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Sample records for anchorage independent functions

  1. Molecular and functional analysis of anchorage independent, treatment-evasive neuroblastoma tumorspheres with enhanced malignant properties: A possible explanation for radio-therapy resistance.

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    Abou-Antoun, Tamara J; Nazarian, Javad; Ghanem, Anthony; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Sandler, Anthony D

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and management, more than 60% of patients with neuroblastoma present with very poor prognosis in the form of metastatic and aggressive disease. Solid tumors including neuroblastoma are thought to be heterogeneous with a sub-population of stem-like cells that are treatment-evasive with highly malignant characteristics. We previously identified a phenomenon of reversible adaptive plasticity (RAP) between anchorage dependent (AD) cells and anchorage independent (AI) tumorspheres in neuroblastoma cell cultures. To expand our molecular characterization of the AI tumorspheres, we sought to define the comprehensive proteomic profile of murine AD and AI neuroblastoma cells. The proteomic profiles of the two phenotypic cell populations were compared to each other to determine the differential protein expression and molecular pathways of interest. We report exclusive or significant up-regulation of tumorigenic pathways expressed by the AI tumorspheres compared to the AD cancer cells. These pathways govern metastatic potential, enhanced malignancy and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, radio-therapy induced significant up-regulation of specific tumorigenic and proliferative proteins, namely survivin, CDC2 and the enzyme Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1. Bio-functional characteristics of the AI tumorspheres were resistant to sutent inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as to 2.5 Gy radio-therapy as assessed by cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Interestingly, PDGF-BB stimulation of the PDGFRβ led to transactivation of EGFR and VEGFR in AI tumorspheres more potently than in AD cells. Sutent inhibition of PDGFRβ abrogated this transactivation in both cell types. In addition, 48 h sutent treatment significantly down-regulated the protein expression of PDGFRβ, MYCN, SOX2 and Survivin in the AI tumorspheres and inhibited tumorsphere self-renewal. Radio-sensitivity in AI

  2. Ectodomains of the LDL receptor-related proteins LRP1b and LRP4 have anchorage independent functions in vivo.

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    Martin F Dietrich

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor gene family is a highly conserved group of membrane receptors with diverse functions in developmental processes, lipoprotein trafficking, and cell signaling. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor-related protein 1b (LRP1B was reported to be deleted in several types of human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer. Our group has previously reported that a distal extracellular truncation of murine Lrp1b that is predicted to secrete the entire intact extracellular domain (ECD is fully viable with no apparent phenotype.Here, we have used a gene targeting approach to create two mouse lines carrying internally rearranged exons of Lrp1b that are predicted to truncate the protein closer to the N-terminus and to prevent normal trafficking through the secretary pathway. Both mutations result in early embryonic lethality, but, as expected from the restricted expression pattern of LRP1b in vivo, loss of Lrp1b does not cause cellular lethality as homozygous Lrp1b-deficient blastocysts can be propagated normally in culture. This is similar to findings for another LDL receptor family member, Lrp4. We provide in vitro evidence that Lrp4 undergoes regulated intramembraneous processing through metalloproteases and gamma-secretase cleavage. We further demonstrate negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the soluble extracellular domain.Our results underline a crucial role for Lrp1b in development. The expression in mice of truncated alleles of Lrp1b and Lrp4 with deletions of the transmembrane and intracellular domains leads to release of the extracellular domain into the extracellular space, which is sufficient to confer viability. In contrast, null mutations are embryonically (Lrp1b or perinatally (Lrp4 lethal. These findings suggest that the extracellular domains of both proteins may function as a scavenger for signaling ligands or signal modulators in the extracellular space, thereby

  3. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

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    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Shen, Steven [Center for Health Informatics and Bioinformatics, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A. [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States); Costa, Max, E-mail: Max.Costa@nyumc.org [Department of Environmental Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, 57 Old Forge Road, Tuxedo, NY 10987 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  4. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  5. A genetic screen for anchorage-independent proliferation in mammalian cells identifies a membrane-bound neuregulin.

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    Davide Danovi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage-independent proliferation is a hallmark of oncogenic transformation and is thought to be conducive to proliferation of cancer cells away from their site of origin. We have previously reported that primary Schwann cells expressing the SV40 Large T antigen (LT are not fully transformed in that they maintain a strict requirement for attachment, requiring a further genetic change, such as oncogenic Ras, to gain anchorage-independence. Using the LT-expressing cells, we performed a genetic screen for anchorage-independent proliferation and identified Sensory and Motor Neuron Derived Factor (SMDF, a transmembrane class III isoform of Neuregulin 1. In contrast to oncogenic Ras, SMDF induced enhanced proliferation in normal primary Schwann cells but did not trigger cellular senescence. In cooperation with LT, SMDF drove anchorage-independent proliferation, loss of contact inhibition and tumourigenicity. This transforming ability was shared with membrane-bound class III but not secreted class I isoforms of Neuregulin, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Importantly, we show that despite being membrane-bound signalling molecules, class III neuregulins transform via a cell intrinsic mechanism, as a result of constitutive, elevated levels of ErbB signalling at high cell density and in anchorage-free conditions. This novel transforming mechanism may provide new targets for cancer therapy.

  6. PAX2 regulates ADAM10 expression and mediates anchorage-independent cell growth of melanoma cells.

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    Sophia Boyoung Lee

    Full Text Available PAX transcription factors play an important role during development and carcinogenesis. In this study, we investigated PAX2 protein levels in melanocytes and melanoma cells by Western Blot and immunofluorescence analysis and characterized the role of PAX2 in the pathogenesis of melanoma. In vitro we found weak PAX2 protein expression in keratinocytes and melanocytes. Compared to melanocytes increased PAX2 protein levels were detectable in melanoma cell lines. Interestingly, in tissue sections of melanoma patients nuclear PAX2 expression strongly correlated with nuclear atypia and the degree of prominent nucleoli, indicating an association of PAX2 with a more atypical cellular phenotype. In addition, with chromatin immunoprecipitation assay, PAX2 overexpression and PAX2 siRNA we present compelling evidence that PAX2 can regulate ADAM10 expression, a metalloproteinase known to play important roles in melanoma metastasis. In human tissue samples we found co-expression of PAX2 and ADAM10 in melanocytes of benign nevi and in melanoma cells of patients with malignant melanoma. Importantly, the downregulation of PAX2 by specific siRNA inhibited the anchorage independent cell growth and decreased the migratory and invasive capacity of melanoma cells. Furthermore, the downregulation of PAX2 abrogated the chemoresistance of melanoma cells against cisplatin, indicating that PAX2 expression mediates cell survival and plays important roles during melanoma progression.

  7. Role of postreplication repair in transformation of human fibroblasts to anchorage independence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyer, J.C.; Kaufmann, W.K.; Cordeiro-Stone, M.

    1991-01-01

    Cellular capacity for postreplication repair (PRR) and sensitivity to transformation to anchorage independence (AI) were quantified in normal foreskin and xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) variant fibroblasts after treatment with UV or benzo(a)pyrene-diol-epoxide I (BPDE-I). PRR is defined here as a collection of pathways that facilitate the replication of DNA damaged by genotoxic agents. It is recognized biochemically as the process by which nascent DNA grows longer than the average distance between two lesions in the DNA template. PRR refers more directly to the elimination of gaps in the daughter-strand DNA by mechanisms which remain to be determined for human cells, but which may include translesion replication and recombination. PRR was measured in diploid human fibroblasts by analysis of the dose kinetics for inhibition of DNA strand growth in carcinogen-treated cells. Logarithmically growing foreskin fibroblasts (NHF1) displayed D0 values of 4.3 J/m 2 and 0.14 microM for the inhibition of DNA synthesis in active replicons by UV and BPDE-I, respectively. XP variant cells (CRL1162) exhibited corresponding D0 values of 1.5 J/m 2 and 0.16 microM. The increased sensitivity to inhibition of DNA replication by UV in these XP variant fibroblasts (2.9-fold greater than normal) was mirrored by an enhanced frequency of transformation to AI. XP variant fibroblasts (CRL1162) were 3.2 times more sensitive to transformation to AI by UV than were the normal foreskin fibroblasts. As predicted by the PRR studies, both cell types exhibited similar frequencies of AI colonies induced by BPDE-I. Apparent thresholds were observed for induction of AI by UV (normal fibroblasts, 2.7 J/m 2 ; XP variant fibroblasts, 0.3 J/m 2 ) and BPDE-I (both, 0.05 microM)

  8. Enhanced caveolin-1 expression increases migration, anchorage-independent growth and invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Valdivia, Natalia; Bravo, Denisse; Huerta, Hernán; Henriquez, Soledad; Gabler, Fernando; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen; Calderon, Claudia; Owen, Gareth I.; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) has been implicated both in tumor suppression and progression, whereby the specific role appears to be context dependent. Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the female genital tract; however, little is known about the role of CAV1 in this disease. Here, we first determined by immunohistochemistry CAV1 protein levels in normal proliferative human endometrium and endometrial tumor samples. Then using two endometrial cancer cell lines (ECC: Ishikawa and Hec-1A) we evaluated mRNA and protein levels of CAV1 by real time qPCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The role of CAV1 expression in ECC malignancy was further studied by either inducing its expression in endometrial cancer cells with the tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β-TPA) or decreasing expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs, and then evaluating the effects of these changes on ECC proliferation, transmigration, matrigel invasion, and colony formation in soft agar. Immunohistochemical analysis of endometrial epithelia revealed that substantially higher levels of CAV1 were present in endometrial tumors than the normal proliferative epithelium. Also, in Ishikawa and Hec-1A endometrial cancer cells CAV1 expression was readily detectable. Upon treatment with 4β-TPA CAV1 levels increased and coincided with augmented cell transmigration, matrigel invasion, as well as colony formation in soft agar. Reduction of CAV1 expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs ablated these effects in both cell types whether treated or not with 4β-TPA. Alternatively, CAV1 expression appeared not to modulate significantly proliferation of these cells. Our study shows that elevated CAV1, observed in patients with endometrial cancer, is linked to enhanced malignancy of endometrial cancer cells, as evidenced by increased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1477-5) contains

  9. Protein disulfide isomerases in the endoplasmic reticulum promote anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells.

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    Wise, Randi; Duhachek-Muggy, Sara; Qi, Yue; Zolkiewski, Michal; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Metastatic breast cancer cells are exposed to stress of detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cultured breast cancer cells that survive this stress and are capable of anchorage-independent proliferation form mammospheres. The purpose of this study was to explore a link between mammosphere growth, ECM gene expression, and the protein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We compared the mRNA and protein levels of ER folding factors in SUM159PT and MCF10DCIS.com breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres versus adherent conditions. Publicly available gene expression data for mammospheres formed by primary breast cancer cells and for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed to assess the status of ECM/ER folding factor genes in clinically relevant samples. Knock-down of selected protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members was performed to examine their roles in SUM159PT mammosphere growth. We found that cells grown as mammospheres had elevated expression of ECM genes and ER folding quality control genes. CTC gene expression data for an index patient indicated that upregulation of ECM and ER folding factor genes occurred at the time of acquired therapy resistance and disease progression. Knock-down of PDI, ERp44, or ERp57, three members of the PDI family with elevated protein levels in mammospheres, in SUM159PT cells partially inhibited the mammosphere growth. Thus, breast cancer cell survival and growth under detachment conditions require enhanced assistance of the ER protein folding machinery. Targeting ER folding factors, in particular members of the PDI family, may improve the therapeutic outcomes in metastatic breast cancer.

  10. Spheroid Culture of Head and Neck Cancer Cells Reveals an Important Role of EGFR Signalling in Anchorage Independent Survival.

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    Braunholz, Diana; Saki, Mohammad; Niehr, Franziska; Öztürk, Merve; Borràs Puértolas, Berta; Konschak, Robert; Budach, Volker; Tinhofer, Ingeborg

    2016-01-01

    In solid tumours millions of cells are shed into the blood circulation each day. Only a subset of these circulating tumour cells (CTCs) survive, many of them presumable because of their potential to form multi-cellular clusters also named spheroids. Tumour cells within these spheroids are protected from anoikis, which allows them to metastasize to distant organs or re-seed at the primary site. We used spheroid cultures of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cell lines as a model for such CTC clusters for determining the role of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in cluster formation ability and cell survival after detachment from the extra-cellular matrix. The HNSCC cell lines FaDu, SCC-9 and UT-SCC-9 (UT-SCC-9P) as well as its cetuximab (CTX)-resistant sub-clone (UT-SCC-9R) were forced to grow in an anchorage-independent manner by coating culture dishes with the anti-adhesive polymer poly-2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (poly-HEMA). The extent of apoptosis, clonogenic survival and EGFR signalling under such culture conditions was evaluated. The potential of spheroid formation in suspension culture was found to be positively correlated with the proliferation rate of HNSCC cell lines as well as their basal EGFR expression levels. CTX and gefitinib blocked, whereas the addition of EGFR ligands promoted anchorage-independent cell survival and spheroid formation. Increased spheroid formation and growth were associated with persistent activation of EGFR and its downstream signalling component (MAPK/ERK). Importantly, HNSCC cells derived from spheroid cultures retained their clonogenic potential in the absence of cell-matrix contact. Addition of CTX under these conditions strongly inhibited colony formation in CTX-sensitive cell lines but not their resistant subclones. Altogether, EGFR activation was identified as crucial factor for anchorage-independent survival of HNSCC cells. Targeting EGFR in CTC cluster formation might represent an attractive anti

  11. Association of ultraviolet-induced retrovirus expression with anchorage-independent survival in rat embryo cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suk, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors have shown in the AI assay that the nontransforming retrovirus increases the differential in enhanced survival response in infected cultures. To more fully understand this aspect of the system, they examined the effect of UV irradiation on infected and uninfected FRE cells. In this communication the authors report that UV irradiation induces AI survival in infected and uninfected cells;in uninfected cells there is a concomitant induction of endogenous retrovirus expression. The AI survival of both cell lines was determined using a previously described procedure. Anchorage-dependent media control and solvent control cells, when suspended in medium above an agar base layer, showed a rapid decline in cell survival;however, cells that had been treated with carcinogen did not undergo the destructive process that took place in control cells, indicating specificity

  12. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase.

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    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl(2)) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5-50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5-5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro.

  13. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

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    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  14. Downregulation of Akt1 Inhibits Anchorage-Independent Cell Growth and Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells

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    Xuesong Liu

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The serine/threonine kinases, Akti/PKBα, Akt2/PKBβ, and Akt3/PKBγ, play a critical role in preventing cancer cells from undergoing apoptosis. However, the function of individual Akt isoforms in the tumorigenicity of cancer cells is still not well defined. In the current study, we used an AM antisense oligonucleotide (AS to specifically downregulate Akti protein in both cancer and normal cells. Our data indicate that AM AS treatment inhibits the ability of MiaPaCa-2, H460, HCT-15, and HT1080 cells to grow in soft agar. The treatment also induces apoptosis in these cancer cells as demonstrated by FRCS analysis and a caspase activity assay. Conversely, Akti AS treatment has little effect on the cell growth and survival of normal human cells including normal human fibroblast (NHF, fibroblast from muscle (FBM, and mammary gland epithelial 184135 cells. In addition, AM AS specifically sensitizes cancer cells to typical chemotherapeutic agents. Thus, Akti is indispensable for maintaining the tumorigenicity of cancer cells. Inhibition of AM may provide a powerful sensitization agent for chemotherapy specifically in cancer cells.

  15. Cellular Dichotomy Between Anchorage-Independent Growth Responses to bFGF and TA Reflects Molecular Switch in Commitment to Carcinogenesis

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    Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Opresko, Lee K.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Chrisler, William B.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated gene expression patterns underlying reversible and irreversible anchorage-independent growth (AIG) phenotypes to identify more sensitive markers of cell transformation for studies directed at interrogating carcinogenesis responses. In JB6 mouse epidermal cells, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces an unusually efficient and reversible AIG response, relative to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced AIG which is irreversible. The reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes are characterized by largely non-overlapping global gene expression profiles. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes were identified as common to reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes, including genes regulated in a reciprocal fashion. Hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) and D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP) were increased in both bFGF and TPA soft agar colonies and selected for functional validation. Ectopic expression of human HLF and DBP in JB6 cells resulted in a marked increase in TPA- and bFGF-regulated AIG responses. HLF and DBP expression were increased in soft agar colonies arising from JB6 cells exposed to gamma radiation and in a human basal cell carcinoma tumor tissue, relative to paired non-tumor tissue. Subsequent biological network analysis suggests that many of the differentially expressed genes that are common to bFGF- and TPA-dependent AIG are regulated by c-Myc, SP-1 and HNF-4 transcription factors. Collectively, we have identified a potential molecular switch that mediates the transition from reversible to irreversible AIG.

  16. Anchorage Areas

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    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  17. XIAP BIR domain suppresses miR-200a expression and subsequently promotes EGFR protein translation and anchorage-independent growth of bladder cancer cell

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    Chao Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP is a well-known potent apoptosis suppressor and also participates in cancer cell biological behaviors, therefore attracting great attentions as a potential antineoplastic therapeutic target for past years. Anti-IAP therapy is reported to be closely related to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR expression level. However, whether and how XIAP modulates EGFR expression remains largely unknown. Methods Human XIAP was knockdown with short-hairpin RNA in two different bladder cancer cell lines, T24T and UMUC3. Two XIAP mutants, XIAP ∆BIR (deletion of N-terminal three BIR domains and XIAP ∆RING (deletion of C-terminal RING domain and keeping the function of BIR domains, were generated to determine which domain is involved in regulating EGFR. Results We found here that lacking of XIAP expression resulted in a remarkable suppression of EGFR expression, consequently leading to the deficiency of anchorage-independent cell growth. Further study demonstrated that BIR domain of XIAP was crucial for regulating the EGFR translation by suppressing the transcription and expression of miR-200a. Mechanistic studies indicated that BIR domain activated the protein phosphatase 2 (PP2A activity by decreasing the phosphorylation of PP2A at Tyr307 in its catalytic subunit, PP2A-C. Such activated PP2A prevented the deviant phosphorylation and activation of MAPK kinases/MAPKs, their downstream effector c-Jun, and in turn inhibiting transcription of c-Jun-regulated the miR-200a. Conclusions Our study uncovered a novel function of BIR domain of XIAP in regulating the EGFR translation, providing significant insight into the understanding of the XIAP overexpression in the cancer development and progression, further offering a new theoretical support for using XIAP BIR domain and EGFR as targets for cancer therapy.

  18. Elevated p21-Activated Kinase 2 Activity Results in Anchorage-Independent Growth and Resistance to Anticancer Drug–Induced Cell Death

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    Jerry W. Marlin

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available p21-Activated kinase 2 (PAK-2 seems to be a regulatory switch between cell survival and cell death signaling. We have shown previously that activation of full-length PAK-2 by Rac or Cdc42 stimulates cell survival, whereas caspase activation of PAK-2 to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment is involved in the cell death response. In this study, we present a role of elevated activity of full-length PAK-2 in anchorage-independent growth and resistance to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis of cancer cells. Hs578T human breast cancer cells that have low levels of PAK-2 activity were more sensitive to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis and showed higher levels of caspase activation of PAK-2 than MDA-MB435 and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells that have high levels of PAK-2 activity. To examine the role of elevated PAK-2 activity in breast cancer, we have introduced a conditionally active PAK-2 into Hs578T human breast cells. Conditional activation of PAK-2 causes loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth of Hs578T cells. Furthermore, conditional activation of PAK-2 suppresses activation of caspase 3, caspase activation of PAK-2, and apoptosis of Hs578T cells in response to the anticancer drug cisplatin. Our data suggest a novel mechanism by which full-length PAK-2 activity controls the apoptotic response by regulating levels of activated caspase 3 and thereby its own cleavage to the proapoptotic PAK-2p34 fragment. As a result, elevated PAK-2 activity interrupts the apoptotic response and thereby causes anchorage-independent survival and growth and resistance to anticancer drug–induced apoptosis.

  19. Silver oxide-containing hydroxyapatite coating supports osteoblast function and enhances implant anchorage strength in rat femur.

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    Eto, Shuichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Shobuike, Takeo; Noda, Iwao; Akiyama, Takayuki; Tsukamoto, Masatsugu; Ueno, Masaya; Someya, Shinsuke; Kawano, Shunsuke; Sonohata, Motoki; Mawatari, Masaaki

    2015-09-01

    Antibacterial silver with hydroxyapatite (Ag-HA) is a promising coating material for imparting antibacterial properties to implants. We previously reported that 3% (w/w) silver with HA (3% Ag-HA) has both antibacterial activity and osteoconductivity. In this study, we investigated the effects of Ag-HA on the in vitro osteoblast function and the in vivo anchorage strength and osteoconductivity of implants. Production of the osteoblast marker alkaline phosphatase, but not cytotoxicity, was observed in cells of the osteoblast cell line MC3T3-E1 cultured on the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface. These results were similar to those observed with silver-free HA coating. In contrast, a significant high level of cytotoxicity was observed when the cells were cultured on a 50% Ag-HA-coated surface. The anchorage strength of implants inserted into the femur of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats was enhanced by coating the implants with 3% Ag-HA. On the 3% Ag-HA-coated surface, both metaphyseal and diaphyseal areas were largely covered with new bone and had adequate osteoconductivity. These results suggest that 3% Ag-HA, like conventional HA, promotes osteogenesis by supporting osteoblast viability and function and thereby contributes to sufficient anchorage strength of implants. Application of 3% Ag-HA, which combines the osteoconductivity of HA and the antibacterial activity of silver, to prosthetic joints will help prevent postoperative infections. © 2015 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Induction of anchorage-independent growth in primary human cells exposed to protons or HZE ions separately or in dual exposures.

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    Sutherland, B M; Cuomo, N C; Bennett, P V

    2005-10-01

    Travelers on space missions will be exposed to a complex radiation environment that includes protons and heavy charged particles. Since protons are present at much higher levels than are heavy ions, the most likely scenario for cellular radiation exposure will be proton exposure followed by a hit by a heavy ion. Although the effects of individual ion species on human cells are being investigated extensively, little is known about the effects of exposure to both radiation types. One useful measure of mammalian cell damage is induction of the ability to grow in a semi-solid agar medium highly inhibitory to the growth of normal human cells, termed neoplastic transformation. Using primary human cells, we evaluated induction of soft-agar growth and survival of cells exposed to protons only or to heavy charged particles (600 MeV/nucleon silicon) only as well as of cells exposed to protons followed after a 4-day interval by silicon ions. Both ions alone efficiently transformed the human cells to anchorage-independent growth. Initial experiments indicate that the dose responses for neoplastic transformation of cells exposed to protons and then after 4 days to silicon ions appear similar to that of cells exposed to silicon ions alone.

  1. ROCK1 and ROCK2 are Required for Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Anchorage-Independent Growth and Invasion

    OpenAIRE

    Vigil, Dominico; Kim, Tai Young; Plachco, Ana; Garton, Andrew J.; Castaldo, Linda; Pachter, Jonathan A.; Dong, Hanqing; Chen, Xin; Tokar, Brianna; Campbell, Sharon L.; Der, Channing J.

    2012-01-01

    Evidence is emerging that the closely related ROCK1 and ROCK2 serine/threonine kinases support the invasive and metastatic growth of a spectrum of human cancer types. Therefore, inhibitors of ROCK are under preclinical development. However, a key step in their development involves the identification of genetic biomarkers that will predict ROCK inhibitor anti-tumor activity. One identified mechanism for ROCK activation in cancer involves the loss of function of the DLC1 tumor suppressor gene, ...

  2. Characterization of mutagen-activated cellular oncogenes that confer anchorage independence to human fibroblasts and tumorigenicity to NIH 3T3 cells: Sequence analysis of an enzymatically amplified mutant HRAS allele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.W.; Manoharan, T.H.; Fahl, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of diploid human fibroblasts with an alkylating mutagen has been shown to induce stable, anchorage-independent cell populations at frequencies consistent with an activating mutation. After treatment of human foreskin fibroblasts with the mutagen benzo[α]pyrene (±)anti-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxide and selection in soft agar, 17 anchorage-independent clones were isolated and expanded, and their cellular DNA was used to cotransfect NIH 3T3 cells along with pSV2neo. DNA from 11 of the 17 clones induced multiple NIH 3T3 cell tumors in recipient nude mice. Southern blot analyses showed the presence of human Alu repetitive sequences in all of the NIH 3T3 tumor cell DNAs. Intact, human HRAS sequences were observed in 2 of the 11 tumor groups, whereas no hybridization was detected when human KRAS or NRAS probes were used. Slow-migrating ras p21 proteins, consistent with codon 12 mutations, were observed in the same two NIH 3T3 tumor cell groups that contained the human HRAS bands. Genomic DNA from one of these two human anchorage-independent cell populations (clone 21A) was used to enzymatically amplify a portion of exon 1 of the HRAS gene. The results demonstrate that exposure of normal human cells to a common environmental mutagen yields HRAS GC → TA codon 12 transversions that have been commonly observed in human tumors

  3. Down-regulation of Survivin by Antisense Oligonucleotides Increases Apoptosis, Inhibits Cytokinesis and Anchorage-Independent Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Chen

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Survivin, a member of the inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP family, is detected in most common human cancers but not in adjacent normal cells. Previous studies suggest that survivin associates with the mitotic spindle and directly inhibits caspase activity. To further investigate the function of survivin, we used a survivin antisense (AS oligonucleotide to downregulate survivin expression in normal and cancer cells. We found that inhibition of survivin expression increased apoptosis and polyploidy while decreasing colony formation in soft agar. Immunohistochemistry showed that cells without survivin can initiate the cleavage furrow and contractile ring, but cannot complete cytokinesis, thus resulting in multinucleated cells. These findings indicate that survivin plays important roles in a late stage of cytokinesis, as well as in apoptosis.

  4. Functional role of a highly repetitive DNA sequence in anchorage of the mouse genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuer-Nitsche, B; Lu, X N; Werner, D

    1988-09-12

    The major portion of the eukaryotic genome consists of various categories of repetitive DNA sequences which have been studied with respect to their base compositions, organizations, copy numbers, transcription and species specificities; their biological roles, however, are still unclear. A novel quality of a highly repetitive mouse DNA sequence is described which points to a functional role: All copies (approximately 50,000 per haploid genome) of this DNA sequence reside on genomic Alu I DNA fragments each associated with nuclear polypeptides that are not released from DNA by proteinase K, SDS and phenol extraction. By this quality the repetitive DNA sequence is classified as a member of the sub-set of DNA sequences involved in tight DNA-polypeptide complexes which have been previously shown to be components of the subnuclear structure termed 'nuclear matrix'. From these results it has to be concluded that the repetitive DNA sequence characterized in this report represents or comprises a signal for a large number of site specific attachment points of the mouse genome in the nuclear matrix.

  5. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cas...

  6. Quadratic independence of coordinate functions of certain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... are `quadratically independent' in the sense that they do not satisfy any nontrivial homogeneous quadratic relations among them. Using this, it is proved that there is no genuine compact quantum group which can act faithfully on C ( M ) such that the action leaves invariant the linear span of the above coordinate functions.

  7. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cases are some examples for bone anchorage supported orthodontic treatment. Here, we discussed three necessary usages of bone anchorage for different treatment modalities.

  8. Clathrin-independent endocytosis: mechanisms and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Pust, Sascha; Skotland, Tore

    2011-01-01

    It is now about 20 years since we first wrote reviews about clathrin-independent endocytosis. The challenge at the time was to convince the reader about its existence. Then the suggestion came up that caveolae might be responsible for the uptake. However, clearly this could not be the case since ...... having several functions of their own. This article aims at providing a brief update on the importance of clathrin-independent endocytic mechanisms, how the processes are regulated differentially, for instance on the poles of polarized cells, and the challenges in studying them....

  9. TERRAIN, Anchorage, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Anchorage AOI consists of seven areas. These areas were to be collected to the 'highest' accuracy requirement. Ground Control is collected throughout the AOI for...

  10. Functional Independence Measure Penderita Cedera Servikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafrullah Arifin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, 2/3 involved cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA Impairment Score is used as an initial assessment but further prognostic outcome of these patients is often not paid enough attention. The objective of this study was to find the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical bone abnormalities, type of spinal lesion and ASIA Impairment Score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury which fullfil the inclusion criteria treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute/chronic, cervical bone abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion, ASIA impairment score and initial complication. The patients were performed to FIM examination in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test with p<0.05 were done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients was 4+1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age (p=0.064, sex (p=0.144, type of trauma (p=0.959, onset of trauma (p=0.220 and cervical bone abnormalities (p=0.869. We found a significant correlation between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion (p=0.037 and ASIA Impairment Score (p<0.001 in cervical spine patients. In conclusion, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 3 months after cervical injury.

  11. Diacylglycerol kinase α mediates 17-β-estradiol-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Sampietro, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo E; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Gregnanin, Ilaria; Rainero, Elena; Ferrara, Michele; Perego, Beatrice; Riboni, Francesca; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Graziani, Andrea; Surico, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Increased levels of endogenous and/or exogenous estrogens are one of the well known risk factors of endometrial cancer. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes which phosphorylate diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), thus turning off and on DAG-mediated and PA-mediated signaling pathways, respectively. DGK α activity is stimulated by growth factors and oncogenes and is required for chemotactic, proliferative, and angiogenic signaling in vitro. Herein, using either specific siRNAs or the pharmacological inhibitor R59949, we demonstrate that DGK α activity is required for 17-β-estradiol (E2)-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line. Impairment of DGK α activity also influences basal cell proliferation and growth in soft agar of Hec-1A, while it has no effects on basal cell motility. Moreover, we show that DGK α activity induced by E2, as well as its observed effects, are mediated by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30 (GPER). These findings suggest that DGK α may be a potential target in endometrial cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Experimental evidence of pharmacological management of anchorage in Orthodontics: A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-González, Felipe José; Cañigral, Aránzazu; Balbontín-Ayala, Felipe; Gonzalo-Orden, José Manuel; de Carlos, Felix; Cobo, Teresa; Fernández-Vázquez, Jose Pedro; Sánchez-Lasheras, Fernando; Vega, José Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Orthodontic anchorage is one of the most challenging aspects of Orthodontics. Preventing undesired movement of teeth could result in safer and less complicated orthodontic treatment. Recently, several reviews have been published about the effects of different molecules on bone physiology and the clinical side effects in Orthodontics. However, the effects of local application of these substances on the rate of orthodontic tooth movement have not been assessed. Objectives: The aim of this research was to analyze the scientific evidence published in the literature about the effects of different molecules on orthodontic anchorage. Methods: The literature was systematically reviewed using PubMed/Medline, Scopus and Cochrane databases from 2000 up to July 31st, 2014. Articles were independently selected by two different researchers based on previously established inclusion and exclusion criteria, with a concordance Kappa index of 0.86. The methodological quality of the reviewed papers was performed. Results: Search strategy identified 270 articles. Twenty-five of them were selected after application of inclusion/exclusion criteria, and only 11 qualified for final analysis. Molecules involved in orthodontic anchorage were divided into three main groups: osteoprotegerin (OPG), bisphosphonates (BPs) and other molecules (OMs). Conclusions: Different drugs are able to alter the bone remodeling cycle, influencing osteoclast function and, therefore, tooth movement. Thus, they could be used in order to provide maximal anchorage while preventing undesired movements. OPG was found the most effective molecule in blocking the action of osteoclasts, thereby reducing undesired movements. PMID:26560822

  13. Quadratic independence of coordinate functions of certain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... functions of certain homogeneous spaces and action of compact quantum groups ..... Let A be a unital commutative C∗ algebra and x1,...,xn be self-adjoint elements of A ..... 2 in the power series expansion of ξ(·). The coefficient of .... his work on coadjoint orbits, which gave the author the motivation to consider the prob-.

  14. An epithelial marker promoter induction screen identifies histone deacetylase inhibitors to restore epithelial differentiation and abolishes anchorage independence growth in cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H M; Kuay, K T; Koh, P F; Asad, M; Tan, T Z; Chung, V Y; Lee, S C; Thiery, J P; Huang, Ry-J

    2016-01-01

    Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a crucial mechanism in development, mediates aggressiveness during carcinoma progression and therapeutic refractoriness. The reversibility of EMT makes it an attractive strategy in designing novel therapeutic approaches. Therefore, drug discovery pipelines for EMT reversal are in need to discover emerging classes of compounds. Here, we outline a pre-clinical drug screening platform for EMT reversal that consists of three phases of drug discovery and validation. From the Phase 1 epithelial marker promoter induction (EpI) screen on a library consisting of compounds being approved by Food and Drug Administration (FDA), Vorinostat (SAHA), a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), is identified to exert EMT reversal effects by restoring the expression of an epithelial marker, E-cadherin. An expanded screen on 41 HDACi further identifies 28 compounds, such as class I-specific HDACi Mocetinosat, Entinostat and CI994, to restore E-cadherin and ErbB3 expressions in ovarian, pancreatic and bladder carcinoma cells. Mocetinostat is the most potent HDACi to restore epithelial differentiation with the lowest concentration required for 50% induction of epithelial promoter activity (EpIC-50).The HDACi exerts paradoxical effects on EMT transcriptional factors such as SNAI and ZEB family and the effects are context-dependent in epithelial- and mesenchymal-like cells. In vitro functional studies further show that HDACi induced significant increase in anoikis and decrease in spheroid formation in ovarian and bladder carcinoma cells with mesenchymal features. This study demonstrates a robust drug screening pipeline for the discovery of compounds capable of restoring epithelial differentiation that lead to significant functional lethality.

  15. Method of synchronizing independent functional unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Changhoan

    2018-03-13

    A system for synchronizing parallel processing of a plurality of functional processing units (FPU), a first FPU and a first program counter to control timing of a first stream of program instructions issued to the first FPU by advancement of the first program counter; a second FPU and a second program counter to control timing of a second stream of program instructions issued to the second FPU by advancement of the second program counter, the first FPU is in communication with a second FPU to synchronize the issuance of a first stream of program instructions to the second stream of program instructions and the second FPU is in communication with the first FPU to synchronize the issuance of the second stream program instructions to the first stream of program instructions.

  16. Executive dysfunction is independently associated with reduced functional independence in heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alosco, Michael L; Spitznagel, Mary Beth; Raz, Naftali; Cohen, Ronald; Sweet, Lawrence H; Colbert, Lisa H; Josephson, Richard; van Dulmen, Manfred; Hughes, Joel; Rosneck, Jim; Gunstad, John

    2014-03-01

    To examine the independent association between executive function with instrumental activities of daily living and health behaviours in older adults with heart failure. Executive function is an important contributor to functional independence as it consists of cognitive processes needed for decision-making, planning, organising and behavioural monitoring. Impairment in this domain is common in heart failure patients and associated with reduced performance of instrumental activities of daily living in many medical and neurological populations. However, the contribution of executive functions to functional independence and healthy lifestyle choices in heart failure patients has not been fully examined. Cross-sectional analyses. One hundred and seventy-five heart failure patients completed a neuropsychological battery and echocardiogram. Participants also completed the Lawton-Brody Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale and reported current cigarette use. Hierarchical regressions revealed that reduced executive function was independently associated with worse instrumental activity of daily living performance with a specific association for decreased ability to manage medications. Partial correlations showed that executive dysfunction was associated with current cigarette use. Our findings suggest that executive dysfunction is associated with poorer functional independence and contributes to unhealthy behaviours in heart failure. Future studies should examine whether heart failure patients benefit from formal organisation schema (i.e. pill organisers) to maintain independence. Screening of executive function in heart failure patients may provide key insight into their ability to perform daily tasks, including the management of treatment recommendations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Implants for orthodontic anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiaowen; Sun, Yannan; Zhang, Yimei; Cai, Ting; Sun, Feng; Lin, Jiuxiang

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Implantanchorage continues to receive much attention as an important orthodontic anchorage. Since the development of orthodontic implants, the scope of applications has continued to increase. Although multiple reviews detailing implants have been published, no comprehensive evaluations have been performed. Thus, the purpose of this study was to comprehensively evaluate the effects of implants based on data published in review articles. An electronic search of the Cochrane Library, Medline, Embase, Ebsco and Sicencedirect for reviews with “orthodontic” and “systematic review or meta analysis” in the title, abstract, keywords, or full text was performed. A subsequent manual search was then performed to identify reviews concerning orthodontic implants. A manual search of the orthodontic journals American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (AJODO), European Journal of Orthodontics (EJO), and Angle Othodontist was also performed. Such systematic reviews that evaluated the efficacy and safety of orthodontic implants were used to indicate success rates and molar movements. A total of 23 reviews were included in the analysis. The quality of each review was assessed using a measurement tool for Assessment of Multiple Systematic Reviews (AMSTAR), and the review chosen to summarize outcomes had a quality score of >6. Most reviews were less than moderate quality. Success rates of implants ranged in a broad scope, and movement of the maxillary first molar was superior with implants compared with traditional anchorage. PMID:29595673

  18. Contributory factors for the functional independence of oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dâmarys Kohlbeck de Melo Neu Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the socioeconomic and clinical factors that contribute to the functional independence of the oldest old of a community. METHOD Cross-sectional quantitative study whose sample consisted of 214 elderly people registered in Basic Health Units. Data were collected through structured interviews and application of the Functional Independence Measure. We used descriptive statistics, and for association of the variables we used the Student t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The significant variables that contributed to the functional independence were remaining economically active, practicing physical and leisure activities, having a social life, eating fruits, vegetables and meat. The orientation to conduct these practices reduces the demand for care and help needed in everyday activities. CONCLUSION Maintaining independence is primordial to delay disability and presents itself as an excellent field of work for nursing.

  19. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  20. WNT10B functional dualism: beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent growth promotion or independent suppression with deregulated expression in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirohide; Matsubara, Kenichi; Zhou, Xiaoling; Okamura, Shu; Kubo, Takahiko; Murase, Yaeko; Shikauchi, Yuko; Esteller, Manel; Herman, James G; Wei Wang, Xin; Harris, Curtis C

    2007-11-01

    We found aberrant DNA methylation of the WNT10B promoter region in 46% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 15% of colon cancer samples. Three of 10 HCC and one of two colon cancer cell lines demonstrated low or no expression, and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine reactivated WNT10B expression with the induction of demethylation, indicating that WNT10B is silenced by DNA methylation in some cancers, whereas WNT10B expression is up-regulated in seven of the 10 HCC cell lines and a colon cancer cell line. These results indicate that WNT10B can be deregulated by either overexpression or silencing in cancer. We found that WNT10B up-regulated beta-catenin/Tcf activity. However, WNT10B-overexpressing cells demonstrated a reduced growth rate and anchorage-independent growth that is independent of the beta-catenin/Tcf activation, because mutant beta-catenin-transduced cells did not suppress growth, and dominant-negative hTcf-4 failed to alleviate the growth suppression by WNT10B. Although WNT10B expression alone inhibits cell growth, it acts synergistically with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to stimulate cell growth. WNT10B is bifunctional, one function of which is involved in beta-catenin/Tcf activation, and the other function is related to the down-regulation of cell growth through a different mechanism. We suggest that FGF switches WNT10B from a negative to a positive cell growth regulator.

  1. Functional Independent Scaling Relation for ORR/OER Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Dickens, Colin F.

    2016-01-01

    reactions. Here, we show that the oxygen-oxygen bond in the OOH* intermediate is, however, not well described with the previously used class of exchange-correlation functionals. By quantifying and correcting the systematic error, an improved description of gaseous peroxide species versus experimental data...... and a reduction in calculational uncertainty is obtained. For adsorbates, we find that the systematic error largely cancels the vdW interaction missing in the original determination of the scaling relation. An improved scaling relation, which is fully independent of the applied exchange-correlation functional...

  2. Drosha regulates gene expression independently of RNA cleavage function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromak, Natalia; Dienstbier, Martin; Macias, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription......-dependent manner. This binding is not associated with miRNA production or RNA cleavage. Drosha knockdown in HeLa cells downregulated nascent gene transcription, resulting in a reduction of polyadenylated mRNA produced from these gene regions. Furthermore, we show that this function of Drosha is dependent on its N......-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression....

  3. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O., E-mail: omar.foda@unimelb.edu.au [Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wheeler, M., E-mail: mwheeler@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589 (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2013-06-11

    We study lattice configurations related to S{sub n}, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A{sub n} integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A{sub n} models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S{sub 2} (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S{sub 2}, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b_1} and {b_2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b_1}→∞, and/or {b_2}→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A{sub 1} vertex-model partition function.

  4. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2013-01-01

    We study lattice configurations related to S n , the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A n integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A n models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S 2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S 2 , which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b 1 } and {b 2 }, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b 1 }→∞, and/or {b 2 }→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A 1 vertex-model partition function

  5. Platelet size and age determine platelet function independently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Quinn, P.G.; Deykin, D.; Valeri, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the interaction of platelet size and age in determining in vitro platelet function. Baboon megakaryocytes were labeled in vivo by the injection of 75Se-methionine. Blood was collected when the label was predominantly associated with younger platelets (day 2) and with older platelets (day 9). Size-dependent platelet subpopulations were prepared on both days by counterflow centrifugation. The reactivity of each platelet subpopulation was determined on both days by measuring thrombin-induced aggregation. Platelets were fixed after partial aggregation had occurred by the addition of EDTA/formalin. After removal of the aggregated platelets by differential centrifugation, the supernatant medium was assayed for remaining platelets and 75Se radioactivity. Comparing day 2 and day 9, no significant difference was seen in the rate of aggregation of a given subpopulation. However, aggregation was more rapid in the larger platelet fractions than in the smaller ones on both days. A greater percentage of the 75Se radioactivity appeared in the platelet aggregates on day 2 than on day 9. This effect was independent of platelet size, as it occurred to a similar extent in the unfractionated platelets and in each of the size-dependent platelet subpopulations. The data indicate that young platelets are more active than older platelets. This study demonstrates that size and age are both determinants of platelet function, but by independent mechanisms

  6. Anchorage strategies in geriatric hip fracture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knobe Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an enormous humanitarian and socioeconomic need to improve the quality and effectiveness of care for patients with hip fracture. To reduce mechanical complications in the osteosynthesis of proximal femoral fractures, improved fixation techniques have been developed including blade or screw-anchor devices, locked minimally invasive or cement augmentation strategies. However, despite numerous innovations and advances regarding implant design and surgical techniques, systemic and mechanical complication rates remain high. Treatment success depends on secure implant fixation in often-osteoporotic bone as well as on patient-specific factors (fracture stability, bone quality, comorbidity, and gender and surgeon-related factors (experience, correct reduction, and optimal screw placement in the head/neck fragment. For fracture fixation, the anchorage of the lag screw within the femoral head plays a crucial role depending on the implant’s design. Meta-analyses and randomized controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong trend towards arthroplasty treating geriatric femoral neck fractures. However, for young adults as well as older patients with less compromised bone quality, or in undisplaced fractures, head-preserving therapy is preferred as it is less invasive and associated with good functional results. This review summarizes the evidence for the internal fixation of femoral neck fractures and trochanteric femoral fractures in elderly patients. In addition, biomechanical considerations regarding implant anchorage in the femoral head including rotation, migration, and femoral neck shortening are made. Finally, cement augmentation strategies for hip fracture implants are evaluated critically.

  7. Green close-quote s function method with energy-independent vertex functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsay Tzeng, S.Y.; Kuo, T.T.; Tzeng, Y.; Geyer, H.B.; Navratil, P.

    1996-01-01

    In conventional Green close-quote s function methods the vertex function Γ is generally energy dependent. However, a model-space Green close-quote s function method where the vertex function is manifestly energy independent can be formulated using energy-independent effective interaction theories based on folded diagrams and/or similarity transformations. This is discussed in general and then illustrated for a 1p1h model-space Green close-quote s function applied to a solvable Lipkin many-fermion model. The poles of the conventional Green close-quote s function are obtained by solving a self-consistent Dyson equation and model space calculations may lead to unphysical poles. For the energy-independent model-space Green close-quote s function only the physical poles of the model problem are reproduced and are in satisfactory agreement with the exact excitation energies. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. FIG4 regulates lysosome membrane homeostasis independent of phosphatase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharadwaj, Rajnish; Cunningham, Kathleen M; Zhang, Ke; Lloyd, Thomas E

    2016-02-15

    FIG4 is a phosphoinositide phosphatase that is mutated in several diseases including Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease 4J (CMT4J) and Yunis-Varon syndrome (YVS). To investigate the mechanism of disease pathogenesis, we generated Drosophila models of FIG4-related diseases. Fig4 null mutant animals are viable but exhibit marked enlargement of the lysosomal compartment in muscle cells and neurons, accompanied by an age-related decline in flight ability. Transgenic animals expressing Drosophila Fig4 missense mutations corresponding to human pathogenic mutations can partially rescue lysosomal expansion phenotypes, consistent with these mutations causing decreased FIG4 function. Interestingly, Fig4 mutations predicted to inactivate FIG4 phosphatase activity rescue lysosome expansion phenotypes, and mutations in the phosphoinositide (3) phosphate kinase Fab1 that performs the reverse enzymatic reaction also causes a lysosome expansion phenotype. Since FIG4 and FAB1 are present together in the same biochemical complex, these data are consistent with a model in which FIG4 serves a phosphatase-independent biosynthetic function that is essential for lysosomal membrane homeostasis. Lysosomal phenotypes are suppressed by genetic inhibition of Rab7 or the HOPS complex, demonstrating that FIG4 functions after endosome-to-lysosome fusion. Furthermore, disruption of the retromer complex, implicated in recycling from the lysosome to Golgi, does not lead to similar phenotypes as Fig4, suggesting that the lysosomal defects are not due to compromised retromer-mediated recycling of endolysosomal membranes. These data show that FIG4 plays a critical noncatalytic function in maintaining lysosomal membrane homeostasis, and that this function is disrupted by mutations that cause CMT4J and YVS. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Relationship between theory of mind and functional independence is mediated by executive function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fayeza S; Miller, L Stephen

    2013-06-01

    Theory of mind (ToM) is the ability to comprehend another person's perspective. Although there is much literature of ToM in children, there is a limited and somewhat inconclusive amount of studies examining ToM in a geriatric population. This study examined ToM's relationship to functional independence. Two tests of ToM, tests of executive function, and a measure of functional ability were administered to cognitively intact older adults. Results showed that 1 test of ToM (Strange Stories test) significantly accounted for variance in functional ability, whereas the other did not (Faux Pas test). In addition, Strange Stories test performance was partially driven by a verbal abstraction-based executive function: proverb interpretation. A multiple mediation model was employed to examine whether executive functions explained the relationship between the Strange Stories test and functional ability. Results showed that both the combined and individual indirect effects of the executive function measures mediated the relationship. We argue that, although components of ToM are associated with functional independence, ToM does not appear to account for additional variance in functional independence beyond executive function measures. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Column anchorage. 1926.755 Section 1926.755 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.755 Column anchorage. (a) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor...

  11. Correlation between demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional independence in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be

  12. Executive functioning, motor programming, and functional independence: accounting for variance, people, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraybill, Matthew L; Suchy, Yana

    2011-02-01

    Assessing functional independence is an important part of making diagnostic decisions and treatment recommendations but is often complicated by the limitations of self-report and behavioral measures. Alternatively, it may be worthwhile to investigate neurocognitive correlates of incipient functional declines including using tests of executive functioning (EF) and motor programming (MP). The current study examined an electronic MP task and pitted it against other assessment instruments to evaluate its relative utility in assessing both EF and functional independence. Participants were 72 community-dwelling older adults. Results of this study showed that the MP task was correlated with other measures of EF, an efficient and reliable predictor of functionality, useful for identifying at-risk patients, and comparable to a longer battery in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  13. Decomposing a Utility Function Based on Discrete Distribution Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ying; Dyer, James; Butler, John

    2014-01-01

    For two-attribute decision-making problems, the multilinear utility model cannot be applied when the risk aversion on one attribute depends on the level of the other attribute. We propose a family of general preference conditions called nth-degree discrete distribution independence that can...... accommodate a variety of dependence relationships between two attributes. The special case of second-degree discrete distribution independence is equivalent to the utility independence condition. We focus on third-degree discrete distribution independence that leads to a decomposition formula that contains...

  14. The relationship between motor function, cognition, independence and quality of life in myelomeningocele patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luz, Carolina Lundberg; Moura, Maria Clara Drummond Soares de; Becker, Karine Kyomi; Teixeira, Rosani Aparecida Antunes; Voos, Mariana Callil; Hasue, Renata Hydee

    2017-08-01

    Motor function, cognition, functional independence and quality of life have been described in myelomeningocele patients, but no study has investigated their relationships. We aimed to investigate the relationships between motor function, cognition, functional independence, quality of life, age, and lesion level in myelomeningocele patients, and investigate the influence of hydrocephalus on these variables. We assessed 47 patients with the Gross Motor Function Measure (motor function), Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (cognition), Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (functional independence) and the Autoquestionnaire Qualité de vie Enfant Imagé (quality of life). Spearman's correlation tests determined relationships between the variables. The Friedman ANOVAs determined the influence of hydrocephalus. Motor function was strongly related to mobility and lesion level, and moderately related to cognition, self-care and social function. Cognition and quality of life were moderately related to functional independence. Age correlated moderately with functional independence and quality of life. Hydrocephalus resulted in poorer motor/cognitive outcomes and lower functional independence.

  15. Towards functional specification independent of control system suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galara, D.; Leret, E.

    1997-01-01

    For the next nuclear power plant generation, REP 2000, the Engineering and construction Division (ED) and the Research and development Division (R and D) of Electricite de France are working together in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) to improve its engineering method and tools. This method and these tools are defined on the basis of the experience feedback from the N4 nuclear power plant generation and the current information technology, to improve engineering competitiveness and quality of control applications. We intend to decouple the I and C processing from the I and C Human Machine Interface (HMI), because methods and tools are different. In this paper, we only focus on method and tools for I and C processing. We define the I and C processing life cycle into three phases. The first phase is the specification of the control application processing, the product of which is called Functional Requirement Diagrams (FRDs). The second phase is the design of the I and C system. This phase is subdivided into two steps. The step 1 is the distribution of the FRDs into an I and C architecture. The step 2 is the allocation of resources of the I and C system, to support the distributed FRDs. The third phase is the implementation of the distributed FRDs into I and C equipment. The aim of the Engineering Division is to achieve formal FRDs, independent of I and C suppliers. This allows a large improvement for the quality of the specification and the dimensioning of the I and C system before calls for tenders. For the specification phase, studies are almost completed. For the design and the implementation phases, studies and experiments are in progress with European I and C system suppliers. As a conclusion, we present the interest of EDF for standards and especially IEC 1131 improvements. (author). 5 figs

  16. Towards functional specification independent of control system suppliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galara, D; Leret, E [Electricite de France, Research and Development Div., Power Plant Control Branch, Chatou (France)

    1997-07-01

    For the next nuclear power plant generation, REP 2000, the Engineering and construction Division (ED) and the Research and development Division (R and D) of Electricite de France are working together in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) to improve its engineering method and tools. This method and these tools are defined on the basis of the experience feedback from the N4 nuclear power plant generation and the current information technology, to improve engineering competitiveness and quality of control applications. We intend to decouple the I and C processing from the I and C Human Machine Interface (HMI), because methods and tools are different. In this paper, we only focus on method and tools for I and C processing. We define the I and C processing life cycle into three phases. The first phase is the specification of the control application processing, the product of which is called Functional Requirement Diagrams (FRDs). The second phase is the design of the I and C system. This phase is subdivided into two steps. The step 1 is the distribution of the FRDs into an I and C architecture. The step 2 is the allocation of resources of the I and C system, to support the distributed FRDs. The third phase is the implementation of the distributed FRDs into I and C equipment. The aim of the Engineering Division is to achieve formal FRDs, independent of I and C suppliers. This allows a large improvement for the quality of the specification and the dimensioning of the I and C system before calls for tenders. For the specification phase, studies are almost completed. For the design and the implementation phases, studies and experiments are in progress with European I and C system suppliers. As a conclusion, we present the interest of EDF for standards and especially IEC 1131 improvements. (author). 5 figs.

  17. Upper limb function and functional independence in patients with shoulder pain after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Nickel, Renato; Lange, Marcos; Stoffel, Diane Priscila; Navarro, Elaine Janeczko; Zetola, Viviane F

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To examine the frequency of shoulder pain following stroke. Methods Stroke patient function was evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Scale for Upper Limb Function in Stroke (SULFS). Function scores were examined and compared between the shoulder pain group (SPG) and the no shoulder pain group (No-SPG). Results A total of 58 patients, 22 women (37.9%), were included in this study. The mean patient age was 49.2±10.8 years and study evaluations w...

  18. Orthodontic Anchorage Implants: State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    The limits of an orthodontic treatment are often set by the lack of suitable anchorage. The mini-implant is used where conventional anchorage cannot be applied and not as a replacement for conventional anchorage. In patients with lack of teeth and reduced periodontium, skeletal anchorage allows...... will improve the reconstruction possibilities. The mini-implant has widened the orthodontic possibilities....

  19. On decisive factors of liner anchorage behaviour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bucchardt, F.; Weber, M.; Yazdi, F.

    1984-01-01

    Design of reinforced and prestressed containments for nuclear power plants in the FRG shall be guided by DIN 25459; this also includes the structural behaviour of the liner. While the containment safety analysis is a more global matter, the liner and especially the liner anchorage behaviour concentrates on local effects which need a more refined local area description. Due to the predominant stiffness of the concrete structure liner failure analysis are performed by decoupling the steel membrane which is then only supported by anchorage springs. A comprehensive nonlinear analytical study is carried out to examine the anchorage behaviour. (Author) [pt

  20. 18 CFR 358.5 - Independent functioning rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... its marketing function employees. (b) Separation of functions. (1) A transmission provider is prohibited from permitting its marketing function employees to: (i) Conduct transmission functions; or (ii... differs in any way from the access available to other transmission customers. (2) A transmission provider...

  1. 78 FR 11099 - Safety Zone Within the Lower Portion of Anchorage #9, Mantua Creek Anchorage; Paulsboro, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone Within the Lower Portion of Anchorage 9, Mantua Creek Anchorage; Paulsboro, NJ... temporary safety zone around the southern one-third of Anchorage 9 (Mantua Creek Anchorage), below position 39[deg] 51.573 N-075[deg] 13.557 W due to dredging operations. The Dredge Florida will be working...

  2. 77 FR 6010 - Anchorage Regulations; Newport, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-07

    ... anchor up to three cruise ships simultaneously in anchorage ``D''. For the convenience and safety of..., design, or operation; test methods; sampling procedures; and related management systems practices) that...

  3. 76 FR 59596 - Anchorage Regulations; Newport, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ... up to three cruise ships simultaneously in anchorage ``D''. For the convenience and safety of... standards (e.g., specifications of materials, performance, design, or operation; test methods; sampling...

  4. On criteria for algebraic independence of collections of functions satisfying algebraic difference relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ogawara

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper gives conditions for algebraic independence of a collection of functions satisfying a certain kind of algebraic difference relations. As applications, we show algebraic independence of two collections of special functions: (1 Vignéras' multiple gamma functions and derivatives of the gamma function, (2 the logarithmic function, \\(q\\-exponential functions and \\(q\\-polylogarithm functions. In a similar way, we give a generalization of Ostrowski's theorem.

  5. Social Resources That Preserve Functional Independence After Memory Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Toward a common language for function, disability, and health. Physical therapy 86, 726 (May, 2006). 4. R. D. Tucker-Seeley, S. V. Subramanian, Y...20. Boyle PA, Buchman AS, Wilson RS, et al: Physical activity is asso- ciated with incident disability in community-based older persons. J Am Geriatr ...effects of physical activity on physical functioning, quality of life and depression in older people with dementia. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2011

  6. Functional Independence in Late-Life: Maintaining Physical Functioning in Older Adulthood Predicts Daily Life Function after Age 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Leng, Xiaoyan; La Monte, Michael J; Tindle, Hilary A; Cochrane, Barbara B; Shumaker, Sally A

    2016-03-01

    We examined physical functioning (PF) trajectories (maintaining, slowly declining, and rapidly declining) spanning 15 years in older women aged 65-80 and protective factors that predicted better current levels and less decline in functional independence outcomes after age 80. Women's Health Initiative extension participants who met criteria (enrolled in either the clinical trial or observational study cohort, >80 years at the data release cutoff, PF survey data from initial enrollment to age 80, and functional independence survey data after age 80) were included in these analyses (mean [SD] age = 84.0 [1.4] years; N = 10,478). PF was measured with the SF-36 (mean = 4.9 occasions). Functional independence was measured by self-reported level of dependence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) (mean = 3.4 and 3.3 occasions). Maintaining consistent PF in older adulthood extends functional independence in ADL and IADL in late-life. Protective factors shared by ADL and IADL include maintaining PF over time, self-reported excellent or very good health, no history of hip fracture after age 55, and no history of cardiovascular disease. Better IADL function is uniquely predicted by a body mass index less than 25 and no depression. Less ADL and IADL decline is predicted by better self-reported health, and less IADL decline is uniquely predicted by having no history of hip fracture after age 55. Maintaining or improving PF and preventing injury and disease in older adulthood (ages 65-80) has far-reaching implications for improving late-life (after age 80) functional independence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Comparison of anchorage reinforcement with temporary anchorage devices or a Herbst appliance during lingual orthodontic protraction of mandibular molars without maxillary counterbalance extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Rebecca; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2015-06-20

    Orthodontic protraction of mandibular molars without maxillary counterbalance extraction in cases of aplasia or extraction requires stable anchorage. Reinforcement may be achieved by using either temporary anchorage devices (TAD) or a fixed, functional appliance. The objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of both methods by testing the null-hypothesis of no significant difference in velocity of space closure (in mm/month) between them. In addition, we set out to describe the quality of posterior space management and treatment-related factors, such as loss of anchorage (assessed in terms of proportions of gap closure by posterior protraction or anterior retraction), frequencies of incomplete space closure, and potential improvement in the sagittal canine relationship. Twenty-seven subjects (15 male/12 female) with a total of 36 sites treated with a lingual multi-bracket appliance were available for retrospective evaluation of the effects of anchorage reinforcement achieved with either a Herbst appliance (n(subjects) = 15; 7 both-sided/8 single-sided Herbst appliances; n(sites) = 22) or TADs (n(subjects )= 12; 2 both-sided; 10 single-sided; n(sites) = 14). Descriptive analysis was based on measurements using intra-oral photographs which were individually scaled to corresponding plaster casts and taken on insertion of anchorage mechanics (T1), following removal of anchorage mechanics (T2), and at the end of multi-bracket treatment (T3). The null-hypothesis was rejected: The rate of mean molar protraction was significantly faster in the Herbst-reinforced group (0.51 mm/month) than in the TAD group (0.35). While complete space closure by sheer protraction of posterior teeth was achieved in all Herbst-treated cases, space closure in the TAD group was achieved in 76.9% of subjects by sheer protraction of molars, and it was incomplete in 50% of cases (mean gap residues: 1 mm). Whilst there was a deterioration in the canine relationship towards

  8. DELLA genes restrict inflorescence meristem function independently of plant height.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Mislata, Antonio; Bencivenga, Stefano; Bush, Max; Schiessl, Katharina; Boden, Scott; Sablowski, Robert

    2017-09-01

    DELLA proteins associate with transcription factors to control plant growth in response to gibberellin 1 . Semi-dwarf DELLA mutants with improved harvest index and decreased lodging greatly improved global food security during the 'green revolution' in the 1960-1970s 2 . However, DELLA mutants are pleiotropic and the developmental basis for their effects on plant architecture remains poorly understood. Here, we show that DELLA proteins have genetically separable roles in controlling stem growth and the size of the inflorescence meristem, where flowers initiate. Quantitative three-dimensional image analysis, combined with a genome-wide screen for DELLA-bound loci in the inflorescence tip, revealed that DELLAs limit meristem size in Arabidopsis by directly upregulating the cell-cycle inhibitor KRP2 in the underlying rib meristem, without affecting the canonical WUSCHEL-CLAVATA meristem size regulators 3 . Mutation of KRP2 in a DELLA semi-dwarf background restored meristem size, but not stem growth, and accelerated flower production. In barley, secondary mutations in the DELLA gain-of-function mutant Sln1d 4 also uncoupled meristem and inflorescence size from plant height. Our work reveals an unexpected and conserved role for DELLA genes in controlling shoot meristem function and suggests how dissection of pleiotropic DELLA functions could unlock further yield gains in semi-dwarf mutants.

  9. Performance of Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.; Wassef, W.; Bluhm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation of a steel containment anchorage system during a severe accident may result in a leakage path at the containment boundaries. Current design criteria are based on either ductile or brittle failure modes of headed bolts that do not account for factors such as cracking of the containment basemat or deformation of the anchor bolt that may affect the behavior of the containment anchorage system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of a typical ice condenser containment's anchorage system. This was accomplished by analyzing the Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System. Based on a strength of materials approach and assuming that the anchor bolts are resisting the uplift caused by the internal pressure, one can estimate that the failure of the anchor bolts would occur at a containment pressure of 79 psig. To verify these results and to calibrate the strength of materials equation, the Sequoyah containment anchorage system was analyzed with the ABAQUS program using a three-dimensional, finite-element model. The model included portions of the steel containment building, shield building, anchor bolt assembly, reinforced concrete mat and soil foundation material

  10. Independent contribution of individual white matter pathways to language function in pediatric epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Paldino, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Scalar metrics derived from the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with language function. These results support the importance of these pathways in human language function in patients with MCDs.

  11. Apoptosis-Dependent and Apoptosis-Independent Functions Bim in Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Junwei

    2004-01-01

    ... (death, survival, proliferation/division, etc). Our hypothesis is that, under normal, unstimulated conditions, with its apoptotic function blocked, the upregulated Bim in PCa cells play an apoptosis-independent function...

  12. Apoptosis-Dependent and Apoptosis-Independent Functions of Bim in Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Dean; Liu, Junwei

    2005-01-01

    ... (death, survival, proliferation/division, etc.). Our hypothesis is that, under normal, unstimulated conditions, with its apoptotic function blocked, the upregulated Bim in PCa cells plays an apoptosis-independent function...

  13. Rate-distortion functions of non-stationary Markoff chains and their block-independent approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Mukul

    2018-01-01

    It is proved that the limit of the normalized rate-distortion functions of block independent approximations of an irreducible, aperiodic Markoff chain is independent of the initial distribution of the Markoff chain and thus, is also equal to the rate-distortion function of the Markoff chain.

  14. Is skeletal anchorage changing the limit of orthodontics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    The limits for orthodontic treatment are often set by the lack of suitable anchorage. The mini-implant is used where conventional anchorage cannot be applied; not as a replacement for conventional anchorage. In patients with lack of teeth and reduced periodontium, skeletal anchorage allows...... and can be loaded immediately. The course will be addressed the following topics: Are the mini-implants replacing conventional anchorage? Why are orthodontic mini-implants necessary? The development of the skeletal anchorage systems The biological basis for the skeletal anchorage systems...... The characteristics of the different skeletal anchorage systems The insertion procedure The indications for the use of orthodontic mini-implants Treatment planning in relation to the use of mini-implants Case presentations...

  15. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  16. Seismic verification of nuclear plant equipment anchorage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepiece, M.; Van Vyve, J.

    1991-01-01

    More than 60% of the electrical power of Belgium is generated by seven PWR nuclear power plants. For three of them, the electro-mechanical equipment had to be reassessed after ten years of operation, because the seismic requirements were upgraded from 0.1 g to 0.17 g free field ground acceleration. The seismic requalification of the active equipment was a critical problem as the classical methods were too conservative. The approach based on the use of the past experience on the seismic behavior of nonnuclear equipment, chosen and developed by the SQUG, had to be transposed to the Belgian N.P.P. The decision of the accept-ability of equipment relies heavily on the aseismatic capacity of anchorage. The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed the procedure and guideline for the demonstration of the aseismatic adequacy of equipment anchorage in a cost-effective and consistent manner, to support the decision by Seismic Review Team. The field inspection procedure to identify the type of fasteners and detect their possible defects and the verification procedure developed to calculate the aseismatic capacity of equipment anchorage on the strength of fasteners, the aseismatic capacity of anchorage and the comparison of the capacity with the demand are reported. (K.I.)

  17. The influence of demographic, environmental and physical factors on functional independence post stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.V. Mamabolo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The magnitude of disability observed in strokesurvivors is believed to be dependent in part, on the severity of neurological deficits incurred. A s important but less well understood, is thecontribution of demographic, physical and environmental factors. The objective of this study was to establish what demographic, environmentaland physical factors influence functional independence post stroke. Method: Convenience sampling was used in the selection of subjects from four stroke outpatient public health facilities in the Gauteng Province of South Africa. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The analytical tools used included descriptive statistics to measure percentages and cross tabulations to measure the level of associations between functional independence and some of the demographic factors. The Barthel Index was computed to establish the degree of functional independence. Finally the influence of factors on functional independence was investigated using bivariate logistic regressions.Results: The results showed that younger patients (18 - 34 yrs may have a higher likelihood of functional independence compared to older patients at the time of discharge from hospital (18 - 34 years: Odds Ratio = 1. Patients without helpers were more likely to be functionally independent than those with a helper (p = 0.03. Involvement in household activities (p = 0.01, participation in community activities (p = 0.02 and bowel and bladder continence (p = 0.003 and p = 0.04 improved the likelihood of functional independence.Conclusion and im plications: Factors that influence functional independence post stroke are: age, bowel and bladder continence, the presence of a caregiver, participation in household and community activities. It is also of value to encourage patients to participate in household and community activities post stroke as well as being less dependent on helpers in an effort to attain functional independence post

  18. The Functional Independence of Mands and Tacts: Has It Been Demonstrated Empirically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Jonas; Goyos, Celso; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a proliferation of research on the functional independence of two of Skinner's (1957) verbal operants, the mand, and the tact. This research has produced highly variable results. In this article, we provide a critical review of the literature on mand-tact independence, a literature that has implications for both theory and…

  19. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Costa Monini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper jaw anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  20. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, André da Costa; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues, Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper arch anchorage. There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  1. [Skeletal anchorage in the past, today and tomorrow].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melsen, Birte; Dalstra, Michel

    2017-03-01

    Skeletal anchorage was not introduced as an alternative to conventional anchorage modalities. The first skeletal anchorage was a ligature through a hole in the infrazygomatic crest. This was replaced by surgical screws and finally the TADs, which were optimized with respect to the material and morphology, were developed. A bracket-like head allows for the use of the mini-implant as indirect anchorage, but should not be a tool for lost control resulting from badly planned biomechanics or failing compliance. Skeletal anchorage should serve as an adjunct to correct biomechanics, to enable treatments that could not be performed prior to the introduction of skeletal anchorage. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that temporary anchorage mini-screws help maintain bone density, height and width of alveolar processes in the extraction sites, and thus prevent the thinning of the alveolar ridge usually observed. In adult patients with degenerated dentitions the application of skeletal anchorage can allow for the displacement of teeth where no anchorage units are present, but also for the redevelopment and maintenance of atrophic alveolar bone. The basis for the optimal use of skeletal anchorage is that the correct line of action for the desired tooth displacement is defined and the necessary force system constructed either with the skeletal anchorage as direct or as indirect anchorage. After a period, during which osseointegrated implants were used as anchorage for tooth movement and bone maintenance, it was accepted that the mini-implants could serve also as anchorage for skeletal displacements avoiding loading of teeth. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.

  2. Reform of Kosovo Tax System after independence and its key functions

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.Sc. Bedri Peci

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we have analyzed the initial circumstances which characterize tax system in Kosovo after independence. After the Declaration of Independence, it is of the paramount importance that Kosovo has undergone through a reform of policy and tax system by exploring more seriously the economic functions. However, policy and tax system of Kosovo should be more in function of economic development by achieving equilibrium between direct and indirect taxes, increasing efficiency of public ...

  3. Measure of functional independence dominates discharge outcome prediction after inpatient rehabilitation for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allen W; Therneau, Terry M; Schultz, Billie A; Niewczyk, Paulette M; Granger, Carl V

    2015-04-01

    Identifying clinical data acquired at inpatient rehabilitation admission for stroke that accurately predict key outcomes at discharge could inform the development of customized plans of care to achieve favorable outcomes. The purpose of this analysis was to use a large comprehensive national data set to consider a wide range of clinical elements known at admission to identify those that predict key outcomes at rehabilitation discharge. Sample data were obtained from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation data set with the diagnosis of stroke for the years 2005 through 2007. This data set includes demographic, administrative, and medical variables collected at admission and discharge and uses the FIM (functional independence measure) instrument to assess functional independence. Primary outcomes of interest were functional independence measure gain, length of stay, and discharge to home. The sample included 148,367 people (75% white; mean age, 70.6±13.1 years; 97% with ischemic stroke) admitted to inpatient rehabilitation a mean of 8.2±12 days after symptom onset. The total functional independence measure score, the functional independence measure motor subscore, and the case-mix group were equally the strongest predictors for any of the primary outcomes. The most clinically relevant 3-variable model used the functional independence measure motor subscore, age, and walking distance at admission (r(2)=0.107). No important additional effect for any other variable was detected when added to this model. This analysis shows that a measure of functional independence in motor performance and age at rehabilitation hospital admission for stroke are predominant predictors of outcome at discharge in a uniquely large US national data set. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Phase advance and β function measurements using model-independent analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chun-xi Wang; Vadim Sajaev; Chih-Yuan Yao

    2003-01-01

    Phase advance and β function are basic lattice functions characterizing the linear properties of an accelerator lattice. Accurate and efficient measurements of these quantities are important for commissioning and operating a machine. For rings with little coupling, we report a new method to measure these lattice functions based on the model-independent analysis technique, which uses beam histories of excited betatron oscillations measured simultaneously at a large number of beam position moni...

  5. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

    OpenAIRE

    Monini,André da Costa; Gandini Júnior,Luiz Gonzaga; Santos-Pinto,Ary dos; Maia,Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues,Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extra...

  6. Cell cycle control by components of cell anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Gad, Annica

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular factors, such as growth factors and cell anchorage to the extracellular matrix, control when and where cells may proliferate. This control is abolished when a normal cell transforms into a tumour cell. The control of cell proliferation by cell anchorage was elusive and less well studied than the control by growth factors. Therefore, we aimed to clarify at what points in the cell cycle and through which molecular mechanisms cell anchorage controls cell cycle pro...

  7. Distinct spinning patterns gain differentiated loading tolerance of silk thread anchorages in spiders with different ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; van der Meijden, Arie; Herberstein, Marie E

    2017-07-26

    Building behaviour in animals extends biological functions beyond bodies. Many studies have emphasized the role of behavioural programmes, physiology and extrinsic factors for the structure and function of buildings. Structure attachments associated with animal constructions offer yet unrealized research opportunities. Spiders build a variety of one- to three-dimensional structures from silk fibres. The evolution of economic web shapes as a key for ecological success in spiders has been related to the emergence of high performance silks and thread coating glues. However, the role of thread anchorages has been widely neglected in those models. Here, we show that orb-web (Araneidae) and hunting spiders (Sparassidae) use different silk application patterns that determine the structure and robustness of the joint in silk thread anchorages. Silk anchorages of orb-web spiders show a greater robustness against different loading situations, whereas the silk anchorages of hunting spiders have their highest pull-off resistance when loaded parallel to the substrate along the direction of dragline spinning. This suggests that the behavioural 'printing' of silk into attachment discs along with spinneret morphology was a prerequisite for the evolution of extended silk use in a three-dimensional space. This highlights the ecological role of attachments in the evolution of animal architectures. © 2017 The Author(s).

  8. Functional Connectivity Parcellation of the Human Thalamus by Independent Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan R

    2017-11-01

    As a key structure to relay and integrate information, the thalamus supports multiple cognitive and affective functions through the connectivity between its subnuclei and cortical and subcortical regions. Although extant studies have largely described thalamic regional functions in anatomical terms, evidence accumulates to suggest a more complex picture of subareal activities and connectivities of the thalamus. In this study, we aimed to parcellate the thalamus and examine whole-brain connectivity of its functional clusters. With resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 96 adults, we used independent component analysis (ICA) to parcellate the thalamus into 10 components. On the basis of the independence assumption, ICA helps to identify how subclusters overlap spatially. Whole brain functional connectivity of each subdivision was computed for independent component's time course (ICtc), which is a unique time series to represent an IC. For comparison, we computed seed-region-based functional connectivity using the averaged time course across all voxels within a thalamic subdivision. The results showed that, at p analysis, ICtc analysis revealed patterns of connectivity that were more distinguished between thalamic clusters. ICtc analysis demonstrated thalamic connectivity to the primary motor cortex, which has eluded the analysis as well as previous studies based on averaged time series, and clarified thalamic connectivity to the hippocampus, caudate nucleus, and precuneus. The new findings elucidate functional organization of the thalamus and suggest that ICA clustering in combination with ICtc rather than seed-region analysis better distinguishes whole-brain connectivities among functional clusters of a brain region.

  9. 78 FR 59914 - Foreign-Trade Zone 160-Anchorage, Alaska; Application for Reorganization Under Alternative Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-30

    ...: Site 1 (56.89 acres)--the Port of Anchorage and Port of Anchorage Industrial Park, 1075 Dock Rd., 1076... acres)--619 East Ship Creek Ave., Anchorage; Site 6 (12.2 acres)-- Douglas Management Company, 660...

  10. Variance gradients and uncertainty budgets for nonlinear measurement functions with independent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanelli, Mark; Kacker, Raghu; Kessel, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    A novel variance-based measure for global sensitivity analysis, termed a variance gradient (VG), is presented for constructing uncertainty budgets under the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) framework for nonlinear measurement functions with independent inputs. The motivation behind VGs is the desire of metrologists to understand which inputs' variance reductions would most effectively reduce the variance of the measurand. VGs are particularly useful when the application of the first supplement to the GUM is indicated because of the inadequacy of measurement function linearization. However, VGs reduce to a commonly understood variance decomposition in the case of a linear(ized) measurement function with independent inputs for which the original GUM readily applies. The usefulness of VGs is illustrated by application to an example from the first supplement to the GUM, as well as to the benchmark Ishigami function. A comparison of VGs to other available sensitivity measures is made. (paper)

  11. Orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Brahmanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of class I malocclusion with bimaxillary dental protrusion and unilateral free end right upper ridge in adult patient is one of difficult biomechanical case in orthodontics. Due to this case that needs proper anchorage for upper incisor retraction with missing teeth in the right posterior segment. Purpose: The aim of this study to find an effective therapy for correction of bimaxillary protrusion with unilateral free and ridge. Case: A female patient, 36 year old complaining for the difficulty of lip closure due to severe bimaxillary protrusion with incompetence lip. Case management: Firstly correction of the maxillary and mandibular incisor proclination were done by extraction of the mandibular first premolar, the maxillary second premolar on left side and finally placement of miniplates implant in the zygomatic process on right side as an absolut anchorage. Conclusion: Skeletal anchorage system (SAS can be considered as an effective therapy for corection of bimaxillary protrusion with unilateral free end ridge.Latar belakang: Koreksi dari maloklusi klas I dari penderita dewasa yang disertai protrusi bimaksiler dengan kehilangan gigi posterior pada regio kanan atas merupakan salah satu kasus sulit untuk dikerjakan terutama berhubungan dengan biomekanik pergerakan giginya dalam perawatan ortodonti. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk menemukan terapi yang efektif untuk perbaikan protrusi bimaksiler dan kehilangan gigi posterior pada satu sisi. Kasus: Seorang penderita wanita usia 35 tahun datang dengan keluhan utama kesulitan untuk menutup mulut oleh karena gigi rahang atas dan rahang bawahnya maju dan bibirnya tidak kompeten. Tatalaksana kasus: Koreksi pada gigi insisivus rahang atas dan insisivus rahang bawah yang protrusi dilakukan dengan melakukan pencabutan terlebih dahulu pada gigi premolar pertama dirahang bawah sisi kanan dan sisi kiri serta pencabutan pada gigi premolar kedua di rahang atas sisi

  12. Functional independence and health-related functional status following spinal cord injury : a prospective study of the association with physical capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haisma, Janneke A.; Post, Marcel W.; van der Woude, Lucas H.; Stam, Henk J.; Bergen, Michael P.; Sluis, Tebbe A.; van den Berg-Emons, Hendrika J.; Bussmann, Johannes B.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine changes in functional independence following spinal cord injury and to evaluate the association between functional independence and physical capacity. Design: Multi-centre prospective cohort study. Subjects: Patients with spinal cord injury admitted for initial

  13. Detection of independent functional networks during music listening using electroencephalogram and sLORETA-ICA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jäncke, Lutz; Alahmadi, Nsreen

    2016-04-13

    The measurement of brain activation during music listening is a topic that is attracting increased attention from many researchers. Because of their high spatial accuracy, functional MRI measurements are often used for measuring brain activation in the context of music listening. However, this technique faces the issues of contaminating scanner noise and an uncomfortable experimental environment. Electroencephalogram (EEG), however, is a neural registration technique that allows the measurement of neurophysiological activation in silent and more comfortable experimental environments. Thus, it is optimal for recording brain activations during pleasant music stimulation. Using a new mathematical approach to calculate intracortical independent components (sLORETA-IC) on the basis of scalp-recorded EEG, we identified specific intracortical independent components during listening of a musical piece and scales, which differ substantially from intracortical independent components calculated from the resting state EEG. Most intracortical independent components are located bilaterally in perisylvian brain areas known to be involved in auditory processing and specifically in music perception. Some intracortical independent components differ between the music and scale listening conditions. The most prominent difference is found in the anterior part of the perisylvian brain region, with stronger activations seen in the left-sided anterior perisylvian regions during music listening, most likely indicating semantic processing during music listening. A further finding is that the intracortical independent components obtained for the music and scale listening are most prominent in higher frequency bands (e.g. beta-2 and beta-3), whereas the resting state intracortical independent components are active in lower frequency bands (alpha-1 and theta). This new technique for calculating intracortical independent components is able to differentiate independent neural networks associated

  14. Liver function tests and risk prediction of incident type 2 diabetes : evaluation in two independent cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der A, Daphne L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Peelen, Linda M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Navis, Gerjan; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Liver function tests might predict the risk of type 2 diabetes. An independent study evaluating utility of these markers compared with an existing prediction model is yet lacking. Methods and Findings: We performed a case-cohort study, including random subcohort (6.5%) from 38,379

  15. Independent prognostic value of left ventricular mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Leósdóttir, Margrét

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explore the independent prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the prediction of incident cardiac events in a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHOD: 415 women and 999 men aged 56-79 years, included between 2002...

  16. Functional independence and mobility in kidney transplanted patients: cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuíra O. Maia

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract AIMS To assess functional independence, balance and mobility of kidney transplant recipients, to verify transplant time, donor type, regular exercise practice, musculoskeletal complaints, as well as association among these variables METHODS Observational study with 86 kidney transplant individuals, subjected to evaluation of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and Timed Up and Go test (TUG. RESULTS The mean age of the study population was 43.98 years old, 50% of these individuals were between 5-10 years of transplantation and 50% between 10-15 years. Changes in mobility and balance (TUG were found in 9.3% of transplant patients, while 2.3% had deficits in functional independence (FIM. The association between TUG and the FIM (χ2= 19.964, p< 0.001 was found in 25% of the 9.3% of individuals who showed changes in TUG. It was found that only 20.9% of kidney transplant between 5-10 years and 14.0% between 11 and 15 years performed regular physical exercises (χ2= 0.727, p= 0.394 and 67.4% presented prevalent complaints on lower limbs musculoskeletal. CONCLUSION Although the level of dependence and impairments in mobility and balance found in renal transplants are low, deficits in mobility and balance may lead to changes in the ability to perform their functional activities independently.

  17. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  18. Conceptualizing Parental Autonomy Support: Adolescent Perceptions of Promotion of Independence versus Promotion of Volitional Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc; Beyers, Wim; Ryan, Richard M.

    2007-01-01

    In current research on parenting, 2 ways of conceptualizing perceived parental autonomy support can be distinguished. Parental autonomy support can be defined in terms of promotion of independence (PI) or in terms of promotion of volitional functioning (PVF). This study aimed to establish the empirical distinctiveness of both conceptualizations…

  19. Application and Curative Effect of Micro-implant Anchorage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    research hot spot in the Department of. Stomatology. Instead of taking teeth as the basis, as was previously the case, this new anchorage exerts the counteracting force of orthodontics on the jaw, thus completely avoiding the displacement of teeth. It solves a lot of problems existing in clinical anchorage. Micro - implant.

  20. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BY PHYSICAL THERAPY AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ticărat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with multiple sclerosis can have a normal life despite of their real or possible disability and of the progressive nature of it. Scope. Patients who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy will have an increased quality of life and a greater functional independence.Methods. The randomized study was made on 7 patients with multiple sclerosis, from Oradea Day Centre, 3 times/week, ages between 35 – 55 years, functional level between mild and sever. Assessment and rehabilitation methods: inspection, BARTHEL Index. Frenkel method, brething exercises, weights exercises, gait exercises, writind exercises and games were used in the rehabilitation process. Group therapies: sociotherapy, arttherapy, music therapy. Results analysis consisted of the comparison of baseline and final means.Results. By analizing baseline and final means for Barthel Index for each functon separately, it was shown a mild improvement of functional independence for almost assessed functions, with at least 1-1,5 points.Conclusions. Persons with multiple sclerosis who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy presents a better functional independence after the treatment.

  1. Slimmer women's waist is associated with better erectile function in men independent of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brody, Stuart; Weiss, Petr

    2013-10-01

    Previous research has indicated that men generally rate slimmer women as more sexually attractive, consistent with the increased morbidity risks associated with even mild abdominal adiposity. To assess the association of women's waist size with a more tangible measure of perceived sexual attractiveness (as well as reward value for both sexes), we examined the association of women's age and waist circumference with an index of men's erectile function (IIEF-5 scores), frequency of penile-vaginal intercourse (PVI), and sexual satisfaction in a representative sample of Czechs (699 men and 715 women) aged 35-65 years. Multivariate analyses indicated that better erectile function scores were independently associated with younger age of self and partner and women's slimmer waist. PVI frequency was independently associated with women's younger age and women's slimmer waist. Sexual satisfaction was independently associated with men's younger age and slimmer waist for both sexes. Better erectile function, greater PVI frequency, and greater sexual satisfaction were associated with women's slimmer waist, independently of both sexes' ages. Possible reasons for the waist effects were discussed, including women's abdominal body fat decreasing their own desire through neurohormonal mechanisms and decreasing their partner's desire through evolutionarily-related decreased sexual attractiveness.

  2. Characterizing functional connectivity during rest in multiple sclerosis patients versus healthy volunteers using independent component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio Garcia, L.; Andrzejak, R.; Prchkovska, V.; Rodrigues, P.

    2016-07-01

    It is commonly thought that our brain is not active when it does not receive any external input. However, during rest, there are still certain distant regions of the brain that are functionally correlated between them: the so-called resting-state networks. This functional connectivity of the brain is disrupted in many neurological diseases. In particular, it has been shown that one of the most studied resting-state networks (the default-mode network) is affected in multiple sclerosis, which is the most common disabling neurological condition affecting the central nervous system of young adults. In this work, I focus on the study of the differences in the resting-state networks between multiple sclerosis patients and healthy volunteers. In order to study the effects of multiple sclerosis on the functional connectivity of the brain, a numerical method known as independent component analysis (ICA) is applied. This technique divides the resting-state fMRI data into independent components. Nonetheless, noise, which could be due to head motion or physiological artifacts, may corrupt the data by indicating a false activation. Therefore, I create a web user interface that allows the user to manually classify all the independent components for a given subject. Eventually, the components classified as noise should be removed from the functional data in order to prevent them from taking part in any further analysis. (Author)

  3. Trauma center designation correlates with functional independence after severe but not moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Stassen, Nicole A; Cheng, Julius D; Sangosanya, Ayodele T; Bankey, Paul E; Gestring, Mark L

    2010-08-01

    The mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to decline, emphasizing functional outcomes. Trauma center designation has been linked to survival after TBI, but the impact on functional outcomes is unclear. The objective was to determine whether trauma center designation influenced functional outcomes after moderate and severe TBI. Trauma subjects presenting to an American College of Surgeons (ACS) Level I or II trauma center with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) independence (FI) defined as a modified functional independence measure (FIM) of 12, and independent expression (IE) defined as a FIM component of 4. These were compared between Level I and Level II centers in subjects with both moderate (GCS 9-12) and severe (GCS

  4. Selective Attention, Working Memory, and Executive Function as Potential Independent Sources of Cognitive Dysfunction in Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, James M; Robinson, Benjamin; Leonard, Carly J; Hahn, Britta; Chen, Shuo; McMahon, Robert P; Luck, Steven J

    2017-11-11

    People with schizophrenia demonstrate impairments in selective attention, working memory, and executive function. Given the overlap in these constructs, it is unclear if these represent distinct impairments or different manifestations of one higher-order impairment. To examine this question, we administered tasks from the basic cognitive neuroscience literature to measure visual selective attention, working memory capacity, and executive function in 126 people with schizophrenia and 122 healthy volunteers. Patients demonstrated deficits on all tasks with the exception of selective attention guided by strong bottom-up inputs. Although the measures of top-down control of selective attention, working memory, and executive function were all intercorrelated, several sources of evidence indicate that working memory and executive function are separate sources of variance. Specifically, both working memory and executive function independently contributed to the discrimination of group status and independently accounted for variance in overall general cognitive ability as assessed by the MATRICS battery. These two cognitive functions appear to be separable features of the cognitive impairments observed in schizophrenia. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. [Active aging from the perspective of aged individuals who are functionally independent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Olivia Galvão Lucena; Maciel, Silvana Carneiro; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; dos Santos, Walberto Silva; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva P

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the social representations of the elderly regarding active aging. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 100 functionally independent aged individuals from João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. The data was organized and analyzed using Alceste software. Results showed that the aged individuals' statements about active aging are permeated with positive contents. However, when aging is not associated with the word active, it is still represented as losses and disabilities. Despite the existence of losses during the process, active aging should be encouraged among the elderly, as it means living a quality, plentiful life. Maintaining the elderly functionally independent is the first step to achieving active aging and thus improving their quality of life.

  6. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. AIM: To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. METHODS: Right (RVEF), left......, which is a strong prognostic marker in heart failure, independently depends on both left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone....... ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) were determined in 105 consecutive patients by first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (FP-RNV) and multiple ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV), respectively. BNP was analyzed by immunoassay...

  7. LSD1 activates a lethal prostate cancer gene network independently of its demethylase function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehrawat, Archana; Gao, Lina; Wang, Yuliang; Bankhead, Armand; McWeeney, Shannon K; King, Carly J; Schwartzman, Jacob; Urrutia, Joshua; Bisson, William H; Coleman, Daniel J; Joshi, Sunil K; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Sampson, David A; Weinmann, Sheila; Kallakury, Bhaskar V S; Berry, Deborah L; Haque, Reina; Van Den Eeden, Stephen K; Sharma, Sunil; Bearss, Jared; Beer, Tomasz M; Thomas, George V; Heiser, Laura M; Alumkal, Joshi J

    2018-05-01

    Medical castration that interferes with androgen receptor (AR) function is the principal treatment for advanced prostate cancer. However, clinical progression is universal, and tumors with AR-independent resistance mechanisms appear to be increasing in frequency. Consequently, there is an urgent need to develop new treatments targeting molecular pathways enriched in lethal prostate cancer. Lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) is a histone demethylase and an important regulator of gene expression. Here, we show that LSD1 promotes the survival of prostate cancer cells, including those that are castration-resistant, independently of its demethylase function and of the AR. Importantly, this effect is explained in part by activation of a lethal prostate cancer gene network in collaboration with LSD1's binding protein, ZNF217. Finally, that a small-molecule LSD1 inhibitor-SP-2509-blocks important demethylase-independent functions and suppresses castration-resistant prostate cancer cell viability demonstrates the potential of LSD1 inhibition in this disease.

  8. On Delay-Independent Criteria for Oscillation of Higher-Order Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangong Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the oscillation of the following higher-order functional differential equation: x(n(t+q(t|x(t-τ|λ-1x(t-τ=e(t, where q(t and e(t are continuous functions on [t0,∞, 1>λ>0 and τ≠0 are constants. Unlike most of delay-dependent oscillation results in the literature, two delay-independent oscillation criteria for the equation are established in both the case τ>0 and the case τ<0 under the assumption that the potentials q(t and e(t change signs on [t0,∞.

  9. The benefit of differential moment concept in managing posterior anchorage and avoiding bite deepening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto Wijaya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anchorage is one of the major concerns in orthodontic space closure. Various methods have been proposed to enhance posterior anchorage in space closure such as headgear, Nance holding appliance, and micro implant as temporary anchorage devices. However, several issues such as patient's compliance, appliance effectiveness, and cost of the device become many clinicians concern. The differential moment concept in segmented arch is a technique that requires no patient compliance but can effectively manage posterior anchorage and avoid bite deepening by careful application of forces and moments. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to show the use of differential moment concept in segmented arch technique to manage posterior anchorage and to avoid bite deepening. Case: A 21 years old female patient with protrusive teeth as her chief complaint was treated using fixed orthodontic appliance. Case management: The treatment included four first bicuspid extraction and space closure utilizing differential moment concept in segmented arch. Conclusion: It can be concluded that application of differential moment concept in segmented arch technique is a non invasive, compliance independent, effective, and cost efficient method to manage posterior anchorage and to avoid bite deepening.latar belakang: Penjangkaran merupakan salah satu aspek yang sering kali menjadi masalah dalam penutupan ruang pada perawatan ortodonti. Berbagai metode disarankan untuk memperkuat penjangkaran posterior dalam penutupan ruang seperti headgear, piranti penahan Nance, dan implan mikro sebagai alat penjangkar sementara. Namun demikian, beberapa hal seperti kerjasama pasien, efektivitas piranti, dan biaya dari alat-alat tersebut sering menjadi perhatian/pertimbangan bagi klinisi. Konsep momen diferensial pada segmented arch adalah suatu cara yang efektif untuk memperkuat penjangkaran dan menghindari pendalaman gigitan tanpa memerlukan kerjasama pasien. tujuan

  10. Explaining the democratic anchorage of governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelcher, Chris; Klijn, Erik-Hans; Kübler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Advances in understanding the democratic anchorage of governance networks require carefully designed and contextually grounded empirical analysis that take into account contextual factors. The article uses a conjectural framework to study the impact of the national democratic milieu...... on the relationship between network governance and representative institutions in four European countries: the United Kingdom, Switzerland, the Netherlands, and Denmark. The article shows that the distinction between majoritarian and consensus democracy as well as the varying strength of voluntary associations...... are important contextual factors that help explain cross-national differences in the relationship between governance networks and representative institutions. We conclude that a context of weak associationalism in majoritarian democracies facilitates the instrumentalization of networks by government actors...

  11. Numerical implementation of multiple peeling theory and its application to spider web anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brely, Lucas; Bosia, Federico; Pugno, Nicola M

    2015-02-06

    Adhesion of spider web anchorages has been studied in recent years, including the specific functionalities achieved through different architectures. To better understand the delamination mechanisms of these and other biological or artificial fibrillar adhesives, and how their adhesion can be optimized, we develop a novel numerical model to simulate the multiple peeling of structures with arbitrary branching and adhesion angles, including complex architectures. The numerical model is based on a recently developed multiple peeling theory, which extends the energy-based single peeling theory of Kendall, and can be applied to arbitrarily complex structures. In particular, we numerically show that a multiple peeling problem can be treated as the superposition of single peeling configurations even for complex structures. Finally, we apply the developed numerical approach to study spider web anchorages, showing how their function is achieved through optimal geometrical configurations.

  12. Which activities threaten independent living of elderly when becoming problematic: inspiration for meaningful service robot functionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedaf, Sandra; Gelderblom, Gert Jan; Syrdal, Dag Sverre; Lehmann, Hagen; Michel, Hervé; Hewson, David; Amirabdollahian, Farshid; Dautenhahn, Kerstin; de Witte, Luc

    2014-11-01

    In light of the increasing elderly population and the growing demand for home care, the potential of robot support is given increasing attention. In this paper, an inventory of activities was made that threaten independent living of elderly when becoming problematic. Results will guide the further development of an existing service robot, the Care-O-bot®. A systematic literature search of PubMed was performed, focused on the risk factors for institutionalization. Additionally, focus group sessions were conducted in the Netherlands, United Kingdom and France. In these focus group sessions, problematic activities threatening the independence of elderly people were discussed. Three separate target groups were included in the focus group sessions: (1) elderly persons (n = 41), (2) formal caregivers (n = 40) and (3) informal caregivers (n = 32). Activities within the International Classification of Functioning domains mobility, self-care, and interpersonal interaction and relationships were found to be the most problematic. A distinct set of daily activities was identified that may threaten independent living, but no single activity could be selected as the main activity causing a loss of independence as it is often a combination of problematic activities that is person-specific. Supporting the problematic activities need not involve a robotic solution.

  13. A Method of Calculating Functional Independence Measure at Discharge from Functional Independence Measure Effectiveness Predicted by Multiple Regression Analysis Has a High Degree of Predictive Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Susumu; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis is often used to predict the outcome of stroke rehabilitation. However, the predictive accuracy may not be satisfactory. The objective of this study was to elucidate the predictive accuracy of a method of calculating motor Functional Independence Measure (mFIM) at discharge from mFIM effectiveness predicted by multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 505 patients with stroke who were hospitalized in a convalescent rehabilitation hospital. The formula "mFIM at discharge = mFIM effectiveness × (91 points - mFIM at admission) + mFIM at admission" was used. By including the predicted mFIM effectiveness obtained through multiple regression analysis in this formula, we obtained the predicted mFIM at discharge (A). We also used multiple regression analysis to directly predict mFIM at discharge (B). The correlation between the predicted and the measured values of mFIM at discharge was compared between A and B. The correlation coefficients were .916 for A and .878 for B. Calculating mFIM at discharge from mFIM effectiveness predicted by multiple regression analysis had a higher degree of predictive accuracy of mFIM at discharge than that directly predicted. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Finite element simulation and testing of ISW CFRP anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Goltermann, Per; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2013-01-01

    is modelled in the 3D finite Element program ABAQUS, just as digital image correlation (DIC) testing was performed to verify the finite element simulation. Also a new optimized design was produced to ensure that the finite element simulation and anchorage behaviour correlated well. It is seen....... This paper presents a novel mechanical integrated sleeve wedge anchorage which seem very promising when perusing the scope of ultimate utilization of CFRP 8mm rods (with a tension capacity of approximately 140kN). Compression transverse to the CFRP is evaluated to prevent premature failure. The anchorage...

  15. FRP tendon anchorage in post-tensioned concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders

    2008-01-01

    effective Young´s modulus and the high stress capacity in the linear elastic range of the material. The use of external tendons increases the requirements on the anchorage systems. This is in particular important when using un-bonded tendon systems, where the anchorage and deviators are the only force...... transfer points. The demand for high capacity anchorage tendons is fulfilled for steel tendons, but no competitive mechanical anchor has yet been developed for FRP tendon. A new small, reliable and more user friendly anchor has to be developed, before FRP tendons can be utilized with all of its capacity...

  16. Structural and Functional Diversity of Plant Virus 3'-Cap-Independent Translation Enhancers (3'-CITEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truniger, Verónica; Miras, Manuel; Aranda, Miguel A

    2017-01-01

    Most of the positive-strand RNA plant viruses lack the 5'-cap and/or the poly(A)-tail that act synergistically to stimulate canonical translation of cellular mRNAs. However, they have RNA elements in the 5'- or 3'-untranslated regions of their RNAs that are required for their cap-independent translation. Cap-independent translation enhancers (CITEs) have been identified in the genomic 3'-end of viruses belonging to the family Tombusviridae and the genus Luteovirus . Seven classes of 3'-CITEs have been described to date based on their different RNA structures. They generally control the efficient formation of the translation initiation complex by varying mechanisms. Some 3'-CITEs bind eukaryotic translation initiation factors, others ribosomal subunits, bridging these to the 5'-end by different mechanisms, often long-distance RNA-RNA interactions. As previously proposed and recently found in one case in nature, 3'-CITEs are functionally independent elements that are transferable through recombination between viral genomes, leading to potential advantages for virus multiplication. In this review, the knowledge on 3'-CITEs and their functioning is updated. We also suggest that there is local structural conservation in the regions interacting with eIF4E of 3'-CITEs belonging to different classes.

  17. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  18. Task-evoked brain functional magnetic susceptibility mapping by independent component analysis (χICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Conventionally, independent component analysis (ICA) is performed on an fMRI magnitude dataset to analyze brain functional mapping (AICA). By solving the inverse problem of fMRI, we can reconstruct the brain magnetic susceptibility (χ) functional states. Upon the reconstructed χ dataspace, we propose an ICA-based brain functional χ mapping method (χICA) to extract task-evoked brain functional map. A complex division algorithm is applied to a timeseries of fMRI phase images to extract temporal phase changes (relative to an OFF-state snapshot). A computed inverse MRI (CIMRI) model is used to reconstruct a 4D brain χ response dataset. χICA is implemented by applying a spatial InfoMax ICA algorithm to the reconstructed 4D χ dataspace. With finger-tapping experiments on a 7T system, the χICA-extracted χ-depicted functional map is similar to the SPM-inferred functional χ map by a spatial correlation of 0.67 ± 0.05. In comparison, the AICA-extracted magnitude-depicted map is correlated with the SPM magnitude map by 0.81 ± 0.05. The understanding of the inferiority of χICA to AICA for task-evoked functional map is an ongoing research topic. For task-evoked brain functional mapping, we compare the data-driven ICA method with the task-correlated SPM method. In particular, we compare χICA with AICA for extracting task-correlated timecourses and functional maps. χICA can extract a χ-depicted task-evoked brain functional map from a reconstructed χ dataspace without the knowledge about brain hemodynamic responses. The χICA-extracted brain functional χ map reveals a bidirectional BOLD response pattern that is unavailable (or different) from AICA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Independence of Hot and Cold Executive Function Deficits in High-Functioning Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, David L; Ownsworth, Tamara; O'Donovan, Analise; Roberts, Jacqueline; Gullo, Matthew J

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD) display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ > 70) with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between "cold" and "hot" executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory), whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition). This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18-66 years) and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference), Letter Number Sequencing (working memory) and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression). Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = 0.54 - 1.5). Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognize emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs.

  1. Impact of cognitive function on oral perception in independently living older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukutake, Motoyoshi; Ogawa, Taiji; Ikebe, Kazunori; Mihara, Yusuke; Inomata, Chisato; Takeshita, Hajime; Matsuda, Kenichi; Hatta, Kodai; Gondo, Yasuyuki; Masui, Yukie; Inagaki, Hiroki; Arai, Yasumichi; Kamide, Kei; Ishizaki, Tatsuro; Maeda, Yoshinobu

    2018-04-10

    Oral tactile perception is important for better mastication, appetite, and enjoyment of food. However, previous investigations have not utilized comprehensible variables thought to have negative effect on oral perception, including aging, denture wearing, and cognitive function. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of cognitive function on oral perception in independently living older individuals. The study sample was comprised of 987 participants (466 males, 521 females; age 69-71 years). Oral examinations, assessments of cognitive function in preclinical level by Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)-J, and determination of oral stereognostic ability as an indicator of oral perception were performed. Related variables were selected by univariate analyses; then, multivariate logistic regression model analysis was conducted. Univariate analyses revealed that number of teeth, removable dentures usage, and cognitive function respectively had a significant relationship with stereognostic score. Next, the subjects were classified into good and poor perception groups (lowest 17.4%) according to oral stereognostic ability. Logistic regression analysis revealed that lower cognitive function was significantly associated with poor oral perception (OR = 0.934, p = 0.017) after controlling for other variables. Cognitive decline even in preclinical stage was associated with reduced oral perception after controlling for gender, tooth number and denture use in independent living older people. This study suggested that preclinical level of change in cognitive function affected oral perception. Dental practitioners and caregivers may need to pay attention to reduced oral perception among older people even if they do not have trouble in daily life.

  2. Functional analysis of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCS1 reveals independent functions for cholesterol and isoprenoids in craniofacial development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M Quintana

    Full Text Available There are 8 different human syndromes caused by mutations in the cholesterol synthesis pathway. A subset of these disorders such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz disorder, are associated with facial dysmorphia. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying such facial deficits are not fully understood, primarily because of the diverse functions associated with the cholesterol synthesis pathway. Recent evidence has demonstrated that mutation of the zebrafish ortholog of HMGCR results in orofacial clefts. Here we sought to expand upon these data, by deciphering the cholesterol dependent functions of the cholesterol synthesis pathway from the cholesterol independent functions. Moreover, we utilized loss of function analysis and pharmacological inhibition to determine the extent of sonic hedgehog (Shh signaling in animals with aberrant cholesterol and/or isoprenoid synthesis. Our analysis confirmed that mutation of hmgcs1, which encodes the first enzyme in the cholesterol synthesis pathway, results in craniofacial abnormalities via defects in cranial neural crest cell differentiation. Furthermore targeted pharmacological inhibition of the cholesterol synthesis pathway revealed a novel function for isoprenoid synthesis during vertebrate craniofacial development. Mutation of hmgcs1 had no effect on Shh signaling at 2 and 3 days post fertilization (dpf, but did result in a decrease in the expression of gli1, a known Shh target gene, at 4 dpf, after morphological deficits in craniofacial development and chondrocyte differentiation were observed in hmgcs1 mutants. These data raise the possibility that deficiencies in cholesterol modulate chondrocyte differentiation by a combination of Shh independent and Shh dependent mechanisms. Moreover, our results describe a novel function for isoprenoids in facial development and collectively suggest that cholesterol regulates craniofacial development through versatile mechanisms.

  3. Dietary sodium loading impairs microvascular function independent of blood pressure in humans: role of oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Jody L; DuPont, Jennifer J; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon L; Sanders, Paul W; Edwards, David G; Farquhar, William B

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have reported dietary salt-induced reductions in vascular function independent of increases in blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to determine if short-term dietary sodium loading impairs cutaneous microvascular function in normotensive adults with salt resistance. Following a control run-in diet, 12 normotensive adults (31 ± 2 years) were randomized to a 7 day low-sodium (LS; 20 mmol day−1) and 7 day high-sodium (HS; 350 mmol day−1) diet (controlled feeding study). Salt resistance, defined as a ≤5 mmHg change in 24 h mean BP determined while on the LS and HS diets, was confirmed in all subjects undergoing study (LS: 84 ± 1 mmHg vs. HS: 85 ± 2 mmHg; P > 0.05). On the last day of each diet, subjects were instrumented with two microdialysis fibres for the local delivery of Ringer solution and 20 mm ascorbic acid (AA). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure red blood cell flux during local heating-induced vasodilatation (42°C). After the established plateau, 10 mm l-NAME was perfused to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. All data were expressed as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) at each site (28 mm sodium nitroprusside; 43°C). Sodium excretion increased during the HS diet (P sodium loading impairs cutaneous microvascular function independent of BP in normotensive adults and suggest a role for oxidative stress. PMID:22907057

  4. Age-independent anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores to estimate ovarian function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helden, Josef van; Weiskirchen, Ralf

    2017-06-01

    To determine single year age-specific anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) standard deviation scores (SDS) for women associated to normal ovarian function and different ovarian disorders resulting in sub- or infertility. Determination of particular year median and mean AMH values with standard deviations (SD), calculation of age-independent cut off SDS for the discrimination between normal ovarian function and ovarian disorders. Single-year-specific median, mean, and SD values have been evaluated for the Beckman Access AMH immunoassay. While the decrease of both median and mean AMH values is strongly correlated with increasing age, calculated SDS values have been shown to be age independent with the differentiation between normal ovarian function measured as occurred ovulation with sufficient luteal activity compared with hyperandrogenemic cycle disorders or anovulation associated with high AMH values and reduced ovarian activity or insufficiency associated with low AMH, respectively. These results will be helpful for the treatment of patients and the ventilation of the different reproductive options. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Telomere-independent functions of telomerase in nuclei, cytoplasm, and mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Mondello, Chiara, E-mail: mondello@igm.cnr.it [Istituto di Genetica Molecolare, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Pavia (Italy)

    2012-09-28

    Telomerase canonical activity at telomeres prevents telomere shortening, allowing chromosome stability and cellular proliferation. To perform this task, the catalytic subunit (telomerase reverse transcriptase, TERT) of the enzyme works as a reverse transcriptase together with the telomerase RNA component (TERC), adding telomeric repeats to DNA molecule ends. Growing evidence indicates that, besides the telomeric-DNA synthesis activity, TERT has additional functions in tumor development and is involved in many different biological processes, among which cellular proliferation, gene expression regulation, and mitochondrial functionality. TERT has been shown to act independently of TERC in the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway, regulating the expression of Wnt target genes, which play a role in development and tumorigenesis. Moreover, TERT RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity has been found, leading to the genesis of double-stranded RNAs that act as precursor of silencing RNAs. In mitochondria, a TERT TERC-independent reverse transcriptase activity has been described that could play a role in the protection of mitochondrial integrity. In this review, we will discuss some of the extra-telomeric functions of telomerase.

  6. Functional capacity, independence and home affordances of premature children attending daycare centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Tamiasso Vieira

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Child development is the result of the interaction between biological and environmental factors. Objective: The aim of this study is to evaluate and compare the Functional Capacity, Independence and Home Affordances Level of Stimulation of premature children between 18 and 42 months, attending or not daycare centers. Methods: Cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 26 premature children between 18 and 42 months, paired and divided into two groups: attending (study group and not attending daycare centers (control group. Data was collected from the questionnaires AHEMD-SR, PEDI and an identification questionnaire. Data analysis was performed by descriptive statistics, and Chi-square, Fisher, Mann-Whitney and Univariate Analysis tests, considering the level of significance of α = 0.05 and tendency of differentiation when α < 010. Results: There was a significant difference in the AHEMD-SR`s Variety of Stimulation (p = 0.036, higher in the control group, and tendency in the Gross Motor Toys (p = 0.086, more available in the study group. In PEDI, there was significant difference in Self-care (p = 0.045 and tendency of differentiation in Mobility (0.068, both of the Caregiver Assistance part (greater to the study. The sample showed low stimulation opportunities regarding Fine and Gross Motor Toys and high percentages of delay in Functional Skills (Mobility and Independence (Self Care and Mobility, especially in the control group. Conclusion: Daycare centers seem to positively affect the Functional Capacity and Independence in premature children between 18 and 42 months.

  7. Child Functional Independence and Maternal Psychosocial Stress as Risk Factors Threatening Adaptation in Mothers of Physically or Sensorially Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, Jan L; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated contribution of child functional independence and maternal psychosocial stress to adaptation of 119 mothers of physically or sensorially handicapped children between the ages of 2 and 18. Child functional independence did not uniquely explain variation in mothers' adaptation. Maternal stress was uniquely associated with maternal…

  8. A Method of Approximating Expectations of Functions of Sums of Independent Random Variables

    OpenAIRE

    Klass, Michael J.

    1981-01-01

    Let $X_1, X_2, \\cdots$ be a sequence of independent random variables with $S_n = \\sum^n_{i = 1} X_i$. Fix $\\alpha > 0$. Let $\\Phi(\\cdot)$ be a continuous, strictly increasing function on $\\lbrack 0, \\infty)$ such that $\\Phi(0) = 0$ and $\\Phi(cx) \\leq c^\\alpha\\Phi(x)$ for all $x > 0$ and all $c \\geq 2$. Suppose $a$ is a real number and $J$ is a finite nonempty subset of the positive integers. In this paper we are interested in approximating $E \\max_{j \\in J} \\Phi(|a + S_j|)$. We construct a nu...

  9. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  10. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Crossed versus conventional pseudophakic monovision: Patient satisfaction, visual function, and spectacle independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuxiang; Sugar, Alan; Arbisser, Lisa; Jacobsen, Gordon; Artico, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    To compare patient satisfaction, visual function, and spectacle independence in patients with crossed or conventional pseudophakic monovision. Department of Ophthalmology, Henry Ford Health System, Taylor, Michigan, USA. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Cataract surgery patient records from June 1999 to December 2013 were reviewed. Crossed monovision patients were identified. Control conventional monovision cases were matched for age, sex, general health, personal lifestyle/main hobbies, preoperative refractive status, postoperative refractive status, uncorrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected near visual acuity, astigmatism level, and anisometropia level. A survey was mailed to participants, and results were independently analyzed. The review comprised 7311 patient records. Forty-four crossed monovision patients were identified, and 30 of them were enrolled. Thirty matched pairs were surveyed. The mean anisometropia was 1.19 diopters (D) in the conventional and 1.12 D in the crossed monovision groups. No significant difference was identified for eye-hand coordination, eye-foot coordination, or sport-related depth perception, but satisfaction was slightly better in the crossed monovision group (P = .028). No significant difference was identified for 6 of 8 spectacle independence measures, but nighttime driving was a little easier for the crossed monovision group (P = .025). Seventy-seven percent of crossed and 50% of conventional monovision patients did not use glasses for intermediate distance activities (P = .037). Crossed pseudophakic monovision appears to work as well as conventional pseudophakic monovision in terms of patient satisfaction and spectacle independence in patients with a mild degree of anisometropic pseudophakia. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L; Russ, Kaspar; Olesen, Uffe H; Hesse, Birger; Kjaer, Andreas

    2007-09-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. Right (RVEF), left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), and left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI) were determined in 105 consecutive patients by first-pass radionuclide ventriculography (FP-RNV) and multiple ECG-gated equilibrium radionuclide ventriculography (ERNV), respectively. BNP was analyzed by immunoassay. Mean LVEF was 0.51 (range 0.10-0.83) with 36% having a reduced LVEF (left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone.

  13. Defining ATM-Independent Functions of the Mre11 Complex with a Novel Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Nicolas, Laura; Yang-Lott, Katherine; Guryanova, Olga A; Levine, Ross L; Bassing, Craig H; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Petrini, John H J

    2016-02-01

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) occupies a central node of the DNA damage response (DDR) network and is required for ATM activation in response to DNA damage. Hypomorphic alleles of MRE11 and NBS1 confer embryonic lethality in ATM-deficient mice, indicating that the complex exerts ATM-independent functions that are essential when ATM is absent. To delineate those functions, a conditional ATM allele (ATM(flox)) was crossed to hypomorphic NBS1 mutants (Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) mice). Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) hematopoietic cells derived by crossing to vav(cre) were viable in vivo. Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) (VAV) mice exhibited a pronounced defect in double-strand break repair and completely penetrant early onset lymphomagenesis. In addition to repair defects observed, fragile site instability was noted, indicating that the Mre11 complex promotes genome stability upon replication stress in vivo. The data suggest combined influences of the Mre11 complex on DNA repair, as well as the responses to DNA damage and DNA replication stress. A novel mouse model was developed, by combining a vav(cre)-inducible ATM knockout mouse with an NBS1 hypomorphic mutation, to analyze ATM-independent functions of the Mre11 complex in vivo. These data show that the DNA repair, rather than DDR signaling functions of the complex, is acutely required in the context of ATM deficiency to suppress genome instability and lymphomagenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  14. Independent value added by diffusion MRI for prediction of cognitive function in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Scott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI provides independent information about baseline level or change in executive function (EF or memory (MEM in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Longitudinal data was acquired from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study from phases GO and 2 (2009–2015. ADNI participants included were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 46, early mild cognitive impairment (MCI (n = 48, late MCI (n = 29, and dementia (n = 39 at baseline. We modeled the association between dMRI-based global white matter mean diffusivity (MD and baseline level and change in EF and MEM composite scores, in models controlling for baseline bilateral hippocampal volume, regional cerebral FDG PET metabolism and global cerebral AV45 PET uptake. EF and MEM composite scores were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. In the baseline late MCI and dementia groups, greater global MD was associated with lesser baseline EF, but not EF change nor MEM baseline or change. As expected, lesser hippocampal volume and lesser FDG PET metabolism was associated with greater rates of EF and MEM decline. In ADNI-GO/2 participants, white matter integrity provided independent information about current executive function, but was not sensitive to future cognitive change. Since individuals experiencing executive function declines progress to dementia more rapidly than those with only memory impairment, better biomarkers of future executive function decline are needed.

  15. Development of a multidimensional balance scale for use with functionally independent older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Debra J; Lucchese, Nicole; Wiersma, Lenny D

    2006-11-01

    To develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of a multidimensional balance scale-the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale-suitable for use with functionally independent older adults. Psychometric evaluation of the scale's content and convergent validity, test-retest and intra- and interrater reliability, and internal rater consistency. Urban community. Forty-six community-residing older adults (mean +/- standard deviation, 75 +/- 6.2 y), with (n = 31) and without identified balance problems (n = 15), participated in the study. Four physical therapists with expertise in the assessment and treatment of balance disorders in older adults also participated in the content validity and/or reliability phases of the study. Not applicable. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for convergent validity, test-retest, intra- and interrater reliability, and homogeneity coefficient values for rater consistency. Test-retest reliability for the total balance scale score was high (rho = .96). Interrater reliability for total score ranged from .94 to .97 whereas intrarater reliability coefficients ranged from .97 to 1.00. Homogeneity (H) coefficients were greater than .90 for 6 of the 10 individual test items and all 10 test items had H coefficients of greater than .75 for both rating sessions. Preliminary results suggest that the FAB scale is a valid and reliable assessment tool that is suitable for use with functionally independent older adults residing in the community.

  16. Personality traits, education, physical exercise, and childhood neurological function as independent predictors of adult obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. There was an increase of adult obesity from 14.2% at age 42 to 23.6% at 50 years. Cohort members who were reported by teachers on overall clumsiness as "certainly applied" at age 7 were more likely to become obese at age 50. In addition, educational qualifications, traits Conscientiousness and Extraversion, psychological distress, and physical exercise were all significantly associated with adult obesity. The associations remained to be significant after controlling for birth weight and gestation, maternal and paternal BMI, childhood BMI, childhood intelligence and behavioural adjustment, as well as diet. Neurological function in childhood, education, trait Conscientiousness, and exercise were all significantly and independently associated with adult obesity, each explained unique individual variability.

  17. DNA-binding protects p53 from interactions with cofactors involved in transcription-independent functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambrughi, Matteo; De Gioia, Luca; Gervasio, Francesco Luigi; Lindorff-Larsen, Kresten; Nussinov, Ruth; Urani, Chiara; Bruschi, Maurizio; Papaleo, Elena

    2016-11-02

    Binding-induced conformational changes of a protein at regions distant from the binding site may play crucial roles in protein function and regulation. The p53 tumour suppressor is an example of such an allosterically regulated protein. Little is known, however, about how DNA binding can affect distal sites for transcription factors. Furthermore, the molecular details of how a local perturbation is transmitted through a protein structure are generally elusive and occur on timescales hard to explore by simulations. Thus, we employed state-of-the-art enhanced sampling atomistic simulations to unveil DNA-induced effects on p53 structure and dynamics that modulate the recruitment of cofactors and the impact of phosphorylation at Ser215. We show that DNA interaction promotes a conformational change in a region 3 nm away from the DNA binding site. Specifically, binding to DNA increases the population of an occluded minor state at this distal site by more than 4-fold, whereas phosphorylation traps the protein in its major state. In the minor conformation, the interface of p53 that binds biological partners related to p53 transcription-independent functions is not accessible. Significantly, our study reveals a mechanism of DNA-mediated protection of p53 from interactions with partners involved in the p53 transcription-independent signalling. This also suggests that conformational dynamics is tightly related to p53 signalling. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Variation in Functional Independence among Stroke Survivors Having Fatigue and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaru, Umaru Muhammad; Ogwumike, Omoyemi Olubunmi; Adeniyi, Ade Fatai; Olowe, Olajide Olubanji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated variation in functional independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among individuals with poststroke fatigue (PSF) and poststroke depression (PSD). Methods. A cross-sectional survey involved 65 consenting poststroke survivors who were purposively recruited from physiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, and Federal Medical Center, Gusau. Participants were assessed for symptoms of PSD with short geriatric depression scale-15, PSF with fatigue severity scale, ADL with Barthel Index and IADL with Nottingham extended ADL scale. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and unpaired t-test with significance level being 0.05. Results. Participants' age ranged from 58 to 80 years. PSD alone (P = 0.002) and both PSF and PSD (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with ADL, while PSF alone was not (P = 0.233). PSD alone (P = 0.001) and both PSF and PSD (P = 0.001) significantly negatively affected IADL, while PSF alone had no significant effect (P = 0.2). Conclusions. Participants with PSD alone and those with both PSF and PSD had lower functional independence in ADL and IADL.

  19. P wave dispersion and maximum P wave duration are independently associated with rapid renal function decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ho-Ming; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Lee, Wen-Hsien; Lin, Ming-Yen; Chen, Szu-Chia; Lee, Chee-Siong; Voon, Wen-Chol; Lai, Wen-Ter; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung

    2012-01-01

    The P wave parameters measured by 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) are commonly used as noninvasive tools to assess for left atrial enlargement. There are limited studies to evaluate whether P wave parameters are independently associated with decline in renal function. Accordingly, the aim of this study is to assess whether P wave parameters are independently associated with progression to renal end point of ≥25% decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). This longitudinal study included 166 patients. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. We measured two ECG P wave parameters corrected by heart rate, i.e. corrected P wave dispersion (PWdisperC) and corrected P wave maximum duration (PWdurMaxC). Heart function and structure were measured from echocardiography. Clinical data, P wave parameters, and echocardiographic measurements were compared and analyzed. Forty-three patients (25.9%) reached renal end point. Kaplan-Meier curves for renal end point-free survival showed PWdisperC > median (63.0 ms) (log-rank P = 0.004) and PWdurMaxC > median (117.9 ms) (log-rank Pfunction decline.

  20. Measurement of functional independence level and falls-risk in individuals with undiagnosed phenylketonuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mazur, Artur

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of functional independence in adult patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU). The study was conducted among 400 intellectually impaired adult residents of Social Welfare Homes in South-Eastern Poland born prior to the introduction of neonatal PKU screening programs. PKU was screened by filter paper test using tandem mass spectrometry methods, and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of PKU organic acids in urine. Degree of functional independence included the assessment of activities of daily living (Barthel Index) and measures of balance and gait (Tinetti scale). Eleven individuals with previously untreated PKU were identified whereby eight presented with moderate disability and three with mild disability. Six had a high risk of falls and five had a moderate risk of falls. This study indicates that there is considerable number of undiagnosed PKU patients within the Polish population who require assessment and management in order to reduce the impact of the neurological and neuropsychiatric problems associated with the condition. Appropriate therapy for those with undiagnosed PKU should, in particular, address the risk of falls.

  1. Variation in Functional Independence among Stroke Survivors Having Fatigue and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaru Muhammad Badaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated variation in functional independence in activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL among individuals with poststroke fatigue (PSF and poststroke depression (PSD. Methods. A cross-sectional survey involved 65 consenting poststroke survivors who were purposively recruited from physiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, and Federal Medical Center, Gusau. Participants were assessed for symptoms of PSD with short geriatric depression scale-15, PSF with fatigue severity scale, ADL with Barthel Index and IADL with Nottingham extended ADL scale. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and unpaired t-test with significance level being 0.05. Results. Participants’ age ranged from 58 to 80 years. PSD alone (P=0.002 and both PSF and PSD (P=0.02 were significantly associated with ADL, while PSF alone was not (P=0.233. PSD alone (P=0.001 and both PSF and PSD (P=0.001 significantly negatively affected IADL, while PSF alone had no significant effect (P=0.2. Conclusions. Participants with PSD alone and those with both PSF and PSD had lower functional independence in ADL and IADL.

  2. Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis treatment using resurfacing arthroplasty with scaphoid anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada Álvarez, G; Simón Pérez, C; García Medrano, B; Faour Martín, O; Marcos Rodríguez, J J; Vega Castrillo, A; Martín Ferrero, M A

    The aim of this study is to show the results of scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joint osteoarthritis treatment performing resurfacing arthroplasty with scaphoid anchorage. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed. Ten patients with isolated STT joint osteoarthritis were studied between 2013 and 2015. The mean follow-up time was 26months. Clinical results, functional and subjective scores were reviewed. The patients were satisfied, achieving an average of 2.1 (0-3) on the VAS score and 16 (2 to 28) in the DASH questionnaire, and returning to work in the first three months post-surgery. Recovery of range of motion compared to the contralateral wrist was 96% in extension, 95% in flexion, 87% in ulnar deviation and 91% in radial deviation. The average handgrip strength of the wrist was 95% and pinch strength was 95% compared to the contralateral side. There were no intraoperative complications or alterations in postoperative carpal alignment. Resurfacing arthroplasty is proposed as a good and novel alternative in treating isolated SST joint arthritis. Achieving the correct balance between the strength and mobility of the wrist, without causing carpal destabilisation, is important to obtain satisfactory clinical and functional results. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  3. Advances in cell culture: anchorage dependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merten, Otto-Wilhelm

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage-dependent cells are of great interest for various biotechnological applications. (i) They represent a formidable production means of viruses for vaccination purposes at very large scales (in 1000–6000 l reactors) using microcarriers, and in the last decade many more novel viral vaccines have been developed using this production technology. (ii) With the advent of stem cells and their use/potential use in clinics for cell therapy and regenerative medicine purposes, the development of novel culture devices and technologies for adherent cells has accelerated greatly with a view to the large-scale expansion of these cells. Presently, the really scalable systems—microcarrier/microcarrier-clump cultures using stirred-tank reactors—for the expansion of stem cells are still in their infancy. Only laboratory scale reactors of maximally 2.5 l working volume have been evaluated because thorough knowledge and basic understanding of critical issues with respect to cell expansion while retaining pluripotency and differentiation potential, and the impact of the culture environment on stem cell fate, etc., are still lacking and require further studies. This article gives an overview on critical issues common to all cell culture systems for adherent cells as well as specifics for different types of stem cells in view of small- and large-scale cell expansion and production processes. PMID:25533097

  4. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  5. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  6. Postoperative delirium: age and low functional reserve as independent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Cristiana; Cruz, Sofia; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) and the presence of previous conditions related to its development. Prospective observational study. The study was performed in adult patients (n=221) scheduled for elective surgery and admitted to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). The presence of POD was assessed by the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale at discharge from the PACU and 24hours after surgery. Descriptive analyses were carried out, and statistical comparisons were performed with Mann-Whitney U, χ(2), or Fisher exact test. Logistic regression analysis was used for evaluation of independent determinants of POD. POD was found in 25 patients (11%). Patients who developed POD were older (median age, 69 vs 57years; P<.001); had a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score (≥3) (60% vs 19%, respectively, had American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III/IV; P<.001); and showed higher incidences of ischemic heart disease (24% vs 6%; P=.001), chronic kidney disease (20% vs 5%; P=.005), hypertension (80% vs 45%; P=.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20% vs 6%; P=.009), and low functional reserve (LFR) (24% vs 2%; P<.001). Age (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.10; P=.003) and LFR (odds ratio, 8.04; 95% confidence interval, 3.95-32.27; P=.003) were considered independent risk factors for POD. The incidence of POD in the study population (11%) is consistent with that described in the literature (5%-15%). The comorbidities associated with its development were ischemic heart disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, LFR, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Age ≥65years and LFR were independent risk factors for POD development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waschki, Benjamin; Watz, Henrik; Holz, Olaf; Magnussen, Helgo; Olejnicka, Beata; Welte, Tobias; Rabe, Klaus F; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed triglyceride and hs-CRP levels to be the best predictors of PAI-1 within COPD. GOLD Stages II and III remained independently associated with higher PAI-1 levels in a final regression analysis. Conclusion The data from the present study showed that the serum levels of PAI-1 are higher in patients with COPD and that moderate-to-severe airflow limitation, hypertriglyceridemia, and systemic inflammation are independent predictors of an elevated PAI-1 level. PAI-1 may be a potential biomarker candidate for COPD-specific and extra-pulmonary manifestations. PMID:28356730

  8. An interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on finite-order independence of structural difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Hikita, Shiro

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on the concept of finite-order independence of structural difference. This concept includes Dyer and Sarin's weak difference independence as special cases. The algorithm developed is composed of four major parts: 1) formulation of the problem 2) assessment of normalized conditional value functions and structural difference functions 3) assessment of corner values 4) assessment of the order of independence of structural difference and selection of the model. A hypothetical numerical example of a trade-off analysis for siting a nuclear power plant is included. (author)

  9. Improved application of independent component analysis to functional magnetic resonance imaging study via linear projection techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Zhiying; Chen, Kewei; Wu, Xia; Reiman, Eric; Peng, Danling; Yao, Li

    2009-02-01

    Spatial Independent component analysis (sICA) has been widely used to analyze functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. The well accepted implicit assumption is the spatially statistical independency of intrinsic sources identified by sICA, making the sICA applications difficult for data in which there exist interdependent sources and confounding factors. This interdependency can arise, for instance, from fMRI studies investigating two tasks in a single session. In this study, we introduced a linear projection approach and considered its utilization as a tool to separate task-related components from two-task fMRI data. The robustness and feasibility of the method are substantiated through simulation on computer data and fMRI real rest data. Both simulated and real two-task fMRI experiments demonstrated that sICA in combination with the projection method succeeded in separating spatially dependent components and had better detection power than pure model-based method when estimating activation induced by each task as well as both tasks.

  10. Some Convex Functions Based Measures of Independence and Their Application to Strange Attractor Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Aihara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical information-theoretic measures such as the entropy and the mutual information (MI are widely applicable to many areas in science and engineering. Csiszar generalized the entropy and the MI by using the convex functions. Recently, we proposed the grid occupancy (GO and the quasientropy (QE as measures of independence. The QE explicitly includes a convex function in its definition, while the expectation of GO is a subclass of QE. In this paper, we study the effect of different convex functions on GO, QE, and Csiszar’s generalized mutual information (GMI. A quality factor (QF is proposed to quantify the sharpness of their minima. Using the QF, it is shown that these measures can have sharper minima than the classical MI. Besides, a recursive algorithm for computing GMI, which is a generalization of Fraser and Swinney’s algorithm for computing MI, is proposed. Moreover, we apply GO, QE, and GMI to chaotic time series analysis. It is shown that these measures are good criteria for determining the optimum delay in strange attractor reconstruction.

  11. Rapid production of functionalized recombinant proteins: marrying ligation independent cloning and in vitro protein ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnir, Susanna; Marsac, Yoann; Breitling, Reinhard; Granovsky, Igor; Brok-Volchanskaya, Vera; Goody, Roger S; Becker, Christian F W; Alexandrov, Kirill

    2006-01-01

    Functional genomics and proteomics have been very active fields since the sequencing of several genomes was completed. To assign a physiological role to the newly discovered coding genes with unknown function, new generic methods for protein production, purification, and targeted functionalization are needed. This work presents a new vector, pCYSLIC, that allows rapid generation of Escherichia coli expression constructs via ligation-independent cloning (LIC). The vector is designed to facilitate protein purification by either Ni-NTA or GSH affinity chromatography. Subsequent proteolytic removal of affinity tags liberates an N-terminal cysteine residue that is then used for covalent modification of the target protein with different biophysical probes via protein ligation. The described system has been tested on 36 mammalian Rab GTPases, and it was demonstrated that recombinant GTPases produced with pCYSLIC could be efficiently modified with fluorescein or biotin in vitro. Finally, LIC was compared with the recently developed In-Fusion cloning method, and it was demonstrated that In-Fusion provides superior flexibility in choice of expression vector. By the application of In-Fusion cloning Cys-Rab6A GTPase with an N-terminal cysteine residue was generated employing unmodified pET30a vector and TVMV protease.

  12. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. → PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. → SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. → PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  13. Spectral correlation functions of the sum of two independent complex Wishart matrices with unequal covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Checinski, Tomasz; Kieburg, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We compute the spectral statistics of the sum H of two independent complex Wishart matrices, each of which is correlated with a different covariance matrix. Random matrix theory enjoys many applications including sums and products of random matrices. Typically ensembles with correlations among the matrix elements are much more difficult to solve. Using a combination of supersymmetry, superbosonisation and bi-orthogonal functions we are able to determine all spectral k -point density correlation functions of H for arbitrary matrix size N . In the half-degenerate case, when one of the covariance matrices is proportional to the identity, the recent results by Kumar for the joint eigenvalue distribution of H serve as our starting point. In this case the ensemble has a bi-orthogonal structure and we explicitly determine its kernel, providing its exact solution for finite N . The kernel follows from computing the expectation value of a single characteristic polynomial. In the general non-degenerate case the generating function for the k -point resolvent is determined from a supersymmetric evaluation of the expectation value of k ratios of characteristic polynomials. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings for the spectral density at finite N and we also give indications how to do the asymptotic large- N analysis. (paper)

  14. Functional independence of residents in urban and rural long-term care facilities in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kwan-Hwa; Wu, Shiao-Chi; Hsiung, Chia-Ling; Hu, Ming-Hsia; Hsieh, Ching-Lin; Lin, Jau-Hong; Kuo, Mei-Ying

    2004-02-04

    To compare the score of functional independence measure (FIM) between urban and rural residents living in long-term care facilities (LTCF) in Taiwan. A total of 437 subjects in 112 licensed LTCF in Taiwan were randomly selected by stratification strategy. Physical therapists interviewed the subjects in nursing homes (NH) and intermediate care facilities (ICF) to obtain the basic data, and the FIM score. (1) There was no significant difference in basic demographic data between urban and rural LTC subjects. (2) Most of the subjects in urban and rural LTCF were males, less than 80 years old, single/widowed, having multiple diseases, using more than one assistive devices, and having social welfare financial support. (3) Motor abilities (eating, grooming, and transfer) and cognition (comprehension, social interaction and problem solving) in rural LTCF subjects were significantly (p institutions is better than those in urban areas. Our results may provide guidelines for the manpower and equipment supply estimation.

  15. Functional expression of a heterologous nickel-dependent, ATP-independent urease in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, N; Luttik, M A H; Cueto Rojas, H F; Wahl, A; van Maris, A J A; Pronk, J T; Daran, J M

    2015-07-01

    In microbial processes for production of proteins, biomass and nitrogen-containing commodity chemicals, ATP requirements for nitrogen assimilation affect product yields on the energy producing substrate. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a current host for heterologous protein production and potential platform for production of nitrogen-containing chemicals, uptake and assimilation of ammonium requires 1 ATP per incorporated NH3. Urea assimilation by this yeast is more energy efficient but still requires 0.5 ATP per NH3 produced. To decrease ATP costs for nitrogen assimilation, the S. cerevisiae gene encoding ATP-dependent urease (DUR1,2) was replaced by a Schizosaccharomyces pombe gene encoding ATP-independent urease (ure2), along with its accessory genes ureD, ureF and ureG. Since S. pombe ure2 is a Ni(2+)-dependent enzyme and Saccharomyces cerevisiae does not express native Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes, the S. pombe high-affinity nickel-transporter gene (nic1) was also expressed. Expression of the S. pombe genes into dur1,2Δ S. cerevisiae yielded an in vitro ATP-independent urease activity of 0.44±0.01 µmol min(-1) mg protein(-1) and restored growth on urea as sole nitrogen source. Functional expression of the Nic1 transporter was essential for growth on urea at low Ni(2+) concentrations. The maximum specific growth rates of the engineered strain on urea and ammonium were lower than those of a DUR1,2 reference strain. In glucose-limited chemostat cultures with urea as nitrogen source, the engineered strain exhibited an increased release of ammonia and reduced nitrogen content of the biomass. Our results indicate a new strategy for improving yeast-based production of nitrogen-containing chemicals and demonstrate that Ni(2+)-dependent enzymes can be functionally expressed in S. cerevisiae. Copyright © 2015 International Metabolic Engineering Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  17. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanchen; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    At the heart of micro-seismic event measurements is the task to estimate the location of the source micro-seismic events, as well as their ignition times. The accuracy of locating the sources is highly dependent on the velocity model. On the other hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI) to locate and image micro-seismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. However, full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events faces incredible nonlinearity due to the unknown source locations (space) and functions (time). We developed a source function independent full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events to invert for the source image, source function and the velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with these observed and modeled to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. The extended image for the source wavelet in Z axis is extracted to check the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model. Also, angle gathers is calculated to assess the quality of the long wavelength component of the velocity model. By inverting for the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model simultaneously, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity for synthetic examples used here, like those corresponding to the Marmousi model and the SEG/EAGE overthrust model.

  18. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen

    2018-03-26

    At the heart of micro-seismic event measurements is the task to estimate the location of the source micro-seismic events, as well as their ignition times. The accuracy of locating the sources is highly dependent on the velocity model. On the other hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI) to locate and image micro-seismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. However, full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events faces incredible nonlinearity due to the unknown source locations (space) and functions (time). We developed a source function independent full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events to invert for the source image, source function and the velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with these observed and modeled to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. The extended image for the source wavelet in Z axis is extracted to check the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model. Also, angle gathers is calculated to assess the quality of the long wavelength component of the velocity model. By inverting for the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model simultaneously, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity for synthetic examples used here, like those corresponding to the Marmousi model and the SEG/EAGE overthrust model.

  19. Unpolarized structure functions and the parton distributions for nucleon in an independent quark model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barik, N.; Mishra, R.N.

    2001-01-01

    Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks confined independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions F 1 (x, μ 2 ) and F 2 (x, μ 2 ) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions u v (x, μ 2 ) and d v (x, μ 2 ) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of μ 2 = 0.07 GeV 2 to a higher Q 2 scale of Q 0 2 = 15 GeV 2 yields xu v (x, Q 0 2 ) and xd v (x, Q 0 2 ) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as G (x, Q 0 2 ) and q s (x, Q 0 2 ) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input. (author)

  20. Unpolarized structure functions and the parton distributions for nucleon in an independent quark model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barik, N [Dept. of Physics, Utkal Univ., Bhubaneswar (India); Mishra, R N [Dept. of Physics, Dhenkanal College, Dhenkanal (India)

    2001-04-01

    Considering the nucleon as consisting entirely of its valence quarks confined independently in a scalar-vector harmonic potential; unpolarized structure functions F{sub 1} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) and F{sub 2} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) are derived in the Bjorken limit under certain simplifying assumptions; from which valence quark distribution functions u{sub v} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) and d{sub v} (x, {mu}{sup 2}) are appropriately extracted satisfying the normalization constraints. QCD-evolution of these input distributions from a model scale of {mu}{sup 2} = 0.07 GeV{sup 2} to a higher Q{sup 2} scale of Q{sub 0}{sup 2} = 15 GeV{sup 2} yields xu{sub v} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) and xd{sub v} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) in good agreement with experimental data. The gluon and sea-quark distributions such as G (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) and q{sub s} (x, Q{sub 0}{sup 2}) are dynamically generated with a reasonable qualitative agreement with the available data; using the leading order renormalization group equations with appropriate valence-quark distributions as the input. (author)

  1. Attribution of emotions to body postures: an independent component analysis study of functional connectivity in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libero, Lauren E; Stevens, Carl E; Kana, Rajesh K

    2014-10-01

    The ability to interpret others' body language is a vital skill that helps us infer their thoughts and emotions. However, individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have been found to have difficulty in understanding the meaning of people's body language, perhaps leading to an overarching deficit in processing emotions. The current fMRI study investigates the functional connectivity underlying emotion and action judgment in the context of processing body language in high-functioning adolescents and young adults with autism, using an independent components analysis (ICA) of the fMRI time series. While there were no reliable group differences in brain activity, the ICA revealed significant involvement of occipital and parietal regions in processing body actions; and inferior frontal gyrus, superior medial prefrontal cortex, and occipital cortex in body expressions of emotions. In a between-group analysis, participants with autism, relative to typical controls, demonstrated significantly reduced temporal coherence in left ventral premotor cortex and right superior parietal lobule while processing emotions. Participants with ASD, on the other hand, showed increased temporal coherence in left fusiform gyrus while inferring emotions from body postures. Finally, a positive predictive relationship was found between empathizing ability and the brain areas underlying emotion processing in ASD participants. These results underscore the differential role of frontal and parietal brain regions in processing emotional body language in autism. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The Impact of Fear of Falling on Functional Independence Among Older Adults Receiving Home Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Lawson OTR, LMSSW, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are the fifth leading cause of death for adults aged 65 years and older. Several intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors have been identified, butthere is less understanding of the impact of a fear of falling on falls. Seventy percent of recent fallers and 40% percent of non-fallers report a fear of falling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls, as well as the impact on the functional independence of community-dwelling older adults receiving home health services. Methods: The participants completed the Falls Efficacy Scale, the Modified Timed Up and Go Test, self- reported fear of falling, and the KATZ ADL-staircase. The participants were primarily Hispanic females. Results: There was not a significant correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls. Only participants' age, gender, and the number of medical diagnoses were predictive of past falls. There was a moderate correlation between impaired functional mobility and dependence with activities of daily living (ADL. Additionally, a fear of falling was associated with dependence to perform ADLs as measured objectively. Conclusion: Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of interventions that include dual-task challenges during therapeutic interventions and ADL retraining to reduce fall risk among older adults.

  3. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Extracting functional components of neural dynamics with Independent Component Analysis and inverse Current Source Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lęski, Szymon; Kublik, Ewa; Swiejkowski, Daniel A; Wróbel, Andrzej; Wójcik, Daniel K

    2010-12-01

    Local field potentials have good temporal resolution but are blurred due to the slow spatial decay of the electric field. For simultaneous recordings on regular grids one can reconstruct efficiently the current sources (CSD) using the inverse Current Source Density method (iCSD). It is possible to decompose the resultant spatiotemporal information about the current dynamics into functional components using Independent Component Analysis (ICA). We show on test data modeling recordings of evoked potentials on a grid of 4 × 5 × 7 points that meaningful results are obtained with spatial ICA decomposition of reconstructed CSD. The components obtained through decomposition of CSD are better defined and allow easier physiological interpretation than the results of similar analysis of corresponding evoked potentials in the thalamus. We show that spatiotemporal ICA decompositions can perform better for certain types of sources but it does not seem to be the case for the experimental data studied. Having found the appropriate approach to decomposing neural dynamics into functional components we use the technique to study the somatosensory evoked potentials recorded on a grid spanning a large part of the forebrain. We discuss two example components associated with the first waves of activation of the somatosensory thalamus. We show that the proposed method brings up new, more detailed information on the time and spatial location of specific activity conveyed through various parts of the somatosensory thalamus in the rat.

  5. Obsessive compulsive symptoms are associated with better functioning independently of cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Nikolakopoulou, Mary; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Vassos, Dimitrios; Grigoriou, Vasileios; Vassilouli, Spyridoula; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Kouloumbi, Maria; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2016-10-01

    Although the relationship of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) with both cognition and social functioning (SF) has already been the focus of research in schizophrenia, the moderation of the relationship of OCSs with SF by cognition has not been explored to date. We investigated the association of OCSs with SF and its interaction with cognition in schizophrenia. We recruited 110 schizophrenia patients and assessed OCSs (Yale-Brown Scale), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), SF (Strauss-Carpenter Scale) and cognition. 51 patients had one obsessive-compulsive symptom or more, whereas 59 patients had no obsessive compulsive-symptom, according to the Yale-Brown Scale. We mainly investigated: a) the predictive effect of OCSs on SF, controlling for cognition, illness duration and symptoms' severity and b) the moderating effect of cognition on the OCSs-SF relationship. The mean score of OCSs for patients having at least one symptom was 13.43 (SD=8.32). Higher OCSs predicted increased SF (B=0.98, t=2.41, df=88, p=0.018). This relationship was driven by the association of compulsions with job functioning (B=0.074, t=2.029, df=88, p=0.046). Patients without OCSs demonstrated worse functioning compared with those having at least one obsessive-compulsive symptom (mean difference=2.496, t=3.732, df=88, p<0.001). We failed to find evidence that cognition moderates the effect of OCSs on SF. There may be a beneficial effect of OCSs on SF in patients with schizophrenia which is independent of their cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waschki B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Waschki,1–3 Henrik Watz,2,3 Olaf Holz,4,5 Helgo Magnussen,2,3 Beata Olejnicka,6 Tobias Welte,5,7 Klaus F Rabe,1,3 Sabina Janciauskiene5,7 1Pneumology, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 3Airway Research Center North (ARCN, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 4Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany; 5Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Hannover, Germany; 6Department of Medicine, Trelleborg Hospital, Trelleborg, Sweden; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods: In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results: The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed

  7. Effectiveness of 3 methods of anchorage reinforcement for maximum anchorage in adolescents: A 3-arm multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Jonathan; Murray, Alison; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Gutierrez, Rodrigo; Speight, Paul; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this 3-arm parallel randomized clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness of temporary anchorage devices (TADs), Nance button palatal arches, and headgear for anchorage supplementation in the treatment of patients with malocclusions that required maximum anchorage. This trial was conducted between August 2008 and February 2013 in 2 orthodontic departments in the United Kingdom. The study included 78 patients (ages, 12-18 years; mean age, 14.2 years) who needed maximum anchorage. Eligibility criteria included no active caries, exemplary oral hygiene, and maximum anchorage required. The primary outcome was mesial molar movement during the period in which anchorage supplementation was required. The secondary outcomes were duration of anchorage reinforcement, number of treatment visits, number of casual and failed appointments, total treatment time, dento-occlusal change, and patients' perceptions of the method of anchorage supplementation. Treatment allocation was implemented by contacting via the Internet the randomization center at the University of Nottingham, Clinical Trials Unit. The randomization was based on a computer-generated pseudo-random code with random permuted blocks of randomly varying size. A research assistant who was blinded to the group allocation recorded all data. The patients were randomly allocated to receive anchorage supplementation with TADs, a Nance button on a palatal arch, or headgear. They were all treated with maxillary and mandibular preadjusted edgewise fixed appliances with 0.022-in slot prescription brackets. They were followed until orthodontic treatment was complete. Seventy-eight patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio among the 3 groups. The baseline characteristics were similar in the groups, and they were treated for an average of 27.4 months (SD, 7.1 months); 71 completed orthodontic treatment. The data were analyzed on a per-protocol basis and showed no differences in the effectiveness of anchorage

  8. Improved anchorage of steel linings at WWER nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouda, M.; Cepicky, J.

    1987-01-01

    Three variants were tested of anchoring the steel lining of special structures of nuclear power plants with WWER reactors, such as the containment, viz.: point anchorage with pins according to a Czechoslovak design, and two methods of linear anchorage according to a Soviet design and a design by the Institute for Industrial Construction of the GDR. Graphically shown are some results of the tests of the point anchorage with pins that showed the reliability of the method with respect to deformation and strain of the lining and of the anchoring elements at a lining temperature of up to 300 degC, which significantly exceeded the design-basis accident temperature of 150 degC. The advantages of the variant include a lower content of labour and an increased quality of welding jobs thanks to the application of the Nelson semi-automatic welding technique. (Z.M.). 10 figs., 7 refs

  9. Modification of evaluation response spectrum by ductility of equipment anchorage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I. G.; Jun, Y. S.; Su, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The failure mode of welded anchorage is assumed as brittle in the seismic capacity evaluation of nuclear power plant equipments. But the welded anchorage has some ductile capacity. This limited displacement capacity can cause the reduction of the effective frequency of high frequency equipments and the increase of the inelastic energy absorption capacity due to the nonlinear behavior. In this study, the uniform hazard spectrum for Korean nuclear power plant site was modified using the response spectrum reduction factor developed by EPRI. The spectral acceleration for various damping ratio was determined by the theoretical method based on the random vibration theory. In conclusion, the high frequency components of evaluation response spectra were greatly reduced due to the consideration of welded anchorage ductility. This reduced response spectra can be used for the development of in-structure response spectra used in the seismic capacity evaluation of high frequency equipments

  10. 77 FR 60081 - Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ...'31'' W. Thorndike Bay Emergency Explosives Anchorage. Coordinates would be revised to read: All... 048[deg]T to point of origin. (6) Thorndike Bay Emergency Explosives Anchorage. All waters in a...

  11. Water quality and bathymetry of Sand Lake, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, Donald E.

    1976-01-01

    Sand Lake, a dimictic lowland lake in Anchorage, Alaska, has recently become as urban lake. Analyses indicate that the lake is oligotrophic, having low dissolved solids and nutrient concentrations. Snowmelt runoff from an adjacent residential area, however, has a dissolved-solids concentration 10 times that of the main body of Sand Lake. Lead concentrations in the runoff exceed known values from other water in the ANchorage area, including water samples taken beneath landfills. The volume of the snowmelt runoff has not been measured. The data presented can be used as a baseline for water-resource management. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Extracting intrinsic functional networks with feature-based group independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Vince D; Allen, Elena

    2013-04-01

    There is increasing use of functional imaging data to understand the macro-connectome of the human brain. Of particular interest is the structure and function of intrinsic networks (regions exhibiting temporally coherent activity both at rest and while a task is being performed), which account for a significant portion of the variance in functional MRI data. While networks are typically estimated based on the temporal similarity between regions (based on temporal correlation, clustering methods, or independent component analysis [ICA]), some recent work has suggested that these intrinsic networks can be extracted from the inter-subject covariation among highly distilled features, such as amplitude maps reflecting regions modulated by a task or even coordinates extracted from large meta analytic studies. In this paper our goal was to explicitly compare the networks obtained from a first-level ICA (ICA on the spatio-temporal functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data) to those from a second-level ICA (i.e., ICA on computed features rather than on the first-level fMRI data). Convergent results from simulations, task-fMRI data, and rest-fMRI data show that the second-level analysis is slightly noisier than the first-level analysis but yields strikingly similar patterns of intrinsic networks (spatial correlations as high as 0.85 for task data and 0.65 for rest data, well above the empirical null) and also preserves the relationship of these networks with other variables such as age (for example, default mode network regions tended to show decreased low frequency power for first-level analyses and decreased loading parameters for second-level analyses). In addition, the best-estimated second-level results are those which are the most strongly reflected in the input feature. In summary, the use of feature-based ICA appears to be a valid tool for extracting intrinsic networks. We believe it will become a useful and important approach in the study of the macro

  13. The relationship between multiple joint flexibility and functional performance in independent and physically active elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joana de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-joint flexibility assessment seems to be more appropriate for analyzing the association between fl exibility and functional fitness, but there is a lack of studies to confi rm this possibility in elderly people. The present study investigated the relationship between a multiple joint fl exibility assessment and the functional performance of 30 independent and physically active elderly women (age=68±1yr. Flexibility was assessed using the Chair Sit-and-Reach Test (CSRT. Functional performance was tested by a combination of three tasks: a Step Length (SL; b Time to Put on Sneakers (TPS; c Climbing Stairs (CS. The association between fl exibility and functional performance was tested by both simple and multiple correlation techniques. Pearson’s correlation was signifi cant for TPS (r = -.37; p ABSTRACT

  14. Pre- and Postintervention Factor Structure of Functional Independence Measure in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Saltychev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the factor structure of Functional Independence Measure (FIM® scale amongst people with spinal cord injury (SCI. Methods. This was a retrospective, register-based cohort study on 155 rehabilitants with SCI. FIM was assessed at the beginning and at the end of multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. The internal consistency of the FIM was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha and exploratory factor analysis was employed to approximate the construct structure of FIM. Results. The internal consistency demonstrated high Cronbach’s alpha of 0.95 to 0.96. For both pre- and postintervention assessments, the exploratory factor analysis resulted in 3-factor structures. Except for two items (“walking or using a wheelchair” and “expression”, the structures of the identified three factors remained the same from the beginning to the end of rehabilitation. The loadings of all items were sufficient, exceeding 0.3. Both pre- and postintervention chi-square tests showed significant p values < 0.0001. The “motor” domain was divided into two factors with this 2-factor structure enduring through the intervention period. Conclusions. Amongst rehabilitants with SCI, FIM failed to demonstrate unidimensionality. Instead, it showed a 3-factor structure that fluctuated only little depending on the timing of measurement. Additionally, when measured separately, also motor score was 2-dimensional, not 1-dimensional. Using a total or subscale FIM, scores seem to be unjustified in the studied population.

  15. UTX and UTY demonstrate histone demethylase-independent function in mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl B Shpargel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available UTX (KDM6A and UTY are homologous X and Y chromosome members of the Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27 demethylase gene family. UTX can demethylate H3K27; however, in vitro assays suggest that human UTY has lost enzymatic activity due to sequence divergence. We produced mouse mutations in both Utx and Uty. Homozygous Utx mutant female embryos are mid-gestational lethal with defects in neural tube, yolk sac, and cardiac development. We demonstrate that mouse UTY is devoid of in vivo demethylase activity, so hemizygous X(Utx- Y(+ mutant male embryos should phenocopy homozygous X(Utx- X(Utx- females. However, X(Utx- Y(+ mutant male embryos develop to term; although runted, approximately 25% survive postnatally reaching adulthood. Hemizygous X(+ Y(Uty- mutant males are viable. In contrast, compound hemizygous X(Utx- Y(Uty- males phenocopy homozygous X(Utx- X(Utx- females. Therefore, despite divergence of UTX and UTY in catalyzing H3K27 demethylation, they maintain functional redundancy during embryonic development. Our data suggest that UTX and UTY are able to regulate gene activity through demethylase independent mechanisms. We conclude that UTX H3K27 demethylation is non-essential for embryonic viability.

  16. Determination of arterial input function in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI using group independent component analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, H.-L.; Yang Yihong; Hsu, Y.-Y.; Chuang, K.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the determination of the arterial input function (AIF). The segmentation of surrounding tissue by manual selection is error-prone due to the partial volume artifacts. Independent component analysis (ICA) has the advantage in automatically decomposing the signals into interpretable components. Recently group ICA technique has been applied to fMRI study and showed reduced variance caused by motion artifact and noise. In this work, we investigated the feasibility and efficacy of the use of group ICA technique to extract the AIF. Both simulated and in vivo data were analyzed in this study. The simulation data of eight phantoms were generated using randomized lesion locations and time activity curves. The clinical data were obtained from spin-echo EPI MR scans performed in seven normal subjects. Group ICA technique was applied to analyze data through concatenating across seven subjects. The AIFs were calculated from the weighted average of the signals in the region selected by ICA. Preliminary results of this study showed that group ICA technique could not extract accurate AIF information from regions around the vessel. The mismatched location of vessels within the group reduced the benefits of group study

  17. Application of an excited state LDA exchange energy functional for the calculation of transition energy of atoms within time-independent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Md; Harbola, Manoj K, E-mail: sami@iitk.ac.i, E-mail: mkh@iitk.ac.i [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2010-11-14

    Transition energies of a new class of excited states (two-gap systems) of various atoms are calculated in time-independent density functional formalism by using a recently proposed local density approximation exchange energy functional for excited states. It is shown that the excitation energies calculated with this functional compare well with those calculated with exact exchange theories.

  18. Application of an excited state LDA exchange energy functional for the calculation of transition energy of atoms within time-independent density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamim, Md; Harbola, Manoj K

    2010-01-01

    Transition energies of a new class of excited states (two-gap systems) of various atoms are calculated in time-independent density functional formalism by using a recently proposed local density approximation exchange energy functional for excited states. It is shown that the excitation energies calculated with this functional compare well with those calculated with exact exchange theories.

  19. Regularization independent analysis of the origin of two loop contributions to N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargnoli, H.G.; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M.C. [Federal University of Minas Gerais, ICEx, Physics Department, P.O. Box 702, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Hiller, B. [Coimbra University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Physics Department, Center of Computational Physics, Coimbra (Portugal); Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Lapa, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    We present both an ultraviolet and an infrared regularization independent analysis in a symmetry preserving framework for the N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function to two loop order. We show explicitly that off-shell infrared divergences as well as the overall two loop ultraviolet divergence cancel out, whilst the beta function receives contributions of infrared modes. (orig.)

  20. Regularization independent analysis of the origin of two loop contributions to N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fargnoli, H.G.; Sampaio, Marcos; Nemes, M.C.; Hiller, B.; Baeta Scarpelli, A.P.

    2011-01-01

    We present both an ultraviolet and an infrared regularization independent analysis in a symmetry preserving framework for the N=1 Super Yang-Mills beta function to two loop order. We show explicitly that off-shell infrared divergences as well as the overall two loop ultraviolet divergence cancel out, whilst the beta function receives contributions of infrared modes. (orig.)

  1. 77 FR 43514 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and adding an offshore anchorage in Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI,'' in the...

  2. 78 FR 44917 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-25

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of proposed... New York. This action is necessary to facilitate safe navigation and provide safe and secure... this rule, call or email Mr. Jeff Yunker, Sector New York, Waterways Management Division, U.S. Coast...

  3. 75 FR 22323 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Supplemental notice of..., Coast Guard Sector New York, Waterways Management Division; telephone 718-354-4195, e-mail Jeff.M.Yunker... Purpose The Hudson River Pilots Association, through the Port of New York/ New Jersey Harbor Safety...

  4. 76 FR 20524 - Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Port of New York AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The... Yunker, Coast Guard Sector New York, Waterways Management Division; telephone 718-354-4195, e-mail Jeff.M... New York in the Federal Register (74 FR 47906). We received one comment on the NPRM. No public meeting...

  5. 75 FR 3641 - Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-40; MB Docket No. 09-210; RM-11583] Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  6. Anchorage Behaviors of Frictional Tieback Anchors in Silty Sand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Shih-Tsung; Hsiao, Wen-Ta; Chen, Ke-Ting; Hu, Wen-Chi; Wu, Ssu-Yi

    2017-06-01

    Soil anchors are extensively used in geotechnical applications, most commonly serve as tieback walls in deep excavations. To investigate the anchorage mechanisms of this tieback anchor, a constitutive model that considers both strain hardening and softening and volume dilatancy entitled SHASOVOD model, and FLAC3D software are used to perform 3-D numerical analyses. The results from field anchor tests are compared with those calculated by numerical analyses to enhance the applicability of the numerical method. After the calibration, this research carried out the parameter studies by numerical analyses. The numerical results reveal that whether the yield of soil around an anchor develops to ground surface and/or touches the diaphragm wall depending on the overburden depth H and the embedded depth Z of an anchor, this study suggests the minimum overburden and embedded depths to avoid the yield of soils develop to ground surface and/or touch the diaphragm wall. When the embedded depth, overburden depth or fixed length of an anchor increases, the anchorage capacity also increases. Increasing fixed length should be the optimum method to increase the anchorage capacity for fixed length less than 20m. However, when the fixed length of an anchor exceeds 30 m, the increasing rate of anchorage capacity per fixed length decreases, and progressive yield occurs obviously between the fixed length and surrounding soil.

  7. Do orphan G-protein-coupled receptors have ligand-independent functions? New insights from receptor heterodimers

    OpenAIRE

    Levoye, Angélique; Dam, Julie; Ayoub, Mohammed A; Guillaume, Jean-Luc; Jockers, Ralf

    2006-01-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important drug targets and are involved in virtually every biological process. However, there are still more than 140 orphan GPCRs, and deciphering their function remains a priority for fundamental and clinical research. Research on orphan GPCRs has concentrated mainly on the identification of their natural ligands, whereas recent data suggest additional ligand-independent functions for these receptors. This emerging concept is connected with the observ...

  8. Associations between ankle-brachial index and cognitive function: results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial). SETTING: Eight US academic ce...

  9. Changes in executive functions and self-efficacy are independently associated with improved usual gait speed in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved usual gait speed predicts substantial reduction in mortality. A better understanding of the modifiable factors that are independently associated with improved gait speed would ensure that intervention strategies are developed based on a valid theoretical framework. Thus, we examined the independent association of change in executive functions and change in falls-related self-efficacy with improved gait speed among community-dwelling senior women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 135 senior women aged 65 to 75 years old who completed a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. Usual gait speed was assessed using a 4-meter walk. Three executive processes were assessed by standard neuropsychological tests: 1 set shifting; 2 working memory; and 3 selective attention and response inhibition. A linear regression model was constructed to determine the independent association of change in executive functions and falls-related self-efficacy with change in gait speed. Results Improved selective attention and conflict resolution, and falls-related self-efficacy, were independently associated with improved gait speed after accounting for age, global cognition, baseline gait speed, and change in quadriceps strength. The total variance explained was 24%. Conclusions Interventions that target executive functions and falls-related self-efficacy, in addition to physical functions, to improve gait speed may be more efficacious than those that do not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881

  10. Renin inhibition improves cardiac function and remodeling after myocardial infarction independent of blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. Westermann (Dirk); A. Riad (Alexander); O. Lettau (Olga); A.J.M. Roks (Anton); K. Sawatis (Konstantinos); P.M. Becher (Peter Moritz); F. Escher (Felicitas); A.H.J. Danser (Jan); H.P. Schultheiss (Heinz-Peter); C. Tschöpe (Carsten)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractPharmacological renin inhibition with aliskiren is an effective antihypertensive drug treatment, but it is currently unknown whether aliskiren is able to attenuate cardiac failure independent of its blood pressure-lowering effects. We investigated the effect of aliskiren on cardiac

  11. HDL function is impaired in acute myocardial infarction independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Willemsen, Hendrik M.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Dikkers, Arne; van der Giet, Markus; Nieuwland, Wybe; Muller Kobold, Anna; van Pelt, L. Joost; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tio, Rene A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect against the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. HDL function represents an emerging concept in cardiovascular research. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between HDL functionality and acute myocardial infarction

  12. Exploring the relation between positive emotions and the functional status of older adults living independently: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Miriam; Lamers, Sanne M A; Trompetter, Hester R; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that positive emotions positively influence physiological parameters but their relation to functioning in the daily life of older adults living independently remains unclear. The present work aims to investigate the relation between positive emotions and functional status in daily life of older people living independently. A systematic literature review was conducted using the PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus electronic databases. Included works were peer-reviewed empirical studies that analysed the relation between positive emotions and ability to perform activities of daily living with older adults living independently. After removal of duplicates, 10 out of 963 papers met the inclusion criteria. Cross-sectional studies (n = 6) provided limited evidence about a relation between positive emotions and functioning in daily life. However, longitudinal studies (n = 4) provide significant evidence for an interaction between the two factors, suggesting that time influences this interaction. The variety on the design and samples of the studies included in this review does not allow a cohesive conclusion of the results. Nevertheless, limited evidence suggests that higher frequency in the experience of positive emotions might be associated with lower functional limitations. The issue of causality in emotions-functioning remains unclear from the review. Further observational studies are highly recommended, supported by innovative technologies.

  13. Covariant and background independent functional RG flow for the effective average action

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, Mahmoud; Vacca, Gian Paolo [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN - Sezione di Bologna,via Irnerio 46, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2016-11-23

    We extend our prescription for the construction of a covariant and background-independent effective action for scalar quantum field theories to the case where momentum modes below a certain scale are suppressed by the presence of an infrared regulator. The key step is an appropriate choice of the infrared cutoff for which the Ward identity, capturing the information from single-field dependence of the ultraviolet action, continues to be exactly solvable, and therefore, in addition to covariance, manifest background independence of the effective action is guaranteed at any scale. A practical consequence is that in this framework one can adopt truncations dependent on the single total field. Furthermore we discuss the necessary and sufficient conditions for the preservation of symmetries along the renormalization group flow.

  14. A new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Mahmoud Reda

    The objective of the work described in this thesis is to design, develop and test a new non-metallic anchorage system for post-tensioning applications using CFRP tendons. The use of a non-metallic anchorage system should eliminate corrosion and deterioration concerns in the anchorage zone. The development of a reliable non-metallic anchorage would provide an important contribution to this field of knowledge. The idea of the new anchorage is to hold the tendon through mechanical gripping. The anchorage consists of a barrel with a conical housing and four wedges. The anchorage components are made of ultra high performance concrete (UHPC) specially developed for the anchorage. Sixteen concrete mixtures with different casting and curing regimes were examined to develop four UHPC mixtures with compressive strengths in excess of 200 MPa. The UHPC mixtures showed very dense microstructures with some unique characteristics. To enhance the fracture toughness of the newly developed UHPC, analytical and experimental analyses were performed. Using 3 mm chopped carbon fibres, a significant increase in the fracture toughness of UHPC was achieved. The non-metallic anchorage was developed with the UHPC with enhanced fracture toughness. The barrel required careful wrapping with CFRP sheets to provide the confinement required to utilize the strength and toughness of the UHPC. Thirty-three anchorages were tested under both static and dynamic loading conditions. The non-metallic anchorage showed excellent mechanical performance and fulfilled the different requirements of a post-tensioning anchorage system. The development of the new non-metallic anchorage will widen the inclusion of CFRP tendons in post-tensioned concrete/masonry structures. The new system will offer the opportunity to exploit CFRP tendons effectively creating an innovative generation of corrosion-free, smart structures.

  15. Image guided placement of temporary anchorage devices for tooth movement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahl-Palomo, L.; Bissada, N. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Periodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States); Palomo, J.M.; Hans, M.G. [Case Western Reserve Univ. School of Dental Medicine, Dept. of Orthodontics, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2007-06-15

    The aim of this project is to develop an image guided protocol for placement of a temporary anchorage device without surgically reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighteen orthodontic cases were selected for skeletal anchorage from the department of orthodontics at Case University. CBCT images of the subjects were taken using the Hitachi CB MercuRay system set at 15 mA, 120 kVp. CBCT images evaluated the ideal location for TAD placement in three dimensions. Horizontal and vertical linear measurements were taken from fixed dental landmarks to clearly define the location for placement. Transverse slices were used to evaluate the thickness of the buccal plate. Using the transverse view, the angle of insertion was determined such that the maximum buccal plate surface area would contact the screw. TADs were placed in the optimum location, with the most appropriate angle of insertion using a closed approach and with minimal local anesthesia and without flap elevation. Results: All TADs were placed without anatomic encroachment and enabled fixed orthodontic anchorage. (orig.)

  16. Image guided placement of temporary anchorage devices for tooth movement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahl-Palomo, L.; Bissada, N.; Palomo, J.M.; Hans, M.G.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an image guided protocol for placement of a temporary anchorage device without surgically reflecting a mucoperiosteal flap. Eighteen orthodontic cases were selected for skeletal anchorage from the department of orthodontics at Case University. CBCT images of the subjects were taken using the Hitachi CB MercuRay system set at 15 mA, 120 kVp. CBCT images evaluated the ideal location for TAD placement in three dimensions. Horizontal and vertical linear measurements were taken from fixed dental landmarks to clearly define the location for placement. Transverse slices were used to evaluate the thickness of the buccal plate. Using the transverse view, the angle of insertion was determined such that the maximum buccal plate surface area would contact the screw. TADs were placed in the optimum location, with the most appropriate angle of insertion using a closed approach and with minimal local anesthesia and without flap elevation. Results: All TADs were placed without anatomic encroachment and enabled fixed orthodontic anchorage. (orig.)

  17. Extracting Intrinsic Functional Networks with Feature-Based Group Independent Component Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Vince D.; Allen, Elena

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing use of functional imaging data to understand the macro-connectome of the human brain. Of particular interest is the structure and function of intrinsic networks (regions exhibiting temporally coherent activity both at rest and while a task is being performed), which account for a significant portion of the variance in…

  18. Hemispheric Division of Function Is the Result of Independent Probabilistic Biases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Bishop, Dorothy V. M.

    2009-01-01

    Verbal and visuospatial abilities are typically subserved by different cerebral hemispheres: the left hemisphere for the former and the right hemisphere for the latter. However little is known of the origin of this division of function. Causal theories propose that functional asymmetry is an obligatory pattern of organisation, while statistical…

  19. Surgery-Independent Language Function Decline in Patients Undergoing Awake Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Sela, Gal; Yanakee, Ranin; Ram, Zvi; Grossman, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    Despite selection process before awake-craniotomy, some patients experience an unexpected decline in language functions in the operating room (OR), compared with their baseline evaluation, which may impair their functional monitoring. To investigate this phenomenon we prospectively compared language function the day before surgery and on entrance to the OR. Data were collected prospectively from consecutive patients undergoing awake-craniotomy with intraoperative cortical mapping for resection of gliomas affecting language areas. Language functions of 79 patients were evaluated and compared 1-2 days before surgery and after entering the OR. Changes in functional linguistic performance were analyzed with respect to demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics. There was a significant decline in language function, beyond sedation effect, after entering the OR, (from median/interquartile range: 0.94/0.72-0.98 to median/interquartile range: 0.86/0.51-0.94; Z = -7.19, P awake-craniotomy may experience a substantial decline in language functioning after entering the OR. Tumor grade and the presence of preoperative language deficits were significant risk factors for this phenomenon, suggesting a possible relation between cognitive reserve, psychobehavioral coping abilities and histologic features of a tumor involving language areas. Capturing and identifying this unique population of patients who are prone to experience such language decline may improve our ability in the future to select patients eligible for awake-craniotomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Bum Seok [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jee Wook [Daejeon St. Mary' s Hospital, The Catholic University of Korea College of Medicine, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ji Woong [College of Medical Science, Konyang University, Daejeon(Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  1. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Choi, Jee Wook; Kim, Ji Woong

    2012-01-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  2. Cap-independent translation ensures mTOR expression and function upon protein synthesis inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Ramos, Ana; Candeias, Marco M; Menezes, Juliane; Lacerda, Rafaela; Willcocks, Margaret; Teixeira, Alexandre; Locker, Nicolas; Romão, Luísa

    2017-11-01

    The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase that integrates cellular signals from the nutrient and energy status to act, namely, on the protein synthesis machinery. While major advances have emerged regarding the regulators and effects of the mTOR signaling pathway, little is known about the regulation of mTOR gene expression. Here, we show that the human mTOR transcript can be translated in a cap-independent manner, and that its 5' untranslated region (UTR) is a highly folded RNA scaffold capable of binding directly to the 40S ribosomal subunit. We further demonstrate that mTOR is able to bypass the cap requirement for translation both in normal and hypoxic conditions. Moreover, our data reveal that the cap-independent translation of mTOR is necessary for its ability to induce cell-cycle progression into S phase. These results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for mTOR gene expression that integrates the global protein synthesis changes induced by translational inhibitory conditions. © 2017 Marques-Ramos et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  3. Research on the Bond Anchorage Properties of Alkali-Activated Slag Cementitious Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Zheng, W. Z.; Leng, Y. F.; Qin, C. Z.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2017-12-01

    By bond-anchorage property tests at 20°C ∼500°C, the distribution of shear stress between carbon fiber sheets and concrete at all levels of loading and anchorage lengths were measured, which means the bond lengths during CFRP sheets are pulled off at the same time when the concrete is torn and stripped were gotten. The failure modes were obtained. In addition, the failure loads were measured, and the calculated formulas of anchorage lengths were identified by fitting at high temperature. It can be seen that the anchorage lengths of carbon fiber sheets increase with increasing temperature at 20°C ∼100°C, the anchorage lengths of carbon fiber sheets decrease with increasing temperature at 100°C ∼500°C. Tests prove that AASCM has favorable high-temperature resistant and bond anchorage properties.

  4. Bipartite structure and functional independence of adenovirus type 5 packaging elements.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, S I; Hearing, P

    1997-01-01

    Selectivity and polarity of adenovirus type 5 DNA packaging are believed to be directed by an interaction of putative packaging factors with the cis-acting adenovirus packaging domain located within the genomic left end (nucleotides 194 to 380). In previous studies, this packaging domain was mutationally dissected into at least seven functional elements called A repeats. These elements, albeit redundant in function, exhibit differences in the ability to support viral packaging, with elements ...

  5. A Layered Searchable Encryption Scheme with Functional Components Independent of Encryption Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Guangchun; Qin, Ke

    2014-01-01

    Searchable encryption technique enables the users to securely store and search their documents over the remote semitrusted server, which is especially suitable for protecting sensitive data in the cloud. However, various settings (based on symmetric or asymmetric encryption) and functionalities (ranked keyword query, range query, phrase query, etc.) are often realized by different methods with different searchable structures that are generally not compatible with each other, which limits the scope of application and hinders the functional extensions. We prove that asymmetric searchable structure could be converted to symmetric structure, and functions could be modeled separately apart from the core searchable structure. Based on this observation, we propose a layered searchable encryption (LSE) scheme, which provides compatibility, flexibility, and security for various settings and functionalities. In this scheme, the outputs of the core searchable component based on either symmetric or asymmetric setting are converted to some uniform mappings, which are then transmitted to loosely coupled functional components to further filter the results. In such a way, all functional components could directly support both symmetric and asymmetric settings. Based on LSE, we propose two representative and novel constructions for ranked keyword query (previously only available in symmetric scheme) and range query (previously only available in asymmetric scheme). PMID:24719565

  6. Dynamic Fault Diagnosis for Semi-Batch Reactor under Closed-Loop Control via Independent Radial Basis Function Neural Network

    OpenAIRE

    Abdelkarim M. Ertiame; D. W. Yu; D. L. Yu; J. B. Gomm

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a robust fault detection and isolation (FDI) scheme is developed to monitor a multivariable nonlinear chemical process called the Chylla-Haase polymerization reactor, when it is under the cascade PI control. The scheme employs a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) in an independent mode to model the process dynamics, and using the weighted sum-squared prediction error as the residual. The Recursive Orthogonal Least Squares algorithm (ROLS) is emplo...

  7. Internal structure of mandible around mandibular molar using computed tomography. Anatomical consideration of molar anchorage in orthodontic treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enomoto, Yutaka; Yamashita, Daisuke; Saito, Katsuhiko; Kasai, Kazutaka

    2008-01-01

    For establishment of fine occlusion, facial profile and oral function in orthodontic treatment, molar anchorage in teeth movement is important manner in extracted cases. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between facial morphology and internal structure of mandibular body in molar region by computer tomography, and to discuss about molar anchorage in orthodontic treatment. The data for this study were obtained from 35 modern male Japanese skulls (mean age; 27 year-old, ranged from 18 year-old to 47 year-old). Measurement variables were FMA, SN to mandibular plane angle, gonial angle, alveolar breadth, cortical bone thickness of buccal and lingual sides, and the distance between dental root and cortical bone. As a result, alveolar breadth and the distance between dental root and cortical bone were narrow in long facial type, on the contrary, these variables were wide in short facial type. The result suggested that these variables were considered important factors as molar anchorage in extracted cases. (author)

  8. PHTS, a novel putative tumor suppressor, is involved in the transformation reversion of HeLaHF cells independently of the p53 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dehua; Fan, Wufang; Liu, Guohong; Nguy, Vivian; Chatterton, Jon E.; Long Shilong; Ke, Ning; Meyhack, Bernd; Bruengger, Adrian; Brachat, Arndt; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Li, Qi-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    HeLaHF is a non-transformed revertant of HeLa cells, likely resulting from the activation of a putative tumor suppressor(s). p53 protein was stabilized in this revertant and reactivated for certain transactivation functions. Although p53 stabilization has not conclusively been linked to the reversion, it is clear that the genes in p53 pathway are involved. The present study confirms the direct role of p53 in HeLaHF reversion by demonstrating that RNAi-mediated p53 silencing partially restores anchorage-independent growth potential of the revertant through the suppression of anoikis. In addition, we identified a novel gene, named PHTS, with putative tumor suppressor properties, and showed that this gene is also involved in HeLaHF reversion independently of the p53 pathway. Expression profiling revealed that PHTS is one of the genes that is up-regulated in HeLaHF but not in HeLa. It encodes a putative protein with CD59-like domains. RNAi-mediated PHTS silencing resulted in the partial restoration of transformation (anchorage-independent growth) in HeLaHF cells, similar to that of p53 gene silencing, implying its tumor suppressor effect. However, the observed increased transformation potential by PHTS silencing appears to be due to an increased anchorage-independent proliferation rate rather than suppression of anoikis, unlike the effect of p53 silencing. p53 silencing did not affect PHTS gene expression, and vice versa, suggesting PHTS may function in a new and p53-independent tumor suppressor pathway. Furthermore, over-expression of PHTS in different cancer cell lines, in addition to HeLa, reduces cell growth likely via induced apoptosis, confirming the broad PHTS tumor suppressor properties

  9. Independently evolved upper jaw protrusion mechanisms show convergent hydrodynamic function in teleost fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staab, Katie Lynn; Holzman, Roi; Hernandez, L Patricia; Wainwright, Peter C

    2012-05-01

    A protrusible upper jaw has independently evolved multiple times within teleosts and has been implicated in the success of two groups in particular: Acanthomorpha and Cypriniformes. We use digital particle image velocimetry (DPIV) to compare suction feeding flow dynamics in a representative of each of these clades: goldfish and bluegill. Using DPIV, we contrast the spatial pattern of flow, the temporal relationship between flow and head kinematics, and the contribution of jaw protrusion to the forces exerted on prey. As expected, the spatial patterns of flow were similar in the two species. However, goldfish were slower to reach maximal kinematic excursions, and were more flexible in the relative timing of jaw protrusion, other jaw movements and suction flows. Goldfish were also able to sustain flow speeds for a prolonged period of time as compared with bluegill, in part because goldfish generate lower peak flow speeds. In both species, jaw protrusion increased the force exerted on the prey. However, slower jaw protrusion in goldfish resulted in less augmentation of suction forces. This difference in force exerted on prey corresponds with differences in trophic niches and feeding behavior of the two species. The bluegill uses powerful suction to capture insect larvae whereas the goldfish uses winnowing to sort through detritus and sediment. The kinethmoid of goldfish may permit jaw protrusion that is independent of lower jaw movement, which could explain the ability of goldfish to decouple suction flows (due to buccal expansion) from upper jaw protrusion. Nevertheless, our results show that jaw protrusion allows both species to augment the force exerted on prey, suggesting that this is a fundamental benefit of jaw protrusion to suction feeders.

  10. Differential effects of water-based exercise on the cognitive function in independent elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daisuke; Seko, Chihiro; Hashitomi, Tatsuya; Sengoku, Yasuo; Nomura, Takeo

    2015-04-01

    Physical exercise has been reported to be the most effective method to improve cognitive function and brain health, but there is as yet no research on the effect of water-based exercise. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of water-based exercise with and without cognitive stimuli on cognitive and physical functions. The design is a single-blind randomized controlled study. Twenty-one participants were randomly assigned to a normal water-based exercise (Nor-WE) group or a cognitive water-based exercise (Cog-WE) group. The exercise sessions were divided into two exercise series: a 10-min series of land-based warm-up, consisting of flexibility exercises, and a 50-min series of exercises in water. The Nor-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of strength and stepping exercise, including stride over, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. The Cog-WE consisted of 10 min of walking, 30 min of water-cognitive exercises, and 10 min of stretching and relaxation in water. Cognitive function, physical function, and ADL were measured before the exercise intervention (pre-intervention) and 10 weeks after the intervention (post-intervention). Participation in the Cog-WE performed significantly better on the pegboard test and the choice stepping reaction test and showed a significantly improved attention, memory, and learning, and in the general cognitive function (measured as the total score in the 5-Cog test). Participation in the Nor-WE dramatically improved walking ability and lower limb muscle strength. Our results reveal that the benefits elderly adults may obtain from water-based exercise depend on the characteristics of each specific exercise program. These findings highlight the importance of prescription for personalized water-based exercises to elderly adults to improve cognitive function.

  11. Cognitive abilities and functional capacity in older adults: results from the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jing Ee; Hultsch, David F; Strauss, Esther

    2009-04-01

    The relationship between cognitive and functional abilities was examined in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Self and informant (e.g., spouse) reports of participants' functional status were obtained on the modified Scales of Independent Behavior-Revised (mSIB-R). Participants also completed measures of processing speed, episodic memory, executive functioning, and verbal ability. Results showed that the mSIB-R correlated positively with cognitive variables. Hierarchical regression analyses suggested that each mSIB-R factor is predicted by somewhat different cognitive variables, after adjusting for demographic, health, and motor variables. This report-based measure was as accurate as a performance-based measure in classifying cognitive groups. Informant social/cognitive engagement and self physical/environment engagement factors showed the most promise in this regard. The findings reveal links between cognitive and functional abilities in a sample with varying degrees of cognitive impairment.

  12. Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Monk-Hansen, Tea

    2014-01-01

    Aims Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome...... in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among CFR, systolic and diastolic function, peripheral vascular function, and cardiopulmonary fitness in CAD patients. Methods and Results Forty patients with median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 49 (interquartile 46....... Conclusions Coronary flow reserve measured noninvasively predicts cardiopulmonary fitness independently of resting systolic and diastolic function in CAD patients, indicating that cardiac output during maximal exercise is dependent on the ability of the coronary circulation to adapt to the higher metabolic...

  13. Research on Anchorage Performance of Grouting Anchor Connection of Precast Concrete Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xudong; Wang, Sheng; Cao, Xixi

    2018-03-01

    The bonding of grouted anchor bars is one of the vertical connection forms of steel bars in fabricated concrete structures. The performance of grouted connection is mainly affected by the anchorage length and lap length of steel bars. The mechanisms of bond and anchorage between steel bar and concrete are analyzed, and the factors that influence the anchorage performance of steel bar are systematically summarized. Results show that the bond and anchorage performance of steel and concrete have been studied widely, but there are still shortcomings, and the connection forms need to be further improved.

  14. Efficacy of the Nance appliance as an anchorage-reinforcement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A; Garvey, Therese M; Alhag, Mohamed; Claffey, Noel M; O'Connell, Brian

    2015-03-01

    The Nance appliance is widely considered to be an efficient method of anchorage reinforcement; however, much of the perceived advantage is based on clinical judgment. The aim of this study was to assess the amounts of anchorage loss and desired tooth movement associated with the Nance appliance. The mandibular arches of 7 beagle dogs were used. The first and third premolars were extracted. Reference miniscrews were placed at the first premolar sites as stable references to measure the amounts of anchorage loss and desired tooth movement. Four beagles were fitted with custom-made Nance appliances on the fourth premolars and orthodontic bands on the second premolars (Nance group). Three beagles were fitted with orthodontic bands on the second and fourth premolars with no anchorage reinforcement (control group). The second premolars were retracted over 15 weeks in both groups. The amounts of second premolar movement (desired tooth movement) and fourth premolar movement (anchorage loss) were recorded at 5, 10, and 15 weeks. The percentages of desired tooth movement and anchorage loss to the total space closure were calculated. The mean desired tooth movement was significantly more in the Nance group than in the control group at 10 weeks (P appliance did not provide absolute anchorage, but there was significantly less anchorage loss with it than in the control group. The majority of anchorage loss occurred during the first 10 weeks in the Nance group. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Impulse-response function of splanchnic circulation with model-independent constraints: theory and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Keiding, S; Bass, L

    2003-01-01

    Modeling physiological processes using tracer kinetic methods requires knowledge of the time course of the tracer concentration in blood supplying the organ. For liver studies, however, inaccessibility of the portal vein makes direct measurement of the hepatic dual-input function impossible...

  16. Tumor suppressor function of Bruton tyrosine kinase is independent of its catalytic activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Middendorp; A.J.E. Zijlstra (Esther); R. Kersseboom (Rogier); G.M. Dingjan (Gemma); H. Jumaa; R.W. Hendriks (Rudi)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractDuring B-cell development in the mouse, Bruton tyrosine kinase (Btk) and the adaptor protein SLP-65 (Src homology 2 [SH2] domain-containing leukocyte protein of 65 kDa) limit the expansion and promote the differentiation of pre-B cells. Btk is thought to mainly function

  17. Independent component analysis of high-resolution imaging data identifies distinct functional domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidl, Juergen; Starke, Jens; Omer, David

    2007-01-01

    be automatically detected. In the visual cortex orientation columns can be extracted. In all cases artifacts due to movement, heartbeat or respiration were separated from the functional signal by sICA and could be removed from the data set. sICA is therefore a powerful technique for data compression, unbiased...

  18. Adiposity, physical activity, and muscle quality are independently related to physical function performance in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Adrian, Amanda L; Johnson, Mary Ann; Rogers, Laura Q; Evans, Ellen M

    2014-10-01

    Poor physical function performance is associated with risks for disability in late life; however, determinants of physical function are not well characterized in middle-aged women. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the contributions of body composition, physical activity, muscle capacity, and muscle quality to physical function performance. Postmenopausal women (N = 64; mean [SD] age, 58.6 [3.6] y) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, for physical activity via accelerometer (steps per day), and for physical function via Timed Up and Go, 30-second chair stand, and 6-minute walk. Leg strength was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry at 60° second. Leg power was assessed with the Nottingham Leg Extensor Power Rig. Muscle quality was calculated as (1) the ratio of leg strength at 60° second to upper leg lean mass and (2) the ratio of leg power to total lower body lean mass. Regression analyses revealed the following: (1) age and muscle quality calculated with leg power are independently related to Timed Up and Go, explaining 12% and 11% of the variance, respectively (P quality calculated with leg strength are independently related to 30-second chair stand, explaining 12% and 10% of the variance, respectively (P quality calculated with leg strength, steps per day, and adiposity are independent predictors of 6-minute walk, collectively explaining 51% of the variance. In postmenopausal women, a more optimal body composition (including lower adiposity and higher lean mass) and higher levels of physical activity are associated with better physical function performance at midlife.

  19. Automatic denoising of functional MRI data: combining independent component analysis and hierarchical fusion of classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Beckmann, Christian F; Glasser, Matthew F; Griffanti, Ludovica; Smith, Stephen M

    2014-04-15

    Many sources of fluctuation contribute to the fMRI signal, and this makes identifying the effects that are truly related to the underlying neuronal activity difficult. Independent component analysis (ICA) - one of the most widely used techniques for the exploratory analysis of fMRI data - has shown to be a powerful technique in identifying various sources of neuronally-related and artefactual fluctuation in fMRI data (both with the application of external stimuli and with the subject "at rest"). ICA decomposes fMRI data into patterns of activity (a set of spatial maps and their corresponding time series) that are statistically independent and add linearly to explain voxel-wise time series. Given the set of ICA components, if the components representing "signal" (brain activity) can be distinguished form the "noise" components (effects of motion, non-neuronal physiology, scanner artefacts and other nuisance sources), the latter can then be removed from the data, providing an effective cleanup of structured noise. Manual classification of components is labour intensive and requires expertise; hence, a fully automatic noise detection algorithm that can reliably detect various types of noise sources (in both task and resting fMRI) is desirable. In this paper, we introduce FIX ("FMRIB's ICA-based X-noiseifier"), which provides an automatic solution for denoising fMRI data via accurate classification of ICA components. For each ICA component FIX generates a large number of distinct spatial and temporal features, each describing a different aspect of the data (e.g., what proportion of temporal fluctuations are at high frequencies). The set of features is then fed into a multi-level classifier (built around several different classifiers). Once trained through the hand-classification of a sufficient number of training datasets, the classifier can then automatically classify new datasets. The noise components can then be subtracted from (or regressed out of) the original

  20. A factor analysis of Functional Independence and Functional Assessment Measure scores among focal and diffuse brain injury patients: The importance of bi-factor models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunn, Sarah; Burgess, Gerald H; Maltby, John

    2018-04-28

    To explore the factor structure of the UK Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure (FIM+FAM) among focal and diffuse acquired brain injury patients. Criterion standard. An NHS acute acquired brain injury inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Referred sample of 447 adults (835 cases after exclusions) admitted for inpatient treatment following an acquired brain injury significant enough to justify intensive inpatient neurorehabilitation. Not applicable. Functional Independence Measure and Functional Assessment Measure. Exploratory Factor Analysis suggested a two-factor structure to FIM+FAM scores, among both focal-proximate and diffuse-proximate acquired brain injury aetiologies. Confirmatory Factor Analysis suggested a three-factor bi-factor structure presented the best fit of the FIM+FAM score data across both aetiologies. However, across both analyses, a convergence was found towards a general factor, demonstrated by high correlations between factors in the Exploratory Factor Analysis, and by a general factor explaining the majority of the variance in scores on Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Our findings suggested that although factors describing specific functional domains can be derived from FIM+FAM item scores, there is a convergence towards a single factor describing overall functioning. This single factor informs the specific group factors (e.g. motor, psychosocial and communication function) following brain injury. Further research into the comparative value of the general and group factors as evaluative/prognostic measures is indicated. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum

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    Katharine L. Dobson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar molecular layer parallel fibre terminals release glutamate from both the active zone and from extrasynaptic “ectopic” sites. Ectopic release mediates transmission to the Bergmann glia that ensheathe the synapse, activating Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and glutamate transporters. Parallel fibre terminals exhibit several forms of presynaptic plasticity, including cAMP-dependent long-term potentiation and endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression, but it is not known whether these presynaptic forms of long-term plasticity also influence ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. Stimulation of parallel fibre inputs at 16 Hz evoked LTP of synaptic transmission, but LTD of ectopic transmission. Pharmacological activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin caused LTP at Purkinje neurons, but only transient potentiation at Bergmann glia, reinforcing the concept that ectopic sites lack the capacity to express sustained cAMP-dependent potentiation. Activation of mGluR1 caused depression of synaptic transmission via retrograde endocannabinoid signalling but had no significant effect at ectopic sites. In contrast, activation of NMDA receptors suppressed both synaptic and ectopic transmission. The results suggest that the signalling mechanisms for presynaptic LTP and retrograde depression by endocannabinoids are restricted to the active zone at parallel fibre synapses, allowing independent modulation of synaptic transmission to Purkinje neurons and ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia.

  2. Reform of Kosovo Tax System after independence and its key functions

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    Dr.Sc. Bedri Peci

    2013-12-01

    However, policy and tax system of Kosovo should be more in function of economic development by achieving equilibrium between direct and indirect taxes, increasing efficiency of public expenditures and to offer more tax incentives. Designers’ preliminary requirement is to analyze fiscal, economic, etc., effects of each tax form which aims to apply in accordance with tax policy objectives and to analyze the role and effects of tax incentives to each tax form. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function for economic development

  3. Application of independent component analysis for speech-music separation using an efficient score function estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pishravian, Arash; Aghabozorgi Sahaf, Masoud Reza

    2012-12-01

    In this paper speech-music separation using Blind Source Separation is discussed. The separating algorithm is based on the mutual information minimization where the natural gradient algorithm is used for minimization. In order to do that, score function estimation from observation signals (combination of speech and music) samples is needed. The accuracy and the speed of the mentioned estimation will affect on the quality of the separated signals and the processing time of the algorithm. The score function estimation in the presented algorithm is based on Gaussian mixture based kernel density estimation method. The experimental results of the presented algorithm on the speech-music separation and comparing to the separating algorithm which is based on the Minimum Mean Square Error estimator, indicate that it can cause better performance and less processing time

  4. Long-term intensive gymnastic training induced changes in intra- and inter-network functional connectivity: an independent component analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huiyuan; Wang, Junjing; Seger, Carol; Lu, Min; Deng, Feng; Wu, Xiaoyan; He, Yuan; Niu, Chen; Wang, Jun; Huang, Ruiwang

    2018-01-01

    Long-term intensive gymnastic training can induce brain structural and functional reorganization. Previous studies have identified structural and functional network differences between world class gymnasts (WCGs) and non-athletes at the whole-brain level. However, it is still unclear how interactions within and between functional networks are affected by long-term intensive gymnastic training. We examined both intra- and inter-network functional connectivity of gymnasts relative to non-athletes using resting-state fMRI (R-fMRI). R-fMRI data were acquired from 13 WCGs and 14 non-athlete controls. Group-independent component analysis (ICA) was adopted to decompose the R-fMRI data into spatial independent components and associated time courses. An automatic component identification method was used to identify components of interest associated with resting-state networks (RSNs). We identified nine RSNs, the basal ganglia network (BG), sensorimotor network (SMN), cerebellum (CB), anterior and posterior default mode networks (aDMN/pDMN), left and right fronto-parietal networks (lFPN/rFPN), primary visual network (PVN), and extrastriate visual network (EVN). Statistical analyses revealed that the intra-network functional connectivity was significantly decreased within the BG, aDMN, lFPN, and rFPN, but increased within the EVN in the WCGs compared to the controls. In addition, the WCGs showed uniformly decreased inter-network functional connectivity between SMN and BG, CB, and PVN, BG and PVN, and pDMN and rFPN compared to the controls. We interpret this generally weaker intra- and inter-network functional connectivity in WCGs during the resting state as a result of greater efficiency in the WCGs' brain associated with long-term motor skill training.

  5. Structural and Functional Diversity of Plant Virus 3′-Cap-Independent Translation Enhancers (3′-CITEs

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    Verónica Truniger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the positive-strand RNA plant viruses lack the 5′-cap and/or the poly(A-tail that act synergistically to stimulate canonical translation of cellular mRNAs. However, they have RNA elements in the 5′- or 3′-untranslated regions of their RNAs that are required for their cap-independent translation. Cap-independent translation enhancers (CITEs have been identified in the genomic 3′-end of viruses belonging to the family Tombusviridae and the genus Luteovirus. Seven classes of 3′-CITEs have been described to date based on their different RNA structures. They generally control the efficient formation of the translation initiation complex by varying mechanisms. Some 3′-CITEs bind eukaryotic translation initiation factors, others ribosomal subunits, bridging these to the 5′-end by different mechanisms, often long-distance RNA–RNA interactions. As previously proposed and recently found in one case in nature, 3′-CITEs are functionally independent elements that are transferable through recombination between viral genomes, leading to potential advantages for virus multiplication. In this review, the knowledge on 3′-CITEs and their functioning is updated. We also suggest that there is local structural conservation in the regions interacting with eIF4E of 3′-CITEs belonging to different classes.

  6. Structural and Functional Diversity of Plant Virus 3′-Cap-Independent Translation Enhancers (3′-CITEs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truniger, Verónica; Miras, Manuel; Aranda, Miguel A.

    2017-01-01

    Most of the positive-strand RNA plant viruses lack the 5′-cap and/or the poly(A)-tail that act synergistically to stimulate canonical translation of cellular mRNAs. However, they have RNA elements in the 5′- or 3′-untranslated regions of their RNAs that are required for their cap-independent translation. Cap-independent translation enhancers (CITEs) have been identified in the genomic 3′-end of viruses belonging to the family Tombusviridae and the genus Luteovirus. Seven classes of 3′-CITEs have been described to date based on their different RNA structures. They generally control the efficient formation of the translation initiation complex by varying mechanisms. Some 3′-CITEs bind eukaryotic translation initiation factors, others ribosomal subunits, bridging these to the 5′-end by different mechanisms, often long-distance RNA–RNA interactions. As previously proposed and recently found in one case in nature, 3′-CITEs are functionally independent elements that are transferable through recombination between viral genomes, leading to potential advantages for virus multiplication. In this review, the knowledge on 3′-CITEs and their functioning is updated. We also suggest that there is local structural conservation in the regions interacting with eIF4E of 3′-CITEs belonging to different classes. PMID:29238357

  7. Fab-based inhibitors reveal ubiquitin independent functions for HIV Vif neutralization of APOBEC3 restriction factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Binning

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lentiviral protein Viral Infectivity Factor (Vif counteracts the antiviral effects of host APOBEC3 (A3 proteins and contributes to persistent HIV infection. Vif targets A3 restriction factors for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by recruiting them to a multi-protein ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Here, we describe a degradation-independent mechanism of Vif-mediated antagonism that was revealed through detailed structure-function studies of antibody antigen-binding fragments (Fabs to the Vif complex. Two Fabs were found to inhibit Vif-mediated A3 neutralization through distinct mechanisms: shielding A3 from ubiquitin transfer and blocking Vif E3 assembly. Combined biochemical, cell biological and structural studies reveal that disruption of Vif E3 assembly inhibited A3 ubiquitination but was not sufficient to restore its packaging into viral particles and antiviral activity. These observations establish that Vif can neutralize A3 family members in a degradation-independent manner. Additionally, this work highlights the potential of Fabs as functional probes, and illuminates how Vif uses a multi-pronged approach involving both degradation dependent and independent mechanisms to suppress A3 innate immunity.

  8. Evaluation of treatment in the Smart Home IRIS in terms of functional independence and occupational performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Julija; Roberts, Anne E K; Vidmar, Gaj

    2013-01-01

    The development of assistive technologies, home modifications, and smart homes has rapidly advanced in the last two decades. Health professionals have recognised the benefits of these technologies in improving individual's quality of life. The Smart Home IRIS was established in 2008 within the University Rehabilitation Institute in Ljubljana with the aim to enable persons with disabilities and elderly people to test various assistive technologies and technical solutions for their independent living. We investigated the effect of treatments in the Smart Home IRIS. A convenience sample of 59 persons with disabilities and elderly people (aged 24-81 years) who were treated in the Smart Home IRIS from April to December 2011 participated. Standardised instruments--the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)--were administered at the first assessment in the Smart Home IRIS and at a second assessment at the participant's home after 6-12 months. All the outcomes statistically significantly improved from the first to the second assessment. The treatments in the Smart Home IRIS appeared to contribute to higher occupational performance and satisfaction with performance and higher functional independence of persons with disabilities and elderly people.

  9. Evaluation of Treatment in the Smart Home IRIS in terms of Functional Independence and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Ocepek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of assistive technologies, home modifications, and smart homes has rapidly advanced in the last two decades. Health professionals have recognised the benefits of these technologies in improving individual’s quality of life. The Smart Home IRIS was established in 2008 within the University Rehabilitation Institute in Ljubljana with the aim to enable persons with disabilities and elderly people to test various assistive technologies and technical solutions for their independent living. We investigated the effect of treatments in the Smart Home IRIS. A convenience sample of 59 persons with disabilities and elderly people (aged 24–81 years who were treated in the Smart Home IRIS from April to December 2011 participated. Standardised instruments—the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM—were administered at the first assessment in the Smart Home IRIS and at a second assessment at the participant’s home after 6–12 months. All the outcomes statistically significantly improved from the first to the second assessment. The treatments in the Smart Home IRIS appeared to contribute to higher occupational performance and satisfaction with performance and higher functional independence of persons with disabilities and elderly people.

  10. Postural balance and functional independence of elderly people according to gender and age: cross-sectional study

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    Helen Benincasa Nakagawa

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: Aging causes changes in men and women. Studies have shown that women have worse postural balance and greater functional dependence than men, but there is no consensus regarding this. The aim of this study was to compare the balance and functional independence of elderly people according to sex and age, and to evaluate the association between postural balance and the number of drugs taken. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional at a state university. METHODS: 202 elderly people were evaluated regarding balance (Berg Scale, independence (Barthel Index, age, sex, number of medications and physical activity. RESULTS: The subjects comprised 117 women (70.2 ± 5.6 years old and 85 men (71.1 ± 6.9 years old. For balance, there was no significant difference regarding sex, but there was a difference regarding age (P < 0.0001. For functional independence, there was a difference regarding sex (P = 0.003, but not regarding age. The variables of age, medications and physical activity were significant for predicting the Berg score. For the Barthel index, only age and sex were significant. Elderly people who took three or more medications/day showed higher risk of falling than those who took up two drugs/day (odds ratio = 5.53, P < 0.0001, 95% confidence interval, 2.3-13.0. CONCLUSIONS: There was no sexual difference in relation to postural balance. However, people who were more elderly presented a high risk of falling. Functional dependence was worse among females. There was an association between the number of medication drugs and risk of falling.

  11. Cross-cultural validation of the Persian version of the Functional Independence Measure for patients with stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naghdi, Soofia; Ansari, Noureddin Nakhostin; Raji, Parvin; Shamili, Aryan; Amini, Malek; Hasson, Scott

    2016-01-01

    To translate and cross-culturally adapt the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) into the Persian language and to test the reliability and validity of the Persian FIM (PFIM) in patients with stroke. In this cross-sectional study carried out in an outpatient stroke rehabilitation center, 40 patients with stroke (mean age 60 years) were participated. A standard forward-backward translation method and expert panel validation was followed to develop the PFIM. Two experienced occupational therapists (OTs) assessed the patients independently in all items of the PFIM in a single session for inter-rater reliability. One of the OTs reassessed the patients after 1 week for intra-rater reliability. There were no floor or ceiling effects for the PFIM. Excellent inter-rater and intra-rater reliability was noted for the PFIM total score, motor and cognitive subscales (ICC(agreement)0.88-0.98). According to the Bland-Altman agreement analysis, there was no systematic bias between raters and within raters. The internal consistency of the PFIM was with Cronbach's alpha from 0.70 to 0.96. The principal component analysis with varimax rotation indicated a three-factor structure: (1) self-care and mobility; (2) sphincter control and (3) cognitive that jointly accounted for 74.8% of the total variance. Construct validity was supported by a significant Pearson correlation between the PFIM and the Persian Barthel Index (r = 0.95; p Persian patients with stroke. The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) is an outcome measure for disability based on the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The FIM was cross-culturally adapted and validated into Persian language. The Persian version of the FIM (PFIM) is reliable and valid for assessing functional status of patients with stroke. The PFIM can be used in Persian speaking countries to assess the limitations in activities of daily living of patients with stroke.

  12. Isoliquiritigenin exhibits anti-proliferative properties in the pituitary independent of estrogen receptor function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, Karen E.; Raetzman, Lori T.

    2016-01-01

    The plant flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a botanical estrogen widely taken as an herbal supplement to ease the symptoms of menopause. ISL has been also shown to have anti-tumor properties in a number of cancer cell backgrounds. However, the effects of ISL on normal cells are less well known and virtually unstudied in the context of the pituitary gland. We have established a pituitary explant culture model to screen chemical agents for gene expression changes within the pituitary gland during a period of active proliferation and differentiation. Using this whole-organ culture system we found ISL to be weakly estrogenic based on its ability to induce Cckar mRNA expression, an estrogen receptor (ER) mediated gene. Using a range of ISL from 200 nM to 200 μM, we discovered that ISL promoted cell proliferation at a low concentration, yet potently inhibited proliferation at the highest concentration. ICI 182,780 failed to antagonize ISL's repression of pituitary cell proliferation, indicating the effect is independent of ER signaling. Coincident with a decrease in proliferating cells, we observed down-regulation of transcript for cyclin D2 and E2 and a strong induction of mRNA and protein for the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1a (p21). Importantly, high dose ISL did not alter the balance of progenitor vs. differentiated cell types within the pituitary explants and they seemed otherwise healthy; however, TUNEL staining revealed an increase in apoptotic cell death in ISL treated cultures. Our results merit further examination of ISL as an anti-tumor agent in the pituitary gland. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin possesses weak estrogenic activity based on induction of Cckar. • ISL can be anti-proliferative in pituitary explants without altering cell lineages. • Anti-proliferative behavior of ISL is not estrogen receptor mediated. • ISL induces p21 expression leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  13. Isoliquiritigenin exhibits anti-proliferative properties in the pituitary independent of estrogen receptor function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weis, Karen E.; Raetzman, Lori T., E-mail: raetzman@life.illinois.edu

    2016-12-15

    The plant flavonoid isoliquiritigenin (ISL) is a botanical estrogen widely taken as an herbal supplement to ease the symptoms of menopause. ISL has been also shown to have anti-tumor properties in a number of cancer cell backgrounds. However, the effects of ISL on normal cells are less well known and virtually unstudied in the context of the pituitary gland. We have established a pituitary explant culture model to screen chemical agents for gene expression changes within the pituitary gland during a period of active proliferation and differentiation. Using this whole-organ culture system we found ISL to be weakly estrogenic based on its ability to induce Cckar mRNA expression, an estrogen receptor (ER) mediated gene. Using a range of ISL from 200 nM to 200 μM, we discovered that ISL promoted cell proliferation at a low concentration, yet potently inhibited proliferation at the highest concentration. ICI 182,780 failed to antagonize ISL's repression of pituitary cell proliferation, indicating the effect is independent of ER signaling. Coincident with a decrease in proliferating cells, we observed down-regulation of transcript for cyclin D2 and E2 and a strong induction of mRNA and protein for the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor Cdkn1a (p21). Importantly, high dose ISL did not alter the balance of progenitor vs. differentiated cell types within the pituitary explants and they seemed otherwise healthy; however, TUNEL staining revealed an increase in apoptotic cell death in ISL treated cultures. Our results merit further examination of ISL as an anti-tumor agent in the pituitary gland. - Highlights: • Isoliquiritigenin possesses weak estrogenic activity based on induction of Cckar. • ISL can be anti-proliferative in pituitary explants without altering cell lineages. • Anti-proliferative behavior of ISL is not estrogen receptor mediated. • ISL induces p21 expression leading to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis.

  14. Comparing the loss of functional independence of older adults in the U.S. and China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Joelle H; Feng, Jun

    2018-01-01

    Functional loss among older adults is known to follow a hierarchical sequence, but little is known about whether such sequences differ across socio-cultural contexts. The aim of this study is to construct activities of daily livings (ADL) scales for oldest-old adults in the United States and China so as to compare their functional loss sequences. We use data from the Asset and Health Dynamics of the Oldest Old (n=1607) and Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (n=5570) for years 1998-2008. ADL items are calibrated within a scale using the Rasch measurement model. Rasch scores are averaged across survey waves to identify the ADL loss sequence for each study population. We also assess scale stability over measurement periods. Factor analyses confirm that the ADL items in each study population can be combined meaningfully to form a hierarchical sequence. Internal consistency assessed by Cronbach's alpha is high (0.81 to 0.95). We find that bathing is the first activity that both older Americans and Chinese have difficulty with, while eating is the last activity. There are, however, differences in the rank order for toileting (ranked more challenging in the Chinese sample) and dressing (ranked more challenging in the U.S. sample). Item orderings are stable over time. The results highlight the relative importance of bathing in the functional loss sequence for older adults, regardless of socio-cultural context. Health interventions are needed to address deficits in the bathroom environment, especially in developing countries like China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Speech discrimination difficulties in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder are likely independent of auditory hypersensitivity.

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    William Andrew Dunlop

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, characterised by impaired communication skills and repetitive behaviours, can also result in differences in sensory perception. Individuals with ASD often perform normally in simple auditory tasks but poorly compared to typically developed (TD individuals on complex auditory tasks like discriminating speech from complex background noise. A common trait of individuals with ASD is hypersensitivity to auditory stimulation. No studies to our knowledge consider whether hypersensitivity to sounds is related to differences in speech-in-noise discrimination. We provide novel evidence that individuals with high-functioning ASD show poor performance compared to TD individuals in a speech-in-noise discrimination task with an attentionally demanding background noise, but not in a purely energetic noise. Further, we demonstrate in our small sample that speech-hypersensitivity does not appear to predict performance in the speech-in-noise task. The findings support the argument that an attentional deficit, rather than a perceptual deficit, affects the ability of individuals with ASD to discriminate speech from background noise. Finally, we piloted a novel questionnaire that measures difficulty hearing in noisy environments, and sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds. Psychometric analysis using 128 TD participants provided novel evidence for a difference in sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds, and these findings were reinforced by participants with ASD who also completed the questionnaire. The study was limited by a small and high-functioning sample of participants with ASD. Future work could test larger sample sizes and include lower-functioning ASD participants.

  16. The Feldenkrais Method(®) can enhance cognitive function in independent living older adults: A case-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Gerhild; Williams, Harriet G

    2016-07-01

    Poor cognitive health a major concern of aging individuals, can compromise independent living. More than 16 million people in the United States are affected by cognitive impairment. We have studied the effects of the Feldenkrais Method(®) on cognitive function. In this case series with three participants cognitive function was assessed with the Trail Making Test A and B at baseline and after the Feldenkrais intervention. All participants improved performance on Trail Making Test A and B after completing the Feldenkrais intervention indicating that Feldenkrais lessons may offset age-related decline in cognitive function. The results of this case series warrant larger scale studies on cognitive outcomes of Feldenkrais interventions in clinical and non-clinical populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Assessment of executive functioning in binge-eating disorder independent of weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneva, Kalina T; Arlt, Jean M; Yiu, Angelina; Murray, Susan M; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-08-01

    Executive functioning (EF) problems may serve as vulnerability or maintenance factors for Binge-Eating Disorder (BED). However, it is unclear if EF problems observed in BED are related to overweight status or BED status. The current study extends this literature by examining EF in overweight and normal-weight BED compared to weight-matched controls. Participants were normal-weight women with BED (n = 23), overweight BED (n = 32), overweight healthy controls (n = 48), and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 29). The EF battery utilized tests from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). After controlling for years of education and minority status, overweight individuals performed more poorly than normal-weight individuals on a task of cognitive flexibility requiring generativity (p < .01), and speed on psychomotor performance tasks (p = .01). Normal-weight and overweight BED performed worse on working memory tasks compared to controls (p = .04). Unexpectedly, normal-weight BED individuals out-performed all other groups on an inhibitory control task (p < .01). No significant differences were found between the four groups on tasks of planning. Regardless of weight status, BED is associated with working memory problems. Replication of the finding that normal-weight BED is associated with enhanced inhibitory control is needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Local application of zoledronate for maximum anchorage during space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Adam J A J; Campbell, Phillip M; Hinton, Robert; Naidu, Aparna; Buschang, Peter H

    2012-12-01

    Orthodontists have used various compliance-dependent physical means such as headgears and intraoral appliances to prevent anchorage loss. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1 local application of the bisphosphonate zoledronate could be used to prevent anchorage loss during extraction space closure in rats. Thirty rats had their maxillary left first molars extracted and their maxillary left second molars protracted into the extraction space with a 10-g nickel-titanium closing coil for 21 days. Fifteen control rats received a local injection of phosphate-buffered saline solution, and 15 experimental rats received 16 μg of the bisphosphonate zoledronate. Bisphosphonate was also delivered directly into the extraction site and left undisturbed for 5 minutes. Cephalograms and incremental thickness gauges were used to measure tooth movements. Tissues were analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histology. The control group demonstrated significant (P <0.05) tooth movements throughout the 21-day period. They showed significantly greater tooth movements than the experimental group beginning in the second week. The experimental group showed no significant tooth movement after the first week. The microcomputed tomography and histologic observations showed significant bone loss in the extraction sites and around the second molars of the controls. In contrast, the experimental group had bone preservation and bone fill. There was no evidence of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis in any sample. A single small, locally applied dose of zoledronate provided maximum anchorage and prevented significant bone loss. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparative photoelastic study of dental and skeletal anchorages in the canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare dental and skeletal anchorages in mandibular canine retraction by means of a stress distribution analysis. METHODS: A photoelastic model was produced from second molar to canine, without the first premolar, and mandibular canine retraction was simulated by a rubber band tied to two types of anchorage: dental anchorage, in the first molar attached to adjacent teeth, and skeletal anchorage with a hook simulating the mini-implant. The forces were applied 10 times and observed in a circular polariscope. The stresses located in the mandibular canine were recorded in 7 regions. The Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the stress in each region and between both anchorage systems. The stresses in the mandibular canine periradicular regions were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Stresses were similar in the cervical region and the middle third. In the apical third, the stresses associated with skeletal anchorage were higher than the stresses associated with dental anchorage. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the highest stresses were identified in the cervical-distal, apical-distal, and apex regions with the use of dental anchorage, and in the apical-distal, apical-mesial, cervical-distal, and apex regions with the use of skeletal anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: The use of skeletal anchorage in canine retraction caused greater stress in the apical third than the use of dental anchorage, which indicates an intrusive component resulting from the direction of the force due to the position of the mini-implant and the bracket hook of the canine.

  20. Orthodontic space closure after first molar extraction without skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Collin; Jacobs-Müller, Claudia; Luley, Carolin; Erbe, Christina; Wehrbein, Heiner

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was an analysis of effects and side-effects during mesialization of second molars after extraction of the first permanent molars using the anterior dentition/premolars (PM) as an anchorage unit. A total of 35 patients were examined retrospectively who had undergone unilateral or bilateral first permanent molar extraction in the upper or lower arch due to carious lesions. Space closure was carried out in all cases through mesialization of the second molar using an elastic chain fixed to an edgewise stainless steel archwire and tying the anterior dentition/PM together with a continuous laceback ligature. Tooth movement was assessed from lateral cephalograms, orthopantomograms (OPGs) and images of the patient's study casts taken before and after the end of therapy. Space closure after first molar extractions by mesialization of the second molars without skeletal anchorage was largely achieved by bodily forward movement of the teeth, including a small tipping component or tooth-uprighting component when molars were already mesially inclined. Unilateral and bilateral mesialization of the second molars led to retrusion in the maxilla and mandible [(∆incl.=-3.6° (max., bil.), ∆incl.=-4.2° (mand., bil.)] and to translational retraction [(∆s=-2.3 mm (max., bil.), ∆s=-1.6 mm (mand., bil.)] of the incisors. Examination of the soft tissues revealed an increased posterior displacement of the upper and lower lips to the esthetic line [(∆s=-2.8 mm (max. bil.), ∆s=-2.2 mm (mand., bil.)]. In cases of unilateral mesialization less than 50% of the patients had a slight midline deviation in the mandible towards the extraction side. Side effects during mesialization of the second molars without skeletal anchorage in the anterior dentition/PM were observed primarily affecting the incisors integrated into the anterior anchorage unit. These side-effects resulted in posterior displacement of the soft tissues, including a change in profile. This must be

  1. Testing of large prestressing tendon end anchorage regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were performed on concrete end anchorage regions for prestressing tendons with ultimate strengths of approximately 8,900 kN. One test structure simulated a full scale concrete containment buttress and the other two test specimens were concrete blocks. The behavior of the test structure and specimens, when subjected to loading, was monitored by strain gages and dial gages. The testing illustrated that all of the amounts of reinforcing tested should be acceptable for the end anchor zones of large tendons presently used in prestressed concrete containment structures. (author)

  2. Amyloid-independent functional neural correlates of episodic memory in amnestic mild cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Eun Hyun; Choo, I L Han

    2016-06-01

    Although amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) could have various biological characteristics, little attention has been given to the nature of episodic memory decline in aMCI with pathophysiologies other than Alzheimer's disease (AD), i.e., aMCI with low beta-amyloid (Aβ) burden. This study aimed to identify the functional neural basis of episodic memory impairment in aMCI with Aβ burden negative (aMCI-Aβ-) and to compare these results with aMCI with Aβ burden positive (aMCI-Aβ+). Individuals with aMCI (n = 498) were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database. Based on the mean florbetapir standard uptake value ratio, participants were classified as aMCI-Aβ- or aMCI-Aβ+. Correlations between memory scores and regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMglc) were analyzed separately for the two subgroups using a multiple regression model. For aMCI-Aβ-, significant positive correlations between memory and rCMglc were found in the bilateral claustrum, right thalamus, left anterior cingulate cortex, left insula, and right posterior cingulate. For aMCI-Aβ+, significant positive correlations between memory and rCMglc were found in the temporoparietal areas. These correlation patterns remained unchanged when clinical severity was added as a covariate Our findings indicate that memory impairment in aMCI-Aβ- is related to multimodal integrative processing and the attentional control system, whereas memory impairment in aMCI-Aβ+ is related to the typical brain memory systems and AD signature. These results suggest that although the two subgroups are clinically in the same category as aMCI, the memory impairment process depends on completely different functional brain regions according to their Aβ burden level.

  3. Role for cER and Mmr1p in anchorage of mitochondria at sites of polarized surface growth in budding yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swayne, Theresa C; Zhou, Chun; Boldogh, Istvan R; Charalel, Joseph K; McFaline-Figueroa, José Ricardo; Thoms, Sven; Yang, Christine; Leung, Galen; McInnes, Joseph; Erdmann, Ralf; Pon, Liza A

    2011-12-06

    Mitochondria accumulate at neuronal and immunological synapses and yeast bud tips and associate with the ER during phospholipid biosynthesis, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial fission. Here we show that mitochondria are associated with cortical ER (cER) sheets underlying the plasma membrane in the bud tip and confirm that a deletion in YPT11, which inhibits cER accumulation in the bud tip, also inhibits bud tip anchorage of mitochondria. Time-lapse imaging reveals that mitochondria are anchored at specific sites in the bud tip. Mmr1p, a member of the DSL1 family of tethering proteins, localizes to punctate structures on opposing surfaces of mitochondria and cER sheets underlying the bud tip and is recovered with isolated mitochondria and ER. Deletion of MMR1 impairs bud tip anchorage of mitochondria without affecting mitochondrial velocity or cER distribution. Deletion of the phosphatase PTC1 results in increased Mmr1p phosphorylation, mislocalization of Mmr1p, defects in association of Mmr1p with mitochondria and ER, and defects in bud tip anchorage of mitochondria. These findings indicate that Mmr1p contributes to mitochondrial inheritance as a mediator of anchorage of mitochondria to cER sheets in the yeast bud tip and that Ptc1p regulates Mmr1p phosphorylation, localization, and function. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Left ventricular long axis function assessed during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance is an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vibhav; Chacko, Satish Jacob; Romano, Simone; Jue, Jennifer; Jariwala, Nikhil; Chung, Jaehoon; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin

    2016-06-07

    Left ventricular pump function requires a complex interplay involving myocardial fibers orientated in the longitudinal, oblique and circumferential directions. Long axis dysfunction appears to be an early marker for a number of pathological states. We hypothesized that mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) measured during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reflects changes in long axis function and may be an early marker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of this study were therefore: 1) To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of MAPSE measurements during routine cine-CMR; and 2) To assess whether MAPSE, as a surrogate for long axis function, is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Four hundred consecutive patients undergoing CMR were prospectively enrolled. MAPSE was measured in the 4-chamber cine view. Patients were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) - death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late revascularization. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with MACE. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated to assess whether addition of MAPSE resulted in improved risk reclassification of MACE. Seventy-two MACE occurred during a median follow-up of 14.5 months. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with lateral MAPSE cine-CMR is an independent predictor of MACE.

  5. Short-term effects of upper extremity circuit resistance training on muscle strength and functional independence in patients with paraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Adem; Sürücü, Gülseren Dost; Karamercan, Ayşe; Gedik, Dilay Eken; Atci, Nermin; Dülgeroǧlu, Deniz; Özgirgin, Neşe

    2016-11-21

    A number of exercises to strengthen the upper extremities are recommended to increase functional independence and quality of life (QoL) in patients with paraplegia. Circuit resistance training (CRT) is a type of progressive resistive exercise performed repeatedly at fixed mechanical exercise stations. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential benefits of CRT for upper extremity muscle strength, functional independence, and QoL in patients with paraplegia. Twenty-six patients with paraplegia who were participating in a conventional rehabilitation program at a tertiary education and research hospital were enrolled in this study. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups. The exercise group participated in the CRT program, which consisted of repetitive exercises for the upper extremities performed at fixed mechanical stations 5 sessions per week for 6 weeks, in addition to conventional rehabilitation. Participants in the control group received only conventional rehabilitation over the same period. We compared the groups with respect to QoL, as well as isokinetic muscle test outcomes in the upper extremities, using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Borg's scale. We observed significant increases in scores on the physical component of the FIM, Borg's scale, and QoL in both the exercise and control groups. Furthermore, the large majority of isokinetic values were significantly more improved in the exercise group compared to the control group. When post-treatment outcomes were compared between the groups, improvements in scores on the physical component of the FIM and in most isokinetic values were significantly greater in the exercise group. This study showed that CRT has positive effects on muscle strength in the upper extremities and the physical disability components of the FIM when added to conventional rehabilitation programs for paraplegic patients. However, we observed no significant improvement in QoL scores after adding CRT

  6. FIT: Computer Program that Interactively Determines Polynomial Equations for Data which are a Function of Two Independent Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.; Roy, M. L.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1985-01-01

    A computer program for interactively developing least-squares polynomial equations to fit user-supplied data is described. The program is characterized by the ability to compute the polynomial equations of a surface fit through data that are a function of two independent variables. The program utilizes the Langley Research Center graphics packages to display polynomial equation curves and data points, facilitating a qualitative evaluation of the effectiveness of the fit. An explanation of the fundamental principles and features of the program, as well as sample input and corresponding output, are included.

  7. Circadian clock-dependent and -independent rhythmic proteomes implement distinct diurnal functions in mouse liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauvoisin, Daniel; Wang, Jingkui; Jouffe, Céline; Martin, Eva; Atger, Florian; Waridel, Patrice; Quadroni, Manfredo; Gachon, Frédéric; Naef, Felix

    2014-01-07

    Diurnal oscillations of gene expression controlled by the circadian clock underlie rhythmic physiology across most living organisms. Although such rhythms have been extensively studied at the level of transcription and mRNA accumulation, little is known about the accumulation patterns of proteins. Here, we quantified temporal profiles in the murine hepatic proteome under physiological light-dark conditions using stable isotope labeling by amino acids quantitative MS. Our analysis identified over 5,000 proteins, of which several hundred showed robust diurnal oscillations with peak phases enriched in the morning and during the night and related to core hepatic physiological functions. Combined mathematical modeling of temporal protein and mRNA profiles indicated that proteins accumulate with reduced amplitudes and significant delays, consistent with protein half-life data. Moreover, a group comprising about one-half of the rhythmic proteins showed no corresponding rhythmic mRNAs, indicating significant translational or posttranslational diurnal control. Such rhythms were highly enriched in secreted proteins accumulating tightly during the night. Also, these rhythms persisted in clock-deficient animals subjected to rhythmic feeding, suggesting that food-related entrainment signals influence rhythms in circulating plasma factors.

  8. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  9. 76 FR 15246 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by vessels waiting to enter... Sound that under current informal practice is routinely used by mariners as an anchorage while waiting...

  10. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of an Integrated Sleeve-Wedge Anchorage for CFRP Rods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Smith, Scott T.; Täljsten, Björn

    2011-01-01

    . Recently, an integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage has been successfully developed specifically for CFRP rods. This paper in turn presents a numerical simulation of the newly developed anchorage using ABAQUS. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, which considers material non-linearity, uses...

  11. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico. 166.200 Section 166.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... the erection of structures therein to provide safe approaches through oil fields in the Gulf of Mexico... for Fairway Anchorages in the Gulf of Mexico. Structures may be placed within an area designated as a...

  12. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs with Prestressed CFRP Strips Using Different Anchorage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sena-Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR technique has been widely used for flexural strengthening of concrete structures by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP. EBR technique offers several structural advantages when the CFRP material is prestressed. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on reinforced (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with prestressed CFRP strips as a structural strengthening system. The strips are applied as an externally bonded reinforcement (EBR and anchored with either a mechanical or a gradient anchorage. The former foresees metallic anchorage plates fixed to the concrete substrate, while the latter is based on an accelerated epoxy resin curing followed by a segment-wise prestress force decrease at the strip ends. Both anchorage systems, in combination with different CFRP strip geometries, were subjected to static loading tests. It could be demonstrated that the composite strip’s performance is better exploited when prestressing is used, with slightly higher overall load carrying capacities for mechanical anchorages than for the gradient anchorage. The performed investigations by means of a cross-section analysis supported the experimental observation that in case a mechanical anchorage is used, progressive strip debonding changes the fully bonded configuration to an unbonded end-anchored system. The inclusion of defined debonding criteria for both the anchorage zones and free length between the anchorage regions allowed to precisely capture the ultimate loading forces.

  13. 77 FR 50914 - Anchorage; Change to Cottonwood Island Anchorage, Columbia River, Oregon and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... under Executive Order 13211. 13. Technical Standards The National Technology Transfer and Advancement... of Proposed Rulemaking A. Regulatory History and Information On June 13, 2011, the Coast Guard...'' comprises small businesses, not-for-profit organizations that are independently owned and operated and are...

  14. Mini-Implants in the Anchorage Armamentarium: New Paradigms in the Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD. These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics.

  15. Association of quality of life of carers with quality of life and functional independence of stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Ganjiwale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke has a great impact not only on patients′ but also on their caregivers′ lives. Carers may experience high levels of burden that can result in deterioration of their health status, social life, and well-being. Association between quality of life (QOL of carers and that of stroke survivors in Indian setting is not much researched. Aims and Settings: To find out QOL and mental health of caregivers of individuals with stroke visiting Physiotherapy Department of Tertiary Care Center in Western India. Design and Methodology: A cross-sectional survey to find QOL and mental health of caregiver of stroke survivors, self-administered screening instrument WHO-QOL BREF, functional independence measurement (FIM scale, and BRIEF COPE were used for data collection on adult populations. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis and correlation. Result: Fifty-four stroke patients and their caregivers (all adults were included in the study. Average FIM score was 83.75 (18.46 while median was 90 (25. FIM score of patients did not much affect QOL of caregivers. Discussion: Analysis of QOL data showed that QOL of caregivers was good in all domains, but patient′s QOL was good only in social relations. There was no correlation found in QOL of carers and stroke survivors. Nine percent of change in caregivers social relationship scores can be attributed to patients′ sphincter scores. Conclusion: QOL of carers and stroke survivors may be independent. Stroke patients in the study required a moderate assistance for their functional independence which does not seem to affect the caregivers QOL significantly.

  16. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury at the Acute Stage: Independent Component and Seed-Based Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraji, Armin; Benson, Randall R.; Welch, Robert D.; O'Neil, Brian J.; Woodard, John L.; Imran Ayaz, Syed; Kulek, Andrew; Mika, Valerie; Medado, Patrick; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Liu, Tianming; Haacke, E. Mark

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for more than 1 million emergency visits each year. Most of the injured stay in the emergency department for a few hours and are discharged home without a specific follow-up plan because of their negative clinical structural imaging. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly functional MRI (fMRI), has been reported as being sensitive to functional disturbances after brain injury. In this study, a cohort of 12 patients with mTBI were prospectively recruited from the emergency department of our local Level-1 trauma center for an advanced MRI scan at the acute stage. Sixteen age- and sex-matched controls were also recruited for comparison. Both group-based and individual-based independent component analysis of resting-state fMRI (rsfMRI) demonstrated reduced functional connectivity in both posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and precuneus regions in comparison with controls, which is part of the default mode network (DMN). Further seed-based analysis confirmed reduced functional connectivity in these two regions and also demonstrated increased connectivity between these regions and other regions of the brain in mTBI. Seed-based analysis using the thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala regions further demonstrated increased functional connectivity between these regions and other regions of the brain, particularly in the frontal lobe, in mTBI. Our data demonstrate alterations of multiple brain networks at the resting state, particularly increased functional connectivity in the frontal lobe, in response to brain concussion at the acute stage. Resting-state functional connectivity of the DMN could serve as a potential biomarker for improved detection of mTBI in the acute setting. PMID:25285363

  17. Functions of the APC tumor suppressor protein dependent and independent of canonical WNT signaling: implications for therapeutic targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankey, William; Frankel, Wendy L; Groden, Joanna

    2018-03-01

    The acquisition of biallelic mutations in the APC gene is a rate-limiting step in the development of most colorectal cancers and occurs in the earliest lesions. APC encodes a 312-kDa protein that localizes to multiple subcellular compartments and performs diverse functions. APC participates in a cytoplasmic complex that promotes the destruction of the transcriptional licensing factor β-catenin; APC mutations that abolish this function trigger constitutive activation of the canonical WNT signaling pathway, a characteristic found in almost all colorectal cancers. By negatively regulating canonical WNT signaling, APC counteracts proliferation, promotes differentiation, facilitates apoptosis, and suppresses invasion and tumor progression. APC further antagonizes canonical WNT signaling by interacting with and counteracting β-catenin in the nucleus. APC also suppresses tumor initiation and progression in the colorectal epithelium through functions that are independent of canonical WNT signaling. APC regulates the mitotic spindle to facilitate proper chromosome segregation, localizes to the cell periphery and cell protrusions to establish cell polarity and appropriate directional migration, and inhibits DNA replication by interacting directly with DNA. Mutations in APC are often frameshifts, insertions, or deletions that introduce premature stop codons and lead to the production of truncated APC proteins that lack its normal functions and possess tumorigenic properties. Therapeutic approaches in development for the treatment of APC-deficient tumors are focused on the inhibition of canonical WNT signaling, especially through targets downstream of APC in the pathway, or on the restoration of wild-type APC expression.

  18. Success rates and factors associated with failure of temporary anchorage devices: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Shehab A; Alyan, Doha; Fayed, Mona S; Alhammadi, Maged S; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2018-03-06

    The objective of the present study was to investigate success rates and associated factors affecting temporary anchorage device (TAD) failure in different biomechanical applications. A total of 180 TADs were used as a part of 82 patients' treatment plan (24 males and 58 females); their mean age was 21.41 years. Three types of TADs were used: 50 (3M ESPE, Neuss, Germany), 56 (Bone screw; Jeil Medical, Seoul, Korea), and 74 (Morelli, Sorocaba, Brazil). Eight maxillary and four mandibular sites were selected for insertion. Three different lengths (6, 8, and 10 mm) and three different diameters (1.5, 1.6, and 1.8 mm) were used. The force levels were set at 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g. Patient-, implant-, and operator-dependent factors were evaluated throughout the 266 days of function. Qualitative variables were described by proportions and percentages and analyzed using χ 2 test. The overall success rate was 82.2%. The higher age group showed a significantly higher success rate. Oral hygiene showed a statistically-significant (P ˂ .05) difference between both success and failure groups. All other patient-related factors showed no significant differences. Regarding force levels used, the highest success rate was in 250 g and the lowest was in 100 g. There were no significant differences between both groups regarding other implant- and operator-related factors. Temporary anchorage devices have a good success rate and are beneficial to be integrated in orthodontic treatment planning. Patient age, oral hygiene, and force level are the most significant factors affecting TAD success. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  19. The nutrient transceptor/PKA pathway functions independently of TOR and responds to leucine and Gcn2 in a TOR-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Michaela; Kankipati, Harish Nag; Kimpe, Marlies; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-08-01

    Two nutrient-controlled signalling pathways, the PKA and TOR pathway, play a major role in nutrient regulation of growth as well as growth-correlated properties in yeast. The relationship between the two pathways is not well understood. We have used Gap1 and Pho84 transceptor-mediated activation of trehalase and phosphorylation of fragmented Sch9 as a read-out for rapid nutrient activation of PKA or TORC1, respectively. We have identified conditions in which L-citrulline-induced activation of Sch9 phosphorylation is compromised, but not activation of trehalase: addition of the TORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin and low levels of L-citrulline. The same disconnection was observed for phosphate activation in phosphate-starved cells. The leu2 auxotrophic mutation reduces amino acid activation of trehalase, which is counteracted by deletion of GCN2. Both effects were also independent of TORC1. Our results show that rapid activation of the TOR pathway by amino acids is not involved in rapid activation of the PKA pathway and that effects of Gcn2 inactivation as well as leu2 auxotrophy all act independently of the TOR pathway. Hence, rapid nutrient signalling to PKA and TOR in cells arrested by nutrient starvation acts through parallel pathways. © FEMS 2017.

  20. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  1. Functional Independence and Quality of Life for Persons with Locomotor Disabilities in Institutional Based Rehabilitation and Community Based Rehabilitation - A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Amarnath

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To compare the functional independence and quality of life of persons with locomotor disabilities who undergo Institutional Based Rehabilitation (IBR and similar persons who undergo Community Based Rehabilitation (CBR. Methods: Purposive sampling was done. Thirty males with locomotor disabilities -15 from IBR and 15 from CBR- were selected. Both the groups were first administered the Functional Independence Measure (FIM questionnaire, followed by the Quality of Life (WHOQOL-BREF questionnaire.Results: There were no significant differencse between IBR and CBR with regard to functional independence  (t value = -1.810, P doi: 10.5463/dcid.v23i3.147

  2. TPC2 polymorphisms associated with a hair pigmentation phenotype in humans result in gain of channel function by independent mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Yu-Kai; Schludi, Verena; Chen, Cheng-Chang; Butz, Elisabeth; Nguyen, O N Phuong; Müller, Martin; Krüger, Jens; Kammerbauer, Claudia; Ben-Johny, Manu; Vollmar, Angelika M; Berking, Carola; Biel, Martin; Wahl-Schott, Christian A; Grimm, Christian

    2017-10-10

    Two-pore channels (TPCs) are endolysosomal cation channels. Two members exist in humans, TPC1 and TPC2. Functional roles associated with the ubiquitously expressed TPCs include VEGF-induced neoangiogenesis, LDL-cholesterol trafficking and degradation, physical endurance under fasting conditions, autophagy regulation, the acrosome reaction in sperm, cancer cell migration, and intracellular trafficking of pathogens such as Ebola virus or bacterial toxins (e.g., cholera toxin). In a genome-wide association study for variants associated with human pigmentation characteristics two coding variants of TPC2, rs35264875 (encoding M484L) and rs3829241 (encoding G734E), have been found to be associated with a shift from brown to blond hair color. In two recent follow-up studies a role for TPC2 in pigmentation has been further confirmed. However, these human polymorphic variants have not been functionally characterized until now. The development of endolysosomal patch-clamp techniques has made it possible to investigate directly ion channel activities and characteristics in isolated endolysosomal organelles. We applied this technique here to scrutinize channel characteristics of the polymorphic TPC2 variants in direct comparison with WT. We found that both polymorphisms lead to a gain of channel function by independent mechanisms. We next conducted a clinical study with more than 100 blond- and brown/black-haired individuals. We performed a genotype/phenotype analysis and subsequently isolated fibroblasts from WT and polymorphic variant carriers for endolysosomal patch-clamp experimentation to confirm key in vitro findings.

  3. Association of ideomotor apraxia with lesion site, etiology, neglect, and functional independence in patients with first ever stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civelek, Gul Mete; Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2015-04-01

    Ideomotor apraxia (IMA) is characterized by the inability to correctly imitate hand gestures and voluntarily pantomime tool use. The relationship between IMA and characteristics of stroke has not been totally elucidated. This study aimed to find out associations between presence of IMA and stroke etiology, site of the lesions, neglect, and temporal and functional parameters of stroke in patients with first ever stroke. Thirty-nine patients with first ever stroke were included. Patients with severe cognitive deficits were excluded. Assessment tools included Ideomotor Apraxia Test, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Brunnstrom recovery stages, Mini Mental Test (MMT), and star cancellation test. Etiology (hemorrhagic or ischemic) and site of stroke was assessed through brain imaging methods. Location and size of ischemic lesion was determined by using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project system. IMA was identified in 35.9% of the patients. Patients with IMA had significantly lower FIM scores both on admission and discharge (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Presence of IMA was significantly associated with the presence of neglect (P = 0.004), total anterior circulation ischemia (TACI) (P stroke etiology had no impact on the presence of IMA. IMA was in concordance with poor cognitive and functional state and was not limited to left hemisphere lesions. The study revealed strong associations between IMA, neglect, and TACI. Every patient with stroke should be evaluated for the presence of IMA on admission to rehabilitation unit.

  4. Metacognition moderates the relationship between dysfunctional self-appraisal and social functioning in prolonged schizophrenia independent of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alison V; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Vohs, Jenifer; Minor, Kyle S; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Buck, Kelly D; George, Sunita; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-08-01

    Both dysfunctional self-appraisal and metacognitive deficits, or impairments in the ability to form complex and integrated ideas about oneself and others, may contribute to social deficits in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about how they interact with each other. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that both higher metacognition and more positive self-appraisal are necessary for increased social functioning. Concurrent assessments of self-appraisal, metacognition, and social functioning were gathered from 66 adults with schizophrenia in a non-acute phase of disorder. Three forms of self-appraisal were used: self-esteem, hope and self-efficacy. Metacognition was assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, and social functioning with the Quality of Life Scale. Measures of psychopathology, neurocognition and social cognition were also gathered for use as potential covariates. A single index of self-appraisal was generated from subjecting the assessments of self-appraisal to a principal components analysis. Linear regression analyses revealed that after controlling for severity of psychopathology, metacognition moderated the effect of the self-appraisal factor score upon social functioning. A median split of metacognition and the self-appraisal index yielded four groups. ANCOVA analyses revealed that participants with higher levels of metacognition and more positive self-appraisal had greater capacities for social relatedness than all other participants, regardless of levels of positive and negative symptoms. Correlational analyses revealed that metacognition but not self-appraisal was related to the frequencies of social contact independent of the effects of psychopathology. Assessments of social cognition and neurocognition were not significantly linked with social dysfunction. Greater social functioning is made possible by a combination of both more positive self-appraisals and greater metacognitive capacity. Individuals with

  5. Model-independent and fast determination of optical functions in storage rings via multiturn and closed-orbit data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Riemann

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiturn (or turn-by-turn data acquisition has proven to be a new source of direct measurements for Twiss parameters in storage rings. On the other hand, closed-orbit measurements are a long-known tool for analyzing closed-orbit perturbations with conventional beam position monitor (BPM systems and are necessarily available at every storage ring. This paper aims at combining the advantages of multiturn measurements and closed-orbit data. We show that only two multiturn BPMs and four correctors in one localized drift space in the storage ring (diagnostic drift are sufficient for model-independent and absolute measuring of β and φ functions at all BPMs, including the conventional ones, instead of requiring all BPMs being equipped with multiturn electronics.

  6. Model-independent and fast determination of optical functions in storage rings via multiturn and closed-orbit data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bernard; Grete, Patrick; Weis, Thomas

    2011-06-01

    Multiturn (or turn-by-turn) data acquisition has proven to be a new source of direct measurements for Twiss parameters in storage rings. On the other hand, closed-orbit measurements are a long-known tool for analyzing closed-orbit perturbations with conventional beam position monitor (BPM) systems and are necessarily available at every storage ring. This paper aims at combining the advantages of multiturn measurements and closed-orbit data. We show that only two multiturn BPMs and four correctors in one localized drift space in the storage ring (diagnostic drift) are sufficient for model-independent and absolute measuring of β and φ functions at all BPMs, including the conventional ones, instead of requiring all BPMs being equipped with multiturn electronics.

  7. Inspection Mechanism and Experimental Study of Prestressed Reverse Tension Method under PC Beam Bridge Anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    the prestress under anchorage is directly related to the structural security and performance of PC beam bridge. The reverse tension method is a kind of inspection which confirms the prestress by exerting reversed tension load on the exposed prestressing tendon of beam bridge anchoring system. The thesis elaborately expounds the inspection mechanism and mechanical effect of reverse tension method, theoretically analyzes the influential elements of inspection like tool anchorage deformation, compression of conjuncture, device glide, friction of anchorage loop mouth and elastic compression of concrete, and then presents the following formula to calculate prestress under anchorage. On the basis of model experiment, the thesis systematically studies some key issues during the reverse tension process of PC beam bridge anchorage system like the formation of stress-elongation curve, influential factors, judgment method of prestress under anchorage, variation trend and compensation scale, verifies the accuracy of mechanism analysis and demonstrates: the prestress under anchorage is less than or equal to 75% of the ultimate strength of prestressing tendon, the error of inspect result is less than 1%, which can meet with the demands of construction. The research result has provided theoretical basis and technical foundation for the promotion and application of reverse tension in bridge construction.

  8. Mechanical anchorage of FRP tendons – A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob W.; Bennitz, Anders; Täljsten, Björn

    2012-01-01

    High tensile strength, good resistance to degradation and creep, low weight and, to some extent, the ability to change the modulus of elasticity are some of the advantages of using prestressed, unidirectional FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer) tendon systems. Bonded and non-bonded versions of these s......High tensile strength, good resistance to degradation and creep, low weight and, to some extent, the ability to change the modulus of elasticity are some of the advantages of using prestressed, unidirectional FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer) tendon systems. Bonded and non-bonded versions...... with such systems. This is especially important in external post-tensioned tendon systems, where the anchorage points are exposed to the full load throughout the life span of the structure. Consequently, there are large requirements related to the long-term capacity and fatigue resistance of such systems. Several...

  9. Digital lingual orthodontics and temporary anchorage devices for efficient biomechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pravin Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult patients seeking orthodontic treatment at all times present with an esthetic demand even during treatment. The lingual orthodontics, apart from its esthetic values, also presents several other advantages. Currently, it has become a complete system in itself, starting from an accurate diagnosis, treatment protocol, and laboratory procedure to placement of the appliance in the patient′s mouth. With the advent of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system, the lingual orthodontics is more evolved and made ease operators in respect to more efficient mechanics and reduced archwire adjustments. The present article presents two cases to show the efficiency of lingual orthodontics with temporary anchorage devices and anterior retraction hook.

  10. Factors predisposing to maxillary anchorage loss: a retrospective study of 1403 cases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Su

    Full Text Available Anchorage loss is very disturbing for orthodontists and patients during orthodontic treatment, which usually results in bad treatment effects. Despite the same treatment strategy, different patients show different tendencies toward anchorage loss, which influences the treatment results and should preferably be predicted before the treatment is begun. However, relatively little research has been conducted on which patients are more likely to lose anchorage. The mesial tipping of the first molar marks the onset of anchorage loss, and changes in the angulation of the first molar are closely related to anchorage loss. This cross-sectional study aimed to determine how the mesiodistal angulation of the upper first molars changes during general orthodontic treatment and to identify the individual physiologic factors leading to these changes in a large sample of 1403 patients with malocclusion. The data indicate that the upper first molars tend to be tipped mesially during orthodontic treatment, and this constitutes a type of anchorage loss that orthodontists should consider carefully. Compared to treatment-related factors, patients' physiologic characteristics have a greater influence on changes in the angulation of the upper first molars during orthodontic treatment. The more distally tipped the upper first molars are before treatment, the more they will tip mesially during treatment. Mesial tipping of the upper first molars, and therefore, anchorage loss, is more likely to occur in adolescents, males, patients with class II malocclusion and patients who have undergone maxillary premolar extraction. This finding is of clinical significance to orthodontists who wish to prevent iatrogenic anchorage loss by tipping originally distally tipped upper molars forward, and provides a new perspective on anchorage during orthodontic treatment planning.

  11. Design of steel-liners and their anchorage with regard to non-linear behaviour of liner-material and anchorage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oberpichler, R.

    1979-01-01

    The thin steel liner attached by studs or rib-type anchors to the interior wall of a Prestressed Concrete Reactor Pressure Vessel (PCRV) or a Concrete Containment Vessel (PCCV) has to provide the leak-tightness of the vessel. The liner also may serve as internal shuttering for placing concrete as well as a support for the cooling system or thermal isolation. Mainly strained by self-limited loads imposed on the liner by deformations of the vessel-wall or by heatup inside the vessel the liner predominantly will function in a compressive biaxially strained state like a membrane. The vessel-wall is assumed to be a rigid boundary without reactions caused by the liner-anchor-restraints. Furthermore it is assumed that the liner supported in a close-spaced pattern to the concrete with respect to self-limited loads and all effects of non-linear behaviour of liner-material and non-linear anchor-characteristics will not fail by instability, especially not by an effect of snapthrough. Only one essential mode of failure, the shear connector failure is assumed to be basis for all liner investigations. Design of the liner and its anchorage therefore is based on the analysis of large deformations with regard to elastic-plastic behaviour of liner-material and non-linear anchor characteristics. By this method both economical and safe sizing and spacing of the anchors can be calculated. (orig.)

  12. Morphologic and hemodynamic analysis of dental pulp in dogs after molar intrusion with the skeletal anchorage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yuichi; Daimaruya, Takayoshi; Iikubo, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Reiko; Takahashi, Ichiro; Sugawara, Junji; Sasano, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    We have successfully treated skeletal open bite by intruding posterior teeth with the skeletal anchorage system. Our aim in this study was to morphologically and hemodynamically evaluate the changes in pulp tissues when molars are radically intruded. The mandibular fourth premolars of 9 adult beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups: a sham operated group (n = 6, 3 dogs), 4-month intrusion group (n = 6, 3 dogs), and a further 4-month retention group (n = 6, 3 dogs). We evaluated the morphological changes of the pulp and dentin-the amount of vacuolar degeneration in the odontoblast layer, the predentin width and nervous continuity in the pulp tissue, and the pulpal blood-flow response evoked by electrical stimulation in the dental pulp. Extreme molar intrusion with the skeletal anchorage system caused slight degenerative changes in the pulp tissue, followed by recovery after the orthodontic force was released. Circulatory system and nervous functions were basically maintained during the intrusion, although a certain level of downregulation was observed. These morphologic and functional regressive changes in the pulp tissue after molar intrusion improved during the retention period. Histologic changes and changes in pulpal blood flow and function are reversible, even during radical intrusion of molars.

  13. Willingness to pay for quality of life technologies to enhance independent functioning among baby boomers and the elderly adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Richard; Beach, Scott R; Matthews, Judith T; Courtney, Karen; Devito Dabbs, Annette; Person Mecca, Laurel; Sankey, Steadman Scott

    2014-06-01

    We report the results of a study designed to assess whether and how much potential individual end users are willing to pay for Quality of Life Technologies (QoLTs) designed to enhance functioning and independence. We carried out a web survey of a nationally representative sample of U.S. baby boomers (aged 45-64; N = 416) and older adults (aged 65 and greater, N = 114). Respondents were first instructed to assume that they needed help with kitchen activities/personal care and that technology was available to help with things like meal preparation/dressing, and then they were asked the most they would be willing to pay each month out of pocket for these technologies. We modeled willingness to pay some (72% of respondents) versus none (28%), and the most people were willing to pay. Those willing to pay something were on average willing to pay a maximum of $40.30 and $45.00 per month for kitchen and personal care technology assistance, respectively. Respondents concerned about privacy or who were currently using assistive technology were less willing to pay. Respondents with higher incomes, who were Hispanic, or who perceived a higher likelihood of needing help in the future were more willing to pay. Consumers' willingness to pay out of pocket for technologies to improve their well-being and independence is limited. In order to be widely adopted, QoLTs will have to be highly cost effective so that third party payers such as Medicare and private insurance companies are willing to pay for them.

  14. Telomerase activity-independent function of telomerase reverse transcriptase is involved in acrylamide-induced neuron damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, P; Pan, H; Wang, J; Liu, X; Hu, X

    2014-07-01

    Polyacrylamide is used widely in industry, and its decomposition product, acrylamide (ACR), readily finds its way into commonly consumed cosmetics and baked and fried foods. ACR exerts potent neurotoxic effects in human and animal models. Telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT), the catalytic subunit of telomerase, traditionally has been considered to play an important role in maintaining telomere length. Emerging evidence has shown, however, that TERT plays an important role in neuroprotection by inhibiting apoptosis and excitotoxicity, and by promoting angiogenesis, neuronal survival and neurogenesis, which are closely related to the telomere-independent functions of TERT. We investigated whether and how the TERT pathway is involved in ACR induced neurotoxicity in rat cortical neurons. We found that ACR 1) significantly reduced the viability of cortical neurons as measured by MTT assay, 2) induced neuron apoptosis as revealed by FITC-conjugated Annexin V/PI double staining and flow cytometry (FACS) analysis, 3) elevated expression of cleaved caspase-3, and 4) decreased bcl-2 expression of cortical neurons. ACR also increased intracellular ROS levels in cortical neurons, increased MDA levels and reduced GSH, SOD and GSH-Px levels in mitochondria in a dose-dependent manner. We found that TERT expression in mitochondria was increased by ACR at concentrations of 2.5 and 5.0 mM, but TERT expression was decreased by 10 mM ACR. Telomerase activity, however, was undetectable in rat cortical neurons. Our results suggest that the TERT pathway is involved in ACR induced apoptosis of cortical neurons. TERT also may exert its neuroprotective role in a telomerase activity-independent way, especially in mitochondria.

  15. A novel tumor suppressor function of glycine N-methyltransferase is independent of its catalytic activity but requires nuclear localization.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchandra DebRoy

    Full Text Available Glycine N-methyltransferase (GNMT, an abundant cytosolic enzyme, catalyzes the transfer of a methyl group from S-adenosylmethionine (SAM to glycine generating S-adenosylhomocysteine and sarcosine (N-methylglycine. This reaction is regulated by 5-methyltetrahydrofolate, which inhibits the enzyme catalysis. In the present study, we observed that GNMT is strongly down regulated in human cancers and is undetectable in cancer cell lines while the transient expression of the protein in cancer cells induces apoptosis and results in the activation of ERK1/2 as an early pro-survival response. The antiproliferative effect of GNMT can be partially reversed by treatment with the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk but not by supplementation with high folate or SAM. GNMT exerts the suppressor effect primarily in cells originated from malignant tumors: transformed cell line of non-cancer origin, HEK293, was insensitive to GNMT. Of note, high levels of GNMT, detected in regenerating liver and in NIH3T3 mouse fibroblasts, do not produce cytotoxic effects. Importantly, GNMT, a predominantly cytoplasmic protein, was translocated into nuclei upon transfection of cancer cells. The presence of GNMT in the nuclei was also observed in normal human tissues by immunohistochemical staining. We further demonstrated that the induction of apoptosis is associated with the GNMT nuclear localization but is independent of its catalytic activity or folate binding. GNMT targeted to nuclei, through the fusion with nuclear localization signal, still exerts strong antiproliferative effects while its restriction to cytoplasm, through the fusion with nuclear export signal, prevents these effects (in each case the protein was excluded from cytosol or nuclei, respectively. Overall, our study indicates that GNMT has a secondary function, as a regulator of cellular proliferation, which is independent of its catalytic role.

  16. Drosophila Clock Is Required in Brain Pacemaker Neurons to Prevent Premature Locomotor Aging Independently of Its Circadian Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0 and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1 clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila.

  17. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xianlin; Wu, Wenzhe; Qiu, Yang; Shu, Ting; Zhao, Xiaolu; Yin, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3′-to-5′ unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16), another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings increase our

  18. Early bone anchorage to micro- and nano-topographically complex implant surfaces in hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajami, Elnaz; Bell, Spencer; Liddell, Robert S; Davies, John E

    2016-07-15

    The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of implant surface design on early bone anchorage in the presence of hyperglycemia. 108 Wistar rats were separated into euglycemic (EG) controls and STZ-treated hyperglycemic (HG) groups, and received bilateral femoral custom rectangular implants of two surface topographies: grit blasted (GB) and grit-blast with a superimposed calcium phosphate nanotopography (GB-DCD). The peri-implant bone was subjected to a tensile disruption test 5, 7, and 9days post-operatively (n=28/time point); the force was measured; and the residual peri-implant bone was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Disruption forces at 5days were not significantly different from zero for the GB implants (p=0.24) in either metabolic group; but were for GB+DCD implants in both metabolic groups (pmicro-surfaced implants showed significantly different disruption forces at all time points (e.g. >15N and implants, as all values were very low (implant bone showed compromised intra-fibrillar collagen mineralization in hyperglycemia, while inter-fibrillar and cement line mineralization remained unaffected. Enhanced bone anchorage to the implant surfaces was observed on the nanotopographically complex surface independent of metabolic group. The compromised intra-fibrillar mineralization observed provides a mechanism by which early bone mineralization is affected in hyperglycemia. It is generally accepted that the hyperglycemia associated with diabetes mellitus compromises bone quality, although the mechanism by which this occurs is unknown. Uncontrolled hyperglycemia is therefore a contra-indication for bone implant placement. It is also known that nano-topographically complex implant surfaces accelerate early peri-implant healing. In this report we show that, in our experimental model, nano-topographically complex surfaces can mitigate the compromised bone healing seen in hyperglycemia. Importantly, we also provide a mechanistic explanation for

  19. A novel anchorage technique for transnasal traction in rigid external maxillary distraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varol, A; Basa, S

    2013-12-01

    We describe an effective technique for anchorage of transnasal traction in the management of maxillary rotation during external distraction. Copyright © 2012 The British Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Calculation of absorbed dose of anchorage-dependent cells from internal beta-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianwei; Huang Gang; Li Shijun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To elicit the formula of internal dosimetry in anchorage-dependent cells by beta-emitting radionuclides from uniformly distributed volume sources. Methods: By means of the definition of absorbed dose and the MIRD (Medical International Radiation Dose) scheme the formula of internal dosimetry was reasonably deduced. Firstly, studying the systems of suspension culture cells. Then, taking account of the speciality of the systems of the anchorage-dependent cells and the directions of irradiation, the absorbed dose of anchorage -dependent cells was calculated by the accumulated radioactivity, beta-ray energy, and the volume of the cultured systems. Results: The formula of internal dosimetry of suspension culture cells and anchorage-dependent cells were achieved. At the same time, the formula of internal dosimetry of suspension culture cells was compared with that of MIRD and was confirmed accurate. Conclusion: The formula of internal dosimetry is concise, reliable and accurate

  1. [Clinical effects of micro-implant and traditional anchorage in orthodontic treatments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yi; Zhou, Hua-Jie; Wu, Jian-Hua

    2017-06-01

    To analyze the value of micro-implant and traditional anchorage in the treatment of malocclusion. From Jan 2015 to Jan 2016, 20 cases with malocclusion were randomly divided into control group(10) and experimental group (10). A comparison was conducted between the control group, in which traditional anchorage was used and the experimental group, in which micro-implant anchorage was adopted. The data were analyzed with SPSS 17.0 software package. There was significant difference of U1-NA, L1-NB, U1-APg, U6-PtPNS between the 2 groups(PMicro-implant anchorage can improve overjet relation of the anterior teeth and effect of orthodontic treatment.

  2. SmD1 Modulates the miRNA Pathway Independently of Its Pre-mRNA Splicing Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Xiong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous regulatory RNAs that play a key role in myriad biological processes. Upon transcription, primary miRNA transcripts are sequentially processed by Drosha and Dicer ribonucleases into ~22-24 nt miRNAs. Subsequently, miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs that contain Argonaute (AGO family proteins and guide RISC to target RNAs via complementary base pairing, leading to post-transcriptional gene silencing by a combination of translation inhibition and mRNA destabilization. Select pre-mRNA splicing factors have been implicated in small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways in fission yeast, worms, flies and mammals, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that SmD1, a core component of the Drosophila small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP implicated in splicing, is required for miRNA biogenesis and function. SmD1 interacts with both the microprocessor component Pasha and pri-miRNAs, and is indispensable for optimal miRNA biogenesis. Depletion of SmD1 impairs the assembly and function of the miRISC without significantly affecting the expression of major canonical miRNA pathway components. Moreover, SmD1 physically and functionally associates with components of the miRISC, including AGO1 and GW182. Notably, miRNA defects resulting from SmD1 silencing can be uncoupled from defects in pre-mRNA splicing, and the miRNA and splicing machineries are physically and functionally distinct entities. Finally, photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP analysis identifies numerous SmD1-binding events across the transcriptome and reveals direct SmD1-miRNA interactions. Our study suggests that SmD1 plays a direct role in miRNA-mediated gene silencing independently of its pre-mRNA splicing activity and indicates that the dual roles of splicing factors in post-transcriptional gene regulation may be

  3. The H-Function and Probability Density Functions of Certain Algebraic Combinations of Independent Random Variables with H-Function Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    Education, 10 (2), A45-A49 (1976). 48. Rain&, R. K., and C. L. Kaul (Koul), "Some inequalities involving the Fox’s H- function," Proceedings of the Indian...1973). 51. Srivastava , A., and K. C. Gupta, "On certain recurrence rela- tions," Mathematische Nachrichten, 46, 13- 23 (1970), 49, 187- 197 (1971). 52...34 Vilnana Parishad Anusandhan Patrika, 10, 205- 217 (1967). 69. Gupta, K. C., and A. Srivastava , "On finite expansions for the H- function," Indian Journal

  4. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Exercise programs that challenge an individual's balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. STUDIES WERE OBTAINED BY SEARCHING THE FOLLOWING DATABASES: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home-based treatment cannot be made at this

  5. Bold-Independent Computational Entropy Assesses Functional Donut-Like Structures in Brain fMRI Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, James F; Ramanna, Sheela; Tozzi, Arturo; İnan, Ebubekir

    2017-01-01

    We introduce a novel method for the measurement of information level in fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) neural data sets, based on image subdivision in small polygons equipped with different entropic content. We show how this method, called maximal nucleus clustering (MNC), is a novel, fast and inexpensive image-analysis technique, independent from the standard blood-oxygen-level dependent signals. MNC facilitates the objective detection of hidden temporal patterns of entropy/information in zones of fMRI images generally not taken into account by the subjective standpoint of the observer. This approach befits the geometric character of fMRIs. The main purpose of this study is to provide a computable framework for fMRI that not only facilitates analyses, but also provides an easily decipherable visualization of structures. This framework commands attention because it is easily implemented using conventional software systems. In order to evaluate the potential applications of MNC, we looked for the presence of a fourth dimension's distinctive hallmarks in a temporal sequence of 2D images taken during spontaneous brain activity. Indeed, recent findings suggest that several brain activities, such as mind-wandering and memory retrieval, might take place in the functional space of a four dimensional hypersphere, which is a double donut-like structure undetectable in the usual three dimensions. We found that the Rényi entropy is higher in MNC areas than in the surrounding ones, and that these temporal patterns closely resemble the trajectories predicted by the possible presence of a hypersphere in the brain.

  6. Endocytosis-independent function of clathrin heavy chain in the control of basal NF-κB activation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Man Lyang Kim

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB is a transcription factor that regulates the transcription of genes involved in a variety of biological processes, including innate and adaptive immunity, stress responses and cell proliferation. Constitutive or excessive NF-κB activity has been associated with inflammatory disorders and higher risk of cancer. In contrast to the mechanisms controlling inducible activation, the regulation of basal NF-κB activation is not well understood. Here we test whether clathrin heavy chain (CHC contributes to the regulation of basal NF-κB activity in epithelial cells. METHODOLOGY: Using RNA interference to reduce endogenous CHC expression, we found that CHC is required to prevent constitutive activation of NF-κB and gene expression. Immunofluorescence staining showed constitutive nuclear localization of the NF-κB subunit p65 in absence of stimulation after CHC knockdown. Elevated basal p65 nuclear localization is caused by constitutive phosphorylation and degradation of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα through an IκB kinase α (IKKα-dependent mechanism. The role of CHC in NF-κB signaling is functionally relevant as constitutive expression of the proinflammatory chemokine interleukin-8 (IL-8, whose expression is regulated by NF-κB, was found after CHC knockdown. Disruption of clathrin-mediated endocytosis by chemical inhibition or depletion of the μ2-subunit of the endocytosis adaptor protein AP-2, and knockdown of clathrin light chain a (CHLa, failed to induce constitutive NF-κB activation and IL-8 expression, showing that CHC acts on NF-κB independently of endocytosis and CLCa. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that CHC functions as a built-in molecular brake that ensures a tight control of basal NF-κB activation and gene expression in unstimulated cells. Furthermore, our data suggest a potential link between a defect in CHC expression and chronic inflammation disorder and cancer.

  7. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Yocheved; Dar, Gali; Kodesh, Einat

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults. Methods Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment. Results Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs. Conclusion The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as well as methodological limitations, definitive recommendations as to optimal treatment protocols and the potential of such an intervention as a safe and effective home

  8. Estrogen Therapy, Independent of Timing, Improves Cardiac Structure and Function in Oophorectomized mRen2.Lewis Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Jewell A.; Wang, Hao; MacNamara, Lindsay M.; Presley, Tennille D.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Alex F.; Groban, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective mRen2.Lewis Rats exhibit exacerbated increases in blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and diastolic impairment following the loss of estrogens. In this same model, depletion of estrogens has marked effects on the cardiac biopterin profile concomitant with suppressed nitric oxide (NO) release. With respect to the establishment of overt systolic hypertension after oophorectomy (OVX), we assessed the effects of timing chronic 17 β-estradiol (E2) therapy on myocardial function, structure, and the cardiac NO system. Methods Oophrectomy (OVX; n=24) or sham-operation (Sham; n=13) was performed in 4-week-old, female mRen2.Lewis rats. Following randomization, OVX rats received E2 immediately (OVX + early E2; n=7), E2 at 11 weeks of age (OVX + late E2 N=8), or no E2 at all (OVX N=9). Results Early E2 was associated with lower body weight, less hypertension-related cardiac remodeling, and decreased LV filling pressure compared to OVX rats without E2 supplementation. Late E2 similarly attenuated the adverse effects of ovarian hormone loss on tissue-Doppler derived LV filling pressures and perivascular fibrosis, and significantly improved myocardial relaxation, or mitral annular velocity (e′). Early and late exposure to E2 decreased dihydrobiopterin, but only late E2 yielded significant increases in cardiac nitrite concentrations. Conclusions Although there were some similarities between early and late E2 treatment on preservation of diastolic function and cardiac structure after OVX, the lusitropic potential of E2 was most consistent with late supplementation. The cardioprotective effects of late E2 were independent of blood pressure and may have occurred through regulation of cardiac biopterins and NO production. PMID:23481117

  9. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline; Sun, Jianmin; Jögi, Annika; Neumann, Drorit; Rönnstrand, Lars; Påhlman, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα + ) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells

  10. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  11. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Sun, Jianmin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); Jögi, Annika [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Neumann, Drorit [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Rönnstrand, Lars [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); Påhlman, Sven, E-mail: sven.pahlman@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα{sup +}) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells.

  12. The Independent Gradient Model: A New Approach for Probing Strong and Weak Interactions in Molecules from Wave Function Calculations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, Corentin; Khartabil, Hassan; Boisson, Jean-Charles; Contreras-García, Julia; Piquemal, Jean-Philip; Hénon, Eric

    2018-03-19

    Extraction of the chemical interaction signature from local descriptors based on electron density (ED) is still a fruitful field of development in chemical interpretation. In a previous work that used promolecular ED (frozen ED), the new descriptor, δg , was defined. It represents the difference between a virtual upper limit of the ED gradient (∇ρIGM , IGM=independent gradient model) that represents a noninteracting system and the true ED gradient (∇ρ ). It can be seen as a measure of electron sharing brought by ED contragradience. A compelling feature of this model is to provide an automatic workflow that extracts the signature of interactions between selected groups of atoms. As with the noncovalent interaction (NCI) approach, it provides chemists with a visual understanding of the interactions present in chemical systems. ∇ρIGM is achieved simply by using absolute values upon summing the individual gradient contributions that make up the total ED gradient. Hereby, we extend this model to relaxed ED calculated from a wave function. To this end, we formulated gradient-based partitioning (GBP) to assess the contribution of each orbital to the total ED gradient. We highlight these new possibilities across two prototypical examples of organic chemistry: the unconventional hexamethylbenzene dication, with a hexa-coordinated carbon atom, and β-thioaminoacrolein. It will be shown how a bond-by-bond picture can be obtained from a wave function, which opens the way to monitor specific interactions along reaction paths. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Time-limited home-care reablement services for maintaining and improving the functional independence of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cochrane, Andy; Furlong, Mairead; McGilloway, Sinead; Molloy, David W; Stevenson, Michael; Donnelly, Michael

    2016-10-11

    Reablement, also known as restorative care, is one possible approach to home-care services for older adults at risk of functional decline. Unlike traditional home-care services, reablement is frequently time-limited (usually six to 12 weeks) and aims to maximise independence by offering an intensive multidisciplinary, person-centred and goal-directed intervention. To assess the effects of time-limited home-care reablement services (up to 12 weeks) for maintaining and improving the functional independence of older adults (aged 65 years or more) when compared to usual home-care or wait-list control group. We searched the following databases with no language restrictions during April to June 2015: the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE (OvidSP); Embase (OvidSP); PsycINFO (OvidSP); ERIC; Sociological Abstracts; ProQuest Dissertations and Theses; CINAHL (EBSCOhost); SIGLE (OpenGrey); AgeLine and Social Care Online. We also searched the reference lists of relevant studies and reviews as well as contacting authors in the field. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster randomised or quasi-randomised trials of time-limited reablement services for older adults (aged 65 years or more) delivered in their home; and incorporated a usual home-care or wait-list control group. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, assessed the risk of bias of individual studies and considered quality of the evidence using GRADE. We contacted study authors for additional information where needed. Two studies, comparing reablement with usual home-care services with 811 participants, met our eligibility criteria for inclusion; we also identified three potentially eligible studies, but findings were not yet available. One included study was conducted in Western Australia with 750 participants (mean age 82.29 years). The second study was conducted in Norway (61 participants; mean age 79 years).We are very uncertain as to

  14. Moderate Champagne consumption promotes an acute improvement in acute endothelial-independent vascular function in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauzour, David; Houseman, Emily J; George, Trevor W; Corona, Giulia; Garnotel, Roselyne; Jackson, Kim G; Sellier, Christelle; Gillery, Philippe; Kennedy, Orla B; Lovegrove, Julie A; Spencer, Jeremy P E

    2010-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested an inverse correlation between red wine consumption and the incidence of CVD. However, Champagne wine has not been fully investigated for its cardioprotective potential. In order to assess whether acute and moderate Champagne wine consumption is capable of modulating vascular function, we performed a randomised, placebo-controlled, cross-over intervention trial. We show that consumption of Champagne wine, but not a control matched for alcohol, carbohydrate and fruit-derived acid content, induced an acute change in endothelium-independent vasodilatation at 4 and 8 h post-consumption. Although both Champagne wine and the control also induced an increase in endothelium-dependent vascular reactivity at 4 h, there was no significant difference between the vascular effects induced by Champagne or the control at any time point. These effects were accompanied by an acute decrease in the concentration of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-9), a significant decrease in plasma levels of oxidising species and an increase in urinary excretion of a number of phenolic metabolites. In particular, the mean total excretion of hippuric acid, protocatechuic acid and isoferulic acid were all significantly greater following the Champagne wine intervention compared with the control intervention. Our data suggest that a daily moderate consumption of Champagne wine may improve vascular performance via the delivery of phenolic constituents capable of improving NO bioavailability and reducing matrix metalloproteinase activity.

  15. Transfer and anchorage bond behaviour in self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigueira-Víctor, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concretes (SCC provide solutions to the problems facing precast concrete construction, enhancing competitiveness, reducing turnaround times and improving final product quality. SCC is fast becoming a key product for the future development of the precast pre-stressed concrete industry.The present paper compares the bond performance of SCC and traditional concrete (TC. The bond performance results confirm the viability of SCC in precast pre-stressed concrete manufacture, despite a slightly higher loss of pre-stressing force and slightly greater anchorage lengths in SCC with a low water/cement ratio. No differences in transfer or anchorage length were detected,however, when high strength TC and SCC were compared. The ECADA test method proved to be well suited to detecting the differences between the concretes analyzed.El desarrollo de los hormigones autocompactantes (SCCofrece muchas posibilidades a las construcciones con hormigón prefabricado, aumentando su competitividad, reduciéndolos plazos de fabricación y ofreciendo mejoras en la calidad del producto final. El SCC se está convirtiendo en un producto clave para el futuro desarrollo de la industria de prefabricados de hormigón pretensado.En este estudio se compara el comportamiento adherente de los SCC con el de los hormigones tradicionales (TC actuales. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la viabilidad del uso de los SCC para la fabricación de elementos prefabricados con hormigón pretensado, en lo relativo a su comportamiento adherente, aunque con la necesidad de considerar unas pérdidas de pretensado ligeramente mayores. Asimismo,debe esperarse un ligero aumento de las longitudes de anclaje cuando se trabaje con SCC de baja relación agua/cemento. Sin embargo, no se han detectado diferencias de comportamiento entre ambos tipos de hormigón cuando la resistencia a compresión es alta en lo relativo a las longitudes de transmisión y anclaje. El método de ensayo ECADA

  16. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: A systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, M.C.; Poerbodipoero, S.; Robben, S.; Daams, J.; van Hartingsveldt, M.; de Vos, R.; de Rooij, S.E.; Kröse, B.; Buurman, B.M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently

  17. Sensor monitoring to measure and support daily functioning for independently living older people: a systematic review and road map for further development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, Margriet C.; Poerbodipoero, Soemitro; Robben, Saskia; Daams, Joost; van Hartingsveldt, Margo; de Vos, Rien; de Rooij, Sophia E.; Kröse, Ben; Buurman, Bianca M.

    2013-01-01

    To study sensor monitoring (use of a sensor network placed in the home environment to observe individuals' daily functioning (activities of daily living and instrumental activities of daily living)) as a method to measure and support daily functioning for older people living independently at home.

  18. Bst1 is required for Candida albicans infecting host via facilitating cell wall anchorage of Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Zou, Zui; Huang, Xin; Shen, Hui; He, Li Juan; Chen, Si Min; Li, Li Ping; Yan, Lan; Zhang, Shi Qun; Zhang, Jun Dong; Xu, Zheng; Xu, Guo Tong; An, Mao Mao; Jiang, Yuan Ying

    2016-01-01

    Glycosylphosphatidyl inositol anchored proteins (GPI-APs) on fungal cell wall are essential for invasive infections. While the function of inositol deacylation of GPI-APs in mammalian cells has been previously characterized the impact of inositol deacylation in fungi and implications to host infection remains largely unexplored. Herein we describe our identification of BST1, an inositol deacylase of GPI-Aps in Candida albicans, was critical for GPI-APs cell wall attachment and host infection. BST1-deficient C. albicans (bst1Δ/Δ) was associated with severely impaired cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs and subsequen unmasked β-(1,3)-glucan. Consistent with the aberrant cell wall structures, bst1Δ/Δ strain did not display an invasive ability and could be recognized more efficiently by host immune systems. Moreover, BST1 null mutants or those expressing Bst1 variants did not display inositol deacylation activity and exhibited severely attenuated virulence and reduced organic colonization in a murine systemic candidiasis model. Thus, Bst1 can facilitate cell wall anchorage of GPI-APs in C. albicans by inositol deacylation, and is critical for host invasion and immune escape. PMID:27708385

  19. Independent component analysis using prior information for signal detection in a functional imaging system of the retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barriga, E. Simon; Pattichis, Marios; Ts’o, Dan; Abramoff, Michael; Kardon, Randy; Kwon, Young; Soliz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a statistical technique that estimates a set of sources mixed by an unknown mixing matrix using only a set of observations. For this purpose, the only assumption is that the sources are statistically independent. In many applications, some information about

  20. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufer Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yocheved Laufer, Gali Dar, Einat Kodesh Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Background: Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults.Methods: Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment.Results: Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs.Conclusion: The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as

  1. Guidelines for evaluation of anchorage adequacy for safety-related equipment typically used on WWER-type NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1999-01-01

    This report describes the criteria which should be met when the capacity evaluation of anchorage of safety related equipment is performed for the WWER type NPPs. It should be noted that these criteria were developed specifically for anchorage of WWER type equipment and components to the concrete or steel building structures and they cover different types of anchor bolts and other anchorage details which are typical just for the existing, constructed or reconstructed WWER type NPPs. The screening approach for verifying of equipment anchorage presented in this report is based on a combination of inspections, calculations, and engineering judgement

  2. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeski WJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available W Jack Rejeski,1 Robert Axtell,2 Roger Fielding,3 Jeffrey Katula,1 Abby C King,4 Todd M Manini,5 Anthony P Marsh,1 Marco Pahor,5 Alvito Rego,6 Catrine Tudor-Locke,7 Mark Newman,8 Michael P Walkup,9 Michael E Miller9  On behalf of the LIFE Study Investigator Group 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, 3Nutrtion, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, 4Department of Health Research and Policy and Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 5Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 7Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 8Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 9Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500 that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants' motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of

  3. Comparison of the sensitivity to change of the Functional Independence Measure with the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills within different rehabilitation populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Silvana X; Stratford, Paul; Richardson, Julie; Bosch, Jackie; Pettit, Susan M; Ansley, Barbara J; Harris, Jocelyn E

    2017-09-10

    To determine whether there was a difference in the sensitivity to change of the subscales of the Functional Independence Measure and the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills within three different post-acute inpatient rehabilitation populations. We conducted retrospective chart review of patients consecutively admitted to inpatient rehabilitation units, with both admission and discharge Functional Independence Measure and Assessment of Motor and Process Skills scores. A total of 276 participants were included and categorized into diagnostic groups (orthopedic, oncology, and geriatric). Within group, sensitivity to change was evaluated for the subscales of each measure by calculating the difference in standardized response means (SRM) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). The Functional Independence Measure motor subscale was more sensitive to change than the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills in the orthopedic and geriatric groups (SRM difference  = 1.53 [95% CI 0.93, 2.3] and 0.65 [95% CI 0.3, 1.02], respectively) but not in the oncology group (SRM difference  = 0.42 [95% CI -0.2, 1.04]). For the cognitive subscales, the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills was more sensitive to change than the Functional Independence Measure in all three groups (SRM difference  = 0.38 [95% CI 004, 0.74], 0.65 [95% CI 0.45, 0.90], and 1.15 [95% CI 0.77, 1.69] for orthopedic, geriatric, and oncology, respectively). The Functional Independence Measure is a mandated measure for all rehabilitation units in Canada. As the cognitive subscale of the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills is more sensitive to change than the Functional Independence Measure, we recommend also administering the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills to better detect changes in the cognitive aspect of function. Implications for rehabilitation When deciding between the Functional Independence Measure or the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills, it is important to consider whether patients

  4. MAXILLARY INCISORS CHANGES DURING SPACE CLOSURE WITH CONVENTIONAL AND SKELETAL ANCHORAGE METHODS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas Shri Nalaka JAYARATNE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this systematic review was to compare the antero-posterior, vertical and angular changes of maxillary incisors with conventional anchorage control techniques and mini-implant based space closure methods. Materials and Methods: The electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library and Open Grey were searched for potentially eligible studies using a set of predetermined keywords. Full texts meeting the inclusion criteria as well as their references were manually searched. The primary outcome data (linear, angular, and vertical maxillary incisor changes and secondary outcome data (overbite changes, soft tissue changes, biomechanical factors, root resorption and treatment duration were extracted from the selected articles and entered into spreadsheets based on the type of anchorage used. The methodological quality of each study was assessed. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The amount of incisor retraction was greater with buccally placed mini-implants than conventional anchorage techniques. The incisor retraction with indirect anchorage from palatal mini-implants was less when compared with buccally placed mini-implants. Incisor intrusion occurred with buccal mini-implants, whereas extrusion was seen with conventional anchorage. Limited data on the biomechanical variables or adverse effects such as root resorption were reported in these studies. Conclusion: More RCT’s that take in to account relevant biomechanical variables and employ three-dimensional quantification of tooth movements are required to provide information on incisor changes during space closure.

  5. Maxillary incisors changes during space closure with conventional and skeletal anchorage methods: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Uribe, Flavio; Janakiraman, Nandakumar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to compare the antero-posterior, vertical and angular changes of maxillary incisors with conventional anchorage control techniques and mini-implant based space closure methods. The electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library and Open Grey were searched for potentially eligible studies using a set of predetermined keywords. Full texts meeting the inclusion criteria as well as their references were manually searched. The primary outcome data (linear, angular, and vertical maxillary incisor changes) and secondary outcome data (overbite changes, soft tissue changes, biomechanical factors, root resorption and treatment duration) were extracted from the selected articles and entered into spreadsheets based on the type of anchorage used. The methodological quality of each study was assessed. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The amount of incisor retraction was greater with buccally placed mini-implants than conventional anchorage techniques. The incisor retraction with indirect anchorage from palatal mini-implants was less when compared with buccally placed mini-implants. Incisor intrusion occurred with buccal mini-implants, whereas extrusion was seen with conventional anchorage. Limited data on the biomechanical variables or adverse effects such as root resorption were reported in these studies. More RCT's that take in to account relevant biomechanical variables and employ three-dimensional quantification of tooth movements are required to provide information on incisor changes during space closure.

  6. Quantification of temperature effect on impedance monitoring via PZT interface for prestressed tendon anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the quantification of temperature effect on impedance monitoring via a PZT interface for prestressed tendon-anchorage is presented. Firstly, a PZT interface-based impedance monitoring technique is selected to monitor impedance signatures by predetermining sensitive frequency bands. An analytical model is designed to represent coupled dynamic responses of the PZT interface-tendon anchorage system. Secondly, experiments on a lab-scaled tendon anchorage are described. Impedance signatures are measured via the PZT interface for a series of temperature and prestress-force changes. Thirdly, temperature effects on measured impedance responses of the tendon anchorage are estimated by quantifying relative changes in impedance features (such as RMSD and CCD indices) induced by temperature variation and prestress-force change. Finally, finite element analyses are conducted to investigate the mechanism of temperature variation and prestress-loss effects on the impedance responses of prestressed tendon anchorage. Temperature effects on impedance monitoring are filtered by effective frequency shift-based algorithm for distinguishing prestress-loss effects on impedance signatures.

  7. Anchorage onto deciduous teeth: effectiveness of early rapid maxillary expansion in increasing dental arch dimension and improving anterior crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Manfredi, Mario; Guiducci, Antonio; Denotti, Gloria; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage onto permanent dentition is a common procedure in rapid maxillary expansion. However, replacing first permanent molars with the second deciduous molars seems to be an option to reduce some negative side effects during orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental effect of rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage exclusively onto deciduous teeth performed in the first period of transition. Twenty patients with a lateral cross-bite treated exclusively by a Haas expander in early mixed dentition were retrospectively analyzed before treatment, at appliance removal, and at 21 months out of retention. The sagittal and transverse dimensions, together with the inter-canine arch and irregularity index, were digitally measured on scanned images of dental casts. The patients were compared with three balanced control groups (in total, 60 individuals) matched for gender. Two control groups had the same canine dental class as the treated group at T1, were in the inter-transitional period, and either had or lacked a lateral cross-bite. The last control group was comprised of adolescents in permanent dentition with a dental class I. The statistical analysis was performed by means of repeated-measures ANOVA for paired data and one-way ANOVA, the Kruskal-Wallis test, and the Mann-Whitney test for independent measures (α-level p dentition), the dental arch dimensions of treated patients were similar to those of adolescents with a dental class I and significantly wider than those of patients with a lateral cross-bite. Also, the anterior irregularity index was lower among patients who had undergone expansion treatments than in all untreated study participants. The Haas expander anchored to the deciduous teeth is effective in increasing the dental arch width in patients with a lateral cross-bite. The dimensions of the dental arch were modified earlier toward the values of the permanent dentition.

  8. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Sidney A.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other co-educational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational…

  9. Feasibility Verification of Mountable PZT-Interface for Impedance Monitoring in Tendon-Anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Canh Huynh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has been motivated to numerically evaluate the performance of the mountable PZT-interface for impedance monitoring in tendon-anchorage. Firstly, electromechanical impedance monitoring and feature classification methods are outlined. Secondly, a structural model of tendon-anchorage subsystem with mountable PZT-interface is designed for impedance monitoring. Finally, the feasibility of the mountable PZT-interface is numerically examined. A finite element (FE model is designed for the lab-scaled tendon-anchorage. The FE model of the PZT-interface is tuned as its impedance signatures meet the experimental test results at the same frequency ranges and also with identical patterns. Equivalent model properties of the FE model corresponding to prestress forces inflicted on the lab-tested structure are identified from the fine-tuning practice.

  10. The anchorage capacity of reinforcing bars at normal and high temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1982-01-01

    of the cross-section. A simple method for calculating the resistance to splitting is proposed, and a test method for determining the bond strength is presented. Test results are shown from a series of 280 specimens exposed to various maximum temperatures, and a relation between the bond strength......The anchorage failure of reinforcing bars is analysed, and it is shown that two modes of failures are possible: splitting or bond failure. It is concluded that the anchorage capacity cannot be estimated by means of a standard specimen, since splitting failure is dependent upon the geometry...... and the ultimate limit stress of concrete under plane strain conditions is indicated. The influence of high temperatures upon the anchorage resistance is explained, and the theory is illustrated by examples....

  11. Ground Water in the Anchorage Area, Alaska--Meeting the Challenges of Ground-Water Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Edward H.; Galloway, Devin L.

    2006-01-01

    Ground water is an important component of Anchorage's water supply. During the 1970s and early 80s when ground water extracted from aquifers near Ship Creek was the principal source of supply, area-wide declines in ground-water levels resulted in near record low streamflows in Ship Creek. Since the importation of Eklutna Lake water in the late 1980s, ground-water use has been reduced and ground water has contributed 14-30 percent of the annual supply. As Anchorage grows, given the current constraints on the Eklutna Lake water availability, the increasing demand for water could place an increasing reliance on local ground-water resources. The sustainability of Anchorage's ground-water resources challenges stakeholders to develop a comprehensive water-resources management strategy.

  12. DIRECT USAGE OF MINISCREW ANCHORAGE TO INTRUDE OVERERUPTED MAXILLARY POSTERIOR TEETH BEFORE PROSTHODONTIC PREPARATION:A CASE REPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Bahar Acar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Overeruption of maxillary molars due loss of opposing teeth creates occlusal and functional interferences. Before reconstruction can be initiated, intrusion of overerupted molars becomes essential. This report illustrates treatment of overerupted maxillary premolar and molar via direct use of miniscrew anchorage. A 24-year old female had lost first and second left mandibular molars due to pulpal necrotizing agents, resulting with a large alveolar bone defect and overerupted maxillary premolar and molar. She had a history of unsuccessful alveolar distraction of mandibular left premolars to increase the alveolar bone height prior to implant placement. Patient was satisfied with her smile and refused comprehensive orthodontic treatment. Maxillary premolar and molar were intruded segmentally for 4mm in 8 months, using a combination of a mini-implant and partialfixed edgewise appliances. Biological responses of teeth and surrounding bony structures to intrusion appeared normal and acceptable in radiographic and clinical examination.

  13. The Impact of Multiple Concussions on Emotional Distress, Post-Concussive Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Functioning in Active Duty United States Marines Independent of Combat Exposure or Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat. PMID:25003552

  14. Use of miniplates as a method for orthodontic anchorage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peres, Fernando Gianzanti; Padovan, Luis Eduardo Marques; Kluppel, Leandro Eduardo; Albuquerque, Gustavo Calvalcanti; Souza, Paulo Cesar Ulson de; Claudino, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) have been developed to be used as direct adjuncts in orthodontic treatment and have facilitated treatment of more complex orthodontic cases, including patients with dental impaction. This clinical case reports the applicability of TADs in the orthodontic treatment of a patient with impacted mandibular second molars. Surgical and orthodontic procedures related to the use of miniplates were also discussed in this study. The use of temporary anchorage devices, such as miniplates, can be suggested as an alternative to treat patients with impacted mandibular second molars.

  15. Thick-Walled Cylinder Theory Applied on a Conical Wedge Anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennitz, Anders; Grip, Niklas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2011-01-01

    for further development of the anchorage.In this paper, we derive and examine an analytical model for the internal stresses and strains within the anchorage for a prescribed presetting distance. This model is derived from the theory of thick walled cylinders under the assumptions regarding plane stress...... and axial symmetry. We simplify the resulting system of ten nonlinear equations and derive a method for solving them numerically. A comparison of plotted results for three different angles on the wedge’s outer surface and six different presetting distances follows.These results are also compared to both axi...

  16. Evaluation of Treatment in the Smart Home IRIS in terms of Functional Independence and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Ocepek, Julija; Roberts, Anne E. K.; Vidmar, Gaj

    2013-01-01

    The development of assistive technologies, home modifications, and smart homes has rapidly advanced in the last two decades. Health professionals have recognised the benefits of these technologies in improving individual's quality of life. The Smart Home IRIS was established in 2008 within the University Rehabilitation Institute in Ljubljana with the aim to enable persons with disabilities and elderly people to test various assistive technologies and technical solutions for their independent ...

  17. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Coren, Sidney A.; Luthar, Suniya S.

    2014-01-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multiva...

  18. Are Independent Probes Truly Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Gino; Pecher, Diane; Schmidt, Henk G.; Zeelenberg, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The independent cue technique has been developed to test traditional interference theories against inhibition theories of forgetting. In the present study, the authors tested the critical criterion for the independence of independent cues: Studied cues not presented during test (and unrelated to test cues) should not contribute to the retrieval…

  19. Does Duloxetine Improve Cognitive Function Independently of Its Antidepressant Effect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Subjective Reports of Cognitive Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Greer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cognitive deficits are commonly reported by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. Duloxetine, a dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may improve cognitive deficits in MDD. It is unclear if cognitive improvements occur independently of antidepressant effects with standard antidepressant medications. Methods. Thirty participants with MDD who endorsed cognitive deficits at screening received 12-week duloxetine treatment. Twenty-one participants completed treatment and baseline and posttreatment cognitive testing. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess the following cognitive domains: attention, visual memory, executive function/set shifting and working memory, executive function/spatial planning, decision making and response control, and verbal learning and memory. Results. Completers showed significant cognitive improvements across several domains on tasks assessing psychomotor function and mental processing speed, with additional improvements in visual and verbal learning and memory, and affective decision making and response control. Overall significance tests for executive function tasks were also significant, although individual tasks were not, perhaps due to the small sample size. Most notably, cognitive improvements were observed independently of symptom reduction on all domains except verbal learning and memory. Conclusions. Patients reporting baseline cognitive deficits achieved cognitive improvements with duloxetine treatment, most of which were independent of symptomatic improvement. This trial is registered with NCT00933439.

  20. Functional SNP associated with birth weight in independent populations identified with a permutation step added to GBLUP-GWAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted as an initial assessment of a newly available genotyping assay containing about 34,000 common SNP included on previous SNP chips, and 199,000 sequence variants predicted to affect gene function. Objectives were to identify functional variants associated with birth weight in...

  1. Independent-cluster parametrizations of wave functions in model field theories. 1. Introduction to their holomorphic representations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arponen, J.S.; Bishop, R.F.

    1991-01-01

    The configuration-interaction method (CIM), normal coupled-cluster method (NCCM), and extended coupled-cluster method (ECCM) form a rather natural hierarchy of formulations of increasing sophistication for describing interacting systems of quantum-mechanical particles or fields. They are denoted generically as independent-cluster (IC) parameterizations in a view of the way in which they incorporate the many-body correlations via sets of amplitudes that describe the various correlated clusters within the interacting system as mutually independent entities. They differ primarily by the way in which they incorporate the exact locality and separability properties. Each method is shown to provide, in principle, an exact mapping of the original quantum-mechanical problem into a corresponding classical Hamiltonian mechanics in terms of a set of multiconfigurational canonical field amplitudes. In perturbation-theoretic terms the IC methods incorporate infinite classes of diagrams at each order of approximation. The diagrams differ in their connectivity or linkedness properties. The structure of the ECCM in particular makes it capable of describing such phenomena as phase transitions, spontaneous symmetry breaking , and topological states. The authors address such fundamentally important questions as the existence and convergence properties of the three IC parameterizations by formulating the holomorphic representation of each one for the class of single-mode bosonic field theories which include the anharmonic oscillators

  2. Electromechanical impedance-based health diagnosis for tendon and anchorage zone in a nuclear containment structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Jiyoung; Shim, Hyojin; Yun, Chung-Bang

    2012-04-01

    For a nuclear containment structure, the structural health monitoring is essential because of its high potential risk and grave social impact. In particular, the tendon and anchorage zone are to be monitored because they are under high tensile or compressive stress. In this paper, a method to monitor the tendon force and the condition of the anchorage zone is presented by using the impedance-based health diagnosis system. First, numerical simulations were conducted for cases with various loose tensile forces on the tendon as well as damages on the bearing plate and concrete structure. Then, experimental studies were carried out on a scaled model of the anchorage system. The relationship between the loose tensile force and the impedance-based damage index was analyzed by a regression analysis. When a structure gets damaged, the damage index increases so that the status of damage can be identified. The results of the numerical and experimental studies indicate a big potential of the proposed impedance-based method for monitoring the tendon and anchorage system.

  3. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Koteswara Prasad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction.

  4. Management of post midface distraction occlusal discrepancy using temporary anchorage devices in a cleft patient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koteswara Prasad, N. K.; Hussain, Syed Altaf; Chitharanjan, Arun B.; Murthy, Jyotsna

    2015-01-01

    Open bite deformity following a successful midface advancement by distraction osteogenesis is a common complication. Temporary anchorage devices can be deployed during the distraction and post-distraction settling phases for restoring the occlusion even in severe cases. The following report describes the management of severe anterior open bite following maxillary distraction. PMID:25991895

  5. Skeletal anchorage in orthodontics : A review of various systems in animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Krista I.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Sandham, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present investigation was to review and evaluate the current literature on skeletal bone anchorage in orthodontics with regard to success rates of the various systems. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane searches (period January 1966 to January 2006, English

  6. A Manual for the Anchorage School District Bilingual Education Program Revised Scope and Sequence, K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Maria Nieves Bumanlag Lilagan

    The manual offers a systematic set of procedures and relevant information to facilitate effective use of the Anchorage school district (ASD) bilingual education program (BEP). The historical background of the program's development is presented, available manuals for teaching English to limited English proficiency (LEP) students and related…

  7. Biofilm formation on surface characterized micro-implants for skeletal anchorage in orthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, Henderina; Busscher, Hendrik

    Micro-implants are increasingly popular in clinical orthodontics to effect skeletal anchorage. However, biofilm formation on their surfaces and subsequent infection of peri-implant tissues can result in either exfoliation or surgical removal of these devices. The present study aimed to assess

  8. 77 FR 35104 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Merrill Field Airport, Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... delivered to: Michelle Colby, Real Estate Services Manager, DOWL HKM, 4041 B Street, Anchorage, AK 99503...- 271-3665, email [email protected] or Michelle Colby, Real Estate Services Manager, DOWL HKM, 4041... Section 6.13 of the State of Alaska Right of Way Manual. This purchase offer was predicated on DOT&PF's...

  9. Revisiting the stability of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Jane Yao

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that once the dental surgeon becomes familiar with the procedure, the stability of orthodontic mini-implants depends on the type of mini-implant, age of the patient, implantation site, and the healing time of the mini-implant. Miniplates are a more feasible anchorage system when miniscrews fail repeatedly.

  10. Evaluating School Wellness Policy in Curbing Childhood Obesity in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Wendy G.; Garcia, Gabriel M.; Hoffman, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Anchorage School District implemented a school wellness policy to address the problem of obesity among its elementary-aged students. We assessed whether the addition of this policy is effective in protecting or preventing students from becoming overweight/obese over time. The methods involved following two cohorts of students for 5…

  11. 77 FR 8252 - Adequacy Status of the Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-14

    ... a SIP means that transportation activities will not produce new air quality violations, worsen... Anchorage, Alaska, Carbon Monoxide Maintenance Plan for Transportation Conformity Purposes AGENCY... Transportation & Public Facilities, and the U.S. Department of Transportation will be required to use [[Page 8253...

  12. Fatigue of cable anchorage of large cable stayed bridge; Daikibo shachokyo cable teichaku kozo no hiro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T.; Matsumoto, T. [Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority, Tokyo (Japan); Tsukahara, H. [Yokogawa Bridge Corp., Tokyo (Japan); Miki, C. [Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan)

    1995-10-21

    Design considerations such as design schemes, the assemblage and welding of steel plates, and safety for fatigue of welded connections have to be taken for the cable anchorages of the steel cable stayed bridges. In this study, two full scale models, which have different shape of box anchorages welded to the web of the main girder, were made to investigate fatigue characteristics as well as assemblage of plate and gelding details. Finite element analyses for both test models and actual bridges here carried out to compare stress distribution. It was confirmed that the assemblage and welding of both types of box anchorage were attainable kith required quality and accuracy. According to the fatigue test, fatigue cracks originated from the weldings of the bearing plate to which the load from cable socket applied directly were caused by out-of-plane bending of the bearing plate. It was proved that the slight modifications of the details around the bearing plate resulted in sufficient fatigue strength in both types of anchorage. 1 ref., 23 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 Antagonize N-Myc Function and Independently Mediate Apoptosis in Neuroblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David A. Erichsen

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuroblastoma (NB is the third most common malignancy of childhood, and outcomes for children with advanced disease remain poor; amplification of the MYCN gene portends a particularly poor prognosis. Mxi1 antagonizes N-Myc by competing for binding to Max and E-boxes. Unlike N-Myc, Mxi1 mediates transcriptional repression and suppresses cell proliferation. Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 (an alternatively transcribed Mxi1 isoform share identical Max and DNA binding domains but differ in amino-terminal sequences. Because of the conservation of these critical binding domains, we hypothesized that Mxi1-0 antagonizes N-Myc activity similar to Mxi1. SHEP NB cells and SHEP cells stably transfected with MYCN (SHEP/MYCN were transiently transfected with vectors containing full-length Mxi1, full-length Mxi1-0, or the common Mxi domain encoded by exons 2 to 6 (ex2-6. After incubation in low serum, parental SHEP/MYCN cell numbers were reduced compared with SHEP cells. Activated caspase-3 staining and DNA fragmentation ELISA confirmed that SHEP/MYCN cells undergo apoptosis in low serum, while SHEP/MYCN cells transfected with Mxi1 or Mxi1-0 do not. However, SHEP/MYCN cells transfected with Mxi1 or Mxi1-0 and grown in normal serum showed proliferation rates similar to SHEP cells. Mxi ex2-6 did not affect cell number in low or normal serum, suggesting that amino terminal domains of Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 are critical for antagonism. In the absence of N-Myc, Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 induce apoptosis independently through the caspase-8–dependent extrinsic pathway, while N-Myc activates the caspase-9–dependent intrinsic pathway. Together, these data indicate that Mxi1 and Mxi1-0 antagonize N-Myc but also independently impact NB cell survival.

  14. Resting State Functional Connectivity in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury at the Acute Stage: Independent Component and Seed-Based Analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Iraji, Armin; Benson, Randall R.; Welch, Robert D.; O'Neil, Brian J.; Woodard, John L.; Imran Ayaz, Syed; Kulek, Andrew; Mika, Valerie; Medado, Patrick; Soltanian-Zadeh, Hamid; Liu, Tianming; Haacke, E. Mark; Kou, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) accounts for more than 1 million emergency visits each year. Most of the injured stay in the emergency department for a few hours and are discharged home without a specific follow-up plan because of their negative clinical structural imaging. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), particularly functional MRI (fMRI), has been reported as being sensitive to functional disturbances after brain injury. In this study, a cohort of 12 patients with mTBI were pr...

  15. Metformin Improves Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Independent from Glycemia Control : Comparison to Vildagliptin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi Shishavan, Mahdi; Henning, Robert H; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Goris, Maaike; Deelman, Leo E; Buikema, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Metformin confers vascular benefits beyond glycemia control, possibly via pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. In type-1-diabetes-mellitus (T1DM-)patients metformin improved flow-mediated dilation but also increased prostaglandin(PG)-F-2 alpha, a known endothelial-contracting factor. To

  16. Depressive and conduct disorder symptoms in youth living with HIV: the independent and interactive roles of coping and neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Christina; Morris, Mary; Armistead, Lisa; Koenig, Linda J; Demas, Penelope; Ferdon, Corinne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research suggests the importance of psychosocial characteristics (e.g., coping and social support) for positive adaptation among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. However, little is known about how these traits interact with cognitive abilities to impact emotional and behavioral adjustment. This study examined whether coping skills and executive functioning interact in their association with psychological adjustment in HIV-positive youth. Data from Project Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS (ALPHA), a study to examine psychosocial, behavioral and neuropsychological functioning of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV, were used. Fifty-nine participants, aged 14-23, diagnosed with HIV prior to age 20 and receiving care in one of two HIV clinics in Atlanta or New York City, were recruited, consented and enrolled. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), conduct disorder (Adolescent Symptom Index), and use of positive and negative coping strategies (Kidcope). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assessed abstract reasoning (categories completed) and cognitive inflexibility (perseverative errors). In this sample of HIV-positive youth, depressive symptoms were best predicted by an interactive combination of negative coping skills and poor neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological functioning (cognitive inflexibility) and negative coping skills were directly associated with conduct disorder symptoms. Results highlight the importance of including neuropsychological assessment in the evaluation of HIV-positive youth, particularly those with emotional or behavioral problems.

  17. Behaviour of Prestressed CFRP Anchorages during and after Freeze-Thaw Cycle Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Emre Harmanci

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The long-term performance of externally-bonded reinforcements (EBR on reinforced concrete (RC structures highly depends on the behavior of constituent materials and their interfaces to various environmental loads, such as temperature and humidity exposure. Although significant efforts have been devoted to understanding the effect of such conditions on the anchorage resistance of unstressed EBR, with or without sustained loading, the effect of a released prestressing has not been thoroughly investigated. For this purpose, a series of experiments has been carried out herein, with concrete blocks strengthened with carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP strips, both unstressed, as well as prestressed using the gradient anchorage. The gradient anchorage is a non-mechanical technique to anchor prestressed CFRP by exploiting the accelerated curing property of epoxy under higher temperatures and segment-wise prestress-force releasing. Subsequently, strengthened blocks are transferred into a chamber for exposure in dry freeze-thaw cycles (FTC. Following FTC exposure, the blocks are tested in a conventional lap-shear test setup to determine their residual anchorage resistance and then compared with reference specimens. Blocks were monitored during FTC by conventional and Fabry–Pérot-based fiber optic strain (FOS sensors and a 3D-digital image correlation (3D-DIC system during gradient application and lap-shear testing. Results indicate a reduction of residual anchorage resistance, stiffness and deformation capacity of the system after FTC and a change in the failure mode from concrete substrate to epoxy-concrete interface failure. It was further observed that all of these properties experienced a more significant reduction for prestressed specimens. These findings are presented with a complementary finite element model to shed more light onto the durability of such systems.

  18. Independent and Combined Effects of Exercise and Vitamin D on Muscle Morphology, Function and Falls in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin M. Daly

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Regular exercise, particularly progressive resistance training (PRT, is recognized as one of the most effective strategies to prevent age-related muscle loss (sarcopenia, but its effects on muscle function are mixed. However, emerging data indicates that high velocity PRT (fast concentric muscle contractions is more effective for improving functional outcomes than traditional PRT. In terms of falls prevention, high-challenging balance training programs appear to be most effective. There is also compelling evidence that supplemental vitamin D is an effective therapeutic option for falls prevention. The findings from a recent meta-analysis revealed that supplemental vitamin D at a dose of at least 700–1,000 IU/d or an achieved serum 25(OHD level of at least 60 nmol/L was associated with reduced falls risk among older individuals. Based on these findings, it is possible that the combination of exercise and vitamin D could have a synergistic effect on muscle morphology and function, particularly since both interventions have been shown to have beneficial effects on type II “fast twitch” muscle fibers and systemic inflammation, which have both been linked to losses in muscle mass and function. Unfortunately however, the findings from the limited number of factorial 2 × 2 design RCTs indicate that additional vitamin D does not enhance the effects of exercise on measures of muscle morphology, function or falls risk. However, none of these trials were adequately powered to detect a “synergistic” effect between the two treatment strategies, but it is likely that if an exercise-by-vitamin D interaction does exist, it may be limited to situations when vitamin D deficiency/insufficiency is corrected. Further targeted research in “high risk” groups is still needed to address this question, and evaluate whether there is a threshold level of serum 25(OHD to maximize the effects of exercise on muscle and falls risk.

  19. Exploiting orthologue diversity for systematic detection of gain-of-function phenotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantarella Daniela

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systematic search for genes whose gain-of-function by exogenous expression confers an advantage in cell-based selective screenings is a powerful method for unbiased functional exploration of the genome, and has the potential to disclose new targets for cancer therapy. A major limit of this approach resides in the labor-intensive cloning of resistant cells, identification of the integrated genes and validation of their ability to confer a selective advantage. Moreover, the selection has to be drastic and genes conferring a limited advantage are typically missed. Results We developed a new functional screening strategy based on transduction of mammalian cells of a given species with an expression library from another species, followed by one-shot quantitative tracing with DNA microarrays of all library-derived transcripts before and after selection. In this way, exogenous transcripts enriched after selection, and therefore likely to confer resistance, are readily detected. We transduced a retroviral cDNA expression library from mouse testis into human and canine cells, and optimized the use of commercial murine gene expression arrays for species-specific detection of library-derived transcripts. We then conducted a functional screening by growing library-transduced canine MDCK cells in suspension, to enrich for cDNAs conferring anchorage independence. Notably, these cells show partial resistance to loss of anchorage, and the selection can be of limited stringency, compromising approaches based on clonal selection or anyway requiring high stringency. Microarray analysis revealed reproducible enrichment after three weeks of growth on polyhema for seven genes, among which the Hras proto-oncogene and Sox5. When individually transduced into MDCK cells, Sox5 specifically promoted anchorage-independent growth, thereby confirming the validity and specificity of the approach. Conclusion The procedure described here brings substantial

  20. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  1. Functional drug screening reveals anticonvulsants as enhancers of mTOR-independent autophagic killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis through inositol depletion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiebler, Mark; Brown, Karen; Hegyi, Krisztina; Newton, Sandra M; Renna, Maurizio; Hepburn, Lucy; Klapholz, Catherine; Coulter, Sarah; Obregón-Henao, Andres; Henao Tamayo, Marcela; Basaraba, Randall; Kampmann, Beate; Henry, Katherine M; Burgon, Joseph; Renshaw, Stephen A; Fleming, Angeleen; Kay, Robert R; Anderson, Karen E; Hawkins, Phillip T; Ordway, Diane J; Rubinsztein, David C; Floto, Rodrigo Andres

    2015-02-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) remains a major challenge to global health made worse by the spread of multidrug resistance. We therefore examined whether stimulating intracellular killing of mycobacteria through pharmacological enhancement of macroautophagy might provide a novel therapeutic strategy. Despite the resistance of MTB to killing by basal autophagy, cell-based screening of FDA-approved drugs revealed two anticonvulsants, carbamazepine and valproic acid, that were able to stimulate autophagic killing of intracellular M. tuberculosis within primary human macrophages at concentrations achievable in humans. Using a zebrafish model, we show that carbamazepine can stimulate autophagy in vivo and enhance clearance of M. marinum, while in mice infected with a highly virulent multidrug-resistant MTB strain, carbamazepine treatment reduced bacterial burden, improved lung pathology and stimulated adaptive immunity. We show that carbamazepine induces antimicrobial autophagy through a novel, evolutionarily conserved, mTOR-independent pathway controlled by cellular depletion of myo-inositol. While strain-specific differences in susceptibility to in vivo carbamazepine treatment may exist, autophagy enhancement by repurposed drugs provides an easily implementable potential therapy for the treatment of multidrug-resistant mycobacterial infection. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  2. Takifugu rubripes cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor: Cloning, expression and functional characterization of the IGF-II binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Ajith Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar

    2018-07-01

    Mannose 6-phosphate/IGF-II receptor mediated lysosomal clearance of insulin-like growth factor-II is significantly associated with the evolution of placental mammals. The protein is also referred to as the IGF-II receptor. Earlier studies suggested relatively low binding affinity between the receptor and ligand in prototherian and metatherian mammals. In the present study, we cloned the IGF-II binding domain of the early vertebrate fugu fish and expressed it in bacteria. A 72000Da truncated receptor containing the IGF-II binding domain was obtained. Analysis of this protein (covering domains 11-13 of the CIMPR) for its affinity to fish and human IGF-II by ligand blot assays and ELISA showed that the expressed receptor can specifically bind to both fish and human IGF-II. Additionally, a peptide-specific antibody raised against the region of the IGF-II binding domain also was able to recognize the IGF-II binding regions of mammalian and non-mammalian cation independent MPR protein. These interactions were further characterized by Surface Plasma resonance support that the receptor binds to fish IGF-II, with a dissociation constant of 548nM. Preliminary analysis suggests that the binding mechanism as well as the affinity of the fish and human receptor for IGF-II may have varied according to different evolutionary pressures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Pursuing Perfection: Distress and Interpersonal Functioning Among Adolescent Boys in Single-Sex and Co-Educational Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coren, Sidney A; Luthar, Suniya S

    2014-11-01

    This study extends past findings of heightened problems among affluent youth by examining adjustment patterns among boys in two academically elite, independent high schools: one for boys only and the other coeducational. Both samples manifested disproportionately high rates of internalizing and externalizing symptoms, but only the co-educational boys showed elevations in substance use. Boys in both schools showed elevations in a new outcome domain examined: exhibitionistic narcissism. Multivariate analyses of predictors showed that parent criticism -- a defining feature of youths' maladaptive perfectionism -- and perceived maternal depression emerged as major vulnerability factors for both samples in relation to symptom levels. On other parenting dimensions, boys in the single-sex school seemed to be particularly sensitive to feelings of alienation from their fathers and perceived paternal depression. Envy of peers' attractiveness was associated with adolescent distress in both samples, but appeared to be especially critical for co-educational boys. Results are discussed, focusing on the costs and benefits of boys' attendance at a single-sex versus co-educational school, along with implications for practice and future research.

  4. Extraction of fast neuronal changes from multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals using independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morren, Geert; Wolf, Martin; Lemmerling, Philippe; Wolf, Ursula; Choi, Jee H.; Gratton, Enrico; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2002-06-01

    Fast changes in the range of milliseconds in the optical properties of cerebral tissue, which are associated with brain activity, can be detected using non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). These changes in light scattering are due to an alteration in the refractive index at neuronal membranes. The aim of this study was to develop highly sensitive data analysis algorithms to detect this fast signal, which is small compared to other physiological signals. A frequency-domain tissue oximeter, whose laser diodes were modulated at 110MHz was used. The amplitude, mean intensity and phase of the modulated optical signal was measured at 96Hz sample rate. The probe consisting of 4 crossed source detector pairs was placed above the motor cortex, contralateral to the hand performing a tapping exercise consisting of alternating rest- and tapping periods of 20s each. The tapping frequency, which was set to 3.55Hz or 2.5 times the heart rate of the subject to avoid the influence of harmonics on the signal, could not be observed in any of the individual signals measured by the detectors. An adaptive filter was used to remove the arterial pulsatility from the optical signals. Independent Component Analysis allowed to separate signal components in which the tapping frequency was clearly visible.

  5. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran Chaudhari; Jessica M. Wong; Philip H. Vann; Nathalie Sumien

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if antioxidant supplementation, moderate exercise, and the combination of both treatments could ameliorate cognitive performance in adult mice and whether the apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype as well as sex could influence the functional outcomes of the treatments. Methods: For a period of 16 weeks, separate groups of male and female mice expressing either the human APOE3 or APOE4 isoforms were fed either a control diet (NIH-31) or the co...

  6. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  7. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  8. Evaluating use of the Siebens Domain Management Model during inpatient rehabilitation to increase functional independence and discharge rate to home in stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushner, David S; Peters, Kenneth M; Johnson-Greene, Doug

    2015-04-01

    To evaluate use of the Siebens Domain Management Model (SDMM) during stroke inpatient rehabilitation (IR) to increase functional independence and rate of discharge to home. Before and after study. IR facility. Before the intervention: 154 patients with ischemic/hemorrhagic strokes who were admitted to an IR facility in 2010; on average, they were admitted 9.1 days after receiving acute care. After the intervention: 151 patients with ischemic/hemorrhagic strokes who were admitted to an IR facility in 2012; on average they were admitted 7.3 days after receiving acute care. The comorbidity tier severity and prestroke living setting and living support appeared to be similar in both the preintervention and postintervention groups. Use of the SDMM involving weekly adjustments of IR care focused on potential barriers to discharge home including medical/surgical issues, cognitive/emotional coping issues, physical function, and living environment/community re-entry needs. Use of Functional Independence Measure (FIM) score change during IR length of stay (LOS; FIM-LOS efficiency) and rates of discharge to community/home, acute care, and long-term care (LTC) to compare 2010/preintervention data with postintervention data from 2012, along with comparison of facility data to national aggregate data from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation (UDSMR) for both years. Preintervention 2010 FIM-LOS efficiency was 1.44 compared with a 2012 postintervention FIM-LOS efficiency of 2.24, which was significant (t = 4.3; P stroke IR may convey improvement in functional independence and is associated with an increased discharge rate to home/community and a reduction in institutionalization and acute-care transfers. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Aluminum-activated citrate and malate transporters from the MATE and ALMT families function independently to confer Arabidopsis aluminum tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiping; Magalhaes, Jurandir V; Shaff, Jon; Kochian, Leon V

    2009-02-01

    Aluminum-activated root malate and citrate exudation play an important role in plant Al tolerance. This paper characterizes AtMATE, a homolog of the recently discovered sorghum and barley Al-tolerance genes, shown here to encode an Al-activated citrate transporter in Arabidopsis. Together with the previously characterized Al-activated malate transporter, AtALMT1, this discovery allowed us to examine the relationship in the same species between members of the two gene families for which Al-tolerance genes have been identified. AtMATE is expressed primarily in roots and is induced by Al. An AtMATE T-DNA knockdown line exhibited very low AtMATE expression and Al-activated root citrate exudation was abolished. The AtALMT1 AtMATE double mutant lacked both Al-activated root malate and citrate exudation and showed greater Al sensitivity than the AtALMT1 mutant. Therefore, although AtALMT1 is a major contributor to Arabidopsis Al tolerance, AtMATE also makes a significant but smaller contribution. The expression patterns of AtALMT1 and AtMATE and the profiles of Al-activated root citrate and malate exudation are not affected by the presence or absence of the other gene. These results suggest that AtALMT1-mediated malate exudation and AtMATE-mediated citrate exudation evolved independently to confer Al tolerance in Arabidopsis. However, a link between regulation of expression of the two transporters in response to Al was identified through work on STOP1, a transcription factor that was previously shown to be necessary for AtALMT1 expression. Here we show that STOP1 is also required for AtMATE expression and Al-activated citrate exudation.

  10. Blood oxygen depletion is independent of dive function in a deep diving vertebrate, the northern elephant seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica U Meir

    Full Text Available Although energetics is fundamental to animal ecology, traditional methods of determining metabolic rate are neither direct nor instantaneous. Recently, continuous blood oxygen (O2 measurements were used to assess energy expenditure in diving elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, demonstrating that an exceptional hypoxemic tolerance and exquisite management of blood O2 stores underlie the extraordinary diving capability of this consummate diver. As the detailed relationship of energy expenditure and dive behavior remains unknown, we integrated behavior, ecology, and physiology to characterize the costs of different types of dives of elephant seals. Elephant seal dive profiles were analyzed and O2 utilization was classified according to dive type (overall function of dive: transit, foraging, food processing/rest. This is the first account linking behavior at this level with in vivo blood O2 measurements in an animal freely diving at sea, allowing us to assess patterns of O2 utilization and energy expenditure between various behaviors and activities in an animal in the wild. In routine dives of elephant seals, the blood O2 store was significantly depleted to a similar range irrespective of dive function, suggesting that all dive types have equal costs in terms of blood O2 depletion. Here, we present the first physiological evidence that all dive types have similarly high blood O2 demands, supporting an energy balance strategy achieved by devoting one major task to a given dive, thereby separating dive functions into distinct dive types. This strategy may optimize O2 store utilization and recovery, consequently maximizing time underwater and allowing these animals to take full advantage of their underwater resources. This approach may be important to optimizing energy expenditure throughout a dive bout or at-sea foraging trip and is well suited to the lifestyle of an elephant seal, which spends > 90% of its time at sea submerged making diving its

  11. Executive functioning independently predicts self-rated health and improvement in self-rated health over time among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Self-rated health, as distinct from objective measures of health, is a clinically informative metric among older adults. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with self-rated health. 624 participants over the age of 60 were assessed at baseline, and of these, 510 were contacted for a follow-up two years later. Measures of executive function and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, and self-rated health was assessed at follow-up. We employed multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between executive functioning and self-rated health, while controlling for demographic, psychosocial and biological variables. Controlling for other relevant variables, executive functioning independently and solely predicted self-rated health, both at a cross-sectional level, and also over time. Loneliness was also found to cross-sectionally predict self-rated health, although this relationship was not present at a longitudinal level. Older adults' self-rated health may be related to their executive functioning and to their loneliness. Self-rated health appeared to improve over time, and the extent of this improvement was also related to executive functioning at baseline. Self-rated health may be a judgement made of one's functioning, especially executive functioning, which changes with age and therefore may be particularly salient in the reflections of older adults.

  12. Fractures as an independent predictor of functional decline in older people: a population-based study with an 8-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piirtola, Maarit; Löppönen, Minna; Vahlberg, Tero; Isoaho, Raimo; Kivelä, Sirkka-Liisa; Räihä, Ismo

    2012-01-01

    Fractures among older people are common, but there is scant evidence about the impact of fractures on functional decline in an unselected older population. The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of lower and upper body fractures on functional performance among older adults during an 8-year follow-up. A population-based cohort of 616 Finnish persons aged 65 and over was followed for up to 8 years, and the association between fractures and the risk of short-term (0-2 years) and long-term (up to 8 years) functional decline was analyzed. Fractures were categorized according their functional influence on mobility and activities of daily living (ADL) into lower and upper body fractures. Multivariate cumulative logistic regression model was used in the analyses. During the 8-year follow-up, 112 (18%) persons sustained at least one fracture. In the multivariate analyses, lower body fractures predicted both short-term and long-term decline in mobility [cumulative odds ratio (COR) 4.7, 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.9-11.7 and COR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.2, respectively] and in ADL performance (COR 3.1, 95% CI 1.3-7.6 and COR 4.7, 95% CI 2.0-11.4, respectively). Upper body fractures predicted decline in ADL performance during the long-term follow-up (COR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3-4.8). Pre-fracture functional decline and inactivity in leisure time physical exercise were independently associated with the risk of decline in extensive activities. Fractures have an independent influence on the development of functional decline in older persons regardless of the pre-fracture health. Prevention of falls and fractures and improvement of treatment, rehabilitation and follow-up process after fractures are needed. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Distinct roles of autophagy-dependent and -independent functions of FIP200 revealed by generation and analysis of a mutant knock-in mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Song; Wang, Chenran; Yeo, Syn; Liang, Chun-Chi; Okamoto, Takako; Sun, Shaogang; Wen, Jian; Guan, Jun-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved cellular process controlled through a set of essential autophagy genes (Atgs). However, there is increasing evidence that most, if not all, Atgs also possess functions independent of their requirement in canonical autophagy, making it difficult to distinguish the contributions of autophagy-dependent or -independent functions of a particular Atg to various biological processes. To distinguish these functions for FIP200 (FAK family-interacting protein of 200 kDa), an Atg in autophagy induction, we examined FIP200 interaction with its autophagy partner, Atg13. We found that residues 582–585 (LQFL) in FIP200 are required for interaction with Atg13, and mutation of these residues to AAAA (designated the FIP200-4A mutant) abolished its canonical autophagy function in vitro. Furthermore, we created a FIP200-4A mutant knock-in mouse model and found that specifically blocking FIP200 interaction with Atg13 abolishes autophagy in vivo, providing direct support for the essential role of the ULK1/Atg13/FIP200/Atg101 complex in the process beyond previous studies relying on the complete knockout of individual components. Analysis of the new mouse model showed that nonautophagic functions of FIP200 are sufficient to fully support embryogenesis by maintaining a protective role in TNFα-induced apoptosis. However, FIP200-mediated canonical autophagy is required to support neonatal survival and tumor cell growth. These studies provide the first genetic evidence linking an Atg's autophagy and nonautophagic functions to different biological processes in vivo. PMID:27013233

  14. BMP-2 functions independently of SHH signaling and triggers cell condensation and apoptosis in regenerating axolotl limbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finnson Kenneth

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Axolotls have the unique ability, among vertebrates, to perfectly regenerate complex body parts, such as limbs, after amputation. In addition, axolotls pattern developing and regenerating autopods from the anterior to posterior axis instead of posterior to anterior like all tetrapods studied to date. Sonic hedgehog is important in establishing this anterior-posterior axis of limbs in all tetrapods including axolotls. Interestingly, its expression is conserved (to the posterior side of limb buds and blastemas in axolotl limbs as in other tetrapods. It has been suggested that BMP-2 may be the secondary mediator of sonic hedgehog, although there is mounting evidence to the contrary in mice. Since BMP-2 expression is on the anterior portion of developing and regenerating limbs prior to digit patterning, opposite to the expression of sonic hedgehog, we examined whether BMP-2 expression was dependent on sonic hedgehog signaling and whether it affects patterning of the autopod during regeneration. Results The expression of BMP-2 and SOX-9 in developing and regenerating axolotl limbs corresponded to the first digits forming in the anterior portion of the autopods. The inhibition of sonic hedgehog signaling with cyclopamine caused hypomorphic limbs (during development and regeneration but did not affect the expression of BMP-2 and SOX-9. Overexpression of BMP-2 in regenerating limbs caused a loss of digits. Overexpression of Noggin (BMP inhibitor in regenerating limbs also resulted in a loss of digits. Histological analysis indicated that the loss due to BMP-2 overexpression was the result of increased cell condensation and apoptosis while the loss caused by Noggin was due to a decrease in cell division. Conclusion The expression of BMP-2 and its target SOX-9 was independent of sonic hedgehog signaling in developing and regenerating limbs. Their expression correlated with chondrogenesis and the appearance of skeletal elements has

  15. Analysis of C. elegans NR2E nuclear receptors defines three conserved clades and ligand-independent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Katherine P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors (NRs are an important class of transcription factors that are conserved across animal phyla. Canonical NRs consist of a DNA-binding domain (DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD. While most animals have 20–40 NRs, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis have experienced a spectacular proliferation and divergence of NR genes. The LBDs of evolutionarily-conserved Caenorhabditis NRs have diverged sharply from their Drosophila and vertebrate orthologs, while the DBDs have been strongly conserved. The NR2E family of NRs play critical roles in development, especially in the nervous system. In this study, we explore the phylogenetics and function of the NR2E family of Caenorhabditis elegans, using an in vivo assay to test LBD function. Results Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the NR2E family of NRs consists of three broadly-conserved clades of orthologous NRs. In C. elegans, these clades are defined by nhr-67, fax-1 and nhr-239. The vertebrate orthologs of nhr-67 and fax-1 are Tlx and PNR, respectively. While the nhr-239 clade includes orthologs in insects (Hr83, an echinoderm, and a hemichordate, the gene appears to have been lost from vertebrate lineages. The C. elegans and C. briggsae nhr-239 genes have an apparently-truncated and highly-diverged LBD region. An additional C. elegans NR2E gene, nhr-111, appears to be a recently-evolved paralog of fax-1; it is present in C. elegans, but not C. briggsae or other animals with completely-sequenced genomes. Analysis of the relatively unstudied nhr-111 and nhr-239 genes demonstrates that they are both expressed—nhr-111 very broadly and nhr-239 in a small subset of neurons. Analysis of the FAX-1 LBD in an in vivo assay revealed that it is not required for at least some developmental functions. Conclusions Our analysis supports three conserved clades of NR2E receptors, only two of which are represented in vertebrates, indicating three ancestral NR2E genes in the

  16. Coordinating structural and functional synapse development: postsynaptic p21-activated kinase independently specifies glutamate receptor abundance and postsynaptic morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie D; Davis, Graeme W

    2004-08-04

    Here, we show that postsynaptic p21-activated kinase (Pak) signaling diverges into two genetically separable pathways at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. One pathway controls glutamate receptor abundance. Pak signaling within this pathway is specified by a required interaction with the adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock). We demonstrate that Dock is localized to the synapse via an Src homology 2-mediated protein interaction. Dock is not necessary for Pak localization but is necessary to restrict Pak signaling to control glutamate receptor abundance. A second genetically separable function of Pak kinase signaling controls muscle membrane specialization through the regulation of synaptic Discs-large. In this pathway, Dock is dispensable. We present a model in which divergent Pak signaling is able to coordinate two different features of postsynaptic maturation, receptor abundance, and muscle membrane specialization.

  17. DMC1 functions in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae meiotic pathway that is largely independent of the RAD51 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresser, M.E.; Ewing, D.J.; Conrad, M.N.; Dominguez, A.M.; Barstead, R.; Jiang, H.; Kodadek, T.

    1997-01-01

    Meiotic recombination in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae requires two similar recA-like proteins, Dmc1p and Rad51p. A screen for dominant meiotic mutants provided DMC1-G126D, a dominant allele mutated in the conserved ATP-binding site (specifically, the A-loop motif) that confers a null phenotype. A recessive null allele, dmc1-K69E, was isolated as an intragenic suppressor of DMC1-G126D. Dmc1-K69Ep, unlike Dmc1p, does not interact homotypically in a two-hybrid assay, although it does interact with other fusion proteins identified by two-hybrid screen with Dmc1p. Dmc1p, unlike Rad51p, does not interact in the two-hybrid assay with Rad52p or Rad54p. However, Dmc1p does interact with Tid1p, a Rad54p homologue, with Tid4p, a Rad16p homologue, and with other fusion proteins that do not interact with Rad51p, suggesting that Dmc1p and Rad51p function in separate, though possibly overlapping, recombinational repair complexes. Epistasis analysis suggests that DMC1 and RAD51 function in separate pathways responsible for meiotic recombination. Taken together, our results are consistent with a requirement for DMC1 for meiosis-specific entry of DNA double-strand break ends into chromatin. Interestingly, the pattern on CHEF gels of chromosome fragments that result from meiotic DNA double-strand break formation is different in DMC1 mutant strains from that seen in rad50S strains. (author)

  18. Independence of protein kinase C-delta activity from activation loop phosphorylation: structural basis and altered functions in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Graham, Caroline; Shaw, Stephen

    2006-04-28

    Activation loop phosphorylation plays critical regulatory roles for many kinases. Unlike other protein kinase Cs (PKC), PKC-delta does not require phosphorylation of its activation loop (Thr-507) for in vitro activity. We investigated the structural basis for this unusual capacity and its relevance to PKC-delta function in intact cells. Mutational analysis demonstrated that activity without Thr-507 phosphorylation depends on 20 residues N-terminal to the kinase domain and a pair of phenylalanines (Phe-500/Phe-527) unique to PKC-delta in/near the activation loop. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these elements stabilize the activation loop by forming a hydrophobic chain of interactions from the C-lobe to activation loop to N-terminal (helical) extension. In cells PKC-delta mediates both apoptosis and transcription regulation. We found that the T507A mutant of the PKC-delta kinase domain resembled the corresponding wild type in mediating apoptosis in transfected HEK293T cells. But the T507A mutant was completely defective in AP-1 and NF-kappaB reporter assays. A novel assay in which the kinase domain of PKC-delta and its substrate (a fusion protein of PKC substrate peptide with green fluorescent protein) were co-targeted to lipid rafts revealed a major substrate-selective defect of the T507A mutant in phosphorylating the substrate in cells. In vitro analysis showed strong product inhibition on the T507A mutant with particular substrates whose characteristics suggest it contributes to the substrate selective defect of the PKC-delta T507A mutant in cells. Thus, activation loop phosphorylation of PKC-delta may regulate its function in cells in a novel way.

  19. Functional activity and white matter microstructure reveal the independent effects of age of acquisition and proficiency on second-language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily S; Joanisse, Marc F

    2016-12-01

    Two key factors govern how bilingual speakers neurally maintain two languages: the speakers' second language age of acquisition (AoA) and their subsequent proficiency. However, the relative roles of these two factors have been difficult to disentangle given that the two can be closely correlated, and most prior studies have examined the two factors in isolation. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging to identify specific brain areas that are independently modulated by AoA and proficiency in second language speakers. First-language Mandarin Chinese speakers who are second language speakers of English were scanned as they performed a picture-word matching task in either language. In the same session we also acquired diffusion-weighted scans to assess white matter microstructure, along with behavioural measures of language proficiency prior to entering the scanner. Results reveal gray- and white-matter networks involving both the left and right hemisphere that independently vary as a function of a second-language speaker's AoA and proficiency, focused on the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. These results indicate that proficiency and AoA explain separate functional and structural networks in the bilingual brain, which we interpret as suggesting distinct types of plasticity for age-dependent effects (i.e., AoA) versus experience and/or predisposition (i.e., proficiency). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Herbst appliance with skeletal anchorage versus dental anchorage in adolescents with Class II malocclusion: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Klaus Barretto Dos Santos Lopes; Lima, Tatiana; Palomares, Nathália; Carvalho, Felipe de Assis; Quintão, Cátia; Miguel, José Augusto Mendes; Lin, Yin-Ling; Su, Ting-Li; O'Brien, Kevin

    2017-11-25

    The Herbst appliance is an orthodontic appliance that is used for the correction of class II malocclusion with skeletal discrepancies. Research has shown that this is effective. However, a potential harm is excessive protrusion of the lower front teeth. This is associated with gingival recession, loss of tooth support, and root resorption. This trial evaluates a method of reducing this problem. The study is a single-center, randomised, assessor-blinded, superiority clinical trial with parallel 1:1 allocation. Male and female young people (10-14 years old) with prominent front teeth (class II, division 1) will be treated in one orthodontic clinic. Group 1 will be treated with the conventional Herbst appliance with dental anchorage and group 2 with the Herbst appliance with indirect skeletal anchorage for 12 months. The primary objective will be to compare the proclination of the lower incisors between the Herbst appliance with dental anchorage and skeletal anchorage. Secondary objectives will be to evaluate the changes occurring between the groups in the mandible, maxilla, lower and upper molars, and in gingival recession and root resorption at the end of the treatment. Additionally, the young patient's experience using the appliances will be assessed. The primary outcome measure will be the amount of lower incisor proclination at the end of treatment. This will be assessed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) superimposition. Secondary outcome measures will be the changes in the mandible, maxilla, lower and upper molars at the end of treatment assessed by tomography superimposition and the young patient's experience using the appliances assessed by self-reported questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The randomisation method will be blocked randomisation, using software to generate a randomised list. The allocation concealment will be done in opaque envelopes numbered from 1 to 40 containing the treatment modality. The randomisation will be

  1. IFN-γ extends the immune functions of Guanylate Binding Proteins to inflammasome-independent antibacterial activities during Francisella novicida infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Wallet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs are interferon-inducible proteins involved in the cell-intrinsic immunity against numerous intracellular pathogens. The molecular mechanisms underlying the potent antibacterial activity of GBPs are still unclear. GBPs have been functionally linked to the NLRP3, the AIM2 and the caspase-11 inflammasomes. Two opposing models are currently proposed to explain the GBPs-inflammasome link: i GBPs would target intracellular bacteria or bacteria-containing vacuoles to increase cytosolic PAMPs release ii GBPs would directly facilitate inflammasome complex assembly. Using Francisella novicida infection, we investigated the functional interactions between GBPs and the inflammasome. GBPs, induced in a type I IFN-dependent manner, are required for the F. novicida-mediated AIM2-inflammasome pathway. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs action is not restricted to the AIM2 inflammasome, but controls in a hierarchical manner the activation of different inflammasomes complexes and apoptotic caspases. IFN-γ induces a quantitative switch in GBPs levels and redirects pyroptotic and apoptotic pathways under the control of GBPs. Furthermore, upon IFN-γ priming, F. novicida-infected macrophages restrict cytosolic bacterial replication in a GBP-dependent and inflammasome-independent manner. Finally, in a mouse model of tularemia, we demonstrate that the inflammasome and the GBPs are two key immune pathways functioning largely independently to control F. novicida infection. Altogether, our results indicate that GBPs are the master effectors of IFN-γ-mediated responses against F. novicida to control antibacterial immune responses in inflammasome-dependent and independent manners.

  2. Impaired left ventricular systolic function and increased brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity are independently associated with rapid renal function progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Szu-Chia; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Hsu, Po-Chao; Chang, Jer-Ming; Lee, Chee-Siong; Tsai, Wei-Chung; Su, Ho-Ming; Voon, Wen-Chol; Chen, Hung-Chun

    2011-09-01

    Heart failure and increased arterial stiffness are associated with declining renal function. Few studies have evaluated the association between left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and brachial-ankle pulse-wave velocity (baPWV) and renal function progression. The aim of this study was to assess whether LVEFfunction was estimated by eGFR slope. The renal end point was defined as ≥25% decline in eGFR. Clinical and echocardiographic parameters were compared and analyzed. After a multivariate analysis, serum hematocrit was positively associated with eGFR slope, and diabetes mellitus, baPWV (P=0.031) and LVEFfunction decline and progression to the renal end point.

  3. Biological functionalization of drug delivery carriers to bypass size restrictions of receptor-mediated endocytosis independently from receptor targeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansar, Maria; Serrano, Daniel; Papademetriou, Iason; Bhowmick, Tridib Kumar; Muro, Silvia

    2013-12-23

    Targeting of drug carriers to cell-surface receptors involved in endocytosis is commonly used for intracellular drug delivery. However, most endocytic receptors mediate uptake via clathrin or caveolar pathways associated with ≤200-nm vesicles, restricting carrier design. We recently showed that endocytosis mediated by intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), which differs from clathrin- and caveolae-mediated pathways, allows uptake of nano- and microcarriers in cell culture and in vivo due to recruitment of cellular sphingomyelinases to the plasmalemma. This leads to ceramide generation at carrier binding sites and formation of actin stress-fibers, enabling engulfment and uptake of a wide size-range of carriers. Here we adapted this paradigm to enhance uptake of drug carriers targeted to receptors associated with size-restricted pathways. We coated sphingomyelinase onto model (polystyrene) submicro- and microcarriers targeted to clathrin-associated mannose-6-phosphate receptor. In endothelial cells, this provided ceramide enrichment at the cell surface and actin stress-fiber formation, modifying the uptake pathway and enhancing carrier endocytosis without affecting targeting, endosomal transport, cell-associated degradation, or cell viability. This improvement depended on the carrier size and enzyme dose, and similar results were observed for other receptors (transferrin receptor) and cell types (epithelial cells). This phenomenon also enhanced tissue accumulation of carriers after intravenous injection in mice. Hence, it is possible to maintain targeting toward a selected receptor while bypassing natural size restrictions of its associated endocytic route by functionalization of drug carriers with biological elements mimicking the ICAM-1 pathway. This strategy holds considerable promise to enhance flexibility of design of targeted drug delivery systems.

  4. Anchorage onto deciduous teeth: effectiveness of early rapid maxillary expansion in increasing dental arch dimension and improving anterior crowding

    OpenAIRE

    Mutinelli, Sabrina; Manfredi, Mario; Guiducci, Antonio; Denotti, Gloria; Cozzani, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    Background Anchorage onto permanent dentition is a common procedure in rapid maxillary expansion. However, replacing first permanent molars with the second deciduous molars seems to be an option to reduce some negative side effects during orthodontic treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental effect of rapid maxillary expansion with anchorage exclusively onto deciduous teeth performed in the first period of transition. Methods Twenty patients with a lateral cross-bite tre...

  5. A phosphatase-independent gain-of-function mutation in PTEN triggers aberrant cell growth in astrocytes through an autocrine IGF-1 loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, S; Genis, L; Torres-Alemán, I

    2014-08-07

    Loss-of-function mutations in the phosphatase PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome10) contribute to aberrant cell growth in part through upregulation of the mitogenic IGF-1/PI3K/Akt pathway. In turn, this pathway exerts a homeostatic feedback over PTEN. Using mutagenesis analysis to explore a possible impact of this mutual control on astrocyte growth, we found that truncation of the C-terminal region of PTEN (Δ51) associates with a marked increase in NFκB activity, a transcription factor overactivated in astrocyte tumors. Whereas mutations of PTEN are considered to lead to a loss-of-function, PTENΔ51, a truncation that comprises a region frequently mutated in human gliomas, displayed a neomorphic (gain-of-function) activity that was independent of its phosphatase activity. This gain-of-function of PTENΔ51 includes stimulation of IGF-1 synthesis through protein kinase A activation of the IGF-1 promoter. Increased IGF-1 originates an autocrine loop that activates Akt and NFκB. Constitutive activation of NFκB in PTENΔ51-expressing astrocytes leads to aberrant cell growth; astrocytes expressing this mutant PTEN generate colonies in vitro and tumors in vivo. Mutations converting a tumor suppressor such as PTEN into a tumor promoter through a gain-of-function involving IGF-1 production may further our understanding of the role played by this growth factor in glioma growth and help us define druggable targets for personalized therapy.

  6. Indian Board of Orthodontics case report: Orthodontic management of vertical excess using skeletal anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit J Kalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available B.B., a 21-year-old girl, presented with the chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth and gummy smile. Diagnosis revealed prognathic maxilla and average mandible, Class II skeletal base with vertical growth pattern, end-on molars and Class II canine relationship bilaterally, convex profile, potentially incompetent lips, gummy smile, and protrusive lower lip. The patient′s treatment plan was extraction of all first bicuspids and retraction using temporary anchorage devices. Anchorage was reinforced using microimplants in the maxillary arch and second molar banding in the mandibular arch. The implants were placed high up in the vestibule to have more of an intrusive component and to reduce gummy smile at the end of the treatment.

  7. Customized lingual bracket system and skeletal anchorage system for open bite correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toru Inami

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We treated a female patient with open bite and high-angle Class II Division 2 malocclusion using fully customized lingual appliances, orthodontic anchor screws (OAS, and a skeletal anchorage system (SAS. By carefully controlling torque, anchorage, and vertical skeletal and dental factors, we were able to obtain proper anterior coupling. Even after the retention phase of treatment, the occlusion was maintained, indicating that we provided proper treatment according to the properly designed treatment plan. This also indicates that cases with an extremely high level of difficulty, as in the present case with high-angle retrognathic mandible and open bite, can be treated by combining the Incognito appliance (a fully customized lingual bracket appliance with a SAS and OAS.

  8. Impedance-Based Cable Force Monitoring in Tendon-Anchorage Using Portable PZT-Interface Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Canh Huynh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a portable PZT interface for tension force monitoring in the cable-anchorage subsystem is developed. Firstly, the theoretical background of the impedance-based method is presented. A few damage evaluation approaches are outlined to quantify the variation of impedance signatures. Secondly, a portable PZT interface is designed to monitor impedance signatures from the cable-anchorage subsystem. One degree-of-freedom analytical model of the PZT interface is established to explain how to represent the loss of cable force from the change in the electromechanical impedance of the PZT interface as well as reducing the sensitive frequency band by implementing the interface device. Finally, the applicability of the proposed PZT-interface technique is experimentally evaluated for cable force-loss monitoring in a lab-scaled test structure.

  9. Low Intensity Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy Improves Erectile Function in a Model of Type II Diabetes Independently of NO/cGMP Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assaly-Kaddoum, Rana; Giuliano, François; Laurin, Miguel; Gorny, Diane; Kergoat, Micheline; Bernabé, Jacques; Vardi, Yoram; Alexandre, Laurent; Behr-Roussel, Delphine

    2016-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction is highly prevalent in type II diabetes mellitus. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy improves erectile function in patients with erectile dysfunction of vasculogenic origin, including diabetes. However, its mode of action remains unknown. We investigated the effects of low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy compared to or combined with sildenafil on erectile dysfunction in a type II diabetes mellitus model. Our purpose was to test our hypothesis of a mode of action targeting the cavernous nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway. GK rats, a validated model of type II diabetes mellitus, and age matched Wistar rats were treated with low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy twice weekly for 3 weeks. Treatment was repeated after a 3-week no-treatment interval. The penis was stretched and dipped in a specifically designed water-filled cage. Shock waves were delivered by a calibrated probe yielding a controlled energy flux density (0.09 mJ/mm(2)). The probe was attached to an electrohydraulic unit with a focused shock wave source, allowing for accurate extrapolation to humans. Following a 4-week washout period erectile function was assessed as well as endothelium dependent and independent, and nitrergic relaxations of the corpus cavernosum of GK rats. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy significantly improved erectile function in GK rats to the same extent as sildenafil. Treatment effects were potentiated when combined with sildenafil. Shock wave effects were not associated with improved cavernous endothelium dependent or independent, or nitrergic reactivity. Low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy improved erectile function in GK rats. Unexpectedly, this was not mediated by a nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate dependent mechanism. Sildenafil increased shock wave efficacy. This preclinical paradigm to deliver low intensity extracorporeal shock wave therapy to the rat penis should

  10. TCR-independent functions of Th17 cells mediated by the synergistic actions of cytokines of the IL-12 and IL-1 families.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Kyung Lee

    Full Text Available The development of Th17 cells is accompanied by the acquisition of responsiveness to both IL-12 and IL-23, cytokines with established roles in the development and/or function of Th1 and Th17 cells, respectively. IL-12 signaling promotes antigen-dependent Th1 differentiation but, in combination with IL-18, allows the antigen-independent perpetuation of Th1 responses. On the other hand, while IL-23 is dispensable for initial commitment to the Th17 lineage, it promotes the pathogenic function of the Th17 cells. In this study, we have examined the overlap between Th1 and Th17 cells in their responsiveness to common pro-inflammatory cytokines and how this affects the antigen-independent cytokine responses of Th17 cells. We found that in addition to the IL-1 receptor, developing Th17 cells also up-regulate the IL-18 receptor. Consequently, in the presence of IL-1β or IL-18, and in the absence of TCR activation, Th17 cells produce Th17 lineage cytokines in a STAT3-dependent manner when stimulated with IL-23, and IFN© via a STAT4-dependent mechanism when stimulated with IL-12. Thus, building on previous findings of antigen-induced plasticity of Th17 cells, our results indicate that this potential of Th17 cells extends to their cytokine-dependent antigen-independent responses. Collectively, our data suggest a model whereby signaling via either IL-1β or IL-18 allows for bystander responses of Th17 cells to pathogens or pathogen products that differentially activate innate cell production of IL-12 or IL-23.

  11. Decoding the encoding of functional brain networks: An fMRI classification comparison of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), independent component analysis (ICA), and sparse coding algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianwen; Douglas, Pamela K; Wu, Ying Nian; Brody, Arthur L; Anderson, Ariana E

    2017-04-15

    Brain networks in fMRI are typically identified using spatial independent component analysis (ICA), yet other mathematical constraints provide alternate biologically-plausible frameworks for generating brain networks. Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) would suppress negative BOLD signal by enforcing positivity. Spatial sparse coding algorithms (L1 Regularized Learning and K-SVD) would impose local specialization and a discouragement of multitasking, where the total observed activity in a single voxel originates from a restricted number of possible brain networks. The assumptions of independence, positivity, and sparsity to encode task-related brain networks are compared; the resulting brain networks within scan for different constraints are used as basis functions to encode observed functional activity. These encodings are then decoded using machine learning, by using the time series weights to predict within scan whether a subject is viewing a video, listening to an audio cue, or at rest, in 304 fMRI scans from 51 subjects. The sparse coding algorithm of L1 Regularized Learning outperformed 4 variations of ICA (pcoding algorithms. Holding constant the effect of the extraction algorithm, encodings using sparser spatial networks (containing more zero-valued voxels) had higher classification accuracy (pcoding algorithms suggests that algorithms which enforce sparsity, discourage multitasking, and promote local specialization may capture better the underlying source processes than those which allow inexhaustible local processes such as ICA. Negative BOLD signal may capture task-related activations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of bioDensity Training and Power Plate Whole-Body Vibration on Strength, Balance, and Functional Independence in Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek T; Judge, Stacey; Malone, Ashley; Moynes, Rebecca C; Conviser, Jason; Skinner, James S

    2016-01-01

    Reduced strength, balance, and functional independence diminish quality of life and increase health care costs. Sixty adults (82.2 ± 4.9 years) were randomized to a control or three 12-week intervention groups: bioDensity (bD); Power Plate (PP) whole-body vibration (WBV); or bD+PP. bD involved one weekly 5-s maximal contraction of four muscle groups. PP involved two 5-min WBV sessions. Primary outcomes were strength, balance, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM). No groups differed initially. Strength significantly increased 22-51% for three muscle groups in bD and bD+PP (P Balance significantly improved in PP and bD+PP but not in control or bD. bD, PP, and bD+PP differentially improved FIM self-care and mobility. Strength improvements from weekly 5-min sessions of bD may impart health/clinical benefits. Balance and leg strength improvements suggest WBV beneficially impacts fall risk and incidence. Improved FIM scores are encouraging and justify larger controlled trials on bD and bD+PP efficacy.

  13. Disimpaction of maxillary canines using temporary bone anchorage and cantilever springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thebault, Benoit; Dutertre, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Impacted canines, particularly in the maxilla, are frequently encountered in orthodontic practice. Unfortunately, depending on their position, correction can often be difficult and sometimes unsuccessful. Thorough diagnosis along with orthodontic treatment combining bone-supported anchorage and cantilever springs appears, in our view, to offer the best solution to this tricky orthodontic challenge while limiting, as far as possible, the risk of failure. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  14. Dental Extrusion with Orthodontic Miniscrew Anchorage: A Case Report Describing a Modified Method

    OpenAIRE

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Fl?vio Eduardo Guillin; Abr?o, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by m...

  15. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Farret,Marcel Marchiori

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end...

  16. Independent preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vind, Karl

    1991-01-01

    A simple mathematical result characterizing a subset of a product set is proved and used to obtain additive representations of preferences. The additivity consequences of independence assumptions are obtained for preferences which are not total or transitive. This means that most of the economic ...... theory based on additive preferences - expected utility, discounted utility - has been generalized to preferences which are not total or transitive. Other economic applications of the theorem are given...

  17. Maxillary distraction osteogenesis in cleft lip and palate patients with skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minami, Katsuhiro; Mori, Yoshihide; Tae-Geon, Kwon; Shimizu, Hidetaka; Ohtani, Miyuki; Yura, Yoshiaki

    2007-03-01

    Maxillary distraction osteogenesis with the rigid external distraction (RED) system has been used to treat cleft lip and palate (CLP) patients with severe maxillary hypoplasia. We introduce maxillary distraction osteogenesis for CLP patients with skeletal anchorage adapted on a stereolithographic model. Six maxillary deficiency CLP patients treated according to our CLP treatment protocol had undergone maxillary distraction osteogenesis. In all patients, computed tomography (CT) images were recorded preoperatively, and the data were transferred to a workstation. Three-dimensional skeletal structures were reconstructed with CT data sets, and a stereolithographic model was produced. On the stereolithographic model, miniplates were adapted to the surface of maxilla beside aperture piriforms. The operation performed involved a high Le Fort I osteotomy with pterygomaxillary disjunction. Miniplates were fixed to the maxillary segment with three or four screws and used for anchorage of the RED system. Retraction of the maxillary segment was initiated after 1 week. The accuracy of the stereolithographic models was enough to adapt the miniplates so that there was no need to readjust the plates during surgery. Postoperative cephalometric analysis showed that the direction of the retraction was almost parallel to the palatal plane, and dental compensation did not occur. We performed maxillary distraction osteogenesis with skeletal anchorage adapted on the stereolithographic models. Excellent esthetic outcome and skeletal advancement were achieved without dentoalveolar compensations.

  18. The Plurality of Harbors at Caesarea: The Southern Anchorage in Late Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Alexandra; Galili, Ehud; Waiman-Barak, Paula; Yasur-Landau, Assaf

    2017-08-01

    The engineering marvel of Sebastos, or Portus Augusti as it was called in Late Antiquity (284-638 CE), dominated Caesarea's harbor center along modern Israel's central coast but it was only one part of a larger maritime complex. The Southern Anchorage provides a case study as one portion of the Caesarea complex, as well as a node within the regional network of anchorages and small harbors. Ceramics recovered from here show a high percentage of locally, and provincially, produced storage jars engaged in maritime trade. The ceramic evidence points towards an intensified regional trade or cabotage rather than favouring long distance trade from large port to port. Working out of these small harbors, opportunities arose for greater flexibility in specialization of commodities and materials passing through the network of subsidiary ports, contributing to a more diversified market economy. This analysis provides another example in the growing focus on how these simple and semi-modified anchorages in the Eastern Mediterranean were often the predominant economic networks connecting hinterland and coastal trade.

  19. Success rates of a skeletal anchorage system in orthodontics: A retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Raymond; Goonewardene, Mithran S; Allan, Brent P; Sugawara, Junji

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the premise that skeletal anchorage with SAS miniplates are highly successful and predictable for a range of complex orthodontic movements. This retrospective cross-sectional analysis consisted of 421 bone plates placed by one clinician in 163 patients (95 female, 68 male, mean age 29.4 years ± 12.02). Simple descriptive statistics were performed for a wide range of malocclusions and desired movements to obtain success, complication, and failure rates. The success rate of skeletal anchorage system miniplates was 98.6%, where approximately 40% of cases experienced mild complications. The most common complication was soft tissue inflammation, which was amenable to focused oral hygiene and antiseptic rinses. Infection occurred in approximately 15% of patients where there was a statistically significant correlation with poor oral hygiene. The most common movements were distalization and intrusion of teeth. More than a third of the cases involved complex movements in more than one plane of space. The success rate of skeletal anchorage system miniplates is high and predictable for a wide range of complex orthodontic movements.

  20. A review on the technical basis for ACI 349 code revision to anchorage criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, N. H.; You, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anchors are widely used to attach structural and nonstructural elements to concrete in nuclear power plant construction. Anchorage to concrete in nuclear-related structure plant has been designed per ACI 349-90 Appendix B. However, a new criteria for anchorage based on the concrete capacity design(CCD) approach is ready for publication under the normal publication procedures by ACI 349 Code Committee. Both design procedures(ACI 349-90 and ACI 349-New) show rather different concrete capacities. Earlier comparable studies show that the CCD method is a more reliable predictor of concrete breakout than the 45-degree cone method(ACI 349-90), hence the CCD method adopted by ACI 349-New Code has been recommended. The philosophy of the current code is to design ductile fastenings, which requires a limit to guard against brittle concrete failure. On the other hand, the new code requires calculations for the concrete breakout strength, pullout strength, side-face blowout strength of fastener in tension, and concrete breakout strength, pryout strength of fastener in shear. Therefore, the new code can accurately predict the concrete failure capacity for different behavior of the anchorage system. In this review, the provisions of ACI 349-90 and ACI 349-New are compared to show the major differences with emphasis on the concrete breakout capacity

  1. Prolonged Response and Restoration of Functional Independence with Bevacizumab plus Vinorelbine as Third-Line Treatment for Breast Cancer-Related Leptomeningeal Metastases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilie Le Rhun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Survival of patients with leptomeningeal metastases (LM and impaired functional status is limited to several months, and rarely does neurological function improve with treatment. Case Report: A 34-year-old female with hormone-negative and HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer was diagnosed with bulky radiographic LM 45 months after initial diagnosis. She was treated with intra-CSF trastuzumab followed by intra-CSF liposomal cytarabine; however, the cancer progressed 8 months after the diagnosis of LM. At the time of the third LM progression, the patient presented with a cauda equina syndrome and cerebellar impairment resulting in an inability to walk. She was treated with CNS-directed radiotherapy (lumbosacral and cerebellar and bevacizumab plus vinorelbine. Rapid functional improvement occurred, and the patient regained the ability to walk and independently manage her daily activities. Twelve months later, she presented with rapid progression of the LM resulting in death within several weeks. Conclusion: In radiographically defined bulky LM, the combination of systemic therapy and CNS-directed radiotherapy likely is more active than intra-CSF therapy only. In lieu of the rapid and significant improvement in neurological function combined with the prolonged response, bevacizumab alone or in combination with chemotherapy and CNS-directed radiotherapy may be considered in select patients with radiographically bulky breast cancer-related LM.

  2. Inhibition of Curcumin on ZAKα Activity Resultant in Apoptosis and Anchorage-Independent Growth in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Sun; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Lin, Ming Cheng; Lin, Wei-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji

    2017-10-31

    Curcumin, a popular yellow pigment of the dietary spice turmeric, has been reported to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells. Although numerous studies have investigated anticancer effects of curcumin, the precise molecular mechanism of action remains unidentified. Whereas curcumin mediates cell survival and apoptosis through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascades, its impact on the upstream regulation of MAPK is unclear. The leucine-zipper and sterile-α motif kinase alpha (ZAKα), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB pathway. This paper investigated the prospective involvement of ZAKα in curcumin-induced effects on cancer cells. Our results suggest that the antitumor activity of curcumin is mediated via a mechanism involving inhibition of ZAKα activity.

  3. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl

    2013-01-01

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer

  4. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    This paper re-evaluates the corporate governance concept of ‘board independence’ against the disappointing experiences during the 2007-08 financial crisis. Independent or outside directors had long been seen as an essential tool to improve the monitoring role of the board. Yet the crisis revealed...... that they did not prevent firms' excessive risk taking; further, these directors sometimes showed serious deficits in understanding the business they were supposed to control, and remained passive in addressing structural problems. A closer look reveals that under the surface of seemingly unanimous consensus...

  5. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  6. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  7. Anchorage of equipment - requirements and verification methods with emphasis on equipment of existing and constructed VVER-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1999-01-01

    Criteria and verification methods which are recommended for use in the capacity evaluation of anchorage of safety-related equipment at WWER-type nuclear power plants are presented. Developed in compliance with the relevant basic standards documents specifically for anchorage of WWER-type equipment components, the criteria and methods cover different types of anchor bolts and other anchorage elements which are typical of existing, constructed, or reconstructed WWER-type nuclear power plants

  8. Diffusion Tensor Fractional Anisotropy in the Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus Correlates with Functional Independence Measure Cognition Scores in Patients with Cerebral Infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Tetsuo; Domen, Kazuhisa

    2017-08-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between fiber tract degeneration measured by diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and outcome of patients after cerebral infarction. Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated by DTI in patients 14-21 days after the first infarction and were analyzed by tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Mean FA values within the corticospinal tract (CST) and the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) were extracted from individual TBSS data. Relationships between FA ratios (rFAs, lesioned to non-lesioned hemisphere) and outcomes assessed by Brunnstrom stage (BRS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) motor and cognition scores were examined using Spearman's rank correlation test. Forty patients (21 left and 19 right hemisphere lesions) were entered into an analytical database. BRS ranged from 1 to 6 (median, 5) for shoulder, elbow, or forearm; from 2 to 6 (median, 4.5) for hand or finger; and from 3 to 6 (median, 5) for lower extremity. FIM motor ranged from 51 to 91 (median, 79.5), and FIM cognition ranged from 16 to 35 (median, 29). rFA values in the CST ranged from .692 to 1.053 (median, .933), and those in the SLF ranged from .778 to 1.076 (median, .965). Mann-Whitney U test (P cognition scores (r = .409, P cognitive function and extremity function, respectively. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Functional connectivity analysis of the neural bases of emotion regulation: A comparison of independent component method with density-based k-means clustering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling; Guo, Qian; Xu, Yi; Yang, Biao; Jiao, Zhuqing; Xiang, Jianbo

    2016-04-29

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool in neuroscience for assessing connectivity and interactions between distant areas of the brain. To find and characterize the coherent patterns of brain activity as a means of identifying brain systems for the cognitive reappraisal of the emotion task, both density-based k-means clustering and independent component analysis (ICA) methods can be applied to characterize the interactions between brain regions involved in cognitive reappraisal of emotion. Our results reveal that compared with the ICA method, the density-based k-means clustering method provides a higher sensitivity of polymerization. In addition, it is more sensitive to those relatively weak functional connection regions. Thus, the study concludes that in the process of receiving emotional stimuli, the relatively obvious activation areas are mainly distributed in the frontal lobe, cingulum and near the hypothalamus. Furthermore, density-based k-means clustering method creates a more reliable method for follow-up studies of brain functional connectivity.

  10. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  11. Comparative evaluation of sagittal anchorage loss in lingual and labial appliances during space closure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to assess and compare the anchorage loss between labial and lingual appliance systems during space closure. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects were part of the study among which 10 subjects (mean age 21 ± 3.6 years were treated using lingual appliance system (0.018" slot-STb™ and 10 subjects (mean age 19 ± 6.1 years were treated using labial preadjusted edgewise appliance system (0.018" slot-MBT™ . First premolar extractions were performed to enable retraction of anterior teeth. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at two intervals, before starting space closure and after space closure that were connoted as T0 and T1 and were analyzed using the method described by Pancherz to measure anchorage loss. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to evaluate intraexaminer reliability of the measurements. Student′s t-test was performed to verify any statistical significant correlation between the labial and lingual appliance systems. Statistical differences were determined at the 95% confidence level (P < 0.05. Results: The results showed that all ICC for lingual and labial group were ≥0.90 showing good repeatability of the measurements. Mean anchorage loss of 1.238 ± 0.17 mm in lingual appliance system and an anchorage loss of 2.06 ± 0.39 mm occurred with the labial appliance system. On the comparison between the two appliance systems, lingual appliance demonstrated a significantly lesser anchorage loss than did the labial appliance. Interpretation and Conclusion: This prospective study concludes with the fact that lingual appliance provided better anchorage control than labial appliance during space closure. Use of lingual appliance could be considered in critical anchorage cases when compared with labial appliance.

  12. A Rad53 independent function of Rad9 becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of the Recq helicase Sgs1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nielsen

    Full Text Available The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses, replisome stability and dissolution of double Holliday junctions during homologous recombination. In this study we investigate a possible genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD9 in the cellular response to methyl methane sulphonate (MMS induced damage and compare this with the genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD24. The Rad9 protein, an adaptor for effector kinase activation, plays well-characterized roles in the DNA damage checkpoint response, whereas Rad24 is characterized as a sensor protein also in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Here we unveil novel insights into the cellular response to MMS-induced damage. Specifically, we show a strong synergistic functionality between SGS1 and RAD9 for recovery from MMS induced damage and for suppression of gross chromosomal rearrangements, which is not the case for SGS1 and RAD24. Intriguingly, it is a Rad53 independent function of Rad9, which becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of Sgs1. Despite this, our dissection of the MMS checkpoint response reveals parallel, but unequal pathways for Rad53 activation and highlights significant differences between MMS- and hydroxyurea (HU-induced checkpoint responses with relation to the requirement of the Sgs1 interacting partner Topoisomerase III (Top3. Thus, whereas earlier studies have documented a Top3-independent role of Sgs1 for an HU-induced checkpoint response, we show here that upon MMS treatment, Sgs1 and Top3 together define a minor but parallel pathway to that of Rad9.

  13. Aliskiren, a Direct Renin Inhibitor, Improves Vascular Endothelial Function in Patients on Hemodialysis Independent of Antihypertensive Effect ∼ a Pilot Study∼

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekazu Moriya

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Aliskiren inhibits the first step in the renin-angiotensin system (RAS and recently has been shown to modulate vascular diseases via RAS-dependent and independent pathways. This study aimed to determine the effect of aliskiren-associated direct renin inhibition on endothelial function in patients on hemodialysis via flow-mediated dilatation (FMD and platelet-derived microparticles (PDMP, as biomarkers of atherosclerosis. Methods: A 12-week prospective study was performed with 24 patients on hemodialysis who were administered 150 mg orally aliskiren once daily for 12 weeks. Results: No significant difference were observed between pre-dialysis, home, and weekly averaged blood pressure at baseline and at 12 weeks (151.5 ± 8.5/80.9 ± 12.9 mmHg vs 150.3 ± 15.3/78.9 ± 21.2 mmHg, 151.4 ± 9.7/82.3 ± 14.7 mmHg vs 151.2 ± 17.7/81.4 ± 10.6 mmHg, and 156.0 ± 18.3/81.9 ± 9.4 mmHg vs 152.5 ± 18.9/81.7 ± 12.3 mmHg, respectively. FMD significantly increased from 2.54% ± 1.45% at baseline to 3.11% ± 1.37% at 12 weeks (P = 0.0267, and PDMP significantly decreased from 13.9 ± 5.8 U/mL at baseline to 10.9 ± 4.5 U/mL at 12 weeks (P = 0.0002. Conclusion: Aliskiren improved vascular endothelial function and platelet-endothelium activation in patients on hemodialysis independent of antihypertensive effect.

  14. Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Guo, Xingyi; Long, Jirong; Kuchenbaecker, Karoline B; Droit, Arnaud; Michailidou, Kyriaki; Ghoussaini, Maya; Kar, Siddhartha; Freeman, Adam; Hopper, John L; Milne, Roger L; Bolla, Manjeet K; Wang, Qin; Dennis, Joe; Agata, Simona; Ahmed, Shahana; Aittomäki, Kristiina; Andrulis, Irene L; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Antonenkova, Natalia N; Arason, Adalgeir; Arndt, Volker; Arun, Banu K; Arver, Brita; Bacot, Francois; Barrowdale, Daniel; Baynes, Caroline; Beeghly-Fadiel, Alicia; Benitez, Javier; Bermisheva, Marina; Blomqvist, Carl; Blot, William J; Bogdanova, Natalia V; Bojesen, Stig E; Bonanni, Bernardo; Borresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Brand, Judith S; Brauch, Hiltrud; Brennan, Paul; Brenner, Hermann; Broeks, Annegien; Brüning, Thomas; Burwinkel, Barbara; Buys, Saundra S; Cai, Qiuyin; Caldes, Trinidad; Campbell, Ian; Carpenter, Jane; Chang-Claude, Jenny; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Claes, Kathleen B M; Clarke, Christine; Cox, Angela; Cross, Simon S; Czene, Kamila; Daly, Mary B; de la Hoya, Miguel; De Leeneer, Kim; Devilee, Peter; Diez, Orland; Domchek, Susan M; Doody, Michele; Dorfling, Cecilia M; Dörk, Thilo; Dos-Santos-Silva, Isabel; Dumont, Martine; Dwek, Miriam; Dworniczak, Bernd; Egan, Kathleen; Eilber, Ursula; Einbeigi, Zakaria; Ejlertsen, Bent; Ellis, Steve; Frost, Debra; Lalloo, Fiona; Fasching, Peter A; Figueroa, Jonine; Flyger, Henrik; Friedlander, Michael; Friedman, Eitan; Gambino, Gaetana; Gao, Yu-Tang; Garber, Judy; García-Closas, Montserrat; Gehrig, Andrea; Damiola, Francesca; Lesueur, Fabienne; Mazoyer, Sylvie; Stoppa-Lyonnet, Dominique; Giles, Graham G; Godwin, Andrew K; Goldgar, David E; González-Neira, Anna; Greene, Mark H; Guénel, Pascal; Haeberle, Lothar; Haiman, Christopher A; Hallberg, Emily; Hamann, Ute; Hansen, Thomas V O; Hart, Steven; Hartikainen, Jaana M; Hartman, Mikael; Hassan, Norhashimah; Healey, Sue; Hogervorst, Frans B L; Verhoef, Senno; Hendricks, Carolyn B; Hillemanns, Peter; Hollestelle, Antoinette; Hulick, Peter J; Hunter, David J; Imyanitov, Evgeny N; Isaacs, Claudine; Ito, Hidemi; Jakubowska, Anna; Janavicius, Ramunas; Jaworska-Bieniek, Katarzyna; Jensen, Uffe Birk; John, Esther M; Joly Beauparlant, Charles; Jones, Michael; Kabisch, Maria; Kang, Daehee; Karlan, Beth Y; Kauppila, Saila; Kerin, Michael J; Khan, Sofia; Khusnutdinova, Elza; Knight, Julia A; Konstantopoulou, Irene; Kraft, Peter; Kwong, Ava; Laitman, Yael; Lambrechts, Diether; Lazaro, Conxi; Le Marchand, Loic; Lee, Chuen Neng; Lee, Min Hyuk; Lester, Jenny; Li, Jingmei; Liljegren, Annelie; Lindblom, Annika; Lophatananon, Artitaya; Lubinski, Jan; Mai, Phuong L; Mannermaa, Arto; Manoukian, Siranoush; Margolin, Sara; Marme, Frederik; Matsuo, Keitaro; McGuffog, Lesley; Meindl, Alfons; Menegaux, Florence; Montagna, Marco; Muir, Kenneth; Mulligan, Anna Marie; Nathanson, Katherine L; Neuhausen, Susan L; Nevanlinna, Heli; Newcomb, Polly A; Nord, Silje; Nussbaum, Robert L; Offit, Kenneth; Olah, Edith; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I; Olswold, Curtis; Osorio, Ana; Papi, Laura; Park-Simon, Tjoung-Won; Paulsson-Karlsson, Ylva; Peeters, Stephanie; Peissel, Bernard; Peterlongo, Paolo; Peto, Julian; Pfeiler, Georg; Phelan, Catherine M; Presneau, Nadege; Radice, Paolo; Rahman, Nazneen; Ramus, Susan J; Rashid, Muhammad Usman; Rennert, Gad; Rhiem, Kerstin; Rudolph, Anja; Salani, Ritu; Sangrajrang, Suleeporn; Sawyer, Elinor J; Schmidt, Marjanka K; Schmutzler, Rita K; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Schürmann, Peter; Seynaeve, Caroline; Shen, Chen-Yang; Shrubsole, Martha J; Shu, Xiao-Ou; Sigurdson, Alice; Singer, Christian F; Slager, Susan; Soucy, Penny; Southey, Melissa; Steinemann, Doris; Swerdlow, Anthony; Szabo, Csilla I; Tchatchou, Sandrine; Teixeira, Manuel R; Teo, Soo H; Terry, Mary Beth; Tessier, Daniel C; Teulé, Alex; Thomassen, Mads; Tihomirova, Laima; Tischkowitz, Marc; Toland, Amanda E; Tung, Nadine; Turnbull, Clare; van den Ouweland, Ans M W; van Rensburg, Elizabeth J; Ven den Berg, David; Vijai, Joseph; Wang-Gohrke, Shan; Weitzel, Jeffrey N; Whittemore, Alice S; Winqvist, Robert; Wong, Tien Y; Wu, Anna H; Yannoukakos, Drakoulis; Yu, Jyh-Cherng; Pharoah, Paul D P; Hall, Per; Chenevix-Trench, Georgia; Dunning, Alison M; Simard, Jacques; Couch, Fergus J; Antoniou, Antonis C; Easton, Douglas F; Zheng, Wei

    2016-06-21

    Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300 imputed genetic variants in 48,155 cases and 43,612 controls of European descent, 6269 cases and 6624 controls of East Asian descent and 1116 cases and 932 controls of African descent in the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC; http://bcac.ccge.medschl.cam.ac.uk/ ), and in 15,252 BRCA1 mutation carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation. Analysis of data from European descendants found evidence for four independent association signals at 12p11, represented by rs7297051 (odds ratio (OR) = 1.09, 95 % confidence interval (CI) = 1.06-1.12; P = 3 × 10(-9)), rs805510 (OR = 1.08, 95 % CI = 1.04-1.12, P = 2 × 10(-5)), and rs1871152 (OR = 1.04, 95 % CI = 1.02-1.06; P = 2 × 10(-4)) identified in the general populations, and rs113824616 (P = 7 × 10(-5)) identified in the meta-analysis of BCAC ER-negative cases and BRCA1 mutation carriers. SNPs rs7297051, rs805510 and rs113824616 were also associated with breast cancer risk at P associations were statistically significant in African descendants. Multiple candidate functional variants are located in putative enhancer sequences. Chromatin interaction data suggested that PTHLH was the likely target gene of these enhancers. Of the six variants with the strongest evidence of potential functionality, rs11049453 was statistically significantly associated with the expression of PTHLH and its nearby gene CCDC91 at P association signals at

  15. Fatigue as Presenting Symptom and a High Burden of Premature Ventricular Contractions Are Independently Associated With Increased Ventricular Wall Stress in Patients With Normal Left Ventricular Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Huls van Taxis, Carine F B; Piers, Sebastiaan R D; de Riva Silva, Marta; Dekkers, Olaf M; Pijnappels, Daniël A; Schalij, Martin J; Wijnmaalen, Adrianus P; Zeppenfeld, Katja

    2015-12-01

    High idiopathic premature ventricular contractions (PVC) burden has been associated with PVC-induced cardiomyopathy. Patients may be symptomatic before left ventricular (LV) dysfunction develops. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) and circumferential end-systolic wall stress (cESS) on echocardiography are markers for increased ventricular wall stress. This study aimed to evaluate the relation between presenting symptoms, PVC burden, and increased ventricular wall stress in patients with frequent PVCs and preserved LV function. Eighty-three patients (41 men; 49±15 years) with idiopathic PVCs and normal LV function referred for PVC ablation were included. Type of symptoms (palpitations, fatigue, and [near-]syncope), PVC burden on 24-hour Holter, NT-proBNP levels, and cESS on echocardiography were assessed before and 3 months after ablation. Sustained successful ablation was defined as ≥80% PVC burden reduction during follow-up. Patients were symptomatic for 24 months (Q1-Q3, 16-60); 73% reported palpitations, 47% fatigue, and 30% (near-)syncope. Baseline PVC burden was 23±13%, median NT-proBNP 92 pg/mL (Q1-Q3 50-156), and cESS 143±35 kdyne/cm(2). Fatigue was associated with higher baseline NT-proBNP and cESS (PFatigue was independently associated with a significantly larger reduction in NT-proBNP. In patients with nonsuccessful ablation, NT-proBNP and cESS remained unchanged. In patients with frequent PVCs and preserved LV function, fatigue was associated with higher baseline NT-proBNP and cESS, and with a significantly larger reduction in NT-proBNP after sustained successful ablation. These findings support a link between fatigue and PVC-induced increased ventricular wall stress, despite preserved LV function. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Synergistic or independent impacts of low frequency of going outside the home and social isolation on functional decline: A 4-year prospective study of urban Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Nishi, Mariko; Fukaya, Taro; Hasebe, Masami; Nonaka, Kumiko; Koike, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Yoh; Saito, Masashige; Kobayashi, Erika

    2017-03-01

    Decreased frequency of going outside the home and being socially isolated are regarded as predictors of poor health. The object of the present study was to clarify whether these factors have synergistic or independent impacts on future functional decline. We examined a prospective cohort of 2427 community-dwelling persons, aged ≥65 years, who responded to the baseline mail survey in Wako City, in 2008. Participants were asked about the frequency of going outside the home, social isolation status (having contact less than once a week with anyone outside household), functional capacity (Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Index of Competence), age, sex, annual income, self-rated health, depressive mood and mobility. Of 1575 persons (72.1%) who completely responded to the follow-up survey (T2) in 2012, we defined the groups as follows: group 1, not isolated and going outside the home every day (n = 897); group 2, not isolated and going outside the home less than every day (n = 311); group 3, isolated and going outside the home every day (n = 224); and group 4, isolated and going outside the home less than every day (n = 143). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the variables identifying group 3 for men and group 2 for women with reference to group 1 were predictors of subsequent functional decline even after adjustment for confounders (odds ratios 2.01, 1.63; 95% CI 1.20-3.38, 1.03-2.56, respectively). Social isolation regardless of going outside the home every day for men and going outside the home less than every day regardless of being not socially isolated for women might predict functional decline. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 500-508. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  17. Impact of a new gasoline benzene regulation on ambient air pollutants in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yano, Yuriko; Morris, Stephen S.; Salerno, Christopher; Schlapia, Anne M.; Stichick, Mathew

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of a new U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standard that limits the amount of benzene allowed in gasoline on ambient benzene concentrations. This new standard, together with two companion regulations that limit cold-temperature automotive emissions and the permeability of portable fuel containers, was expected to lower the levels of ambient benzene and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) nationwide. In this study the impact of the gasoline benzene standard was evaluated in Anchorage, Alaska in a two-phase ambient air monitoring study conducted before and after the new gasoline standard was implemented. Gasoline sold by Anchorage retailers was also evaluated in each phase to determine the content of benzene and other gasoline components. The average benzene content in Anchorage gasoline was reduced by 70%, from 5.05% (w/w) to 1.53% (w/w) following the implementation of the standard. The annual mean ambient benzene concentration fell by 51%, from 0.99 ppbv in Phase 1 to 0.49 ppbv in Phase 2. Analysis suggests the change in gasoline benzene content alone reduced benzene emissions by 46%. The changes in toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene content in gasoline between Phase 1 and 2 were relatively small and the differences in the mean ambient concentrations of these compounds between phases were modest. Our results suggest that cold winter communities in high latitude and mountainous regions may benefit more from the gasoline benzene standard because of high benzene emissions resulting from vehicle cold start and a tendency to develop atmospheric stagnation conditions in the winter.

  18. Strontium ranelate improved tooth anchorage and reduced root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschneck, Christian; Wolf, Michael; Reicheneder, Claudia; Wahlmann, Ulrich; Proff, Peter; Roemer, Piero

    2014-12-05

    The anchorage mechanisms currently used in orthodontic treatment have various disadvantages. The objective of this study was to determine the applicability of the osteoporosis medication strontium ranelate in pharmacologically induced orthodontic tooth anchorage. In 48 male Wistar rats, a constant orthodontic force of 0.25 N was reciprocally applied to the upper first molar and the incisors by means of a Sentalloy(®) closed coil spring for two to four weeks. 50% of the animals received strontium ranelate at a daily oral dosage of 900 mg per kilogramme of body weight. Bioavailability was determined by blood analyses. The extent of tooth movement was measured both optometrically and cephalometrically (CBCT). Relative alveolar gene expression of osteoclastic markers and OPG-RANKL was assessed by qRT-PCR and root resorption area and osteoclastic activity were determined in TRAP-stained histologic sections of the alveolar process. Compared to controls, the animals treated with strontium ranelate showed up to 40% less tooth movement after four weeks of orthodontic treatment. Gene expression and histologic analyses showed significantly less osteoclastic activity and a significantly smaller root resorption area. Blood analyses confirmed sufficient bioavailability of strontium ranelate. Because of its pharmacologic effects on bone metabolism, strontium ranelate significantly reduced tooth movement and root resorption in orthodontic treatment of rats. Strontium ranelate may be a viable agent for inducing tooth anchorage and reducing undesired root resorption in orthodontic treatment. Patients under medication of strontium ranelate have to expect prolonged orthodontic treatment times. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Clinical application of micro-implant anchorage in initial orthodontic retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabuddin, Shaji; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Iqbal, Mahamad; Husain, Akhter

    2015-02-01

    Micro-implant is a device that is temporarily fixed to bone for the purpose of enhancing orthodontic anchorage either by supporting the teeth of the reactive unit or by obviating the need for the reactive unit altogether, and which is subsequently removed after use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of micro-implants in reinforcing anchorage during the initial retraction of anterior teeth, check the rate of initial retraction for 8 weeks, and assess the stability of micro-implants during this period. Eighteen micro-implants were placed (10 in the maxilla and 8 in the mandible) and immediately loaded with 200-250 g of force using 9-mm closed coil Nitinol springs. The amount of space closure was measured every 2 weeks until the eighth week. Cephalometric measurements were made at the end of the study to evaluate anchor loss, if any. Micro-implant stability was also assessed. The rate of initial retraction in the maxilla at the end of 8 weeks was 1.65 mm/quadrant and 1.51 mm/quadrant in the mandible. The amount of retraction on the left side of the arches was 1.66 mm/quadrant and 1.49 mm/quadrant on the right side. The average initial retraction for both arches per month was 0.78 mm. An anchor loss of 0.1 mm (0.06%) was observed in the maxilla while no mandibular anchor loss was recorded. The rate of initial retraction observed in the maxilla was more than that achieved in the mandible. Initial retraction was also more on the left side of the arches. There was no anchor loss in the mandible. The micro-implant-reinforced anchorage was helpful in minimizing anchor loss and accepted heavy traction forces but did not bring about a faster rate of retraction.

  20. Verification of the local structural response of building structures in the anchorage areas of heavy components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzik, N.J.; Tropp, R.

    1989-01-01

    In conventional dynamic structural analyses for determining dynamic system response for various locations at which components are installed inside the structures it is common practice (in order to simplify analytical effort) to assume that the anchorage (anchor plate, anchor bolts or throughbolts, concrete and reinforcement in the area of bound) has rigid body characteristics and that the building structure itself does not display any local response of its own. The influence of the stiffness of the anchor plate as well anchor bolts and its stress level on the dynamic response is also neglected. For a large number of anchoring systems, especially for all those components and systems having only a small mass, this assumption is certainly appropriate. At some locations, particularly at points where heavy components are anchored or when loading input has been increased, this can lead to local loading of the anchor system as well as of the building structure well into the nonlinear range. Often, verification of capability to accommodate these loads is not possible without changing the wall thicknesses or increasing the percentage of reinforcement. Since the presence of linear or nonlinear effects can be expected to result in energy dissipation (increase in damping capacity and also a change in the stiffness of the coupled system) it must be assumed that the dynamic response between the theoretical coupling point A and the real connection point B of the component on the anchor plate can be considerably altered. Some changes of the dynamic response in the connection point B have to be expected generally even in cases of linear-elastic loading of the anchorage. Using typical anchoring systems as an example, the influence of consideration of nonlinear effects in the anchorage area of a typical anchor plate on the dynamic response as well as the conservatism of conventional analytical approaches are investigated

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs-independent functions of fish oil on glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakutsu Masaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish oil is known to improve lifestyle-related diseases. These effects occur partly via activation of PPARs by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids included abundantly in fish oil. We investigated fish oil functions on glucose and lipid metabolism that are both dependent on and independent of PPARs pathway. Methods Mice were fed a diet containing 30 en% beef tallow (B diet for twelve weeks to induce obesity. The mice were then divided into two groups which were fed either a B diet or a diet containing 30 en% fish oil (F diet. Each group was further divided into two groups which were administered PPARα and γ antagonists or vehicle once a day for three weeks. Results The F diet groups showed lower triglyceride levels in plasma and liver than the B diet groups, but PPARs antagonists did not affect the triglyceride levels in either diet groups. The F diet groups also showed improvement of glucose tolerance compared with the B diet groups. However, PPARs antagonists made glucose tolerance worse in the F diet group but improved it in the B diet group. Therefore, by the administration of antagonists, glucose tolerance was inversely regulated between the B and F diets, and hypolipidemic action in the plasma and liver of the F diet group was not affected. Conclusion These results suggest that fish oil decreases lipid levels in plasma and liver via PPARs pathway-independent mechanism, and that glucose tolerance is inversely regulated by PPARs antagonists under diets containing different oils.

  2. Ghrelin-induced hippocampal neurogenesis and enhancement of cognitive function are mediated independently of GH/IGF-1 axis: lessons from the spontaneous dwarf rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Endan; Kim, Yumi; Kim, Sehee; Park, Seungjoon

    2013-01-01

    We recently have reported that ghrelin modulates adult hippocampal neurogenesis. However, there is a possibility that the action of ghrelin on hippocampal neurogenesis could be, in part, due to the ability of ghrelin to stimulate the GH/insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 axis, where both GH and IGF-1 infusions are known to increase hippocampal neurogenesis. To explore this possibility, we assessed the impact of ghrelin on progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation in the dentate gyrus (DG) of spontaneous dwarf rats (SDRs), a dwarf strain with a mutation of the GH gene resulting in total loss of GH. Double immunohistochemical staining revealed that Ki-67-positive progenitor cells and doublecortin (DCX)-positive neuroblasts in the DG of the SDRs expressed ghrelin receptors. We found that ghrelin treatment in the SDRs significantly increased the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen- and BrdU-labeled cells in the DG. The number of DCX-labeled cells in the DG of ghrelin-treated SDRs was also significantly increased compared with the vehicle-treated controls. To test whether ghrelin has a direct effect on cognitive performance independently of somatotropic axis, hippocampus-dependent learning and memory were assessed using the Y-maze and novel object recognition (NOR) test in the SDRs. Ghrelin treatment for 4 weeks by subcutaneous osmotic pump significantly increased alternation rates in the Y-maze and exploration time for novel object in the NOR test compared to vehicle-treated controls. Our results indicate that ghrelin-induced adult hippocampal neurogenesis and enhancement of cognitive function are mediated independently of somatotropic axis.

  3. The relative and absolute reliability of the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale in community-dwelling frail elderly Japanese people using long-term care insurance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-06-01

    The newly developed Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living in terms of both independence and difficulty. The reliability of this new scale has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine the relative reliability and absolute reliability of the newly developed scale in community-dwelling frail elderly people in Japan. Participants were 47 community-dwelling elderly subjects (22 for assessing test-retest reliability and 25 for assessing inter-rater reliability). As relative reliability indices, intra-class correlation coefficients were used. From an absolute reliability perspective, we conducted Bland-Altman analysis and calculated the limit of agreement or minimal detectable change to determine the acceptable range of error. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability were 0.90 (P reliability was -5.2 to 1.8, representing an increase of over six points for improvement and a decrease of over two points for decline of basic activities of daily living ability. The minimal detectable change for inter-rater reliability was 3.7, indicating that a three-point difference might be existed between difference raters. The results of this study demonstrated that the FIDS appeared to be a reliable instrument for use in Japanese community-dwelling frail elderly people. While further research using a large and more diverse sample of participants is needed, our findings support the use of FIDS in clinical practice or clinical research targeting frail elderly Japanese people.

  4. Severity of unilateral spatial neglect is an independent predictor of functional outcome after acute inpatient rehabilitation in individuals with right hemispheric stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Monaco, Marco; Schintu, Selene; Dotta, Manuela; Barba, Sonia; Tappero, Rosa; Gindri, Patrizia

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the relationship between severity of unilateral spatial neglect (USN) and functional recovery in activities of daily living after a right-hemisphere stroke. Observational study. Rehabilitation hospital in Italy. We investigated 107 of 131 inpatients with right-hemisphere stroke who were consecutively admitted to our rehabilitation hospital. Not applicable. To assess USN severity, conventional and nonconventional Behavioral Inattention Tests (BITs) were performed at admission to inpatient rehabilitation at a median of 19 days after stroke occurrence. FIM was performed both on admission to and discharge from inpatient rehabilitation to assess functional autonomy. FIM efficiency (improvement of FIM score per day of stay length) and FIM effectiveness (proportion of potential improvement achieved) were calculated. Fifty-four (50.5%) of the 107 patients were affected by USN. In these 54 patients, both conventional and nonconventional BIT scores were significantly correlated with FIM scores assessed at discharge from rehabilitation: ρ values were .385 (P=.004) and .396 (P=.003), respectively. After adjustment for 7 potential confounders, including FIM scores before rehabilitation, we found a significant positive association between either conventional or nonconventional BIT scores and FIM scores after rehabilitation (r=.276, P=.047 and r=.296, P=.033, respectively), FIM efficiency (r=.315, P=.022 and r=.307, P=.025, respectively), and FIM effectiveness (r=.371, P=.006 and r=.306, P=.026, respectively). Data support the independent prognostic role of USN severity assessed at admission to inpatient rehabilitation after a right-hemisphere stroke. Models aimed at predicting the functional outcome in stroke survivors may benefit from inclusion of USN severity. Copyright © 2011 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Operative Versus Nonoperative Management of Civilian Gunshot Wounds to the Spinal Cord: Novel Use of the Functional Independence Measure for Validated Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCunniff, Peter T; Ramey, James S; Scott, Meredith L; Roach, Mary J; Vallier, Heather A; Moore, Timothy A; Kelly, Michael L

    2017-10-01

    Surgery for patients with gunshot wound spinal cord injury (GSCI) remains controversial. Few recent studies provide standardized follow-up and detailed functional outcomes. To our knowledge, the research we present in this study is unique in that we are the first to incorporate Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scores as an outcomes measure for neurologic recovery in patients with GSCI. Patients with GSCI were divided into surgical and nonsurgical groups. Neurologic function was measured according to the American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale and defined as either complete or incomplete injury. Outcomes were then analyzed separately for complete and incomplete GSCI groups during hospitalization and rehabilitation. Baseline admissions characteristics were similar between surgical and nonsurgical groups except for a greater median injury severity score in the nonsurgical group (34 vs. 27; P = 0.02). For complete GSCI, total length of stay (LOS) was significantly longer in the surgical group (52 vs. 42 days; P = 0.04), and no difference was observed in overall FIM scores (58 vs. 54; P = 0.7). For incomplete GSCI, rehabilitation LOS was longer (35 vs. 21; P = 0.02) and a trend towards longer total LOS was observed in the surgical group (40 vs. 32; P = 0.07). No difference was observed in overall FIM scores (61 vs. 62; P = 0.9). Surgery for patients with GSCI is associated with increased LOS and is not associated with improved FIM scores for patients with either complete or incomplete spinal cord injuries. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of feeding a high-fat diet independently of caloric intake on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Mona A.; Abogresha, Noha M.; Tamany, Dalia A.; Lotfy, Mariam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Globally, the prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing, predisposing females to health hazards including compromised reproductive capacity. Our objective was to investigate the effect of ad libitum, isocalorically and hypocalorically restricted high-fat diet (HFD) feeding on reproductive function in diet-induced obese female rats. Material and methods Twenty female albino Sprague Dawley rats were used; 5 rats were kept on a standard pellet animal diet to serve as a control group (A) and 15 rats were fed a HFD for 9 weeks to induce obesity. The HFD fed animals were equally divided into three groups: an ad libitum HFD group (B), an isocalorically restricted HFD group (C), and a hypocalorically restricted HFD group (D). Estrous cyclicity, hormonal levels, ovarian histopathology and caspase-3 immunoreactivity were evaluated. Results The HFD-fed rats in groups B, C and D had significant irregularity in estrous cyclicity Vs group A (p = 0.001, 0.003 and 0.034 respectively). Groups C and D had significant reduction in serum progesterone level (p = 0.006 and 0.018 Vs A). Isocaloric restriction of HFD feeding significantly increased serum LH. Groups B and C had a significant increase in caspase-3 expression in the ovary (p < 0.001). Conclusions Ad libitum HFD interfered with the normal estrous cycle and enhanced apoptosis of luteal cells in obese female rats. The HFD restriction interfered with the normal estrous cycle and caused functional insufficiency of the corpus luteum in obese female rats. These results suggest that HFD feeding determinately affects female reproductive function independently of caloric intake. PMID:27478474

  7. The responsiveness of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS: a comparison with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Barthel Index (BI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vanbellingen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good responsive functional outcome measures are important to measure change in stroke patients. The aim of study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects of the motor, cognition & communication subscales of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS with the motor and cognition subscales of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and the Barthel Index (BI, in a large cohort of stroke patients.Methods: One hundred and eighteen stroke patients participated in this study. Admission and discharge score distributions of the LIMOS motor, LIMOS cognition & communication, FIM motor and FIM cognition, and BI were analyzed based on skewness and kurtosis. Floor and ceiling effects of the scales were determined. Internal responsiveness was assessed with t-tests, effect sizes (ES and standardized response means (SRMs. External responsiveness was investigated with linear regression analyses.Results: The LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication subscales were more responsive, expressed by higher effect sizes (ES = 0.65, SRM = 1.17 and ES = 0.52, SRM = 1.17 respectively as compared with FIM motor (ES = 0.54, SRM = 0.96 and FIM cognition (ES = 0.41, SRM = 0.88, and the BI (ES = 0.41, SRM = 0.65. The LIMOS subscales showed neither floor nor ceiling effects at admission and discharge (all < 15%. In contrast, ceiling effects were found for the FIM motor (16%, FIM cognition (15% at discharge and the BI (at admission (22% and discharge (43%. LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication subscales significantly correlated (p < 0.0001 with a change in the FIM motor and FIM cognition subscales, suggesting good external responsiveness.Conclusions: We found that the LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication, which are ICF-based multidisciplinary standardized observation scales, might have the potential to better detect changes in functional outcome of stroke patients, compared to

  8. Cognitive Function in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Older Adults: An Analysis of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cohort

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    Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Jones, Richard N.; Milberg, William P.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Talbot, Laura; Morris, John N.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how elevated body mass index (BMI) affects cognitive function in elderly people. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial. PARTICIPANTS The analytic sample included 2,684 normal-weight, overweight, or obese subjects aged 65 to 94. MEASUREMENTS Evaluation of cognitive abilities was performed in several domains: global cognition, memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Cross-sectional association between body weight status and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS Overweight subjects had better performance on a reasoning task (β = 0.23, standard error (SE) = 0.11, P = .04) and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) measure (β = −39.46, SE = 12.95, P = .002), a test of visuospatial speed of processing, after controlling for age, sex, race, years of education, intervention group, study site, and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects with class I (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2) and class II (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) obesity had better UFOV measure scores (β = −38.98, SE = 14.77, P = .008; β = −35.75, SE = 17.65, and P = .04, respectively) in the multivariate model than normal-weight subjects. The relationships between BMI and individual cognitive domains were nonlinear. CONCLUSION Overweight participants had better cognitive performance in terms of reasoning and visuospatial speed of processing than normal-weight participants. Obesity was associated with better performance in visuospatial speed of processing than normal weight. The relationship between BMI and cognitive function should be studied prospectively. PMID:16420204

  9. Randomized clinical trial comparing control of maxillary anchorage with 2 retraction techniques.

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    Xu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Oh, Hee Soo; Boyd, Robert L; Korn, Edward L; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this pilot randomized clinical trial was to investigate the relative effectiveness of anchorage conservation of en-masse and 2-step retraction techniques during maximum anchorage treatment in patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions. Sixty-four growing subjects (25 boys, 39 girls; 10.2-15.9 years old) who required maximum anchorage were randomized to 2 treatment techniques: en-masse retraction (n = 32) and 2-step retraction (n = 32); the groups were stratified by sex and starting age. Each patient was treated by a full-time clinic instructor experienced in the use of both retraction techniques at the orthodontic clinic of Peking University School of Stomatology in China. All patients used headgear, and most had transpalatal appliances. Lateral cephalograms taken before treatment and at the end of treatment were used to evaluate treatment-associated changes. Differences in maxillary molar mesial displacement and maxillary incisor retraction were measured with the before and after treatment tracings superimposed on the anatomic best fit of the palatal structures. Differences in mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar were compared between the 2 treatment techniques, between sexes, and between different starting-age groups. Average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar was slightly less in the en-masse group than in the 2-step group (mean, -0.36 mm; 95% CI, -1.42 to 0.71 mm). The average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar for both treatment groups pooled (n = 63, because 1 patient was lost to follow-up) was 4.3 ± 2.1 mm (mean ± standard deviation). Boys had significantly more mesial displacement than girls (mean difference, 1.3 mm; P <0.03). Younger adolescents had significantly more mesial displacement than older adolescents (mean difference, 1.3 mm; P <0.02). Average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar with 2-step retraction was slightly greater than that for en-masse retraction, but the

  10. Dental extrusion with orthodontic miniscrew anchorage: a case report describing a modified method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horliana, Ricardo Fidos; Horliana, Anna Carolina Ratto Tempestini; Wuo, Alexandre do Vale; Perez, Flávio Eduardo Guillin; Abrão, Jorge

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, the skeletal anchorage through miniscrews has expanded the treatment options in orthodontics (Yamaguchi et al., 2012). We hereby present a modified method for tooth extrusion for cases where crown-lengthening surgery is contraindicated for aesthetic reasons. This modified method uses three orthodontic appliances: a mini-implant, an orthodontic wire, and a bracket. The aim of this case report was to increase the length of the clinical crown of a fractured tooth (tooth 23) by means of an orthodontic extrusion with the modified method of Roth and Diedrich.

  11. Ground-water quality beneath solid-waste disposal sites at anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenone, Chester; Donaldson, D.E.; Grunwaldt, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Studies at three solid-waste disposal sites in the Anchorage area suggest that differences in local geohydrologic conditions influence ground-water quality. A leachate was detected in ground water within and beneath two sites where the water table is very near land surface and refuse is deposited either at or below the water table in some parts of the filled areas. No leachate was detected in ground water beneath a third site where waste disposal is well above the local water table.

  12. Function Modelling Of The Market And Assessing The Degree Of Similarity Between Real Properties - Dependent Or Independent Procedures In The Process Of Office Property Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barańska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Referring to the developed and presented in previous publications (e.g. Barańska 2011 two-stage algorithm for real estate valuation, this article addresses the problem of the relationship between the two stages of the algorithm. An essential part of the first stage is the multi-dimensional function modelling of the real estate market. As a result of selecting the model best fitted to the market data, in which the dependent variable is always the price of a real property, a set of market attributes is obtained, which in this model are considered to be price-determining. In the second stage, from the collection of real estate which served as a database in the process of estimating model parameters, the selected objects are those which are most similar to the one subject to valuation and form the basis for predicting the final value of the property being valued. Assessing the degree of similarity between real properties can be carried out based on the full spectrum of real estate attributes that potentially affect their value and which it is possible to gather information about, or only on the basis of those attributes which were considered to be price-determining in function modelling. It can also be performed by various methods. This article has examined the effect of various approaches on the final value of the property obtained using the two-stage prediction. In order fulfill the study aim precisely as possible, the results of each calculation step of the algorithm have been investigated in detail. Each of them points to the independence of the two procedures.

  13. Cultivation-Independent and Cultivation-Dependent Analysis of Microbes in the Shallow-Sea Hydrothermal System Off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan: Unmasking Heterotrophic Bacterial Diversity and Functional Capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Kai; Zhang, Yao; Lin, Dan; Han, Yu; Chen, Chen-Tung A; Wang, Deli; Lin, Yu-Shih; Sun, Jia; Zheng, Qiang; Jiao, Nianzhi

    2018-01-01

    Shallow-sea hydrothermal systems experience continuous fluctuations of physicochemical conditions due to seawater influx which generates variable habitats, affecting the phylogenetic composition and metabolic potential of microbial communities. Until recently, studies of submarine hydrothermal communities have focused primarily on chemolithoautotrophic organisms, however, there have been limited studies on heterotrophic bacteria. Here, fluorescence in situ hybridization, high throughput 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and functional metagenomes were used to assess microbial communities from the shallow-sea hydrothermal system off Kueishantao Island, Taiwan. The results showed that the shallow-sea hydrothermal system harbored not only autotrophic bacteria but abundant heterotrophic bacteria. The potential for marker genes sulfur oxidation and carbon fixation were detected in the metagenome datasets, suggesting a role for sulfur and carbon cycling in the shallow-sea hydrothermal system. Furthermore, the presence of diverse genes that encode transporters, glycoside hydrolases, and peptidase indicates the genetic potential for heterotrophic utilization of organic substrates. A total of 408 cultivable heterotrophic bacteria were isolated, in which the taxonomic families typically associated with oligotrophy, copiotrophy, and phototrophy were frequently found. The cultivation-independent and -dependent analyses performed herein show that Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria represent the dominant heterotrophs in the investigated shallow-sea hydrothermal system. Genomic and physiological characterization of a novel strain P5 obtained in this study, belonging to the genus Rhodovulum within Alphaproteobacteria, provides an example of heterotrophic bacteria with major functional capacity presented in the metagenome datasets. Collectively, in addition to autotrophic bacteria, the shallow-sea hydrothermal system also harbors many heterotrophic bacteria with versatile

  14. Culture-dependent and culture-independent characterization of potentially functional biphenyl-degrading bacterial community in response to extracellular organic matter from Micrococcus luteus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Xiao-Mei; Liu, Yin-Dong; Hashmi, Muhammad Zaffar; Ding, Lin-Xian; Shen, Chao-Feng

    2015-05-01

    Biphenyl (BP)-degrading bacteria were identified to degrade various polychlorinated BP (PCB) congers in long-term PCB-contaminated sites. Exploring BP-degrading capability of potentially useful bacteria was performed for enhancing PCB bioremediation. In the present study, the bacterial composition of the PCB-contaminated sediment sample was first investigated. Then extracellular organic matter (EOM) from Micrococcus luteus was used to enhance BP biodegradation. The effect of the EOM on the composition of bacterial community was investigated by combining with culture-dependent and culture-independent methods. The obtained results indicate that Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were predominant community in the PCB-contaminated sediment. EOM from M. luteus could stimulate the activity of some potentially difficult-to-culture BP degraders, which contribute to significant enhancement of BP biodegradation. The potentially difficult-to-culture bacteria in response to EOM addition were mainly Rhodococcus and Pseudomonas belonging to Gammaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria respectively. This study provides new insights into exploration of functional difficult-to-culture bacteria with EOM addition and points out broader BP/PCB degrading, which could be employed for enhancing PCB-bioremediation processes. © 2015 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  15. Ptpn11 Deletion in CD4+ Cells Does Not Affect T Cell Development and Functions but Causes Cartilage Tumors in a T Cell-Independent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, S M Shahjahan; Jayasuriya, Chathuraka T; Salter, Alexander I; Reilly, Emma C; Fugere, Céline; Yang, Wentian; Chen, Qian; Brossay, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2, encoded by Ptpn11 ) is required for constitutive cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and the regulation of immune responses. During development and maturation, subsets of T cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors known to associate with phosphatases, which in turn, dephosphorylate key players of activating receptor signaling pathways. We hypothesized that SHP-2 deletion would have major effects on T cell development by altering the thresholds for activation, as well as positive and negative selection. Surprisingly, using mice conditionally deficient for SHP-2 in the T cell lineage, we show that the development of these lymphocytes is globally intact. In addition, our data demonstrate that SHP-2 absence does not compromise T cell effector functions, suggesting that SHP-2 is dispensable in these cells. Unexpectedly, in aging mice, Ptpn11 gene deletion driven by CD4 Cre recombinase leads to cartilage tumors in wrist bones in a T cell-independent manner. These tumors resemble miniature cartilaginous growth plates and contain CD4-lineage positive chondrocyte-like cells. Altogether these results indicate that SHP-2 is a cartilage tumor suppressor during aging.

  16. Ptpn11 Deletion in CD4+ Cells Does Not Affect T Cell Development and Functions but Causes Cartilage Tumors in a T Cell-Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shahjahan Miah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2, encoded by Ptpn11 is required for constitutive cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and the regulation of immune responses. During development and maturation, subsets of T cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors known to associate with phosphatases, which in turn, dephosphorylate key players of activating receptor signaling pathways. We hypothesized that SHP-2 deletion would have major effects on T cell development by altering the thresholds for activation, as well as positive and negative selection. Surprisingly, using mice conditionally deficient for SHP-2 in the T cell lineage, we show that the development of these lymphocytes is globally intact. In addition, our data demonstrate that SHP-2 absence does not compromise T cell effector functions, suggesting that SHP-2 is dispensable in these cells. Unexpectedly, in aging mice, Ptpn11 gene deletion driven by CD4 Cre recombinase leads to cartilage tumors in wrist bones in a T cell-independent manner. These tumors resemble miniature cartilaginous growth plates and contain CD4-lineage positive chondrocyte-like cells. Altogether these results indicate that SHP-2 is a cartilage tumor suppressor during aging.

  17. Carbetocin is a Functional Selective Gq Agonist That Does Not Promote Oxytocin Receptor Recycling After Inducing β-Arrestin-Independent Internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, I; Leonzino, M; Gigliucci, V; Chini, B; Busnelli, M

    2016-04-01

    Carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analogue, has been reported to elicit interesting and peculiar behavioural effects. The present study investigated the molecular pharmacology of carbetocin, aiming to better understand the molecular basis of its action in the brain. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensors, we characterised the effects of carbetocin on the three human oxytocin/vasopressin receptors expressed in the nervous system: the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the vasopressin V1a (V1aR) and V1b (V1bR) receptors. Our results indicate that (i) carbetocin activates the OXTR but not the V1aR and V1bR at which it may act as an antagonist; (ii) carbetocin selectively activates only the OXTR/Gq pathway displaying a strong functional selectivity; (iii) carbetocin is a partial agonist at the OXTR/Gq coupling; (iv) carbetocin promotes OXTR internalisation via a previously unreported β-arrestin-independent pathway; and (v) carbetocin does not induce OXTR recycling to the plasma membrane. Altogether, these molecular pharmacology features identify carbetocin as a substantially different analogue compared to the endogenous oxytocin and, consequently, carbetocin is not expected to mimic oxytocin in the brain. Whether these unique features of carbetocin could be exploited therapeutically remains to be established. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  18. Tie2 signaling cooperates with TNF to promote the pro-inflammatory activation of human macrophages independently of macrophage functional phenotype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Samuel; Krausz, Sarah; Ambarus, Carmen A; Fernández, Beatriz Malvar; Hartkamp, Linda M; van Es, Inge E; Hamann, Jörg; Baeten, Dominique L; Tak, Paul P; Reedquist, Kris A

    2014-01-01

    Angiopoietin (Ang) -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions.

  19. Genetic deletion of the bacterial sensor NOD2 improves murine Crohn’s disease-like ileitis independent of functional dysbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corridoni, D.; Rodriguez-Palacios, A.; Di Stefano, G.; Di Martino, L.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Chang, E. B.; Arseneau, K. O.; Pizarro, T. T.; Cominelli, F.

    2016-11-16

    Although genetic polymorphisms in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2) have been associated with the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD), little is known regarding the role of wild-type (WT) NOD2 in the gut. To date, most murine studies addressing the role of WT Nod2 have been conducted using healthy (ileitis/colitis-free) mouse strains. Here, we evaluated the effects of Nod2 deletion in a murine model of spontaneous ileitis, i.e., the SAMP1Yit/Fc (SAMP) strain, which closely resembles CD. Remarkably, Nod2 deletion improved both chronic cobblestone ileitis (by 50% assessed, as the % of abnormal mucosa at 24 wks of age), as well as acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis. Mechanistically, Th2 cytokine production and Th2-transcription factor activation (i.e., STAT6 phosphorylation) were reduced. Microbiologically, the effects of Nod2 deletion appeared independent of fecal microbiota composition and function, assessed by 16S rRNA and metatranscriptomics. Our findings indicate that pharmacological blockade of NOD2 signaling in humans could improve health in Th2-driven chronic intestinal inflammation.

  20. Modified Miniplates for Temporary Skeletal Anchorage in Orthodontics: Placement and Removal Surgeries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Marie A.; Scheffler, Nicole R.; Mahy, Pierre; Siciliano, Sergio; De Clerck, Hugo J.; Tulloch, J.F. Camilla

    2009-01-01

    Purpose Skeletal anchorage systems are increasingly used in orthodontics. This article describes the techniques of placement and removal of modified surgical miniplates used for temporary orthodontic anchorage and reports surgeons’ perceptions of their use. Patients and Methods We enrolled 97 consecutive orthodontic patients having miniplates placed as an adjunct to treatment. A total of 200 miniplates were placed by 9 oral surgeons. Patients and surgeons completed questionnaires after placement and removal surgeries. Results Fifteen miniplates needed to be removed prematurely. Antibiotics and anti-inflammatories were generally prescribed after placement but not after removal surgery. Most surgeries were performed with the patient under local anesthesia. Placement surgery lasted on average between 15 and 30 minutes per plate and was considered by the surgeons to be very easy to moderately easy. The surgery to remove the miniplates was considered easier and took less time. The patients’ chief complaint was swelling, lasting on average 5.3 ± 2.8 days after placement and 4.5 ± 2.6 days after removal. Conclusions Although miniplate placement/removal surgery requires the elevation of a flap, this was considered an easy and relatively short surgical procedure that can typically be performed with the patient under local anesthesia without complications, and it may be considered a safe and effective adjunct for orthodontic treatment. PMID:18571028

  1. Bioreactor design for successive culture of anchorage-dependent cells operated in an automated manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kino-Oka, Masahiro; Ogawa, Natsuki; Umegaki, Ryota; Taya, Masahito

    2005-01-01

    A novel bioreactor system was designed to perform a series of batchwise cultures of anchorage-dependent cells by means of automated operations of medium change and passage for cell transfer. The experimental data on contamination frequency ensured the biological cleanliness in the bioreactor system, which facilitated the operations in a closed environment, as compared with that in flask culture system with manual handlings. In addition, the tools for growth prediction (based on growth kinetics) and real-time growth monitoring by measurement of medium components (based on small-volume analyzing machinery) were installed into the bioreactor system to schedule the operations of medium change and passage and to confirm that culture proceeds as scheduled, respectively. The successive culture of anchorage-dependent cells was conducted with the bioreactor running in an automated way. The automated bioreactor gave a successful culture performance with fair accordance to preset scheduling based on the information in the latest subculture, realizing 79- fold cell expansion for 169 h. In addition, the correlation factor between experimental data and scheduled values through the bioreactor performance was 0.998. It was concluded that the proposed bioreactor with the integration of the prediction and monitoring tools could offer a feasible system for the manufacturing process of cultured tissue products.

  2. Prestressed CFRP Strips with Gradient Anchorage for Structural Concrete Retrofitting: Experiments and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Michels

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the load carrying capacity of reinforced concrete (RC beams strengthened with externally bonded (EB carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP strips prestressed up to 0.6% in strain. At the strip ends, the innovative gradient anchorage is used instead of conventional mechanical fasteners. This method, based on the epoxy resin’s ability to rapidly cure under high temperatures, foresees a sector-wise heating followed by a gradual decrease of the initial prestress force towards the strip ends. The experimental investigation shows a promising structural behavior, resulting in high strip tensile strains, eventually almost reaching tensile failure of the composite strip. Additionally, ductility when considering deflection at steel yielding and at ultimate load is satisfying, too. From a practical point of view, it is demonstrated that premature strip grinding in the anchorage zone is not beneficial. In addition, a non-commercial 1D finite element code has been enlarged to an EB reinforcement with prestressed composite strips. A bilinear bond stress-slip relation obtained in earlier investigations is introduced as an additional failure criterion to the code. The numerical code is able to almost perfectly predict the overall structural behavior. Furthermore, the calculations are used for comparison purposes between an initially unstressed and a prestressed externally bonded composite reinforcement. The increase in cracking and yielding load, as well as differences in structural stiffness are apparent.

  3. [Treatment of adult bimaxillary arch protrusion with micro-implant anchorage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Cheng; Zhang, Xiao-Rong

    2015-02-01

    In this study, micro-implants were used in 15 adult patients with mild and moderate bimaxillary arch protrusion or crowding. Cephalometric analysis was used to analyze hard and soft-tissues change before and after treatment, with the aim to investigate the effects of treatment on adult bimaxillary arch protrusion with micro-implant anchorage. Fifteen adult patients with mild and moderate bimaxillary arch protrusion were selected in this study. Micro-implants were inserted into the zygomaticoalveolar ridge of maxilla and the external oblique line of mandible. A NiTi coil spring was attached to the micro-implant to drag the whole upper and lower dentition for distal movement. Cephalometrics were taken before and after treatment, and the changes of soft and hard-tissue profile were studied. SPSS13.0 software package was used to analyze the data. (1)Sixty micro-implants remained stable.(2)SNA, SNB had no significant changes (P>0.05), and the relationship between the maxilla and the mandible did not change significantly. U1/NA, U1-NA, L1/NB, L1-NB and U1/L1 changes in hard tissue had significant difference in cephalometric measurement (PMicro-implant can provide not only excellent skeletal anchorage but also a novel way to distalize the whole dentition efficiently.

  4. Verification of the local structural response of building structures in the anchorage areas of heavy components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krutzik, N.J.; Tropp, R.

    1993-01-01

    In both nuclear and non-nuclear areas of power plants, sections of structures, parts of systems and components are attached to walls and floors by means of anchor plates with bolts, anchor sleeves and bolts and through bolts arranged either in groups or individually. In order to simplify the determination of the transfered vibrations induced by external events (e.g. earthquake, aircraft crash), it is normally assumed that the nodal point between component and concrete possesses rigid body characteristics and the building structure (walls, floors) is also inflexible in the anchorage area. In the course of the parametric studies performed, the nonlinear effects on the anchorage area of a component (in this case an anchor plate and concrete slab) were calculated and the effect of these on the actual vibration behavior and the local structural responses of the building structure at the place of installation of heavy components were investigated. The investigations performed reveal that by taking into account the local behaviour in the anchoring point, it is possible to reduce the dynamic response considerably. More detailed examination of the influence of additional parameters (especially of the geometry of the anchor plates and anchor bolts and their material characteristics) will require further investigations aimed at establishing the characteristics of typical anchor plates. (orig.)

  5. Structure of human POFUT1, its requirement in ligand-independent oncogenic Notch signaling, and functional effects of Dowling-Degos mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Brian J.; Zimmerman, Brandon; Egan, Emily D.; Lofgren, Michael; Xu, Xiang; Hesser, Anthony; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2017-03-17

    Protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 (POFUT1), which transfers fucose residues to acceptor sites on serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor-like repeats of recipient proteins, is essential for Notch signal transduction in mammals. Here, we examine the consequences of POFUT1 loss on the oncogenic signaling associated with certain leukemia-associated mutations of human Notch1, report the structures of human POFUT1 in free and GDP-fucose bound states, and assess the effects of Dowling-Degos mutations on human POFUT1 function. CRISPR-mediated knockout of POFUT1 in U2OS cells suppresses both normal Notch1 signaling, and the ligand-independent signaling associated with leukemogenic mutations of Notch1. Normal and oncogenic signaling are rescued by wild-type POFUT1 but rescue is impaired by an active-site R240A mutation. The overall structure of the human enzyme closely resembles that of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein, with an overall backbone RMSD of 0.93 Å, despite primary sequence identity of only 39% in the mature protein. GDP-fucose binding to the human enzyme induces limited backbone conformational movement, though the side chains of R43 and D244 reorient to make direct contact with the fucose moiety in the complex. The reported Dowling-Degos mutations of POFUT1, except for M262T, fail to rescue Notch1 signaling efficiently in the CRISPR-engineered POFUT1-/- background. Together, these studies identify POFUT1 as a potential target for cancers driven by Notch1 mutations and provide a structural roadmap for its inhibition.

  6. Validity of the stroke rehabilitation assessment of movement scale in acute rehabilitation: a comparison with the functional independence measure and stroke impact scale-16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Irene; Pivko, Susan; Brooks, Gary; Parkin, Kate

    2011-11-01

    To demonstrate sensitivity to change of the Stroke Rehabilitation Assessment of Movement (STREAM) as well as the concurrent and predictive validity of the STREAM in an acute rehabilitation setting. Prospective cohort study. Acute, in-patient rehabilitation department within a tertiary-care teaching hospital in the United States. Thirty adults with a newly diagnosed, first ischemic stroke. Clinical assessments were conducted on admission and then again on discharge from the rehabilitation hospital with the STREAM (total STREAM and upper extremity, lower extremity, and mobility subscales), Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and Stroke Impact Scale-16 (SIS-16). Sensitivity to change was determined with the Wilcoxon signed rank test and by the calculation of standardized response means. Spearman correlations were used to assess concurrent validity of the total STREAM and STREAM subscales with the FIM and SIS-16 on admission and discharge. We determined predictive validity for all instruments by correlating admission scores with actual and predicted length of stay and by testing associations between admission scores and discharge destination (home vs subacute facility). Not applicable. For all instruments, there was statistically significant improvement from admission to discharge. The standardized response means for the total STREAM and STREAM subscales were large. Spearman correlations between the total STREAM and STREAM subscales and the FIM and SIS-16 were moderate to excellent, both on admission and discharge. Among change scores, only the SIS-16 correlated with the total STREAM. All 3 instruments were significantly associated with discharge destination; however, the associations were strongest for the total STREAM and STREAM subscales. All instruments showed moderate-to-excellent correlations with predicted and actual length of stay. The STREAM is sensitive to change and demonstrates good concurrent and predictive validity as compared with the FIM and SIS-16

  7. A Comparison between Two Instruments for Assessing Dependency in Daily Activities: Agreement of the Northwick Park Dependency Score with the Functional Independence Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Svensson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a need for tools to assess dependency among persons with severe impairments. Objectives. The aim was to compare the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS, in a sample from in-patient rehabilitation. Material and Methods. Data from 115 persons (20 to 65 years of age with neurological impairments was gathered. Analyses were made of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Agreement of the scales was assessed with kappa and concordance with Goodman-Kruskal’s gamma. Scale structures were explored using the Rank-Transformable Pattern of Agreement (RTPA. Content validation was performed. Results. The sensitivity of the NPDS as compared to FIM varied between 0.53 (feeding and 1.0 (mobility and specificity between 0.64 (mobility and 1.0 (bladder. The positive predictive value varied from 0.62 (mobility to 1.0 (bladder, and the negative predictive value varied from 0.48 (bowel to 1.0 (mobility. Agreement between the scales was moderate to good (four items and excellent (three items. Concordance was good, with a gamma of −.856, an asymptotic error (ase of .025, and P<.000. The parallel reliability between the FIM and the NPDS showed a tendency for NPDS to be more sensitive (having more categories when dependency is high. Conclusion. FIM and NPDS complement each other. NPDS can be used as a measure for severely injured patients who are sensitive when there is a high need of nursing time.

  8. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, Vaibhav P; Willocq, Valerie; Pitcairn, Emily J; Lemire, Joan M; Paré, Jean-François; Shi, Nian-Qing; McLaughlin, Kelly A; Levin, Michael

    2017-10-15

    Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4) is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels ( I h currents) with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10) and not by a later block (post-stage 10). Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative) mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal , Lefty , and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. 78 FR 11745 - Anchorages; Lower Mississippi River, Above Head of Passes, Convent, LA and Point Pleasant, LA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... able to maneuver in, around, and through the anchorage. Operators who choose to maneuver their vessels... respects the First Amendment rights of protesters. Protesters are asked to contact the person listed in the FOR FURTHER INTFORMATION CONTACT section to coordinate protest activities so that your message can be...

  10. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... regulations. (1) No vessels may anchor, moor, or navigate in anchorages A, B, C, or D except: (i) Vessels...

  11. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    In the wake of the financial crisis, the EU Commission has published a Green Paper on the future role of the audit function in Europe. The Green Paper lists a number of proposals for tighter rules for audits and auditors in order to contribute to stabilizing the financial system. The present...... article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  12. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farret, Marcel Marchiori

    2016-06-01

    This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO) as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO.

  13. Orthodontic retreatment using anchorage with miniplate to camouflage a Class III skeletal pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Marchiori Farret

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This manuscript describes the treatment of a 27-year-old patient who was previously treated with two maxillary first premolar extractions. The patient had skeletal Class III malocclusion, Class III canine relationship, anterior crossbite, and a concave profile. As the patient refused orthognathic surgery, a miniplate was used on the right side of the lower arch as an anchorage unit after the extraction of mandibular first premolars, aiding the retraction of anterior teeth. At the end of treatment, anterior crossbite was corrected, in which first molars and canines were in a Class I relationship, and an excellent intercuspation was reached. Furthermore, patient's profile remarkably improved as a result of mandibular incisor retraction. A 30-month follow-up showed good stability of the results obtained. This case was presented to the Brazilian Board of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics (BBO as one of the requirements to become diplomate by the BBO.

  14. Physical exercise and functional fitness in independently living vs institutionalized elderly women: a comparison of 60- to 79-year-old city dwellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Furtado HL

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Hélio L Furtado,1 Nelson Sousa,2 Roberto Simão,3 Fabio Dutra Pereira,1 José Vilaça-Alves2 1Castelo Branco University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; 2Research Center for Sport, Health, and Human Development, University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal; 3School of Physical Education and Sports, Rio de Janeiro Federal University, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Purpose: To compare functional fitness (FF levels among independent-living (IL and day care (DC elderly women of different age groups and to analyze changes in FF after 8 months of participation in an exercise program intervention for the IL elderly women. Materials and methods: A total of 674 elderly women were divided into four IL groups with age in the range of 60–64 years (IL60–64, n=149, 65–69 years (IL65–69, n=138, 70–74 years (IL70–74, n=135, and 75–79 years (IL75–79, n=83, and four DC groups with age in the range of 60–64 years (DC60–64, n=35, 65–69 years (DC65–69, n=34, 70–74 years (DC70–74, n=47, and 75–79 years (DC75–79, n=53. The intervention consisted of a multimodal exercise training, 3 days per week for 8 months. Senior Fitness Test battery performances were obtained at baseline and after 8-month intervention. Results: Significant differences were identified between all IL groups and DC groups in all FF tests (P<0.001, except between IL70–74 and DC70–74 in the chair sit-and-reach. Analysis of covariance (ANCOVA identified significant improvements in all FF tests between pre- and posttests in the IL groups (P<0.001, except in the chair sit-and-reach for the IL70–74. ANCOVA also showed a significant declining performance in all FF tests for DC groups (P<0.001, except in the chair sit-and-reach for the DC70–74 and DC75–79. Conclusion: IL women are more fit than institutionalized DC elderly women. The multimodal training was effective in improving all FF components related to daily living activities, in all age groups

  15. RITA can induce cell death in p53-defective cells independently of p53 function via activation of JNK/SAPK and p38.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weilbacher, A; Gutekunst, M; Oren, M; Aulitzky, W E; van der Kuip, H

    2014-07-10

    Significant advances have been made in the development of small molecules blocking the p53/MDM2 interaction. The Mdm2 inhibitor Nutlin-3 is restricted to tumors carrying wtp53. In contrast, RITA, a compound that binds p53, has recently been shown also to restore transcriptional functions of mtp53. As more than 50% of solid tumors carry p53 mutations, RITA promises to be a more effective therapeutic strategy than Nutlin-3. We investigated effects of RITA on apoptosis, cell cycle and induction of 45 p53 target genes in a panel of 14 cell lines from different tumor entities with different p53 status as well as primary lymphocytes and fibroblasts. Nine cell strains expressed wtp53, four harbored mtp53, and three were characterized by the loss of p53 protein. A significant induction of cell death upon RITA was observed in 7 of 16 cell lines. The nonmalignant cells in our panel were substantially less sensitive. We found that in contrast to Nultin-3, RITA is capable to induce cell death not only in tumor cells harboring wtp53 and mtp53 but also in p53-null cells. Importantly, whereas p53 has a central role for RITA-mediated effects in wtp53 cells, neither p53 nor p63 or p73 were essential for the RITA response in mtp53 or p53-null cells in our panel demonstrating that besides the known p53-dependent action of RITA in wtp53 cells, RITA can induce cell death also independently of p53 in cells harboring defective p53. We identified an important role of both p38 and JNK/SAPK for sensitivity to RITA in these cells leading to a typical caspase- and BAX/BAK-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that RITA can induce apoptosis through p38 and JNK/SAPK not only in tumor cells harboring wtp53 and mtp53 but also in p53-null cells, making RITA an interesting tumor-selective drug.

  16. Tumor-promoting function and prognostic significance of the RNA-binding protein T-cell intracellular antigen-1 in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Junichi; Shoda, Katsutoshi; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Yuji; Naruto, Takuya; Kohmoto, Tomohiro; Miyakami, Yuko; Watanabe, Miki; Kudo, Yasusei; Fujiwara, Hitoshi; Ichikawa, Daisuke; Otsuji, Eigo; Imoto, Issei

    2016-03-29

    T-cell intracellular antigen-1 (TIA1) is an RNA-binding protein involved in many regulatory aspects of mRNA metabolism. Here, we report previously unknown tumor-promoting activity of TIA1, which seems to be associated with its isoform-specific molecular distribution and regulation of a set of cancer-related transcripts, in esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Immunohistochemical overexpression of TIA1 ectopically localized in the cytoplasm of tumor cells was an independent prognosticator for worse overall survival in a cohort of 143 ESCC patients. Knockdown of TIA1 inhibited proliferation of ESCC cells. By exogenously introducing each of two major isoforms, TIA1a and TIA1b, only TIA1a, which was localized to both the nucleus and cytoplasm, promoted anchorage-dependent and anchorage-independent ESCC cell proliferation. Ribonucleoprotein immunoprecipitation, followed by microarray analysis or massive-parallel sequencing, identified a set of TIA1-binding mRNAs, including SKP2 and CCNA2. TIA1 increased SKP2 and CCNA2 protein levels through the suppression of mRNA decay and translational induction, respectively. Our findings uncover a novel oncogenic function of TIA1 in esophageal tumorigenesis, and implicate its use as a marker for prognostic evaluation and as a therapeutic target in ESCC.

  17. Marked induction of the helix-loop-helix protein Id3 promotes the gammadelta T cell fate and renders their functional maturation Notch independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Wong, Gladys W; Lee, Sang-Yun

    2009-01-01

    )-inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3) pathway plays a defining role in this process. In particular, Id3 expression served to regulate adoption of the gammadelta fate. Moreover, Id3 was both necessary and sufficient to enable gammadelta-lineage cells to differentiate independently of Notch signaling and become competent...

  18. Change in body fat mass is independently associated with executive functions in older women: a secondary analysis of a 12-month randomized controlled trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Dao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To investigate the independent contribution of change in sub-total body fat and lean mass to cognitive performance, specifically the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution, in community-dwelling older women. METHODS: This secondary analysis included 114 women aged 65 to 75 years old. Participants were randomly allocated to once-weekly resistance training, twice-weekly resistance training, or twice-weekly balance and tone training. The primary outcome measure was the executive processes of selective attention and conflict resolution as assessed by the Stroop Test. Sub-total body fat and lean mass were measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA to determine the independent association of change in both sub-total body fat and sub-total body lean mass with Stroop Test performance at trial completion. RESULTS: A multiple linear regression model showed reductions in sub-total body fat mass to be independently associated with better performance on the Stroop Test at trial completion after accounting for baseline Stroop performance, age, baseline global cognitive state, baseline number of comorbidities, baseline depression, and experimental group. The total variance explained was 39.5%; change in sub-total body fat mass explained 3.9% of the variance. Change in sub-total body lean mass was not independently associated with Stroop Test performance (P>0.05. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that reductions in sub-total body fat mass - not sub-total lean mass - is associated with better performance of selective attention and conflict resolution.

  19. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1 the nature and heritage of cacti; 2 cultural heritage; and 3 the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tlalnepantla in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This community has experienced accelerated change due to the exchange of traditional crops for the prickly pear cactus and the integration of farming, commercialization and agro-transformation. Our hypothesis is that the market, internal conflicts and a lack of socio-institutional coordination have put social organization into crisis, favoring the territorial spread of the prickly pear cactus and making the Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS of Tlalnepantla less competitive. The conclusions highlight important economic and social advances whose roots lie in the strengthening and anchorage of the territory-product. However, circumstances both internal and external to the community persist, such as intra-community conflicts, the international market and cultural paradigm shifts that affect the producers and put consolidation of the LAFS at risk.El nopal es un alimento con un fuerte anclaje bio-cultural en México, propiciado por al menos tres factores: 1 la naturaleza y el patrimonio de cactáceas; 2 el patrimonio cultural; y, 3 las relaciones socio-culturales que han permitido un “saber hacer” y un “saber utilizar” con raíces históricas y simbólicas. El objetivo es situar los factores de anclaje territorial y su transformación histórica tomando como caso el municipio de Tlalnepantla, en el estado de Morelos, México. Esta comunidad ha experimentado un acelerado cambio por la reconversión de los cultivos

  20. Agent independent task planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, William S.

    1990-01-01

    Agent-Independent Planning is a technique that allows the construction of activity plans without regard to the agent that will perform them. Once generated, a plan is then validated and translated into instructions for a particular agent, whether a robot, crewmember, or software-based control system. Because Space Station Freedom (SSF) is planned for orbital operations for approximately thirty years, it will almost certainly experience numerous enhancements and upgrades, including upgrades in robotic manipulators. Agent-Independent Planning provides the capability to construct plans for SSF operations, independent of specific robotic systems, by combining techniques of object oriented modeling, nonlinear planning and temporal logic. Since a plan is validated using the physical and functional models of a particular agent, new robotic systems can be developed and integrated with existing operations in a robust manner. This technique also provides the capability to generate plans for crewmembers with varying skill levels, and later apply these same plans to more sophisticated robotic manipulators made available by evolutions in technology.

  1. Root perforation associated with the use of a miniscrew implant used for orthodontic anchorage: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, P; Kavanagh, C

    2012-07-01

    To highlight one of the possible complications associated with the inter-radicular placement of orthodontic miniscrews. This case report describes the endodontic treatment and surgical repair of an iatrogenic root perforation involving a maxillary first molar tooth following the placement of an orthodontic miniscrew placed for anchorage purposes in the treatment of an adult patient. The orthodontic treatment plan was completed. The long-term follow-up shows a successful treatment outcome. Inter-radicular placement of orthodontic miniscrews is a valuable source of anchorage in the treatment of orthodontic patients. Root perforation is a possible complication from inter-radicular placement of orthodontic miniscrews. Root perforation can be successfully treated, but may involve apical surgery. © 2012 International Endodontic Journal.

  2. An isomeric reaction benchmark set to test if the performance of state-of-the-art density functionals can be regarded as independent of the external potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Tobias

    2014-07-28

    Some representative density functionals are assessed for isomerization reactions in which heteroatoms are systematically substituted with heavier members of the same element group. By this, it is investigated if the functional performance depends on the elements involved, i.e. on the external potential imposed by the atomic nuclei. Special emphasis is placed on reliable theoretical reference data and the attempt to minimize basis set effects. Both issues are challenging for molecules including heavy elements. The data suggest that no general bias can be identified for the functionals under investigation except for one case - M11-L. Nevertheless, large deviations from the reference data can be found for all functional approximations in some cases. The average error range for the nine functionals in this test is 17.6 kcal mol(-1). These outliers depreciate the general reliability of density functional approximations.

  3. [The application of Edgewise technique auxillary with extra oral anchorage and class III elastic in the treatment of bimaxillary protrusion.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H H; Weng, S E; Chen, R J

    1995-12-01

    In the treatment of growing bimaxillary protrusion patients,Edgewise technique auxillary with extra oral anchorage and class III elastic help to improve the patient's chin shape,recover his beauty of lower facial part and get a good occlusion along with the growing of mandible.The purpose of this study is:analysis the force system in the treatment and evaluate the result of the treatment with some typical cases.

  4. [Comparing the anchorage effects of micro-implant and J hook on treating patients with maxillary protrusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xin; Liu, Guo-yuan; Jiang, Yong-lian

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the differences in anchorage effects between micro-implants and J hook in treating patients with Class II division 1 maxillary protrusion. Thirty-one cases of adult patients with Class II division 1 maxillary protrusion were treated. They were divided into 2 groups depending on their selection. The first group included 17 patients for micro-implant anchorage, who adopted micro-implant and sliding mechanism to close maxillary extraction space and depress the mandibular molar. The second group encompassed 14 cases for J hook, who adopted sliding mechanism, J hooks in high traction and Class II intermaxillary traction to close extraction space. X-ray lateral cephalometric radiographs were measured before and after treatment, and SPSS16.0 software package was employed to compare the differences in soft and hard tissue changes before and after treatment between 2 groups. There were statistically significant differences in SNB, ANB, MP-FH, U1-Y, U6-Y, L6-MP, NLA, and UL-Y between the 2 groups before and after treatment, while there was no significant difference in SNA, U1-SN, U1-X, and U6-X between the 2 groups. In treating patients with Class II division 1 maxillary protrusion, micro-implant has stronger anchorage effects than J hook, while at the same time depressing the mandibular molars, and making it more favorable to improve Class II faces.

  5. Long-term adherence to exercise: the relationship with functional fitness and personal motivation among community-dwelling independent-living older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe de Souto BarretoI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study were to examine the relationships between functional fitness, self-esteem, aesthetic body care and long-term adherence to dance, and to identify other characteristics related to dance adherence in the elderly. METHODS: Seventeen women, aged 59-86 years-old, who practised a type of dance labeled "bodily expression". RESULTS: Functional fitness was correlated to dance adherence and was the only factor related to this variable in a linear regression analysis. Self-esteem and aesthetic body care seemed to play an indirect role on adherence. Functional fitness, specially upper-body flexibility and lower-body muscular function, and interest in dance (qualitative data were related to long-term adherence to dance. CONCLUSIONS: Functional fitness and interest in exercising were the main aspects related to participants' long-term adherence to dance.

  6. Bilateral en-masse distalization of maxillary posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Noorollahian

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to introduce a new method for bilateral distal movement of the entire maxillary posterior segment. Case report: A 17-year-old girl with Class I skeletal malocclusion (end-to-end molar relationships, deviated midline and space deficiency for left maxillary canine was referred for orthodontic treatment. She did not accept maxillary first premolars extraction. A modified Hyrax appliance (Dentaurum Ispringen, Germany was used for bilateral distalization of maxillary posterior teeth simultaneously. Expansion vector was set anteroposteriorly. Posterior legs of Hyrax were welded to first maxillary molar bands. All posterior teeth on each side consolidated with a segment of 0.017 × 0.025-in stainless steel wire from the buccal side. Anterior legs of Hyrax were bent into eyelet form and attached to the anterior palate with two mini-screws (2 × 10 mm (Jeil Medical Corporation Seoul, South Korea. Hyrax opening rate was 0.8 mm per month. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to evaluate the extent of distal movement. 3.5-mm distalization of posterior maxillary teeth was achieved in five months. Results: A nearly bodily distal movement without anchorage loss was obtained. Conclusion: The mini-screw-supported modified Hyrax appliance was found to be helpful for achieving en-masse distal movement of maxillary posterior teeth.

  7. Anchorage strength models for end-debonding predictions in RC beams strengthened with FRP composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardini, V.; Guadagnini, M.; Valluzzi, M. R.

    2008-05-01

    The increase in the flexural capacity of RC beams obtained by externally bonding FRP composites to their tension side is often limited by the premature and brittle debonding of the external reinforcement. An in-depth understanding of this complex failure mechanism, however, has not yet been achieved. With specific regard to end-debonding failure modes, extensive experimental observations reported in the literature highlight the important distinction, often neglected in strength models proposed by researchers, between the peel-off and rip-off end-debonding types of failure. The peel-off failure is generally characterized by a failure plane located within the first few millimetres of the concrete cover, whilst the rip-off failure penetrates deeper into the concrete cover and propagates along the tensile steel reinforcement. A new rip-off strength model is described in this paper. The model proposed is based on the Chen and Teng peel-off model and relies upon additional theoretical considerations. The influence of the amount of the internal tensile steel reinforcement and the effective anchorage length of FRP are considered and discussed. The validity of the new model is analyzed further through comparisons with test results, findings of a numerical investigation, and a parametric study. The new rip-off strength model is assessed against a database comprising results from 62 beams tested by various researchers and is shown to yield less conservative results.

  8. ZmCPK1, a calcium-independent kinase member of the Zea mays CDPK gene family, functions as a negative regulator in cold stress signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckwerth, Philipp; Ehlert, Britta; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to play important roles in plant environmental stress signal transduction. We report on the identification of ZmCPK1 as a member of the maize (Zea mays) CDPK gene family involved in the regulation of the maize cold stress response. Based upon in silico analysis of the Z. mays cv. B73 genome, we identified that the maize CDPK gene family consists of 39 members. Two CDPK members were selected whose gene expression was either increased (Zmcpk1) or decreased (Zmcpk25) in response to cold exposure. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ZmCPK1 displays calcium-independent protein kinase activity. The C-terminal calcium-binding domain of ZmCPK1 was sufficient to mediate calcium independency of a previously calcium-dependent enzyme in chimeric ZmCPK25-CPK1 proteins. Furthermore, co-transfection of maize mesophyll protoplasts with active full-length ZmCPK1 suppressed the expression of a cold-induced marker gene, Zmerf3 (ZmCOI6.21). In accordance, heterologous overexpression of ZmCPK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana yielded plants with altered acclimation-induced frost tolerance. Our results identify ZmCPK1 as a negative regulator of cold stress signalling in maize. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A study of depression, perceived loneliness, cognitive function and independence in daily activities in home and institution based older people: A cross sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Old age homes are on the rise in India. Older people staying in such institutions have specific psychosocial issues that may affect their cognitive performance and daily living. Materials and Methods: 71 older people, 39 institution based and 32 community-based were recruited with serial sampling after screening on mini-mental state examination and were evaluated with geriatric depression scale, University of California, Los Angeles scale, Lawton′s instrumental activities of daily living scale and montreal cognitive assessment scale. Results: Prevalence of depression was significantly higher in older people who were institution based, widowers and females. The severity of perceived loneliness was higher in females, institution based and depressed older people. The severity of depression correlated with independence in daily activities, cognition, and perceived loneliness only in institution based older people. Discussion: Older people in institutions have a higher psychosocial burden than the community-based older people. Family support prevents the attrition effect of depression on cognition and independence in daily activities in the community-based older people.

  11. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  12. Impaired self-reflection in psychiatric disorders among adults: a proposal for the existence of a network of semi independent functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimaggio, Giancarlo; Vanheule, Stijn; Lysaker, Paul H; Carcione, Antonino; Nicolò, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Self-reflection plays a key role in healthy human adaptation. Self-reflection might involve different capacities which may be impaired to different degrees relatively independently of one another. Variation in abilities for different forms of self-reflection are commonly seen as key aspects of many adult mental disorders. Yet little has been written about whether there are different kinds of deficits in self-reflection found in mental illness, how those deficits should be distinguished from one another and how to characterize the extent to which they are interrelated. We review clinical and experimental literature and suggest four different forms of deficits in self-reflection: (a) sense of ownership of one's own thoughts and actions, (b) emotional awareness, (c) distinction between fantasy and reality and (d) the integration of a range of different views of oneself and others. We propose how these different impairments in self-reflection are linked with one another.

  13. Kidney transplantation improves arterial function measured by pulse wave analysis and endothelium-independent dilatation in uraemic patients despite deterioration of glucose metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hornum, Mads; Clausen, Peter; Idorn, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    for kidney transplantation (uraemic control group, age 47 ± 11 years). Arterial function was estimated by the pulse wave velocity (PWV) of the carotid-femoral pulse wave, aortic augmentation index (AIX), flow-mediated (FMD) and nitroglycerin-induced vasodilatation (NID) of the brachial artery performed......BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of kidney transplantation on arterial function in relation to changes in glucose metabolism. METHODS: Included were 40 kidney recipients (Tx group, age 38 ± 13 years) and 40 patients without known diabetes remaining on the waiting list...... before transplantation and after 12 months. PWV recorded sequentially at the carotid and femoral artery is an estimate of arterial stiffness; AIX is an integrated index of vascular and ventricular function. FMD and NID are the dilatory capacities of the brachial artery after increased flow (endothelium...

  14. Peptide array-based interaction assay of solid-bound peptides and anchorage-dependant cells and its effectiveness in cell-adhesive peptide design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Ryuji; Kaga, Chiaki; Kunimatsu, Mitoshi; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Honda, Hiroyuki

    2006-06-01

    Peptide array, the designable peptide library covalently synthesized on cellulose support, was applied to assay peptide-cell interaction, between solid-bound peptides and anchorage-dependant cells, to study objective peptide design. As a model case, cell-adhesive peptides that could enhance cell growth as tissue engineering scaffold material, was studied. On the peptide array, the relative cell-adhesion ratio of NIH/3T3 cells was 2.5-fold higher on the RGDS (Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser) peptide spot as compared to the spot with no peptide, thus indicating integrin-mediated peptide-cell interaction. Such strong cell adhesion mediated by the RGDS peptide was easily disrupted by single residue substitution on the peptide array, thus indicating that the sequence recognition accuracy of cells was strictly conserved in our optimized scheme. The observed cellular morphological extension with active actin stress-fiber on the RGD motif-containing peptide supported our strategy that peptide array-based interaction assay of solid-bound peptide and anchorage-dependant cells (PIASPAC) could provide quantitative data on biological peptide-cell interaction. The analysis of 180 peptides obtained from fibronectin type III domain (no. 1447-1629) yielded 18 novel cell-adhesive peptides without the RGD motif. Taken together with the novel candidates, representative rules of ineffective amino acid usage were obtained from non-effective candidate sequences for the effective designing of cell-adhesive peptides. On comparing the amino acid usage of the top 20 and last 20 peptides from the 180 peptides, the following four brief design rules were indicated: (i) Arg or Lys of positively charged amino acids (except His) could enhance cell adhesion, (ii) small hydrophilic amino acids are favored in cell-adhesion peptides, (iii) negatively charged amino acids and small amino acids (except Gly) could reduce cell adhesion, and (iv) Cys and Met could be excluded from the sequence combination since they have

  15. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  16. In the yeast Hansenula polymorpha, peroxisome formation from the ER is independent of Pex19p, but involves the function of p24 proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otzen, Marleen; Krikken, Arjen M; Ozimek, Paulina Z; Kurbatova, Elena; Nagotu, Shirisha; Veenhuis, Marten; van der Klei, Ida J

    2006-01-01

    The peroxin Pex19p is important for the formation of functional peroxisomal membranes. Here we show that Hansenula polymorpha Pex19p is also required for peroxisome inheritance. Peroxisome inheritance is partly defective when Pex19p farnesylation is blocked, whereas deletion of PEX19 resulted in a

  17. Elevation of IL-6 in the allergic asthmatic airway is independent of inflammation but associates with loss of central airway function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunn Janice Y

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that is characterized by a Th2-type of immune response with increasing evidence for involvement of Th17 cells. The role of IL-6 in promoting effector T cell subsets suggest that IL-6 may play a functional role in asthma. Classically IL-6 has been viewed as an inflammatory marker, along with TNFα and IL-1β, rather than as regulatory cytokine. Objective To investigate the potential relationship between IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines, Th2/Th17 cytokines and lung function in allergic asthma, and thus evaluate the potential role of IL-6 in this disease. Methods Cytokine levels in induced sputum and lung function were measured in 16 healthy control and 18 mild-moderate allergic asthmatic subjects. Results The levels of the proinflammatory biomarkers TNFα and IL-1β were not different between the control and asthmatic group. In contrast, IL-6 levels were specifically elevated in asthmatic subjects compared with healthy controls (p S = 0.53, p Conclusions In mild-moderate asthma, IL-6 dissociates from other proinflammatory biomarkers, but correlates with IL-13 levels. Furthermore, IL-6 may contribute to impaired lung function in allergic asthma.

  18. Left ventricular dyssynchrony assessed by gated SPECT phase analysis is an independent predictor of death in patients with advanced coronary artery disease and reduced left ventricular function not undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uebleis, Christopher; Hellweger, Stefan; Lehner, Sebastian; Haug, Alexander; Bartenstein, Peter; Cumming, Paul; Hacker, Marcus [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Munich (Germany); Laubender, Ruediger Paul [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Institute of Medical Informatics, Biometry, and Epidemiology (IBE), Munich (Germany); Becker, Alexander [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Medical Department I, Munich (Germany); Sohn, Hae-Young [Ludwig-Maximilians University, Medical Department Innenstadt, Munich (Germany); Van Kriekinge, Serge D.; Slomka, Piotr J. [Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA (United States); UCLA, David Geffen School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2012-10-15

    Left ventricular (LV) mechanical dyssynchrony (LVMD) was assessed by gated single-photon emission CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) as an independent predictor of death from any cause in patients with known coronary artery disease (CAD) and reduced LV function. Between 2001 and 2010, 135 patients (64 {+-} 11 years of age, 84 % men) with known CAD, reduced LV ejection fraction (LVEF, 38 {+-} 15 %) and without an implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy device underwent gated MPI at rest. LV functional evaluation, which included phase analysis, was conducted to identify patients with LVMD. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were calculated for death of any cause during a mean follow-up of 2.0 {+-} 1.7 years. Uni- and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression models were calculated to identify independent predictors of death from any cause. Of the 135 patients, 30 (22 %) died during follow-up (18 cardiac deaths and 12 deaths from other causes). Kaplan-Meier curves showed a significantly shorter survival time in the patients with severely reduced LVEF (<30 %, n = 45) or with LVMD (n = 81, log-rank test P <0.005). Cox models identified LVMD, LVEF <30 % and a total perfusion deficit at rest of {>=}20 % as independent predictors of death from any cause. While patients with LVEF <30 % in conjunction with LVMD had similar survival times irrespective of whether they had early revascularization or medical therapy, those patients with LVEF {>=}30% and LVMD who underwent revascularization had significantly longer survival. In patients with known CAD and reduced LV function, dyssynchrony of the LV is an independent predictor of death from any cause. (orig.)

  19. Autonomy, Independence, Inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Angelucci

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The living environment must not only meet the primary needs of living, but also the expectations of improvement of life and social relations and people’s work. The need for a living environment that responds to the needs of users with their different abilities, outside of standardizations, is increasingly felt as autonomy, independence and well-being are the result of real usability and adaptability of the spaces. The project to improve the inclusivity of living space and to promote the rehabilitation of fragile users need to be characterized as an interdisciplinary process in which the integration of specialized contributions leads to adaptive customization of space solutions and technological that evolve with the changing needs, functional capacities and abilities of individuals.

  20. DNA methylation affects the lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) workers - Evidence for a regulatory module that involves vitellogenin expression but is independent of juvenile hormone function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso-Júnior, Carlos A M; Guidugli-Lazzarini, Karina R; Hartfelder, Klaus

    2018-01-01

    The canonic regulatory module for lifespan of honey bee (Apis mellifera) workers involves a mutual repressor relationship between juvenile hormone (JH) and vitellogenin (Vg). Compared to vertebrates, however, little is known about a possible role of epigenetic factors. The full genomic repertoire of DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) makes the honey bee an attractive emergent model for studying the role of epigenetics in the aging process of invertebrates, and especially so in social insects. We first quantified the transcript levels of the four DNMTs encoding genes in the head thorax and abdomens of workers of different age, showing that dnmt1a and dnmt3 expression is up-regulated in abdomens of old workers, whereas dnmt1b and dnmt2 are down-regulated in heads of old workers. Pharmacological genome demethylation by RG108 treatment caused an increase in worker lifespan. Next, we showed that the genomic DNA methylation status indirectly affects vitellogenin gene expression both in vitro and in vivo in young workers, and that this occurs independent of caloric restriction or JH levels, suggesting that a non-canonical circuitry may be acting in parallel with the JH/Vg module to regulate the adult life cycle of honey bee workers. Our data provide evidence that epigenetic factors play a role in regulatory networks associated with complex life history traits of a social insect. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Guo, Xingyi; Long, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Multiple recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs10771399, at 12p11 that is associated with breast cancer risk. METHOD: We performed a fine-scale mapping study of a 700 kb region including 441 genotyped and more than 1300...... Asians, but none of the associations were statistically significant in African descendants. Multiple candidate functional variants are located in putative enhancer sequences. Chromatin interaction data suggested that PTHLH was the likely target gene of these enhancers. Of the six variants...... with the strongest evidence of potential functionality, rs11049453 was statistically significantly associated with the expression of PTHLH and its nearby gene CCDC91 at P 

  2. Pedicle screw anchorage of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws under cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtner, Richard A; Schmid, Rene; Nydegger, Thomas; Konschake, Marko; Schmoelz, Werner

    2018-03-01

    Pedicle screw loosening is a common and significant complication after posterior spinal instrumentation, particularly in osteoporosis. Radiolucent carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF/PEEK) pedicle screws have been developed recently to overcome drawbacks of conventional metallic screws, such as metal-induced imaging artifacts and interference with postoperative radiotherapy. Beyond radiolucency, CF/PEEK may also be advantageous over standard titanium in terms of pedicle screw loosening due to its unique material properties. However, screw anchorage and loosening of CF/PEEK pedicle screws have not been evaluated yet. The aim of this biomechanical study therefore was to evaluate whether the use of this alternative nonmetallic pedicle screw material affects screw loosening. The hypotheses tested were that (1) nonmetallic CF/PEEK pedicle screws resist an equal or higher number of load cycles until loosening than standard titanium screws and that (2) PMMA cement augmentation further increases the number of load cycles until loosening of CF/PEEK screws. In the first part of the study, left and right pedicles of ten cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (BMD 70.8 mg/cm 3  ± 14.5) were randomly instrumented with either CF/PEEK or standard titanium pedicle screws. In the second part, left and right pedicles of ten vertebrae (BMD 56.3 mg/cm 3  ± 15.8) were randomly instrumented with either PMMA-augmented or nonaugmented CF/PEEK pedicle screws. Each pedicle screw was subjected to cyclic cranio-caudal loading (initial load ranging from - 50 N to + 50 N) with stepwise increasing compressive loads (5 N every 100 cycles) until loosening or a maximum of 10,000 cycles. Angular screw motion ("screw toggling") within the vertebra was measured with a 3D motion analysis system every 100 cycles and by stress fluoroscopy every 500 cycles. The nonmetallic CF/PEEK pedicle screws resisted a similar number of load cycles until loosening as the contralateral standard

  3. Mini-placa como ancoragem ortodôntica: relato de caso Mini screw as orthodontic anchorage: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Zétola

    2005-08-01

    ígida pode ser utilizada com bastante propriedade no tratamento ortodôntico qunado for requerida uma ancoragem máxima.It is needless to say that anchorage control is necessary to a successful orthodontic treatment. Without it, it would be impossible to obtain an ideal occlusion through orthodontic mechanics in the majority of cases. The utilization of rigid devices, originated from face traumatology and implant dentistry principles, to obtain rigid anchorage in orthodontics revolutionized the way of treating cases with an unsatisfactory prognosis. Specially in cases where a lot of anchorage is needed and it is difficult or impossible to get it. The objective of this article was to revise the literature related to the use of mini-screw implant systems, to report a case where it was utilized and to discuss some aspects related to the usage of rigid anchorage orthodontics. The rigid anchorage was used in a 39 year old female patient, who had the upper left molars with a relevant extrusion due to the absence of the lower left molars. Fixed appliances were placed on the upper arch with a TPA connecting the second bicuspids. The TPA was used to anchor the intrusion of the upper left molars. A quad-helix appliance was used to correct the upper right third molar crossbite. Since the orthodontic intrusion with only dental anchorage did not have a satisfactory result, an "L" shaped titanium plate was placed on the maxilla, at the apical region of the upper first and second left molars, with the purpose of obtaining a rigid orthodontic anchorage to intrude them. Elastics were used during five months with intrusive force,the obtained intrusion was 6 millimeters. After the removal of the appliance, upper and lower dental bleaching was made and final prosthesis were placed over the implants. Through the literature reviewed and the case reported, it can be concluded that rigid anchorage can be indicated in orthodontic treatments where there is lack of anchorage or the need of an absolute

  4. Functional Independence and Interdependence of the Src Homology Domains of Phospholipase C-γ1 in B-Cell Receptor Signal Transduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBell, Karen E.; Stoica, Bogdan A.; Verí, Maria-Concetta; Di Baldassarre, Angela; Miscia, Sebastiano; Graham, Laurie J.; Rellahan, Barbara L.; Ishiai, Masamichi; Kurosaki, Tomohiro; Bonvini, Ezio

    1999-01-01

    B-cell receptor (BCR)-induced activation of phospholipase C-γ1 (PLCγ1) and PLCγ2 is crucial for B-cell function. While several signaling molecules have been implicated in PLCγ activation, the mechanism coupling PLCγ to the BCR remains undefined. The role of PLCγ1 SH2 and SH3 domains at different steps of BCR-induced PLCγ1 activation was examined by reconstitution in a PLCγ-negative B-cell line. PLCγ1 membrane translocation required a functional SH2 N-terminal [SH2(N)] domain, was decreased by mutation of the SH3 domain, but was unaffected by mutation of the SH2(C) domain. Tyrosine phosphorylation did not require the SH2(C) or SH3 domains but depended exclusively on a functional SH2(N) domain, which mediated the association of PLCγ1 with the adapter protein, BLNK. Forcing PLCγ1 to the membrane via a myristoylation signal did not bypass the SH2(N) domain requirement for phosphorylation, indicating that the phosphorylation mediated by this domain is not due to membrane anchoring alone. Mutation of the SH2(N) or the SH2(C) domain abrogated BCR-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis and signaling events, while mutation of the SH3 domain partially decreased signaling. PLCγ1 SH domains, therefore, have interrelated but distinct roles in BCR-induced PLCγ1 activation. PMID:10523627

  5. The influence of social anchorage on the gender difference in the use of mental health services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drapeau, Aline; Boyer, Richard; Lesage, Alain

    2009-07-01

    Overall, women are more likely than men to seek professional care when they face light or moderate mental health problems. This difference is usually attributed to culture-related factors, but neither women nor men form a homogeneous cultural group. The help-seeking behavior may reflect not only the cultural values and expectations associated with a specific gender but also those associated with specific social roles endorsed by women and men. In addition, the influence of these culture-related factors on the help-seeking behavior is constrained by barriers to care, which apply similarly to women and men. In consequence, the gender difference in the use of mental health services should vary across social roles and types of service. This hypothesis was tested on data from the cycle 1.2 of the Canadian Community Health Survey. Logistic regression analyses show that, although women are more likely than men to use mental health services, this gender difference is larger for general services than for psychiatric and psychological services whose access in Canada is constrained, respectively, by systemic and financial barriers to care. They also suggest that holding the role of worker tends to foster the use of psychological services in women, especially in married women, and to a lesser degree in men, whereas it tends to hinder the use of general and psychiatric services in men but to exert no or less influence in women. Thus, professional anchorage seems to be an important source of the societal norms that influence the decision of women and men to seek or not to seek medical care for mental health problems.

  6. Recorded earthquake responses from the integrated seismic monitoring network of the Atwood Building, Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2006-01-01

    An integrated seismic monitoring system with a total of 53 channels of accelerometers is now operating in and at the nearby free-field site of the 20-story steel-framed Atwood Building in highly seismic Anchorage, Alaska. The building has a single-story basement and a reinforced concrete foundation without piles. The monitoring system comprises a 32-channel structural array and a 21-channel site array. Accelerometers are deployed on 10 levels of the building to assess translational, torsional, and rocking motions, interstory drift (displacement) between selected pairs of adjacent floors, and average drift between floors. The site array, located approximately a city block from the building, comprises seven triaxial accelerometers, one at the surface and six in boreholes ranging in depths from 15 to 200 feet (???5-60 meters). The arrays have already recorded low-amplitude shaking responses of the building and the site caused by numerous earthquakes at distances ranging from tens to a couple of hundred kilometers. Data from an earthquake that occurred 186 km away traces the propagation of waves from the deepest borehole to the roof of the building in approximately 0.5 seconds. Fundamental structural frequencies [0.58 Hz (NS) and 0.47 Hz (EW)], low damping percentages (2-4%), mode coupling, and beating effects are identified. The fundamental site frequency at approximately 1.5 Hz is close to the second modal frequencies (1.83 Hz NS and 1.43 EW) of the building, which may cause resonance of the building. Additional earthquakes prove repeatability of these characteristics; however, stronger shaking may alter these conclusions. ?? 2006, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  7. Relationship between sports experience and executive function in 6-12-year-old children: independence from physical fitness and moderation by gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishihara, Toru; Sugasawa, Shigemi; Matsuda, Yusuke; Mizuno, Masao

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship between sports experience (i.e., tennis experience) and executive function in children while controlling for physical activity and physical fitness. Sixty-eight participants (6-12 years old, 34 males and 34 females) were enrolled in regular tennis lessons (mean = 2.4 years, range = 0.1-7.3 years) prior to the study. Executive functions, including inhibitory control (the Stroop Color-Word Test), working memory (the 2-back Task), and cognitive flexibility (the Local-global Task) were evaluated. Participants' levels of daily physical activity, ranging from moderate to vigorous, were evaluated using triaxial accelerometers. The total score for physical fitness was assessed using the Tennis Field Test. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed interaction effects between gender and tennis experience on participants' reaction time (RT) on the switch cost of the Local-global Task after controlling for age, BMI, gender, physical activity, physical fitness, and tennis experience. Longer tennis experience was associated with shorter switch cost in males but not in females. Higher scores on physical fitness were positively associated with lower interference scores on the Stroop Color-Word Test, RT on the 2-back Task, and RT in the switching condition of the Local-global Task, after controlling for age, BMI, gender, and physical activity. In conclusion, all three foundational components of executive function (i.e., inhibitory control, working memory, and cognitive flexibility) were more strongly related to physical fitness than to physical activity in males and females, whereas greater cognitive flexibility was related to tennis experience only in the males. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Comparison of rate of En masse retraction and anchorage loss in conventional labial appliance with labial and lingual force: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Quraishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The rate of en masse retraction and anchorage loss were compared between labial appliance with lingual force and conventional labial appliance. Subjects and Methods: The sample consists of 14 patients and they were divided into two groups. In Group 1 – labial appliance with lingual force, elastomeric chain was placed from the palatal surface of the canines to the palatal surface of the molars. In Group 2 – labial appliance with labial force, elastomeric chain was placed from the crimpable hook distal to lateral incisor to the molar tube hooks. The rate of en masse retraction and anchorage loss was calculated for both the groups during retraction in dental casts (R0, initial; R1, 4 weeks; R2, 8 weeks; and R3, 12 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's paired t-test. Results: The rate of retraction was faster and anchorage loss was lower with labial appliance with lingual force, i.e., Group 1. The difference of anchorage loss in Group 1 and Group 2 shows t = 4.824 and P value= 0.000, which is statistically highly significant. The difference of rate of retraction in Group 1 and Group 2 shows t = 3.573 and P value = 0.004, which is statistically signifcant. Conclusions: The rate of retraction was faster and anchorage loss was lower with labial appliance with lingual force, thus indicating that this new technique of space closure utilizes biomechanical advantage of lingual force in conventional labial appliance.

  9. Use of Two-Body Correlated Basis Functions with van der Waals Interaction to Study the Shape-Independent Approximation for a Large Number of Trapped Interacting Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekala, M. L.; Chakrabarti, B.; Das, T. K.; Rampho, G. J.; Sofianos, S. A.; Adam, R. M.; Haldar, S. K.

    2017-05-01

    We study the ground-state and the low-lying excitations of a trapped Bose gas in an isotropic harmonic potential for very small (˜ 3) to very large (˜ 10^7) particle numbers. We use the two-body correlated basis functions and the shape-dependent van der Waals interaction in our many-body calculations. We present an exhaustive study of the effect of inter-atomic correlations and the accuracy of the mean-field equations considering a wide range of particle numbers. We calculate the ground-state energy and the one-body density for different values of the van der Waals parameter C6. We compare our results with those of the modified Gross-Pitaevskii results, the correlated Hartree hypernetted-chain equations (which also utilize the two-body correlated basis functions), as well as of the diffusion Monte Carlo for hard sphere interactions. We observe the effect of the attractive tail of the van der Waals potential in the calculations of the one-body density over the truly repulsive zero-range potential as used in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and discuss the finite-size effects. We also present the low-lying collective excitations which are well described by a hydrodynamic model in the large particle limit.

  10. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood.......RESULTSFor each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed with -11.3% (95% CI, -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal...... lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA-IR...

  11. Mini-screw implant or transpalatal arch-mediated anchorage reinforcement during canine retraction: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mohit; Sharma, Vineet; Khanna, Bharat

    2012-06-01

    To compare mesial movement of upper first molars during maxillary canine retraction using a pre-adjusted edgewise appliance provided by anchorage reinforcement and a transpalatal arch or mini-screw implant. Randomized clinical trial. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India. From a cohort of subjects requiring the extraction of both upper first premolars and pre-adjusted edgewise appliances to correct their malocclusion, a total of 30 were randomly allocated to receive two different forms of anchorage reinforcement: group A--receiving mini-screw implant and group B--receiving a transpalatal arch Group A subjects received titanium mini-screw implants placed at the start of treatment between the maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar. Maxillary second premolars were secured to the mini-screw implants using of 0.010-inch stainless steel ligature wire. Group B subjects received a custom-made transpalatal arch which was soldered to maxillary first molar bands. Active canine retraction was initiated in both groups on placement of a 0.019×0.025-inch stainless steel archwire using nickel titanium closed coil springs. Mesial movement of the upper first molars as measured on pre- (T1) and post-treatment (T2) lateral skull radiographs. The results showed that in group A the mean mesial movement of the first molars between T1 and T2 was 0.0 mm (SD 0.02; P = 0.90), whereas in Group B there was a mean forward movement of the first maolars of 2.48 mm (SD 0.71; Pimplants placed prior to levelling and aligning were able to provide absolute anchorage during maxillary canine retraction, in contrast to a transpalatal arch.

  12. ACE inhibition with spirapril improves diastolic function at rest independent of vasodilation during treatment with spirapril in mild to moderate hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J R; Drabaek, H; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup

    1996-01-01

    mass), and Doppler-derived atrial to early (A/E)-ratio velocity time integrals (VTI) were measured at the end of each of the four periods. Spirapril lowered the A/E-ratio VTIs (0.57, 0.12-1.00) (P ....44-1.25), and the drug normalized the A/E-ratio VTI in those patients with elevated values. The hemodynamic variables, left ventricular mass, and end-systolic wall stress were unchanged during all three treatments. There were no significant changes in mean blood pressure during the treatment periods. These results...... indicate that spirapril lowers A/E ratio within four weeks in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. It thereby seems able to improve left ventricular diastolic function. The effect is not dependent upon changes in hemodynamic variables, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, or end...

  13. ACE inhibition with spirapril improves diastolic function at rest independent of vasodilation during treatment with spirapril in mild to moderate hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J R; Drabaek, H; Gleerup, Christian Peter-Ole G.

    1996-01-01

    the patients entered three periods lasting four weeks each, wherein they were treated with placebo, spirapril, or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure, hemodynamic variables (stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output, index of contractility, and systemic vascular resistance), echocardiography (left ventricular...... mass), and Doppler-derived atrial to early (A/E)-ratio velocity time integrals (VTI) were measured at the end of each of the four periods. Spirapril lowered the A/E-ratio VTIs (0.57, 0.12-1.00) (P ... indicate that spirapril lowers A/E ratio within four weeks in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. It thereby seems able to improve left ventricular diastolic function. The effect is not dependent upon changes in hemodynamic variables, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, or end...

  14. Tiotropium improves lung function, exacerbation rate, and asthma control, independent of baseline characteristics including age, degree of airway obstruction, and allergic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerstjens, Huib A M; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Tashkin, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    performed in parallel in patients with severe symptomatic asthma. Exploratory subgroup analyses of peak forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1), trough FEV1, time to first severe exacerbation, time to first episode of asthma worsening, and seven-question Asthma Control Questionnaire responder rate were......BACKGROUND: Many patients with asthma remain symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium add-on to ICS plus a LABA has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbation risk in patients with symptomatic...... asthma. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the efficacy of tiotropium add-on therapy is dependent on patients' baseline characteristics. METHODS: Two randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, twin trials (NCT00772538 and NCT00776984) of once-daily tiotropium Respimat(®) 5 μg add-on to ICS plus a LABA were...

  15. LH-21 and abnormal cannabidiol improve β-cell function in isolated human and mouse islets through GPR55-dependent and -independent signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruz-Maldonado, Inmaculada; Pingitore, Attilio; Liu, Bo; Atanes, Patricio; Huang, Guo Cai; Baker, David; Alonso, Francisco José; Bermúdez-Silva, Francisco Javier; Persaud, Shanta J

    2018-04-01

    To examine the effects of Abn-CBD (GPR55 agonist) and LH-21 (CB1 antagonist) on human and mouse islet function, and to determine signalling via GPR55 using islets from GPR55 -/- mice. Islets isolated from human organ donors and mice were incubated in the absence or presence of Abn-CBD or LH-21, and insulin secretion, [Ca 2+ ] i, cAMP , apoptosis, β-cell proliferation and CREB and AKT phosphorylation were examined using standard techniques. Abn-CBD potentiated glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and elevated [Ca 2+ ] i in human islets and islets from both GPR55 +/+ and GPR55 -/- mice. LH-21 also increased insulin secretion and [Ca 2+ ] i in human islets and GPR55 +/+ mouse islets, but concentrations of LH-21 up to 0.1 μM were ineffective in islets from GPR55 -/- mice. Neither ligand affected basal insulin secretion or islet cAMP levels. Abn-CBD and LH-21 reduced cytokine-induced apoptosis in human islets and GPR55 +/+ mouse islets, and these effects were suppressed after GPR55 deletion. They also increased β-cell proliferation: the effects of Abn-CBD were preserved in islets from GPR55 -/- mice, while those of LH-21 were abolished. Abn-CBD and LH-21 increased AKT phosphorylation in mouse and human islets. This study showed that Abn-CBD and LH-21 improve human and mouse islet β-cell function and viability. Use of islets from GPR55 -/- mice suggests that designation of Abn-CBD and LH-21 as a GPR55 agonist and a CB1 antagonist, should be revised. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Worsens the Profile of Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Decrease Indexes of Beta-Cell Function Independently of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Women with a Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sokup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with a history of both parental type 2 diabetes (pt2DM and previous gestational diabetes (pGDM represent a group at high risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that pGDM changes cardiometabolic risk markers levels as well as theirs associations with glucose indices in nondiabetic pt2DM women. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, beta-cell function, lipid levels, parameters of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 55 women with pt2DM, 40 with both pt2DM and pGDM 2–24 months postpartum, and 35 controls. Results. Prediabetes was diagnosed more frequently in women with both pt2DM and pGDM in comparison with women with only pt2DM (10 versus 8, P=0.04. The pGDM group had higher LDL-cholesterol, sICAM-1, tPa Ag, fibrinogen, and lower beta-cell function after adjustment for HOMA-IR, in comparison with pt2DM group. In pt2DM group postchallenge glucose correlated independently with hsCRP and in pGDM group fasting glucose with HOMA-IR. Conclusions. pGDM exerts a combined effect on cardiometabolic risk markers in women with pt2DM. In these women higher LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, sICAM-1, tPa Ag levels and decreased beta cell function are associated with pGDM independently of HOMA-IR index value. Fasting glucose is an important cardiometabolic risk marker and is independently associated with HOMA-IR.

  17. Commonwealth of (Independent States

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    Vrućinić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the stages from the establishment itself to the present day of the functioning of such a specific regional organization as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the article seeks to further explain the meaning of its existence, efficiency and functioning. The CIS was created in order to make the dissolution of a major world super-power, which throughout the 20th century together with the USA defined the bipolar world, as painless as possible, especially for the new countries and its nationally and ethnically diverse population. During the early years after the dissolution of the USSR, the CIS played a major role in a more flexible and less severe dissolution of the Soviet empire, alleviating the consequences for its people. A more efficient functioning among the republics in all fields was also one of the tasks of the Commonwealth, to which it was devoted to the extent which was permitted by the then, not too favourable circumstances. Difficult years of economic crisis did not allow the CIS to mutually integrate its members as much as possible on the economy level. Thanks to the economic recovery of the post-Soviet states in the early 21st century, the Commonwealth has also been transformed, reformed, and renewed, and all this in order to achieve better and more fruitful cooperation between the members. The CIS may serve as a proper example of how the former Soviet Union states are inextricably linked by social, security-political, economic, cultural, communication-transport, and other ties, thanks to the centuries-long existence of the peoples of these states in this area, despite both internal and external factors which occasionally, but temporarily halt the post-Soviet integration. Mathematically expressed, the CIS members are naturally predisposed, to be reciprocally depended on each other, just as they also have the capacity for successful cooperation in the future times and epochs brought on by the modern world.

  18. Central Bank independence

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    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  19. S1P1 receptor modulation preserves vascular function in mesenteric and coronary arteries after CPB in the rat independent of depletion of lymphocytes.

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    Iryna V Samarska

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB may induce systemic inflammation and vascular dysfunction. Sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P modulates various vascular and immune responses. Here we explored whether agonists of the S1P receptors, FTY720 and SEW2871 improve vascular reactivity after CPB in the rat. METHODS: Experiments were done in male Wistar rats (total n = 127. Anesthesia was induced by isoflurane (2.5-3% and maintained by fentanyl and midazolam during CPB. After catheterization of the left femoral artery, carotid artery and the right atrium, normothermic extracorporeal circulation was instituted for 60 minutes. In the first part of the study animals were euthanized after either 1 hour, 1 day, 2 or 5 days of the recovery period. In second part of the study animals were euthanized after 1 day of postoperative period. We evaluated the contractile response to phenylephrine (mesenteric arteries or to serotonin (coronary artery and vasodilatory response to acethylcholine (both arteries. RESULTS: Contractile responses to phenylephrine were reduced at 1 day recovery after CPB and Sham as compared to healthy control animals (Emax, mN: 7.9 ± 1.9, 6.5 ± 1.5, and 11.3 ± 1.3, respectively. Mainly FTY720, but not SEW2871, caused lymphopenia in both Sham and CPB groups. In coronary and mesenteric arteries, both FTY720 and SEW2871 normalized serotonin and phenylephrine-mediated vascular reactivity after CPB (p<0.05 and FTY720 increased relaxation to acetylcholine as compared with untreated rats that underwent CPB. CONCLUSION: Pretreatment with FTY720 or SEW2871 preserves vascular function in mesenteric and coronary artery after CPB. Therefore, pharmacological activation of S1P1 receptors may provide a promising therapeutic intervention to prevent CPB-related vascular dysfunction in patients.

  20. Zeaxanthin Has Enhanced Antioxidant Capacity with Respect to All Other Xanthophylls in Arabidopsis Leaves and Functions Independent of Binding to PSII Antennae1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaux, Michel; Dall'Osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-01-01

    The ch1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lacks chlorophyll (Chl) b. Leaves of this mutant are devoid of photosystem II (PSII) Chl-protein antenna complexes and have a very low capacity of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of Chl fluorescence. Lhcb5 was the only PSII antenna protein that accumulated to a significant level in ch1 mutant leaves, but the apoprotein did not assemble in vivo with Chls to form a functional antenna. The abundance of Lhca proteins was also reduced to approximately 20% of the wild-type level. ch1 was crossed with various xanthophyll mutants to analyze the antioxidant activity of carotenoids unbound to PSII antenna. Suppression of zeaxanthin by crossing ch1 with npq1 resulted in oxidative stress in high light, while removing other xanthophylls or the PSII protein PsbS had no such effect. The tocopherol-deficient ch1 vte1 double mutant was as sensitive to high light as ch1 npq1, and the triple mutant ch1 npq1 vte1 exhibited an extreme sensitivity to photooxidative stress, indicating that zeaxanthin and tocopherols have cumulative effects. Conversely, constitutive accumulation of zeaxanthin in the ch1 npq2 double mutant led to an increased phototolerance relative to ch1. Comparison of ch1 npq2 with another zeaxanthin-accumulating mutant (ch1 lut2) that lacks lutein suggests that protection of polyunsaturated lipids by zeaxanthin is enhanced when lutein is also present. During photooxidative stress, α-tocopherol noticeably decreased in ch1 npq1 and increased in ch1 npq2 relative to ch1, suggesting protection of vitamin E by high zeaxanthin levels. Our results indicate that the antioxidant activity of zeaxanthin, distinct from NPQ, can occur in the absence of PSII light-harvesting complexes. The capacity of zeaxanthin to protect thylakoid membrane lipids is comparable to that of vitamin E but noticeably higher than that of all other xanthophylls of Arabidopsis leaves. PMID:17932304

  1. Zeaxanthin has enhanced antioxidant capacity with respect to all other xanthophylls in Arabidopsis leaves and functions independent of binding to PSII antennae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havaux, Michel; Dall'osto, Luca; Bassi, Roberto

    2007-12-01

    The ch1 mutant of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) lacks chlorophyll (Chl) b. Leaves of this mutant are devoid of photosystem II (PSII) Chl-protein antenna complexes and have a very low capacity of nonphotochemical quenching (NPQ) of Chl fluorescence. Lhcb5 was the only PSII antenna protein that accumulated to a significant level in ch1 mutant leaves, but the apoprotein did not assemble in vivo with Chls to form a functional antenna. The abundance of Lhca proteins was also reduced to approximately 20% of the wild-type level. ch1 was crossed with various xanthophyll mutants to analyze the antioxidant activity of carotenoids unbound to PSII antenna. Suppression of zeaxanthin by crossing ch1 with npq1 resulted in oxidative stress in high light, while removing other xanthophylls or the PSII protein PsbS had no such effect. The tocopherol-deficient ch1 vte1 double mutant was as sensitive to high light as ch1 npq1, and the triple mutant ch1 npq1 vte1 exhibited an extreme sensitivity to photooxidative stress, indicating that zeaxanthin and tocopherols have cumulative effects. Conversely, constitutive accumulation of zeaxanthin in the ch1 npq2 double mutant led to an increased phototolerance relative to ch1. Comparison of ch1 npq2 with another zeaxanthin-accumulating mutant (ch1 lut2) that lacks lutein suggests that protection of polyunsaturated lipids by zeaxanthin is enhanced when lutein is also present. During photooxidative stress, alpha-tocopherol noticeably decreased in ch1 npq1 and increased in ch1 npq2 relative to ch1, suggesting protection of vitamin E by high zeaxanthin levels. Our results indicate that the antioxidant activity of zeaxanthin, distinct from NPQ, can occur in the absence of PSII light-harvesting complexes. The capacity of zeaxanthin to protect thylakoid membrane lipids is comparable to that of vitamin E but noticeably higher than that of all other xanthophylls of Arabidopsis leaves.

  2. Organizing Independent Student Work

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    Zhadyra T. Zhumasheva

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses issues in organizing independent student work. The author defines the term “independence”, discusses the concepts of independent learner work and independent learner work under the guidance of an instructor, proposes a classification of assignments to be done independently, and provides methodological recommendations as to the organization of independent student work. The article discusses the need for turning the student from a passive consumer of knowledge into an active creator of it, capable of formulating a problem, analyzing the ways of solving it, coming up with an optimum outcome, and proving its correctness. The preparation of highly qualified human resources is the primary condition for boosting Kazakhstan’s competitiveness. Independent student work is a means of fostering the professional competence of future specialists. The primary form of self-education is independent work.

  3. Three-dimensional printing spiders: back-and-forth glue application yields silk anchorages with high pull-off resistance under varying loading situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Jonas O; Herberstein, Marie E

    2017-02-01

    The anchorage of structures is a crucial element of construction, both for humans and animals. Spiders use adhesive plaques to attach silk threads to substrates. Both biological and artificial adhesive structures usually have an optimal loading angle, and are prone to varying loading situations. Silk anchorages, however, must cope with loading in highly variable directions. Here we show that the detachment forces of thread anchorages of orb-web spiders are highly robust against pulling in different directions. This is gained by a two-step back-and-forth spinning pattern during the rapid production of the adhesive plaque, which shifts the thread insertion point towards the plaque centre and forms a flexible tree root-like network of branching fibres around the loading point. Using a morphometric approach and a tape-and-thread model we show that neither area, nor width of the plaque, but the shift of the loading point towards the plaque centre has the highest effect on pull-off resistance. This is explained by a circular propagation of the delamination crack with a low peeling angle. We further show that silken attachment discs are highly directional and adjusted to provide maximal performance in the upstream dragline. These results show that the way the glue is applied, crucially enhances the toughness of the anchorage without the need of additional material intake. This work is a starting point to study the evolution of tough and universal thread anchorages among spiders, and to develop bioinspired 'instant' anchorages of thread- and cable-like structures to a broad bandwidth of substrates. © 2017 The Author(s).

  4. Transfer functions for solid-solution partitioning of cadmium, copper, nickel, lead and zinc in soils. Derivation of relationships for free metal ion activities and validation with independent data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Roemkens, P.F.A.M.; De Vries, W. [Soil Science Centre, Wageningen University and Research Centre, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Energy Research Centre of the Netherlands, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Luster, J. [Research Unit Soil Sciences, Swiss Federal Institute for Forest, Snow and Landscape Research, Zuercherstrasse 111 CH-8903 Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Pampura, T. [Laboratory of Physical Chemistry of Soils, Institute of Physicochemical and Biological Problems in Soil Science RAS, Pushchino, Moscow Region, 142290 (Russian Federation); Shotbolt, L. [Department of Geography, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, London E1 4NS (United Kingdom); Tipping, E. [Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Lancaster Environment Centre, Library Avenue, Bailrigg, Lancaster, LA1 4AP (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    Models to predict the solid-solution partitioning of trace metals are important tools in risk assessment, providing information on the biological availability of metals and their leaching. Empirically based models, or transfer functions, published to date differ with respect to the mathematical model used, the optimization method, the methods used to determine metal concentrations in the solid and solution phases and the soil properties accounted for. Here we review these methodological aspects before deriving our own transfer functions that relate free metal ion activities to reactive metal contents in the solid phase. One single function was able to predict free-metal ion activities estimated by a variety of soil solution extraction methods. Evaluation of the mathematical formulation showed that transfer functions derived to optimize the Freundlich adsorption constant (Kf ), in contrast to functions derived to optimize either the solid or solution concentration, were most suitable for predicting concentrations in solution from solid phase concentrations and vice versa. The model was shown to be generally applicable on the basis of a large number of independent data, for which predicted free metal activities were within one order of magnitude of the observations. The model only over-estimated free-metal ion activities at alkaline pH (>7). The use of the reactive metal content measured by 0.43 m HNO3 rather than the total metal content resulted in a close correlation with measured data, particularly for nickel and zinc.

  5. On the k-independence required by linear probing and minwise independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pǎtraşcu, Mihai; Thorup, Mikkel

    2016-01-01

    We show that linear probing requires 5-independent hash functions for expected constant-time performance, matching an upper bound of Pagh et al. [2009]. More precisely, we construct a random 4-independent hash function yielding expected logarithmic search time for certain keys. For (1 + ε......)-approximate minwise independence, we show that Ω(lg1 ε)-independent hash functions are required, matching an upper bound of Indyk [2001]. We also show that the very fast 2-independent multiply-shift scheme of Dietzfelbinger [1996] fails badly in both applications....

  6. Transverse maxillary distraction in patients with periodontal pathology or insufficient tooth anchorage using custom-made devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Sanromán, Jacinto; Donascimento, Montserrat González; López, Alberto Costas; Ferro, Martín Fernández; Berrondo, Ibon Almandoz

    2010-07-01

    We present our experience using modified Hyrax devices for treating transverse deficiencies of the maxilla in adult patients with periodontal pathology or insufficient tooth anchorage. The surgical technique, clinical indications, and results are discussed. Eight adult patients (6 females, 2 males) requiring maxillary expansion were studied prospectively between July 2002 and July 2007. All the patients had periodontal pathology or insufficient tooth anchorage preventing the use of conventional Hyrax devices. Patients underwent surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion with the use of custom-made modified Hyrax devices (bone-borne or tooth-bone-borne devices). Patients received preoperatively (T1), at the end of distraction (T2), at removal of the expansion device (T3), and 12 months after surgery (T4) lateral and posterior anterior cephalograms and study models to measure the width of the anterior and posterior dental arches with a digital sliding calliper. Mean age was 28.5 years (range, 18-45 years). A significant widening of the anterior (6.3 +/- 1.6 mm) and posterior (7.1 +/- 1.2 mm) dental arches was demonstrated. No significant differences were found when comparing T3 with T4 measures. No significant complications were found. The results indicated that maxillary expansion with custom-made devices in adults was an easy, affordable, predictable and stable technique without significant complications in patients who suffer perio