nye muligheter som har vist seg å være moralsk utfordrende. Det gjelder særlig innenfor menneskelig reproduksjon, der denne teknologien er spesielt potent. Med virkeliggjøringen av antikkens drøm om å kunne påvirke fremtidige barns egenskaper følger en rekke vanskelige valg. I analysen av og debatten om slike valg har man forsøkt å skille mellom tilvalg og fravalg med hensyn på bestemte egenskaper. Ett konkret eksempel er hvorvidt personer med Klinefelter syndrom skal tilbys assistert befruktning, og det illustrerer at slike skiller kanskje ikke er så dekkende eller viktige for den etiske debatten som man kan få inntrykk av. Andre grunnleggende problemstillinger synes vel så påtrengende. Det betyr ikke at vi må forkaste seleksjonsmodellen. Eksemplet med Klinefelter syndrom stimulerer derimot til å revidere og utvikle den, og det gir føringer for hvordan modellen kan nyanseres og anvendes ut over skillet mellom tilvalg og fravalg. Denne revisjonen kan redusere seleksjonsproblematikkens polemiske kraft, men kanskje også øke dens anvendelse for etikk i praksis.http://dx.doi.org/10.5324/eip.v2i1.1690

  6. Fruktbarhet hos simler: effekter av ernæring og vekst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.J.C. Tyler

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available Tyler's article is published in English in Rangifer 7 (2, 1987: Fertility in female reindeer: the effect of nutrition and growth.Sammendrag: Drektighetsprosenten i ungrein varierer sterkt fra individ til individ og fra flokk til flokk. En høy fruktbarhet i reinflokken er selve grunnlaget for en vellykket reindrift. Overraskende er det derfor at man vet lite om hvilke faktorer som bestemmer om rein skal bli drektig eller ikke. I denne artikkelen blir effekten av ernæring på reinsimlenes fruktbarhet diskutert. Undersøkelser indikerer at rein er som andre pattedyr, der fruktbarheten er relatert til kroppsvekten. Forholdet mellom reinens kroppsvekt og fruktbarhet varierer likevel sterkt. Mye tyder på at drektighetsprosenten i ungrein er avhengig av reintettheten. Dette indikerer at ernæringen er en viktig faktor når det gjelder fruktbarhet i ungrein. Vektspesifikk fruktbarhet kan derfor være en brukbar indikator for reinflokkens fortilgang. I prinsippet vil slike fruktbarhetsundersøkelser gi et tidlig varsel om reintallet er for høyt i forhold til beitegrunnlaget før en markert nedgang i slaktevekten observeres. Etter foredraget til Nic. Tyler hadde Terje Skogland et forberedt innlegg som er gjengitt på norsk. Deretter fulgte en lengre diskusjon som også er gjengitt.

  7. Medien - Macht - Pädagogik. Konturen einer Cultural-Studies-basierten Medienpädagogik, illustriert an Reality-TV-Sendungen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Hipfl

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available Die Autorin beschreibt die Medienpädagogik im Spannungsfeld zwischen der kritischen Beobachtung von Medien und der Aufgabe, zu einem handlungsfähigen, kompetenten Umgang mit Medien zu erziehen. Hierzu bedarf die Medienpädagogik eines Theoriegerüsts, für das sie die Cultural Studies empfiehlt. Im folgenden macht sie am Beispiel von zwei Reality TV-Sendeformaten deutlich, wie Machtverhältnisse mit der Produktion von Fernsehsendungen und den Auswirkungen auf die Rezipienten zusammen hängen. Das neoliberale Menschenbild, wonach jeder Einzelne für den persönlichen (Misserfolg verantwortlich ist und Identität flexibel inszeniert werden kann, spiegelt sich in Sendungen wie "Big Brother". Da diese Formate in zahlreiche Länder adaptiert werden, passen sie in das Zeitalter der Globalisierung. Die öffentlich- rechtlichen Sendeanstalten ringen um Einschaltquoten, produzieren ähnliche Formate und geraten in eine Legitimationskrise. Die Cultural Studies setzen eine Evaluation von Fernsehsendungen dagegen, der Medienpädagogik kommt dabei eine Regulierungsfunktion zu, indem sie zu einer kritischen Rezipientenhaltung ermutigt.

  8. Klima og turisme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Carina Bregnholm

    2014-01-01

    Denne artikel præsenterer en række koblinger mellem klima og turisme med det formål at pege på, hvorledes klima og turisme i fremtiden kan tænkes. Jeg beskriver, hvorledes man i turismeforskningen har fokuseret på at blotlægge særligt to kausale forbindelser mellem klima og turisme, nemlig hvordan...... klimaforandringer vil ændre turistdestinationer og rejsemønstre og hvorledes turismeindustriens CO2-udledninger påvirker klimaet. Med henblik på at opnå en bedre forståelse af, hvorledes klima og turisme gensidigt forbindes og transformeres på et utal af måder, gives der eksempler på kommercialiseringen af...... klimaforandringer i en række turismesammenhænge, såsom i markedsføringen af rejser til ’klimatruede’ turistdestinationer. En række klimavenlige fremtidsscenarier for turismen præsenteres dernæst, hvori klima/turisme-relationen udfordres. På den baggrund argumenteres der afslutningsvis for, at man i forskningen ikke...

  9. Lærernes arbeidstid i Kunst og håndverk – grunnlaget for gammeldags leseplikt i grunnskolen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catrine Lie

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available En lærer i faget Kunst og håndverk på ungdomstrinnet har mindre tid til for- og etterarbeid enn lærere i andre fag. I denne artikkelen søker vi etter opphavet til denne differensieringen av lærernes arbeidstid og finner det i Lesepliktutvalgets utredning fra 1977.  Der er det imidlertid ingen gode begrunnelser for hvorfor fagene får ulik leseplikt. Ti år senere legger Utvalget til å vurdere undervisningspersonalets fremtidige arbeidssituasjon (UFA-utvalget beskrivelsene i de enkelte fagplanene til grunn for vurdering av lærernes leseplikt. Selv ikke etter innføringen av L97, der faget Kunst og håndverk fikk tydeligere innhold og lærerne større arbeidsbyrde, ble forskjellene i lærernes tid til for- og etterarbeid endret. Lærere har påpekt skjevheten, men leseplikten har forblitt uendret. Skoleledere har imidlertid gitt uttrykk for at leseplikten er rettferdig. I denne artikkelen drøfter vi hva som kan ligge til grunn for opprettholdelsen av denne gammeldagse leseplikten.

  10. Condições de secagem de uma pasta de anchoita modificada enzimaticamente na oxidação lipídica, lisina disponível e atividade antioxidante do produto Drying conditions of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy in the lipid oxidation, available lisina and antioxidant activity of the product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Moraes

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi analisar as condições da secagem convectiva de uma pasta de anchoita (Engraulis anchoita modificada enzimaticamente, através da metodologia de superfícies de resposta, sendo as respostas consideradas: a oxidação lipídica (TBA, a redução da lisina disponível e a perda da atividade antioxidante específica. A pasta de anchoita modificada foi obtida por hidrólise enzimática da fração muscular (filés do pescado por Neutrase®. Foram avaliadas na operação de secagem, a temperatura do ar (60, 70 e 80°C e a espessura das amostras (1,5; 2,5 e 3,5mm. A análise estatística da secagem mostrou efeitos significativos da temperatura do ar e da espessura das amostras (PThe aim of the work was to analyze the conditions of the convective drying of an enzymatic modified paste of anchovy (Engraulis anchoita through the response surfaces methodology, and the responses were the lipid oxidation (TBA, reduction of the available lisina and loss of the specific antioxidant activity. The modified paste of anchovy was obtained through enzymatic hydrolysis of the fish muscular fraction (fillets by Neutrase®. In drying operation the air temperature (60, 70 and 80°C and the samples thickness (1.5, 2.5 and 3.5mm were studied. The statistical analysis of the drying showed significant effects of the air temperature and samples thickness (P<0.05. The best drying condition was obtained in the air temperature of 60°C and samples thickness of 2.5mm. In this condition the TBA index was of 0.93mgMDA kg-1, available lisina reduction of 16% and loss of the specific antioxidant activity of 20.2%.

  11. Temporal variation on the diet of the South American Tern (Sterna hirundinacea, Charadriiformes: Laridae on its wintering grounds Variación temporal en la dieta del Gaviotín Sudamericano (Sterna hirundinacea, Charadriiformes: Laridae en los sitios de invernada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MATILDE ALFARO

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The diet of the South American Tern (Sterna hirundinacea and its seasonal variation during the 2005 and 2006 non-reproductive seasons in the Uruguayan Atlantic coast was analyzed. Diet was assessed by the analysis of pellets collected in the Rocha lagoon sandbar, a major tern roosting area in Uruguay, aiming to analyze the hypothesis that terns feed mainly on the Argentine Anchovy (Engraulis anchoita during the wintering period. A total of 844 pellets were collected, 442 in 2005 and 402 in 2006. Diet was composed of fish (88 %, insects (9 % and crustaceans (3 %. The main fish species consumed was the Argentine Anchovy (77.7 %, followed by Marini's Anchovy (Anchoa marinii (7.9 % and the Striped Weakfish (Cynoscion guatucupa (3.6 %. Insects and crustaceans were the main items in two of the groups of pellets collected during the study period. Despite this temporal variation in the diet, the Argentine Anchovy was the main prey item consumed during both seasons. These results support the hypothesis that South American Terns strongly depend on anchovies as trophic resource.En este trabajo se analizó la dieta del Gaviotín Sudamericano (Sterna hirundinacea y su variación estacional durante las temporadas no reproductivas de 2005 y 2006 en la costa atlántica uruguaya. La dieta fue estudiada por medio del análisis de bolos colectados en la barra de la laguna de Rocha, una importante zona de descanso para la especie en Uruguay, con el propósito de analizar la hipótesis de que el gaviotín se alimenta principalmente de Anchoíta Argentina (Engraulis anchoita durante el período de invernada. Un total de 844 bolos fueron colectados, 442 en 2005 y 402 en 2006. La dieta estuvo compuesta por peces (88 %, insectos (9 % y crustáceos (3 %. La principal presa consumida fue la Anchoíta Argentina (77.7 %, seguida de la Anchoa (Anchoa marinii (7.9 % y la Pescadilla de Red (Cynoscion guatucupa (3.6 %. Los insectos y los crustáceos fueron el ítem principal en

  12. Asociaciones de larvas de peces en relación a cambios ambientales en las Bahías Chamela, Jalisco y Santiago-Manzanillo, Colima (2001-2002 Larval fish associations related to environmental changes in Bahía Chamela, Jalisco and Santiago-Manzanillo, Colima (2001-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia A. Silva-Segundo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Se analizó la influencia de los factores ambienta les sobre las asociaciones espacio-temporales de larvas de peces frente a Bahía Chamela, Jalisco y el conjunto de bahías Santiago-Manzanillo, Colima, durante un ciclo anual (2001-2002. Se identificaron dos agrupaciones relacionadas con la fisiografía de la costa y el hábitat de los adultos, una frente a Bahía Chamela integrada por una mezcla de especies de hábitats costero, demersal e intermareal-submareal (Bregmaceros bathymaster, Bairdiella sp., Cynoscion sp., Engraulis mordax y Labrisomidae tipo 1 y otra en Santiago-Manzanillo compuesta por especies de origen lagunar e intermareal-submareal (Eucinostomus sp., Abudefduf troschelii, Haemulidae tipos 2 y 3, así como Enneanectes sexmaculatus. La organización temporal estuvo influenciada por la alternancia entre dos periodos (cálido y templado definidos por la variabilidad ambiental regional. El periodo cálido estuvo caracterizado por especies principalmente tropicales (Harengula thrissina, Eucinostomus sp., Auxis sp. y Haemulidae tipo 3, relacionadas con una mayor temperatura y precipitación pluvial, en cambio durante el periodo templado dominaron las especies de afinidad tropical-subtropical (B. bathymaster, Bairdiella sp., Cynoscion sp. y E. mordax, relacionadas con una menor temperatura e incrementos en las concentraciones de nutrimentos, clorofila-a y zooplancton.Spatial and temporal structure of fish larvae associations and their relationship to the environmental variability were studied at Bahía Chamela, Jalisco, and Santiago-Manzanillo complex, Colima, during 2001-2002. Two spatial aggregations were found, related to the coastal physiography and to the adult habitat. The first was observed at Bahía Chamela, which integrated a combination of species belonging to coastal, demersal and inshore habitats (Bregmaceros bathymaster, Bairdiella sp., Cynoscion sp., Engraulis mordax, and Labrisomidae type 1 and the other in Santiago

  13. A recent increase of swift terns Thalasseus bergii off South Africa - The possible influence of an altered abundance and distribution of prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Robert J. M.

    2009-12-01

    In the 2000s, there were large increases in the numbers of swift terns Thalasseus bergii breeding in the Western and Eastern Cape Provinces of South Africa, which are most plausibly attributed to good recruitment and to an increase in the proportion of mature birds breeding. Numbers increased coincidentally with a greatly increased abundance of two of the main prey species of swift terns, sardine Sardinops sagax and anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, and remained high as these resources decreased. After 2005, numbers of swift terns breeding in the north and central portions of the Western Cape decreased, whereas numbers breeding farther south in that province increased. This followed displacements to the south and east of sardine and anchovy. In southern Africa, swift terns show low fidelity to breeding localities, which enables a rapid adjustment of the location of breeding to an altered availability of prey. For two seabirds that feed mainly on sardine and anchovy, but once breeding show high fidelity to colonies, African penguin Spheniscus demersus and Cape gannet Morus capensis, proportions breeding in the south and east also increased, but there were substantial decreases in overall numbers breeding in the Western Cape.

  14. Texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability of gamma-irradiated marinated anchovy fillets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomac, Alejandra; Cova, María C.; Narvaiz, Patricia; Yeannes, María I.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0, 2, 3 and 4 kGy) on vacuum-packed marinated anchovy fillets was analyzed for their texture, color, lipid oxidation and sensory acceptability after 10 months under refrigeration. Marinated (3% acetic acid, 10% sodium chloride and 0.2% citric acid) Engraulis anchoita fillets were vacuum-packed and irradiated with a cobalt-60 source at a semi-industrial irradiation facility. The irradiation caused a slight increase in hardness values regardless of the applied dose but maintained a consistent texture over the 10 months, even though the control samples softened, most likely due to degradation. This hardness increase did not affect the textural sensory acceptability. Irradiation did not modify the color but still reduced color changes during storage, benefitting the product's quality. TBARS was increased in every sample throughout storage, but irradiation decreased these values. Sensory acceptability was not affected by gamma irradiation. Therefore, gamma irradiation could be successfully applied to this type of product for the purpose of shelf-life extension.

  15. Ecological conversion efficiency and its influencers in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Qisheng; Guo, Xuewu; Sun, Yao; Zhang, Bo

    2007-09-01

    The ecological conversion efficiencies in twelve species of fish in the Yellow Sea Ecosystem, i.e., anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus), rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis), chub mackerel ( Scomber japonicus), halfbeak ( Hyporhamphus sajori), gizzard shad ( Konosirus punctatus), sand lance ( Ammodytes personatus), red seabream ( Pagrus major), black porgy ( Acanthopagrus schlegeli), black rockfish ( Sebastes schlegeli), finespot goby ( Chaeturichthys stigmatias), tiger puffer ( Takifugu rubripes), and fat greenling ( Hexagrammos otakii), were estimated through experiments conducted either in situ or in a laboratory. The ecological conversion efficiencies were significantly different among these species. As indicated, the food conversion efficiencies and the energy conversion efficiencies varied from 12.9% to 42.1% and from 12.7% to 43.0%, respectively. Water temperature and ration level are the main factors influencing the ecological conversion efficiencies of marine fish. The higher conversion efficiency of a given species in a natural ecosystem is acquired only under the moderate environment conditions. A negative relationship between ecological conversion efficiency and trophic level among ten species was observed. Such a relationship indicates that the ecological efficiency in the upper trophic levels would increase after fishing down marine food web in the Yellow Sea ecosystem.

  16. Feeding and ecomorphology of three clupeoids in the N Aegean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study examines the feeding habits of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, sardine (Sardina pilchardus and round sardinella (Sardinella aurita. The results are combined with previously published information on feeding-related morphological features (i.e. mouth area, intestine length and tail area in order to explore morphological affinities between species and the effect of ecomorphology on their co-existence. These species were mainly zooplanktivorous and no dietary differences were found with sex and season. Anchovy preyed mainly on Crustacea larvae, whereas sardine and round sardinella on Copepoda. In the majority of cases (>90%, the individual fractional trophic level of all species ranged between 3.0 and 3.5, classifying them as omnivores with preference to animals. The feeding-related morphological features differed between anchovy and the two other species, whereas only intestine length differed between sardine and round sardinella. The fact that round sardinella’s diet and morphology show a greater resemblance to those of sardine, further support the hypothesis that is a particulate feeder as sardine. Hence the three species tend to exploit the same food resources differently throughout the year. Thus, they make best use of the environment and its resources, in order to avoid competition and achieve optimum feeding conditions throughout their life cycles

  17. Occurrence of nematodes of the genus Anisakis in Mediterranean and Atlantic fish marketed in Sardinia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Casti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal fishborne zoonosis caused by the ingestion of third stage larvae of the genus Anisakis. Between January and December 2013, 1112 specimens of four commercial fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Scomber colias and Trachurus mediterraneus marketed in Sardinia (Italy were examined for Anisakis sp. The overall prevalence of Anisakis spp larvae was 39.9%, all morphologically identified as Type I. Scomber colias showed the highest prevalence (100%, followed by M. merluccius (Atlantic 91.0%, Mediterranean 71.2%, T. mediterraneus (32.7% and E. encrasicolus (25.9%. All the larvae found in Mediterranean hosts were genetically identified as Anisakis pegreffii, whereas 90.0% of the larvae found in the Atlantic M. merluccius belonged to Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and 10.0% to A. pegreffii. The mean abundance of Anisakis sp. larvae was positively correlated with fish size in E. encrasicolus, Atlantic M. merluccius and local M. merluccius. The prevalence of infection was greater in the body cavity (37.9% than in the edible muscle (9.4%. However, 1.8% of the examined fish were infected exclusively in the muscle. Therefore, the risk associated to the consumption of raw or undercooked fishery products poses the need of measures such as visual inspection and preventive treatments to guarantee consumers’ health.

  18. Occurrence of Nematodes of the Genus Anisakis in Mediterranean and Atlantic Fish Marketed in Sardinia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casti, Daniele; Scarano, Christian; Piras, Maria Cristina; Merella, Paolo; Muglia, Sonia; Piras, Francesca; Garippa, Giovanni; Spanu, Carlo; De Santis, Enrico Pietro Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Anisakiasis is a gastrointestinal fish-borne zoonosis caused by the ingestion of third stage larvae of the genus Anisakis. Between January and December 2013, 1112 specimens of four commercial fish species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Merluccius merluccius, Scomber colias and Trachurus mediterraneus) marketed in Sardinia (Italy) were examined for Anisakis sp. The overall prevalence of Anisakis spp larvae was 39.9%, all morphologically identified as Type I. Scomber colias showed the highest prevalence (100%), followed by M. merluccius (Atlantic 91.0%, Mediterranean 71.2%), T. mediterraneus (32.7%) and E. encrasicolus (25.9%). All the larvae found in Mediterranean hosts were genetically identified as Anisakis pegreffii, whereas 90.0% of the larvae found in the Atlantic M. merluccius belonged to Anisakis simplex sensu stricto and 10.0% to A. pegreffii. The mean abundance of Anisakis sp. larvae was positively correlated with fish size in E. encrasicolus, Atlantic M. merluccius and local M. merluccius. The prevalence of infection was greater in the body cavity (37.9%) than in the edible muscle (9.4%). However, 1.8% of the examined fish were infected exclusively in the muscle. Therefore, the risk associated to the consumption of raw or undercooked fishery products poses the need of measures such as visual inspection and preventive treatments to guarantee consumers’ health. PMID:28299289

  19. Increase of marine juvenile fish abundances in the middle Gironde estuary related to warmer and more saline waters, due to global changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquaud, Stéphanie; Béguer, Mélanie; Larsen, Maja Hjort; Chaalali, Aurélie; Cabral, Henrique; Lobry, Jérémy

    2012-06-01

    Estuaries have an essential ecological function for several marine fish species, that use these systems as nurseries. Previous studies in the Gironde estuary have reported an increase in water temperature and an extended seawater intrusion associated to global changes. In this study, we evaluated whether these changes impact the nursery function in the middle part of the system, based on the analyses of long-term data series (1991-2009) collected in that area. Trend analysis, correlations and generalized additive models (GAM) were computed in order to study the influence of water temperature and salinity changes on marine juveniles occurrence/densities. Results showed that densities of all the studied species (i.e. Engraulis encrasicolus, Sprattus sprattus, Dicentrarchus labrax, Solea solea, Argyrosomus regius, Merlangius merlangus) significantly increased over the period considered. Changes in water temperature and seawater intrusion contributed to explain the variability in presence/absence and in densities of the majority of these species. However, the deviance explained by GAM and the relevance of these two explanatory variables differed considerably according to species. For most species, it was suggested that the interaction of these two factors, and their effects on other variables, may explain the increase in abundance in the middle part of the Gironde. The effects of global changes in this estuarine system may favour its nursery function for marine juveniles, but some evidence of effects at a wider scale (community and ecosystem levels) may alter the structure and functioning of this system.

  20. Parallel genetic divergence among coastal-marine ecotype pairs of European anchovy explained by differential introgression after secondary contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Moan, A; Gagnaire, P-A; Bonhomme, F

    2016-07-01

    Ecophenotypic differentiation among replicate ecotype pairs within a species complex is often attributed to independent outcomes of parallel divergence driven by adaptation to similar environmental contrasts. However, the extent to which parallel phenotypic and genetic divergence patterns have emerged independently is increasingly questioned by population genomic studies. Here, we document the extent of genetic differentiation within and among two geographic replicates of the coastal and marine ecotypes of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) gathered from Atlantic and Mediterranean locations. Using a genome-wide data set of RAD-derived SNPs, we show that habitat type (marine vs. coastal) is the most important component of genetic differentiation among populations of anchovy. By analysing the joint allele frequency spectrum of each coastal-marine ecotype pair, we show that genomic divergence patterns between ecotypes can be explained by a postglacial secondary contact following a long period of allopatric isolation (c. 300 kyrs). We found strong support for a model including heterogeneous migration among loci, suggesting that secondary gene flow has eroded past differentiation at different rates across the genome. Markers experiencing reduced introgression exhibited strongly correlated differentiation levels among Atlantic and Mediterranean regions. These results support that partial reproductive isolation and parallel genetic differentiation among replicate pairs of anchovy ecotypes are largely due to a common divergence history prior to secondary contact. They moreover provide comprehensive insights into the origin of a surprisingly strong fine-scale genetic structuring in a high gene flow marine fish, which should improve stock management and conservation actions.

  1. Volatile compounds of some popular Mediterranean seafood species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. GIOGIOS

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The volatile compounds of highly commercialised fresh Mediterranean seafood species, including seven fish (sand-smelt Atherina boyeri, picarel Spicara smaris, hake Merluccius merluccius, pilchard Sardina pilchardus, bogue Boobps boops, anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus and striped-mullet Mullus barbatus, squid (Loligo vulgaris, shrimp (Parapenaeus longirostris and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis, were evaluated by simultaneous steam distillation-extraction and subsequent GC-MS analysis. A total of 298 volatile compounds were detected. The mussels contained the highest total concentration of volatile compounds, while pilchard among fish species contained the highest number and concentrations of volatile compounds. Individual patterns of volatile compounds have been distinguished. The fish species when compared to the shellfish species studied, contained 6 to 30 times more 1-penten-3-ol, higher quantities of 2-ethylfuran, and 2,3-pentanedione, which was absent from the shellfish species. Pilchard is characterized by a high concentration of alcohols, shrimps by the high presence of amines and S-compounds, while mussels by high amounts of aldehydes, furans, and N-containing compounds (pyridine, pyrazines and pyrrols. The fatty acid-originating carbonyl compounds in fish seem to be related to the species’ fat content.

  2. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary.

  3. Composition, abundance, distribution and seasonality of larval fishes in the shallow nearshore of the proposed Greater Addo Marine Reserve, Algoa Bay, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattrick, Paula; Strydom, Nadine A.

    2008-08-01

    The larval fish assemblage was investigated in the shallow, nearshore region of a proposed marine protected area in eastern Algoa Bay, temperate South Africa, prior to proclamation. Sampling was conducted at six sites along two different depth contours at ˜5 m and ˜15 m to assess shore association. Larvae were collected by means of stepped oblique bongo net tows deployed off a ski-boat, twice per season for 2 years between 2005 and 2007. In total, 6045 larval fishes were collected representing 32 families and 78 species. The Gobiidae, Cynoglossidae, Clupeidae, Engraulidae and Sparidae were the dominant fish families. Catches varied significantly among seasons peaking in spring with a mean of ˜200 larvae/100 m 3. Mean overall larval density was higher along the deeper contour, at ˜15 m (40 larvae/100 m 3). The preflexion stage of development dominated catches at the ˜5 m (80%) and ˜15 m (73%) depth contours. Body lengths of Argyrosomus thorpei, Caffrogobius gilchristi, Diplodus capensis, Heteromycteris capensis and Solea turbynei, all estuary associated species, were larger at the shallow sites nearer to shore. Larvae of coastal species that produce benthic eggs dominated catches (75%) in the shallow sites (˜5 m) but were less abundant (32%) farther from shore at the deeper (˜15 m) sites. All developmental stages of D. capensis, Engraulis capensis, H. capensis, Sardinops sagax and two Pomadasys species were found in the study area. It appears that some species use the shallow nearshore as a nursery area.

  4. Autumn ichthyoplankton assemblage in the Yangtze Estuary shaped by environmental factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shude

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the response of the ichthyoplankton community to environmental changes in the Yangtze Estuary using canonical correspondence analysis. Ichthyoplankton community and environmental data were recorded during the autumns of 1998, 2000, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2007 and 2009. Among the ichthyoplankton, the dominant larval and juvenile families were the Engraulidae, Gobiidae and Salangidae, and the most common eggs were from Trichiurus lepturus. The ichthyoplankton was identified via canonical correspondence analysis to three assemblages: an estuary assemblage dominated by Chaeturichthys stigmatias, a coastal assemblage dominated by Engraulis japonicus and Stolephorus commersonii, and an offshore assemblage dominated by Trichiurus lepturus. Regarding environmental factors in the Yangtze Estuary, suspended matter and surface seawater salinity were the main factors influencing the distributions of the different assemblages, while sediment from the Yangtze River during the rainy season and chlorophyll a were the principle drivers of the annual variances in the distribution of ichthyoplankton assemblages. Our aims in this study were to provide detailed characterizations of the ichthyoplankton assemblage in the autumns of seven years, examine the long-term dynamics of autumn ichthyoplankton assemblages, and evaluate the influence of environmental factors on the spatial distribution and inter-annual variations of ichthyoplankton assemblages associated with the Yangtze Estuary. PMID:27114877

  5. Trophic structure of pelagic species in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albo-Puigserver, Marta; Navarro, Joan; Coll, Marta; Layman, Craig A.; Palomera, Isabel

    2016-11-01

    Ecological knowledge of food web interactions within pelagic marine communities is often limited, impairing our capabilities to manage these ecologically and economically important marine fish species. Here we used stable isotope analyses to investigate trophic interactions in the pelagic ecosystem of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea during 2012 and 2013. Our results suggest that European sardine, Sardina pilchardus, and anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus, are consumers located at relatively low levels of the pelagic food web. Unexpectedly, the round sardinella, Sardinella aurita, appeared to be located at a higher trophic level than the other small pelagic fish species, although previous studies found similarity in their diets. Isotope data suggested that trophic niches of species within the genera Trachurus spp. and Scomber spp., were distinct. Atlantic bonito Sarda sarda, European hake Merluccius merluccius and European squid Loligo vulgaris, appeared to feed at higher trophic levels than other species. Despite some intraspecific seasonal variability for some species, community trophic structure appeared relatively stable through the year. These data provide an important step for developing models of food web dynamics in the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

  6. Metals and metalloids in Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) prey, blood and faeces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finger, Annett; Lavers, Jennifer L; Dann, Peter; Kowalczyk, Nicole D; Scarpaci, Carol; Nugegoda, Dayanthi; Orbell, John D

    2017-04-01

    Piscivorous species like the Little Penguin (Eudyptula minor) are particularly at risk of being negatively impacted by pollution due to their heightened exposure through aquatic food chains. Therefore, determining the concentration of heavy metals in the fish prey of seabirds is an essential component of assessing such risk. In this study, we report on arsenic, cadmium, mercury, lead and selenium concentrations in three fish species, which are known to comprise a substantial part of the diet of Little Penguins at the urban colony of St Kilda, Melbourne, Australia. Metal concentrations in the fish sampled were generally within the expected limits, however, arsenic and mercury were higher than reported elsewhere. Anchovy (Engraulis australis) and sandy sprat (Hyperlophus vittatus) contained higher Hg concentrations than pilchard (Sardinops sagax), while sandy sprat and pilchard contained more selenium. We present these findings together with metal concentrations in Little Penguin blood and faeces, sampled within weeks of the fish collection. Mercury concentrations were highest in the blood, while faeces and fish prey species contained similar concentrations of arsenic and lead, suggesting faeces as a primary route of detoxification for these elements. We also investigated paired blood - faecal samples and found a correlation for selenium only. Preliminary data from stable isotope ratios in penguin blood indicate that changes in penguin blood mercury concentrations cannot be explained by trophic changes in their diet alone, suggesting a variation of bioavailable Hg within this semi-enclosed bay.

  7. Implementation of a reduced order Kalman filter to assimilate ocean color data into a coupled physical-biochemical model of the North Aegean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaroni, Sofia; Tsiaras, Kostas; Economou-Amilli, Athena; Petihakis, George; Politikos, Dimitrios; Triantafyllou, George

    2013-04-01

    Within the framework of the European project OPEC (Operational Ecology), a data assimilation system was implemented to describe chlorophyll-a concentrations of the North Aegean, as well the impact on the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) biomass distribution provided by a bioenergetics model, related to the density of three low trophic level functional groups of zooplankton (heterotrophic flagellates, microzooplankton and mesozooplankton). The three-dimensional hydrodynamic-biogeochemical model comprises two on-line coupled sub-models: the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) and the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The assimilation scheme is based on the Singular Evolutive Extended Kalman (SEEK) filter and its variant that uses a fixed correction base (SFEK). For the initialization, SEEK filter uses a reduced order error covariance matrix provided by the dominant Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOF) of model. The assimilation experiments were performed for year 2003 using SeaWiFS chlorophyll-a data during which the physical model uses the atmospheric forcing obtained from the regional climate model HIRHAM5. The assimilation system is validated by assessing the relevance of the system in fitting the data, the impact of the assimilation on non-observed biochemical parameters and the overall quality of the forecasts.

  8. Acoustic surveys for juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay: Abundance estimate as an indicator of the next year's recruitment and spatial distribution patterns

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2013-08-16

    A series of acoustic surveys (JUVENA) began in 2003 targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay. A specific methodology was designed for mapping and estimating juvenile abundance annually, four months after the spawning season. After eight years of the survey, a consistent picture of the spatial pattern of the juvenile anchovy has emerged. Juveniles show a vertical and horizontal distribution pattern that depends on size. The younger individuals are found isolated from other species in waters closer to the surface, mainly off the shelf within the mid-southern region of the bay. The largest juveniles are usually found deeper and closer to the shore in the company of adult anchovy and other pelagic species. In these eight years, the survey has covered a wide range of juvenile abundances, and the estimates show a significant positive relationship between the juvenile biomasses and the one-year-old recruits of the following year. This demonstrates that the JUVENA index provides an early indication of the strength of next year\\'s recruitment to the fishery and can therefore be used to improve the management advice for the fishery of this short-lived species. © 2013 International Council for the Exploration of the Sea.

  9. Determination of trace metals in canned anchovies and canned rainbow trouts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Suhendan

    2011-02-01

    Trace metal (Fe, Zn, Cu, Cd, Sn, Hg and Pb) concentrations of canned anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus Linnaeus, 1758) and canned rainbow trouts (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792), commercialized in Turkey, were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The average contents of trace metals in canned anchovies and canned rainbow trouts were found as 50.708 and 6.980 mg/kg for iron, 22.467 and 11.605 mg/kg for zinc, 1.145 and 0.541 mg/kg for copper, 0.019 and 0.001 mg/kg for cadmium, 0.140 and 0.023 mg/kg for tin, 0.041 and 0.026 mg/kg for mercury, and 0.188 and 0.167 mg/kg for lead, respectively. Although these products pose no risk with respect to the concentrations of zinc, copper, cadmium, tin and mercury, some of the samples had higher contents of lead and iron than the permissible limits. Comprehensive and periodic controls of trace metals in canned fish are needed to assess the safety of these products with respect to human health.

  10. Spatial dynamics of juvenile anchovy in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Boyra, Guillermo

    2016-07-08

    In autumn 2009, the implementation of two successive acoustic surveys targeting juvenile anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay allowed us to monitor the changes in the spatial distribution and aggregation patterns of juveniles of this species during 45 days under fairly stable meteorological conditions. Juvenile anchovy changed its biological condition and behavior in a different manner in two distinct areas. In the Spanish sector, the juveniles migrated 20 nautical miles (n.mi.) towards the coast, but they remained on the shelf and near the surface during the whole surveyed period. As the advance towards the shelf break progressed, their area of distribution decreased, their density increased and the juveniles spread in fewer but heavier shoals. In the French sector, the juveniles also migrated from slope waters towards the coast at a similar velocity, but they crossed the shelf break into the continental shelf, where they increased their mean depth significantly until gradually adopting the typical nyctemeral migrations of adult anchovy. The mean length of the juveniles that adopted the nyctemeral migrations was significantly higher than that of the juveniles remaining at the surface, suggesting that body size is relevant to accomplish this change. Besides, the stronger temperature gradients between the shelf and oceanic waters in the Spanish sector, favored by a narrow shelf, may have acted as a barrier influencing the distinct observed spatial patterns in the two areas. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd

  11. Histology as a Valid Tool To Differentiate Fresh from Frozen-Thawed Marinated Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meistro, Serena; Pezzolato, Marzia; Muscolino, Daniele; Giarratana, Filippo; Baioni, Elisa; Panebianco, Antonio; Bozzetta, Elena

    2016-08-01

    European Commission Regulation (EU) 1276/2011 requires that fishery products intended for raw consumption be frozen at -20°C for not less than 24 h or at -35°C for at least 15 h in order to kill viable parasites other than trematodes. But because marinating processes are not always effective in destroying nematode larvae, raw marinated fish preparations should be frozen before consumption. This study evaluated the performance of a standardized histological method to distinguish between fresh and frozen-thawed raw marinated fish. Sixty anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) fillets were sampled: 30 were marinated at +4°C for 24 h, and 30 were frozen at -20°C for 24 h before being marinated for 24 h. All 60 samples were fixed in formalin, processed for paraffin embedding, cut, and stained with hematoxylin and eosin. The slide preparations were examined microscopically by three independent histopathologists and classified as frozen-thawed or negative according to standard operating procedure criteria in use at our laboratory. Performance evaluation of the method showed 100% sensitivity (95% confidence interval [CI], 88.4 to 100%) and 100% specificity (95% CI, 88.4 to 100%), and the interrater agreement (Cohen's kappa) was 1 (95% CI, 0.85 to 1). Histology proved a valid and reliable tool to distinguish fresh from frozen-thawed marinated fish. It can be applied to deliver safe raw fishery products to consumers in order to minimize the risk of anisakidosis.

  12. [Reproduction and feeding habits of Mustelus dorsalis (Pisces: Triakidae) in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica: elements for a sustainable management].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas M, José Rodrigo

    2006-09-01

    A total of 311 sharptooth smooth-hound Mustelus dorsalis were collected in the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica from March 1999 to May 2000 to determine reproduction and feeding habits. The fishes were collected using hook and line. 250 females and 61 males were identified. The females are bigger (550-660 mm) and heavier (400-1,000 g) than males (500-585 mm and 200-300 g, respectively). All samples collected were mature and the minimum length to first maturity observed is 500 and 541 mm for females and males, respectively. From September to March individuals were mature, while samples caught during April and August were immature. A total of 1,259 embryos were analyzed. Number of embryos per liter ranged from two to six, the total length is from 130 to 205 mm and the weight from 6 to 35 g. This shark is a polyphagous opportunistic carnivore that preys on crustaceans (Squilla hancocki, S. parva, Litopenaeus sp.), fishes (Anchoa sp., Caranx sp., Lutjanus sp., Engraulis sp.) and mollusks (Loligo sp. and Octopus sp.). Main prey item was S. hancocki. The presence of mature sharks of both sexes along the year and the consumption of food items associated to shallow coastal rocky waters suggest that this sector of Nicoya Gulf is a nursery ground and an essential habitat. Based on these results the establishment of an integral management plan is proposed.

  13. Detection of domoic acid in northern anchovies and California sea lions associated with an unusual mortality event.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, K A; Powell, C L; Busman, M; Doucette, G J; Moeller, P D; Silver, J B; Miller, P E; Hughes, M P; Singaram, S; Silver, M W; Tjeerdema, R S

    1999-01-01

    The occurrence of an unusual mortality event involving California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) along the central California coast in May 1998 was recently reported. The potent neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), produced naturally by the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia australis and transmitted to the sea lions via planktivorous northern anchovies (Engraulis mordax), was identified as the probable causative agent. Details of DA analyses for anchovy tissues and sea lion feces are described. Domoic acid levels were estimated in anchovy samples by HPLC-UV, and in sea lion feces using the same method as well as a microplate receptor binding assay, with absolute confirmation by tandem mass spectrometry. The highest DA concentrations in anchovies occurred in the viscera (223 +/- 5 microg DA g(-1)), exceeding values in the body tissues by seven-fold and suggesting minimal bioaccumulation of DA in anchovy tissue. HPLC values for DA in sea lion fecal material (ranging from 152 to 136.5 microg DA g(-1)) required correction for interference from an unidentified compound. Inter-laboratory comparisons of HPLC data showed close quantitative agreement. Fecal DA activity determined using the receptor binding assay corresponded with HPLC values to within a factor of two. Finally, our detection of P. australis frustules, via scanning electron microscopy, in both anchovy viscera and fecal material from sea lions exhibiting seizures provides corroborating evidence that this toxic algal species was involved in this unusual sea lion mortality event.

  14. From bonito to anchovy: a reconstruction of Turkey’s marine fisheries catches (1950-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. ULMAN

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Turkey’s marine fisheries catches were estimated for the 1950-2010 time period using a reconstruction approach, which estimated all fisheries removals, including unreported landings, recreational landings and discards.  We added these estimates to the ‘official’ data, as reported in TURKSTAT, which are also available from the United Nation’s Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO.  The total reconstructed catch for the 1950-2010 time period (inclusive of the reported data is approximately 32 million t, or 74% more than the 18.4 million t of reported data. This added approximately 13.6 million t to the reported data, consisting of 6.9 million t of unreported landings, 2.6 million t of discards, 2.4 million t of recreational catches, and 1.7 million t of subsistence catches.  In 2010, total reported marine landings for Turkey were 445,680 t and the total reconstructed catch was 763,760 t, or 73% more than the reported data.   The main unreported taxon by tonnage was European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus due to its sheer high proportion of catch.  The major reasons for underreporting include a general distrust fishers have towards the taxing system combined with inefficient fisheries monitoring and surveillance capabilities.  Accounting for all fisheries components is crucial in understanding the development of fisheries resources, improving management, and reducing threats to the domestic food security of Turkey.

  15. Climate-change driven range shifts of anchovy biomass projected by bio-physical coupling individual based model in the marginal seas of East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sukgeun; Pang, Ig-Chan; Lee, Joon-ho; Lee, Kyunghwan

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies in the western North Pacific reported a declining standing stock biomass of anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) in the Yellow Sea and a climate-driven southward shift of anchovy catch in Korean waters. We investigated the effects of a warming ocean on the latitudinal shift of anchovy catch by developing and applying individual-based models (IBMs) based on a regional ocean circulation model and an IPCC climate change scenario. Despite the greater uncertainty, our two IBMs projected that, by the 2030s, the strengthened Tsushima warm current in the Korea Strait and the East Sea, driven by global warming, and the subsequent confinement of the relatively cold water masses within the Yellow Sea will decrease larval anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea, but will increase it in the Korea Strait and the East Sea. The decreasing trend of anchovy biomass in the Yellow Sea was reproduced by our models, but further validation and enhancement of the models is required together with extended ichthyoplankton surveys to understand and reliably project range shifts of anchovy and the impacts such range shifts will have on the marine ecosystems and fisheries in the region.

  16. Impact of winter oceanographic conditions on zooplankton abundance in northern Adriatic with implications on Adriatic anchovy stock prognosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Romina; Supić, Nastjenjka; Lučić, Davor; Njire, Jakica

    2015-12-01

    Anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus (L.), is commercially one of the most important Adriatic small pelagic fish. Despite the prevailing oligotrophication trend in the northern Adriatic (NA), the anchovy catch increased after 2000, coinciding with an increased number of the winter type A occurrences, when Po River waters are favoured to spread across the NA. Namely, winter type A is characterised by conditions resulting with Po River waters spreading across the NA along with salinity decrease. On the contrary, in winters of type B, salinity is high. We hypothesized in previous paper, based on correlation between circulation patterns and phytoplankton with anchovy catch, that excess feeding of anchovy in this winter pre-spawning period (February) can lead to increased amounts of the anchovy eggs two months later and subsequently to the total fish catch of the same year. In this paper, we investigate in more details and based on longer time series the relation between anchovy catch and winter circulation patterns of the NA. Additionally, we studied the association between anchovy catch and zooplankton, as anchovy is predominantly zooplanktivorous. We found that zooplankton abundances in winters of A type enhance and that ciliates play an important role in the NA anchovy food web and enrichment of the region with anchovy. Finally, the results of our investigation might in time represent the basics for a sustainable anchovy management in the Adriatic Sea as they enable the development of prediction models of the anchovy stock.

  17. Post-release feeding and growth of hatchery-reared Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus: relevance to stocking effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, T; Watanabe, M; Kawata, G; Ebe, K

    2011-05-01

    The feeding and growth of hatchery-reared (HR) Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus of c. 100 mm total length (L(T) ) released off the coast of Fukushima, Japan, were investigated. From 2 to 15 days after release, the HR P. olivaceus frequently exhibited high empty-stomach frequency (>40%), low stomach-content mass (<1% of body mass), reduced somatic condition from release (c.-10%) and negligible growth. Thereafter, empty-stomach frequency decreased, the stomach-content mass of HR fish increased to 2-8% of body mass, the somatic condition recovered and growth rate increased to 0·5-1·5 mm day(-1) . Prey items were initially mysids, shifting thereafter to fishes such as the Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonica, as observed similarly in wild counterparts. The proportion of mysids decreased with time after release irrespective of size at release, indicating the importance of mysids for adaptation to natural food. Recapture rates at age 1 year, derived from fish market surveys, varied greatly among release years (4-11%). The variation in the recapture rates was largely accounted for by the post-release growth rates (r(2) = 0·5), suggesting a relationship between the post-release growth of HR fish and their survival and subsequent stocking effectiveness.

  18. Macro-Scale Patterns in Upwelling/Downwelling Activity at North American West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar-Lucio, Romeo; Di Lorenzo, Emanuele; Nakamura, Miguel; Villalobos, Héctor; Lluch-Cota, Daniel; Del Monte-Luna, Pablo

    2016-01-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of vertical transport (upwelling/downwelling) has been relatively well studied, mainly for the California Current System, including low-frequency changes and latitudinal heterogeneity. The aim of this work was to identify potentially predictable patterns in upwelling/downwelling activity along the North American west coast and discuss their plausible mechanisms. To this purpose we applied the min/max Autocorrelation Factor technique and time series analysis. We found that spatial co-variation of seawater vertical movements present three dominant low-frequency signals in the range of 33, 19 and 11 years, resembling periodicities of: atmospheric circulation, nodal moon tides and solar activity. Those periodicities might be related to the variability of vertical transport through their influence on dominant wind patterns, the position/intensity of pressure centers and the strength of atmospheric circulation cells (wind stress). The low-frequency signals identified in upwelling/downwelling are coherent with temporal patterns previously reported at the study region: sea surface temperature along the Pacific coast of North America, catch fluctuations of anchovy Engraulis mordax and sardine Sardinops sagax, the Pacific Decadal Oscillation, changes in abundance and distribution of salmon populations, and variations in the position and intensity of the Aleutian low. Since the vertical transport is an oceanographic process with strong biological relevance, the recognition of their spatio-temporal patterns might allow for some reasonable forecasting capacity, potentially useful for marine resources management of the region. PMID:27893826

  19. A real-time PCR assay to estimate invertebrate and fish predation on anchovy eggs in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Albaina, A.

    2015-02-01

    In order to investigate the role of predation on eggs and larvae in the recruitment of anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus), sardine (Sardina pilchardus), sprat (Sprattus sprattus) and 52 macrozooplankton taxa were assayed for anchovy remains in the gut during the 2010 spawning season using a molecular method. This real-time PCR based assay was capable of detecting 0.005. ng of anchovy DNA (roughly 1/100 of a single egg assay) in a reliable way and allowed detecting predation events up to 6. h after ingestion by small zooplankton taxa. A total of 1069 macrozooplankton individuals, 237 sardines and 213 sprats were tested. Both fish species and 32 macrozooplankton taxa showed remains of anchovy DNA within their stomach contents. The two main findings are (1) that the previously neglected macrozooplankton impact in anchovy eggs/larvae mortality is in the same order of magnitude of that due to planktivorous fishes and that, (2) the predation pressure was notably different in the two main spawning centers of Bay of Biscay anchovy. While relatively low mortality rates were recorded at the shelf-break spawning center, a higher predation pressure from both fish and macrozooplankton was exerted at the shelf one.

  20. Forage fish of the Pacific Rim as revealed by diet of a piscivorous seabird: Synchrony and relationships with sea surface temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thayer, J.A.; Bertram, D.F.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Hipfner, M.J.; Slater, L.; Sydeman, W.J.; Watanuki, Y.

    2008-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis of synchronous interannual changes in forage fish dynamics around the North Pacific Rim. To do this, we sampled forage fish communities using a seabird predator, the rhinoceros auklet (Cerorhinca monocerata), at six coastal study sites from Japan to California. We investigated whether take of forage fishes was related to local marine conditions as indexed by sea surface temperature (SST). SST was concordant across sites in the eastern Pacific, but inversely correlated between east and west. Forage fish communities consisted of anchovy (Engraulis spp.), sandlance (Ammodytes spp.), capelin (Mallotus spp.), and juvenile rockfish (Sebastes spp.), among others, and take of forage fish varied in response to interannual and possibly lower-frequency oceanographic variability. Take of primary forage species were significantly related to changes in SST only at the eastern sites. We found synchrony in interannual variation of primary forage fishes across several regions in the eastern Pacific, but no significant east-west correlations. Specifically in the Japan Sea, factors other than local SST or interannual variability may more strongly influence forage fishes. Predator diet sampling offers a fishery-independent, large-scale perspective on forage fish dynamics that may be difficult to obtain using conventional means of study. ?? 2008 NRC.

  1. RÉGIME ALIMENTAIRE DE LA GRANDE ALOSE ALOSA ALOSA (LINNÉ, 1766 ET DE L’ALOSE FEINTE ALOSA FALLAX (LACÉPÈDE, 1803 DANS LE GOLFE DE GASCOGNE.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAVERNY C.

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available L’examen de contenus stomacaux de 193 spécimens d’Alosa alosa (longueur totale Lt 181 à 538 mm / 2 à 4 ans et de 175 d’Alosa fallax (Lt 204 à 486 mm / 2 à 6 ans pêchés au niveau du plateau continental océanique français de l’Atlantique Ouest montre que les aloses sont en mer des prédateurs sélectifs d’espèces essentiellement pélagiques. A. alosa est à dominante zooplanctonophage. Les euphausiacés sont la composante alimentaire principale avec les copépodes, dans une moindre part. Les poissons avec l’anchois et le sprat (Engraulis encrasicolus et Sprattus sprattus restent des proies accidentelles toute l’année. A. fallax est nettement plus piscivore. L’anchois constitue sa proie préférentielle tout au long de l’année. Les euphausiacés, mieux représentés dans le bol alimentaire au moment du printemps, restent des proies secondaires. La saison d’alimentation la moins intense se situe en été chez les deux espèces, période où l’embonpoint des aloses chute. L’activité alimentaire de l’alose feinte montre une augmentation durant les 4 à 8 heures qui suivent le lever du soleil.

  2. Dose dependent oxidation kinetics of lipids in fish during irradiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tukenmez, I.; Ersen, M.S.; Bakioglu, A.T. [Turkish Atomic Energy Authority, Ankara (Turkey). Lalahan Nuclear Research Inst.; Bicer, A.; Pamuk, V. [Gazi University, Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1997-10-01

    Kinetic aspects of the development of lipid oxidation in complex foods as fish in the course of irradiation were analyzed with respect to the associated formation of malonaldehyde (MA) through the reactions modified so as to be consistent with those in complex foods as fish. Air-packed anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) samples in polyethylene pouches were irradiated at the doses of 1, 2, 5, 10, 15,20 and 25 kGy at 20{sup o} C in a Cs-137 gamma irradiator of 1.806 kGy/h dose rate. Immediately after each irradiation, MA contents of irradiated and unirradiated samples were determined by thiobarbituric acid test. Based on the MA formation, a kinetic model to simulate the apparent oxidation of lipid in fish as a function of irradiation dose was derived from the rate equations consistent with modified reactions. Kinetic parameters and simulation were related to conditions of lipid oxidation, and associated rancidity state of fish with respect to the doses applied in different irradiation-preservation processes. Numerical values of kinetic parameters based on the MA formation were found as a threshold dose of 0.375 kGy, an apparent yield of 1.871 {mu}mol/kg kGy, and a maximum attainable concentration of 15.853 {mu}mol/kg which may be used for process control and dosimetry. (author).

  3. Comparison of the effects of two bongo net mesh sizes on the estimation of abundance and size of Engraulidae eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Menegassi del Favero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies of ichthyoplankton retention by nets of different mesh sizes are important because they help in choosing a sampler when planning collection and the establishment of correction factors. These factors make it possible to compare studies performed with nets of different mesh sizes. In most studies of mesh retention of fish eggs, the taxonomic identification is done at the family level, resulting in the loss of detailed information. We separated Engraulidae eggs, obtained with 0.333 mm and 0.505 mm mesh bongo nets at 172 oceanographic stations in the southeastern Brazilian Bight, into four groups based on their morphometric characteristics. The difference in the abundance of eggs caught by the two nets was not significant for those groups with highest volume, types A and B, but in type C (Engraulis anchoita, the most eccentric, and in type D, of the smallest volume, the difference was significant. However, no significant difference was observed in the egg size sampled with each net for E. anchoita and type D, which exhibited higher abundance in the 0.333 mm mesh net and minor axis varying from 0.45-0.71 mm, smaller than the 0.505 mm mesh aperture and the mesh diagonal.

  4. Danningsperspektiver i grunnskolens eksamensoppgaver i norsk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audhild Norendal

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Artikkelen er en analyse av grunnskolens eksamen i norsk. I analysen sammenlignes oppgavesettene gitt under L97 og LK06. Eksamensoppgavene blir drøftet i lys av danningsbegrepet og spesielt Wolfgang Klafkis teorier. Analysen viser at eksamen etter innføringen av Kunnskapsløftet representerer både kontinuitet og brudd når det kommer til danningsperspektiver. En del bærende temaer gjelder for begge læreplanperiodene. Disse temaene er uavhengige av læreplanmålene og utgjør et standardrepertoar til eksamen. Valgfriheten har blitt mindre etter innføringen av Kunnskapsløftet, og oppgavene etterspør i økende grad norskfaglige kunnskaper. Det materiale danningsaspektet er dermed blitt styrket på bekostning av det formale. Dette er en utvikling som går i motsatt retning av danningssynet i de to læreplanene. Eksamensskrivingen har gått fra primært å bli forstått som et individuelt prosjekt i L97 til å bli definert som et kollektivt prosjekt i Kunnskapsløftet. Skriveoppdragene har gradvis blitt mer styrende og krever større grad av tilpasning. Avslutningsvis blir forholdet mellom danning og nytte diskutert. Om eksamen først og fremst blir et måleinstrument for å teste grunnleggende ferdigheter og kompetansemål, kan nytteperspektivene komme til å fortrenge danningsperspektivene.Nøkkelord: danning, norskfaget, grunnskolen, eksamen, L97, KunnskapsløftetAbstractIn this article, the examination in Norwegian language in lower secondary school is analysed. The examinations during the period of the two curriculums L97 (1997–2006 and LK06 (2006, are compared. The written tasks in the examinations are discussed with reference to the concept of Bildung and the theories of Wolfgang Klafki. The analysis shows that the examinations introduced after the introduction of Kunnskapsløftet represent both continuity and change when looking from the perspectives of Bildung. Furthermore, some of the major themes are represented in both

  5. Skriveramme som støtte i arbeidet med fagskriving? Studie av 8. klasse elevers tekstskaping i samfunnsfag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Kristine Øgreid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bruk av formmønster blir jevnlig diskutert som støtte i skriveopplæringen. Hensikten med denne studien er å undersøke sammenhengen mellom lærerens undervisning der bruk av skriveramme inngår, og elevtekster i et skriveprosjekt i en 8. klasse i samfunnsfag. Skriveprosessen er studert og beskrevet gjennom observasjonsnotater og video-opptak, og elevenes tekster er samlet inn som sluttprodukt og tolket i lys av prosesssen rundt skriverammen. Med utgangspunkt i måten skriverammen er realisert i elevenes tekster, kan tekstene sorteres i fire kategorier: 1 Rammen er integrert, 2 Rammen er uthevet, 3 Rammen overskrides og 4 Ingen ramme. Gjennom å sammenligne tekster der rammen ikke synes å ha hatt betydning for tekstskapingen, kategori 4, med de andre kategoriene, diskuteres rammens støtte både ut fra skrivepedagogisk og historiefaglig perspektiv. Undersøkelsen av tekstene i de tre første kategoriene tyder på skriverammen har fungert som støtte, ikke bare i forbindelse med tekstoppbygging, men også som en katalysator for innholdsgenerering og faglig forståelse. Bruk av rigide rammer i skriveopplæringen er kritisert for å fremme en instrumentell og sjangerformalistisk skrivepedagogikk kjennetegnet av reproduksjon og imitasjon av tekstmønstre. Dette ser her ut til å motvirkes av lærerens innramming av skriverammen i en skriveprosess som er kjennetegnet av sterk lærerstyring, steg-for-steg-metodikk og gjennomgående dialog mellom lærer og elever.Nøkkelord: fagspesifikk literacy, literacydidaktikk, skriving i samfunnsfag, skriverammeAbstractTeaching form and the use of models are frequently discussed as a means of supporting school writing instruction. This study investigates the relation between teaching which incorporates the use of writing frames and student texts produced in a writing project conducted in a 8th grade Social Studies classes in a Norwegian lower secondary school. The writing process is examined and described

  6. Intervensjonsstudien "Forebyggelse av lårhalsbrudd". Metode og praktisk gjennomføring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Kvaavik

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  Bakgrunn  3 kan forebygge brudd blant sykehjemsbeboere. Her beskrivesmetoden og den praktiske gjennomføringen av studien.Metode  mg vitamin D daglig som 5 ml tran og kontrollgruppa fikk 5 ml tran der vitamin D var fjernet. Endepunktenevar lårhalsbrudd og alle ikke-vertebrale brudd. Et enkelt studieopplegg ble vektlagt. På bakgrunnav styrkeberegningen var målsetningen å inkludere ca. 2000 deltakere.Resultater  Konklusjon  The intervention study”Prevention of hip fractures”. Nor J Epidemiol 2000; 10 (1: 79-85.  Background  3 can prevent suchfractures. Here we present the method and the implementation of the study.Method  mg vitamin D daily in 5 ml cod liver oil for 2 years and the control group received 5 ml cod liver oilwithout vitamin D. The endpoints were hip fractures and all non-vertebral fractures. It was consideredimportant to use a trial that the nursing homes would find easy to implement. According to power calculationthe aim was to include about 2000 participants.Results  Conclusion  : The participation was lower than expected as recruiting nursing homes and nursing homeresidents posed considerable difficulty. However, the great majority of the ward staff at the participatingwards did not find the intervention demanding. A total of 1144 was included in the study.: A total of 1144 residents from 51 nursing homes (of 106 invited in Oslo, Lier and Bergen participated.The participation rate at the individual nursing home varied from 3 to 57%. The participants were85 years old and 3/4 were women. Mean calcium intake from cheese and milk was 450 mg/day, more than40% used a vitamin D supplement while only 3% used a calcium supplement. 1/3 of the participants completedthe 2 years intervention, about 1/3 finished the intervention before 2 years because of death and 1/3finished before 2 years of other causes. The great majority of the wards did not find the interventiondemanding.: A randomised, double

  7. A quantitative documentation of the composition of two powdered herbal formulations (antimalarial and haematinic) using ethnomedicinal information from ogbomoso, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunkunle, Adepoju Tunde Joseph; Oyelakin, Tosin Mathew; Enitan, Abosede Oluwaseyi; Oyewole, Funmilayo Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight) of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB) and haematinic (Haematol-B) powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0), Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0), Mangifera indica L. (10.0), Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0), Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0), root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0), Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith) E. A. Bruce (8.0), Parquetina nigrescens (Afz.) Bullock (6.0), and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0), while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0), fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0), stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0), Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) A. Juss (5.5), Mangifera indica (5.5), root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0), root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5), Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5), Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam.) Zepern & Timler (5.5), and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5). In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  8. A Quantitative Documentation of the Composition of Two Powdered Herbal Formulations (Antimalarial and Haematinic Using Ethnomedicinal Information from Ogbomoso, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adepoju Tunde Joseph Ogunkunle

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The safety of many African traditional herbal remedies is doubtful due to lack of standardization. This study therefore attempted to standardize two polyherbal formulations from Ogbomoso, Oyo State, Nigeria, with respect to the relative proportions (weight-for-weight of their botanical constituents. Information supplied by 41 local herbal practitioners was statistically screened for consistency and then used to quantify the composition of antimalarial (Maloff-HB and haematinic (Haematol-B powdered herbal formulations with nine and ten herbs, respectively. Maloff-HB contained the stem bark of Enantia chlorantha Oliv. (30.0, Alstonia boonei De Wild (20.0, Mangifera indica L. (10.0, Okoubaka aubrevillei Phelleg & Nomand (8.0, Pterocarpus osun Craib (4.0, root bark of Calliandra haematocephala Hassk (10.0, Sarcocephalus latifolius (J. E. Smith E. A. Bruce (8.0, Parquetina nigrescens (Afz. Bullock (6.0, and the vines of Cassytha filiformis L. (4.0, while Haematol-B was composed of the leaf sheath of Sorghum bicolor Moench (30.0, fruit calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (20.0, stem bark of Theobroma cacao L. (10.0, Khaya senegalensis (Desr. A. Juss (5.5, Mangifera indica (5.5, root of Aristolochia ringens Vahl. (7.0, root bark of Sarcocephalus latifolius (5.5, Uvaria chamae P. Beauv. (5.5, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides (Lam. Zepern & Timler (5.5, and seed of Garcinia kola Heckel (5.5. In pursuance of their general acceptability, the two herbal formulations are recommended for their pharmaceutical, phytochemical, and microbial qualities.

  9. Depositional environment, ichnological features and oxygenation of Permian to earliest Triassic marine sediments in central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Uchman

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Late Early Permian–lowermost Triassic carbonate, siliceous (spiculites and clastic marine sediments in the Marmierfjellet area (Isfjorden, central Spitsbergen contain a relatively diverse and abundant trace fossil assemblage providing important information about the depositional processes. The Vøringen Member (Late Artinskian–Kungurian of the Kapp Starostin Formation (Late Artinskian–? Changhsingian contains trace fossils (Nereites, Phycosiphon, Zoophycos and Arenicolites—common in tempestites typical of the proximal–archetypal Cruziana ichnofacies, which indicates lower shoreface. Nereites, Phycosiphon and Zoophycos, accompanied by other rare trace fossils, characterize the Svenskegga and Hovtinden members of the Kapp Starostin Formation. They are interpreted as the distal Cruziana ichnofacies, possibly transitional to the Zoophycos ichnofacies typical of the lower offshore zone. However, the sporadic occurrences of Arenicolites and Macaronichnus can point to episodic shallowing to upper offshore–lower shoreface. The lowest part of the Triassic Vikinghøgda Formation (Induan–Olenekian contains a very low-diverse ichnoassemblage composed of a few simple and branched forms ascribed to the impoverished Cruziana ichnofacies (lower to upper offshore environment, which is attributed to the early recovery stage after the Permian–Triassic extinction. The trace fossils and loss of primary sedimentary structures caused by intense bioturbation throughout most of the section point to generally oxygenated pore waters on the sea floor. However, some horizons, especially laminated black shales, display reduced or no bioturbational activity. These horizons also show high V/(V+Ni ratios, which indicate oxygen-depleted sediments with periods of anoxic conditions. A remarkable black shale unit deposited under anoxic and sulphidic conditions occurs at the Permian–Triassic transition.

  10. Interdisciplinary Approaches at Institutions of Higher Education: Teaching Information Systems Concepts to Students of Non-Computer Science Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Schwald

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present a curriculum development concept for teaching information systems content to students enrolled in non-computer science programs by presenting examples from the Business Administration programs at Albstadt-Sigmaringen University, a state university located in Southern Germany. The main focus of this paper therefore is to describe this curriculum development concept. Since this concept involves two disciplines, i.e. business administration and computer science, the author argues that it is necessary to define the roles of one discipline for the other and gives an example on how this could be done. The paper acknowledges that the starting point for the development of a curriculum such as one for a business administration program will be the requirements of the potential employers of the graduates. The paper continues to recommend the assignment of categorized skills and qualifications, such as knowledge, social, methodological, and decision making skills to the different parts of the curricula in question for the development of such a curriculum concept. After the mapping of skills and courses the paper describes how specific information systems can be used in courses, especially those with a specific focus on methodological skills. Two examples from Albstadt-Sigma-ringen University are being given. At the end of the paper the author explains the implications and limitations of such a concept, especially for programs that build on each other, as is the case for some Bachelor and Master programs. The paper concludes that though some elements of this concept are transferable, it is still necessary that every institution of higher education has to take into consideration its own situation to develop curricula concepts. It provides recommendations what issues every institution should solve for itself.

  11. Forestillinger om spanskfaget: et kritisk blikk på lærebøker i spansk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liv Eide

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen retter et kritisk blikk på lærebøker i spanskfaget, og stiller spørsmålet om de ivaretar læreplanens målsetninger om at fremmedspråksfaget skal være et dannings- og kulturfag. Vi skal se at spanskfagets historie og utfordringer skiller seg vesentlig fra de to andre store fremmedspråkene i skolen: tysk og fransk, og det er grunn til å tro at læreboken står spesielt sterkt i spanskfaget. Videre vil vi se at det hersker en forestilling om det spanske språket som turistspråk og et språk man forbinder med populærkultur, og at det er disse forestillingene som ofte ligger til grunn for elevenes valg av språket. Deretter presenteres en analysemodell utviklet for å analysere læreboktekster, og generelle funn fra en undersøkelse av ni lærebøker fra fire ulike læreverk i spansk som er i bruk i den norske skolen. På bakgrunn av denne undersøkelsen vil jeg hevde at lærebøkene bekrefter elevens allerede eksisterende forestillinger om faget. Lærebøkenes verdensbilde utfordrer dermed ikke elevens eget verdensbilde, noe jeg mener et danningsfag bør gjøre. Ved hjelp av et konkret eksempel synliggjøres det også hvilke aspekter ved språkopplæringen elevene står i fare for å gå glipp av når undervisningen blir styrt av læreboken. Avslutningsvis argumenterer jeg for behovet for forskning på hvordan bøkene brukes i praksis, og på lærernes egne forestillinger om spanskfaget.

  12. 利用△-分布模型法评估调查数据带有极端值的渔业生物的平均资源密度%Estimating the average stock density with dominating large catches based on △-distribution model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁兴伟; 姜亚洲; 程家骅

    2011-01-01

    海洋生物的空间分布具有不均匀性,从而造成底拖网调查数据频数分布显著偏斜.偶尔出现的极端值,会直接影响资源密度均值和方差的估计.作者根据东海区渔业资源监测调查数据库中资料,利用△-分布模型法和调查设计法分别估算了2005年夏季的太平洋褶柔鱼Todarodes paci ficus、2007年春季的鳃鱼Engraulis japonicus以及2008年秋季的竹荚鱼Trachurus japonicus 的平均资源密度.结果表明,利用△-分布模型法对3种鱼类资源密度均值的估算值均低于调查设计法,且△-分布模型法对资源密度均值进行估算时的标准误差也相对较小.因此,针时调查数据中出现极端值的情况,如果资源密度对数转换后服从正态分布,那么利用△-分布模型法对资源密度均值进行估算是一种稳健的评估方法,值得在渔业评估上进行推广.%Due to the patchy spatial distribution of marine biota, data collected from bottom trawlers exhibit a skewed distribution with many zero catches and some very large catches.A common problem in the analyses and interpretation of skewed survey data is that, a single immense catch may account for 50% or more of the total catch during the survey.These extreme values not only greatly affect the estimate of the means but also of the variance.Based on the data collected from the bottom trawl survey conducted in the East China Sea,we estimated the average stock density of Todarodes pacificus in summer 2005,Engraulis japonicus in spring 2007, and Trachurus japonicus in autumn 2008 by employing two methods,namely the △-distribution method and the design-based method.The results revealed that the estimators of the means and the standard errors of stock density for the three populations based on the △-distribution were obviously lower than those based on the design-based method.It was concluded that the mean and the standard error would be overestimated using the design

  13. Assessing the impact of environmental forcing on the condition of anchovy larvae in the Cadiz Gulf using nucleic acid and fatty acid-derived indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodósio, M. A.; Garrido, S.; Peters, J.; Leitão, F.; Ré, P.; Peliz, A.; Santos, A. M. P.

    2017-02-01

    Understanding the environmental processes affecting fish larvae survival is critical for population dynamics, conservation purposes and to ecosystem-based fishery management. Using anchovies (Engraulis encrasicolus) of the Cadiz Gulf as a study case and considering the "Ocean Triad" hypothesis, we investigate the larval ecophysiological status and potential survival in relation to oceanographic variables. Therefore, this study aims to describe the nutritional condition of anchovy larvae during spawning season (peak in summer) through nucleic acid- and fatty acid (FA)-derived indices and to analyze the effects of the major environmental parameters (Depth, Temperature, Salinity, Plankton biomass) on anchovy survival potential at early phases. Fish larvae were collected in August from 30 m to 400 m depth at 35 stations off the southern Iberian coast. A previous upwelling event influenced the oceanographic conditions of the more western stations off Cape São Vicente (CSV). Along the coast, the water became warmer from west to the east through Cape Santa Maria (CSM) ending at Guadiana estuary, where easterly winds originated the development of a counter current. The standardized RNA/DNA (sRD) of anchovy larvae decreased throughout larval ontogeny, reflecting a reduction of growth during the development. Essential FA concentrations also decreased, but docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in particular was highly conserved even after the reduction of total FA concentration in anchovy larvae related to the onset of swimming abilities (post-flexion phase). The oceanographic conditions (west upwelling, east counter current, and stratification) led to a nearshore aggregation of plankton and anchovy larvae with good ecophysiological conditions in the central area of the southern coast, where an optimal range of temperature and chlorophyll, as an indirect food proxy for anchovy larval development, were registered. The study proves that the oceanographic conditions of the study area are

  14. Transcriptome analysis deciphers evolutionary mechanisms underlying genetic differentiation between coastal and offshore anchovy populations in the Bay of Biscay

    KAUST Repository

    Montes, Iratxe

    2016-09-13

    Morphometry and otolith microchemistry point to the existence of two populations of the European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) in the Bay of Biscay: one in open seawaters, and a yet unidentified population in coastal waters. To test this hypothesis, we assembled a large number of samples from the region, including 587 juveniles and spawning adults from offshore and coastal waters, and 264 fish from other locations covering most of the species’ European range. These samples were genotyped for 456 exonic SNPs that provide a robust way to decipher adaptive processes in these populations. Two genetically differentiated populations of anchovy inhabit the Bay of Biscay with different population dynamics: (1) a large offshore population associated with marine waters included in the wide-shelf group, and (2) a coastal metapopulation adapted to estuarine environments in the Bay of Biscay and North Sea included in the narrow-shelf group. Transcriptome analysis identified neutral and adaptive evolutionary processes underlying differentiation between these populations. Reduced gene flow between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay appears to result from divergence between two previously isolated gene pools adapted to contrasting habitats and now in secondary contact. Eleven molecular markers appear to mark divergent selection between the ecotypes, and a majority of these markers are associated with salinity variability. Ecotype differences at two outlier genes, TSSK6 and basigin, may hinder gamete compatibility between the ecotypes and reinforce reproductive isolation. Additionally, possible convergent evolution between offshore and coastal populations in the Bay of Biscay has been detected for the syntaxin1B-otoferlin gene system, which is involved in the control of larval buoyancy. Further study of exonic markers opens the possibility of understanding the mechanisms of adaptive divergence between European anchovy populations. © 2016, Springer

  15. Foraging ecology of Caspian Terns in the Columbia River Estuary, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Donald E.; Roby, D.D.; Collis, K.

    2005-01-01

    Comparisons were made of the foraging ecology of Caspian Terns (Sterna caspia) nesting on two islands in the Columbia River estuary using radio telemetry and observations of prey fed to chicks and mates at each colony. Early in the chick-rearing period, radio-tagged terns nesting at Rice Island (river km 34) foraged mostly in the freshwater zone of the estuary close to the colony, while terns nesting on East Sand Island (river km 8) foraged in the marine or estuarine mixing zones close to that colony. Late in the chick-rearing period, Rice Island terns moved more of their foraging to the two zones lower in the estuary, while East Sand Island terns continued to forage in these areas. Tern diets at each colony corresponded to the primary foraging zone (freshwater vs. marine/ mixing) of radio-tagged individuals: Early in chick-rearing, Rice Island terns relied heavily on juvenile salmonids (Oncorhynchus spp., 71% of identified prey), but this declined late in chick-rearing (46%). East Sand Island terns relied less on salmonids (42% and 16%, early and late in chick-rearing), and instead utilized marine fishes such as Anchovy (Engraulis mordax) and Herring (Clupea pallasi). Throughout chick-rearing, Rice Island terns foraged farther from their colony (median distance: 12.3 km during early chick-rearing and 16.9 km during late chick-rearing) than did East Sand Island terns (9.6 and 7.7 km, respectively). The study leads to the conclusion that Caspian Terns are generalist foragers and make use of the most proximate available forage fish resources when raising young.

  16. Managing small-scale commercial fisheries for adaptive capacity: insights from dynamic social-ecological drivers of change in Monterey Bay.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy E Aguilera

    Full Text Available Globally, small-scale fisheries are influenced by dynamic climate, governance, and market drivers, which present social and ecological challenges and opportunities. It is difficult to manage fisheries adaptively for fluctuating drivers, except to allow participants to shift effort among multiple fisheries. Adapting to changing conditions allows small-scale fishery participants to survive economic and environmental disturbances and benefit from optimal conditions. This study explores the relative influence of large-scale drivers on shifts in effort and outcomes among three closely linked fisheries in Monterey Bay since the Magnuson-Stevens Fisheries Conservation and Management Act of 1976. In this region, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax, northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax, and market squid (Loligo opalescens fisheries comprise a tightly linked system where shifting focus among fisheries is a key element to adaptive capacity and reduced social and ecological vulnerability. Using a cluster analysis of landings, we identify four modes from 1974 to 2012 that are dominated (i.e., a given species accounting for the plurality of landings by squid, sardine, anchovy, or lack any dominance, and seven points of transition among these periods. This approach enables us to determine which drivers are associated with each mode and each transition. Overall, we show that market and climate drivers are predominantly attributed to dominance transitions. Model selection of external drivers indicates that governance phases, reflected as perceived abundance, dictate long-term outcomes. Our findings suggest that globally, small-scale fishery managers should consider enabling shifts in effort among fisheries and retaining existing flexibility, as adaptive capacity is a critical determinant for social and ecological resilience.

  17. A day in the life of fish larvae: modeling foraging and growth using quirks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaus B Huebert

    Full Text Available This article introduces "Quirks," a generic, individual-based model synthesizing over 40 years of empirical and theoretical insights into the foraging behavior and growth physiology of marine fish larvae. In Quirks, different types of larvae are defined by a short list of their biological traits, and all foraging and growth processes (including the effects of key environmental factors are modeled following one unified set of mechanistic rules. This approach facilitates ecologically meaningful comparisons between different species and environments. We applied Quirks to model young exogenously feeding larvae of four species: 5.5-mm European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, 7-mm Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua, 13-mm Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus, and 7-mm European sprat (Sprattus sprattus. Modeled growth estimates explained the majority of variability among 53 published empirical growth estimates, and displayed very little bias: 0.65% ± 1.2% d(-1 (mean ± standard error. Prey organisms of ∼ 67% the maximum ingestible prey length were optimal for all larval types, in terms of the expected ingestion per encounter. Nevertheless, the foraging rate integrated over all favorable prey sizes was highest when smaller organisms made up >95% of the prey biomass under the assumption of constant normalized size spectrum slopes. The overall effect of turbulence was consistently negative, because its detrimental influence on prey pursuit success exceeded its beneficial influence on prey encounter rate. Model sensitivity to endogenous traits and exogenous environmental factors was measured and is discussed in depth. Quirks is free software and open source code is provided.

  18. The impact of extreme turbidity events on the nursery function of a temperate European estuary with regulated freshwater inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Ortegón, E.; Subida, M. D.; Cuesta, J. A.; Arias, A. M.; Fernández-Delgado, C.; Drake, P.

    2010-04-01

    Estuaries are used as nursery grounds by numerous marine species despite being usually subject to strong anthropogenic disturbances. Abundances of marine recruits (fish and crustacean decapods) and their main prey (mysids) were monitored by monthly sampling, from June 1997 to February 2009, in the lower reaches of the Guadalquivir estuary (SW Spain). During that period, unusually high and persistent turbidity events (HPTEs) were observed twice. Both HPTEs started with strong and sudden freshwater discharges after relatively long periods of very low freshwater inflow. Data from this time-series were used to test the hypothesis that HPTEs may negatively impact the nursery function of estuaries either by decreasing prey availability or by decreasing survival/arrival of marine recruits. During HPTEs, the commonest mysid ( Mesopodopsis slabberi), a key species in the estuarine food web, showed a significant decrease in abundance. Likewise, some marine recruits that prey on M. slabberi and whose peaks of abundance within the estuary occur in summer-autumn ( Engraulis encrasicolus and Pomadasys incisus) were less abundant during HPTEs. It is also suggested that HPTEs might have triggered a shift in the distribution of the most euryhaline prey ( Neomysis integer) and predator ( Dicentrarchus punctatus and Crangon crangon) species, towards more saline waters. This could have contributed to an increase in the inter-specific competition (for food/habitat) within the estuarine nursery area. The results discussed in this study call attention to the need to reduce as much as possible the anthropogenic pressures that may stimulate the occurrence of high and persistent turbidity events (HPTEs) in order to preserve the nursery function of temperate estuaries.

  19. 九龙江口仔、稚鱼种类组成和季节变化%Species composition and seasonal variation of fish larvae and juveniles in Jiulong River estuary

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林楠; 沈长春; 钟俊生

    2009-01-01

    在九龙江口湾区设置3个断面共9个站位,于2007年11月~2008年8月按季度采用浅水I型浮游生物网进行垂直拖网和表层水平拖网,并在2号站位进行中层水平拖网.共采集到仔、稚鱼1 763尾,鉴定出33种,隶属于16属15科.其中垂直拖网167尾(密度为1.97 ind · m-3),表层水平拖网965尾(密度为0.30 ind ·m-3),中层水平拖网631尾(密度为5.39 ind · m-3).调查结果表明,虾虎鱼类(Gobiidae)占绝对优势,普氏细棘虾虎鱼(Acentrogobius pflaumi)、美肩鳃鳚(Omobranchus elegans)、斑NFDA3(Konosirus punctatus)、鳀(Engraulis japonicus)和白姑鱼(Argyrosomus argentatus)等为主要优势种.春季种类数最多(22种),冬季仅为5种.春季的平均密度最大,秋季和冬季的密度最小.中层水域仔、稚鱼种类数和数量均多于表层水域,且在水层分布也存在种类差异.比较以往的研究成果,在种类组成和主要优势种方面均发生了一些变化.

  20. Variation and temporal patterns in the composition of the surface ichthyoplankton in the southern Bay of Biscay (W. Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Elbée, Jean; Castège, Iker; Hémery, Georges; Lalanne, Yann; Mouchès, Claude; Pautrizel, Françoise; D'Amico, Frank

    2009-05-01

    From September 2000 to December 2006, surface plankton samples were collected on a monthly basis, from a station located in the southern Bay of Biscay (43°37N; 1°43W France), near the deep Capbreton canyon. In this paper, the results for the ichthyoplankton assemblage are presented. Among the 62 taxa recorded, only 35 were present in the larval stage whilst only 10 were represented by their eggs. Taxa represented by both stages (eggs+larvae; N=17) had the highest abundance. The presence in the surface plankton assemblage of species, at either or both stage, is interpreted within the context of the bathymetric distribution of species. The maxima in abundance and diversity occurred in February-March, for eggs, and May-June, for larvae. This 3-month time-lag between the stages is proposed to be related to the timing of egg spawning and larval recruitment to the pelagic environment. Mean egg abundances (82.4±29.8 eggs/10 m 2) were 10-fold higher than the larval abundances (7.1±1.8 larvae/10 m 2). Despite pronounced monthly variability, no statistically significant decrease in either egg or larvae abundance was observed during this 6-year study period. Compared with previous published studies, this study shows that the peak in ichthyoplankton diversity occurred two months earlier. In addition, the spawning period occurred over the whole year, even during autumn and winter. Using ordination techniques, the annual sequence appearance of taxa are described at the study site: Gadiforms, Ammodytidae and Pleuronectiforms were present during the winter whilst Sparidae, Blennidae, Labridae and Gobiidae, formed the summer group. Only three species, European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus, European pilchard Sardina pilchardus and Atlantic horse mackerel Trachurus trachurus were recorded throughout the year.

  1. Environmental conditions influencing the larval fish assemblage during summer in the Gulf of Gabes (Tunisia: South central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. KOCHED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An oceanographic survey was carried out during the summer of 2009, from June 25 to July 3 in the Gulf of Gabes. The study area is characterized by a wide continental shelf.A plankton sampling scheme was carried out to study the structure of the larval fish assemblages that characterizes the surface mixed layer, and to assess the influence of the environmental parameters on their spatial distribution.A total of 36 taxa were identified, 3 classified to the level of genus, 5 to family and 28 to species. The majority of identified fish larvae belonged to demersal species, mainly picarel Spicara smaris (23.76% of the total larval fish abundance, followed by red mullet Mullus barbatus (14.92% and several species of the Sparidae family (9.15%. Small pelagic species as Sardinella Sardinella aurita and European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolus were also abundant (27.75 % and dominated the fish larvae community in offshore stations. Five large pelagic species were found among the larvae, including bullet tuna Auxis rochei, Atlantic black skipjack Euthynnus alletteratus, albacore Thunnus alalunga, swordfish Xiphias gladius and the highly migratory Atlantic bluefin tuna Thunnus thynnus. All these apex predator species appear in 38.5% of the sampling stations and contribute about 7.9% of the total larval catches. The larval fish assemblage of the Gulf of Gabes is predominantly composed of neritic species in correspondence with the shallow depths of the study area. Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA showed that larval distributions were mainly conditioned by depth. However, other factors, like hydrographic processes, play also a very important role in shaping the spatial pattern of larval fish distribution.

  2. Utilization by fishes of the Alviso Island ponds and adjacent waters in south san francisco bay following restoration to tidal influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiki, M.K.; Mejia, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Earthen levees of three isolated salt ponds known locally as the Alviso Island Ponds were intentionally breached in March 2006 to allow tidal exchange of the ponds with water from Coyote Creek. The water exchange transformed the previously fishless hypersaline ponds into lower salinity habitats suitable for fish life. This study documented fish utilization of the ponds, adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek, and an upstream reach in nearby Artesian Slough during May-July 2006. By the time the study was initiated, water quality conditions in the ponds were similar to conditions in adjacent reaches of Coyote Creek. The only variable exhibiting a strong gradient within the study area was salinity, which increased progressively from upstream to downstream in Coyote Creek. A total of 4,034 fish represented by 18 species from 14 families was caught during the study. Judging from cluster analysis of presence-absence data that excluded rare fish species, the 10 sampling units (3 ponds, 6 reaches in Coyote Creek, and 1 reach in Artesian Slough) formed two clusters or groups, suggesting two species assemblages. The existence of two groups was also suggested by ordination with non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMS). One group, which was composed of the three ponds and four of the lowermost reaches of Coyote Creek, was characterized by mostly estuarine or marine species (e.g., topsmelt, Atherinops affinis; northern anchovy, Engraulis mordax; and longjaw mudsucker, Gillichthys mirabilis). The second group, which was composed of the two uppermost reaches of Coyote Creek and the one reach of Artesian Slough, was characterized by freshwater species (e.g., Sacramento sucker, Catostomus occidentalis) and by an absence of the estuarine/marine species noted in the first assemblage. Judging from a joint plot of selected water quality variables overlaying the ordination results, salinity was the only important variable associated with spatial distribution of fish species. Water

  3. Distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in relation to summer hypoxia in Hiroshima Bay, Seto Inland Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Jun; Kudoh, Takaya; Takatsuji, Hideyuki; Kawaguchi, Osamu; Kasai, Akihide

    2010-02-01

    Biological and physical surveys were conducted in order to investigate the relationship between environmental conditions and the distribution of moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita in Hiroshima Bay, western Seto Inland Sea, Japan. Moon jellyfish and ichthyoplankton were collected at 13 stations in Hiroshima Bay during monthly surveys from July to September in 2006 and 2007. Surface temperature in 2006 was significantly lower during the August and September cruises and surface salinity was lower during all cruises than in 2007. Moon jellyfish was the most dominant gelatinous plankton collected, accounting for 89.7% in wet weight. Mean moon jellyfish abundance in 2006 was higher than that in 2007 from July through September, with significant inter-year differences for July and September. Variability in precipitation and nutritional input from the Ohta River, northernmost part of Hiroshima Bay, were suggested as possible factors affecting the inter-annual variability in moon jellyfish abundance in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay. Moon jellyfish were more abundant in the coastal areas of northern Hiroshima Bay, where the dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration was lower, while low in the central part of the bay. Japanese anchovy Engraulis japonicus eggs were most dominant (58.1% in number) among the ichthyoplankton and were abundant in the central area of Hiroshima Bay. Explanatory analysis was conducted to detect possible effects of environmental conditions on the abundance of moon jellyfish and Japanese anchovy eggs during the summer months in Hiroshima Bay. Of the environmental conditions tested (temperature, salinity and DO of surface and bottom layers at each sampling station), bottom DO had the most significant effect on the moon jellyfish abundance: there was a negative correlation between the bottom DO and the moon jellyfish abundance in Hiroshima Bay during summer.

  4. Damages to the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea by the invader comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elif Eker Develi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study changes in ecosystems of the Black Sea, Caspian Sea and Baltic Sea after the invasion of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were investigated. Excessive increase in plant plankton as a result of antrophogenic eutrophication leads to a shift in mesozooplankton com¬position, which is the main food item of these comb jellies. For instance, while some mesozoo¬plankton species disappeared from the environment or substantially decreased in number, some others increased in quantity. These changes in food chain may promote the rise of jellyfishes rather than fish in the environment. In addition, decrease in planktivorous fish abundance as a consequence of overfishing also triggers the increase of newly introduced comb jellies, which were possibly introduced via ballast waters of ships, in the ecosystem. Increase in abundance of M. leidyi, which compete with planktivorous fishes (anchovy, Engraulis encrasicolus ponticus in the Black Sea, kilka, Clupeonella spp. in the Caspian Sea for their food, causes to decrease of planktivorous fish stocks which have already been vulnerable due to overfishing. Another reason for successfully adaption of M. leidyi to its new ecosystems could be linked to global warming which provides favourable temperature ranges for reproduction and growth of this ctenophore. Although there are still many debates related to possible negative effects, one of the ways to reduce harmful impacts of invaders might be the transport of natural predators of these invaders to the new ecosystems of invaders. For example, it was reported that the abun¬dance of Mnemiopsis leidyi decreased to very low levels during 1999-2004 in the Black Sea following the introduction of another comb jelly, Beroe ovata, which feed on this ctenophore.

  5. Species composition and community diversity of nekton in Laizhou Bay, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Li

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Based on trawls conducted in Laizhou Bay, China (119°05′–120°00′ E, 37°12′–37°40′ N, in 2010 and 2011, an analysis was made of changes in species composition, dominant species and community diversity of nekton. A total of 85 species were identified, which included 55 fish, 25 crustaceans and 5 cephalopod species. The most species-rich orders were Perciformes (28 species and Decapoda (24 species. There was obvious seasonal variation in nekton number, mostly influenced by the number of fishes. Sardinella zunasi, Konosirus punctatus and Thryssa kammalensis were the main pelagic fishes in Laizhou Bay, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Acanthogobius ommaturus and Cynoglossus joyneri were the main bottom fishes, Orgtosaquilla oratoria, Charybdis japonica and Crangon hakodatei were the main crustaceans, while squid (Loliolus sp. represented the main cephalopods. Loliolus sp., Chaeturichthys stigmatias and Konosirus punctatus were the dominant species in both 2010 and 2011 and the Shannon-Wiener diversity index was highest in summer and lowest in winter. The Shannon-Wiener index was also higher in the north-east area and lower in the south-west. Since the late 1950s, nekton number, especially of fish, has significantly declined due to human activities and climate change impacts. This is particularly true for cartilaginous fish, estuarine species, river-migratory species, large-scale economic fish, flatfish and takifugu. In parallel, dominant species, such as Trichiurus lepturus, Setipinna taty, Engraulis japonicus, Thryssa kammalensis have been replaced by smaller nekton.

  6. Mass-balance ecosystem model of the East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiahua Cheng; William W.L. Cheung; Tony J. Pitcher

    2009-01-01

    Using the Ecopath mass-balance trophodynamic model, this paper analyzed the trophic levels, flows, food web structure and ecosys-tem maturity of the East China Sea, and identified ecologically important functional groups in the ecosystem. The model is based on fishery resource surveys of the East China Sea in 2000, studies on diet composition and global databases such as FishBase and the Sea Around Us Project Database. The results showed that trophic levels of the functional groups are between 2.86 and 4.37, with an average of 3.32. Anchocy (Engraulis japonicus), small fishes and benthic crustaceans such as shrimps and crabs are important groups in terms of the trophic structure and flow dynamics in the East China Sea. Energy flows of most groups are between specific trophic levels, except file fish (Thamnaconus spp.), pomfret (Pampus spp.) and cephalopods. Trophic transfer efficiency of levels Ⅱ,Ⅲ,Ⅳ and more than Ⅴ are 11.8%, 21.1%, 17.4% and 22.1-22.5%, respectively. Effects of fishery-the largest 'consumer' of the ecosystem -are much stronger than those exerted by biological groups in the system. The model suggests that the current fishery can further reduce the complexity of the ecosystem. Evaluations of the system indices suggest that maturity of the ecosystem is low. The conclusion of this model indicates that it was the overfishing that caused the ecosystem of the East China Sea declined, which should be taken into account as a critical reference for fisheries management in the future.

  7. First molecular identification of the zoonotic parasite Anisakis pegreffii (Nematoda: Anisakidae in a paraffin-embedded granuloma taken from a case of human intestinal anisakiasis in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palumbo Massimo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anisakiasis is an important fish-borne zoonosis provoked by larval stages of nematodes belonging to the genus Anisakis. The detection and identification of human infections is difficult. This is due to: a the low specificity of the clinical features and symptomatology related to human infections; b the paucity of diagnostic features of larvae found in granulomatous lesions characteristic of "invasive anisakiasis"; and c the lack morphological characters diagnostic at the specific level when larvae of Anisakis are detected. Thus, molecular-based diagnostic approaches are warranted. Method We have developed a PCR method that amplifies the DNA of Anisakis spp. in fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. This method was applied to a granuloma removed from a human case of intestinal anisakiasis in Italy. Specific primers of the mtDNA cox2 gene were used and sequence analysis was performed according to the procedures already established for species of Anisakis. Results The sequence obtained (629 bp was compared with those of the other species of Anisakis which have so far been genetically characterized and with sequences obtained from larval stages of Anisakis collected from the Mediterranean fish Engraulis encrasicolus. This enabled the genetic identification of the larva in the human tissue as A. pegreffii. This is the first instance of human intestinal anisakiasis diagnosed using PCR of DNA purified from a fixed eosinophilic granuloma embedded in paraffin. Conclusion The case of human anisakiasis presented reinforces the pathological significance of the species A. pegreffii to humans. The molecular/genetic methodological approach based on mtDNA cox2 sequence analysis, described here, can allow easy and rapid identification of Anisakis spp. in formalin-fixed and paraffin embedded tissues removed from cases of either gastric or intestinal human anisakiasis.

  8. Long-term variation in a central California pelagic forage assemblage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ralston, Stephen; Field, John C.; Sakuma, Keith M.

    2015-06-01

    A continuous 23 year midwater trawl survey (1990-2012) of the epipelagic forage assemblage off the coast of central California (lat. 36°30‧-38°20‧ N) is described and analyzed. Twenty taxa occurred in ≥ 10% of the 2037 trawls that were completed at 40 distinct station locations. The dominant taxa sampled by the 9.5 mm mesh net included a suite of young-of-the-year (YOY) groundfish, including rockfish (Sebastes spp.) and Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), two clupeoids (Engraulis mordax and Sardinops sagax), krill (Euphausiacea), cephalopods (Doryteuthis opalescens and Octopus sp.), and a variety of mesopelagic species, i.e., Diaphus theta, Tarltonbeania crenularis, "other" lanternfish (Myctophidae), deep-sea smelts (Bathylagidae), and sergestid shrimp. Annual abundance estimates of the 20 taxa were obtained from analysis of variance models, which included year and station as main effects. Principal components analysis of the abundance estimates revealed that 61% of assemblage variance was explained by the first three components. The first component revealed a strong contrast in the abundance of: (a) YOY groundfish, market squid (D. opalescens), and krill with (b) mesopelagics and clupeoids; the second component was associated with long-term trends in abundance. An evaluation of 10 different published oceanographic data sets and CTD data collected during the survey indicated that seawater properties encountered each year were significantly correlated with abundance patterns, as were annual sea-level anomalies obtained from an analysis of AVISO satellite information. A comparison of our findings with several other recent studies of biological communities occurring in the California Current revealed a consistent structuring of forage assemblages, which we conjecture is primarily attributable to large-scale advection patterns in the California Current ecosystem.

  9. Nalokson nesespray kan redusere risikoen for dødelige heroinoverdoser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Paul Koren Lobmaier

    2011-12-01

    ør opplæringen i bruk for pårørende, brukere og ansatte i eksisterende lavterskeltiltak evalueres da dette vil kunne øke nalokson tilgjengeligheten og bidra til å redusere antallet overdosedødsfall

  10. The new German Recycling and Waste management Act (KrWG). Chances and perspectives for the secondary raw materials industry; Das neue Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetz. Chancen und Perspektiven fuer die Sekundaerrohrstoffwirtschaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landers, Burkhard [Bundesverband Sekundaerrohstoffe und Entsorgung e.V. (BVSE), Bonn (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    After long discussions concerning wordings, the new German Act on Recycling and Waste Management (KrWG) came into force with the decision of the arbitration panel of 8 February 2012 and the agreement of the German Bundestag and Bundesrat. It took more than two years from the first draft to the new act, and discussions and lawsuits can be expected to continue. The new act still follows the structure of its predecessor, but private industries, especially medium-sized ones, have not been given sufficient scope for action. Politicians were unable to find a fair balance between private and communal interests. Now, with the introduction of a new standard recycling bin, the legislator is held to take account of the interests of the private waste management industry, whose labour and innovative power made a decisive contribution to the success of waste management and recycling in Germany. (orig.) [German] Der letzte Schlusspunkt ist nach zaehem Ringen um einzelne Formulierungen des Kreislaufwirtschaftsgesetzes (KrWG) mit dem Beschluss des Vermittlungsausschusses am 8. Februar 2012 und mit der anschliessenden Zustimmung des Deutschen Bundestages sowie des Bundesrates gesetzt worden. Damit sind seit dem ersten Arbeitsentwurf des Bundesministeriums fuer die Novellierung des Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallrechts mehr als zwei Jahre vergangen, und es bedarf keiner hellseherischen Faehigkeiten um vorherzusagen, dass die Auseinandersetzung ueber einzelne Bestimmungen und nachrangige Verordnungen des Gesetzes vor Gericht und in der Politik noch lange nicht ihren Abschluss gefunden hat. Trotz aller Diskussionen waehrend des Gesetzgebungsverfahrens sind die wesentlichen Grundstrukturen des alten Kreislaufwirtschafts- und Abfallgesetzes auch im neuen KrWG erhalten geblieben. Der Privatwirtschaft, vor allem in der Breite aus vielen mittelstaendischen Unternehmen bestehend, ist jedoch nicht genuegend Handlungsspielraum gewaehrt worden. Der Politik ist es nicht gelungen, einen fairen

  11. Internet video - teknik og pædagogik mødes på nettet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorte Sidelmann Jørgensen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Første gang publiceret i UNEV nr. 3: Internet Video: Teknik og pædagogik mødes på nettet, april - juni 2004, red. Jens Dørup. ISSN 1603-5518.

    I nærværende UNEV tema som omhandler universiteternes brug af digital video tegnes en status over dette nye medies anvendelse rundt om i landet. En række af de flittigste brugere, som også har været iblandt de første på området, fortæller om deres praktiske erfaringer, som naturligt nok har været af både teknologisk og pædagogisk art. Som universitetsundervisere og forskere er vi vandt til et relativt lavt budget, og vi har måttet klare mange teknologiske opgaver uden professionel hjælp. Til gengæld stimulerer denne situation underviseren til at inddrage pædagogiske og teknologiske aspekter samtidigt, når videomediet og det nye potentialer skal afprøves og implementeres. Som læringsmedie adskiller Internet video sig på mange måder fra TV og analoge videobånd. De indlysende forskelle – om mulighederne for uafhængighed af tid og sted – kan snart erkendes og beskrives, men erfaringerne tyder på at disse forskelle, når det gælder om at stimulere læringen, måske er mindre betydningsfulde end mulighederne for at indarbejde, forankre og samvirke netbaseret video med øvrige læringsaktiviteter. Det aktuelle tema viser at de tekniske muligheder er tilgængelige og at vi mange steder er kommet godt i gang, men også at der er langt igen før danske universiteter til fulde har lært at udnytte potentialerne i digital video.

  12. Digital storytelling in teacher education: A meaningful way of integrating ICT in ESL teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Mørk Røkenes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Hensikten med denne studien er å utforske hvordan bruken av digitale fortellinger i lærerutdanningen kan bidra til å utvikle lektorstudenters digitale kompetanse og fremme innovativ bruk av IKT i engelskundervisningen. Gjennom bruken av kasusstudie og en design-basert forskningstilnærming beskriver denne studien to gjennomføringer og design-sykluser av et verksted med bruk av digitale fortellinger ved en norsk lærerutdanning hvor det overordnede målet var å vise innovative og hensiktsmessige måter å integrere IKT i engelskundervisningen. En digital kompetansemodell er brukt som linse i dataanalysen hvor datamaterialet kommer fra en kvantitativ spørre-undersøkelse, feltobservasjoner, refleksjonslogger, digitale artefakter og semi-strukturerte intervjuer. Studiens funn viser en rekke tilnærmingsmåter som kan tas i bruk i gjennomføringen av verksted i digitale fortellinger, slik som modellering av integrering av IKT og vurdering med IKT, stillasbygging ved studentaktive læringsopplevelser med IKT, og brobygging mellom teori og praksis gjennom refleksjon. Implikasjoner for lærerutdanningen blir diskutert.Nøkkelord: profesjonsfaglig digital kompetanse, digitale fortellinger, lærer-studenter, lærerutdannere, lærerutdanning, engelsk fagdidaktikkAbstractThe purpose of this study is to examine how the use of digital storytelling (DST in teacher education can help develop digital competence in secondary school English as a second language (ESL student teachers, and promote the innovative use of information and communications technology (ICT in ESL teaching. Following a case methodology and a design-based research approach, the study reports on two iterative design cycles of a DST workshop held at a Norwegian teacher education program where the aim was to promote secondary ESL student teachers’ digital competence and showcase innovative ways of integrating ICT into ESL teaching. A digital competence model is used as a research lens

  13. Forestry and reindeer husbandry in northern Sweden – the development of a land use conflict

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camilla Widmark

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Both the forestry sector and reindeer herders in northern Sweden use the forest resources in northern Sweden, albeit for different purposes, and have adverse effects on each other. To reduce conflicts between them negotiations take place in so-called “consultations”, but the institutional arrangement does not seem to be working well; the conflicts have not been resolved, and the reindeer herders are generally more dissatisfied with the outcome than the forest companies. This paper provides an overview of the parallel development of forestry and reindeer herding in the region. In addition several issues that complicate the consultations and need to be resolved in order to secure the continued co-existence of the two activities are identified, based on an analysis of physical, societal and judicial aspects of the relationship between them.Abstract in Swedish / Sammandrag:Skogsbruk och rennäringen i norra Sverige – utveckling av en markanvändningskonflikt Skogsresursen i norra Sverige nyttjas för bland annat timmerproduktion och renbete och skogsbruket respektive rennäring påverkar varandra negativt. För att minska konflikterna har samråd instiftats men processen fungerar inte tillfredsställande eftersom det finns ett missnöje bland renskötarna. Denna studie ger en översikt av den parallella utvecklingen av de två näringarna och deras inbördes relationer och därmed identifieras flera nyckelområden som komplicerar relationen mellan de båda näringarna och därmed även samråden. Genom att analysera de fysiska, sociala och juridiska aspekterna av relationen mellan rennäring och skogsbruk pekar studien på ett antal problem som måste lösas för att kunna säkerställa en fortsatt parallell existens.

  14. Lyd og billede i undervisningen – et uddannelsespolitisk aspekt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poul Søren Kjærsgaard

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Det sker ofte, når talen falder på teknik, herunder lyd og video i undervisningen, at de tekniske aspekter kommer i fokus så som; hvad er teknisk muligt, og hvilke platforme kan det bruges på osv.? Det er selvsagt vigtige spørgsmål. Men det må ikke skygge for andre synsvinkler, herunder de ergonomiske , for eksempel hvordan anvendelse af lyd og video påvirker deltagerne i undervisning, underviseren og selve læringen. I denne artikel vil jeg fremdrage en tredje synsvinkel, nemlig den politiske. Anvendelse af undervisningsteknologi i bredeste forstand er - som al anden teknologi - ikke værdineutral. Den kan anvendes til at fremme eller bremse nogle mål, som samfundets beslutningstagere, det være sig politikere, interesseorganisationer og i sidste instans os alle, har. Den politiske synsvinkel spiller også en rolle i henseende til, hvordan de nævnte parter, undervisere og underviste, agerer. Baggrunden for denne artikel er et forsøg, som jeg som studieleder for et mindre sprogfag, fransk, har taget initiativ til eller medvirket i med henblik på at forny faget og med henblik på såvel at tiltrække studerende som at gøre det muligt for flere at studere dette fag. Disse forsøg beskrives i artiklen med kortfattede tekniske specifikationer og i forhold til den politiske synsvinkel. I betydeligt omfang har disse initiativer været en fiasko i den forstand, at de ikke har ført til det tilsigtede resultat - i hvert fald ikke umiddelbart og på kort sigt. Det gælder ikke mindst, fordi det politiske system ikke har villet eller ikke har kunnet se formålet hermed. Jeg foreslår i artiklen at tolke dette resultat som en konflikt mellem en række modsatrettede politiske dagsordener.

  15. 广西猫儿山自然保护区蜻蜒目昆虫初步研究%A Preliminary Study of Odonata in Mao'er Mt.Nature Reserve of Guangxi, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆春文; 杨瑞刚; 陈嫒; 张兵兰; 黄建华; 周善义

    2012-01-01

    All the odonate specimens in the Insect Collections of Guangxi Normal University were studied and identified. The result shows that all specimens belong to 57 species,40 genera, 12 families and 2 suborders from Mao'er Mt. Nature Reserve of Guangxi. Among them,4 genera and 19 species were newly recorded in Guangxi. The 4 newly recorded genera are: Cephalaeschna Selys, Somatochlora Selys, Asi-agomphus Asahina,and Amphigomphus Chao. The 19 newly recorded species are: Orthetrum testaceum Burmeister,Orthetrum lineostigma Serlys,Sympetrum ruptum Needham,Sympetrum kunckeli Selys, Lyrio-themis flava Oguma, Zygonyx iris insignis Kirby, ldionyx victor Hamalainen, Somatochlora dido Need-ham , Anotogaster kuchenbiseri Foerster, Cephalaeschna acutifrons Martin, Gynacantha bayadera Selys, Planaeschna shanxiensis Zhu et Zhang, Asiagomphus hainanensis Chao, Asiagomphus pacificus Chao, Lamelligomphus ringens Needham, Amphigomphus hansoni Chao, Gomphidia kelloggi Needham, Mnais andersoni McLachlan, and Coeliccia sexmaculata Wang. The analytical result of species component shows that Libellulidae,Aeshnidae,Gomphinae,Gomphinae are dominant families. According to the fauna analysis, there were 6 distribution patterns in the world animal geographic fauna distribution and 12 distribution patterns in Chinese animal geographic fauna. The result also shows that the oriental species,the oriental and palearctic species were the principal part in Mao'er Mt.. Meanwhile,the odonata in South China, Central China,North China and Southwest China have the most closely relationship with others.%对广西师范大学昆虫标本室收藏的广西猫儿山蜻蜒目昆虫标本进行鉴定,共57种,隶属于2亚目12科40属,其中4属19种为广西新记录.4个广西新记录属是:金光伪蜻属Somatochlora Selys、头蜒属Cephalaeschna Selys、亚春蜒属Asiagomphus Asahina、安春蜒属Amphigomphus Chao.19个广西新记录种是:黄翅灰蜻Orthetrum testaceum Burmeister

  16. Cell and tissue biomarkers in mussel, and histopathology in hake and anchovy from Bay of Biscay after the Prestige oil spill (Monitoring Campaign 2003)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marigomez, Ionan [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)]. E-mail ionan.marigomez@ehu.es; Soto, Manu [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cancio, Ibon [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Orbea, Amaia [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Garmendia, Larraitz [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain); Cajaraville, Miren P. [Zoologia eta Biologia Zelularra Saila, Zientzia eta Teknologia Fakultatea, Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, 644 P.K., E-48080 Bilbo, Basque Country (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    In order to assess the biological effects of the Prestige oil spill (POS), mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis), European hake (Merluccius merluccius) and European anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus) were sampled between April and September 2003 in various geographical areas of Bay of Biscay: Galicia, Central Cantabrian and East Cantabrian. In mussels, several cell and tissue biomarkers were measured: peroxisome proliferation as induction of acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX) activity, lysosomal responses as changes in the structure (lysosomal volume density, V{sub V{sub L}}, surface-to-volume ratio, S/V{sub L}, and numerical density, N{sub V{sub L}}) and in membrane stability (labilization period, LP), cell type replacement as relative proportion of basophilic cells (volume density of basophilic cells, V{sub V{sub BAS}}) in digestive gland epithelium, and changes in the morphology of digestive alveoli as mean luminal radius to mean epithelial thickness (MLR/MET). Additionally, flesh condition index (FCI) and gonad index (GI) were measured as supporting parameters. In hake and anchovy, liver histopathology was examined to determine the prevalence of parasites, melanomacrophage centers, non-specific lesions (inflammatory changes, atrophy, necrosis, apoptosis), early non-neoplastic toxicopathic lesions (i.e., hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism), foci of cellular alteration, benign and malignant neoplasms. In mussels, AOX induction was noticeable in April except in Galicia. LP values were low in all the geographical areas studied, indicating disturbed health, especially in Galicia. Alike, lysosomal enlargement was observed in most stations as shown by the extremely low S/V{sub L} values. V{sub V{sub BAS}} and MLR/MET values were markedly high. Overall, employed biomarkers detected exposure to toxic chemicals and disturbed health in mussels from Bay of Biscay, with impact decreasing from April to September. Although hepatocellular nuclear polymorphism and nematode parasitization in

  17. Studies on the Community Structures of Meiofauna and Marine Nematode at Six Stations in the Southern Yellow Sea, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Yong; ZHANG Zhinan; LIU Xiaoshou

    2005-01-01

    Meiofauna (0.031-0.5 mm) were sampled and studied at a grid of six stations during the cruise of investigation for over winter ground of anchovy (Engraulis japonicus) in the Southern Yellow Sea, China in January 2003. Total meiofauna individuals averaged (1.162± 0.347) × 106 ind m-2 and the corresponding biomass 1.748 ± 0.72 g dwt m-2 with the maximum2.35 g dwtm-2 at Station 9594 and the minimum 0.537 g dwt m-2 at Station 11794. A total of fourteen taxa were identified.Free living marine nematodes were the most dominant group with an average abundance of (1.026 ± 0.206) × 106 indm-2, accounting for 88.5% of total numbers, and an average of 85.4% lived in the surface layer (0-2cm) of sediments. The individual dry weight was calculated, which ranges from 0.01μg to 31.32μg with an average of 0.261μg. One hundred and forty two species or taxa of free-living marine nematodes belonging to 89 genera, 24 families and 4 orders were identified. Six of them were new species. The common dominant species were Dorylaimopsis rabalaisi, Sphaerolaimus balticus, Sphaerolaimus minitus, Metalinhomoeus longicauda, Prochromadorella attenuata., Campylaimus sp. 1, Vasostoma sp. 1, Daptonema normandicum, Paramonohystera riemanni, and Promonhystera sp. 1. According to cluster analysis of Primer 5.0, the six stations were clustered into 2 groups with similar species composition at 40% similarity. The species diversity index (H), evenness index (J) and species richness index (d) of nematode were calculated and analyzed. Correlation analysis with respect to environmental factors showed that the abundance of meiofauna had a significant correlation with the median diameter of sediment (Mdφ). The species richness of nematodes had a highly significant correlation with Chl-a and significant correlations with Pha-a and Chl-a + Pha-a.

  18. Abrupt shifts in the fish community of the hydrologically variable upper estuary of the Swan River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanandjembo, A. N.; Potter, I. C.; Platell, M. E.

    2001-09-01

    Fish were sampled in nearshore, shallow waters (fish species caught during the study spawn in the upper estuaries. These species, which include the semi-anadromous Nematalosa vlaminghi, comprised 50·0% of the number of species and 88·8% of the number of fish in shallow waters and 43·8 and 89·9%, respectively, of those in deeper waters. The two most abundant species in shallow waters, Engraulis australis and N. vlaminghi, contributed 36·0 and 19·6%, respectively, to the total numbers of fish in those waters, and the latter species comprised nearly 50% of the catch in deeper waters. During winter, when freshwater discharge increased sharply and salinities declined precipitously, the number of species and abundance of fish in shallow and deeper waters were generally at their lowest and the species composition was the most discrete. This reflected the downstream movement out of the upper estuary of substantial numbers of individuals of species such as N. vlaminghi, Acanthopagrus butcheri, Amniataba caudavittata, Atherinomorus ogilbyi, Atherinosoma elongata and Craterocephalus mugiloides and the upstream movement into the upper estuary of juvenile Mugil cephalus. The overall fish fauna then changed quite abruptly in spring, when large N. vlaminghi, A. butcheri and A. caudavittata became abundant as they migrated into the upper estuary where they then spawned. During summer and autumn, the fauna in the shallows then changed more gradually through, inter alia, the recruitment of juvenile fish community in winter contrasts with the gradual, cyclical changes undergone during the year by the ichthyofaunas of holarctic, macrotidal estuaries, such as the Severn Estuary in the UK, in which the hydrology does not undergo such sudden, extreme seasonal changes and the ichthyofauna is dominated by marine and diadromous species that each enter the estuary at specific, but varying times of the year. Differences between the fish faunas of the shallow waters of the Swan and

  19. Spatio-temporal distribution of larval and juvenile fishes at frequent harmful algal blooms(HABs) areas of the East China Sea in spring%春季东海有害藻华高发区仔稚鱼时空分布

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈渊戈; 钟俊生; 徐兆礼; 陈佳杰

    2015-01-01

    根据2011年春季(3月29日-5月27日)海洋综合调查,对东海有害藻华高发水域(28°15′36″~30°30 ′16″N、121°52 ′36″~123°15 ′6″E)的仔稚鱼种类组成、时空分布以及主要优势种与环境因子的相关性进行了探讨.调查共采集到仔稚鱼27种,前几位优势种分别为日本鳀Engraulis japonicus、鰕虎科sp,(Gobiidae sp.)、六丝钝尾鰕虎Amblychaeturichth ys hexanema、小黄鱼Larimichthys polyactis,该4种占据了总丰度的91.23%.优势种丰度和发育阶段组成的时空变化显示,日本鳀在调查期间有两次产卵小高峰,其仔鱼孵化后向岸漂流;小黄鱼和六丝钝尾鰕虎在此期间只有一次产卵高峰,其仔鱼在舟山群岛邻近水域进行保育.可以看出,调查水域及邻近水域是部分鱼类产卵,仔稚鱼保育、向岸漂流的场所或途径,是鱼类早期生活史中重要生境,一旦暴发有害藻华,补充群体将受到不良影响.多元分析结果显示,所选环境因子对几位优势种仔稚鱼的分布影响不大,推测产卵场位置和保育方式可能是更重要的原因.

  20. Inter-annual variation in pelagic fish egg, larval, and juvenile assemblages during summer in the Yangtze River Estuary, China%长江口水域夏季鱼卵和仔稚鱼年间变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘守海; 王金辉; 刘材材; 秦玉涛; 刘志国; 邓邦平

    2015-01-01

    基于2005年、2008年、2009年和2011年8月(夏季)在长江口水域(30°30'-31°45'N,121°15'-123°10'E)4个航次的浮游生物拖网资料,分析了长江口水域鱼卵和仔稚鱼的种类组成、数量分布特征及其年间变化.结果表明:4个航次采集的鱼卵和仔稚鱼鉴定到种的种类有17种,隶属于8目13科,以鲈形目种类最多,11种,其次是鲱形目,5种,其他各目种类均小于5种;种类数存在明显年间差异,2005年种类数最多(鱼卵3种,仔稚鱼8种),其次是2009年和2011年,2008年种类数最少(鱼卵1种,仔稚鱼5种).优势种年间更替明显,长蛇鲻(Saurida elongata)、虾虎鱼(Gobiidae spp.)和中华小公鱼(Stolepho瑚chinensis)在2005年是优势种,2008年优势种为鳀鱼(Engraulis japonicus),2009年优势种为鳀鱼、寡鳞飘鱼(Pseudolaubucenraulis)、虾虎鱼等,2011年虾虎鱼和小公鱼(包括小公鱼属未定种Stolephorus spp.和中华小公鱼Stolephorus chinensis)成为优势种.2005年鱼卵和仔稚鱼数量分布的密集区在嵊泗列岛附近水域,2008年鱼卵和仔稚鱼出现较少,未出现明显的数量密集区;2009年鱼卵数量较少,仔稚鱼数量较多,密集区主要分布在在长江口以外123°E附近水域;2011年鱼卵主要分布在在长江北支口门外附近水域,仔稚鱼在调查区内分布相对均匀.

  1. Are tidal lagoons ecologically relevant to larval recruitment of small pelagic fish? An approach using nutritional condition and growth rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chícharo, M. A.; Amaral, A.; Faria, A.; Morais, P.; Mendes, C.; Piló, D.; Ben-Hamadou, R.; Chícharo, L.

    2012-10-01

    There are numerous studies dealing with larvae of Small Pelagic Fish (SPF), but only a few have actually addressed advanced larval phases. Temperate coastal lagoons are particularly understudied, due to the absence of standard method to capture advanced larval fish in these near shore shallow habitats. Accordingly, this study aims to describe abundances, nutritional condition and in situ growth of post-flexion (SPF) from the Ria Formosa, a tidal coastal lagoon in southern Portugal. The nutritional condition and in situ growth were determined through cohort analysis and standardized RNA:DNA ratio (sRD), complemented with feeding incidence (gut content) and fatty acids (FAs, trophic biomarkers) of postflexion larvae sampled sequentially with light traps, from spring 2005 to summer 2006. Simultaneously, environmental parameters such as water temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and chlorophyll a were measured. Post-larvae of SPF were captured through the year in important numbers. The dominant species were Sardina pilchardus (50.7%), Engraulis encrasicolus and Atherina presbyter (11.4%). These results are distinct from those based on adult/juvenile surveys or early planktonic phases in the Ria Formosa where clupeiformes were occasionally reported. Sardines were captured mainly in winter, spring and early summer and anchovies mainly during summer and autumn. Sand smelt, a resident species, was present throughout the year. In the early summer, the three species were present and during this period some diet overlapping occurred, the feeding incidence of the clupeiformes was very low, but atherinids always exhibited full guts reflecting the different gut morphology or indicating different life-cycle strategies. The bulk of the diet was mollusks, crustaceans and appendicularians, for sand smelts, sardines and anchovies, respectively. The results of FA analyses showed some contribution of phytoplankton to SPF in the area. All SPF exhibited higher condition (sRD) and

  2. Anisákiasis en pescados frescos comercializados en el norte de Córdoba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torre Molina Rafaela de la

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Fundamento: La anisakiasis es una zoonosis parasitaria producida por larvas vivas de nematodos de la Familia Anisakidae, que se localizan en la cavidad corporal y el sistema muscular de peces teleósteos y moluscos cefalópodos. El hombre las ingiere accidentalmente al consumir pescado infestado crudo o poco cocinado. El cuadro clínico está caracterizado por síndrome gástrico-intestinal. El objetivo del presente trabajo es conocer la frecuencia de parasitación por larvas de anisákidos en pescados frescos comercializados en el norte de la provincia de Córdoba. Métodos: Durante un período de 9 meses se tomaron muestras de las especies más comercializadas de pescados marinos en todas los establecimientos del sector. El análisis parasitológico se realizó en el Laboratorio de Salud Pública de Peñarroya mediante el método de la disección. Se analizaron un total de 1.261 muestras de 18 especies distintas. Resultados: La frecuencia total de parasitación fue del 15,8%. La especie más parasitada fue la bacaladilla (Micromesistius poutassou, con un porcentaje de parasitación del 42%, y se detectaron también larvas de Anisakidos en: pijota (Merlucius merlucius un 27,5%, pescadilla (Merlucius sp. un 26%, Caballa (Scomber scombrus un 20,6%, brótola (Phycis blennoides un 6,2%, boquerón (Engraulis encrasicolus un 5,6% y faneca (Trisopterus luscus un 5,5% de muestras parasitadas. La distribución mensual de los resultados refleja un aumento de la parasitación en los meses de primavera, descendiendo progresivamente hasta los últimos meses del año. Conclusiones: Existe una incidencia significativa de infestación por anisakidos en las especies de pescados comercializadas en el norte de Córdoba. No obstante, la dificultad para detectar el parásito, la valoración imprecisa del grado de parasitación tolerable o inaceptable que señala el marco normativo, la circunstancia de que algunos platos tradicionales elaborados con pescado crudo

  3. Marine bird aggregations associated with the tidally-driven plume and plume fronts of the Columbia River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamon, Jeannette E.; Phillips, Elizabeth M.; Guy, Troy J.

    2014-09-01

    tidal plume and plume front to enter the ocean. Because murres and shearwaters eat primarily planktivorous fish such as the northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax), aggregation of these birds in the plume supports the hypothesis that it is the plume region as a whole, and not just the plume fronts, which enhances trophic transfer to piscivorous predators via planktivorous fishes.

  4. All in the ears: unlocking the early life history biology and spatial ecology of fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starrs, Danswell; Ebner, Brendan C; Fulton, Christopher J

    2016-02-01

    Obtaining biological and spatial information of the early life history (ELH) phases of fishes has been problematic, such that larval and juvenile phases are often referred to as the 'black box' of fish population biology and ecology. However, a potent source of life-history data has been mined from the earstones (otoliths) of bony fishes. We systematically reviewed 476 empirical papers published between 2005 and 2012 (inclusive) that used otoliths to examine fish ELH phases, which has been an area of increasing attention over this period. We found that otolith-based research during this period could be split into two broad themes according to whether studies examined: (i) biological objectives related to intrinsic processes such as larval and juvenile age, growth and mortality, and/or (ii) spatial objectives, such as habitat use, dispersal and migration. Surprisingly, just 24 studies (5%) explored a combined biological-spatial objective by simultaneously exploiting biological and spatial information from otoliths, suggesting much more scope for such integrated research objectives to be answered via the use of multiple otolith-based techniques in a single study. Mapping otolith analytical techniques across these two approaches revealed that otolith structural analysis was mainly used to investigate biological processes, while otolith chemical analyses were most often applied to spatial questions. Heavy skew in research effort was apparent across biomes, with most (62%) publications specific to marine species, despite comparable levels of species richness and the importance of freshwater taxa (just 15% of papers). Indeed, around 1% (380 species) of a possible 31400+ extant species were examined in our surveyed papers, with a strong emphasis on temperate marine species of commercial value. Potential model species for otolith-based ELH ecology research are arising, with the eel genus Anguilla (24 studies) and the European anchovy Engraulis encrasicolis (14 studies

  5. Larval fish assemblages across an upwelling front: Indication for active and passive retention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, Maik; Brehmer, Patrice

    2017-03-01

    In upwelling areas, enrichment, concentration and retention are physical processes that have major consequences for larval fish survival. While these processes generally increase larval survival, strong upwelling can also increase mortality due to an offshore transport of larvae towards unfavorable habitats. In 2013 a survey was conducted along the Senegalese coast to investigate the upwelling effect with regard to larval fish assemblages and possible larval fish retention. According to water column characteristics two distinct habitats during an upwelling event were discriminated, i.e. the inshore upwelled water and the transition area over the deepest part of the Senegalese shelf. Along the two areas 42,162 fish larvae were collected representing 133 species within 40 families. Highest larval fish abundances were observed in the inshore area and decreasing abundances towards the transition, indicating that certain fish species make use of the retentive function of the inner shelf area as spawning grounds. Two larval fish assemblages overlap both habitats, which are sharply delimited by a strong upwelling front. One assemblage inhabited the inshore/upwelling area characterized by majorly neritic and pelagic species (Sparidae spp., Sardinella aurita), that seem to take the advantage of a passive retention on the shelf. The second assemblage consisted of a mix of pelagic and mesopelagic species (Engraulis encrasicolus, Carangidae spp. and Myctophidae spp.). Some species of the second assemblage, e.g. horse mackerels (Trachurus trachurus and Trachurus trecae), large finned-lantern fish (Hygophum macrochir) and foureyed sole (Microchirus ocellatus), revealed larval peak occurrences at intermediate and deep water layers, where the near-ground upwelling layer is able to transport larvae back to the shelf. This indicates active larval retention for species that are dominant in the transition area. Diel vertical migration patterns of S. aurita, E. encrasicolus and M

  6. Lesson Study og lærerstudenters fokus på elevers læring i veiledningssamtaler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymond Bjuland

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Søkelyset settes her på norsk lærerutdanning og på grunnskolelærerstudenters veiledningssamtaler i praksisopplæring hvor Lesson Study ble innført som arbeidsmetode. Analysen fra studentenes veiledningssamtaler forsøker å identifisere muligheter og begrensninger ved innføring av Lesson Study der samtalefokus er elevers læring knyttet til et bestemt tema i en forskningstime. Et teoretisk og analytisk rammeverk benyttes (Bransford, Brown, & Cocking, 2000 for å identifisere elevsentrerte, kunnskapssentrerte, vurderingssentrerte og felleskapssentrerte ytringer i veiledningssamtalene. Slike ytringer blir knyttet til tre sentrale aspekter ved planlegging og gjennomføring av en forskningstime i en Lesson Study syklus: Elevobservasjon, prediksjon og forskningsspørsmål. Resultater fra analysene av veiledningssamtaler fra to studentgrupper tilknyttet naturfag og matematikk viste store forskjeller med tanke på gruppenes planlegging av en Lesson Study syklus. Studentene i matematikk valgte å legge opp undervisningen ut ifra lærebokens nivåinndeling av lærestoffet, noe som ser ut til å virke hemmende med tanke på elevobservasjon og prediksjon knyttet til det faglige emnet. Studentene i naturfag var mye mer opptatt av å formulere gode læringsmål og forskningsspørsmål. I denne veiledningssamtalen var det også et tydelig fokus på prediksjon samt aktiv elevobservasjon under gjennomføringen av undervisningsøkten. Resultater fra denne studien påpeker behov for et grundig forarbeid på campus av faglærere ved utdanningsinstitusjonen slik at studentene får muligheten til å forberede en Lesson Study syklus der forskningsspørsmål, elevobservasjon og prediksjon er sentrale hovedmomenter som løftes fram. Videre er det behov for et godt samarbeid mellom faglærere og praksislærere ved skolene for at implementering av Lesson Study skal være vellykket.Abstract In this article, we present a study of field practice during Initial

  7. Professional Feedback Loop: How Can Practising Teachers’ Reflection Inform English Language Teacher Education?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Evelyn Flognfeldt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Denne artikkelen presenterer en studie av den type læring praktiserende engelsklærere i norsk grunnskole selv rapporterer etter et års videreutdanningsstudium i engelsk. Et pedagogisk utviklingsprosjekt på egen skole inngikk som en sentral del av studiet. Studien gir et innblikk i hvilke aspekter ved skolefaget engelsk som erfarne lærere definerer som hoved­utfordringer i undervisningen og utbyttet de har hatt av prosjektene sine. Artikkelen bygger på data fra den kritiske refleksjonen som lærerne gir uttrykk for mot slutten av prosjektene sine. På bakgrunn av kvalitativ innholdsanalyse av prosjektrapportene identifiseres vesentlige felles språkdidaktiske elementer i lærernes konseptualisering av sin egen rolle og egne prioriteringer overfor elevenes læring. Denne typen lærerforskning kan få viktige følger for opplæringen i studiefaget engelsk i lærerutdanningen. Relevante forestillinger blant praktiserende lærere kan kanaliseres tilbake til lærerutdanningen for på den måten å mediere studentenes profesjonsforberedelse og deres framtidige arbeid som engelsklærere. Sentrale språkdidaktiske tema blir trukket fram, som i sin tur kan fungere som analytiske begreper og verktøy for engelskstudentene i forberedelsen til de komplekse praktiske utfordringer i klasse­rommet. Kontakt med denne typen forskning på egen undervisning som erfarne lærere har gjennomført med fokus på det de opplever som engelskfaglige utfordringer, kan hjelpe lærerstudentene til å knytte sammen teori og praksis og bidra til å senke deres affektive filter når de starter som lærere. Denne artikkelen munner ut i en diskusjon om hvilke former denne tilbakemeldingen fra praksisfeltet kan ta.Nøkkelord: utdanning av engelsklærere, profesjonsutvikling, læreres forskning, læreres læring, språkdidaktikkAbstractThis article presents a study of the learning reported by practising teachers of English in Norwegian primary and lower secondary schools

  8. Overvåking av norsk kosthold - metoder og resultater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Johansson

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGKunnskap om endringer i matvarenes sammensetning og befolkningens kosthold er grunnleggende for utformingog oppfølging av en helsefremmende mat- og ernæringspolitikk. Dagens system for overvåking avkostholdet bygger først og fremst på en matvaredatabase og opplysninger om forbruket av matvarer fra tretyper datasett; matforsyningsstatistikk, forbruksundersøkelser og kostholdsundersøkelser. Det avgis årlig envurdering av utviklingen i norsk kosthold i forhold til mat- og ernæringspolitiske målsettinger. Det norskesystemet for overvåking av kostholdet er blitt betydelig styrket i løpet av 1990-årene ved innføringen avregelmessige kostholdsundersøkelser blant landsrepresentative utvalg av befolkningen i ulike aldersgrupperog økte ressurser til analyse av næringsinnholdet i matvarer. Det er imidlertid beskjedent sammenlignet meddatainnsamlingen i land som USA og Storbritannia. Det norske overvåkingssystemet er forsatt i enutviklingsfase, og det må justeres og kompletteres etter hvert. Dessuten vil det arbeides med å kvalitetssikredatainnsamlingen.Johansson L. Surveillance of the diet in Norway – methods and results.Nor J Epidemiol ENGLISH SUMMARYKnowledge about changes in composition and intake of foods, as well as changes in the prevalence of dietrelatedhealth problems is fundamental for an effective food and nutrition policy. The National Council onNutrition and Physical Activity is responsible for evaluating changes in the diet. Annually the Council publishesreports about trends in the Norwegian diet, and suggests measures to improve the diet. The Council, incooperation with the National Food Authority and the Institute for Nutrition Research, University of Oslo,has established a national food and dietary surveillance system. This system is mainly based on a fooddatabase and food consumption data. The food consumption data include three principally different datasets: food supplies, household consumption surveys

  9. Translocation of reindeer from South Georgia to the Falkland Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cameron M. Bell

    2010-03-01

    rein fra Sør-Georgia i 2001 ut fra en målsetting om å 1 bevare genetiske ressurser fra minst en av de to reinflokkene, og 2 øke mulighetene innenfor landbrukssektoren på Falklandsøyene ved å etablere en kommersiell reinflokk der. Overføringen ble utført med metoder som hadde vist seg formålstjenlige ved flytting og nylokalisering av kalver i Nord-Amerika. Totalt ble 59 kalver overført i 2001 derav 26 hunndyr. De overførte reinene produserte kalver i 2003. God driftspraksis og biologisk og atferdsmessig forståelse var viktig for en vellykket overføring.

  10. Finnes det en faglig felleskomponent for TIP yrkene?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Småland Goth

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Yrkesfaglig opplæring til et bestemt yrke gir en yrkeskompetanse med eller uten fag- eller svennebrev. Opplæringen foregår både i den videregående skolen og i bedrifter. Første år på programfaget Teknikk og industriell produksjon (TIP på videregående skole i Norge kan lede til 65 ulike fag innen teknisk industri, skips- og bilindustri (82 med kryssløp. Det antas at det er sprikende kompetansekrav mellom disse yrkene og at det derfor er vanskelig å finne faglige fellesnevnere mellom mange av fagene. I så fall er det utfordrende å ha en felles undervisning som oppleves som relevant for alle fagene. Målet med undersøkelsen å vise hvilke faglige felleskomponenter det er i den kompetansen/kunnskap og ferdigheter som arbeidsmarkedet etterspør. I denne artikkelen prøver forfatterne å belyse i hvilken grad det finnes faglige fellesnevnere mellom de ulike TIP-fagene slik at det en underviser i ett fag også har faglig relevans for andre fag. Fagpersoner i industri i Norge med ansvar for lærlinger i sine respektive fagområde ble kontaktet og spurt om hvilke emner, kunnskaper og ferdigheter som er viktig for dette yrket i deres bedrift. Med dette har forfatterne laget en relevansundersøkelse over hvilke emner som etterspørres i og på tvers av de ulike yrkene. Dette belyser i hvilken grad det er store eller små faglige fellestrekk mellom de ulike fagene. Det kom inn over 400 svar fra opplæringsansvarlige i alle fylker i landet (unntatt Finnmark, hvorav 240 ble skåret fra de ti største industriområdene. Disse representerer 75 % av lærlingplassene fra TIP i Norge i 2012. Ulike fagområder ble skåret etter dikotome svar (relevant/ikke og vektet på en 4-punkts Likert-skala. Siden det er store variasjoner med hensyn til hvor mange lærlinger de ulike fagene etterspør ble datæne vektet. Data i denne undersøkelsen gir belyser bedriftenes etterspørsel etter kunnskap av de inkluderte TIP. Det viste seg at det finnes konkrete

  11. Soil formation on hard rock with and without cover of Pleistocene periglacial slope deposits in humid-temperate climate of Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauer, Daniela; Schülli-Maurer, Isabelle

    2014-05-01

    mainly of beech, birch, fir, pine, and sorb, blueberry and hair-grass (Deschampsia flexuosa). 4) Cambisol developed from Monzonite This soil has an age of ca. 9,500 years. The thickness of the organic surface layer is 6 cm; the mineral soil comprises an Ah (9 cm), Bw (17 cm) and BC (9 cm) horizon. Vegetation consists mainly of fir, oak, beech, and sorb, blueberry, ferns, grasses and mosses. Geochemical data suggest that the soil has not entirely developed from Monzonite but that the Ah and Bw horizon are mainly composed of a thin layer of beach sediments. The comparison demonstrates the importance of physical weathering under periglacial conditions and formation of PPSD for Holocene soil development on hard rock in central Europe. References: Schilling, W., Wiefel, H. (1962): Jungpleistozäne Periglazialbildungen und ihre regionale Differenzierung in einigen Teilen Thüringens und des Harzes. Geologie, Jg. 11, Heft 4: 393 - 504. Semmel, A. (1964): Junge Schuttdecken in Hessischen Mittelgebirgen. Notitzbl. Hess. L.-Amt Bodenforsch. 92: 275 - 285. Semmel, A. (1968): Studien über den Verlauf jungpleistozäner Formung in Hessen. Frankfurter Geogr. Hefte 45.

  12. Physiological Response to Drought Stress of 13 Excellent Greening Climbing Plants%13种优良绿化攀缘植物对干旱胁迫的生理响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    席嘉宾; 李寅; 张建国; 黄跃波; 李映仪

    2012-01-01

    为弥补国内在园林绿化攀援植物抗旱能力方面的研究空白,为园林绿化实践提供优良抗旱攀援植物品种,试验以叶片保水力、可溶性糖含量和游离脯氨酸含量等生理生态学指标,对项目组从资源圃中27科共54种攀援植物中筛选出的13种综合性状优良的攀援植物品种,在干旱胁迫下的生理响应进行了研究.研究结果表明,不同供试攀援植物品种在干旱胁迫下表现出来的反应差异比较明显,其中耐旱性最强和耐旱性最弱的材料在许多指标上的差异达到了1倍左右甚至更大,而且具有一定的规律.对13个供试攀援植物品种在抗旱性方面的综合表现进行了模糊评价,初步确定鸡蛋果、红萼龙吐珠、美丽赪桐、金银花、麻雀花、星果藤和清明花等7个品种为比较抗旱的品种,同时也具有较为优良的景观性状,可供将来生产实践中推广应用.%In order to make up the gaps of study in the drought resistance of greening climbing plants and provide climbing plants with excellent drought resistance for landscape greening, physiological response to drought stress of 13 excellent greening climbing plants, which were sieved from 54 species of 27 families in the resource repository, was studied in the test, using the indexes of leaf water retention, soluble sugar content and free proline content. The results showed that the difference of physiological response to drought stress among the 13 plants was significant, of which many indicators between the plant with the best drought resistance and the worst one had difference more than one times. After evaluating the comprehensive performance of 13 test plants using fuzzy function, Passiflora edulia Sims, Clerodendrum, Clerodendrum splendens, Lonicera japonica Thunb., Aristolochia ringens,Tristellateia australasiae A. And Beaumontia grandiflora Wall. Were considered to have relatively better drought resistance while also had excellent

  13. Evidence of parapox-, alphaherpes- and pestivirus infections in carcasses of semi-domesticated reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus from Finnmark, Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Tryland

    2005-03-01

    alfaherpes- og pestivirus i blod(serologi og tilstedeværelse av parapoxvirus-DNA i vev (Polymerase kjedereaksjon, PCR; parapoxvirus B2L genet. Obduksjonen viste at 39 av de 48 dyrene (81% hadde dødd av avmagring. Parapoxvirus-spesifikt DNA ble funnet i prøver av lever, spyttkjertel (Gl. parotis og/eller lungelymfeknuter fra 6 av de 48 dyrene (12,5%. En DNA sekvens på 376 basepar fra PCR-oppformeringsproduktet fra en leverprøve hadde 98-99% likhet med orf-virus (Orf-11 og parapoxvirus isolert fra reinsdyr i Norge og Finland (1992 og 1994, 92-93% likhet med pseudocowpoxvirus og 87% likhet med bovint papulær stomatittvirus, hvorav de to siste parapoxvirusartene er assosiert med storfé. Disse resultatene viser at også reinsdyr i Finnmark er infisert av parapoxvirus, til tross for at sykdommen munnskurv ikke ennå er rapportert hos rein i dette fylket. Alfaherpes- og pestivirus antistoffer ble funnet hos henholdsvis 10% og 33% av dyrene. Dette er i samsvar med tidligere funn på slaktedyr, og viser at disse virusinfeksjonene er endemiske hos rein i Finnmark. Det er viktig å avklare hvilken rolle disse virusinfeksjonene spiller for reinsdyrenes helse og næringens økonomi. Videre bør det avklares i hvilken grad disse virustypene er i stand til å smitte mellom rein og husdyr.

  14. Multivariate clustering of reindeer herding districts in Sweden according to range prerequisites for reindeer husbandry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-01-01

    samebyar i tio grupper. Den största gruppen, som bestod av 14 samebyar, delades vidare in i 4 undergrupper. Klusteranalyser med 4 olika linkage-varianter användes till att gruppera samebyarna. Principalkomponentsanalys användes för att kartlägga undersökta variabler och de resulterande samebygruppernas karaktär. Samebygrupperna följde inte länsgränser och tre samebyar föll ut som enskilda grupper. Denna undersökning ger underlag för jämförelser mellan samebyar med beaktande av likheter och olikheter i fråga om produktivitet och funktionella särdrag istället för länsgränser och historik. Vi föreslår en ny administrativ indelning i sex områden som skulle kunna fungera som ett alternativt underlag för planering och beslut som rör produktionsaspekter i rennäringen. Resultaten ger också underlag för förutsägelser av förändringar i samebyars produktionsförutsättningar till följd av klimatförändringar.

  15. Community structure and species diversity of fish assemblage in the coastal waters of Jiaozhou Bay%胶州湾近岸浅水区鱼类群落结构及多样性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐宾铎; 曾慧慧; 薛莹; 纪毓鹏; 任一平

    2013-01-01

    根据2009年3月-2010年2月在胶州湾西北部近岸浅水区进行的鱼类逐月定置网调查数据,采用生态多样性指数和多元统计分析等方法研究了该海域的鱼类群落结构及多样性特征.结果表明:调查共鉴定出44种鱼类,其中海洋性27种,河口性鱼类17种.鱼类种类组成与底层水温和盐度有密切关系.胶州湾近岸浅水区鱼类群落Margalef种类丰富度指数(R)变化范围为0.33-3.50,Shannon-Wiener多样性指数(H’)为0.42-2.25,Pielou均匀度指数(J’)为0.23-0.93.聚类分析(CLUSTER)和多维标度排序(MDS)分析表明,不同鱼类种类组成的各月份样品可划分为3个组分:水温较低的冬季组G1(12月-翌年4月)、水温次高的春秋季组G2(5-6月、10-11月)和水温最高的夏季组G3(7-9月).其中G1的典型种主要为尖海龙(Syngnathus acus)、方氏云鳚(Enedrias fangi)和玉筋鱼(Ammodytes personatus)等冷温性常栖类群种类,G2的主要典型种为鳀鱼(Engraulis japonicus)和尖海龙,G3的主要典型种为鲐鱼(Scomber japonicus)、细条天竺鱼(Apogonichthys lineatus)和普氏缰虾虎鱼(Amoya pflaumi)等洄游性鱼类.单因子相似性分析(ANOSIM)表明,3个月份组间鱼类群落结构差异显著,不同月份组间两两差异均显著.生物-环境分析(BIOENV)表明,底层水温是影响胶州湾近岸浅水区鱼类群落结构时间变化的主要环境因子.在胶州湾内近岸浅水区发现40余种幼鱼,但占优势的主要为低值鱼类,表明胶州湾的产卵、肥育场功能有所下降,应加强胶州湾近岸水域生态环境和渔业资源的保护及修复.

  16. Trophic transfer and accumulation of mercury in ray species in coastal waters affected by historic mercury mining (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvat, Milena; Degenek, Nina; Lipej, Lovrenc; Snoj Tratnik, Janja; Faganeli, Jadran

    2014-03-01

    Total mercury (Hg) and monomethylmercury (MMHg) were analysed in the gills, liver and muscle of four cartilaginous fish species (top predators), namely, the eagle ray (Myliobatis aquila), the bull ray (Pteromylaeus bovinus), the pelagic stingray (Dasyatis violacea) and the common stingray (Dasyatis pastinaca), collected in the Gulf of Trieste, one of the most Hg-polluted areas in the Mediterranean and worldwide due to past mining activity in Idrija (West Slovenia). The highest Hg and MMHg concentrations expressed on a dry weight (d.w.) basis were found in the muscle of the pelagic stingray (mean, 2.529 mg/kg; range, 1.179-4.398 mg/kg, d.w.), followed by the bull ray (mean, 1.582 mg/kg; range, 0.129-3.050 mg/kg d.w.) and the eagle ray (mean, 0.222 mg/kg; range, 0.070-0.467 mg/kg, d.w.). Only one specimen of the common stingray was analysed, with a mean value in the muscle of 1.596 mg/kg, d.w. Hg and MMHg contents in the bull ray were found to be positively correlated with species length and weight. The highest MMHg accumulation was found in muscle tissue. Hg and MMHg were also found in two embryos of a bull ray, indicating Hg transfer from the mother during pregnancy. The number of specimens and the size coverage of the bull rays allowed an assessment of Hg accumulation with age. It was shown that in bigger bull ray specimens, the high uptake of inorganic Hg in the liver and the slower MMHg increase in the muscle were most probably due to the demethylation of MMHg in the liver. The highest Hg and MMHg contents in all organs were found in the pelagic stingray, which first appeared in the northern Adriatic in 1999. High Hg and MMHg concentrations were also found in prey species such as the banded murex (Hexaplex trunculus), the principal prey of the eagle rays and bull rays, the anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) and the red bandfish (Cepola rubescens), which are preyed upon by the pelagic stingray, as well as in zooplankton and seawater. Based on previously published

  17. 浙江南部沿岸产卵场春、夏季鱼卵、仔稚鱼种类组成与分布%SPECIES COMPOSITION AND ABUNDANCE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ICHTHYOPLANKTON ALONG THE SOUTH COAST OF ZHEJIANG PROVINCE IN SPRING AND SUMMER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周永东; 金海卫; 张洪亮; 蒋日进; 潘国良

    2013-01-01

    根据2011年4月、5月与6月对浙江南部沿岸产卵场进行的共3个航次的调查资料,对该海域的鱼卵、仔稚鱼的种类组成和数量分布进行了分析,结果表明,共发现鱼卵、仔稚鱼72个种类,分别隶属11目38科48属.其中鱼卵29种,分别隶属6目18科24属;仔稚鱼55种,分别隶属10目29科40属.4-6月仔稚鱼数量呈逐月递减的趋势,而鱼卵数量6月最多,5月最少.鱼卵优势种4月以斑(鲦)、棱(鮻)、小黄鱼与蓝点马鲛为主,5月以斑(鲦)、(鳗)、龙头鱼、银鲳、蓝点马鲛与石首鱼科为主,6月以鳀、龙头鱼、多鳞(鳍)与鲱科鱼类为主;仔稚鱼优势种4月以虾虎鱼类、褐菖(鮋)与平(鮋)科为主,5月以鳀、虾虎鱼类、棱(鮻)、斑(鲦)与长鳍篮子鱼为主,6月以鳀与虾虎鱼类为主.斑(鲦)、鲳鱼、小黄鱼、棱(鮻)、蓝点马鲛与褐菖鮋的产卵盛期为4月,而鳀与龙头鱼的产卵盛期为6月.%Based on the data of three surveys in the spawning ground along the south coast of Zhejiang province from April to June 2011,the species composition and spatial distribution of fish eggs,larvae and juveniles were analyzed.The results showed that 72 fish species were identified,belonging to 48 genera of 38 families in 11 orders.Among them,eggs of 29 species were in 24 genera of 18 families in 6 orders,together with larvae and juveniles of 55 specie in 40 genera of 29 families in 10 orders.The quantity of fish larvae and juveniles showed a tendency of decrease by month from April to June,while the largest number of fish eggs was in June,followed by April and then May.As for the dominant species of fish eggs,April mainly saw Clupanodon punctatus,Liza carinatus,Pseudosciaena polyactis,Scombermorus niphonius; May mainly saw C.punctatus,Engraulis japonicus,Harpodon nehereus,Pampus argenteus,S.niphonius,Sciaenidae sp.and June mainly saw E.japonicus,H.nehereus,Sillago maculate and Clupeidae sp..As for the dominant species of fish larvae

  18. Larval fish distribution and their relationship with environmental factors in the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (central Mediterranean during two years of sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Profeta

    2014-06-01

    The results of this study could have implications for the management of marine resources, because the investigated area has already been identified as a nursery area for many pelagic and coastal fishes and a natural habitat for many species of high commercial interest. Fig. 1. Results of CCA analysis for larval fish species and sampled stations during June 2006. Two first axes (CCA1 and CCA2 are represented. Species abbreviations in alphabetical order: An_a (Anthias anthias, Ap_i (Apogon imberbis, Ar_k (Arnoglossus kessleri, Ar_h (Argyropelecus hemigymnus, Ar_l (Arnoglossus laterna, Ar_r (Arnoglossus rueppelii, Ar_t (Arnoglossus thori, Be_g (Benthosema glaciale, Bl_o (Blennius ocellaris, Bo_b (Boops boops, Bo_p (Bothus podas, Ca_a (Capros aper, Ca_p (Callyonimus maculatus, Ce_m (Ceratoscopelus maderensis, Ce_m1(Cepola macrophtalma, Ci_l (Citharus linguatula, Co_j (Coris julis, Co_n (Ophidion barbatum, Cy_b (Cyclothone braueri, Cy_p (Cyclothone pygmaea, En_e (Engraulis encrasicolus, Di_a (Diplodus annularis, Di_h (Diaphus holti, Di_r (Diaphus rafinesquei, El_r (Electrona rissoi, Go_n (Gobius niger, He_d (Helicolenus dactylopterus, Hy_b (Hygophum benoiti, Hy_h (Hygophum hygomii, La_c (Lampanyctus crocodilus, La_p (Lampanyctus pusillus, Le_c (Lepidotrigla cavillone, Le_j (Lestidiops jayakari, Lo_d (Lobianchia dofleini, Ma_m (Maurolicus muelleri, Ma_s (Macrorhamphosus scolopax, Me_m (Merluccius merluccius, Mi_p (Micromesistius poutassou, My_p (Myctophum punctatum, Mu_s (Mullus surmuletus, Ne_s (Nemichthys scolopaceus, No_b (Notoscopelus bolini, No_e (Notoscopelus elongatus, No_r (Arctozenus risso, Ob_m (Oblada melanura, Pa_s (Paralepis speciosa. Sc_p (Scorpaena porcus, Sc_s (Scorpaena scrofa, Se_c (Serranus cabrilla, Se_h (Serranushepatus, Sp_f (Spicara maena, Sp_s (Spicara smaris, Sy sp. (Symphurus nigrescens, Sy_v, (Symphurus ligulatus, St_b (Stomias boa boa, Tr_d (Trachinus draco, Tr_me (Trachurus mediterraneus, Tr_t (Trachurus trachurus, Ur_s (Uranoscopus scaber

  19. On nekton composition in southern coastal waters off Shandong Peninsula in summer%山东半岛南部近岸海域夏季游泳动物的组成特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐炳庆; 吕振波; 李凡; 包家国; 徐维柱

    2011-01-01

    Based on the bottom trawl surveys in the southern coastal waters off Shandong Peninsula in August 2008, the characteristics of nekton composition was preliminarily analyzed. Results indicated that there were 54 species collected from the bottom trawl surveys. The mean relative catches was 129.9 kg/h. The species richness D, Shannon diversity index H' and evenness index J' were 1. 18, 1. 43 and 0. 63 for nekton communiry, respectively. The dominant species were Engraulis japonicas and Metapenaeopsis dalei. The important species were Pholis fangi, Charybdis japonica, Larimichthys polyactis, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Oratosquilla oratoria and Loligo sp.. The species composition structure included 3 groups on the level of 35%. Similarity of percentage analysis was used to find out which species were most responsible for the discrimination between groups. In these surveys, those species were Metapenaeopsis dalei, Pholis fangi, Chaeturichthys stigmatias, Charybdis japonica, Charybdis bimaculata, Loligo sp. and Oratosquilla oratoria, which contributed most to the average dissimilarity and were discriminators for all between-groups. The fishery resources were. characterized by small-scale fishes of low values.%根据2008年8月在山东半岛南部近岸海域进行的底拖网调查资料,对该海域游泳动物组成特征进行了初步研究.结果表明,在该海域共捕获游泳动物54种,平均相对资源量为129.9 kg/h.以生物量为单位计算群落多样性,Shannon-Wiener种类多样性指数H'平均为1.43,Margalrf种类丰富度指数D平均为1.18,Pielou种类均匀度指数J'平均为0.63.优势种为鲲和戴氏赤虾,重要种为方氏锦鲥、日本蜱、小黄鱼、矛尾虾虎鱼、口虾蛄和枪乌贼.通过聚类分析表明该海域游泳动物群落结构存在一定程度的空间异质性,主要包括3组,引起组间平均相异性贡献的分歧种主要包括戴氏赤虾、方氏锦翳、矛尾虾虎鱼、日本蟳、双斑蟳、枪

  20. Relationships between biotic and abiotic range characteristics and productivity of reindeer husbandry in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Lundqvist

    2009-12-01

    strongly correlated with other, more significant variables. Several of the variables that were found to be important for productivity are correlated with climate and weather and therefore foreseen to be altered in a climatic change perspective. Abstract in Swedish / Sammanfattning: Kopplingar mellan biotiska och geografiska karaktäristika av renskötselområden och renproduktivitet i Sverige Renskötseln i Sverige är en form av pastoralism som använder stora ytor till betesmark. Produktiviteten inom rennäringen i Sverige beror på ett stort antal faktorer som varierar geografiskt och över tid. Undersökningens mål var att hitta kombinationer av faktorer som karaktäriserar förutsättningarna för renskötsel inom de 51 samebyarna i Sverige. Detta genomfördes genom att koppla variationen i renproduktivitet med kombinationer av omgivningsvariabler på sameby- och årsbasis. Produktiviteten definierades genom beräknad hjordtillväxt, slaktkroppskvalitet och vikter på slaktkroppar. Produktivitetsvariablerna relaterades till omgivningsvariablerna genom multipel linjär regression och strukturerad ekvationsmodellering (SEM. Omgivningsvariablerna ansågs för denna undersöknings tidsperspektiv vara antingen stabila (t.ex. topografi, vegetation och infrastrukturer eller varierande över tid (t.ex. säsongslängder, väderhändelser, störningar och slaktstrategier. De mest relevanta omgivningsvariablerna användes i en klusteranalys för att gruppera samebyarna enligt deras likheter i förutsättningar för renskötsel. Variationen i produktivitet var större mellan samebyar än mellan år inom samebyar. Olika omgivningsvariabler visade sig vara relevanta mellan samebyar och mellan år. Säsongslängd och djurtäthet var relevanta i båda skalorna (mellan samebyar och mellan år, medan faktorer såsom topografisk brutenhet, snöförhållanden, aktivitet av störande insekter, stödutfodring, kalvslaktsandel och kondition på föregående års slaktkroppar var relevanta

  1. Lærerstudenters kommentatorkompetanse om flerkultur og undervisning av flerspråklige elever drøftet i lys av kritisk multikulturalisme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenche Elisabeth Thomassen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grunnskolelærerutdanningen har som mål å utdanne studenter med både aktør- og kommentatorkompetanse. Kommentatorkompetanse innebærer evnen til kritisk refleksjon. Planer, forskrifter og retningslinjer for grunnskolelærer-utdanningene fastslår at studentene skal ha kunnskaper om flerkultur og undervisning av minoritetsspråklige elever. Slik kompetanse er fortsatt etterspurt, også blant nyutdannede lærere.I denne undersøkelsen er “kritisk multikulturalisme” brukt som teoretisk tilnærming for å analysere gruppeintervjuer med lærerstudenter. Drøftingen inkluderer også hvordan begreper fra denne teoretiske tilnærmingen fungerer for å forstå lærerstudentenes kommentatorkompetanse. Kritisk multikulturalisme er opptatt av å gi en analyse av undertrykking og institusjonalisering av ulike maktrelasjoner innen utdanning. Begreper som er særlig framtredende, er systemmakt, definisjonsmakt og avmakt. Empirien er en del av et større forskningsprosjekt ved UiS, som studerer praksis i grunnskolelærerutdanningen.Undersøkelsen viser at lærerstudentene viser oppmerksomhet og grad av kritisk kommentatorkompetanse når det gjelder systemnivå og pedagogiske praksiser, men ikke har nødvendigvis tilstrekkelig kunnskap om lover og regler for opplæringen. De savner mer oppmerksomhet på temaet innen lærerutdanningen, særlig konkret didaktikk. Funn i materialet indikerer at det ville være av betydning med en dypere forståelse og mer faglige begreper som grunnlag for refleksjon.Analysebegrepene fra kritisk multikulturalisme kan bidra til å sette studentenes utsagn inn i en større sammenheng og peke på potensielt diskriminerende diskurser, men fanger ikke alt studentene er opptatt av. Dette er et område som det ikke er mye forskning på i Norge, artikkelen er et bidrag til økt kunnskap om flerkultur i grunnskolelærerutdanningene.Nøkkelord: lærerstudenter, flerkultur, flerspråklige elever, kritisk multikulturalisme Abstract

  2. Konsum av risiko-matvarer - Beskrivelse av en undersøkelse som skal kartlegge konsum av matvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helle Margrete Meltzer

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available  SAMMENDRAGI perioden 1999-2001 vil det bli gjennomført tre kostholdsundersøkelser som til sammen skal kartlegge konsum avmatvarer med betydning for inntaket av miljøgifter i Norge, fortrinnsvis kadmium, kvikksølv, PCB og dioksiner.Disse giftene finnes hovedsakelig i krabbe, flatfisk, skjell, gjedde og abbor, lever eller nyre fra vilt og viltvoksendesopp. Fordi gjennomsnittskonsumet er lavt, spørres det ikke spesifikt om disse matvarene i landsdekkende kostholdsundersøkelsersom 'Norkost'. Hensikten med studien er å kunne gi en bedre beskrivelse av eksponeringsfordelingeni befolkningen med tanke på miljøgifter. Fordelingen er antakelig skjev, dvs. et stort antall personerventes å ha et lavt inntak og noen få personer ventes å ha et relativt høyt inntak av de undersøkte stoffene. Eventuelleukjente risikogrupper vil kunne avdekkes, og det er av stor interesse å undersøke hvor stor eksponeringen i deutsatte gruppene er.Del A av undersøkelsen er landsdekkende og omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 10 000 tilfeldig valgtepersoner mellom 18 og 79 år. Del B omfatter en postal frekvensundersøkelse til 6000 tilfeldig valgte personer i sekskommuner, der tre er kystkommuner og tre er innlandskommuner. Kommunene blir valgt ut fra kjennskap til godtilgang på de aktuelle matvarene. Vi antar at der tilgangen på matvarene er god, er konsumet høyere. Del C avundersøkelsen vil omfatte høykonsumenter av aktuelle matvarer, valgt fra del B av undersøkelsen. Dette vil være endybdestudie der analyser av miljøgifter i blod, hår og urin også skal inngå.Undersøkelsen er den første i sitt slag her til lands og vi kjenner ikke til at tilsvarende studier er gjort i andreland. Hensikten med artikkelen er å gi en beskrivelse av undersøkelsen i en tidlig fase av gjennomføringen.Meltzer HM, Bergsten C, Stene LC, Stigum H, Wiborg ML, Lund-Larsen K, Alexander J. Consumption ofcontaminated foods – Description of a dietary survey

  3. Ein Versuch, Naturverhältnisse aus feministischer Sicht zu interpretieren Another attempt to explain the natural environment from a feminist perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helga Purgand

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Mit dem vorliegenden Sammelband Geschlechterverhältnisse – Naturverhältnisse wird nach dem innovativen Beitrag der feministischen Debatte für umweltsoziologisches Denken gefragt und nach Überschneidungen, Grenzen und Zwischenräumen zwischen „Geschlecht“ und „Natur“ gesucht. In ihm wird der lobenswerte Versuch unternommen, einen Zusammenhang zwischen Geschlechter- und Naturverhältnissen herzustellen „die in der Umweltsoziologie bislang stark vernachlässigte feministische Diskussion und Geschlechterforschung einzubeziehen und als genderbezogene Perspektive zu etablieren“. (S. 9 Das Buch enthält Beiträge von 15 Autorinnen, die unterschiedliche Natur- und Geschlechtsverhältnisse facettenreich, überwiegend kreativ und theoretisch anspruchsvoll betrachten. Das Buch enthält Zugänge aus der allgemeinen Soziologie, den Sprach- und Kulturwissenschaften, aus politik- und naturwissenschaftlichen Zusammenhängen. Den ausdrücklich formulierten Anspruch, von multi- zu einer inter-disziplinären Durchdringung zu gelangen, erfüllt es nur in Ansätzen (besonders mit der Einleitung und den theoretischen Problemexplikationen. Das zustande gekommene „Nach-, Zusammen- und Querdenken“ über Begriffe, Theorien und neuere Forschungsansätze (von Foucault über Butler bis zu Donna Haraway belegt die Notwendigkeit, die naturwissenschaftlichen Annahmen „immanent zu dekonstruieren“. Sehr aufschlussreich sind in diesem Zusammenhang die Beiträge von Irmgard Schultz, Elvira Scheich, aber auch von Mary Mellor und besonders von Paula-Irene Villa, die interessante und kreative Gedanken zur Klärung des Verhältnisses von Natur, Kultur und Geschlecht anbieten. Deutlich wurde, dass weiterhin ein kontroverses Ringen um angemessene konzeptionelle Fassungen von Geschlechts- und Naturverhältnissen und die Integration von Gender als zentraler analytischer Querschnitts-Kategorie nötig sind. Insgesamt ist dem Buch ist eine schnelle Verbreitung und

  4. ”Fra passivitet til aktivitet” – En oversikt over utvikling og endringer på folketrygdens områder de senere årene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grete Damberg

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Det har i de senere år skjedd store forandringer på folketrygdens område. Det har blitt lagt mer og mer vekt på viktigheten av å kunne være i aktivitet hvis det ikke er medisinske hindringer for dette. I endringene som er foretatt, er det fokus på den enkeltes muligheter til å være i arbeid mer enn på eventuelle begrensninger. Dette kommer fram gjennom endringer på sykefraværsområdet med innføring av aktivitetsplikt for den sykmeldte og gjennom ny sykefraværsmodell med fokus på oppfølging, involvering av arbeidsgiver, behandler og NAV. Arbeidsplassen er hovedarena for sykefraværsoppfølging, og arbeidsgiver og arbeidstaker er hovedaktører. Dette er en videreføring av føringene i Intensjonsavtalen om et inkluderende arbeidsliv. Også på området for rehabiliteringspenger, yrkesrettet attføring og uføreytelser legges det vekt på at den enkelte skal forsøke seg i arbeid hvis det medisinsk sett er mulig. I 2010 skjer det en større endring ved at rehabiliteringspenger, yrkesrettet attføring og tidsbegrenset uførestønad fjernes og erstattes med arbeidsavklaringspenger, en ytelse hvor det også legges vekt på aktivitet. Samtidig innføres arbeidsevnevurdering med full tyngde som arbeidsmetode internt i NAV. På yrkesskadeområdet har det skjedd få endringer, men organiseringen av yrkesskadeordningen i Norge er under utredning. Samhandling med og kompetansetilbud til sykmeldere er gjennomført i de siste årene. Det er også utviklet statistikk over sykmeldinger skrevet ut av fastleger, et verktøy som kan benyttes i dialog med den enkelte fastlege. Fortsatt er mange sykmeldt eller på varige ytelser. Årsakene til dette er sammensatte. Det er behov for videre forskning på folketrygdens områder. Damberg G. "From inactivity to action" - a review of development and changes in the national insurance scheme in recent years. Nor J Epidemiol 2009; 19 (2: 139-146. ENGLISH SUMMARYRecent years have seen major changes within

  5. 许氏平鲉的食物组成及其食物选择性%Food composition and prey selectivity of Sebastes schlegeli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 李忠义; 金显仕

    2014-01-01

    2009年8月和10月对渤海进行了底拖网调查,鲉对增殖放流种类之一的许氏平(Sebates schlegeli)进行了胃鲉含物分析和食物选择性的初步研究。结果表明许氏平共摄食7类20余种饵料,主要摄食虾类和鱼类,属虾/鱼食性鱼类。8月摄食的主要饵料为日本鼓虾和虾虎鱼类,10月摄食的主要饵料为疣背宽额虾和小黄鱼。与20世纪90年代的研究结果相比,鲉许氏平的摄食发生了显著的年间变化,摄食的虾类饵料增多,鱼类饵料减少;主要饵料种类发生改变,鳀鲉不再是其主要的饵料种类。食物选择性指数的计算表明许氏平摄食的主要饵料种类与喜食的饵料种类有一定差别;鲉许氏平的食物选择性并不完全是由环境中的饵料丰度决定的,说明其对食物的选择具有较强的主动性。结论认为,鲉许氏平的摄食和食物选择性的季节变化不仅受环境中饵料丰度的影响,也受鱼类自身营养需求和主动选择性摄食的影响。%Based on bottom trawl surveys conducted in the Bohai Sea in August and October of 2009, stomach analysis and prey selectivity indices were used to study the feeding habits of Sebates schlegeli, which is a released fish species. The results showed that Sebates schlegeli fed on seven groups of more than 20 prey species, and mainly fed on shrimp and fish, accounting for 64.93%-76.59% of the total food composition, by percentage of occurrence. Thus, Sebates schlegeli belongs to the fish/shrimp predator fish. Alpheus japonicas and the gobiidae were the dominant prey species in August;however, Latreutes planirostris and small yellow croaker (Larimichthy polyactis) were the dominant prey spe-cies in October. Compared with the study performed in the 1990s, the feeding habits of Sebates schlegeli have varied significantly, feeding on a higher proportion of shrimp prey and fewer fish. The dominant prey species were also dif-ferent, and anchovy (Engraulis

  6. Fish community structure and its seasonal change in subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island%枸杞岛潮下带沙地生境鱼类群落结构和季节变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪振华; 王凯; 赵静; 章守宇

    2011-01-01

    To understand the characteristics of fish community structure in sandy beach habitats of island reef water areas. and to evaluate the potential capacity of these habitats in local fish stock maintenance. fishes were monthly collected with multi-mesh trammel nets in 2009 from the subtidal sandy beach habitat off southern Gouqi Island, taking the adjacent rocky reef habitat as the control.α and β species diversity indices. index of relative importance (IRI) . relative catch rate. and dominance curve for abundance and biomass ( ABC curve) were adopted to compare the fish species composition , diversity , and community pattern between the two habitats ,and multivariate statistical analyses such as non-metric multidimensional scaling (nMDS) and cluster were conducted to discuss the fish assemblage patterns. A total of 63 fish species belonging to ll orders, 38 families,and 56 genera were collected, of which. 46 fish species were appeared in the two habitats. Due to the appearance of more warm water species in sandy bottom . the fishes in subtidal sandy beach habitat showed much higher richness. and the abundance catch rate ( ACR) from May to July was higher than that in rocky reef habitat. In most rest months. the ACR in subtidal sandy beach habitat also showed the similar trend. However. the species richness and diversity in spring and summer were significantly lower in subtidal sandy beach habitat than in rocky reef habitat. because of the high species dominance and low evenness in the sandy beach habitat. Japanese tonguefish ( Parapl-agusia japonica) was the indicator species in the sandy beach habitat. and dominated in early spring, later summer, autumn, and winter when the fishing pressure was not strong. In sandy bottom, a unique community structure was formed and kept in dynamic, due to the nursery use of sandy beach by Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicus) from May to July, the gathering of gray mullet (Mugil cephalus) in most months for feeding, and the

  7. Variation in feeding ecology within the fish community in the north Yellow Sea%黄海北部鱼类群落的摄食生态及其变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 吴强; 牛明香; 金显仕

    2011-01-01

    根据2010年5月和8月对黄海北部渔业资源的底拖网调查,分析了黄海北部鱼类群落的摄食生态及其变化.结果表明,黄海北部鱼类群落共有9种重要种类,与5月相比,8月没有游泳动物食性鱼类,广食性鱼类减少,浮游动物食性鱼类的比例大大增加.黄海北部鱼类群落在5月和8月总摄食量分别为0.5万t和19.6万t,细长脚虫戎、中华哲水蚤、脊腹褐虾、中华安乐虾、小黄鱼和鳀是黄海北部鱼类群落被摄食量最高的6种主要饵料种类.1985年至2010年的25年间,黄海北部鱼类群落的优势种更替,游泳动物食性鱼类减少,广食性鱼类增多;鱼类群落的平均营养级每10年下降0.24,尽管近10年的下降速度有所放慢,但仍远远高于渤海和黄海中南部的下降速度.%Our objective was to evaluate ecosystem status before and after fishery enhancement. We analyzed the feeding habits, food consumption, and trophic level of the species constituting 90% of total biomass in bottom trawl surveys conducted in May and August of 2010. We compared the traits of the five dominant species (by total biomass) with those collected in 1985 and 2000. In addition, we evaluated decadal-scale variation in the mean TL of the fish community in the north Yellow Sea.The fish community in the north Yellow Sea was dominated by nine species, though these differed between May and August. The most dominant species in May included small yellow croaker Pseudosciaena polyactis, elongate eelpout Enchelyopus elongates, half-fin anchovy Setipinna taty, angler Lophius litulon, pointhead plaice Cleisthenes herzensteini, Pacific cod Gadus macrocephalus, and sea perch Lateolabrax japonicus. Conversely, in August the fishery was dominated by anchovy Engraulis japonicus, sea snail Liparis tanakae, small yellow croaker, elongate eelpout, and Pacific cod. Thus, the assemblage in May was characterized by a lack of nektivores, a decrease in the proportion of generalist

  8. 黄海中南部细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性及其变化%Feeding habits and their variation of seasnail( Liparis tanakae )in the central and southern Yellow Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张波; 金显仕; 戴芳群

    2011-01-01

    利用2006年1月-2009年7月在黄海中南部进行的7个月的底拖网调查,采集了体长在18~525mm范围的细纹狮子鱼样品3 005尾.通过胃含物分析、聚类分析以及营养级计算等方法,研究了细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性,周年变化和体长变化.结果表明,除3月份外,细纹狮子鱼是各月份黄海生态系统食物网的重要种类;目前脊腹褐虾仍是细纹狮子鱼的优势饵料生物,而方氏云鳚替代鳀成为其优势饵料生物.细纹狮子鱼的摄食习性和摄食强度都有显著的周年变化和体长变化,体长是导致细纹狮子鱼摄食习性周年变化的主要因素.随着体长增加,细纹狮子鱼发生了3次显著的食性转换,体长在50mm从底栖动物食性转换为广食性;大于100 mm转换为底层虾食性;大于350 mm转换为虾/鱼食性.不同体长的细纹狮子鱼归属不同的营养功能群,因此,细纹狮子鱼在不同月份的黄海生态系统中处于不同的营养地位.%Based on seven bottom trawl surveys conducted in the central and southern Yellow Sea, which covered the range of 120° -124°E,33° -37. 5°N,in seven months from January 2006 to July 2009,total of 3 005 stomach samples of seasnail Liparis tanakae with body length of 18 -525 mm were collected. Stomach content analysis, cluster analysis and trophic level were used to study the feeding habits and their ontogenetic variation and monthly variation. The results showed that seasnail is important fish species in food web and plays an important role in the marine ecosystems of the Yellow Sea. Seasnail fed on more than 60 prey species. Crangon affinis was the dominant prey item of seasnail, and Enedrias fangi became the dominant prey item instead of anchovy Engraulis japonicus. The feeding habits of seasnail had significant monthly and ontogenetic variations. Seasnail mainly fed on benthon at less than 50 mm body length; on zooplankton, benthon and demersal shrimps at 51 -100 mm body length; When

  9. ANALYSIS ON THE SPECIES DIVERSITY OF FISHERY ANIMALS IN DAIQUYANG%岱衢洋渔业动物多样性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张洪亮; 梁君; 贺舟挺; 王伟定; 周永东

    2012-01-01

    The Daiquyang locates between the Daishan and Qushan Islands in the Zhoushan Archipelago. Due to its optimal location and suitable environmental characteristics, it is the spawning and feeding ground of Larimichthys cro-cea of the Daiqu Race, and also of other fishery animals (fish species such as Larimichthys polyactis, Trichiurus ja-ponicus, Pampus argenteus and Engraulis japonicus, crustacean species such as Portunus trituberculatus, Charyhdis japonica, Exopalaemon carinicauda, Acetes chinensis and Oratosquilla oratoria, cephalopods such as Sepiella main-droni, Octopus variabilis, Octopus ocellatus and Loligo duvaucelii, and other animal species such as Nassarius variciferus, Sliqua minima, Cantharus cecillei and Moerella irideseens). For a long time, although the Daiquyang plays an important role in marine fisheries in the East China Sea, there have been no studies focused on the species diversity of its fishery animals. In recent years, both the environment and fishery resources in the Daiquyang have been facing new threats arisen from rapid development of harbor industries and a mass of shore reclamation in the Zhoushan Archipelago District, Zhejiang. Therefore it is necessary to study the species diversity of fishery animals in this area. We analyzed fishery animal diversity and the status of fishery resources based on four surveys conducted by bottom trawl, setting gillnet and crab pot from April to November 2007 in the Daiquyang. Three analytical methods including sweep-area method, biodiversity analysis and analysis of variance were used. The results showed that: 1) a total of 98 fishery animals were sampled, including fishes (58 species), crustaceans (32 species), cephalopods (3 species) and other species (6 species), belonging to 53 families of 20 orders, 7 classes and 4 phylums. 2) In our trawl collections, a total of 68 fishery animals were obtained, including fishes (38 species), crustaceans (23 species), cephalopods (2 species) and other species (5

  10. 广东省恩平市锦江河上游野生鱼类资源群落生态特征调查%A preliminary study on the structure of wild fish community in the upstream of Jinjiang River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭乾开; 黎华寿; 崔科; 贺鸿志

    2012-01-01

    Zuiew), Silurus asotus Linnaeus, Ophicephalus argus, Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky), Siniperca scherzeri Steindacho, Micropterus salmoides, Misgurnus anguillieaudatu and so forth which take a percentage of 30.61% of the captured fishes are economical ; other 8 species, including Carassius auratus (Linnaeus), Tilapia nilotica, Xenocypris argentea, Cyprinus carpio, Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Hypophthalmmichthy-srnolitrix, Aristichthys nobilis (Richardson), Mylopharyngodon piceus, Cirrhinus molitorella and so on which take a percentage of 16. 32% are common economical; the else taking 53.06%, including 26 species and 2 known ones are non-economical. Among the Cypriniformes, Cyprinus carpio and Pseudolaubuca sinensis are dominant species (IRIS500) while Carassius auratus, Pseudoperilampus lighti Wu, P. engraulis, Squaliobarbus curriculus, Hemiculter bleekeri and Pseudoperilarnpus lighti are common ones ; as for the Perciforrnes, Oreochromis and Ctenogobius giurinus are dominant (IRI≥500) while Channa asiatica, Ophicephalus argus, Micropterus salmoides , Macropodus opercuiaris , Rhinogobius duospilus , Mugilogoblus myxodermus and Hypseleotris swinhonis are commone; and for the Cyprinodontirormes, Gambusra affinis and Clarias batrachus are dominant (IRI≥ 500) while Ymbranchiformes monopterusalba, Plecostous Punctatus and Silurus asotus are common. We expect that our surveys and analysis would provide scientific proof for the protection and the implementation of the fish resources in Jinjiang River in Enping.

  11. Reindeer husbandry and forestry in the reindeer herding district of Poikajärvi during the years 1963 — 1984

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarina Kupiainen

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Reindeer husbandry and forestry are practised in Finland in the same areas and practisers of these sources of livelihood not been able to avoid conflicts. Large clear-cutting and ploughed areas especially have diminshed the reindeer's winter ranges. In winter the reindeer digs ground lichens (Cladina spp under the snow and when the snow surface becomes harder it begins to pasture upon arboreal lichens (Alectoria and Bryoria spp.. Fields of lichen are, however, very worn and the best forests with arboreal lichens have been cut. The area of the reindeer herding district of Poikajarvi (66°30' — 67°10'N is 2507 km2 of which state owned land is 1474 km2 (59%. The average reindeer density (counted reindeer of the years 1963 — 1984 has been 1.5 reindeer/km2. During the last 20 years 9.8% of the state owned land of Poikajarvi has been treated with regeneration cutting, mostly with clear-cuttings, and 10.6% with thinning cuttings. With different soil preparation methods 8.7% has been treated, most of it by ploughing. About 24% of the damp sites have been clearcut and ploughed. The estimated cutting quantity of state owned forests has continually increased since 1976 and in 1984 it was about 140 600 m3. Since 1963 the number of counted reindeer of the reindeer herding district has decreased by 60 reindeer yearly. It has varied between 4939 and 2866 reindeer. In the years 1963 — 1984 on average 1425 reindeer were slaughtered yearly. The calves' share of the slaughtered reindeer has increased and in the last few years it has been almost 80%. The average reindeer meat production has been 36 400 kg a year. In Poikajarvi supplemental feeding of reindeer has been practised since 1969. The amount of hay used for it has increased from about 5.5 kg to nearly 20 kg per counted reindeer. At the same time the number of counted and slaughtered reindeer and. meat production has decreased.Rennäringen och skogsbruket i Poikajärvis Renbeteslag under åren 1963

  12. Terpenes removal from biogas; Terpenenverwijdering uit biogas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, P.; Holstein, J.; De Haan, HR.; Vlap, H. [DNV KEMA, Arnhem (Netherlands)

    2013-06-15

    sterk verlaagt. Tevens worden de zogenaamde weke delen (pakkingen en rubberen O-ringen) uit het gasnet aangetast. Naast de invloed op de integriteit van het gasnet, maskeren terpenen ook de geur van het odorant THT. Hierdoor kunnen gaslekkages bijvoorbeeld niet meer als zodanig gedetecteerd worden, wat een significant veiligheidsrisico met zich meebrengt. Verder kan de aanwezigheid van terpenen in biogas leiden tot vervuiling van installaties die voor het drogen van groengas gebruikt worden, evenals adsorptievloeistoffen en membranen, die in het opwerkingsproces gebruikt worden. Momenteel worden terpenen verwijderd door middel van actieve koolfilters. De standtijd van een dergelijk filter kan relatief kort zijn bij hoge concentraties terpenen in het biogas, waardoor de operationele kosten, ten gevolge van het vervangen van de kool, sterk toenemen. In dit onderzoek is gekeken naar alternatieve technieken die op eenvoudige manier een groot deel van de terpenen uit biogas kunnen verwijderen. In een workshop met stakeholders is voor twee technieken gekozen die op labschaal getest werden om het 'proof of principle' aan te tonen: foto-oxidatie en gaswassing. De testen zijn op labschaal uitgevoerd door toevoeging van limoneen aan schone lucht. Van de onderzochte technieken lijkt de verwijdering van limoneen via fotolyse de meest belovende techniek door de eenvoud van het proces, de hoge bereikte efficientie (tot 94%), de vergelijkbare operationele kosten met actief kool (6,7-9,5 euro/kg limoneen verwijderd, in vergelijking met 10 euro/kg limoneen verwijderd voor actief kool) en de mogelijkheid om zuurstof in biogas om te zetten en te verwijderen. Echter, de invloed van andere biogascomponenten zoals H2O en CO2 op de efficientie van het proces (en de kosten) dienen voor praktijksituaties nog onderzocht te worden. De inzet van een gaswasproces is ook een optie voor de verwijdering van limoneen. De efficientie van het proces bleek in de uitgevoerde proeven lager te zijn

  13. Community structure of fish resources in spring and autumn in the Yellow Sea off Shandong%黄海山东海域春、秋季鱼类群落结构

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕振波; 李凡; 王波; 徐炳庆; 魏振华; 张焕君; 张培超

    2011-01-01

    Fishery science and management are progressively switching their attention from single species to ecosystems,and increasing the need for research of fish community.Based on the data collected by trawl surveys in May and October of 2006 in the Yellow Sea off Shandong, fish community patterns such as species compositions and spatial pattern were analyzed.In the investigated area,35°00’ -38°00’N,120°30’- 124°00’E,45 sample stations were set up.The survey data were standardized by sweep area and capture coefficient.The capture coefficient was set to 0.55 for pelagic fish and 0.35 for near demersal fish and 0.25 for demersal fish.The index of relative importance ( IRI ) was calculated to determine the importance of the species.Species were defined as dominant species when IRI value is more than 1 000.Important species were defined for those IRI value being grealer than 100 but no more than 1000.The multivariate statistical analyses include cluster analysis, NMDS,SIMPER and BIOENV to analyze the pattern of community compositions.The species,whose cumulative biomass less than 0.01% or frequency less than 5% ,were excluded from multivariate statistical analyses.The abundance biomass comparison( ABC)curves and W-statistic,generated by PRIMER,were used to analyze the communities'disturbed states.The results showed that a total number of 61 species belonging to 57 genera,37 families and 13 orders were collected,50 in springs and 50 in autumns.The dominant species were Pacific sandeel (Ammodytes personatus) ,Japanese anchovy ( Engraulis japonicas ) and fang' s blenny ( Enedrias fangi ) in spring, and were Japanese anchovy and Japanese sardinella ( Sardinella zunasi)in autumn.The important species were Pacific cod ( Gadus macrocephalus ) in spring, and were yellow croaker ( Larimichthys polyactis ), silver pomfret ( Pampus argenteus) ,Pacific sandeel and rednose anchovy ( Thrissa kammalensis)in autumn.The fish communities were predominant by little

  14. Blood composition of the reindeer . II. Blood chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauri Nieminen

    1983-05-01

    uppnådde nivån hos en vuxen ren vid 5 månaders ålder (respektive medeltal 5,1 g/1, 0,4 mmol/1, 2,7 mmol. Halterna av kolesterol, fettsyra, myristinsyra och palmitinsyra var hogre i kalvarnas serum, emedan halterna av stearinsyra och oljesyra var lagre ån hos vajor. Under de forstå levnadsdygnen producerar kalven katekolaminer i rikliga mångder. Dåremot år serumdopamid - B - hydroxylas-aktiviteten ganska låg. En fritt betande vajas blodsockerhalt (3,4 - 4,6 mmol/1, totalåggvitehalt i serum (63 - 87 g/1, albuminhalt (39 - 43 g/1, globulinhalt (23 - 44 g/1, urea (5,7- 9 mmol/1, totala lipidhalt (2,7 - 5,2 g/1, triglyceridhalt (0,17-0,33 mmol/1, fettsyrehalt (0,89 - 1,54 g/1, kalciumhalt (2,2 - 2,6 mmol/1, fosforhalt (1,6 - 2,2 mmol/1, magnesiumhalt (0,8 - 1,2 mmol/1 och kopparhalt (6,7 - 17 Jmol/l var hogst under sommaren och hosten emedan de sjonk under vintern. De lågsta halterna mattes hos u-tsvultna vajor på våren. Den hoga ureahalten i serum samt CPK-, LDH- och SAP-aktiviteterna återspeglar åggviteåmnens och våvnaders upplosning i kroppen. Årstiderna och nåringen inverkade varken på halterna av T4 kreatinin, natrium eller klorid i serum. De hoga siffrorna for kroppsvikt och blodets kemiska varden mattes hos vajor som under vintersåsongen matats med pressfoder och melassflis.

  15. Herd composition and slaughtering strategy in reindeer husbandry – revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Øystein Holand

    2007-04-01

    øyt innslag av voksne dyr sikret kontroll over flokken da de var lettere å gjete og bedre i stand til å takle harde vintre. Det materielle grunnlaget for omleggingen av flokkstruktur og slaktestrategi var innføringen av mekanisert trekkraft; særlig snøskuteren på 1960-tallet, kombinert med en markedsøkonomi basert på kjøttproduksjon. Det biologiske utgangspunktet er en begrenset beiteressurs som må utnyttes optimalt. Dette gjøres primært gjennom å tilpasse beitebelegget til ressursgrunnlaget. Men også flokksammensetningen og en tilpasset slaktestrategi er avgjørende for hvor mange kilo kjøtt en kan høste på et gitt areal. Innen reindrifta var en høy simleandel kombinert med slakt av kalver allerede utprøvd i Sovjetunionen på 1930-tallet og vant innpass i finsk reindrift på 1960-tallet. En slik omlegging ble modifisert og utprøvd også i enkelte områder i Norge og Sverige, og diskusjonen gikk høyt om dens berettigelse. Arbeidet med å utvikle og etterprøve denne nye strategien basert på moderne produksjonsteori og tradisjonellkunnskap startet for fullt i Riast/Hylling reinbeitedistrikt i Sør-Norge i begynnelsen av 1970-tallet og ble avsluttet rundt 1985. Dette arbeidet ble videreført i Ruvhten Sitje (tidligere Tännäs Sameby. I sin rendyrkede form innebærer den nye flokkstrukturen en høyest mulig andel simler i vinterflokken. Disse reproduserer og fostrer årlig opp kalver slik at flest mulig er i live og i godt hold første høst. Antall bukker holdes på et minimum, men høyt nok til å sikre full bedekking. Slaktestrategien tilpasses denne flokkstrukturen ved at de fleste kalvene slaktes; bare de beste settes på til livdyr eller parringsbukker. Dette betyr at simlene utrangeres når aldringen begynner å påvirke reproduksjonen negativt, normalt ved 12 års alder. Bruk av 1,5-årige parringsbukker innebærer at disse kan slaktes etter brunst. Som et resultat blir vinterflokken bestående av produktive simler pluss påsettet av simlekalver

  16. The development of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled Germanic Basin of Central Europe and the palaeoenvironmental related distribution of marine and terrestrial reptiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diedrich, Cajus G.

    2010-05-01

    comparison to convergent developed sirenia. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (in review). Diedrich, 2010b. The vertebrate fauna of the Lower Ladinian (Middle Triassic) from Lamerden (Germany) and contribution to the palaeoecology, anatomy and palaeogeography of the Germanic Basin reptiles. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, (in review). Diedrich, 2010c. The palaeogeographic reconstructions of the Middle Triassic tectonical controlled carbonatic Germanic Basin of Central Europe - a northern Tethys connected cratonic marine Basin - coastal basin margin mappings by the use of reptile footprint rich intertidal and sabkha environments. Abstract, Fifth International Conference on the Geology of the Tethys Realm, Quena-Luxor,Egypt), 3-5. Diedrich, in prep. The shallow marine fish and sauropterygian reptile vertebrate fauna of the Germanic Basin from the atavus/pulcher Bonebeds in the Bad Sulza Fm (Illyrian, Middle Triassic) of Bad Sulza (Central Germany). Diedrich, C. and Trostheide, F. 2007. Auf den Spuren der terresten Muschelkalksaurier und aquatischen Sauropterygier vom obersten Röt bis zum Mittleren Muschelkalk (Unter-/Mitteltrias) von Sachsen-Anhalt. Abhandlungen und Berichte für Naturkunde, 30, 5-56. Föhlisch, K. 2007. Überlieferungen seismischer Aktivität im Unteren Muschelkalk. Beiträge zur Geologie Thüringens, N.F. 14, 55-83. Furrer, H. 1995. The Kalkschieferzone (Upper Meride estone Ladinian) near Meride (Canton Ticino, Southern Switzerland) and the evolution of a Middle Triassic intraplatform basin. Eclogae geolicae Helvetiae, 88(3), 827-852. Hagdorn, H. 1990. Das Muschelkalk/Keuper-Bonebed von Crailsheim. In: Weidert, W. K. (Ed.), Klassische Fundstellen der Paläontologie, Band 2. 78-88. Goldschneck-Verlag, Stuttgart. Hagdorn, H., E. Nitsch, Aigner, T. and Simon, T. 2009. Field guide 6th international Triassic field workshop (Pan-European Correlation of the Triassic) Triassic of Southwest Germany. September 7-11, 2009, www