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Sample records for anchorage independent functions

  1. Molecular and functional analysis of anchorage independent, treatment-evasive neuroblastoma tumorspheres with enhanced malignant properties: A possible explanation for radio-therapy resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abou-Antoun, Tamara J; Nazarian, Javad; Ghanem, Anthony; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Sandler, Anthony D

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and management, more than 60% of patients with neuroblastoma present with very poor prognosis in the form of metastatic and aggressive disease. Solid tumors including neuroblastoma are thought to be heterogeneous with a sub-population of stem-like cells that are treatment-evasive with highly malignant characteristics. We previously identified a phenomenon of reversible adaptive plasticity (RAP) between anchorage dependent (AD) cells and anchorage independent (AI) tumorspheres in neuroblastoma cell cultures. To expand our molecular characterization of the AI tumorspheres, we sought to define the comprehensive proteomic profile of murine AD and AI neuroblastoma cells. The proteomic profiles of the two phenotypic cell populations were compared to each other to determine the differential protein expression and molecular pathways of interest. We report exclusive or significant up-regulation of tumorigenic pathways expressed by the AI tumorspheres compared to the AD cancer cells. These pathways govern metastatic potential, enhanced malignancy and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, radio-therapy induced significant up-regulation of specific tumorigenic and proliferative proteins, namely survivin, CDC2 and the enzyme Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1. Bio-functional characteristics of the AI tumorspheres were resistant to sutent inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as to 2.5 Gy radio-therapy as assessed by cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Interestingly, PDGF-BB stimulation of the PDGFRβ led to transactivation of EGFR and VEGFR in AI tumorspheres more potently than in AD cells. Sutent inhibition of PDGFRβ abrogated this transactivation in both cell types. In addition, 48 h sutent treatment significantly down-regulated the protein expression of PDGFRβ, MYCN, SOX2 and Survivin in the AI tumorspheres and inhibited tumorsphere self-renewal. Radio-sensitivity in AI

  2. Molecular and functional analysis of anchorage independent, treatment-evasive neuroblastoma tumorspheres with enhanced malignant properties: A possible explanation for radio-therapy resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazarian, Javad; Ghanem, Anthony; Vukmanovic, Stanislav; Sandler, Anthony D.

    2018-01-01

    Despite significant advances in cancer treatment and management, more than 60% of patients with neuroblastoma present with very poor prognosis in the form of metastatic and aggressive disease. Solid tumors including neuroblastoma are thought to be heterogeneous with a sub-population of stem-like cells that are treatment-evasive with highly malignant characteristics. We previously identified a phenomenon of reversible adaptive plasticity (RAP) between anchorage dependent (AD) cells and anchorage independent (AI) tumorspheres in neuroblastoma cell cultures. To expand our molecular characterization of the AI tumorspheres, we sought to define the comprehensive proteomic profile of murine AD and AI neuroblastoma cells. The proteomic profiles of the two phenotypic cell populations were compared to each other to determine the differential protein expression and molecular pathways of interest. We report exclusive or significant up-regulation of tumorigenic pathways expressed by the AI tumorspheres compared to the AD cancer cells. These pathways govern metastatic potential, enhanced malignancy and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Furthermore, radio-therapy induced significant up-regulation of specific tumorigenic and proliferative proteins, namely survivin, CDC2 and the enzyme Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 1. Bio-functional characteristics of the AI tumorspheres were resistant to sutent inhibition of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) as well as to 2.5 Gy radio-therapy as assessed by cell survival, proliferation, apoptosis and migration. Interestingly, PDGF-BB stimulation of the PDGFRβ led to transactivation of EGFR and VEGFR in AI tumorspheres more potently than in AD cells. Sutent inhibition of PDGFRβ abrogated this transactivation in both cell types. In addition, 48 h sutent treatment significantly down-regulated the protein expression of PDGFRβ, MYCN, SOX2 and Survivin in the AI tumorspheres and inhibited tumorsphere self-renewal. Radio-sensitivity in AI

  3. Ectodomains of the LDL receptor-related proteins LRP1b and LRP4 have anchorage independent functions in vivo.

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    Martin F Dietrich

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor gene family is a highly conserved group of membrane receptors with diverse functions in developmental processes, lipoprotein trafficking, and cell signaling. The low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor-related protein 1b (LRP1B was reported to be deleted in several types of human malignancies, including non-small cell lung cancer. Our group has previously reported that a distal extracellular truncation of murine Lrp1b that is predicted to secrete the entire intact extracellular domain (ECD is fully viable with no apparent phenotype.Here, we have used a gene targeting approach to create two mouse lines carrying internally rearranged exons of Lrp1b that are predicted to truncate the protein closer to the N-terminus and to prevent normal trafficking through the secretary pathway. Both mutations result in early embryonic lethality, but, as expected from the restricted expression pattern of LRP1b in vivo, loss of Lrp1b does not cause cellular lethality as homozygous Lrp1b-deficient blastocysts can be propagated normally in culture. This is similar to findings for another LDL receptor family member, Lrp4. We provide in vitro evidence that Lrp4 undergoes regulated intramembraneous processing through metalloproteases and gamma-secretase cleavage. We further demonstrate negative regulation of the Wnt signaling pathway by the soluble extracellular domain.Our results underline a crucial role for Lrp1b in development. The expression in mice of truncated alleles of Lrp1b and Lrp4 with deletions of the transmembrane and intracellular domains leads to release of the extracellular domain into the extracellular space, which is sufficient to confer viability. In contrast, null mutations are embryonically (Lrp1b or perinatally (Lrp4 lethal. These findings suggest that the extracellular domains of both proteins may function as a scavenger for signaling ligands or signal modulators in the extracellular space, thereby

  4. Altered regulation of c-jun and its involvement in anchorage-independent growth of human lung cancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeno, K; Masuda, A; Yanagisawa, K; Konishi, H; Osada, H; Saito, T; Ueda, R; Takahashi, T

    2006-01-12

    The c-jun oncogene is frequently overexpressed in non-small-cell lung cancers (NSCLC), but its functional involvement in lung cancer development has not been clearly elucidated. In this study, we found that among the immediate-early serum responsible genes, exemplified by c-jun, c-fos and c-myc, induction of c-jun in a human bronchial epithelial cell line, BEAS-2B, was dependent on anchorage, in contrast to clear induction of c-fos and c-myc under both anchorage-dependent and -independent conditions. In fact, forced expression of c-jun in BEAS-2B cells significantly increased cell viability and colony formation in soft agar. Furthermore, we also found that such anchorage-dependent regulation of c-jun was lost in a significant fraction of human lung cancer cell lines. Interestingly, suppressed anchorage-independent but not anchorage-dependent growth was noted by constitutive expression of a dominant-negative c-jun mutant in a lung cancer cell line showing dysregulated and sustained c-jun expression in the absence of anchorage. These findings suggest that dysregulated c-jun expression may be involved in the acquisition of anchorage independence in the process of human lung carcinogenesis.

  5. SATB2 expression increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Feng; Jordan, Ashley; Kluz, Thomas; Shen, Steven; Sun, Hong; Cartularo, Laura A.; Costa, Max

    2016-01-01

    The special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) is a protein that binds to the nuclear matrix attachment region of the cell and regulates gene expression by altering chromatin structure. In our previous study, we reported that SATB2 gene expression was induced in human bronchial epithelial BEAS-2B cells transformed by arsenic, chromium, nickel and vanadium. In this study, we show that ectopic expression of SATB2 in the normal human bronchial epithelial cell-line BEAS-2B increased anchorage-independent growth and cell migration, meanwhile, shRNA-mediated knockdown of SATB2 significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth in Ni transformed BEAS-2B cells. RNA sequencing analyses of SATB2 regulated genes revealed the enrichment of those involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion and cell-movement pathways. Our evidence supports the hypothesis that SATB2 plays an important role in BEAS-2B cell transformation. - Highlights: • We performed SATB2 overexpression in the BEAS-2B cell line. • We performed SATB2 knockdown in a Ni transformed BEAS-2B cell line. • SATB2 induced anchorage-independent growth and increased cell migration. • SATB2 knockdown significantly decreased anchorage-independent growth. • We identified alterations in gene involved in cytoskeleton, cell adhesion.

  6. A genetic screen for anchorage-independent proliferation in mammalian cells identifies a membrane-bound neuregulin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Danovi

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage-independent proliferation is a hallmark of oncogenic transformation and is thought to be conducive to proliferation of cancer cells away from their site of origin. We have previously reported that primary Schwann cells expressing the SV40 Large T antigen (LT are not fully transformed in that they maintain a strict requirement for attachment, requiring a further genetic change, such as oncogenic Ras, to gain anchorage-independence. Using the LT-expressing cells, we performed a genetic screen for anchorage-independent proliferation and identified Sensory and Motor Neuron Derived Factor (SMDF, a transmembrane class III isoform of Neuregulin 1. In contrast to oncogenic Ras, SMDF induced enhanced proliferation in normal primary Schwann cells but did not trigger cellular senescence. In cooperation with LT, SMDF drove anchorage-independent proliferation, loss of contact inhibition and tumourigenicity. This transforming ability was shared with membrane-bound class III but not secreted class I isoforms of Neuregulin, indicating a distinct mechanism of action. Importantly, we show that despite being membrane-bound signalling molecules, class III neuregulins transform via a cell intrinsic mechanism, as a result of constitutive, elevated levels of ErbB signalling at high cell density and in anchorage-free conditions. This novel transforming mechanism may provide new targets for cancer therapy.

  7. Aluminium chloride promotes anchorage-independent growth in human mammary epithelial cells.

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    Sappino, André-Pascal; Buser, Raphaële; Lesne, Laurence; Gimelli, Stefania; Béna, Frédérique; Belin, Dominique; Mandriota, Stefano J

    2012-03-01

    Aluminium salts used as antiperspirants have been incriminated as contributing to breast cancer incidence in Western societies. To date, very little or no epidemiological or experimental data confirm or infirm this hypothesis. We report here that in MCF-10A human mammary epithelial cells, a well-established normal human mammary epithelial cell model, long-term exposure to aluminium chloride (AlCl(3) ) concentrations of 10-300 µ m, i.e. up to 100 000-fold lower than those found in antiperspirants, and in the range of those recently measured in the human breast, results in loss of contact inhibition and anchorage-independent growth. These effects were preceded by an increase of DNA synthesis, DNA double strand breaks (DSBs), and senescence in proliferating cultures. AlCl(3) also induced DSBs and senescence in proliferating primary human mammary epithelial cells. In contrast, it had no similar effects on human keratinocytes or fibroblasts, and was not detectably mutagenic in bacteria. MCF-10A cells morphologically transformed by long-term exposure to AlCl(3) display strong upregulation of the p53/p21(Waf1) pathway, a key mediator of growth arrest and senescence. These results suggest that aluminium is not generically mutagenic, but similar to an activated oncogene, it induces proliferation stress, DSBs and senescence in normal mammary epithelial cells; and that long-term exposure to AlCl(3) generates and selects for cells able to bypass p53/p21(Waf1) -mediated cellular senescence. Our observations do not formally identify aluminium as a breast carcinogen, but challenge the safety ascribed to its widespread use in underarm cosmetics. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  8. Enhanced caveolin-1 expression increases migration, anchorage-independent growth and invasion of endometrial adenocarcinoma cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz-Valdivia, Natalia; Bravo, Denisse; Huerta, Hernán; Henriquez, Soledad; Gabler, Fernando; Vega, Margarita; Romero, Carmen; Calderon, Claudia; Owen, Gareth I.; Leyton, Lisette; Quest, Andrew F. G.

    2015-01-01

    Caveolin-1 (CAV1) has been implicated both in tumor suppression and progression, whereby the specific role appears to be context dependent. Endometrial cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the female genital tract; however, little is known about the role of CAV1 in this disease. Here, we first determined by immunohistochemistry CAV1 protein levels in normal proliferative human endometrium and endometrial tumor samples. Then using two endometrial cancer cell lines (ECC: Ishikawa and Hec-1A) we evaluated mRNA and protein levels of CAV1 by real time qPCR and Western blot analysis, respectively. The role of CAV1 expression in ECC malignancy was further studied by either inducing its expression in endometrial cancer cells with the tumor promotor 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate (4β-TPA) or decreasing expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs, and then evaluating the effects of these changes on ECC proliferation, transmigration, matrigel invasion, and colony formation in soft agar. Immunohistochemical analysis of endometrial epithelia revealed that substantially higher levels of CAV1 were present in endometrial tumors than the normal proliferative epithelium. Also, in Ishikawa and Hec-1A endometrial cancer cells CAV1 expression was readily detectable. Upon treatment with 4β-TPA CAV1 levels increased and coincided with augmented cell transmigration, matrigel invasion, as well as colony formation in soft agar. Reduction of CAV1 expression using short-hairpin RNA constructs ablated these effects in both cell types whether treated or not with 4β-TPA. Alternatively, CAV1 expression appeared not to modulate significantly proliferation of these cells. Our study shows that elevated CAV1, observed in patients with endometrial cancer, is linked to enhanced malignancy of endometrial cancer cells, as evidenced by increased migration, invasion and anchorage-independent growth. The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-015-1477-5) contains

  9. Barium promotes anchorage-independent growth and invasion of human HaCaT keratinocytes via activation of c-SRC kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thang, Nguyen Dinh; Yajima, Ichiro; Kumasaka, Mayuko Y; Ohnuma, Shoko; Yanagishita, Takeshi; Hayashi, Rumiko; Shekhar, Hossain U; Watanabe, Daisuke; Kato, Masashi

    2011-01-01

    Explosive increases in skin cancers have been reported in more than 36 million patients with arsenicosis caused by drinking arsenic-polluted well water. This study and previous studies showed high levels of barium as well as arsenic in the well water. However, there have been no reports showing a correlation between barium and cancer. In this study, we examined whether barium (BaCl(2)) may independently have cancer-related effects on human precancerous keratinocytes (HaCaT). Barium (5-50 µM) biologically promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of HaCaT cells in vitro. Barium (5 µM) biochemically enhanced activities of c-SRC, FAK, ERK and MT1-MMP molecules, which regulate anchorage-independent growth and/or invasion. A SRC kinase specific inhibitor, protein phosphatase 2 (PP2), blocked barium-mediated promotion of anchorage-independent growth and invasion with decreased c-SRC kinase activity. Barium (2.5-5 µM) also promoted anchorage-independent growth and invasion of fibroblasts (NIH3T3) and immortalized nontumorigenic melanocytes (melan-a), but not transformed cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (HSC5 and A431) and malignant melanoma (Mel-ret) cells, with activation of c-SRC kinase. Taken together, our biological and biochemical findings newly suggest that the levels of barium shown in drinking well water independently has the cancer-promoting effects on precancerous keratinocytes, fibroblast and melanocytes in vitro.

  10. Chlamydia induces anchorage independence in 3T3 cells and detrimental cytological defects in an infection model.

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    Andrea E Knowlton

    Full Text Available Chlamydia are gram negative, obligate intracellular bacterial organisms with different species causing a multitude of infections in both humans and animals. Chlamydia trachomatis is the causative agent of the sexually transmitted infection (STI Chlamydia, the most commonly acquired bacterial STI in the United States. Chlamydial infections have also been epidemiologically linked to cervical cancer in women co-infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV. We have previously shown chlamydial infection results in centrosome amplification and multipolar spindle formation leading to chromosomal instability. Many studies indicate that centrosome abnormalities, spindle defects, and chromosome segregation errors can lead to cell transformation. We hypothesize that the presence of these defects within infected dividing cells identifies a possible mechanism for Chlamydia as a cofactor in cervical cancer formation. Here we demonstrate that infection with Chlamydia trachomatis is able to transform 3T3 cells in soft agar resulting in anchorage independence and increased colony formation. Additionally, we show for the first time Chlamydia infects actively replicating cells in vivo. Infection of mice with Chlamydia results in significantly increased cell proliferation within the cervix, and in evidence of cervical dysplasia. Confocal examination of these infected tissues also revealed elements of chlamydial induced chromosome instability. These results contribute to a growing body of data implicating a role for Chlamydia in cervical cancer development and suggest a possible molecular mechanism for this effect.

  11. Parthenolide reduces the frequency of ABCB5-positive cells and clonogenic capacity of melanoma cells from anchorage independent melanospheres

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    Czyz, Malgorzata; Koprowska, Kamila; Sztiller-Sikorska, Malgorzata

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that the cancer stem cell phenotype in melanoma is dynamically regulated. Therefore, effective therapies have to target simultaneously bulk tumor cells and melanoma stem-like cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of parthenolide on heterogeneous cancer cell populations from anchorage-independent melanospheres. Cells derived from nodular melanoma specimens were grown under serum-free sphere-forming conditions. The effects of parthenolide on cellular viability, immunophenotype and self-renewing capacity were assessed with cells from dissociated melanospheres. Its penetration capacity was evaluated with intact melanospheres. In melanoma cells that survived treatment with parthenolide, a different immunophenotype than that in untreated control was found. The frequency of cells expressing the ABCB5 transporter was markedly reduced. Most importantly, melanoma cells that survived parthenolide treatment lost their self-renewing capacity. Significantly lower influence of drug on cellular viability and frequency of ABCB5-positive cells was observed in intact melanospheres. The potential clinical significance of our findings is based on the ability of parthenolide to affect both bulk and melanoma stem-like cells with clonogenic capacity and high expression of the ABCB5 transporter. Its low penetration capacity, however, may limit its action to easily accessible melanoma cells, either circulating in the blood or those in the vicinity to blood vessels within the tumor. Because of limited penetration capacity of parthenolide, this drug should be further explored as a part of multimodal therapies rather than as a stand-alone therapeutic agent. PMID:23192276

  12. Cellular Dichotomy Between Anchorage-Independent Growth Responses to bFGF and TA Reflects Molecular Switch in Commitment to Carcinogenesis

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    Waters, Katrina M.; Tan, Ruimin; Opresko, Lee K.; Quesenberry, Ryan D.; Bandyopadhyay, Somnath; Chrisler, William B.; Weber, Thomas J.

    2009-11-01

    We have investigated gene expression patterns underlying reversible and irreversible anchorage-independent growth (AIG) phenotypes to identify more sensitive markers of cell transformation for studies directed at interrogating carcinogenesis responses. In JB6 mouse epidermal cells, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) induces an unusually efficient and reversible AIG response, relative to 12-O-tetradecanoyl phorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced AIG which is irreversible. The reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes are characterized by largely non-overlapping global gene expression profiles. However, a subset of differentially expressed genes were identified as common to reversible and irreversible AIG phenotypes, including genes regulated in a reciprocal fashion. Hepatic leukemia factor (HLF) and D-site albumin promoter-binding protein (DBP) were increased in both bFGF and TPA soft agar colonies and selected for functional validation. Ectopic expression of human HLF and DBP in JB6 cells resulted in a marked increase in TPA- and bFGF-regulated AIG responses. HLF and DBP expression were increased in soft agar colonies arising from JB6 cells exposed to gamma radiation and in a human basal cell carcinoma tumor tissue, relative to paired non-tumor tissue. Subsequent biological network analysis suggests that many of the differentially expressed genes that are common to bFGF- and TPA-dependent AIG are regulated by c-Myc, SP-1 and HNF-4 transcription factors. Collectively, we have identified a potential molecular switch that mediates the transition from reversible to irreversible AIG.

  13. Anchorage Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An anchorage area is a place where boats and ships can safely drop anchor. These areas are created in navigable waterways when ships and vessels require them for...

  14. A role for Mfb1p in region-specific anchorage of high-functioning mitochondria and lifespan in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

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    Pernice, Wolfgang M.; Vevea, Jason D.; Pon, Liza A.

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that replicative lifespan in daughter cells of Sacchraromyces cerevisiae depends on the preferential inheritance of young, high-functioning mitochondria. We report here that mitochondria are functionally segregated even within single mother cells in S. cerevisiae. A high-functioning population of mitochondria accumulates at the tip of the mother cell distal to the bud. We find that the mitochondrial F-box protein (Mfb1p) localizes to mitochondria in the mother tip and is required for mitochondrial anchorage at that site, independent of the previously identified anchorage protein Num1p. Deletion of MFB1 results in loss of the mother-tip-localized mitochondrial population, defects in mitochondrial function and premature replicative ageing. Inhibiting mitochondrial inheritance to buds, by deletion of MMR1, in mfb1Δ cells restores mitochondrial distribution, promotes mitochondrial function and extends replicative lifespan. Our results identify a mechanism that retains a reservoir of high-functioning mitochondria in mother cells and thereby preserves maternal reproductive capacity. PMID:26839174

  15. The G Protein-Coupled Estrogen Receptor-1, GPER-1, Promotes Fibrillogenesis via a Shc-Dependent Pathway Resulting in Anchorage-Independent Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magruder, Hilary T.; Quinn, Jeffrey A.; Schwartzbauer, Jean E.; Reichner, Jonathan; Huang, Allan

    2016-01-01

    The G protein-coupled estrogen receptor-1, GPER-1, coordinates fibronectin (FN) matrix assembly and release of heparan-bound epidermal growth factor (HB-EGF). This mechanism of action results in the recruitment of FN-engaged integrin α5β1 to fibrillar adhesions and the formation of integrin α5β1-Shc adaptor protein complexes. Here, we show that GPER-1 stimulation of murine 4 T1 or human SKBR3 breast cancer cells with 17β-estradiol (E2β) promotes the formation of focal adhesions and actin stress fibers and results in increased cellular adhesion and haptotaxis on FN, but not collagen. These actions are also induced by the xenoestrogen, bisphenol A, and the estrogen receptor (ER) antagonist, ICI 182, 780, but not the inactive stereoisomer, 17α-estradiol (E2α). In addition, we show that GPER-1 stimulation of breast cancer cells allows for FN-dependent, anchorage-independent growth and FN fibril formation in “hanging drop” assays, indicating that these GPER-1-mediated actions occur independently of adhesion to solid substrata. Stable expression of Shc mutant Y317F lacking its primary tyrosyl phosphorylation site disrupts E2β-induced focal adhesion and actin stress fiber formation and abolishes E2β-enhanced haptotaxis on FN and anchorage-dependent growth. Collectively, these data demonstrate that E2β action via GPER-1 enhances cellular adhesivity and FN matrix assembly and allows for anchorage-independent growth, cellular events that may allow for cellular survival, and tumor progression. PMID:25096985

  16. Exposure to bisphenol A correlates with early-onset prostate cancer and promotes centrosome amplification and anchorage-independent growth in vitro.

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    Pheruza Tarapore

    Full Text Available Human exposure to bisphenol A (BPA is ubiquitous. Animal studies found that BPA contributes to development of prostate cancer, but human data are scarce. Our study examined the association between urinary BPA levels and Prostate cancer and assessed the effects of BPA on induction of centrosome abnormalities as an underlying mechanism promoting prostate carcinogenesis. The study, involving 60 urology patients, found higher levels of urinary BPA (creatinine-adjusted in Prostate cancer patients (5.74 µg/g [95% CI; 2.63, 12.51] than in non-Prostate cancer patients (1.43 µg/g [95% CI; 0.70, 2.88] (p = 0.012. The difference was even more significant in patients <65 years old. A trend toward a negative association between urinary BPA and serum PSA was observed in Prostate cancer patients but not in non-Prostate cancer patients. In vitro studies examined centrosomal abnormalities, microtubule nucleation, and anchorage-independent growth in four Prostate cancer cell lines (LNCaP, C4-2, 22Rv1, PC-3 and two immortalized normal prostate epithelial cell lines (NPrEC and RWPE-1. Exposure to low doses (0.01-100 nM of BPA increased the percentage of cells with centrosome amplification two- to eight-fold. Dose responses either peaked or reached the plateaus with 0.1 nM BPA exposure. This low dose also promoted microtubule nucleation and regrowth at centrosomes in RWPE-1 and enhanced anchorage-independent growth in C4-2. These findings suggest that urinary BPA level is an independent prognostic marker in Prostate cancer and that BPA exposure may lower serum PSA levels in Prostate cancer patients. Moreover, disruption of the centrosome duplication cycle by low-dose BPA may contribute to neoplastic transformation of the prostate.

  17. MiR-193b, downregulated in Ewing Sarcoma, targets the ErbB4 oncogene to inhibit anchorage-independent growth.

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    Colin Moore

    Full Text Available Ewing Sarcoma is an aggressive, oncofusion-driven, malignant neoplasm of bone and soft tissue affecting predominantly children and young adults. Seeking to identify potential novel therapeutic targets/agents for this disease, our previous studies uncovered microRNAs regulated by EWS/Fli1, the most common oncofusion, with growth modulatory properties. In the present study, we sought to identify EWS/Fli1-repressed, growth suppressive, microRNAs potentially amenable to replacement in Ewing Sarcoma cells. Eight microRNAs (143, 153, 184, 193b, 195, 203, 206 and 223 were selected for evaluation as EWS/Fli1-repressed and underexpressed in Ewing Sarcoma cells, and reported to be growth suppressive in other pediatric or/and adult cancers. The selected miRs, and appropriate non-targeting controls, were introduced into two different Ewing Sarcoma cell lines (A673 and SK-ES-1, and effects on growth were examined using a high and low-density growth assay. MiR-193b was growth inhibitory in both assays and cell lines. In subsequent analyses, we found that stable overexpression of miR-193b also inhibits anchorage-independent growth in both A673 and SK-ES-1 cells. We further show that miR-193b negatively regulates expression of the ErbB4 oncogene in A673 and SK-ES-1 cells, and that depletion of ErbB4 is itself inhibitory to anchorage-independent growth in the same cell lines. Together, our studies show that the EWS/Fli1-repressed miR-193b is growth suppressive in Ewing Sarcoma, and identify ErbB4 as a target gene and candidate mediator of this growth suppression.

  18. X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) regulation of cyclin D1 protein expression and cancer cell anchorage-independent growth via its E3 ligase-mediated protein phosphatase 2A/c-Jun axis.

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    Cao, Zipeng; Zhang, Ruowen; Li, Jingxia; Huang, Haishan; Zhang, Dongyun; Zhang, Jingjie; Gao, Jimin; Chen, Jingyuan; Huang, Chuanshu

    2013-07-12

    The X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein (XIAP) is a well known potent inhibitor of apoptosis; however, it is also involved in other cancer cell biological behavior. In the current study, we discovered that XIAP and its E3 ligase played a crucial role in regulation of cyclin D1 expression in cancer cells. We found that deficiency of XIAP expression resulted in a marked reduction in cyclin D1 expression. Consistently, cell cycle transition and anchorage-independent cell growth were also attenuated in XIAP-deficient cancer cells compared with those of the parental wild-type cells. Subsequent studies demonstrated that E3 ligase activity within the RING domain of XIAP is crucial for its ability to regulate cyclin D1 transcription, cell cycle transition, and anchorage-independent cell growth by up-regulating transactivation of c-Jun/AP-1. Moreover, we found that E3 ligase within RING domain was required for XIAP inhibition of phosphatase PP2A activity by up-regulation of PP2A phosphorylation at Tyr-307 in its catalytic subunit. Such PP2A phosphorylation and inactivation resulted in phosphorylation and activation of its downstream target c-Jun in turn leading to cyclin D1 expression. Collectively, our studies uncovered a novel function of E3 ligase activity of XIAP in the up-regulation of cyclin D1 expression, providing significant insight into the understanding of the biomedical significance of overexpressed XIAP in cancer development, further offering a new molecular basis for utilizing XIAP E3 ligase as a cancer therapeutic target.

  19. Induction of anchorage-independent growth in primary human cells exposed to protons or HZE ions separately or in dual exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, B M; Cuomo, N C; Bennett, P V

    2005-10-01

    Travelers on space missions will be exposed to a complex radiation environment that includes protons and heavy charged particles. Since protons are present at much higher levels than are heavy ions, the most likely scenario for cellular radiation exposure will be proton exposure followed by a hit by a heavy ion. Although the effects of individual ion species on human cells are being investigated extensively, little is known about the effects of exposure to both radiation types. One useful measure of mammalian cell damage is induction of the ability to grow in a semi-solid agar medium highly inhibitory to the growth of normal human cells, termed neoplastic transformation. Using primary human cells, we evaluated induction of soft-agar growth and survival of cells exposed to protons only or to heavy charged particles (600 MeV/nucleon silicon) only as well as of cells exposed to protons followed after a 4-day interval by silicon ions. Both ions alone efficiently transformed the human cells to anchorage-independent growth. Initial experiments indicate that the dose responses for neoplastic transformation of cells exposed to protons and then after 4 days to silicon ions appear similar to that of cells exposed to silicon ions alone.

  20. Characterization of mutagen-activated cellular oncogenes that confer anchorage independence to human fibroblasts and tumorigenicity to NIH 3T3 cells: Sequence analysis of an enzymatically amplified mutant HRAS allele

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, C.W.; Manoharan, T.H.; Fahl, W.E.

    1988-01-01

    Treatment of diploid human fibroblasts with an alkylating mutagen has been shown to induce stable, anchorage-independent cell populations at frequencies consistent with an activating mutation. After treatment of human foreskin fibroblasts with the mutagen benzo[α]pyrene (±)anti-7,8-dihydrodiol 9,10-epoxide and selection in soft agar, 17 anchorage-independent clones were isolated and expanded, and their cellular DNA was used to cotransfect NIH 3T3 cells along with pSV2neo. DNA from 11 of the 17 clones induced multiple NIH 3T3 cell tumors in recipient nude mice. Southern blot analyses showed the presence of human Alu repetitive sequences in all of the NIH 3T3 tumor cell DNAs. Intact, human HRAS sequences were observed in 2 of the 11 tumor groups, whereas no hybridization was detected when human KRAS or NRAS probes were used. Slow-migrating ras p21 proteins, consistent with codon 12 mutations, were observed in the same two NIH 3T3 tumor cell groups that contained the human HRAS bands. Genomic DNA from one of these two human anchorage-independent cell populations (clone 21A) was used to enzymatically amplify a portion of exon 1 of the HRAS gene. The results demonstrate that exposure of normal human cells to a common environmental mutagen yields HRAS GC → TA codon 12 transversions that have been commonly observed in human tumors

  1. Study on effective anchorage length of anchor cable based on Gauss's function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Feng; WuShuai; Liu, Yan; Liu, Jun-yan

    2017-11-01

    In the current relevant codes and technical standards, the design of anchor cables (bars) is based on the assumption that the shear stress is distributed uniformly along the anchor segment. However, according to this assumption, the super-deep pit need a large uplift bearing capacity, which will lead to the long anchor segment and has great hidden danger in the actual engineering design. Therefore, this paper, based on the previous derived shear stress function between τ and the anchor length, we get a research suitable model-Gauss curve distribution model through the analysis of saturated clay drawing data, and strata anchor shear stress distribution is more suitable for the Gauss function model in saturated clay; at the same time, through the FLAC numerical simulation of Jinan Government Affairs Center project, we obtained the optimal anchor effective anchor length is about 10~12m, the foundation pit anchor is optimized.

  2. Quadratic independence of coordinate functions of certain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    It is indeed a very important and interesting problem in the theory of quantum groups and noncommutative geometry ... independence of the algebra of natural coordinate functions on a large class of homoge- neous spaces of a .... Quadratic independence and nonexistence of genuine quantum group action. Let V be a finite ...

  3. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cas...

  4. Bone anchorage: When and why?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Nejat Erverdi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage is the most important concept in biomechanics of orthodontics. In contemporary orthodontics, bone anchorage is a magic tool, which decreased the indication for extraoral appliances greatly and at the same time achieving stationary anchorage became possible. However, the indication for bone anchorage has to be clarified carefully. Skeletal open-bite treatment, effective molar distalization, Class III treatment by using chin anchorage, and space closure in severe minimal anchorage cases are some examples for bone anchorage supported orthodontic treatment. Here, we discussed three necessary usages of bone anchorage for different treatment modalities.

  5. Clathrin-independent endocytosis: mechanisms and function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandvig, Kirsten; Pust, Sascha; Skotland, Tore

    2011-01-01

    having several functions of their own. This article aims at providing a brief update on the importance of clathrin-independent endocytic mechanisms, how the processes are regulated differentially, for instance on the poles of polarized cells, and the challenges in studying them.......It is now about 20 years since we first wrote reviews about clathrin-independent endocytosis. The challenge at the time was to convince the reader about its existence. Then the suggestion came up that caveolae might be responsible for the uptake. However, clearly this could not be the case since...... a large fraction of the clathrin-independent uptake is dynamin-independent. Today, two decades later, the field has developed considerably. New techniques have enabled a detailed analysis of several clathrin-independent endocytic mechanisms, and caveolae have been found to be mostly stable structures...

  6. Inhibition of Anchorage-Independent Proliferation and G0/G1 Cell-Cycle Regulation in Human Colorectal Carcinoma Cells by 4,7-Dimethoxy-5-Methyl-l,3-Benzodioxole Isolated from the Fruiting Body of Antrodia camphorate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiu-Man Lien

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, 4,7-dimethoxy-5-methyl-l,3-benzodioxole (SY-1 was isolated from three different sources of dried fruiting bodies of Antrodia camphorate (AC. AC is a medicinal mushroom that grows on the inner heartwood wall of Cinnamomum kanehirai Hay (Lauraceae, an endemic species that is used in Chinese medicine for its anti-tumor and immunomodulatory properties. In this study, we demonstrated that SY-1 profoundly decreased the proliferation of human colon cancer cells (COLO 205 through G0/G1 cell-cycle arrest (50–150 μM and induction of apoptosis (>150 μM. Cell-cycle arrest induced by SY-1 was associated with a significant increase in levels of p53, p21/Cip1 and p27/Kip1, and a decrease in cyclins D1, D3 and A. In contrast, SY-1 treatment did not induce significant changes in G0/G1 phase cell-cycle regulatory proteins in normal human colonic epithelial cells (FHC. The cells were cultured in soft agar to evaluate anchorage-independent colony formation, and we found that the number of transformed colonies was significantly reduced in the SY-1-treated COLO 205 cells. These findings demonstrate for the first time that SY-1 inhibits human colon cancer cell proliferation through inhibition of cell growth and anchorage-independent colony formation in soft agar. However, the detailed mechanisms of these processes remain unclear and will require further investigation.

  7. Quadratic independence of coordinate functions of certain ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... are `quadratically independent' in the sense that they do not satisfy any nontrivial homogeneous quadratic relations among them. Using this, it is proved that there is no genuine compact quantum group which can act faithfully on C ( M ) such that the action leaves invariant the linear span of the above coordinate functions.

  8. TERRAIN, Anchorage, Alaska

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Anchorage AOI consists of seven areas. These areas were to be collected to the 'highest' accuracy requirement. Ground Control is collected throughout the AOI for...

  9. PEM Anchorage on Titanium Using Catechol Grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Hélène; Barrere, Amélie; Schoentstein, Frédérique; Chavanne, Marie-Hélène; Grosgogeat, Brigitte; Mora, Laurence

    2012-01-01

    Background This study deals with the anchorage of polyelectrolyte films onto titanium surfaces via a cathecol-based linker for biomedical applications. Methodology The following study uses a molecule functionalized with a catechol and a carboxylic acid: 3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)propanoic acid. This molecule is anchored to the TiO2 substrate via the catechol while the carboxylic acid reacts with polymers bearing amine groups. By providing a film anchorage of chemisorption type, it makes possible to deposit polyelectrolytes on the surface of titanium. Principal Findings Infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), contact angle and atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements show that the different steps of grafting have been successfully performed. Conclusions This method based on catechol anchorage of polyelectrolytes open a window towards large possibilities of clinical applications. PMID:23226262

  10. Diacylglycerol kinase α mediates 17-β-estradiol-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line through the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filigheddu, Nicoletta; Sampietro, Sara; Chianale, Federica; Porporato, Paolo E; Gaggianesi, Miriam; Gregnanin, Ilaria; Rainero, Elena; Ferrara, Michele; Perego, Beatrice; Riboni, Francesca; Baldanzi, Gianluca; Graziani, Andrea; Surico, Nicola

    2011-12-01

    Increased levels of endogenous and/or exogenous estrogens are one of the well known risk factors of endometrial cancer. Diacylglycerol kinases (DGKs) are a family of enzymes which phosphorylate diacylglycerol (DAG) to produce phosphatidic acid (PA), thus turning off and on DAG-mediated and PA-mediated signaling pathways, respectively. DGK α activity is stimulated by growth factors and oncogenes and is required for chemotactic, proliferative, and angiogenic signaling in vitro. Herein, using either specific siRNAs or the pharmacological inhibitor R59949, we demonstrate that DGK α activity is required for 17-β-estradiol (E2)-induced proliferation, motility, and anchorage-independent growth of Hec-1A endometrial cancer cell line. Impairment of DGK α activity also influences basal cell proliferation and growth in soft agar of Hec-1A, while it has no effects on basal cell motility. Moreover, we show that DGK α activity induced by E2, as well as its observed effects, are mediated by the G protein-coupled estrogen receptor GPR30 (GPER). These findings suggest that DGK α may be a potential target in endometrial cancer therapy. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The PDZ binding motif of human papillomavirus type 16 E6 induces PTPN13 loss, which allows anchorage-independent growth and synergizes with ras for invasive growth.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spanos, W.C.; Hoover, A.; Harris, G.F.; Wu, S.; Strand, G.L.; Anderson, M.E.; Klingelhutz, A.J.; Hendriks, W.J.A.J.; Bossler, A.D.; Lee, J.H.

    2008-01-01

    The human papillomavirus (HPV) oncogene E6 has been shown to perform multiple functions (p53 degradation, telomerase activation, etc.) that play a role in oncogenic transformation. Beyond known E6 functions, an undefined mechanism that allows cellular invasion requires the E6 PDZ binding motif

  12. Functional Independence Measure Penderita Cedera Servikal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zafrullah Arifin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, 2/3 involved cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA Impairment Score is used as an initial assessment but further prognostic outcome of these patients is often not paid enough attention. The objective of this study was to find the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical bone abnormalities, type of spinal lesion and ASIA Impairment Score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury which fullfil the inclusion criteria treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute/chronic, cervical bone abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion, ASIA impairment score and initial complication. The patients were performed to FIM examination in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test with p<0.05 were done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients was 4+1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age (p=0.064, sex (p=0.144, type of trauma (p=0.959, onset of trauma (p=0.220 and cervical bone abnormalities (p=0.869. We found a significant correlation between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion (p=0.037 and ASIA Impairment Score (p<0.001 in cervical spine patients. In conclusion, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 3 months after cervical injury.

  13. Melanoma biomolecules: independently identified but functionally intertwined

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Erin Dye

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The majority of patients diagnosed with melanoma present with thin lesions and generally these patients have a good prognosis. However, 5% of patients with early melanoma (< 1mm thick will have recurrence and die within 10 years, despite no evidence of local or metastatic spread at the time of diagnosis. Thus, there is a need for additional prognostic markers to help identify those patients that may be at risk of recurrent disease. Many studies and several meta-analyses have compared gene and protein expression in melanocytes, naevi, primary and metastatic melanoma in an attempt to find informative prognostic markers for these patients. However, although a large number of putative biomarkers have been described, few of these molecules are informative when used in isolation. The best approach is likely to involve a combination of molecules. We believe one approach could be to analyze the expression of a group of interacting proteins that regulate different aspects of the metastatic pathway. This is because a primary lesion expressing proteins involved in multiple stages of metastasis may be more likely to lead to secondary disease than one that does not. This review focuses on five putative biomarkers - melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM, galectin-3 (gal-3, matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2, chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4 (CSPG4 and paired box 3 (PAX3. The goal is to provide context around what is known about the contribution of these biomarkers to melanoma biology and metastasis. Although each of these molecules have been independently identified as likely biomarkers, it is clear from our analyses that each are closely linked with each other, with intertwined roles in melanoma biology.

  14. Method of synchronizing independent functional unit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Changhoan

    2018-03-13

    A system for synchronizing parallel processing of a plurality of functional processing units (FPU), a first FPU and a first program counter to control timing of a first stream of program instructions issued to the first FPU by advancement of the first program counter; a second FPU and a second program counter to control timing of a second stream of program instructions issued to the second FPU by advancement of the second program counter, the first FPU is in communication with a second FPU to synchronize the issuance of a first stream of program instructions to the second stream of program instructions and the second FPU is in communication with the first FPU to synchronize the issuance of the second stream program instructions to the first stream of program instructions.

  15. Evaluation of functional (in)dependency in institutionalized elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Martins, Matilde; Vilela, Ana; Silva, Norberto

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of daily life activities is considered an appropriate and legitimate tool for evaluating the degree of functional (in)dependency in the elderly. To evaluate the degree of functional (in)dependence in the elderly living in an long-term institution in the North of Portugal. Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in a long-term residence in the North of Portugal. The sample was constituted by the totality of institutionalized elderly during the month of ...

  16. Contributory factors for the functional independence of oldest old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dâmarys Kohlbeck de Melo Neu Ribeiro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE To investigate the socioeconomic and clinical factors that contribute to the functional independence of the oldest old of a community. METHOD Cross-sectional quantitative study whose sample consisted of 214 elderly people registered in Basic Health Units. Data were collected through structured interviews and application of the Functional Independence Measure. We used descriptive statistics, and for association of the variables we used the Student t-test, ANOVA and Tukey's test for multiple comparisons. RESULTS The significant variables that contributed to the functional independence were remaining economically active, practicing physical and leisure activities, having a social life, eating fruits, vegetables and meat. The orientation to conduct these practices reduces the demand for care and help needed in everyday activities. CONCLUSION Maintaining independence is primordial to delay disability and presents itself as an excellent field of work for nursing.

  17. Friction and anchorage loading revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dholakia, Kartik D

    2012-01-01

    Contemporary concepts of sliding mechanics explain that friction is inevitable. To overcome this frictional resistance, excess force is required to retract the tooth along the archwire (ie, individual retraction of canines, en masse retraction of anterior teeth), in addition to the amount of force required for tooth movement. The anterior tooth retraction force, in addition to excess force (to overcome friction), produces reciprocal protraction force on molars, thereby leading to increased anchorage loading. However, this traditional concept was challenged in recent literature, which was based on the finite element model, but did not bear correlation to the clinical scenario. This article will reinforce the fact that clinically, friction increases anchorage loading in all three planes of space, considering the fact that tooth movement is a quasistatic process rather than a purely continuous or static one, and that conventional ways of determining the effects of static or dynamic friction on anchorage load cannot be applied to clinical situations (which consist of anatomical resistance units and a complex muscular force system). The article does not aim to quantify friction and its effect on the amount of anchorage load. Rather, a new perspective regarding the role of various additional factors (which is not explained by contemporary concept) that may influence friction and anchorage loading is provided..

  18. Independent functions and the geometry of Banach spaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astashkin, Sergey V; Sukochev, Fedor A

    2010-12-31

    The main objective of this survey is to present the 'state of the art' of those parts of the theory of independent functions which are related to the geometry of function spaces. The 'size' of a sum of independent functions is estimated in terms of classical moments and also in terms of general symmetric function norms. The exposition is centred on the Rosenthal inequalities and their various generalizations and sharp conditions under which the latter hold. The crucial tool here is the recently developed construction of the Kruglov operator. The survey also provides a number of applications to the geometry of Banach spaces. In particular, variants of the classical Khintchine-Maurey inequalities, isomorphisms between symmetric spaces on a finite interval and on the semi-axis, and a description of the class of symmetric spaces with any sequence of symmetrically and identically distributed independent random variables spanning a Hilbert subspace are considered. Bibliography: 87 titles.

  19. Functional independence measure in patients with intermittent claudication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Shihara de Assis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AbstractOBJECTIVEOf this study were to evaluate the functional independence of patients with intermittent claudication and to verify its association with sociodemographic and clinical variables, walking ability and physical activity level.METHODThis was a descriptive, exploratory, cross-sectional study with a quantitative approach. Fifty participants (66.4 years; 68% male were recruited from Claudication Unit of a tertiary hospital. Functional Independence Measure were used to evaluate functional incapacity; the Baltimore Activity Scale, to estimate the physical activity level and the Walking Impairement Questionnaire, the walking ability.RESULTSParticipants had complete functional independence (124.8 + 2.0, low levels of physical activity (4.2 + 2.0, and impairment of walking ability; the worst performance was found in walking velocity domain (21.2 + 16.4. The functional independence score was associated with physical activity (r=0,402 and walking ability scores (distance, r=0,485; speed, r=0,463; stairs, r=0,337.CONCLUSIONIn conclusion, the level of functionality is associated with functional capacity in these patients.

  20. Hybrid independent component analysis by adaptive LUT activation function neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiori, Simone

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present an efficient implementation of unsupervised adaptive-activation function neurons dedicated to one-dimensional probability density estimation, with application to independent component analysis. The proposed implementation is a computationally light improvement to adaptive pseudo-polynomial neurons, recently presented in Fiori, S. (2000a). Blind signal processing by the adaptive activation function neurons. Neural Networks, 13(6), 597-611, and is based upon the concept of 'look-up table' (LUT) neurons.

  1. A Functional Classification for Independent Living for the Hearing Impaired.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunlap, William R.

    1987-01-01

    A cluster analysis grouping a sample of 153 hearing-impaired persons according to seven independent living skill variables indicated that a meaningful classification for living, work, and education could be achieved. Most of the high group and many middle group members could function at much higher levels if services were available. (Author/VW)

  2. WNT10B functional dualism: beta-catenin/Tcf-dependent growth promotion or independent suppression with deregulated expression in cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Hirohide; Matsubara, Kenichi; Zhou, Xiaoling; Okamura, Shu; Kubo, Takahiko; Murase, Yaeko; Shikauchi, Yuko; Esteller, Manel; Herman, James G; Wei Wang, Xin; Harris, Curtis C

    2007-11-01

    We found aberrant DNA methylation of the WNT10B promoter region in 46% of primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and 15% of colon cancer samples. Three of 10 HCC and one of two colon cancer cell lines demonstrated low or no expression, and 5-aza-2'deoxycytidine reactivated WNT10B expression with the induction of demethylation, indicating that WNT10B is silenced by DNA methylation in some cancers, whereas WNT10B expression is up-regulated in seven of the 10 HCC cell lines and a colon cancer cell line. These results indicate that WNT10B can be deregulated by either overexpression or silencing in cancer. We found that WNT10B up-regulated beta-catenin/Tcf activity. However, WNT10B-overexpressing cells demonstrated a reduced growth rate and anchorage-independent growth that is independent of the beta-catenin/Tcf activation, because mutant beta-catenin-transduced cells did not suppress growth, and dominant-negative hTcf-4 failed to alleviate the growth suppression by WNT10B. Although WNT10B expression alone inhibits cell growth, it acts synergistically with the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) to stimulate cell growth. WNT10B is bifunctional, one function of which is involved in beta-catenin/Tcf activation, and the other function is related to the down-regulation of cell growth through a different mechanism. We suggest that FGF switches WNT10B from a negative to a positive cell growth regulator.

  3. Anchorage strategies in geriatric hip fracture management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knobe Matthias

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available There is an enormous humanitarian and socioeconomic need to improve the quality and effectiveness of care for patients with hip fracture. To reduce mechanical complications in the osteosynthesis of proximal femoral fractures, improved fixation techniques have been developed including blade or screw-anchor devices, locked minimally invasive or cement augmentation strategies. However, despite numerous innovations and advances regarding implant design and surgical techniques, systemic and mechanical complication rates remain high. Treatment success depends on secure implant fixation in often-osteoporotic bone as well as on patient-specific factors (fracture stability, bone quality, comorbidity, and gender and surgeon-related factors (experience, correct reduction, and optimal screw placement in the head/neck fragment. For fracture fixation, the anchorage of the lag screw within the femoral head plays a crucial role depending on the implant’s design. Meta-analyses and randomized controlled studies demonstrate that there is a strong trend towards arthroplasty treating geriatric femoral neck fractures. However, for young adults as well as older patients with less compromised bone quality, or in undisplaced fractures, head-preserving therapy is preferred as it is less invasive and associated with good functional results. This review summarizes the evidence for the internal fixation of femoral neck fractures and trochanteric femoral fractures in elderly patients. In addition, biomechanical considerations regarding implant anchorage in the femoral head including rotation, migration, and femoral neck shortening are made. Finally, cement augmentation strategies for hip fracture implants are evaluated critically.

  4. On the Functional Independence of Explicatures and Implicatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorstein Fretheim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Robyn Carston has proposed that, within Relevance Theory the proposition expressed by an utterance U (its explicature must play a communicative role that is independent of the role played by any implicature of U. Thus no implicature can entail the explicature of U, and whenever it looks as if that sort of situation obtains, the presumed implicature should be redefined as the explicature. This paper shows that the assumption that an explicature may not be entailed by an implicature cannot be maintained, but the fact that explicatures and implicatures are not always functionally independent of one another is argued not to be a problem for Relevance Theory.

  5. Drosha regulates gene expression independently of RNA cleavage function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gromak, Natalia; Dienstbier, Martin; Macias, Sara

    2013-01-01

    Drosha is the main RNase III-like enzyme involved in the process of microRNA (miRNA) biogenesis in the nucleus. Using whole-genome ChIP-on-chip analysis, we demonstrate that, in addition to miRNA sequences, Drosha specifically binds promoter-proximal regions of many human genes in a transcription......-terminal protein-interaction domain, which associates with the RNA-binding protein CBP80 and RNA Polymerase II. Consequently, we uncover a previously unsuspected RNA cleavage-independent function of Drosha in the regulation of human gene expression....

  6. Modeling Alzheimer Disease Through Functional Independence and Participation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchella, Chiara; Bartolo, Michelangelo; Bernini, Sara; Picascia, Marta; Malinverni, Paola; Sinforiani, Elena

    2017-01-01

    The relationship between cognitive and functional impairment in Alzheimer Disease (AD) at the earliest stages of the disease is not well characterized. This study aimed at investigating such relationships along AD evolution by means of the Disability Assessment for Dementia (DAD). Consecutive pairs of AD outpatients and their primary informal caregivers were enrolled. Patients were evaluated by means of the Mini Mental State Examination and neuropsychological tests. A clinician completed the Clinical Dementia Rating Scale to stage dementia severity and interviewed the caregivers to complete the Neuropsychiatric Inventory to assess behavioral disturbances and the DAD to evaluate patients' functional competence. A total of 158 dyads were enrolled; the Mini Mental State Examination score was used to stratify patients into 4 groups (>24; 20 to 23.9; 10 to 19.9; <10) that were compared. The statistical analysis revealed that all the cognitive domains were positively related to functional independence, but only logical and executive functions seemed to predict autonomy. An intergroup comparison did not show significant differences in the DAD subscales measuring initiation, planning and organization, and performance. The role of education emerged, confirming the relevance of cognitive reserve. As the field moves toward earlier intervention in preclinical AD, the detection of early functional changes may drive the definition of trials on prevention or intervention for dementia.

  7. Platelet size and age determine platelet function independently

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, C.B.; Jakubowski, J.A.; Quinn, P.G.; Deykin, D.; Valeri, C.R.

    1984-01-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the interaction of platelet size and age in determining in vitro platelet function. Baboon megakaryocytes were labeled in vivo by the injection of 75Se-methionine. Blood was collected when the label was predominantly associated with younger platelets (day 2) and with older platelets (day 9). Size-dependent platelet subpopulations were prepared on both days by counterflow centrifugation. The reactivity of each platelet subpopulation was determined on both days by measuring thrombin-induced aggregation. Platelets were fixed after partial aggregation had occurred by the addition of EDTA/formalin. After removal of the aggregated platelets by differential centrifugation, the supernatant medium was assayed for remaining platelets and 75Se radioactivity. Comparing day 2 and day 9, no significant difference was seen in the rate of aggregation of a given subpopulation. However, aggregation was more rapid in the larger platelet fractions than in the smaller ones on both days. A greater percentage of the 75Se radioactivity appeared in the platelet aggregates on day 2 than on day 9. This effect was independent of platelet size, as it occurred to a similar extent in the unfractionated platelets and in each of the size-dependent platelet subpopulations. The data indicate that young platelets are more active than older platelets. This study demonstrates that size and age are both determinants of platelet function, but by independent mechanisms

  8. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, O., E-mail: omar.foda@unimelb.edu.au [Dept. of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Wheeler, M., E-mail: mwheeler@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Laboratoire de Physique Théorique et Hautes Energies, CNRS UMR 7589 (France); Université Pierre et Marie Curie – Paris 6, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris cedex 05 (France)

    2013-06-11

    We study lattice configurations related to S{sub n}, the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A{sub n} integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A{sub n} models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S{sub 2} (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S{sub 2}, which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b_1} and {b_2}, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b_1}→∞, and/or {b_2}→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A{sub 1} vertex-model partition function.

  9. Colour-independent partition functions in coloured vertex models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foda, O.; Wheeler, M.

    2013-01-01

    We study lattice configurations related to S n , the scalar product of an off-shell state and an on-shell state in rational A n integrable vertex models, n∈{1,2}. The lattice lines are colourless and oriented. The state variables are n conserved colours that flow along the line orientations, but do not necessarily cover every bond in the lattice. Choosing boundary conditions such that the positions where the colours flow into the lattice are fixed, and where they flow out are summed over, we show that the partition functions of these configurations, with these boundary conditions, are n-independent. Our results extend to trigonometric A n models, and to all n. This n-independence explains, in vertex-model terms, results from recent studies of S 2 (Caetano and Vieira, 2012, [1], Wheeler, (arXiv:1204.2089), [2]). Namely, 1.S 2 , which depends on two sets of Bethe roots, {b 1 } and {b 2 }, and cannot (as far as we know) be expressed in single determinant form, degenerates in the limit {b 1 }→∞, and/or {b 2 }→∞, into a product of determinants, 2. Each of the latter determinants is an A 1 vertex-model partition function

  10. 29 CFR 1926.755 - Column anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Column anchorage. 1926.755 Section 1926.755 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Steel Erection § 1926.755 Column anchorage. (a) General requirements for erection stability. (1) All columns shall be anchored by a minimum of 4 anchor...

  11. Estimation of Baroreflex Function Using Independent Component Analysis of Photoplethysmography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Makoto; Yoshizawa, Makoto; Sugita, Norihiro; Tanaka, Akira; Homma, Noriyasu; Yambe, Tomoyuki; Nitta, Shin-Ichi

    The maximum cross-correlation coefficient ρmax between blood pressure variability and heart rate variability, whose frequency components are limited to the Mayer wave-related band, is a useful index to evaluate the state of the autonomic nervous function related to baroreflex. However, measurement of continuous blood pressure with an expensive and bulky measuring device is required to calculate ρmax. The present study has proposed an easier method for obtaining ρmax with measurement of finger photoplethysmography (PPG) only. In the proposed method, independent components are extracted from feature variables specifying the PPG signal by using the independent component analysis (ICA), and then the most appropriate component is chosen out of them so that the ρmax calculated from the component can approximate its true value. The results from the experiment with a postural change performed in 18 healthy subjects have suggested that the proposed method is available for estimating ρmax by using the ICA to extract blood pressure information from the PPG signal.

  12. Introduction of Boron Functionalities into Silsesquioxanes: Novel Independent Methodologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaźmierczak, Joanna; Kuciński, Krzysztof; Stachowiak, Hanna; Hreczycho, Grzegorz

    2018-02-16

    Owing to their versatile application possibilities, silsesquioxanes (SQs) are of considerable interest for creating hybrid inorganic-organic materials. In this report, two novel and independent strategies for the direct attachment of boron functionalities to silsesquioxanes are presented. Encouraged by our previous work concerning the synthesis of borasiloxanes through the catalyst-free dehydrogenative coupling of silanols and boranes, we decided to apply our method to a synthesis of various boron-functionalized silsesquioxanes. During our tests, we also investigated the activity of scandium(III) triflate, which we have previously used as an excellent catalyst for the obtaining of Si-O-Si and Si-O-Ge moieties. As a result, we also discovered a novel approach for the O-borylation of Si-OH groups in silsesquioxanes with allylborane. Both routes are highly chemoselective and efficiently lead to the obtaining of Si-O-B moiety under air atmosphere and at room temperature. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Correlation between demographic characteristics, cognitive functioning and functional independence in stroke patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsić Slađana

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It has been assumed that there is causality of the achieved level of functional independence with the degree of preservation of cognitive function in stroke patients. Demographic characteristics may be important for monitoring the achieved level of functional independence. Objective. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of demographic characteristics and functional independence in regard to the level of cognitive impairment in stroke patients. Methods. The study included 50 stroke patients after rehabilitation, as well as age- and gender-matched 50 subjects selected randomly, according to the demographic characteristics of the studied sample, who in their medical history had no neurological disorders. For the assessment of functional independence, the Functional Independence Measure (FIM test was used. The general cognition was estimated by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE test. The statistical analyses included the Mann-Whitney test, for two independent samples, measures of canonical correlation, and χ2 test. Results. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups in relation to risk factors, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type II (p<0.001; There was a statistically significant difference within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment in all the examined demographic characteristics (p<0.001; the differences within the groups in relation to the cognitive impairment are present on all subscales of the FIM test (p<0.05; the differences within the groups in relation to handedness, hemiparesis, show that mild cognitive impairment is more common among left hemiparesis, while a more severe one is more common among right-sided hemiparesis (p<0.05; More severe cognitive impairment is common among women, the elderly and in persons with lower education (p<0.05. Conclusion. By prevention of risk factors, and prevention of possible cognitive impairment, consequences of stroke can be

  14. Executive functioning, motor programming, and functional independence: accounting for variance, people, and time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraybill, Matthew L; Suchy, Yana

    2011-02-01

    Assessing functional independence is an important part of making diagnostic decisions and treatment recommendations but is often complicated by the limitations of self-report and behavioral measures. Alternatively, it may be worthwhile to investigate neurocognitive correlates of incipient functional declines including using tests of executive functioning (EF) and motor programming (MP). The current study examined an electronic MP task and pitted it against other assessment instruments to evaluate its relative utility in assessing both EF and functional independence. Participants were 72 community-dwelling older adults. Results of this study showed that the MP task was correlated with other measures of EF, an efficient and reliable predictor of functionality, useful for identifying at-risk patients, and comparable to a longer battery in terms of sensitivity and specificity.

  15. Decomposing a Utility Function Based on Discrete Distribution Independence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Ying; Dyer, James; Butler, John

    2014-01-01

    For two-attribute decision-making problems, the multilinear utility model cannot be applied when the risk aversion on one attribute depends on the level of the other attribute. We propose a family of general preference conditions called nth-degree discrete distribution independence that can...... accommodate a variety of dependence relationships between two attributes. The special case of second-degree discrete distribution independence is equivalent to the utility independence condition. We focus on third-degree discrete distribution independence that leads to a decomposition formula that contains...

  16. 78 FR 11099 - Safety Zone Within the Lower Portion of Anchorage #9, Mantua Creek Anchorage; Paulsboro, NJ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-15

    ... 1625-AA00 Safety Zone Within the Lower Portion of Anchorage 9, Mantua Creek Anchorage; Paulsboro, NJ... temporary safety zone around the southern one-third of Anchorage 9 (Mantua Creek Anchorage), below position 39[deg] 51.573 N-075[deg] 13.557 W due to dredging operations. The Dredge Florida will be working...

  17. Towards functional specification independent of control system suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galara, D.; Leret, E.

    1997-01-01

    For the next nuclear power plant generation, REP 2000, the Engineering and construction Division (ED) and the Research and development Division (R and D) of Electricite de France are working together in the field of Instrumentation and Control (I and C) to improve its engineering method and tools. This method and these tools are defined on the basis of the experience feedback from the N4 nuclear power plant generation and the current information technology, to improve engineering competitiveness and quality of control applications. We intend to decouple the I and C processing from the I and C Human Machine Interface (HMI), because methods and tools are different. In this paper, we only focus on method and tools for I and C processing. We define the I and C processing life cycle into three phases. The first phase is the specification of the control application processing, the product of which is called Functional Requirement Diagrams (FRDs). The second phase is the design of the I and C system. This phase is subdivided into two steps. The step 1 is the distribution of the FRDs into an I and C architecture. The step 2 is the allocation of resources of the I and C system, to support the distributed FRDs. The third phase is the implementation of the distributed FRDs into I and C equipment. The aim of the Engineering Division is to achieve formal FRDs, independent of I and C suppliers. This allows a large improvement for the quality of the specification and the dimensioning of the I and C system before calls for tenders. For the specification phase, studies are almost completed. For the design and the implementation phases, studies and experiments are in progress with European I and C system suppliers. As a conclusion, we present the interest of EDF for standards and especially IEC 1131 improvements. (author). 5 figs

  18. Differential item functioning of the functional independence measure in higher performing neurological patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dallmeijer, AJ; Dekker, J; Roorda, LD; Knol, DL; van Baalen, B; de Groot, [No Value; Schepers, VPM; Lankhorst, GJ

    2005-01-01

    Objective: When comparing outcomes of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM(TM)) between patient groups, item characteristics of the FIM(TM) should be consistent across groups. The purpose of this study was to compare item difficulty of the FIM(TM) in 3 patient groups with neurological disorders.

  19. Upper limb function and functional independence in patients with shoulder pain after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickel, Renato; Lange, Marcos; Stoffel, Diane Priscila; Navarro, Elaine Janeczko; Zetola, Viviane F

    2017-02-01

    To examine the frequency of shoulder pain following stroke. Stroke patient function was evaluated using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and Scale for Upper Limb Function in Stroke (SULFS). Function scores were examined and compared between the shoulder pain group (SPG) and the no shoulder pain group (No-SPG). A total of 58 patients, 22 women (37.9%), were included in this study. The mean patient age was 49.2±10.8 years and study evaluations were done 3.52±2.26 months after stroke. A total of 16 patients (27.6%) were in the SPG and 42 patients (72.4%) were in the No-SPG. The SPG scored significantly lower on the FIM (SPG: 91.06±14.65 vs. No-SPG 114.62 ± 2.27; p Shoulder pain commonly occurs after stroke and is related to the affected upper limb function and functional independence in stroke patients.

  20. Performance of Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanous, F.; Greimann, L.; Wassef, W.; Bluhm, D.

    1993-01-01

    Deformation of a steel containment anchorage system during a severe accident may result in a leakage path at the containment boundaries. Current design criteria are based on either ductile or brittle failure modes of headed bolts that do not account for factors such as cracking of the containment basemat or deformation of the anchor bolt that may affect the behavior of the containment anchorage system. The purpose of this study was to investigate the performance of a typical ice condenser containment's anchorage system. This was accomplished by analyzing the Sequoyah Containment Anchorage System. Based on a strength of materials approach and assuming that the anchor bolts are resisting the uplift caused by the internal pressure, one can estimate that the failure of the anchor bolts would occur at a containment pressure of 79 psig. To verify these results and to calibrate the strength of materials equation, the Sequoyah containment anchorage system was analyzed with the ABAQUS program using a three-dimensional, finite-element model. The model included portions of the steel containment building, shield building, anchor bolt assembly, reinforced concrete mat and soil foundation material

  1. Comparison of anchorage reinforcement with temporary anchorage devices or a Herbst appliance during lingual orthodontic protraction of mandibular molars without maxillary counterbalance extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzner, Rebecca; Schwestka-Polly, Rainer; Helms, Hans-Joachim; Wiechmann, Dirk

    2015-06-20

    Orthodontic protraction of mandibular molars without maxillary counterbalance extraction in cases of aplasia or extraction requires stable anchorage. Reinforcement may be achieved by using either temporary anchorage devices (TAD) or a fixed, functional appliance. The objective was to compare the clinical effectiveness of both methods by testing the null-hypothesis of no significant difference in velocity of space closure (in mm/month) between them. In addition, we set out to describe the quality of posterior space management and treatment-related factors, such as loss of anchorage (assessed in terms of proportions of gap closure by posterior protraction or anterior retraction), frequencies of incomplete space closure, and potential improvement in the sagittal canine relationship. Twenty-seven subjects (15 male/12 female) with a total of 36 sites treated with a lingual multi-bracket appliance were available for retrospective evaluation of the effects of anchorage reinforcement achieved with either a Herbst appliance (n(subjects) = 15; 7 both-sided/8 single-sided Herbst appliances; n(sites) = 22) or TADs (n(subjects )= 12; 2 both-sided; 10 single-sided; n(sites) = 14). Descriptive analysis was based on measurements using intra-oral photographs which were individually scaled to corresponding plaster casts and taken on insertion of anchorage mechanics (T1), following removal of anchorage mechanics (T2), and at the end of multi-bracket treatment (T3). The null-hypothesis was rejected: The rate of mean molar protraction was significantly faster in the Herbst-reinforced group (0.51 mm/month) than in the TAD group (0.35). While complete space closure by sheer protraction of posterior teeth was achieved in all Herbst-treated cases, space closure in the TAD group was achieved in 76.9% of subjects by sheer protraction of molars, and it was incomplete in 50% of cases (mean gap residues: 1 mm). Whilst there was a deterioration in the canine relationship towards

  2. How Disabling Are Pediatric Burns? Functional Independence in Dutch Pediatric Patients with Burns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    2013-01-01

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by burn care professionals with the WeeFIM[R]…

  3. How disabling are pediatric burns? Functional independence in Dutch pediatric patients with burns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien M.; Niemeijer, Anuschka S.; Van Baar, Margriet E.; Reinders-Messelink, Heleen A.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Nieuwenhuis, Marianne K.

    Although the attention for functional outcomes after burn injury has grown over the past decades, little is known about functional independence in performing activities of daily living in children after burn injury. Therefore, in this prospective cohort study functional independence was measured by

  4. Functional Independence in Late-Life: Maintaining Physical Functioning in Older Adulthood Predicts Daily Life Function after Age 80.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Leslie; Leng, Xiaoyan; La Monte, Michael J; Tindle, Hilary A; Cochrane, Barbara B; Shumaker, Sally A

    2016-03-01

    We examined physical functioning (PF) trajectories (maintaining, slowly declining, and rapidly declining) spanning 15 years in older women aged 65-80 and protective factors that predicted better current levels and less decline in functional independence outcomes after age 80. Women's Health Initiative extension participants who met criteria (enrolled in either the clinical trial or observational study cohort, >80 years at the data release cutoff, PF survey data from initial enrollment to age 80, and functional independence survey data after age 80) were included in these analyses (mean [SD] age = 84.0 [1.4] years; N = 10,478). PF was measured with the SF-36 (mean = 4.9 occasions). Functional independence was measured by self-reported level of dependence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living (ADLs and IADLs) (mean = 3.4 and 3.3 occasions). Maintaining consistent PF in older adulthood extends functional independence in ADL and IADL in late-life. Protective factors shared by ADL and IADL include maintaining PF over time, self-reported excellent or very good health, no history of hip fracture after age 55, and no history of cardiovascular disease. Better IADL function is uniquely predicted by a body mass index less than 25 and no depression. Less ADL and IADL decline is predicted by better self-reported health, and less IADL decline is uniquely predicted by having no history of hip fracture after age 55. Maintaining or improving PF and preventing injury and disease in older adulthood (ages 65-80) has far-reaching implications for improving late-life (after age 80) functional independence. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Functional Independent Scaling Relation for ORR/OER Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Rune; Hansen, Heine Anton; Dickens, Colin F.

    2016-01-01

    A widely used adsorption energy scaling relation between OH* and OOH* intermediates in the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER), has previously been determined using density functional theory and shown to dictate a minimum thermodynamic overpotential for both...... reactions. Here, we show that the oxygen-oxygen bond in the OOH* intermediate is, however, not well described with the previously used class of exchange-correlation functionals. By quantifying and correcting the systematic error, an improved description of gaseous peroxide species versus experimental data...

  6. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consolaro, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces. Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  7. Mini-implants and miniplates generate sub-absolute and absolute anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Consolaro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The functional demand imposed on bone promotes changes in the spatial properties of osteocytes as well as in their extensions uniformly distributed throughout the mineralized surface. Once spatial deformation is established, osteocytes create the need for structural adaptations that result in bone formation and resorption that happen to meet the functional demands. The endosteum and the periosteum are the effectors responsible for stimulating adaptive osteocytes in the inner and outer surfaces.Changes in shape, volume and position of the jaws as a result of skeletal correction of the maxilla and mandible require anchorage to allow bone remodeling to redefine morphology, esthetics and function as a result of spatial deformation conducted by orthodontic appliances. Examining the degree of changes in shape, volume and structural relationship of areas where mini-implants and miniplates are placed allows us to classify mini-implants as devices of subabsolute anchorage and miniplates as devices of absolute anchorage.

  8. 75 FR 76275 - Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Long Island Sound AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this rule the Coast Guard establishes seven anchorage grounds in Long Island Sound. These anchorages... Long Island Sound or awaiting entry to a port or facility in New York and Connecticut. DATES: This rule...

  9. Paradigm shifts in orthodontic treatment with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Joung-Lin Liaw

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available After the applications of mini-implant anchorage, the envelope of orthodontic treatment was expanded and some treatment modes were changed because of more predictable tooth movement with empowered anchorage. The author tried to share his experience of TADs applications for clarifying the paradigm shifts of orthodontic treatment assisted with the mini-implant anchorage.

  10. Independent contribution of individual white matter pathways to language function in pediatric epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Paldino, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Scalar metrics derived from the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with language function. These results support the importance of these pathways in human language function in patients with MCDs.

  11. Apoptosis-Dependent and Apoptosis-Independent Functions of Bim in Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tang, Dean; Liu, Junwei

    2005-01-01

    ... (death, survival, proliferation/division, etc.). Our hypothesis is that, under normal, unstimulated conditions, with its apoptotic function blocked, the upregulated Bim in PCa cells plays an apoptosis-independent function...

  12. Apoptosis-Dependent and Apoptosis-Independent Functions Bim in Prostate Cancer Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Liu, Junwei

    2004-01-01

    ... (death, survival, proliferation/division, etc). Our hypothesis is that, under normal, unstimulated conditions, with its apoptotic function blocked, the upregulated Bim in PCa cells play an apoptosis-independent function...

  13. Explaining the democratic anchorage of governance networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skelcher, Chris; Klijn, Erik-Hans; Kübler, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Advances in understanding the democratic anchorage of governance networks require carefully designed and contextually grounded empirical analysis that take into account contextual factors. The article uses a conjectural framework to study the impact of the national democratic milieu on the relati...

  14. Seismic verification of nuclear plant equipment anchorage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepiece, M.; Van Vyve, J.

    1991-01-01

    More than 60% of the electrical power of Belgium is generated by seven PWR nuclear power plants. For three of them, the electro-mechanical equipment had to be reassessed after ten years of operation, because the seismic requirements were upgraded from 0.1 g to 0.17 g free field ground acceleration. The seismic requalification of the active equipment was a critical problem as the classical methods were too conservative. The approach based on the use of the past experience on the seismic behavior of nonnuclear equipment, chosen and developed by the SQUG, had to be transposed to the Belgian N.P.P. The decision of the accept-ability of equipment relies heavily on the aseismatic capacity of anchorage. The Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI) developed the procedure and guideline for the demonstration of the aseismatic adequacy of equipment anchorage in a cost-effective and consistent manner, to support the decision by Seismic Review Team. The field inspection procedure to identify the type of fasteners and detect their possible defects and the verification procedure developed to calculate the aseismatic capacity of equipment anchorage on the strength of fasteners, the aseismatic capacity of anchorage and the comparison of the capacity with the demand are reported. (K.I.)

  15. A new method of heart sound signal analysis based on independent function element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie-feng, Cheng; Bin, Jiang; He, Yang; YuFeng, Guo; ShaoBai, Zhang

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, a new method is presented for heart sound signal processing in statistical domain. The multiple components obtained from the conventional linear transformation are possibly irrelevant, but usually do not possess the characteristics of statistical independence. First, the definition and obtaining method of independent function element are discussed; the method of signal decomposition and reconstruction based on the independent function element, not only inherits the advantages of linear transformation, but also has the capability of signal representation in the statistical domain. After that, the application of independent function element in heart sound signal analysis is analyzed in detail. The validity and practicability of the method are demonstrated through two experiments.

  16. Nonlinear singular integral inequalities for functions in two and independent variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Medveď Milan

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper nonlinear integral inequalities with weakly singular kernels for functions in two and independent variables are solved. The obtained results are related to the well known Gronwall–Bihari and Henry inequalities for functions in one variable and the Wendroff inequality for functions in two variables. A modification of Ou–Iang–Pachpatte inequality and inequalities for functions in independent variables are also treated here.

  17. Rate-distortion functions of non-stationary Markoff chains and their block-independent approximations

    OpenAIRE

    Agarwal, Mukul

    2018-01-01

    It is proved that the limit of the normalized rate-distortion functions of block independent approximations of an irreducible, aperiodic Markoff chain is independent of the initial distribution of the Markoff chain and thus, is also equal to the rate-distortion function of the Markoff chain.

  18. Orthodontic Anchorage Implants: State-of-the-art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    The limits of an orthodontic treatment are often set by the lack of suitable anchorage. The mini-implant is used where conventional anchorage cannot be applied and not as a replacement for conventional anchorage. In patients with lack of teeth and reduced periodontium, skeletal anchorage allows...... the optimal positioning of the teeth following rehabilitation. Patients with need for inconsistent tooth movements, borderline surgical cases, can benefit from the use of the mini-implant and regeneration of alveolar process by tooth movement in edentulous molar regions and using mini-implants as anchorage...... will improve the reconstruction possibilities. The mini-implant has widened the orthodontic possibilities....

  19. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André da Costa Monini

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper jaw anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  20. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monini, André da Costa; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga; dos Santos-Pinto, Ary; Maia, Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues, Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extraction space closure by means of sliding mechanics. The use of palatal bar, inclusion of second molars in the archwire and space closure performed in two phases are the most used techniques for anchorage control in the upper jaw. The skeletal anchorage is referenced by 36.5% of specialists as a routine practice for the upper arch anchorage. There is a wide variety of procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists for orthodontic space closure and anchorage control.

  1. Is skeletal anchorage changing the limit of orthodontics?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Melsen, Birte

    2007-01-01

    and can be loaded immediately. The course will be addressed the following topics: Are the mini-implants replacing conventional anchorage? Why are orthodontic mini-implants necessary? The development of the skeletal anchorage systems The biological basis for the skeletal anchorage systems......The limits for orthodontic treatment are often set by the lack of suitable anchorage. The mini-implant is used where conventional anchorage cannot be applied; not as a replacement for conventional anchorage. In patients with lack of teeth and reduced periodontium, skeletal anchorage allows...... for the optimal positioning of the teeth before rehabilitation. Patients, with need for inconsistent tooth movements as displacement of all teeth in the same direction or asymmetric displacements, can be treated with the mini-implants. Borderline surgical cases can benefit from the use of mini-implants...

  2. Anchorage Dependent Cells Attached to a Polymer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    Biomedical research offers hope for a variety of medical problems, from diabetes to the replacement of damaged bone and tissues. Bioreactors, which are used to grow cells and tissue cultures, play a major role in such research and production efforts. Anchorage dependent cells on STS-95 will be grown on beads similar to these cells produced during previous investigations. Recombinant proteins may offer the possibility of reducing or eliminating transplant rejections. Research by Synthecon, Inc. using the BioDyn Bioreactor will focus on the preliminary process for growing a proprietary recombinant protein that can decrease rejection of transplanted tissue. The cells producing this protein are anchorage dependent, meaning that they must attach to something to grow. These cells will be cultured in the bioreactor in a medium containing polymer microbeads. Synthecon hopes that the data from this mission will lead to the development of a commercial protein that will aid in prevention of transplant rejection.

  3. The Functional Independence of Mands and Tacts: Has It Been Demonstrated Empirically?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamba, Jonas; Goyos, Celso; Petursdottir, Anna Ingeborg

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been a proliferation of research on the functional independence of two of Skinner's (1957) verbal operants, the mand, and the tact. This research has produced highly variable results. In this article, we provide a critical review of the literature on mand-tact independence, a literature that has implications for both theory and…

  4. The use of microimplants in orthodontic anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chung-Ho; Chang, Chao-San; Hsieh, Chi-Hsin; Tseng, Yu-Chuan; Shen, Yee-Shyong; Huang, I-Yueh; Yang, Chia-Fu; Chen, Chun-Ming

    2006-08-01

    Various types of temporary implants have been introduced to serve as orthodontic anchorage. The hypothesis of this study is that microimplants of 1.2 mm diameter can be used as orthodontic anchors, and that their success is related to their length. The aim of this study is to determine the incidence of anchor retention after orthodontic force application for moving teeth, and to determine the relationship of microimplant length to retention rate. Fifty-nine microimplants (diameter: 1.2 mm) were placed in 29 patients as orthodontic anchorages. After 2 weeks of microimplant placement, a force of 100 to 200 g was loaded with an elastometric chain or NiTi coil spring. Risk factors were characterized as to why a microimplant may fail, and Fisher's exact test was used for statistical analysis. Nine microimplants were removed and the overall success rate was 84.7%. Exploring the causes for failure, we found significant differences between the length of microimplants and success rate; 6 mm was 72.2% and 8 mm was 90.2%. The results suggest that microimplants are suited as an alternative orthodontic anchorage. We recommend that 8-mm microimplants are preferable to 6-mm.

  5. Kinase Independent Functions of Cyclin D1 Which Contribute to its Oncogenic Potential In Vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Landis, Mark

    2002-01-01

    .... Upon phosphorylation, pRb is inactivated, and cells pass from G1 into S phase. We and others have demonstrated that cyclin D1 has other functions, many of which are independent of kinase activity in vino...

  6. Independent effects of both right and left ventricular function on plasma brain natriuretic peptide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vogelsang, Thomas Wiis; Jensen, Ruben J; Monrad, Astrid L

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is increased in heart failure; however, the relative contribution of the right and left ventricles is largely unknown. AIM: To investigate if right ventricular function has an independent influence on plasma BNP concentration. METHODS: Right (RVEF), left......, which is a strong prognostic marker in heart failure, independently depends on both left and right ventricular systolic function. This might, at least in part, explain why BNP holds stronger prognostic value than LVEF alone....

  7. 33 CFR 110.189a - Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Anchorage Grounds § 110.189a Key West Harbor, Key West, Fla., naval explosives anchorage area. (a) The anchorage ground. A circular area with its...

  8. Shear and anchorage behaviour of fire exposed hollow core slabs

    OpenAIRE

    Fellinger, J.H.H.; Stark, J.; Walraven, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The fire resistance of hollow core slabs is currently assessed considering flexural failure only. However, fire tests showed that shear or anchorage failure can also govern the load bearing behaviour. As the shear and anchorage capacity of these slabs rely on the tensile strength of the concrete, the load bearing capacity with respect to these failure modes decreases dramatically during fire due to the impact of thermal stresses. This paper presents a FE model for the shear and anchorage beha...

  9. Procedures adopted by orthodontists for space closure and anchorage control

    OpenAIRE

    Monini,André da Costa; Gandini Júnior,Luiz Gonzaga; Santos-Pinto,Ary dos; Maia,Luiz Guilherme Martins; Rodrigues,Willian Caetano

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify the procedures adopted by Brazilian orthodontists in the following situations: extraction space closure, anchorage control in case of necessary anchorage for group A and frequency of skeletal anchorage use, especially in the upper jaw. METHOD: A questionnaire was sent to the e-mail address of all dentists registered in the Brazilian Federal Council of Dentistry. RESULTS: The results showed that most Brazilian orthodontists usually perform extra...

  10. Cell cycle control by components of cell anchorage

    OpenAIRE

    Gad, Annica

    2005-01-01

    Extracellular factors, such as growth factors and cell anchorage to the extracellular matrix, control when and where cells may proliferate. This control is abolished when a normal cell transforms into a tumour cell. The control of cell proliferation by cell anchorage was elusive and less well studied than the control by growth factors. Therefore, we aimed to clarify at what points in the cell cycle and through which molecular mechanisms cell anchorage controls cell cycle pro...

  11. Analysis of post-tensioned girder anchorage zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, W. C.; Breen, J. E.

    1981-06-01

    Several large thin-webbed box girders, with post-tensioned anchorage zones experienced large cracks along the tendon path in the anchorage zones at the design stressing load. Cracking provides a path for penetration of moisture and salts and thus presents a potential corrosion and frost damage threat. Such cracking negates the use of prestressed concretes. An extensive literature review which documents the state of the art in anchorage zone analysis behavior, and design recommendations is summarized. The general utilization of a three dimensional finite element program, PUZGAP3D, for analysis of the complex anchorage zone region is outlined. The program was used to study straight and curved tendon paths.

  12. Evaluation of functional independence after discharge from the intensive care unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzel, Juliane; Forgiarini Junior, Luiz Alberto; Rieder, Marcelo de Mello

    2013-01-01

    Objective 1) To evaluate the functional independence measures immediately after discharge from an intensive care unit and to compare these values with the FIMs 30 days after that period. 2) To evaluate the possible associated risk factors. Methods The present investigation was a prospective cohort study that included individuals who were discharged from the intensive care unit and underwent physiotherapy in the unit. Functional independence was evaluated using the functional independence measure immediately upon discharge from the intensive care unit and 30 days thereafter via a phone call. The patients were admitted to the Hospital Santa Clara intensive care unit during the period from May 2011 to August 2011. Results During the predetermined period of data collection, 44 patients met the criteria for inclusion in the study. The mean age of the patients was 55.4±10.5 years. Twenty-seven of the subjects were female, and 15 patients were admitted due to pulmonary disease. The patients exhibited an functional independence measure of 84.1±24.2. When this measure was compared to the measure at 30 days after discharge, there was improvement across the functional independence variables except for that concerned with sphincter control. There were no significant differences when comparing the gender, age, clinical diagnosis, length of stay in the intensive care unit, duration of mechanical ventilation, and the presence of sepsis during this period. Conclusion Functional independence, as evaluated by the functional independence measure scale, was improved at 30 days after discharge from the intensive care unit, but it was not possible to define the potentially related factors. PMID:23917973

  13. Measure of functional independence dominates discharge outcome prediction after inpatient rehabilitation for stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Allen W; Therneau, Terry M; Schultz, Billie A; Niewczyk, Paulette M; Granger, Carl V

    2015-04-01

    Identifying clinical data acquired at inpatient rehabilitation admission for stroke that accurately predict key outcomes at discharge could inform the development of customized plans of care to achieve favorable outcomes. The purpose of this analysis was to use a large comprehensive national data set to consider a wide range of clinical elements known at admission to identify those that predict key outcomes at rehabilitation discharge. Sample data were obtained from the Uniform Data System for Medical Rehabilitation data set with the diagnosis of stroke for the years 2005 through 2007. This data set includes demographic, administrative, and medical variables collected at admission and discharge and uses the FIM (functional independence measure) instrument to assess functional independence. Primary outcomes of interest were functional independence measure gain, length of stay, and discharge to home. The sample included 148,367 people (75% white; mean age, 70.6±13.1 years; 97% with ischemic stroke) admitted to inpatient rehabilitation a mean of 8.2±12 days after symptom onset. The total functional independence measure score, the functional independence measure motor subscore, and the case-mix group were equally the strongest predictors for any of the primary outcomes. The most clinically relevant 3-variable model used the functional independence measure motor subscore, age, and walking distance at admission (r(2)=0.107). No important additional effect for any other variable was detected when added to this model. This analysis shows that a measure of functional independence in motor performance and age at rehabilitation hospital admission for stroke are predominant predictors of outcome at discharge in a uniquely large US national data set. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Brahmanta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Correction of class I malocclusion with bimaxillary dental protrusion and unilateral free end right upper ridge in adult patient is one of difficult biomechanical case in orthodontics. Due to this case that needs proper anchorage for upper incisor retraction with missing teeth in the right posterior segment. Purpose: The aim of this study to find an effective therapy for correction of bimaxillary protrusion with unilateral free and ridge. Case: A female patient, 36 year old complaining for the difficulty of lip closure due to severe bimaxillary protrusion with incompetence lip. Case management: Firstly correction of the maxillary and mandibular incisor proclination were done by extraction of the mandibular first premolar, the maxillary second premolar on left side and finally placement of miniplates implant in the zygomatic process on right side as an absolut anchorage. Conclusion: Skeletal anchorage system (SAS can be considered as an effective therapy for corection of bimaxillary protrusion with unilateral free end ridge.Latar belakang: Koreksi dari maloklusi klas I dari penderita dewasa yang disertai protrusi bimaksiler dengan kehilangan gigi posterior pada regio kanan atas merupakan salah satu kasus sulit untuk dikerjakan terutama berhubungan dengan biomekanik pergerakan giginya dalam perawatan ortodonti. Tujuan: Tujuan dari penulisan artikel ini adalah untuk menemukan terapi yang efektif untuk perbaikan protrusi bimaksiler dan kehilangan gigi posterior pada satu sisi. Kasus: Seorang penderita wanita usia 35 tahun datang dengan keluhan utama kesulitan untuk menutup mulut oleh karena gigi rahang atas dan rahang bawahnya maju dan bibirnya tidak kompeten. Tatalaksana kasus: Koreksi pada gigi insisivus rahang atas dan insisivus rahang bawah yang protrusi dilakukan dengan melakukan pencabutan terlebih dahulu pada gigi premolar pertama dirahang bawah sisi kanan dan sisi kiri serta pencabutan pada gigi premolar kedua di rahang atas sisi

  15. Correlation between functional independence and quality of life of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalia Priscilla Oliveira Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Functional independence and quality of life are impacted by amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a degenerative and progressive disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional independence and quality of life of patients with ALS in the municipality of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte state, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional observational study conducted with 24 patients. The Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ-40/BR and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM were used as evaluation instruments. The data were analyzed through the Spearman’s correlation and Mann-Whitney tests. The individuals investigated presented modified functional dependence in the FIM, with mean of 64.9±20.5, and alteration in all areas of the ALSAQ-40/ BR. There was significant inverse correlation between FIM and the ALSAQ-40/BR areas of “Mobility” (p<0.01, “Activities of Daily Living (DLAs” (p<0.01, “Eating ability” (p=0.02, and “Communication” (p<0.01, but not in the domain of “Emotional Aspect”. Despite the reduced sample, all patients presented reduction in functional independence and quality of life. The use of these instruments may be a tool to assist the elaboration of intervention plans and interdisciplinary treatment, contributing to retard functional dependence and improve the quality of life of these patients.

  16. Anchorage loss--a multifactorial response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geron, Silvia; Shpack, Nir; Kandos, Samouil; Davidovitch, Moshe; Vardimon, Alexander D

    2003-12-01

    Anchorage loss (AL) is a potential side effect of orthodontic mechanotherapy. In the present study, it is defined as the amount of mesial movement of the upper first permanent molar during premolar extraction space closure. In addition, AL is described as a multifactorial response in relation to the extraction site, appliance type, age, crowding, and overjet. For this study, 87 university clinic and private practice subjects, who were defined as maximum anchorage cases and had undergone bilateral maxillary premolar extractions, were divided into four groups according to extraction site (first vs second premolars), mechanics (lingual vs labial edgewise appliances), and age (adolescents vs adults). Overjet and crowding were examined from the overall sample. Data were collected from serial lateral cephalograms and dental casts. The results showed that as the severity of dental crowding increased, AL significantly decreased (r = -0.66, P = .001). Labial edgewise appliances demonstrated a significantly greater AL than did lingual edgewise appliances (1.15 +/- 2.06 mm, P extractions (0.51 +/- 1.33 mm). Overjet was weakly correlated to AL. These results suggest that AL is a multifactorial response and that the five examined factors can be divided into primary (crowding, mechanics) and secondary factors (age, extraction site, overjet), in declining order of importance.

  17. Mechanical anchorage of FRP tendons – A literature review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob W.; Bennitz, Anders; Täljsten, Björn

    2012-01-01

    anchorage systems for use with Aramid, Glass and Carbon FRP tendons have been proposed over the last two decades. Each system is usually tailored to a particular type of tendon. This paper presents a brief overview of bonded anchorage applications while the primary literature review discusses three methods...

  18. Application and Curative Effect of Micro-implant Anchorage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The clinical application and efficacy observation of micro - implant anchorages have become a new research hot spot in the Department of. Stomatology. Instead of taking teeth as the basis, as was previously the case, this new anchorage exerts the counteracting force of orthodontics on the jaw, thus completely avoiding the.

  19. Shear and anchorage behaviour of fire exposed hollow core slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.H.H.; Stark, J.; Walraven, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    The fire resistance of hollow core slabs is currently assessed considering flexural failure only. However, fire tests showed that shear or anchorage failure can also govern the load bearing behaviour. As the shear and anchorage capacity of these slabs rely on the tensile strength of the concrete,

  20. Variance gradients and uncertainty budgets for nonlinear measurement functions with independent inputs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campanelli, Mark; Kacker, Raghu; Kessel, Rüdiger

    2013-01-01

    A novel variance-based measure for global sensitivity analysis, termed a variance gradient (VG), is presented for constructing uncertainty budgets under the Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) framework for nonlinear measurement functions with independent inputs. The motivation behind VGs is the desire of metrologists to understand which inputs' variance reductions would most effectively reduce the variance of the measurand. VGs are particularly useful when the application of the first supplement to the GUM is indicated because of the inadequacy of measurement function linearization. However, VGs reduce to a commonly understood variance decomposition in the case of a linear(ized) measurement function with independent inputs for which the original GUM readily applies. The usefulness of VGs is illustrated by application to an example from the first supplement to the GUM, as well as to the benchmark Ishigami function. A comparison of VGs to other available sensitivity measures is made. (paper)

  1. Enhanced independence: experiences after regaining grip function in people with tetraplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wangdell, Johanna; Carlsson, Gunnel; Fridén, Jan

    2013-01-01

    To explore how surgical reconstruction of grip affects everyday life for patients with tetraplegia, with special emphasis on patients perspective of their perceived changes. Qualitative method. Eleven people (aged 22-73) with tetraplegia who had undergone surgical reconstruction to restore grip function. Qualitative interviews were conducted 7-17 months after surgery and analysed using Grounded theory. The core concept describing the participants experienced gains after grip reconstructive surgery was "enhanced independence". It was associated with changes in both practical and psychological aspects of independence. Practical aspects identified were: "perform more activities", "smoother everyday life", "renewed ability to participate in social activities", "less dependence on assistance" and "less restricted by physical environment". Psychological aspects of independence included "regained privacy", "increased manageability", "regained identity", "recapture a part of the body" and "share positive experiences with relatives and friends". Encompassing all categories was the concept "self-efficacy in hand control". It was seen as a result included in the enhanced independency core but also as an important factor for the development of all the other categories. Participants in this study experienced enhanced independence after grip reconstructive surgery and rehabilitation. The enhanced independence included both practical and physical aspects and it influenced all domains using the International Classification of Function, Disability and Health model; body function and structure, activities, participation, personal factors and environmental factors. Implications for Rehabilitation Patients with tetraplegia experience grip reconstruction as a useful intervention, an enhanced independence, related to their improved hand control. The increased hand control impacted not only physical aspects but also practical and psychological aspects. It also influenced social and

  2. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BY PHYSICAL THERAPY AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Ana-Maria Ticărat

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. Patients with multiple sclerosis can have a normal life despite of their real or possible disability and of the progressive nature of it. Scope. Patients who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy will have an increased quality of life and a greater functional independence.Methods. The randomized study was made on 7 patients with multiple sclerosis, from Oradea Day Centre, 3 times/week, ages between 35 – 55 years, functional level between mild and sever. Assessment an...

  3. Influence of Relative Strength on Functional Independence of Patients With Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro Neto, Frederico; Guanais, Patrícia; Lopes, Guilherme H; Dornelas, Elisa; de Campos Barbetta, Daniela; Coutinho, Alessandra C; Gonçalves, Carlos Wellington; Gomes Costa, Rodrigo Rodrigues

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the influence of strength values and fat mass on functional independence of men with different spinal cord injury (SCI) levels. Cross-sectional study. Hospital network. Men with SCI (N=45). Subjects were assessed in functional independence scales, a 1 repetition maximum (1RM) test, and body composition to detect absolute and relative strength: 1RM divided by body mass (BM) and lean body mass (LBM), respectively. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to verify the influence of predictors on functional independence (FIM and Spinal Cord Independence Measure [SCIM] scale and subscales). Receiver operating characteristic curves were created to identify cutoff points of strength for functional independence. The best models for FIM total, FIM mobility, and SCIM total used 1RM as the best predictor (adjusted R 2 =.75, .67, and .65, respectively; PSCIM mobility (adjusted R 2 =.62, Pscore of 69 has a 1RM cutoff point of 50.1kg, and a FIM score of 76 has cutoff points of .73 for 1RM/BM and .91 for 1RM/LBM. A SCIM score of 68 has cutoff points for 1RM, 1RM/BM, and 1RM/LBM of 50.1kg, .77, and .92, respectively. Cutoff points of relative strength should be used as determinant variables for independence, health, or sports performance. This study may contribute to more adequate guidance of physical activity during a rehabilitation program and after discharge. Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Liver function tests and risk prediction of incident type 2 diabetes : evaluation in two independent cohorts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbasi, Ali; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Corpeleijn, Eva; van der A, Daphne L.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Gans, Rijk O. B.; Peelen, Linda M.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Stolk, Ronald P.; Navis, Gerjan; Spijkerman, Annemieke M. W.; Beulens, Joline W. J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Liver function tests might predict the risk of type 2 diabetes. An independent study evaluating utility of these markers compared with an existing prediction model is yet lacking. Methods and Findings: We performed a case-cohort study, including random subcohort (6.5%) from 38,379

  5. Investigation of Cool and Hot Executive Function in ODD/CD Independently of ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Christopher W.; Scott, Stephen; Rubia, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Background: Children with oppositional defiant disorder/conduct disorder (ODD/CD) have shown deficits in "cool" abstract-cognitive, and "hot" reward-related executive function (EF) tasks. However, it is currently unclear to what extent ODD/CD is associated with neuropsychological deficits, independently of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder…

  6. A Functional Classification for Independent Living for Persons with Visual Impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sands, D. J.; Dunlap, W. R.

    1991-01-01

    A meaningful classification for living, work, and education was achieved by grouping 159 persons who were blind or visually impaired into 5 groups ranging from low to high functioning, according to 7 independent living skills: family responsibility; health and hygiene; legal awareness; community awareness; money management; social/interpersonal…

  7. Canagliflozin Slows Progression of Renal Function Decline Independently of Glycemic Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heerspink, Hiddo J. L.; Desai, Mehul; Jardine, Meg; Balis, Dainius; Meininger, Gary; Perkovic, Vlado

    Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with canagliflozin decreases HbA1c, body weight, BP, and albuminuria, implying that canagliflozin confers renoprotection. We determined whether canagliflozin decreases albuminuria and reduces renal function decline independently of its glycemic effects in a

  8. On physical functioning after pediatric burns : Physical fitness and functional independence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Disseldorp, Laurien Maria

    2015-01-01

    Burn injury can negatively impact physical functioning. This is not only due to the local damage of the skin or subsequent scarring, but also due to the disturbance of physiological processes and a period of physical inactivity. If limitations in physical functioning persist, it can affect health

  9. IMPROVING FUNCTIONAL INDEPENDENCE OF PATIENTS WITH MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS BY PHYSICAL THERAPY AND OCCUPATIONAL THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana-Maria Ticărat

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Patients with multiple sclerosis can have a normal life despite of their real or possible disability and of the progressive nature of it. Scope. Patients who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy will have an increased quality of life and a greater functional independence.Methods. The randomized study was made on 7 patients with multiple sclerosis, from Oradea Day Centre, 3 times/week, ages between 35 – 55 years, functional level between mild and sever. Assessment and rehabilitation methods: inspection, BARTHEL Index. Frenkel method, brething exercises, weights exercises, gait exercises, writind exercises and games were used in the rehabilitation process. Group therapies: sociotherapy, arttherapy, music therapy. Results analysis consisted of the comparison of baseline and final means.Results. By analizing baseline and final means for Barthel Index for each functon separately, it was shown a mild improvement of functional independence for almost assessed functions, with at least 1-1,5 points.Conclusions. Persons with multiple sclerosis who follow physical therapy and occupational therapy presents a better functional independence after the treatment.

  10. Literacy is an independent risk factor for vision impairment and poor visual functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yingfeng; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Anuar, Ainur Rahman; Saw, Seang-Mei; Aung, Tin; Wong, Tien Yin

    2011-09-29

    People with limited literacy are at increased risks of chronic systemic conditions. The authors therefore investigated the independent contribution of limited literacy on visual impairment and visual function in a large eye survey in Singapore. The authors undertook a population-based, cross-sectional study of Asian Malays (≥ 40 years old). Visual impairment was defined as logMAR (logarithm of minimal angle of resolution) visual acuity > 0.30 in the better-seeing eye. Information regarding reading and writing literacy levels and other independent variables, including sociodemographic measures (e.g., education, income), were obtained from a standardized interview. Visual functioning was assessed using a modified and validated version of the Vision-Specific Functioning Scale using Rasch analysis. Of the 3280 participants, 553 (16.9%) had inadequate reading literacy and 688 (21.0%) had inadequate writing literacy. In multivariate analysis, persons with inadequate reading literacy were more likely to have presenting visual impairment (odds ratio [OR] = 2.66; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.91 to 3.72; P visual impairment (OR = 2.59; 95% CI = 1.70 to 3.96; P visual functioning (β coefficient = 0.58; 95% CI = 1.57 to 3.02; P education, income, and other patients' characteristics. Similar associations were found for inadequate writing literacy. Inadequate literacy is independently associated with visual impairment and poorer visual functioning. Interventions that address literacy may help to reduce socioeconomic disparities in visual impairment.

  11. The benefit of differential moment concept in managing posterior anchorage and avoiding bite deepening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harryanto Wijaya

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Anchorage is one of the major concerns in orthodontic space closure. Various methods have been proposed to enhance posterior anchorage in space closure such as headgear, Nance holding appliance, and micro implant as temporary anchorage devices. However, several issues such as patient's compliance, appliance effectiveness, and cost of the device become many clinicians concern. The differential moment concept in segmented arch is a technique that requires no patient compliance but can effectively manage posterior anchorage and avoid bite deepening by careful application of forces and moments. Purpose: The purpose of this case report is to show the use of differential moment concept in segmented arch technique to manage posterior anchorage and to avoid bite deepening. Case: A 21 years old female patient with protrusive teeth as her chief complaint was treated using fixed orthodontic appliance. Case management: The treatment included four first bicuspid extraction and space closure utilizing differential moment concept in segmented arch. Conclusion: It can be concluded that application of differential moment concept in segmented arch technique is a non invasive, compliance independent, effective, and cost efficient method to manage posterior anchorage and to avoid bite deepening.latar belakang: Penjangkaran merupakan salah satu aspek yang sering kali menjadi masalah dalam penutupan ruang pada perawatan ortodonti. Berbagai metode disarankan untuk memperkuat penjangkaran posterior dalam penutupan ruang seperti headgear, piranti penahan Nance, dan implan mikro sebagai alat penjangkar sementara. Namun demikian, beberapa hal seperti kerjasama pasien, efektivitas piranti, dan biaya dari alat-alat tersebut sering menjadi perhatian/pertimbangan bagi klinisi. Konsep momen diferensial pada segmented arch adalah suatu cara yang efektif untuk memperkuat penjangkaran dan menghindari pendalaman gigitan tanpa memerlukan kerjasama pasien. tujuan

  12. Field dependence-independence (FDI) cognitive style: an analysis of attentional functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guisande, M Adelina; Páramo, M Fernanda; Tinajero, Carolina; Almeida, Leandro S

    2007-11-01

    Previous research has indicated that field-dependent children display poorer performance than field-independent children in almost all academic subjects and cognitive tasks. However, the processes underlying this poorer performance remain unclear. The present study aimed to assess whether children with different FDI cognitive styles show differences in performance of tasks measuring aspects of attentional functioning. Specifically, 149 children aged 8 - 11 years were classified according to FDI cognitive style (field-dependent, intermediate, or field-independent), and to storage capacity (Digits Forward Test), verbal working memory (Digits Backward Test), capacity to focus, shift, and maintain attention (Digit Symbol Test), and capacity for sustained attention (Visual Search and Attention Test). Field-independent children displayed better performance than intermediate and field-dependent children on all tests except the Digits Forward Test. Theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed.

  13. Trauma center designation correlates with functional independence after severe but not moderate traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Joshua B; Stassen, Nicole A; Cheng, Julius D; Sangosanya, Ayodele T; Bankey, Paul E; Gestring, Mark L

    2010-08-01

    The mortality of traumatic brain injury (TBI) continues to decline, emphasizing functional outcomes. Trauma center designation has been linked to survival after TBI, but the impact on functional outcomes is unclear. The objective was to determine whether trauma center designation influenced functional outcomes after moderate and severe TBI. Trauma subjects presenting to an American College of Surgeons (ACS) Level I or II trauma center with a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) independence (FI) defined as a modified functional independence measure (FIM) of 12, and independent expression (IE) defined as a FIM component of 4. These were compared between Level I and Level II centers in subjects with both moderate (GCS 9-12) and severe (GCS

  14. Characterizing functional connectivity during rest in multiple sclerosis patients versus healthy volunteers using independent component analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacio Garcia, L.; Andrzejak, R.; Prchkovska, V.; Rodrigues, P.

    2016-07-01

    It is commonly thought that our brain is not active when it does not receive any external input. However, during rest, there are still certain distant regions of the brain that are functionally correlated between them: the so-called resting-state networks. This functional connectivity of the brain is disrupted in many neurological diseases. In particular, it has been shown that one of the most studied resting-state networks (the default-mode network) is affected in multiple sclerosis, which is the most common disabling neurological condition affecting the central nervous system of young adults. In this work, I focus on the study of the differences in the resting-state networks between multiple sclerosis patients and healthy volunteers. In order to study the effects of multiple sclerosis on the functional connectivity of the brain, a numerical method known as independent component analysis (ICA) is applied. This technique divides the resting-state fMRI data into independent components. Nonetheless, noise, which could be due to head motion or physiological artifacts, may corrupt the data by indicating a false activation. Therefore, I create a web user interface that allows the user to manually classify all the independent components for a given subject. Eventually, the components classified as noise should be removed from the functional data in order to prevent them from taking part in any further analysis. (Author)

  15. 77 FR 60081 - Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-02

    ..., Cap Sante Tug and Barge General Anchorage, and Hat Island Tug and Barge General Anchorage. 2... area with a radius of 600 yards, having its center at 48 31'09'' N, 122 34'55'' W. (11) Cap Sante Tug and Barge General Anchorage. The Cap Sante Tug and Barge General Anchorage includes all waters...

  16. High-Fat Diet Causes Subfertility and Compromised Ovarian Function Independent of Obesity in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaznik-Wikiel, Malgorzata E; Swindle, Delaney C; Allshouse, Amanda A; Polotsky, Alex J; McManaman, James L

    2016-05-01

    Excess calorie consumption, particularly of a diet high in fat, is a risk factor for both obesity and reproductive disorders. Animal model studies indicate that elevated dietary fat can influence some reproductive functions independent of obesity. In the current study we sought to determine whether a high-fat diet (HFD) impacts ovarian function, long-term fertility, and local and systemic markers of inflammation independent of obesity. Five-week-old mice were fed either low-fat diet (control group-LF-Ln) or HFD for 10 wk and were divided based on body weight into high-fat obese (HF-Ob: >25 g) and high-fat lean (HF-Ln: obesity phenotype. Macrophage counts revealed increased tissue inflammation in the ovary independent of obesity. In addition, serum proinflammatory cytokines were increased in HF-Ln and HF-Ob in comparison to LF-Ln mice. Moreover, HFD had a sustained effect on litter production rate and number of pups per litter regardless of obese phenotype. This study describes for the first time that exposure to HFD causes significant reduction in primordial follicles, compromised fertility, produced higher proinflammatory cytokine levels, and increased ovarian macrophage infiltration, independent of obesity. The negative effects of HFD on primordial follicles may be mediated by increased tissue inflammation. © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  17. [Active aging from the perspective of aged individuals who are functionally independent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Olivia Galvão Lucena; Maciel, Silvana Carneiro; Silva, Antonia Oliveira; dos Santos, Walberto Silva; Moreira, Maria Adelaide Silva P

    2010-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the social representations of the elderly regarding active aging. Semi-structured interviews were performed with 100 functionally independent aged individuals from João Pessoa, Paraiba, Brazil. The data was organized and analyzed using Alceste software. Results showed that the aged individuals' statements about active aging are permeated with positive contents. However, when aging is not associated with the word active, it is still represented as losses and disabilities. Despite the existence of losses during the process, active aging should be encouraged among the elderly, as it means living a quality, plentiful life. Maintaining the elderly functionally independent is the first step to achieving active aging and thus improving their quality of life.

  18. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in orthodontics: review of the factors that influence the clinical success rate of the mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, M; Cerroni, L; Pasquantonio, G; Condò, S G; Condò, R

    2016-01-01

    The mini-implant, temporary anchorage devices (TADS), are now a common method of treatment in Orthodontics with versatility, minimal invasiveness and the relationship between costs and benefits that they offer even today. Skeletal anchorage has, to a large degree, replaced conventional anchorage in situations where anchorage is considered either critical, insufficient, or likely to result in undesirable side effects such as vertical displacements generated by inter-maxillary force systems. The objective of this study is to carry out a review about the factors that seem affect the success or failure rate of orthodontic mini-implants. A computerized literature review was performed by searching the MEDLINE database (Entrez PubMed, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov), Google Scholar, Scopus, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Isi Web of Knowledge until March 2016 . The main subject heading "orthodontics" was combined with these keywords mini-implant, mini-screw, micro-implants, mini-implant success rate, mini-implant failure rate, skeletal anchorage, temporary anchorage device (TADS). In the selection process, abstracts were initially read independently by two researchers to identify potentially eligible full text papers which were then retrieved and assessed in order to decide on the final inclusion. The clinical success of orthodontic anchorage by mini-implants depends on the stability of the miniscrews used for fixation. For good stability, the application site must provide bone of good quantity and quality. We can reasonably assume that the stability of the anchorage of the mini-implants could be optimized by selecting a position with particular characteristics of quality and quantity of bone, in relation to cortical and total mandibular and jaw bone thickness. These expected informations are important because they indicates that the bone quality and quantity are significant when considering an implant placement site, but also that there are other confounding

  19. Personality Traits, Education, Physical Exercise, and Childhood Neurological Function as Independent Predictors of Adult Obesity

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Helen; Furnham, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate whether personality traits, education, physical exercise, parental socio-economic conditions, and childhood neurological function are independently associated with obesity in 50 year old adults in a longitudinal birth cohort study. Method The sample consisted of 5,921 participants born in Great Britain in 1958 and followed up at 7, 11, 33, 42, and 50 years with data on body mass index measured at 42 and 50 years. Results There was an increase of adult obesity from 14....

  20. On Delay-Independent Criteria for Oscillation of Higher-Order Functional Differential Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuangong Sun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the oscillation of the following higher-order functional differential equation: x(n(t+q(t|x(t-τ|λ-1x(t-τ=e(t, where q(t and e(t are continuous functions on [t0,∞, 1>λ>0 and τ≠0 are constants. Unlike most of delay-dependent oscillation results in the literature, two delay-independent oscillation criteria for the equation are established in both the case τ>0 and the case τ<0 under the assumption that the potentials q(t and e(t change signs on [t0,∞.

  1. Structure and Function in Homodimeric Enzymes: Simulations of Cooperative and Independent Functional Motions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen A Wells

    Full Text Available Large-scale conformational change is a common feature in the catalytic cycles of enzymes. Many enzymes function as homodimers with active sites that contain elements from both chains. Symmetric and anti-symmetric cooperative motions in homodimers can potentially lead to correlated active site opening and/or closure, likely to be important for ligand binding and release. Here, we examine such motions in two different domain-swapped homodimeric enzymes: the DcpS scavenger decapping enzyme and citrate synthase. We use and compare two types of all-atom simulations: conventional molecular dynamics simulations to identify physically meaningful conformational ensembles, and rapid geometric simulations of flexible motion, biased along normal mode directions, to identify relevant motions encoded in the protein structure. The results indicate that the opening/closure motions are intrinsic features of both unliganded enzymes. In DcpS, conformational change is dominated by an anti-symmetric cooperative motion, causing one active site to close as the other opens; however a symmetric motion is also significant. In CS, we identify that both symmetric (suggested by crystallography and asymmetric motions are features of the protein structure, and as a result the behaviour in solution is largely non-cooperative. The agreement between two modelling approaches using very different levels of theory indicates that the behaviours are indeed intrinsic to the protein structures. Geometric simulations correctly identify and explore large amplitudes of motion, while molecular dynamics simulations indicate the ranges of motion that are energetically feasible. Together, the simulation approaches are able to reveal unexpected functionally relevant motions, and highlight differences between enzymes.

  2. The use of miniature implants as orthodontic anchorage in dogs

    OpenAIRE

    Toru, DEGUCHI; Ryuzo, KANOMI; Lawerence, GARETTO P.; Eugene, ROBERTS W.; Teruko, TAKANO; Department of Orthodontics, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry; Kanomi Dental Clinic; Department of Oral Facial Development, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Department of Oral Facial Development, Indiana University School of Dentistry; Department of Orthodontics, Okayama University Graduate School of Medicine and Dentistry

    2002-01-01

    In the past decade, there have been many attempts to use implants as anchorage devices. Unfortunately, previous reports limit the use of these implants for anchorage because of their large size. Clinically, in cases such as intrusion of molars are necessary, small implants placed between the roots of teeth would be a great benefit for the orthodontist. The objective of this study was to histomorphometrically (static) analyze the use of miniature implants. A total of 20 miniature implants (1.0...

  3. A Method of Calculating Functional Independence Measure at Discharge from Functional Independence Measure Effectiveness Predicted by Multiple Regression Analysis Has a High Degree of Predictive Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokunaga, Makoto; Watanabe, Susumu; Sonoda, Shigeru

    2017-09-01

    Multiple linear regression analysis is often used to predict the outcome of stroke rehabilitation. However, the predictive accuracy may not be satisfactory. The objective of this study was to elucidate the predictive accuracy of a method of calculating motor Functional Independence Measure (mFIM) at discharge from mFIM effectiveness predicted by multiple regression analysis. The subjects were 505 patients with stroke who were hospitalized in a convalescent rehabilitation hospital. The formula "mFIM at discharge = mFIM effectiveness × (91 points - mFIM at admission) + mFIM at admission" was used. By including the predicted mFIM effectiveness obtained through multiple regression analysis in this formula, we obtained the predicted mFIM at discharge (A). We also used multiple regression analysis to directly predict mFIM at discharge (B). The correlation between the predicted and the measured values of mFIM at discharge was compared between A and B. The correlation coefficients were .916 for A and .878 for B. Calculating mFIM at discharge from mFIM effectiveness predicted by multiple regression analysis had a higher degree of predictive accuracy of mFIM at discharge than that directly predicted. Copyright © 2017 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [SCIM--spinal cord independence measure (version II): sensitivity to functional changes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catz, Amiram; Itzkovich, Malka; Tamir, Ada; Philo, Ora; Steinberg, Flavia; Ring, Haim; Ronen, Jacob; Spasser, Raluca; Gepstein, Reuven

    2002-12-01

    Until recently, the functional ability of patients with spinal cord lesions (SCL) was assessed by standardized scales designed for various disabilities. However, these scales have either a relatively low sensitivity to changes in the functions that are most important for SCL patients or a limited suitability for a specific SCL subgroup. To counter this problem the team of the Spinal Department of Loewenstein Rehabilitation Hospital developed the Spinal Cord Independence Measure (SCIM), which is specific for SCL patients, adjusts for disadvantages of earlier scales, and is user-friendly. It was found to be reliable and more sensitive to functional changes in SCL patients than the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), the most often used disability scale today. A second version (SCIM II) was constructed with improved phrasing of some of the components. It too, was found reliable, even more than the original version for certain functions. The present study examined the sensitivity of the SCIM II to changes in function in SCL patients compared to the FIM. Twenty-six patients with SCL underwent sequential SCIM II and FIM examinations during hospitalization for rehabilitation. A high correlation was found between the total scores of the two scales (r = 0.915; p score from the first to the last examination was significantly larger with the SCIM II than with the FIM (p SCIM II. The advantage of the SCIM II over the FIM in detecting functional changes was evident in areas in which the two scales differ substantially. These results support the validity of the SCIM II. Studies with larger groups in different countries and cultures are still needed before the scale can be applied on an international basis.

  5. Repeated increases in blood flow, independent of exercise, enhance conduit artery vasodilator function in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naylor, Louise H; Carter, Howard; FitzSimons, Matthew G; Cable, N Timothy; Thijssen, Dick H J; Green, Daniel J

    2011-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the importance of repeated increases in blood flow to conduit artery adaptation, using an exercise-independent repeated episodic stimulus. Recent studies suggest that exercise training improves vasodilator function of conduit arteries via shear stress-mediated mechanisms. However, exercise is a complex stimulus that may induce shear-independent adaptations. Nine healthy men immersed their forearms in water at 42°C for three 30-min sessions/wk across 8 wk. During each session, a pneumatic pressure cuff was inflated around one forearm to unilaterally modulate heating-induced increases in shear. Forearm heating was associated with an increase in brachial artery blood flow (P<0.001) and shear rate (P<0.001) in the uncuffed forearm; this response was attenuated in the cuffed limb (P<0.005). Repeated episodic exposure to bilateral heating induced an increase in endothelium-dependent vasodilation in response to 5-min ischemic (P<0.05) and ischemic handgrip exercise (P<0.005) stimuli in the uncuffed forearm, whereas the 8-wk heating intervention did not influence dilation to either stimulus in the cuffed limb. Endothelium-independent glyceryl trinitrate responses were not altered in either limb. Repeated heating increases blood flow to levels that enhance endothelium-mediated vasodilator function in humans. These findings reinforce the importance of the direct impacts of shear stress on the vascular endothelium in humans.

  6. Task-evoked brain functional magnetic susceptibility mapping by independent component analysis (χICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zikuan; Calhoun, Vince D

    2016-03-01

    Conventionally, independent component analysis (ICA) is performed on an fMRI magnitude dataset to analyze brain functional mapping (AICA). By solving the inverse problem of fMRI, we can reconstruct the brain magnetic susceptibility (χ) functional states. Upon the reconstructed χ dataspace, we propose an ICA-based brain functional χ mapping method (χICA) to extract task-evoked brain functional map. A complex division algorithm is applied to a timeseries of fMRI phase images to extract temporal phase changes (relative to an OFF-state snapshot). A computed inverse MRI (CIMRI) model is used to reconstruct a 4D brain χ response dataset. χICA is implemented by applying a spatial InfoMax ICA algorithm to the reconstructed 4D χ dataspace. With finger-tapping experiments on a 7T system, the χICA-extracted χ-depicted functional map is similar to the SPM-inferred functional χ map by a spatial correlation of 0.67 ± 0.05. In comparison, the AICA-extracted magnitude-depicted map is correlated with the SPM magnitude map by 0.81 ± 0.05. The understanding of the inferiority of χICA to AICA for task-evoked functional map is an ongoing research topic. For task-evoked brain functional mapping, we compare the data-driven ICA method with the task-correlated SPM method. In particular, we compare χICA with AICA for extracting task-correlated timecourses and functional maps. χICA can extract a χ-depicted task-evoked brain functional map from a reconstructed χ dataspace without the knowledge about brain hemodynamic responses. The χICA-extracted brain functional χ map reveals a bidirectional BOLD response pattern that is unavailable (or different) from AICA. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The independent contribution of executive functions to health related quality of life in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marra Carlo A

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognition is a multidimensional construct and to our knowledge, no previous studies have examined the independent contribution of specific domains of cognition to health related quality of life. To determine whether executive functions are independently associated with health related quality of life assessed using Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs calculated from the EuroQol EQ-5D (EQ-5D in older women after adjusting for known covariates, including global cognition. Therefore, we conducted a secondary analysis of community-dwelling older women aged 65-75 years who participated in a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. We assessed global cognition using the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE and executive functions using the: 1 Stroop Test; 2 Trail Making Test (Part B and 3 Digits Verbal Span Backwards Test. We calculated QALYs from the EQ-5D administered at baseline, 6 months and 12 months. Results Our multivariate linear regression model demonstrated the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory, as measured by Trail Making Test (Part B and Digits Verbal Span Backward Test (p Conclusions Our study highlights the specific executive processes of set shifting and working memory were independently associated with QALYs -- a measure of health related quality of life. Given that executive functions explain variability in QALYs, clinicians may need to consider assessing executive functions when measuring health related quality of life. Further, the EQ-5D may be used to track changes in health status over time and serve as a screening tool for clinicians. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881.

  8. Independent effects of bilingualism and socioeconomic status on language ability and executive functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Alejandra; Bialystok, Ellen

    2014-03-01

    One hundred and seventy-five children who were 6-years old were assigned to one of four groups that differed in socioeconomic status (SES; working class or middle class) and language background (monolingual or bilingual). The children completed tests of nonverbal intelligence, language tests assessing receptive vocabulary and attention based on picture naming, and two tests of executive functioning. All children performed equivalently on the basic intelligence tests, but performance on the language and executive functioning tasks was influenced by both SES and bilingualism. Middle-class children outperformed working-class children on all measures, and bilingual children obtained lower scores than monolingual children on language tests but higher scores than monolingual children on the executive functioning tasks. There were no interactions with either group factors or task factors. Thus, each of SES and bilingualism contribute significantly and independently to children's development irrespective of the child's level on the other factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Independence of hot and cold executive function deficits in high-functioning adults with autism spectrum disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Laird Zimmerman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with autistic spectrum disorder (ASD display diverse deficits in social, cognitive and behavioral functioning. To date, there has been mixed findings on the profile of executive function deficits for high-functioning adults (IQ >70 with ASD. A conceptual distinction is commonly made between cold and hot executive functions. Cold executive functions refer to mechanistic higher-order cognitive operations (e.g., working memory, whereas hot executive functions entail cognitive abilities supported by emotional awareness and social perception (e.g., social cognition. This study aimed to determine the independence of deficits in hot and cold executive functions for high-functioning adults with ASD. Forty-two adults with ASD (64% male, aged 18-66 years and 40 age and gender matched controls were administered The Awareness of Social Inference Test (TASIT; emotion recognition and social inference, Letter Number Sequencing (working memory and Hayling Sentence Completion Test (response initiation and suppression. Between-group analyses identified that the ASD group performed significantly worse than matched controls on all measures of cold and hot executive functions (d = .54-1.5. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that the ASD sample performed more poorly on emotion recognition and social inference tasks than matched controls after controlling for cold executive functions and employment status. The findings also indicated that the ability to recognise emotions and make social inferences was supported by working memory and response initiation and suppression processes. Overall, this study supports the distinction between hot and cold executive function impairments for adults with ASD. Moreover, it advances understanding of higher-order impairments underlying social interaction difficulties for this population which, in turn, may assist with diagnosis and inform intervention programs.

  10. Isolated scaphotrapeziotrapezoid osteoarthritis treatment using resurfacing arthroplasty with scaphoid anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humada Álvarez, G; Simón Pérez, C; García Medrano, B; Faour Martín, O; Marcos Rodríguez, J J; Vega Castrillo, A; Martín Ferrero, M A

    The aim of this study is to show the results of scaphotrapeziotrapezoid (STT) joint osteoarthritis treatment performing resurfacing arthroplasty with scaphoid anchorage. An observational, descriptive and retrospective study was performed. Ten patients with isolated STT joint osteoarthritis were studied between 2013 and 2015. The mean follow-up time was 26months. Clinical results, functional and subjective scores were reviewed. The patients were satisfied, achieving an average of 2.1 (0-3) on the VAS score and 16 (2 to 28) in the DASH questionnaire, and returning to work in the first three months post-surgery. Recovery of range of motion compared to the contralateral wrist was 96% in extension, 95% in flexion, 87% in ulnar deviation and 91% in radial deviation. The average handgrip strength of the wrist was 95% and pinch strength was 95% compared to the contralateral side. There were no intraoperative complications or alterations in postoperative carpal alignment. Resurfacing arthroplasty is proposed as a good and novel alternative in treating isolated SST joint arthritis. Achieving the correct balance between the strength and mobility of the wrist, without causing carpal destabilisation, is important to obtain satisfactory clinical and functional results. Copyright © 2017. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  11. Exploring the relation between positive emotions and the functional status of older adults living independently : A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrita, M.; Lamers, S.M.A.; Trompetter, H.R.; Tabak, M.; Vollenbroek-hutten, M.M.R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Literature suggests that positive emotions positively influence physiological parameters but their relation to functioning in the daily life of older adults living independently remains unclear. The present work aims to investigate the relation between positive emotions and functional

  12. Exploring the relation between positive emotions and the functional status of older adults living independently: a systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabrita, M.; Lamers, S.M.A.; Trompetter, H.R.; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam Marie Rosé

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Literature suggests that positive emotions positively influence physiological parameters but their relation to functioning in the daily life of older adults living independently remains unclear. The present work aims to investigate the relation between positive emotions and functional

  13. A comparison of miniplates and teeth for orthodontic anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Soojin; Herring, Susan; Wang, I-Chung; Alcalde, Rafael; Mak, Victor; Fu, Isaac; Huang, Greg

    2008-02-01

    In this study, we investigated orthodontic space closure of premolar extraction sites with miniplate anchorage compared with conventional tooth-borne anchorage in 8 adult beagle dogs. A split-mouth design with all 4 quadrants was used. Four premolars were extracted to create adequate space for premolar retraction. Retraction was performed with nickel-titanium coil springs. In the control side, the premolars were retracted against other teeth, and, in the experimental side, the premolars were retracted against miniplates. Each quadrant received 2 additional bone screws as bone markers for cephalometric superimposition. Lateral cephalograms were taken at initial activation, 6 weeks, and 12 weeks. Three parameters were measured and evaluated: linear space closure, angular tipping, and amount of anchorage slippage. Overall, the miniplates had a high success rate of 93.8% (15 of 16) during the 12-week period of orthodontic loading. Similar amounts of space closure were observed in the control and the experimental sites. A statistically significant difference was observed for the amounts of tipping and anchorage slippage of miniplates vs tooth-borne anchorage. In the maxilla, the mean miniplate tipping was 0.1 degrees , whereas mean tipping of the anchor teeth was 9 degrees (P = .01). In the mandible, the miniplates tipped an average of 3.4 degrees , whereas the mean tipping of the anchor teeth was 13.3 degrees (P = .02). In the maxilla, the miniplates had 1% anchorage loss, whereas the tooth anchors had 37.1% anchorage loss (P = .001). In the mandible, the miniplates had a mean anchorage loss of 4.5%, whereas the tooth anchors had a mean anchorage loss of 31.1% (P = .001). Although the total amount of space closure was similar in both the control and the experimental groups, the mechanism of space closure was different. In the control group, slippage of the anchor teeth accounted for approximately a third of the space closure. In the experimental group, the miniplates

  14. Dietary sodium loading impairs microvascular function independent of blood pressure in humans: role of oxidative stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greaney, Jody L; DuPont, Jennifer J; Lennon-Edwards, Shannon L; Sanders, Paul W; Edwards, David G; Farquhar, William B

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies have reported dietary salt-induced reductions in vascular function independent of increases in blood pressure (BP). The purpose of this study was to determine if short-term dietary sodium loading impairs cutaneous microvascular function in normotensive adults with salt resistance. Following a control run-in diet, 12 normotensive adults (31 ± 2 years) were randomized to a 7 day low-sodium (LS; 20 mmol day−1) and 7 day high-sodium (HS; 350 mmol day−1) diet (controlled feeding study). Salt resistance, defined as a ≤5 mmHg change in 24 h mean BP determined while on the LS and HS diets, was confirmed in all subjects undergoing study (LS: 84 ± 1 mmHg vs. HS: 85 ± 2 mmHg; P > 0.05). On the last day of each diet, subjects were instrumented with two microdialysis fibres for the local delivery of Ringer solution and 20 mm ascorbic acid (AA). Laser Doppler flowmetry was used to measure red blood cell flux during local heating-induced vasodilatation (42°C). After the established plateau, 10 mm l-NAME was perfused to quantify NO-dependent vasodilatation. All data were expressed as a percentage of maximal cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) at each site (28 mm sodium nitroprusside; 43°C). Sodium excretion increased during the HS diet (P sodium loading impairs cutaneous microvascular function independent of BP in normotensive adults and suggest a role for oxidative stress. PMID:22907057

  15. Telomere-independent functions of telomerase in nuclei, cytoplasm, and mitochondria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiodi, Ilaria; Mondello, Chiara

    2012-01-01

    Telomerase canonical activity at telomeres prevents telomere shortening, allowing chromosome stability and cellular proliferation. To perform this task, the catalytic subunit (telomerase reverse transcriptase, TERT) of the enzyme works as a reverse transcriptase together with the telomerase RNA component (TERC), adding telomeric repeats to DNA molecule ends. Growing evidence indicates that, besides the telomeric-DNA synthesis activity, TERT has additional functions in tumor development and is involved in many different biological processes, among which cellular proliferation, gene expression regulation, and mitochondrial functionality. TERT has been shown to act independently of TERC in the Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathway, regulating the expression of Wnt target genes, which play a role in development and tumorigenesis. Moreover, TERT RNA-dependent RNA polymerase activity has been found, leading to the genesis of double-stranded RNAs that act as precursor of silencing RNAs. In mitochondria, a TERT TERC-independent reverse transcriptase activity has been described that could play a role in the protection of mitochondrial integrity. In this review, we will discuss some of the extra-telomeric functions of telomerase.

  16. CD160-Associated CD8 T-Cell Functional Impairment Is Independent of PD-1 Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viganò, Selena; Banga, Riddhima; Bellanger, Florence; Pellaton, Céline; Farina, Alex; Comte, Denis; Harari, Alexandre; Perreau, Matthieu

    2014-01-01

    Expression of co-inhibitory molecules is generally associated with T-cell dysfunction in chronic viral infections such as HIV or HCV. However, their relative contribution in the T-cell impairment remains unclear. In the present study, we have evaluated the impact of the expression of co-inhibitory molecules such as 2B4, PD-1 and CD160 on the functions of CD8 T-cells specific to influenza, EBV and CMV. We show that CD8 T-cell populations expressing CD160, but not PD-1, had reduced proliferation capacity and perforin expression, thus indicating that the functional impairment in CD160+ CD8 T cells may be independent of PD-1 expression. The blockade of CD160/CD160-ligand interaction restored CD8 T-cell proliferation capacity, and the extent of restoration directly correlated with the ex vivo proportion of CD160+ CD8 T cells suggesting that CD160 negatively regulates TCR-mediated signaling. Furthermore, CD160 expression was not up-regulated upon T-cell activation or proliferation as compared to PD-1. Taken together, these results provide evidence that CD160-associated CD8 T-cell functional impairment is independent of PD-1 expression. PMID:25255144

  17. Child Functional Independence and Maternal Psychosocial Stress as Risk Factors Threatening Adaptation in Mothers of Physically or Sensorially Handicapped Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallander, Jan L; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated contribution of child functional independence and maternal psychosocial stress to adaptation of 119 mothers of physically or sensorially handicapped children between the ages of 2 and 18. Child functional independence did not uniquely explain variation in mothers' adaptation. Maternal stress was uniquely associated with maternal…

  18. Stability of miniplates and miniscrews used for orthodontic anchorage: experience with 492 temporary anchorage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Jane; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Lin, Hsing-Yi; Lai, Eddie Hsian-Hua; Hung, Hsin-Chia; Yao, Chung-Chen Jane

    2008-11-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate systematically the potential factors that influence failure rates of temporary anchorage devices (TADs) used for orthodontic anchorage. Data on 492 TADs (miniplates, pre-drilling miniscrews, and self-drilling miniscrews) in 194 patients were collected. The factors related to TAD failure were evaluated using univariate analysis and multivariate forward stepwise logistic regression analysis. There were no significant differences in failure rates among the TADs for the following variables: gender, type of malocclusion, facial divergency, implantation site (buccal, lingual, or crestal/midpalatal), location (anterior or posterior), method of force application (power chain or Ni-Ti coil spring), arch (upper or lower), type of soft tissue (attached gingiva or removable mucosa), and most of the cephalometric measurements that reflect dento-cranio-facial characteristics. An increased failure rate was noted for the self-drilling miniscrew type of TAD, TADs used for tooth uprighting, those inserted on bone with lower density, those associated with local inflammation of the surrounding soft tissue, those loaded within 3 weeks after insertion, and those placed in patients with greater mandibular retrusion. Failure rates of the self-drilling miniscrews installed by an oral surgeon and by an orthodontist did not differ significantly. Inflammation of soft tissue surrounding a TAD and early loading within 3 weeks after insertion were the most significant factors predicting TAD failure. Both orthodontists and oral surgeons who install orthodontic TADs must undergo sufficient training to achieve clinical excellence.

  19. Oral hygiene caregivers' educational programme improves oral health conditions in institutionalised independent and functional elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portella, Fernando F; Rocha, Aline W; Haddad, Daniel C; Fortes, Carmem B B; Hugo, Fernando N; Padilha, Dalva M P; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-03-01

    The goal of this study was to determine the impact of an oral hygiene education programme for caregivers on the oral health of institutionalised elderly and to examine the effect of disability and low muscle strength on programme outcomes. The subjects of this study were geriatric patients (n = 80) from a nursing home. Katz Index for activities of daily living, handgrip strength and mucosal-plaque score (MPS) was evaluated at baseline and 1 year after intervention. The intervention consisted of an educational programme and specific guidelines for caregivers (to perform oral hygiene for dependent elderly and to supervise the independent elderly during oral hygiene practices). Differences on MPS were evaluated using a paired-sample t-test. A stratified analysis was carried out to identify differences in response to the programme according to the Katz Index and handgrip strength of elderly. The MPS was significantly reduced (p = 0.001) at follow-up; however, a separate analysis showed that only the independent elderly (p = 0.002) and those with normal muscle strength (p = 0.006) showed a reduction in MPS during the follow-up examination. The oral hygiene education programme for caregivers resulted in a positive impact on oral hygiene of the independent and functional elderly. © 2013 The Gerodontology Society and John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  20. Independent functional connectivity networks underpin food and monetary reward sensitivity in excess weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-Román, Juan; Fornito, Alex; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Vilar-López, Raquel; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    Overvaluation of palatable food is a primary driver of obesity, and is associated with brain regions of the reward system. However, it remains unclear if this network is specialized in food reward, or generally involved in reward processing. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to characterize functional connectivity during processing of food and monetary rewards. Thirty-nine adults with excess weight and 37 adults with normal weight performed the Willingness to Pay for Food task and the Monetary Incentive Delay task in the fMRI scanner. A data-driven graph approach was applied to compare whole-brain, task-related functional connectivity between groups. Excess weight was associated with decreased functional connectivity during the processing of food rewards in a network involving primarily frontal and striatal areas, and increased functional connectivity during the processing of monetary rewards in a network involving principally frontal and parietal areas. These two networks were topologically and anatomically distinct, and were independently associated with BMI. The processing of food and monetary rewards involve segregated neural networks, and both are altered in individuals with excess weight. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on Root Anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, F.; Osman, N.; Hashim, R.; Khalilnejad, A.

    2012-04-01

    In more recent times, the roles played by vegetation in some specific geotechnical processes have been recognized. Vegetation may affect slope stability in many ways. The stability of slopes is governed by the load, which is the driving force that causes failure, and the resistance, which is the strength of the soil-root system. The weight of trees growing on a slope adds to the load but the roots of trees serve as a soil reinforcement and increase the resistance. In order to ensure that the weight of the trees on the slope help to enhance its stability it is required that they are planted down-slope of the neutral point. Maximum contribution is produced if the trees are located at the slope toe. Considering a typical slip circle, at this location the direction of shear force acting on the trees may be considered as close-to-vertical for the purpose of analysis. In this study, 3D numerical simulations of root anchorage have been performed to study the mechanism and the factors influencing the pull out capacity of tree roots. The investigation was performed using ABACUS finite element program. Field pull-out tests were also carried out on Melastoma malabathricum which been shown to be very suitable to be grown on slope, and the results are compared with numerical simulations. Parametric studies were also done to study the effects of factors such as root pattern, angle of inclination as well as soil properties. The results show that the 3D finite element analyses are able to approximately simulate the experimental tests. The results of the field tests, simulations and the parametric studies will be presented and discussed in more details in this paper.

  2. Crossed versus conventional pseudophakic monovision: Patient satisfaction, visual function, and spectacle independence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuxiang; Sugar, Alan; Arbisser, Lisa; Jacobsen, Gordon; Artico, Jessica

    2015-09-01

    To compare patient satisfaction, visual function, and spectacle independence in patients with crossed or conventional pseudophakic monovision. Department of Ophthalmology, Henry Ford Health System, Taylor, Michigan, USA. Retrospective comparative cohort study. Cataract surgery patient records from June 1999 to December 2013 were reviewed. Crossed monovision patients were identified. Control conventional monovision cases were matched for age, sex, general health, personal lifestyle/main hobbies, preoperative refractive status, postoperative refractive status, uncorrected distance visual acuity, uncorrected near visual acuity, astigmatism level, and anisometropia level. A survey was mailed to participants, and results were independently analyzed. The review comprised 7311 patient records. Forty-four crossed monovision patients were identified, and 30 of them were enrolled. Thirty matched pairs were surveyed. The mean anisometropia was 1.19 diopters (D) in the conventional and 1.12 D in the crossed monovision groups. No significant difference was identified for eye-hand coordination, eye-foot coordination, or sport-related depth perception, but satisfaction was slightly better in the crossed monovision group (P = .028). No significant difference was identified for 6 of 8 spectacle independence measures, but nighttime driving was a little easier for the crossed monovision group (P = .025). Seventy-seven percent of crossed and 50% of conventional monovision patients did not use glasses for intermediate distance activities (P = .037). Crossed pseudophakic monovision appears to work as well as conventional pseudophakic monovision in terms of patient satisfaction and spectacle independence in patients with a mild degree of anisometropic pseudophakia. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Independent prognostic value of left ventricular mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pareek, Manan; Nielsen, Mette Lundgren; Leósdóttir, Margrét

    2016-01-01

    (LVMI), LV hypertrophy (LVH), averaged E/é, and diastolic function graded as normal, grade 1, or grade 2 + 3 diastolic dysfunction) to a prediction model with traditional cardiovascular (CV) risk factors was assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression. Cardiac events were defined as myocardial......OBJECTIVE: To explore the independent prognostic value of left ventricular (LV) mass, diastolic function, and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) for the prediction of incident cardiac events in a random population sample. DESIGN AND METHOD: 415 women and 999 men aged 56-79 years, included between 2002...... infarction, coronary revascularization, or heart failure. RESULTS: 37 % were classified as NFG, 26 % as IFG, and 37 % as DM. Median LVMI and E/é were 86 [74-102] g/m and 8 [6-10], respectively. Over a median follow-up time of 7.8 [7.2-8.7] years, 181 events occurred. The simple prediction model included age...

  4. Diffusion-weighted ASPECTS as an independent marker for predicting functional outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tei, Hideaki; Uchiyama, Sinichiro; Usui, Toru; Ohara, Kuniko

    2011-04-01

    Whether lesion volume on diffusion-weighted MRI imaging (DWI) can reliably predict functional outcome in acute ischemic stroke is controversial. The aim of our study was to assess whether the Alberta Stroke Program Early CT Score (ASPECTS) on DWI is useful for predicting functional outcome in patients with anterior circulation infarction with a broad range of severities. Three-hundred and fifty patients with first-ever ischemic stroke in the anterior circulation within 24 h of onset were enrolled. We compared background characteristics, vital signs, laboratory data, and MRI findings between favorable (F) and unfavorable (U) outcome groups at 3 months, according to the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). The F and U groups were defined as having a mRS of 0-2 and 3-6, respectively. DWI ASPECTS was scored by DWI obtained 3-24 h after onset. Two-hundred and eighteen patients (62.3%) were classified into the F group and 132 patients (37.7%) into the U group. On univariate analysis, the F group patients were younger, had lower score of the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) at entry (5.7 ± 3.3 vs. 14.2 ± 6.0), male predominance, longer time after onset, lower rate of prior antithrombotic therapy, higher hematocrit and lower fibrinogen than the U group patients. Stroke subtype was different between the two groups, and F group patients had higher DWI ASPECTS score, lower leukoaraiosis and medial temporal atrophy score, and lower rate of early neurological deterioration (END) than the U group patients. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that NIHSS (p < 0.001), prior antithrombotic therapy (p = 0.013), ASPECTS (p = 0.002), and END (p < 0.001) were independent predictors of functional outcome. DWI ASPECTS can be an independent predictor for functional outcome, along with other clinical variables.

  5. Defining ATM-Independent Functions of the Mre11 Complex with a Novel Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Alessia; Nicolas, Laura; Yang-Lott, Katherine; Guryanova, Olga A; Levine, Ross L; Bassing, Craig H; Chaudhuri, Jayanta; Petrini, John H J

    2016-02-01

    The Mre11 complex (Mre11, Rad50, and Nbs1) occupies a central node of the DNA damage response (DDR) network and is required for ATM activation in response to DNA damage. Hypomorphic alleles of MRE11 and NBS1 confer embryonic lethality in ATM-deficient mice, indicating that the complex exerts ATM-independent functions that are essential when ATM is absent. To delineate those functions, a conditional ATM allele (ATM(flox)) was crossed to hypomorphic NBS1 mutants (Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) mice). Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) hematopoietic cells derived by crossing to vav(cre) were viable in vivo. Nbs1(ΔB/ΔB) Atm(-/-) (VAV) mice exhibited a pronounced defect in double-strand break repair and completely penetrant early onset lymphomagenesis. In addition to repair defects observed, fragile site instability was noted, indicating that the Mre11 complex promotes genome stability upon replication stress in vivo. The data suggest combined influences of the Mre11 complex on DNA repair, as well as the responses to DNA damage and DNA replication stress. A novel mouse model was developed, by combining a vav(cre)-inducible ATM knockout mouse with an NBS1 hypomorphic mutation, to analyze ATM-independent functions of the Mre11 complex in vivo. These data show that the DNA repair, rather than DDR signaling functions of the complex, is acutely required in the context of ATM deficiency to suppress genome instability and lymphomagenesis. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  6. Independent value added by diffusion MRI for prediction of cognitive function in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia A Scott

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether white matter microstructure measured by diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI provides independent information about baseline level or change in executive function (EF or memory (MEM in older adults with and without cognitive impairment. Longitudinal data was acquired from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI study from phases GO and 2 (2009–2015. ADNI participants included were diagnosed as cognitively normal (n = 46, early mild cognitive impairment (MCI (n = 48, late MCI (n = 29, and dementia (n = 39 at baseline. We modeled the association between dMRI-based global white matter mean diffusivity (MD and baseline level and change in EF and MEM composite scores, in models controlling for baseline bilateral hippocampal volume, regional cerebral FDG PET metabolism and global cerebral AV45 PET uptake. EF and MEM composite scores were measured at baseline, 6, 12, 24 and 36 months. In the baseline late MCI and dementia groups, greater global MD was associated with lesser baseline EF, but not EF change nor MEM baseline or change. As expected, lesser hippocampal volume and lesser FDG PET metabolism was associated with greater rates of EF and MEM decline. In ADNI-GO/2 participants, white matter integrity provided independent information about current executive function, but was not sensitive to future cognitive change. Since individuals experiencing executive function declines progress to dementia more rapidly than those with only memory impairment, better biomarkers of future executive function decline are needed.

  7. Variation in Functional Independence among Stroke Survivors Having Fatigue and Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaru Muhammad Badaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study evaluated variation in functional independence in activities of daily living (ADL and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL among individuals with poststroke fatigue (PSF and poststroke depression (PSD. Methods. A cross-sectional survey involved 65 consenting poststroke survivors who were purposively recruited from physiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, and Federal Medical Center, Gusau. Participants were assessed for symptoms of PSD with short geriatric depression scale-15, PSF with fatigue severity scale, ADL with Barthel Index and IADL with Nottingham extended ADL scale. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and unpaired t-test with significance level being 0.05. Results. Participants’ age ranged from 58 to 80 years. PSD alone (P=0.002 and both PSF and PSD (P=0.02 were significantly associated with ADL, while PSF alone was not (P=0.233. PSD alone (P=0.001 and both PSF and PSD (P=0.001 significantly negatively affected IADL, while PSF alone had no significant effect (P=0.2. Conclusions. Participants with PSD alone and those with both PSF and PSD had lower functional independence in ADL and IADL.

  8. Measurement of functional independence level and falls-risk in individuals with undiagnosed phenylketonuria.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mazur, Artur

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the level of functional independence in adult patients with previously undiagnosed or untreated phenylketonuria (PKU). The study was conducted among 400 intellectually impaired adult residents of Social Welfare Homes in South-Eastern Poland born prior to the introduction of neonatal PKU screening programs. PKU was screened by filter paper test using tandem mass spectrometry methods, and confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of PKU organic acids in urine. Degree of functional independence included the assessment of activities of daily living (Barthel Index) and measures of balance and gait (Tinetti scale). Eleven individuals with previously untreated PKU were identified whereby eight presented with moderate disability and three with mild disability. Six had a high risk of falls and five had a moderate risk of falls. This study indicates that there is considerable number of undiagnosed PKU patients within the Polish population who require assessment and management in order to reduce the impact of the neurological and neuropsychiatric problems associated with the condition. Appropriate therapy for those with undiagnosed PKU should, in particular, address the risk of falls.

  9. Development of a multidimensional balance scale for use with functionally independent older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Debra J; Lucchese, Nicole; Wiersma, Lenny D

    2006-11-01

    To develop and evaluate the validity and reliability of a multidimensional balance scale-the Fullerton Advanced Balance (FAB) scale-suitable for use with functionally independent older adults. Psychometric evaluation of the scale's content and convergent validity, test-retest and intra- and interrater reliability, and internal rater consistency. Urban community. Forty-six community-residing older adults (mean +/- standard deviation, 75 +/- 6.2 y), with (n = 31) and without identified balance problems (n = 15), participated in the study. Four physical therapists with expertise in the assessment and treatment of balance disorders in older adults also participated in the content validity and/or reliability phases of the study. Not applicable. Spearman rank correlation coefficients for convergent validity, test-retest, intra- and interrater reliability, and homogeneity coefficient values for rater consistency. Test-retest reliability for the total balance scale score was high (rho = .96). Interrater reliability for total score ranged from .94 to .97 whereas intrarater reliability coefficients ranged from .97 to 1.00. Homogeneity (H) coefficients were greater than .90 for 6 of the 10 individual test items and all 10 test items had H coefficients of greater than .75 for both rating sessions. Preliminary results suggest that the FAB scale is a valid and reliable assessment tool that is suitable for use with functionally independent older adults residing in the community.

  10. Variation in Functional Independence among Stroke Survivors Having Fatigue and Depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaru, Umaru Muhammad; Ogwumike, Omoyemi Olubunmi; Adeniyi, Ade Fatai; Olowe, Olajide Olubanji

    2013-01-01

    Objective. This study evaluated variation in functional independence in activities of daily living (ADL) and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) among individuals with poststroke fatigue (PSF) and poststroke depression (PSD). Methods. A cross-sectional survey involved 65 consenting poststroke survivors who were purposively recruited from physiotherapy clinics of the University College Hospital, Ibadan, Adeoyo Maternity Teaching Hospital, Ibadan, and Federal Medical Center, Gusau. Participants were assessed for symptoms of PSD with short geriatric depression scale-15, PSF with fatigue severity scale, ADL with Barthel Index and IADL with Nottingham extended ADL scale. Data analysis was done using Chi-square and unpaired t-test with significance level being 0.05. Results. Participants' age ranged from 58 to 80 years. PSD alone (P = 0.002) and both PSF and PSD (P = 0.02) were significantly associated with ADL, while PSF alone was not (P = 0.233). PSD alone (P = 0.001) and both PSF and PSD (P = 0.001) significantly negatively affected IADL, while PSF alone had no significant effect (P = 0.2). Conclusions. Participants with PSD alone and those with both PSF and PSD had lower functional independence in ADL and IADL.

  11. RNA sequencing analysis to demonstrate Erk dependent and independent functions of Mek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chang; Chen, Haixia; Liu, Lin; Chen, Lingyi

    2016-03-01

    Mek inhibition and Erk knockout (KO) have quite distinct effects on pluripotency maintenance in mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). To test whether there is an Erk-independent function of Mek, RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) is carried out on six samples, WT KH2 ESCs treated with or without PD0325901 (PD) for 48 h (KH2_PD and KH2, respectively), iErk1; Erk KO ESCs cultured in the presence of Dox (P0), 48 and 96 h after Dox withdrawal (P1 and P2, respectively), and iErk1; Erk KO ESCs cultured without Dox for 96 h, and treated with PD in the last 48 h (P2_PD). These RNA-seq data demonstrate that Mek inhibition has quite different effect on the transcriptional profile of mouse ESCs, compared to Erk KO. Moreover, a significant fraction of genes is regulated by Mek inhibition, regardless of the presence or absence of Erk, indicating an Erk-independent function of Mek. RNA-seq data are deposited in Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) datasets under accession number GSE70304.

  12. Use of the Functional Independence Measure in people for whom weaning from mechanical ventilation is difficult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnani, Giulia; Vagheggini, Guido; Panait Vlad, Eugenia; Berrighi, Daniele; Pantani, Luca; Ambrosino, Nicolino

    2011-07-01

    The Functional Independence Measure (FIM) has been proposed as an outcome measure for people receiving pulmonary rehabilitation after an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Objective The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical utility of the FIM after a weaning program in people for whom weaning from mechanical ventilation is difficult. Design This was a retrospective observational study. People who had had a tracheostomy, for whom weaning from mechanical ventilation was difficult, and who were participating in a weaning program (WP group) were retrospectively evaluated. People receiving pulmonary rehabilitation after an acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PR group) were included as a validated control group. The scores on the FIM questionnaire and the Medical Research Council dyspnea scores were assessed at admission to and at discharge from the programs. Admission and discharge data from 56 participants in the WP group and 63 participants in the PR group were compared. At admission, according to the FIM, 5 participants in the WP group (7.7%) were defined as functionally independent, 34 (52.3%) were defined as partially dependent, and 26 (40.0%) were defined as completely dependent. At discharge, the mean FIM global score was significantly improved, from 47.9 (SD=22.8) to 62.6 (SD=30.0). For participants in the WP group, changes in the FIM score were significantly inversely related to the admission Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (R=-.286) and Simplified Acute Physiology (R=-.293) scores and directly related to the admission FIM score (R=.355). At admission, 46 participants in the PR group (67.7%) were defined as functionally independent, 19 (27.9%) were defined as partially dependent, and 3 (4.4%) were defined as completely dependent. After pulmonary rehabilitation, the mean FIM global score was significantly improved, from 97.4 (SD=27.5) to 102.5 (SD=25.7). Limitations The study was not

  13. Poor sleep quality diminishes cognitive functioning independent of depression and anxiety in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benitez, Andreana; Gunstad, John

    2012-01-01

    Sufficient sleep is essential for optimum cognitive and psychological functioning. Diminished sleep quality is associated with depression and anxiety, but the extent to which poor sleep quality uniquely impacts attention and executive functions independent of the effects of the common underlying features of depression and anxiety requires further exploration. Here 67 healthy young adults were given the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, second edition (MMPI-2), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and tests of attention and executive functions. Similar to findings from a previous study with healthy community-based older adults (Nebes, Buysse, Halligan, Houck, & Monk, 2009), participants who reported poor sleep quality on the PSQI endorsed significantly greater scores on MMPI-2 Restructured Clinical scales related to depression and anxiety (Cohen's d = 0.77-1.05). In addition, PSQI component scores indexing poor sleep quality, duration, and medication use were associated with diminished attention and executive functions, even after controlling for emotional reactivity or demoralization (rs = 0.21-0.27). These results add to the concurrent validity of the PSQI, and provide further evidence for subtle cognitive decrements related to insufficient sleep even in healthy young adults. Future extension of these findings is necessary with larger samples and clinical comparison groups, and using objective indices of sleep dysfunction such as polysomnography.

  14. Reduced lung function is independently associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Korean men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwon Chang-Hee

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reduced lung function is associated with incident insulin resistance and diabetes. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between lung function and incident type 2 diabetes in Korean men. Methods This study included 9,220 men (mean age: 41.4 years without type 2 diabetes at baseline who were followed for five years. Subjects were divided into four groups according to baseline forced vital capacity (FVC (% predicted and forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1 (% predicted quartiles. The incidence of type 2 diabetes at follow-up was compared according to FVC and FEV1 quartiles. Results The overall incidence of type 2 diabetes was 2.2%. Reduced lung function was significantly associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes after adjusting for age, BMI, education, smoking, exercise, alcohol, and HOMA-IR. Both FVC and FEV1 were negatively associated with type 2 diabetes (P 1 had a significantly higher odds ratio for type 2 diabetes compared with the highest quartile after adjusting for age and BMI (2.15 [95% CI 1.02-4.57] and 2.19 [95% CI 1.09-4.42]. Conclusions Reduced lung function is independently associated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men.

  15. Pre-hatching embryo-dependent and -independent programming of endometrial function in cattle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Sponchiado

    Full Text Available The bovine pre-implantation embryo secretes bioactive molecules from early development stages, but effects on endometrial function are reported to start only after elongation. Here, we interrogated spatially defined regions of the endometrium transcriptome for responses to a day 7 embryo in vivo. We hypothesize that exposure to an embryo changes the abundance of specific transcripts in the cranial region of the pregnant uterine horn. Endometrium was collected from the uterotubal junction (UTJ, anterior (IA, medial (IM and posterior (IP regions of the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL 7 days after estrus from sham-inseminated (Con or artificially inseminated, confirmed pregnant (Preg cows. Abundance of 86 transcripts was evaluated by qPCR using a microfluidic platform. Abundance of 12 transcripts was modulated in the Preg endometrium, including classical interferon-stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1, MX2 and OAS1Y, prostaglandin biosynthesis genes (PTGES, HPGD and AKR1C4, water channel (AQP4 and a solute transporter (SLC1A4 and this was in the UTJ and IA mainly. Additionally, for 71 transcripts, abundance varied according to region of the reproductive tract. Regulation included downregulation of genes associated with proliferation (IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R and IGF2R and extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP14, MMP19 and MMP2 and upregulation of anti-adhesive genes (MUC1 in the cranial regions of uterine horn. Physical proximity to the embryo provides paracrine regulation of endometrial function. Embryo-independent regulation of the endometrial transcriptome may support subsequent stages of embryo development, such as elongation and implantation. We speculate that successful early embryo-dependent and -independent programming fine-tune endometrial functions that are important for maintenance of pregnancy in cattle.

  16. Pre-hatching embryo-dependent and -independent programming of endometrial function in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sponchiado, Mariana; Gomes, Nathália Souza; Fontes, Patrícia Kubo; Martins, Thiago; Del Collado, Maite; Pastore, Athos de Assumpção; Pugliesi, Guilherme; Nogueira, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia; Binelli, Mario

    2017-01-01

    The bovine pre-implantation embryo secretes bioactive molecules from early development stages, but effects on endometrial function are reported to start only after elongation. Here, we interrogated spatially defined regions of the endometrium transcriptome for responses to a day 7 embryo in vivo. We hypothesize that exposure to an embryo changes the abundance of specific transcripts in the cranial region of the pregnant uterine horn. Endometrium was collected from the uterotubal junction (UTJ), anterior (IA), medial (IM) and posterior (IP) regions of the uterine horn ipsilateral to the CL 7 days after estrus from sham-inseminated (Con) or artificially inseminated, confirmed pregnant (Preg) cows. Abundance of 86 transcripts was evaluated by qPCR using a microfluidic platform. Abundance of 12 transcripts was modulated in the Preg endometrium, including classical interferon-stimulated genes (ISG15, MX1, MX2 and OAS1Y), prostaglandin biosynthesis genes (PTGES, HPGD and AKR1C4), water channel (AQP4) and a solute transporter (SLC1A4) and this was in the UTJ and IA mainly. Additionally, for 71 transcripts, abundance varied according to region of the reproductive tract. Regulation included downregulation of genes associated with proliferation (IGF1, IGF2, IGF1R and IGF2R) and extracellular matrix remodeling (MMP14, MMP19 and MMP2) and upregulation of anti-adhesive genes (MUC1) in the cranial regions of uterine horn. Physical proximity to the embryo provides paracrine regulation of endometrial function. Embryo-independent regulation of the endometrial transcriptome may support subsequent stages of embryo development, such as elongation and implantation. We speculate that successful early embryo-dependent and -independent programming fine-tune endometrial functions that are important for maintenance of pregnancy in cattle.

  17. Independent Component Analysis of Resting-State Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pedophiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantor, J M; Lafaille, S J; Hannah, J; Kucyi, A; Soh, D W; Girard, T A; Mikulis, D J

    2016-10-01

    Neuroimaging and other studies have changed the common view that pedophilia is a result of childhood sexual abuse and instead is a neurologic phenomenon with prenatal origins. Previous research has identified differences in the structural connectivity of the brain in pedophilia. To identify analogous differences in functional connectivity. Functional magnetic resonance images were recorded from three groups of participants while they were at rest: pedophilic men with a history of sexual offenses against children (n = 37) and two control groups: non-pedophilic men who committed non-sexual offenses (n = 28) and non-pedophilic men with no criminal history (n = 39). Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were subjected to independent component analysis to identify known functional networks of the brain, and groups were compared to identify differences in connectivity with those networks (or "components"). The pedophilic group demonstrated wide-ranging increases in functional connectivity with the default mode network compared with controls and regional differences (increases and decreases) with the frontoparietal network. Of these brain regions (total = 23), 20 have been identified by meta-analytic studies to respond to sexually relevant stimuli. Conversely, of the brain areas known to be those that respond to sexual stimuli, nearly all emerged in the present data as significantly different in pedophiles. This study confirms the presence of significant differences in the functional connectivity of the brain in pedophilia consistent with previously reported differences in structural connectivity. The connectivity differences detected here and elsewhere are opposite in direction from those associated with anti-sociality, arguing against anti-sociality and for pedophilia as the source of the neuroanatomic differences detected. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. IL-33 Independently Induces Eosinophilic Pericarditis and Cardiac Dilation: ST2 Improves Cardiac Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abston, Eric D.; Barin, Jobert G.; Cihakova, Daniela; Bucek, Adriana; Coronado, Michael J.; Brandt, Jessica E.; Bedja, Djahida; Kim, Joseph B.; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios; Gabrielson, Kathleen L.; Mitzner, Wayne; Fairweather, DeLisa

    2013-01-01

    Background Interleukin (IL)-33 via its receptor ST2 protects the heart from myocardial infarct and hypertrophy in animal models, but paradoxically increases autoimmune disease. In this study we examined the effect of IL-33 or ST2 administration on autoimmune heart disease. Methods and Results We used pressure volume relationships and isoproterenol challenge to assess the effect of recombinant (r)IL-33 or rST2 (e.g. soluble ST2) administration on the development of autoimmune coxsackievirus (CVB3) myocarditis and dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in male BALB/c mice. rIL-33 treatment significantly increased acute perimyocarditis (p=0.006) and eosinophilia (p=1.3×10−5), impaired cardiac function (maximum ventricular power p=0.0002), and increased ventricular dilation (end diastolic volume p=0.01). rST2 treatment prevented eosinophilia and improved heart function compared to rIL-33 treatment (ejection fraction, p=0.009). Neither treatment altered viral replication. rIL-33 increased IL-4, IL-33, IL-1β and IL-6 levels in the heart during acute myocarditis. To determine whether IL-33 altered cardiac function on its own, we administered rIL-33 to undiseased mice and found that rIL-33 induced eosinophilic pericarditis and adversely affected heart function. We used cytokine knockout mice to determine that this effect was due to IL-33-mediated signaling but not IL-1β or IL-6. Conclusions We show for the first time that IL-33 induces eosinophilic pericarditis while sST2 prevents eosinophilia and improves systolic function, and that IL-33 independently adversely affects heart function via the IL-33 receptor. PMID:22454393

  19. Effectiveness of 3 methods of anchorage reinforcement for maximum anchorage in adolescents: A 3-arm multicenter randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Jonathan; Murray, Alison; Thiruvenkatachari, Badri; Gutierrez, Rodrigo; Speight, Paul; O'Brien, Kevin

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this 3-arm parallel randomized clinical trial was to compare the effectiveness of temporary anchorage devices (TADs), Nance button palatal arches, and headgear for anchorage supplementation in the treatment of patients with malocclusions that required maximum anchorage. This trial was conducted between August 2008 and February 2013 in 2 orthodontic departments in the United Kingdom. The study included 78 patients (ages, 12-18 years; mean age, 14.2 years) who needed maximum anchorage. Eligibility criteria included no active caries, exemplary oral hygiene, and maximum anchorage required. The primary outcome was mesial molar movement during the period in which anchorage supplementation was required. The secondary outcomes were duration of anchorage reinforcement, number of treatment visits, number of casual and failed appointments, total treatment time, dento-occlusal change, and patients' perceptions of the method of anchorage supplementation. Treatment allocation was implemented by contacting via the Internet the randomization center at the University of Nottingham, Clinical Trials Unit. The randomization was based on a computer-generated pseudo-random code with random permuted blocks of randomly varying size. A research assistant who was blinded to the group allocation recorded all data. The patients were randomly allocated to receive anchorage supplementation with TADs, a Nance button on a palatal arch, or headgear. They were all treated with maxillary and mandibular preadjusted edgewise fixed appliances with 0.022-in slot prescription brackets. They were followed until orthodontic treatment was complete. Seventy-eight patients were randomized in a 1:1:1 ratio among the 3 groups. The baseline characteristics were similar in the groups, and they were treated for an average of 27.4 months (SD, 7.1 months); 71 completed orthodontic treatment. The data were analyzed on a per-protocol basis and showed no differences in the effectiveness of anchorage

  20. An interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on finite-order independence of structural difference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Hikita, Shiro

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, we develop an interactive algorithm for identifying multiattribute measurable value functions based on the concept of finite-order independence of structural difference. This concept includes Dyer and Sarin's weak difference independence as special cases. The algorithm developed is composed of four major parts: 1) formulation of the problem 2) assessment of normalized conditional value functions and structural difference functions 3) assessment of corner values 4) assessment of the order of independence of structural difference and selection of the model. A hypothetical numerical example of a trade-off analysis for siting a nuclear power plant is included. (author)

  1. Postoperative delirium: age and low functional reserve as independent risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinho, Cristiana; Cruz, Sofia; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando J

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of postoperative delirium (POD) and the presence of previous conditions related to its development. Prospective observational study. The study was performed in adult patients (n=221) scheduled for elective surgery and admitted to the postanesthesia care unit (PACU). The presence of POD was assessed by the Nursing Delirium Screening Scale at discharge from the PACU and 24hours after surgery. Descriptive analyses were carried out, and statistical comparisons were performed with Mann-Whitney U, χ(2), or Fisher exact test. Logistic regression analysis was used for evaluation of independent determinants of POD. POD was found in 25 patients (11%). Patients who developed POD were older (median age, 69 vs 57years; P<.001); had a higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status score (≥3) (60% vs 19%, respectively, had American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status III/IV; P<.001); and showed higher incidences of ischemic heart disease (24% vs 6%; P=.001), chronic kidney disease (20% vs 5%; P=.005), hypertension (80% vs 45%; P=.001), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (20% vs 6%; P=.009), and low functional reserve (LFR) (24% vs 2%; P<.001). Age (odds ratio, 1.06; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.10; P=.003) and LFR (odds ratio, 8.04; 95% confidence interval, 3.95-32.27; P=.003) were considered independent risk factors for POD. The incidence of POD in the study population (11%) is consistent with that described in the literature (5%-15%). The comorbidities associated with its development were ischemic heart disease, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, LFR, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Age ≥65years and LFR were independent risk factors for POD development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. FRP tendon anchorage in post-tensioned concrete structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Täljsten, Björn; Bennitz, Anders

    2008-01-01

    Strengthening of building structures by the use of various external post-tensioning steel tendon systems, is known to be a very efficient method. However, FRP as material in external post-tensioning projects has been investigated during the last decade. The advantages for this material are the high...... effective Young´s modulus and the high stress capacity in the linear elastic range of the material. The use of external tendons increases the requirements on the anchorage systems. This is in particular important when using un-bonded tendon systems, where the anchorage and deviators are the only force...... transfer points. The demand for high capacity anchorage tendons is fulfilled for steel tendons, but no competitive mechanical anchor has yet been developed for FRP tendon. A new small, reliable and more user friendly anchor has to be developed, before FRP tendons can be utilized with all of its capacity...

  3. Modification of evaluation response spectrum by ductility of equipment anchorage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, I. G.; Jun, Y. S.; Su, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The failure mode of welded anchorage is assumed as brittle in the seismic capacity evaluation of nuclear power plant equipments. But the welded anchorage has some ductile capacity. This limited displacement capacity can cause the reduction of the effective frequency of high frequency equipments and the increase of the inelastic energy absorption capacity due to the nonlinear behavior. In this study, the uniform hazard spectrum for Korean nuclear power plant site was modified using the response spectrum reduction factor developed by EPRI. The spectral acceleration for various damping ratio was determined by the theoretical method based on the random vibration theory. In conclusion, the high frequency components of evaluation response spectra were greatly reduced due to the consideration of welded anchorage ductility. This reduced response spectra can be used for the development of in-structure response spectra used in the seismic capacity evaluation of high frequency equipments

  4. In vivo analysis of Lrig genes reveals redundant and independent functions in the inner ear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Tony; Nishitani, Allison M; Yu, Wei-Ming; Goodrich, Lisa V

    2013-01-01

    Lrig proteins are conserved transmembrane proteins that modulate a variety of signaling pathways from worm to humans. In mammals, there are three family members - Lrig1, Lrig2, and Lrig3--that are defined by closely related extracellular domains with a similar arrangement of leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin domains. However, the intracellular domains show little homology. Lrig1 inhibits EGF signaling through internalization and degradation of ErbB receptors. Although Lrig3 can also bind ErbB receptors in vitro, it is unclear whether Lrig2 and Lrig3 exhibit similar functions to Lrig1. To gain insights into Lrig gene functions in vivo, we compared the expression and function of the Lrigs in the inner ear, which offers a sensitive system for detecting effects on morphogenesis and function. We find that all three family members are expressed in the inner ear throughout development, with Lrig1 and Lrig3 restricted to subsets of cells and Lrig2 expressed more broadly. Lrig1 and Lrig3 overlap prominently in the developing vestibular apparatus and simultaneous removal of both genes disrupts inner ear morphogenesis. This suggests that these two family members act redundantly in the otic epithelium. In contrast, although Lrig1 and Lrig2 are frequently co-expressed, Lrig1(-/-);Lrig2(-/-) double mutant ears show no enhanced structural abnormalities. At later stages, Lrig1 expression is sustained in non-sensory tissues, whereas Lrig2 levels are enhanced in neurons and sensory epithelia. Consistent with these distinct expression patterns, Lrig1 and Lrig2 mutant mice exhibit different forms of impaired auditory responsiveness. Notably, Lrig1(-/-);Lrig2(-/-) double mutant mice display vestibular deficits and suffer from a more severe auditory defect that is accompanied by a cochlear innervation phenotype not present in single mutants. Thus, Lrig genes appear to act both redundantly and independently, with Lrig2 emerging as the most functionally distinct family member.

  5. In vivo analysis of Lrig genes reveals redundant and independent functions in the inner ear.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tony Del Rio

    Full Text Available Lrig proteins are conserved transmembrane proteins that modulate a variety of signaling pathways from worm to humans. In mammals, there are three family members - Lrig1, Lrig2, and Lrig3--that are defined by closely related extracellular domains with a similar arrangement of leucine rich repeats and immunoglobulin domains. However, the intracellular domains show little homology. Lrig1 inhibits EGF signaling through internalization and degradation of ErbB receptors. Although Lrig3 can also bind ErbB receptors in vitro, it is unclear whether Lrig2 and Lrig3 exhibit similar functions to Lrig1. To gain insights into Lrig gene functions in vivo, we compared the expression and function of the Lrigs in the inner ear, which offers a sensitive system for detecting effects on morphogenesis and function. We find that all three family members are expressed in the inner ear throughout development, with Lrig1 and Lrig3 restricted to subsets of cells and Lrig2 expressed more broadly. Lrig1 and Lrig3 overlap prominently in the developing vestibular apparatus and simultaneous removal of both genes disrupts inner ear morphogenesis. This suggests that these two family members act redundantly in the otic epithelium. In contrast, although Lrig1 and Lrig2 are frequently co-expressed, Lrig1(-/-;Lrig2(-/- double mutant ears show no enhanced structural abnormalities. At later stages, Lrig1 expression is sustained in non-sensory tissues, whereas Lrig2 levels are enhanced in neurons and sensory epithelia. Consistent with these distinct expression patterns, Lrig1 and Lrig2 mutant mice exhibit different forms of impaired auditory responsiveness. Notably, Lrig1(-/-;Lrig2(-/- double mutant mice display vestibular deficits and suffer from a more severe auditory defect that is accompanied by a cochlear innervation phenotype not present in single mutants. Thus, Lrig genes appear to act both redundantly and independently, with Lrig2 emerging as the most functionally distinct

  6. Acetylation of pregnane X receptor protein determines selective function independent of ligand activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, Arunima; Pasquel, Danielle; Tyagi, Rakesh Kumar; Mani, Sridhar

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Pregnane X receptor (PXR), a major regulatory protein, is modified by acetylation. → PXR undergoes dynamic deacetylation upon ligand-mediated activation. → SIRT1 partially mediates PXR deacetylation. → PXR deacetylation per se induces lipogenesis mimicking ligand-mediated activation. -- Abstract: Pregnane X receptor (PXR), like other members of its class of nuclear receptors, undergoes post-translational modification [PTM] (e.g., phosphorylation). However, it is unknown if acetylation (a major and common form of protein PTM) is observed on PXR and, if it is, whether it is of functional consequence. PXR has recently emerged as an important regulatory protein with multiple ligand-dependent functions. In the present work we show that PXR is indeed acetylated in vivo. SIRT1 (Sirtuin 1), a NAD-dependent class III histone deacetylase and a member of the sirtuin family of proteins, partially mediates deacetylation of PXR. Most importantly, the acetylation status of PXR regulates its selective function independent of ligand activation.

  7. Spectral correlation functions of the sum of two independent complex Wishart matrices with unequal covariances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akemann, Gernot; Checinski, Tomasz; Kieburg, Mario

    2016-01-01

    We compute the spectral statistics of the sum H of two independent complex Wishart matrices, each of which is correlated with a different covariance matrix. Random matrix theory enjoys many applications including sums and products of random matrices. Typically ensembles with correlations among the matrix elements are much more difficult to solve. Using a combination of supersymmetry, superbosonisation and bi-orthogonal functions we are able to determine all spectral k -point density correlation functions of H for arbitrary matrix size N . In the half-degenerate case, when one of the covariance matrices is proportional to the identity, the recent results by Kumar for the joint eigenvalue distribution of H serve as our starting point. In this case the ensemble has a bi-orthogonal structure and we explicitly determine its kernel, providing its exact solution for finite N . The kernel follows from computing the expectation value of a single characteristic polynomial. In the general non-degenerate case the generating function for the k -point resolvent is determined from a supersymmetric evaluation of the expectation value of k ratios of characteristic polynomials. Numerical simulations illustrate our findings for the spectral density at finite N and we also give indications how to do the asymptotic large- N analysis. (paper)

  8. Some Convex Functions Based Measures of Independence and Their Application to Strange Attractor Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuyuki Aihara

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The classical information-theoretic measures such as the entropy and the mutual information (MI are widely applicable to many areas in science and engineering. Csiszar generalized the entropy and the MI by using the convex functions. Recently, we proposed the grid occupancy (GO and the quasientropy (QE as measures of independence. The QE explicitly includes a convex function in its definition, while the expectation of GO is a subclass of QE. In this paper, we study the effect of different convex functions on GO, QE, and Csiszar’s generalized mutual information (GMI. A quality factor (QF is proposed to quantify the sharpness of their minima. Using the QF, it is shown that these measures can have sharper minima than the classical MI. Besides, a recursive algorithm for computing GMI, which is a generalization of Fraser and Swinney’s algorithm for computing MI, is proposed. Moreover, we apply GO, QE, and GMI to chaotic time series analysis. It is shown that these measures are good criteria for determining the optimum delay in strange attractor reconstruction.

  9. Independent component analysis of high-resolution imaging data identifies distinct functional domains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reidl, Juergen; Starke, Jens; Omer, David

    2007-01-01

    . Here we demonstrate that principal component analysis (PCA) followed by spatial independent component analysis (sICA), can be exploited to reduce the dimensionality of data sets recorded in the olfactory bulb and the somatosensory cortex of mice as well as the visual cortex of monkeys, without loosing...... latencies can be identified. This is shown for recordings of olfactory receptor neuron input measured with a calcium sensitive axon tracer and for network dynamics measured with the voltage sensitive dye RH 1838. In the somatosensory cortex, barrels responding to the stimulation of single whiskers can...... be automatically detected. In the visual cortex orientation columns can be extracted. In all cases artifacts due to movement, heartbeat or respiration were separated from the functional signal by sICA and could be removed from the data set. sICA is therefore a powerful technique for data compression, unbiased...

  10. Differential roles for Fos and Jun in DNA-binding: redox-dependent and independent functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, L; Forrest, D; Curran, T

    1993-01-01

    The Fos and Jun family of transcription factors contain an invariant sequence motif lysine-cysteine-arginine (KCR) in the highly conserved DNA-binding region. Reduction of the cysteine residue is necessary to facilitate DNA-binding. Here, we examined the potential dual roles of the flanking lysine and arginine residues in influencing the redox reactivity of the cysteine and the DNA-binding activity of Fos and Jun. Two sets of Fos and Jun mutants were generated: the KCR and KSR series representing proteins capable of redox-dependent and redox-independent DNA-binding activity, respectively. Mutation of the lysine in Fos-Jun heterodimers had no obvious effect on the redox reactivity of the cysteine, suggesting that lysine is not essential in this respect. However, mutation of the arginine but not lysine, in both the KCR and the KSR series abolished DNA-binding activity. Thus, the arginine but not the lysine residue in the KCR motif is critical for both redox-dependent and redox-independent functions in DNA-binding. Surprisingly, the triple substitution, ISI, exhibited high levels of DNA-binding activity. This demonstrates that the effects of amino acid substitutions can be highly dependent on context and that non-basic amino acids can function efficiently in DNA-binding. Analysis of combinations of wild-type and mutant Fos and Jun proteins indicated that Fos was dominant in dictating the DNA-binding ability of Fos-Jun heterodimers. This suggests that the lysine and arginine residues in the KCR region of Fos are not equivalent to those in Jun and that they interact with DNA differently. Images PMID:8290340

  11. Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Zafrullah Arifin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of the Functional Independence Measure Value of Cervical Spine Injury Patients with Conservative Management. Cervical spine injury is one of the most common spinal cord injuries in trauma patients. From 100,000 spinal cord injury cases reported in the United States of America (2008, sixty seven percent involve cervical spine injury. American Spinal Cord Injury Association (ASIA impairment score is used as an initial assessment but not enough attention prognostic outcome of these patients was paid to. The objective of this study is to analyze the value of functional independence measure (FIM cervical spine injury patients with conservative management and its correlation with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma, cervical abnormalities, type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score. A prospective cohort study was performed to all patients with cervical spine injury treated inNeurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung that fullfiled the inclusion criteria. The subjects were classified based on age, sex, single/multiple trauma, acute /chronic, cervical abnormalities, complete/incomplete lesion and ASIA impairment score. The FIM examination was performed in Outpatient clinic of Neurosurgery. T-test and chi-square test was done to analyze the data. There were 17 cervical spine injury patients treated in Neurosurgery Department of Dr. Hasan Sadikin Hospital during April 2009–April 2010. The average FIM value of cervical spine injury in those patients is 4+ 1.63 by cohort prospective study. There were no correlation between FIM value with age, sex, type of trauma, onset of trauma and cervical abnormalities. Significant correlations were found between FIM value with type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score in cervical spine patients. Type of cervical spine lesion and ASIA impairment score have significant correlation with FIM value of patients in 6 months after cervical injury.

  12. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hanchen; Alkhalifah, Tariq

    2018-03-01

    At the heart of micro-seismic event measurements is the task to estimate the location of the source micro-seismic events, as well as their ignition times. The accuracy of locating the sources is highly dependent on the velocity model. On the other hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI) to locate and image micro-seismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. However, full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events faces incredible nonlinearity due to the unknown source locations (space) and functions (time). We developed a source function independent full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events to invert for the source image, source function and the velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with these observed and modeled to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. The extended image for the source wavelet in Z axis is extracted to check the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model. Also, angle gathers is calculated to assess the quality of the long wavelength component of the velocity model. By inverting for the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model simultaneously, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity for synthetic examples used here, like those corresponding to the Marmousi model and the SEG/EAGE overthrust model.

  13. Allele- and Tir-independent functions of intimin in diverse animal infection models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily M Mallick

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Upon binding to intestinal epithelial cells, enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, and Citrobacter rodentium trigger formation of actin pedestals beneath bound bacteria. Pedestal formation has been associated with enhanced colonization, and requires intimin, an adhesin that binds to the bacterial effector Tir, which is translocated to the host cell membrane and promotes bacterial adherence and pedestal formation. Intimin has been suggested to also promote cell adhesion by binding one or more host receptors, and allelic differences in intimin have been associated with differences in tissue and host specificity. We assessed the function of EHEC, EPEC, or C. rodentium intimin, or a set of intimin derivatives with varying Tir-binding abilities in animal models of infection. We found that EPEC and EHEC intimin were functionally indistinguishable during infection of gnotobiotic piglets by EHEC, and that EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium intimin were functionally indistinguishable during infection of C57BL/6 mice by C. rodentium. A derivative of EHEC intimin that bound Tir but did not promote robust pedestal formation on cultured cells was unable to promote C. rodentium colonization of conventional mice, indicating that the ability to trigger actin assembly, not simply to bind Tir, is required for intimin-mediated intestinal colonization. Interestingly, streptomycin pre-treatment of mice eliminated the requirement for Tir but not intimin during colonization, and intimin derivatives that were defective in Tir-binding still promoted colonization of these mice. These results indicate that EPEC, EHEC, and C. rodentium are functionally interchangeable during infection of gnotobiotic piglets or conventional C57BL/6 mice, and that whereas the ability to trigger Tir-mediated pedestal formation is essential for colonization of conventional mice, intimin provides a Tir-independent activity during colonization of streptomycin pre

  14. Deficient dopamine D2 receptor function causes renal inflammation independently of high blood pressure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanrong Zhang

    Full Text Available Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2 receptor gene (DRD2 are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2-/- have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2 receptor (D(2R function increases vulnerability to renal inflammation independently of blood pressure, is an immediate cause of renal injury, and contributes to the subsequent development of hypertension. In D(2-/- mice, treatment with apocynin normalized blood pressure and decreased oxidative stress, but did not affect the expression of inflammatory factors. In mouse RPTCs Drd2 silencing increased the expression of TNFα and MCP-1, while treatment with a D(2R agonist abolished the angiotensin II-induced increase in TNF-α and MCP-1. In uni-nephrectomized wild-type mice, selective Drd2 silencing by subcapsular infusion of Drd2 siRNA into the remaining kidney produced the same increase in renal cytokines/chemokines that occurs after Drd2 deletion, increased the expression of markers of renal injury, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, in mice with two intact kidneys, short-term Drd2 silencing in one kidney, leaving the other kidney undisturbed, induced inflammatory factors and markers of renal injury in the treated kidney without increasing blood pressure. Our results demonstrate that the impact of decreased D(2R function on renal inflammation is a primary effect, not necessarily associated with enhanced oxidant activity, or blood pressure; renal damage is the cause, not the result, of hypertension. Deficient renal D(2R function may be of clinical relevance since common polymorphisms of the human DRD2 gene result in decreased D(2R expression and function.

  15. Deficient dopamine D2 receptor function causes renal inflammation independently of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanrong; Cuevas, Santiago; Asico, Laureano D; Escano, Crisanto; Yang, Yu; Pascua, Annabelle M; Wang, Xiaoyan; Jones, John E; Grandy, David; Eisner, Gilbert; Jose, Pedro A; Armando, Ines

    2012-01-01

    Renal dopamine receptors participate in the regulation of blood pressure. Genetic factors, including polymorphisms of the dopamine D(2) receptor gene (DRD2) are associated with essential hypertension, but the mechanisms of their contribution are incompletely understood. Mice lacking Drd2 (D(2)-/-) have elevated blood pressure, increased renal expression of inflammatory factors, and renal injury. We tested the hypothesis that decreased dopamine D(2) receptor (D(2)R) function increases vulnerability to renal inflammation independently of blood pressure, is an immediate cause of renal injury, and contributes to the subsequent development of hypertension. In D(2)-/- mice, treatment with apocynin normalized blood pressure and decreased oxidative stress, but did not affect the expression of inflammatory factors. In mouse RPTCs Drd2 silencing increased the expression of TNFα and MCP-1, while treatment with a D(2)R agonist abolished the angiotensin II-induced increase in TNF-α and MCP-1. In uni-nephrectomized wild-type mice, selective Drd2 silencing by subcapsular infusion of Drd2 siRNA into the remaining kidney produced the same increase in renal cytokines/chemokines that occurs after Drd2 deletion, increased the expression of markers of renal injury, and increased blood pressure. Moreover, in mice with two intact kidneys, short-term Drd2 silencing in one kidney, leaving the other kidney undisturbed, induced inflammatory factors and markers of renal injury in the treated kidney without increasing blood pressure. Our results demonstrate that the impact of decreased D(2)R function on renal inflammation is a primary effect, not necessarily associated with enhanced oxidant activity, or blood pressure; renal damage is the cause, not the result, of hypertension. Deficient renal D(2)R function may be of clinical relevance since common polymorphisms of the human DRD2 gene result in decreased D(2)R expression and function.

  16. Micro-seismic imaging using a source function independent full waveform inversion method

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Hanchen

    2018-03-26

    At the heart of micro-seismic event measurements is the task to estimate the location of the source micro-seismic events, as well as their ignition times. The accuracy of locating the sources is highly dependent on the velocity model. On the other hand, the conventional micro-seismic source locating methods require, in many cases manual picking of traveltime arrivals, which do not only lead to manual effort and human interaction, but also prone to errors. Using full waveform inversion (FWI) to locate and image micro-seismic events allows for an automatic process (free of picking) that utilizes the full wavefield. However, full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events faces incredible nonlinearity due to the unknown source locations (space) and functions (time). We developed a source function independent full waveform inversion of micro-seismic events to invert for the source image, source function and the velocity model. It is based on convolving reference traces with these observed and modeled to mitigate the effect of an unknown source ignition time. The adjoint-state method is used to derive the gradient for the source image, source function and velocity updates. The extended image for the source wavelet in Z axis is extracted to check the accuracy of the inverted source image and velocity model. Also, angle gathers is calculated to assess the quality of the long wavelength component of the velocity model. By inverting for the source image, source wavelet and the velocity model simultaneously, the proposed method produces good estimates of the source location, ignition time and the background velocity for synthetic examples used here, like those corresponding to the Marmousi model and the SEG/EAGE overthrust model.

  17. The Impact of Fear of Falling on Functional Independence Among Older Adults Receiving Home Health Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine A. Lawson OTR, LMSSW, PhD

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are the fifth leading cause of death for adults aged 65 years and older. Several intrinsic and extrinsic fall risk factors have been identified, butthere is less understanding of the impact of a fear of falling on falls. Seventy percent of recent fallers and 40% percent of non-fallers report a fear of falling. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls, as well as the impact on the functional independence of community-dwelling older adults receiving home health services. Methods: The participants completed the Falls Efficacy Scale, the Modified Timed Up and Go Test, self- reported fear of falling, and the KATZ ADL-staircase. The participants were primarily Hispanic females. Results: There was not a significant correlation between a fear of falling and a history of falls. Only participants' age, gender, and the number of medical diagnoses were predictive of past falls. There was a moderate correlation between impaired functional mobility and dependence with activities of daily living (ADL. Additionally, a fear of falling was associated with dependence to perform ADLs as measured objectively. Conclusion: Future studies need to examine the effectiveness of interventions that include dual-task challenges during therapeutic interventions and ADL retraining to reduce fall risk among older adults.

  18. The independent and interacting effects of hedonic hunger and executive function on binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manasse, Stephanie M; Espel, Hallie M; Forman, Evan M; Ruocco, Anthony C; Juarascio, Adrienne S; Butryn, Meghan L; Zhang, Fengqing; Lowe, Michael R

    2015-06-01

    Poor executive function (EF; pre-frontal cognitive control processes governing goal-directed behavior) and elevated hedonic hunger (i.e., preoccupation with palatable foods in the absence of physiological hunger) are theoretical risk and maintenance factors for binge eating (BE) distinct from general obesity. Recent theoretical models posit that dysregulated behavior such as BE may result from a combination of elevated appetitive drive (e.g., hedonic hunger) and decreased EF (e.g., inhibitory control and delayed discounting). The present study sought to test this model in distinguishing BE from general obesity by examining the independent and interactive associations of EF and hedonic hunger with BE group status (i.e., odds of categorization in BE group versus non-BE group). Treatment-seeking overweight and obese women with BE (n = 31) and without BE (OW group; n = 43) were assessed on measures of hedonic hunger and EF (inhibitory control and delay discounting). Elevated hedonic hunger increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group, regardless of EF. When hedonic hunger was low, poor EF increased the likelihood of categorization in the BE group. Results indicate that the interplay of increased appetitive drives and decreased cognitive function may distinguish BE from overweight/obesity. Future longitudinal investigations of the combinatory effect of hedonic hunger and EF in increasing risk for developing BE are warranted, and may inform future treatment development to target these factors. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A prospective comparative study between differential moments and miniscrews in anchorage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoody, Amirparviz R; Posada, Laura; Utreja, Achint; Janakiraman, Nandakumar; Neace, William P; Uribe, Flavio; Nanda, Ravindra

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure the efficacy of anchorage control between differential moments mechanics and temporary anchorage devices in a clinical trial. Forty-six patients requiring extraction of maxillary first premolars were allocated into 2 treatment groups. The differential moments group (G1) received a nickel titanium (NiTi) intrusion arch and a 150g NiTi closing coil spring for separate canine retraction, followed by a continuous mushroom loop archwire for the retraction of the incisors. The TAD group (G2) received one miniscrew placed between maxillary second premolars and first molars with a 150 g NiTi closing coil spring connecting the miniscrew to a hook placed in the archwire between the lateral incisor and canine. Lateral cephalograms were taken before (T1) and after incisor retraction (T2). The ratio of molar protraction to incisor retraction was calculated and intragroup and intergroup changes in upper lip, maxillary incisor and molar position were analyzed by paired and independent t-tests. Twenty-eight patients were analyzed after 18 patients did not receive the intervention, were lost to follow-up, or discontinued treatment. The ratio of molar protraction to incisor retraction in G1 was 0.44 and in G2 was -0.11, which was significantly different. There was a statistically significant change in upper lip from T1 to T2 but no difference between the two groups. Moreover, there was a significant distal molar tipping and lingual incisor tipping in G2. There is a significant difference in the amount of anchorage control using differential moments mechanics compared to TADs. Although statistically significant retraction of upper lip was observed in both groups, there was no significant difference between the two groups.

  20. 77 FR 43514 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-25

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, and adding an offshore anchorage in Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point... rulemaking (NPRM) entitled ``Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI,'' in the...

  1. Obsessive compulsive symptoms are associated with better functioning independently of cognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontis, Dimitrios; Theochari, Eirini; Nikolakopoulou, Mary; Andreopoulou, Angeliki; Vassos, Dimitrios; Grigoriou, Vasileios; Vassilouli, Spyridoula; Giannakopoulou, Dimitra; Kouloumbi, Maria; Tsaltas, Eleftheria

    2016-10-01

    Although the relationship of obsessive-compulsive symptoms (OCSs) with both cognition and social functioning (SF) has already been the focus of research in schizophrenia, the moderation of the relationship of OCSs with SF by cognition has not been explored to date. We investigated the association of OCSs with SF and its interaction with cognition in schizophrenia. We recruited 110 schizophrenia patients and assessed OCSs (Yale-Brown Scale), schizophrenia symptoms (Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale), SF (Strauss-Carpenter Scale) and cognition. 51 patients had one obsessive-compulsive symptom or more, whereas 59 patients had no obsessive compulsive-symptom, according to the Yale-Brown Scale. We mainly investigated: a) the predictive effect of OCSs on SF, controlling for cognition, illness duration and symptoms' severity and b) the moderating effect of cognition on the OCSs-SF relationship. The mean score of OCSs for patients having at least one symptom was 13.43 (SD=8.32). Higher OCSs predicted increased SF (B=0.98, t=2.41, df=88, p=0.018). This relationship was driven by the association of compulsions with job functioning (B=0.074, t=2.029, df=88, p=0.046). Patients without OCSs demonstrated worse functioning compared with those having at least one obsessive-compulsive symptom (mean difference=2.496, t=3.732, df=88, pcognition moderates the effect of OCSs on SF. There may be a beneficial effect of OCSs on SF in patients with schizophrenia which is independent of their cognitive performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is elevated in patients with COPD independent of metabolic and cardiovascular function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waschki B

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Benjamin Waschki,1–3 Henrik Watz,2,3 Olaf Holz,4,5 Helgo Magnussen,2,3 Beata Olejnicka,6 Tobias Welte,5,7 Klaus F Rabe,1,3 Sabina Janciauskiene5,7 1Pneumology, LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 2Pulmonary Research Institute at LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 3Airway Research Center North (ARCN, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Grosshansdorf, Germany; 4Fraunhofer Institute for Toxicology and Experimental Medicine, Hannover, Germany; 5Biomedical Research in Endstage and Obstructive Lung Disease Hannover (BREATH, German Center for Lung Research (DZL, Hannover, Germany; 6Department of Medicine, Trelleborg Hospital, Trelleborg, Sweden; 7Department of Respiratory Medicine, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany Introduction: Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1, a major inhibitor of fibrinolysis, is associated with thrombosis, obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and premature aging, which all are coexisting conditions of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The role of PAI-1 in COPD with respect to metabolic and cardiovascular functions is unclear. Methods: In this study, which was nested within a prospective cohort study, the serum levels of PAI-1 were cross-sectionally measured in 74 stable COPD patients (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 18 controls without lung disease. In addition, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, waist circumference, blood pressure, smoking status, high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, adiponectin, ankle–brachial index, N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, and history of comorbidities were also determined. Results: The serum levels of PAI-1 were significantly higher in COPD patients than in controls, independent of a broad spectrum of possible confounders including metabolic and cardiovascular dysfunction. A multivariate regression analysis revealed

  3. Severity of coronary artery disease is an independent risk factor for decline in kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turak, Osman; Afsar, Baris; Siriopol, Dimitrie; Yayla, Cagri; Oksuz, Fatih; Cagli, Kumral; Burlacu, Alexandru; Covic, Adrian; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-09-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) and cardiovascular disease are closely interrelated and the presence of one condition synergistically affects the prognosis of the other, in a negative manner. There are surprisingly very few data on the relationship between baseline coronary artery disease (CAD) severity and subsequent decline in kidney function. We aimed to evaluate for the first time whether baseline coronary artery lesion severity predicts the decline in kidney function. The study population was derived from a series of consecutive patients presenting with stable angina pectoris or angina equivalents, who underwent coronary angiography. SYNTAX score for each patient was calculated to define severity of CAD. Change in kidney function was defined by calculating the rates of change in eGFR. Among the 823 patients included in our study, the mean age was 59.2±10.7years, 78.4% were males, and 32% had diabetes. The mean baseline eGFR was 87.3±24.9ml/min/1.73m(2) and the median Syntax score was 14 (IQR=10-20). The median length of follow-up was 2.75years (IQR=2.42-3.50). The mean yearly change for eGFR in the entire study population was 4.06 (95% CI: 3.59-4.51)ml/min/1.73m(2). A higher Syntax score was associated with a significantly faster decline in eGFR in all (unadjusted and adjusted) models. During the follow-up, 103 patients developed CKD. A higher Syntax score, analyzed both as continuous and categorical variable, was associated with incident CKD in all models. We have demonstrated for the first time that severity of CAD is an independent risk factor for the decline in kidney function. Studies are needed to highlight the potential mechanisms regarding the association between severity of CAD and decline in kidney function. Copyright © 2016 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Mini-implants as provisional anchorage for the replacement of missing anterior teeth: a clinical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurgel, Júlio A; Tavarez, Rudys R; Ursi, Weber J; Neves, Murilo G; Bramante, Fausto S; Pinzan-Vercelino, Célia R M

    2014-10-01

    This clinical report describes an adult patient referred for orthodontic treatment with mini-implants as anchorage to correct the root angulation of maxillary lateral incisors. The purpose of this report was to demonstrate the versatility of mini-implants placed in a vertical direction in esthetic areas. During orthodontic treatment, some aspects must be observed to preserve the interim restoration against the occlusal loads to avoid screw fracture. A fixed appliance was placed to correct the position of the maxillary anterior teeth and to complete the treatment. Acceptable esthetics and function were achieved. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. 77 FR 54493 - Special Anchorage Area; Stockton Springs, ME

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-05

    ... 1625-AA01 Special Anchorage Area; Stockton Springs, ME AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of... Springs, Maine. This proposed action is necessary to facilitate safe navigation in that area and provide... increase the safety of life and property in Stockton Springs, improve the safety of anchored vessels, and...

  6. Application and Curative Effect of Micro-implant Anchorage in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore and analyze the curative effects of micro - implant anchorages in orthodontics. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 65 patients undergoing orthodontic treatment in Department of Stomatology, Binzhou Medical University Hospital, Shandong, China was carried out. Thirty four cases in the treatment ...

  7. Shear and Anchorage Behaviour of Fire Exposed Hollow Core Slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.H.H.

    2004-01-01

    Hollow core (HC) slabs are made of precast concrete with pretensioned strands. These slabs are popular as floor structures in offices and housing. At ambient conditions, the load bearing capacity can be dominated by four different failure modes, i.e. flexure, anchorage, shear compression and shear

  8. Shear and anchorage behaviour of fire exposed hollow core slabs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fellinger, J.

    2005-01-01

    The fire resistance of hollow core slabs is currently assessed considering flexural failure only. However, fire tests show that shear or anchorage failure can also govern the load bearing behaviour. This paper is based on the dissertation by the author1 and discusses existing and new fire tests. It

  9. 75 FR 3641 - Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-22

    ... FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 73 [DA 10-40; MB Docket No. 09-210; RM-11583] Television Broadcasting Services; Anchorage, AK AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule... review Act, see 5 U.S.C. 801(a)(1)(A). List of Subjects in 47 CFR Part 73 Television, Television...

  10. Finite element simulation and testing of ISW CFRP anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Goltermann, Per; Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2013-01-01

    is modelled in the 3D finite Element program ABAQUS, just as digital image correlation (DIC) testing was performed to verify the finite element simulation. Also a new optimized design was produced to ensure that the finite element simulation and anchorage behaviour correlated well. It is seen...

  11. The relationship between multiple joint flexibility and functional performance in independent and physically active elderly women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Joana de Carvalho

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Multi-joint flexibility assessment seems to be more appropriate for analyzing the association between fl exibility and functional fitness, but there is a lack of studies to confi rm this possibility in elderly people. The present study investigated the relationship between a multiple joint fl exibility assessment and the functional performance of 30 independent and physically active elderly women (age=68±1yr. Flexibility was assessed using the Chair Sit-and-Reach Test (CSRT. Functional performance was tested by a combination of three tasks: a Step Length (SL; b Time to Put on Sneakers (TPS; c Climbing Stairs (CS. The association between fl exibility and functional performance was tested by both simple and multiple correlation techniques. Pearson’s correlation was signifi cant for TPS (r = -.37; p ABSTRACT

  12. Retraining of interjoint arm coordination after stroke using robot-assisted time-independent functional training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brokaw, Elizabeth B; Murray, Theresa; Nef, Tobias; Lum, Peter S

    2011-01-01

    We have developed a haptic-based approach for retraining of interjoint coordination following stroke called time-independent functional training (TIFT) and implemented this mode in the ARMin III robotic exoskeleton. The ARMin III robot was developed by Drs. Robert Riener and Tobias Nef at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Zurich (Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule Zurich, or ETH Zurich), in Zurich, Switzerland. In the TIFT mode, the robot maintains arm movements within the proper kinematic trajectory via haptic walls at each joint. These arm movements focus training of interjoint coordination with highly intuitive real-time feedback of performance; arm movements advance within the trajectory only if their movement coordination is correct. In initial testing, 37 nondisabled subjects received a single session of learning of a complex pattern. Subjects were randomized to TIFT or visual demonstration or moved along with the robot as it moved though the pattern (time-dependent [TD] training). We examined visual demonstration to separate the effects of action observation on motor learning from the effects of the two haptic guidance methods. During these training trials, TIFT subjects reduced error and interaction forces between the robot and arm, while TD subject performance did not change. All groups showed significant learning of the trajectory during unassisted recall trials, but we observed no difference in learning between groups, possibly because this learning task is dominated by vision. Further testing in stroke populations is warranted.

  13. Functional pleiotropy and mating system evolution in plants: frequency-independent mating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Crispin Y; Otto, Sarah P

    2012-04-01

    Mutations that alter the morphology of floral displays (e.g., flower size) or plant development can change multiple functions simultaneously, such as pollen export and selfing rate. Given the effect of these various traits on fitness, pleiotropy may alter the evolution of both mating systems and floral displays, two characters with high diversity among angiosperms. The influence of viability selection on mating system evolution has not been studied theoretically. We model plant mating system evolution when a single locus simultaneously affects the selfing rate, pollen export, and viability. We assume frequency-independent mating, so our model characterizes prior selfing. Pleiotropy between increased viability and selfing rate reduces opportunities for the evolution of pure outcrossing, can favor complete selfing despite high inbreeding depression, and notably, can cause the evolution of mixed mating despite very high inbreeding depression. These results highlight the importance of pleiotropy for mating system evolution and suggest that selection by nonpollinating agents may help explain mixed mating, particularly in species with very high inbreeding depression. © 2012 The Author(s). Evolution© 2012 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  14. Pre- and Postintervention Factor Structure of Functional Independence Measure in Patients with Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Saltychev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the factor structure of Functional Independence Measure (FIM® scale amongst people with spinal cord injury (SCI. Methods. This was a retrospective, register-based cohort study on 155 rehabilitants with SCI. FIM was assessed at the beginning and at the end of multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. The internal consistency of the FIM was assessed with Cronbach’s alpha and exploratory factor analysis was employed to approximate the construct structure of FIM. Results. The internal consistency demonstrated high Cronbach’s alpha of 0.95 to 0.96. For both pre- and postintervention assessments, the exploratory factor analysis resulted in 3-factor structures. Except for two items (“walking or using a wheelchair” and “expression”, the structures of the identified three factors remained the same from the beginning to the end of rehabilitation. The loadings of all items were sufficient, exceeding 0.3. Both pre- and postintervention chi-square tests showed significant p values < 0.0001. The “motor” domain was divided into two factors with this 2-factor structure enduring through the intervention period. Conclusions. Amongst rehabilitants with SCI, FIM failed to demonstrate unidimensionality. Instead, it showed a 3-factor structure that fluctuated only little depending on the timing of measurement. Additionally, when measured separately, also motor score was 2-dimensional, not 1-dimensional. Using a total or subscale FIM, scores seem to be unjustified in the studied population.

  15. Association between body mass index and functional independence measure in patients with deconditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin B; Al-Adawi, Samir; Dorvlo, Atsu S S; Burke, David T

    2008-01-01

    To assess the association of body mass index (BMI) with functional independence measure (FIM) score in patients with deconditioning. We also examined whether the association was different for motor and cognitive subscales of the FIM instrument. A retrospective study of 1077 inpatients admitted to the general medicine service for deconditioning at an acute rehabilitation hospital. Patients were classified into underweight (BMI or = 40). Median gain in FIM scores from admission to discharge was highest in obese class I patients (27 points), followed by obese class II patients (26 points). The most gain in FIM scores was accounted for by the motor subscale. Adjusting for age, gender, and length of in-hospital stay, obese class I patients had a 5.8-point (95% confidence limits = 1.2, 7.0) higher gain in FIM score compared with patients with BMI in the normal range. In an acute rehabilitation setting, obese patients had higher gains in FIM scores as compared with normal-range-BMI patients. Most of the improvements in FIM scores were accounted for by the motor subscale, with little or no improvement on the cognitive scale.

  16. UTX and UTY demonstrate histone demethylase-independent function in mouse embryonic development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl B Shpargel

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available UTX (KDM6A and UTY are homologous X and Y chromosome members of the Histone H3 Lysine 27 (H3K27 demethylase gene family. UTX can demethylate H3K27; however, in vitro assays suggest that human UTY has lost enzymatic activity due to sequence divergence. We produced mouse mutations in both Utx and Uty. Homozygous Utx mutant female embryos are mid-gestational lethal with defects in neural tube, yolk sac, and cardiac development. We demonstrate that mouse UTY is devoid of in vivo demethylase activity, so hemizygous X(Utx- Y(+ mutant male embryos should phenocopy homozygous X(Utx- X(Utx- females. However, X(Utx- Y(+ mutant male embryos develop to term; although runted, approximately 25% survive postnatally reaching adulthood. Hemizygous X(+ Y(Uty- mutant males are viable. In contrast, compound hemizygous X(Utx- Y(Uty- males phenocopy homozygous X(Utx- X(Utx- females. Therefore, despite divergence of UTX and UTY in catalyzing H3K27 demethylation, they maintain functional redundancy during embryonic development. Our data suggest that UTX and UTY are able to regulate gene activity through demethylase independent mechanisms. We conclude that UTX H3K27 demethylation is non-essential for embryonic viability.

  17. Functional interplay between stimulus-oriented and stimulus-independent attending during a prospective memory task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barban, Francesco; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Macaluso, Emiliano; Caltagirone, Carlo; Costa, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that medial (medBA10) and lateral (latBA10) portions of the Brodmann area 10 subserve respectively stimulus-oriented (SO) and stimulus-independent (SI) attending during prospective memory (PM) tasks. We investigated this dissociation by manipulating the saliency (SO) and the memory load (SI) of PM cues. Sixteen healthy subjects participated to a functional imaging protocol with a 2×2×2 experimental design, including the factors: task (ongoing target vs. PM cue), Saliency (high vs. low; with targets/cues either embedded or standing out from distracters), and memory load (high vs. low; with 1 or 4 possible PM targets). We localized the medBA10 and latBA10 by means of a localizer task. In medBA10 we found a significant main effects of high Saliency and low memory load; whereas in the left latBA10, we found a significant task×load interaction, with maximal activation for PM cues presented in the high load condition. These results are in agreement with the gateway hypothesis: during a PM task medBA10 biases attention toward external salient stimuli, SO attending, while latBA10 biases attention toward internal mnemonic representations, SI attending. Additional whole-brain analyses highlighted activation of other areas besides BA10, consistent with recent proposals that emphasise the role of distributed networks during PM performance. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Determination of arterial input function in dynamic susceptibility contrast MRI using group independent component analysis technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, S.; Liu, H.-L.; Yang Yihong; Hsu, Y.-Y.; Chuang, K.-S.

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of cerebral blood flow (CBF) with dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) requires the determination of the arterial input function (AIF). The segmentation of surrounding tissue by manual selection is error-prone due to the partial volume artifacts. Independent component analysis (ICA) has the advantage in automatically decomposing the signals into interpretable components. Recently group ICA technique has been applied to fMRI study and showed reduced variance caused by motion artifact and noise. In this work, we investigated the feasibility and efficacy of the use of group ICA technique to extract the AIF. Both simulated and in vivo data were analyzed in this study. The simulation data of eight phantoms were generated using randomized lesion locations and time activity curves. The clinical data were obtained from spin-echo EPI MR scans performed in seven normal subjects. Group ICA technique was applied to analyze data through concatenating across seven subjects. The AIFs were calculated from the weighted average of the signals in the region selected by ICA. Preliminary results of this study showed that group ICA technique could not extract accurate AIF information from regions around the vessel. The mismatched location of vessels within the group reduced the benefits of group study

  19. External post-tensioning of cfrp tendons using integrated sleeve-wedge anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup; Bennitz, Anders; Goltermann, Per

    2012-01-01

    Strengthening of structures using external post-tension CFRP systems have proven to be anefficient method as such system increases the structural capacity and reduces cracks and deflection. Sufficient anchorage is of significant importance since the anchorage provides the connection between...... anchorage was obtained using the novel anchorage and that its behaviour is stable and predicatble when short term static load is applied. Desired strengthening was also observed in external post-tensioning on reinforced concrete T-beams. The requirements and definitions on a stable anchorage of CFRP tendons...

  20. Validación de la Escala de Independencia Funcional Validation of the Functional Independence Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Martínez-Martín

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar la calidad psicométrica de un instrumento diseñado para medir la independencia funcional (Escala de Independencia Funcional, EIF en varios dominios de actividades de la vida diaria y ser aplicado por entrevistadores entrenados no expertos en el ámbito sanitario. El estudio se realizó en población mayor no institucionalizada residente en la Comunidad de Madrid. Métodos: Estudio transversal de validación. Se aplicaron la EIF, el test de Pfeiffer, la subescala de depresión de la Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, un indicador de comorbilidad, el Índice de Barthel y el EQ-5D, a población residente en medio comunitario (n=500 y a pacientes ambulatorios en medio hospitalario (n=100 de edad ≥65 años. Se analizaron los siguientes atributos psicométricos de la EIF: aceptabilidad, asunciones escalares, consistencia interna, validez de constructo y precisión. Resultados: La escala resultó totalmente computable en el 94,3% de los sujetos, con efecto techo (60,65% y sin efecto suelo (0,22% en el medio comunitario. En el medio hospitalario no se evidenció efecto suelo ni techo. La escala mostró asunciones escalares satisfactorias y elevada consistencia interna (correlaciones ítem-total: 0,57-0,91; alfa de Cronbach: 0,94, así como una estructura multidimensional (tres factores; 74,3% de la varianza. Los índices de validez convergente, interna y para grupos conocidos, al igual que la precisión (error estándar de la medida: 2,49; intervalo de confianza del 95%: 4,88 resultaron satisfactorios. Conclusiones: En suma, la EIF es una escala de uso sencillo con atributos métricos apropiados, y su aplicación por parte de personal no sanitario resulta útil para muestras amplias de individuos mayores no institucionalizados.Objective: To assess the psychometric quality of an instrument designed to measure functional independence (Functional Independence Scale [FIS] in several activities of daily living domains and to be

  1. MEK-independent ERK activation in human neutrophils and its impact on functional responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simard, François A; Cloutier, Alexandre; Ear, Thornin; Vardhan, Harsh; McDonald, Patrick P

    2015-10-01

    Neutrophils influence innate and adaptative immunity, notably through the generation of numerous cytokines and chemokines and through the modulation of their constitutive apoptosis. Several signaling cascades are known to control neutrophil responses, including the MEK pathway, which is normally coupled to ERK. However, we show here that in human neutrophils stimulated with cytokines or TLR ligands, MEK and ERK are activated independently of each other. Pharmacological blockade of MEK had no effect on the induction of ERK kinase activity and vice versa. In autologous PBMC exposed to the same stimuli or in neutrophils exposed to chemoattractants, this uncoupling of MEK and ERK was not observed. Whereas we had shown before that MEK inhibition impairs cytokine generation translationally in LPS- or TNF-stimulated neutrophils, ERK inhibition affected this response transcriptionally and translationally. Transcriptional targets or ERK include the mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase 1 (MSK-1) and its substrates, C/EBPβ and CREB, whereas translational targets include the S6 kinase and its substrate, the S6 ribosomal protein. In addition to affecting cytokine production, ERK inhibition interfered with how LPS or TNF promotes neutrophil survival and levels of the myeloid cell leukemia 1 (Mcl-1) antiapoptotic protein. Whereas the ERK-activating kinase was not identified, we found that the MAP3K, TGF-β-activated kinase 1 (TAK1), acts upstream of ERK and MEK in neutrophils. Our results document a functional uncoupling of the MEK/ERK module under certain stimulatory conditions and suggest that therapeutic strategies based on MEK inhibition might benefit from being complemented by ERK inhibition, particularly in chronic inflammatory conditions featuring a strong neutrophilic component. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  2. Characterizing tissue microstructure using an ultrasound system-independent spatial autocorrelation function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Fang

    1999-09-01

    The research described in this dissertation is related to characterization of tissue microstructure using a system- independent spatial autocorrelation function (SAF). The function was determined using a reference phantom method, which employed a well-defined ``point- scatterer'' reference phantom to account for instrumental factors. The SAF's were estimated for several tissue-mimicking (TM) phantoms and fresh dog livers. Both phantom tests and in vitro dog liver measurements showed that the reference phantom method is relatively simple and fairly accurate, providing the bandwidth of the measurement system is sufficient for the size of the scatterer being involved in the scattering process. Implementation of this method in clinical scanner requires that distortions from patient's body wall be properly accounted for. The SAF's were estimated for two phantoms with body-wall-like distortions. The experimental results demonstrated that body wall distortions have little effect if echo data are acquired from a large scattering volume. One interesting application of the SAF is to form a ``scatterer size image''. The scatterer size image may help providing diagnostic tools for those diseases in which the tissue microstructure is different from the normal. Another method, the BSC method, utilizes information contained in the frequency dependence of the backscatter coefficient to estimate the scatterer size. The SAF technique produced accurate scatterer size images of homogeneous TM phantoms and the BSC method was capable of generating accurate size images for heterogeneous phantoms. In the scatterer size image of dog kidneys, the contrast-to-noise-ratio (CNR) between renal cortex and medulla was improved dramatically compared to the gray- scale image. The effect of nonlinear propagation was investigated by using a custom-designed phantom with overlaying TM fat layer. The results showed that the correlation length decreased when the transmitting power increased. The

  3. The effects of Kinesio® taping on sitting posture, functional independence and gross motor function in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şimşek, Tülay Tarsuslu; Türkücüoğlu, Bahriye; Çokal, Nilay; Üstünbaş, Gonca; Şimşek, İbrahim Engin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Kinesio® tape (KT) application on sitting posture, gross motor function and the level of functional independence. The study included 31 cerebral palsied children scored as level III, IV or V according to gross motor functional classification system (GMFCS). Children were randomly separated into two groups as study (n = 15, receiving KT and physiotherapy) and control (n = 15, receiving only physiotherapy). KT application was carried out for 12 weeks. Gross motor function measure (GMFM), functional independence measure for children (WeeFIM) and Sitting Assessment Scale (SAS) were used to evaluate gross motor function, independency in the activities of daily living and sitting posture, respectively. Compared to initial assessments, both groups showed a significant difference in parameters of GMFCS sitting subscale, GMFCS total score and SAS scores (p  0.05). No direct effects of KT were observed on gross motor function and functional independence, though sitting posture (head, neck, foot position and arm, hand function) was affected positively. These results may imply that in clinical settings KT may be a beneficial assistive treatment approach when combined with physiotherapy.

  4. Human primary adipocytes exhibit immune cell function: adipocytes prime inflammation independent of macrophages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kees Meijer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Obesity promotes inflammation in adipose tissue (AT and this is implicated in pathophysiological complications such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although based on the classical hypothesis, necrotic AT adipocytes (ATA in obese state activate AT macrophages (ATM that then lead to a sustained chronic inflammation in AT, the link between human adipocytes and the source of inflammation in AT has not been in-depth and systematically studied. So we decided as a new hypothesis to investigate human primary adipocytes alone to see whether they are able to prime inflammation in AT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using mRNA expression, human preadipocytes and adipocytes express the cytokines/chemokines and their receptors, MHC II molecule genes and 14 acute phase reactants including C-reactive protein. Using multiplex ELISA revealed the expression of 50 cytokine/chemokine proteins by human adipocytes. Upon lipopolysaccharide stimulation, most of these adipocyte-associated cytokines/chemokines and immune cell modulating receptors were up-regulated and a few down-regulated such as (ICAM-1, VCAM-1, MCP-1, IP-10, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α and TNF-β highly up-regulated and IL-2, IL-7, IL-10, IL-13 and VEGF down-regulated. In migration assay, human adipocyte-derived chemokines attracted significantly more CD4+ T cells than controls and the number of migrated CD4+ cells was doubled after treating the adipocytes with LPS. Neutralizing MCP-1 effect produced by adipocytes reduced CD4+ migration by approximately 30%. CONCLUSION: Human adipocytes express many cytokines/chemokines that are biologically functional. They are able to induce inflammation and activate CD4+ cells independent of macrophages. This suggests that the primary event in the sequence leading to chronic inflammation in AT is metabolic dysfunction in adipocytes, followed by production of immunological mediators by these adipocytes, which is then exacerbated by

  5. Associations between ankle-brachial index and cognitive function: results from the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between ankle-brachial index (ABI) and indicators of cognitive function. DESIGN: Randomized clinical trial (Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Trial). SETTING: Eight US academic ce...

  6. Changes in executive functions and self-efficacy are independently associated with improved usual gait speed in older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsu Chun

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Improved usual gait speed predicts substantial reduction in mortality. A better understanding of the modifiable factors that are independently associated with improved gait speed would ensure that intervention strategies are developed based on a valid theoretical framework. Thus, we examined the independent association of change in executive functions and change in falls-related self-efficacy with improved gait speed among community-dwelling senior women. Methods A secondary analysis of the 135 senior women aged 65 to 75 years old who completed a 12-month randomized controlled trial of resistance training. Usual gait speed was assessed using a 4-meter walk. Three executive processes were assessed by standard neuropsychological tests: 1 set shifting; 2 working memory; and 3 selective attention and response inhibition. A linear regression model was constructed to determine the independent association of change in executive functions and falls-related self-efficacy with change in gait speed. Results Improved selective attention and conflict resolution, and falls-related self-efficacy, were independently associated with improved gait speed after accounting for age, global cognition, baseline gait speed, and change in quadriceps strength. The total variance explained was 24%. Conclusions Interventions that target executive functions and falls-related self-efficacy, in addition to physical functions, to improve gait speed may be more efficacious than those that do not. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00426881

  7. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory

    OpenAIRE

    Prodinger, B; O'Connor, RJ; Stucki, G; Tennant, A

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Methods: Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cor...

  8. HDL function is impaired in acute myocardial infarction independent of plasma HDL cholesterol levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Annema, Wijtske; Willemsen, Hendrik M.; de Boer, Jan Freark; Dikkers, Arne; van der Giet, Markus; Nieuwland, Wybe; Muller Kobold, Anna; van Pelt, L. Joost; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; van der Horst, Iwan C. C.; Dullaart, Robin P. F.; Tio, Rene A.; Tietge, Uwe J. F.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High-density lipoproteins (HDLs) protect against the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. HDL function represents an emerging concept in cardiovascular research. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the association between HDL functionality and acute myocardial infarction

  9. Research on the Bond Anchorage Properties of Alkali-Activated Slag Cementitious Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, J.; Zheng, W. Z.; Leng, Y. F.; Qin, C. Z.; Xu, Z. Z.

    2017-12-01

    By bond-anchorage property tests at 20°C ∼500°C, the distribution of shear stress between carbon fiber sheets and concrete at all levels of loading and anchorage lengths were measured, which means the bond lengths during CFRP sheets are pulled off at the same time when the concrete is torn and stripped were gotten. The failure modes were obtained. In addition, the failure loads were measured, and the calculated formulas of anchorage lengths were identified by fitting at high temperature. It can be seen that the anchorage lengths of carbon fiber sheets increase with increasing temperature at 20°C ∼100°C, the anchorage lengths of carbon fiber sheets decrease with increasing temperature at 100°C ∼500°C. Tests prove that AASCM has favorable high-temperature resistant and bond anchorage properties.

  10. Exploring the relation between positive emotions and the functional status of older adults living independently: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrita, Miriam; Lamers, Sanne M A; Trompetter, Hester R; Tabak, Monique; Vollenbroek-Hutten, Miriam M R

    2017-11-01

    Literature suggests that positive emotions positively influence physiological parameters but their relation to functioning in the daily life of older adults living independently remains unclear. The present work aims to investigate the relation between positive emotions and functional status in daily life of older people living independently. A systematic literature review was conducted using the PubMed, PsycINFO and Scopus electronic databases. Included works were peer-reviewed empirical studies that analysed the relation between positive emotions and ability to perform activities of daily living with older adults living independently. After removal of duplicates, 10 out of 963 papers met the inclusion criteria. Cross-sectional studies (n = 6) provided limited evidence about a relation between positive emotions and functioning in daily life. However, longitudinal studies (n = 4) provide significant evidence for an interaction between the two factors, suggesting that time influences this interaction. The variety on the design and samples of the studies included in this review does not allow a cohesive conclusion of the results. Nevertheless, limited evidence suggests that higher frequency in the experience of positive emotions might be associated with lower functional limitations. The issue of causality in emotions-functioning remains unclear from the review. Further observational studies are highly recommended, supported by innovative technologies.

  11. The independent influences of age and education on functional brain networks and cognition in healthy older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Alistair; Wen, Wei; Kochan, Nicole A; Thalamuthu, Anbupalam; Sachdev, Perminder S; Breakspear, Michael

    2017-10-01

    Healthy aging is accompanied by a constellation of changes in cognitive processes and alterations in functional brain networks. The relationships between brain networks and cognition during aging in later life are moderated by demographic and environmental factors, such as prior education, in a poorly understood manner. Using multivariate analyses, we identified three latent patterns (or modes) linking resting-state functional connectivity to demographic and cognitive measures in 101 cognitively normal elders. The first mode (P = 0.00043) captures an opposing association between age and core cognitive processes such as attention and processing speed on functional connectivity patterns. The functional subnetwork expressed by this mode links bilateral sensorimotor and visual regions through key areas such as the parietal operculum. A strong, independent association between years of education and functional connectivity loads onto a second mode (P = 0.012), characterized by the involvement of key hub regions. A third mode (P = 0.041) captures weak, residual brain-behavior relations. Our findings suggest that circuits supporting lower level cognitive processes are most sensitive to the influence of age in healthy older adults. Education, and to a lesser extent, executive functions, load independently onto functional networks-suggesting that the moderating effect of education acts upon networks distinct from those vulnerable with aging. This has important implications in understanding the contribution of education to cognitive reserve during healthy aging. Hum Brain Mapp 38:5094-5114, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Research on Anchorage Performance of Grouting Anchor Connection of Precast Concrete Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Donghui; Liu, Xudong; Wang, Sheng; Cao, Xixi

    2018-03-01

    The bonding of grouted anchor bars is one of the vertical connection forms of steel bars in fabricated concrete structures. The performance of grouted connection is mainly affected by the anchorage length and lap length of steel bars. The mechanisms of bond and anchorage between steel bar and concrete are analyzed, and the factors that influence the anchorage performance of steel bar are systematically summarized. Results show that the bond and anchorage performance of steel and concrete have been studied widely, but there are still shortcomings, and the connection forms need to be further improved.

  13. Efficacy of the Nance appliance as an anchorage-reinforcement method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Awadhi, Ebrahim A; Garvey, Therese M; Alhag, Mohamed; Claffey, Noel M; O'Connell, Brian

    2015-03-01

    The Nance appliance is widely considered to be an efficient method of anchorage reinforcement; however, much of the perceived advantage is based on clinical judgment. The aim of this study was to assess the amounts of anchorage loss and desired tooth movement associated with the Nance appliance. The mandibular arches of 7 beagle dogs were used. The first and third premolars were extracted. Reference miniscrews were placed at the first premolar sites as stable references to measure the amounts of anchorage loss and desired tooth movement. Four beagles were fitted with custom-made Nance appliances on the fourth premolars and orthodontic bands on the second premolars (Nance group). Three beagles were fitted with orthodontic bands on the second and fourth premolars with no anchorage reinforcement (control group). The second premolars were retracted over 15 weeks in both groups. The amounts of second premolar movement (desired tooth movement) and fourth premolar movement (anchorage loss) were recorded at 5, 10, and 15 weeks. The percentages of desired tooth movement and anchorage loss to the total space closure were calculated. The mean desired tooth movement was significantly more in the Nance group than in the control group at 10 weeks (P appliance did not provide absolute anchorage, but there was significantly less anchorage loss with it than in the control group. The majority of anchorage loss occurred during the first 10 weeks in the Nance group. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. FrsA functions as a cofactor-independent decarboxylase to control metabolic flux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Jo; Jeong, Chang-Sook; An, Young Jun; Lee, Hyun-Jung; Park, Soon-Jung; Seok, Yeong-Jae; Kim, Pil; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Lee, Kyu-Ho; Cha, Sun-Shin

    2011-05-29

    The interaction between fermentation-respiration switch (FrsA) protein and glucose-specific enzyme IIA(Glc) increases glucose fermentation under oxygen-limited conditions. We show that FrsA converts pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide in a cofactor-independent manner and that its pyruvate decarboxylation activity is enhanced by the dephosphorylated form of IIA(Glc) (d-IIA(Glc)). Crystal structures of FrsA and its complex with d-IIA(Glc) revealed residues required for catalysis as well as the structural basis for the activation by d-IIA(Glc).

  15. MRI Study on the Functional and Spatial Consistency of Resting State-Related Independent Components of the Brain Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Bum Seok; Choi, Jee Wook; Kim, Ji Woong

    2012-01-01

    Resting-state networks (RSNs), including the default mode network (DMN), have been considered as markers of brain status such as consciousness, developmental change, and treatment effects. The consistency of functional connectivity among RSNs has not been fully explored, especially among resting-state-related independent components (RSICs). This resting-state fMRI study addressed the consistency of functional connectivity among RSICs as well as their spatial consistency between 'at day 1' and 'after 4 weeks' in 13 healthy volunteers. We found that most RSICs, especially the DMN, are reproducible across time, whereas some RSICs were variable in either their spatial characteristics or their functional connectivity. Relatively low spatial consistency was found in the basal ganglia, a parietal region of left frontoparietal network, and the supplementary motor area. The functional connectivity between two independent components, the bilateral angular/supramarginal gyri/intraparietal lobule and bilateral middle temporal/occipital gyri, was decreased across time regardless of the correlation analysis method employed, (Pearson's or partial correlation). RSICs showing variable consistency are different between spatial characteristics and functional connectivity. To understand the brain as a dynamic network, we recommend further investigation of both changes in the activation of specific regions and the modulation of functional connectivity in the brain network.

  16. Surgery-Independent Language Function Decline in Patients Undergoing Awake Craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonen, Tal; Sela, Gal; Yanakee, Ranin; Ram, Zvi; Grossman, Rachel

    2017-03-01

    Despite selection process before awake-craniotomy, some patients experience an unexpected decline in language functions in the operating room (OR), compared with their baseline evaluation, which may impair their functional monitoring. To investigate this phenomenon we prospectively compared language function the day before surgery and on entrance to the OR. Data were collected prospectively from consecutive patients undergoing awake-craniotomy with intraoperative cortical mapping for resection of gliomas affecting language areas. Language functions of 79 patients were evaluated and compared 1-2 days before surgery and after entering the OR. Changes in functional linguistic performance were analyzed with respect to demographic, clinical, and pathologic characteristics. There was a significant decline in language function, beyond sedation effect, after entering the OR, (from median/interquartile range: 0.94/0.72-0.98 to median/interquartile range: 0.86/0.51-0.94; Z = -7.19, P craniotomy may experience a substantial decline in language functioning after entering the OR. Tumor grade and the presence of preoperative language deficits were significant risk factors for this phenomenon, suggesting a possible relation between cognitive reserve, psychobehavioral coping abilities and histologic features of a tumor involving language areas. Capturing and identifying this unique population of patients who are prone to experience such language decline may improve our ability in the future to select patients eligible for awake-craniotomy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Relationship of physical and functional independence and perceived quality of life of veteran patients with Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeaman, Paul A; Kim, Dong-Yun; Alexander, Jeffrey L; Ewing, Helen; Kim, Kye Y

    2013-08-01

    Alzheimer disease not only affects the cognitive function but also impacts one's abilities to perform daily tasks. This study evaluated for correlation between the quality of life of patients with Alzheimer disease (QoL-AD) and the level of independence and to evaluate the statistical difference between patients' quality of life and proxy perception of quality of life by utilizing the Katz activities of daily living and QoL-AD on patients and QoL-AD on caregivers. There was a small positive correlation (r = .13) between the levels of physical and functional independence and the perceived QoL. Also, patient consistently had higher QoL-AD than their caregiver counterparts. These findings provide some insight into our need to acknowledge factors that may influence QoL and illustrate the importance of monitoring for executive dysfunction and the safety risk.

  18. Cap-independent translation ensures mTOR expression and function upon protein synthesis inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques-Ramos, Ana; Candeias, Marco M; Menezes, Juliane; Lacerda, Rafaela; Willcocks, Margaret; Teixeira, Alexandre; Locker, Nicolas; Romão, Luísa

    2017-11-01

    The mechanistic/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a conserved serine/threonine kinase that integrates cellular signals from the nutrient and energy status to act, namely, on the protein synthesis machinery. While major advances have emerged regarding the regulators and effects of the mTOR signaling pathway, little is known about the regulation of mTOR gene expression. Here, we show that the human mTOR transcript can be translated in a cap-independent manner, and that its 5' untranslated region (UTR) is a highly folded RNA scaffold capable of binding directly to the 40S ribosomal subunit. We further demonstrate that mTOR is able to bypass the cap requirement for translation both in normal and hypoxic conditions. Moreover, our data reveal that the cap-independent translation of mTOR is necessary for its ability to induce cell-cycle progression into S phase. These results suggest a novel regulatory mechanism for mTOR gene expression that integrates the global protein synthesis changes induced by translational inhibitory conditions. © 2017 Marques-Ramos et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press for the RNA Society.

  19. Local application of zoledronate for maximum anchorage during space closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Adam J A J; Campbell, Phillip M; Hinton, Robert; Naidu, Aparna; Buschang, Peter H

    2012-12-01

    Orthodontists have used various compliance-dependent physical means such as headgears and intraoral appliances to prevent anchorage loss. The aim of this study was to determine whether 1 local application of the bisphosphonate zoledronate could be used to prevent anchorage loss during extraction space closure in rats. Thirty rats had their maxillary left first molars extracted and their maxillary left second molars protracted into the extraction space with a 10-g nickel-titanium closing coil for 21 days. Fifteen control rats received a local injection of phosphate-buffered saline solution, and 15 experimental rats received 16 μg of the bisphosphonate zoledronate. Bisphosphonate was also delivered directly into the extraction site and left undisturbed for 5 minutes. Cephalograms and incremental thickness gauges were used to measure tooth movements. Tissues were analyzed by microcomputed tomography and histology. The control group demonstrated significant (P <0.05) tooth movements throughout the 21-day period. They showed significantly greater tooth movements than the experimental group beginning in the second week. The experimental group showed no significant tooth movement after the first week. The microcomputed tomography and histologic observations showed significant bone loss in the extraction sites and around the second molars of the controls. In contrast, the experimental group had bone preservation and bone fill. There was no evidence of bisphosphonate-associated osteonecrosis in any sample. A single small, locally applied dose of zoledronate provided maximum anchorage and prevented significant bone loss. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. PHTS, a novel putative tumor suppressor, is involved in the transformation reversion of HeLaHF cells independently of the p53 pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Dehua; Fan, Wufang; Liu, Guohong; Nguy, Vivian; Chatterton, Jon E.; Long Shilong; Ke, Ning; Meyhack, Bernd; Bruengger, Adrian; Brachat, Arndt; Wong-Staal, Flossie; Li, Qi-Xiang

    2006-01-01

    HeLaHF is a non-transformed revertant of HeLa cells, likely resulting from the activation of a putative tumor suppressor(s). p53 protein was stabilized in this revertant and reactivated for certain transactivation functions. Although p53 stabilization has not conclusively been linked to the reversion, it is clear that the genes in p53 pathway are involved. The present study confirms the direct role of p53 in HeLaHF reversion by demonstrating that RNAi-mediated p53 silencing partially restores anchorage-independent growth potential of the revertant through the suppression of anoikis. In addition, we identified a novel gene, named PHTS, with putative tumor suppressor properties, and showed that this gene is also involved in HeLaHF reversion independently of the p53 pathway. Expression profiling revealed that PHTS is one of the genes that is up-regulated in HeLaHF but not in HeLa. It encodes a putative protein with CD59-like domains. RNAi-mediated PHTS silencing resulted in the partial restoration of transformation (anchorage-independent growth) in HeLaHF cells, similar to that of p53 gene silencing, implying its tumor suppressor effect. However, the observed increased transformation potential by PHTS silencing appears to be due to an increased anchorage-independent proliferation rate rather than suppression of anoikis, unlike the effect of p53 silencing. p53 silencing did not affect PHTS gene expression, and vice versa, suggesting PHTS may function in a new and p53-independent tumor suppressor pathway. Furthermore, over-expression of PHTS in different cancer cell lines, in addition to HeLa, reduces cell growth likely via induced apoptosis, confirming the broad PHTS tumor suppressor properties

  1. Orthodontic space closure after first molar extraction without skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Collin; Jacobs-Müller, Claudia; Luley, Carolin; Erbe, Christina; Wehrbein, Heiner

    2011-03-01

    The aim of the study was an analysis of effects and side-effects during mesialization of second molars after extraction of the first permanent molars using the anterior dentition/premolars (PM) as an anchorage unit. A total of 35 patients were examined retrospectively who had undergone unilateral or bilateral first permanent molar extraction in the upper or lower arch due to carious lesions. Space closure was carried out in all cases through mesialization of the second molar using an elastic chain fixed to an edgewise stainless steel archwire and tying the anterior dentition/PM together with a continuous laceback ligature. Tooth movement was assessed from lateral cephalograms, orthopantomograms (OPGs) and images of the patient's study casts taken before and after the end of therapy. Space closure after first molar extractions by mesialization of the second molars without skeletal anchorage was largely achieved by bodily forward movement of the teeth, including a small tipping component or tooth-uprighting component when molars were already mesially inclined. Unilateral and bilateral mesialization of the second molars led to retrusion in the maxilla and mandible [(∆incl.=-3.6° (max., bil.), ∆incl.=-4.2° (mand., bil.)] and to translational retraction [(∆s=-2.3 mm (max., bil.), ∆s=-1.6 mm (mand., bil.)] of the incisors. Examination of the soft tissues revealed an increased posterior displacement of the upper and lower lips to the esthetic line [(∆s=-2.8 mm (max. bil.), ∆s=-2.2 mm (mand., bil.)]. In cases of unilateral mesialization less than 50% of the patients had a slight midline deviation in the mandible towards the extraction side. Side effects during mesialization of the second molars without skeletal anchorage in the anterior dentition/PM were observed primarily affecting the incisors integrated into the anterior anchorage unit. These side-effects resulted in posterior displacement of the soft tissues, including a change in profile. This must be

  2. Testing of large prestressing tendon end anchorage regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, T.E.

    1976-01-01

    Tests were performed on concrete end anchorage regions for prestressing tendons with ultimate strengths of approximately 8,900 kN. One test structure simulated a full scale concrete containment buttress and the other two test specimens were concrete blocks. The behavior of the test structure and specimens, when subjected to loading, was monitored by strain gages and dial gages. The testing illustrated that all of the amounts of reinforcing tested should be acceptable for the end anchor zones of large tendons presently used in prestressed concrete containment structures. (author)

  3. Brief report: Does PTH increase with age, independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrivick, Simon J; Walsh, John P; Brown, Suzanne J; Wardrop, Robert; Hadlow, Narelle C

    2015-05-01

    Circulating PTH concentrations increase with age. It is uncertain whether an age-related PTH increase occurs independent of changes in circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium. The purpose of this article was to analyze the relationship between PTH and age, controlling for 25-hydroxyvitamin D, phosphate, renal function, and ionized calcium. This was a retrospective, cross-sectional study analyzing the relationship between PTH and age in 2 independent datasets (laboratory 1, n = 17 275 and laboratory 2, n = 4878). We further analyzed subgroups after excluding participants with estimated glomerular filtration rate of PTH (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.4%-5.6%; P PTH (95% CI, 5.5%-6.8%; P PTH concentrations increase with age, independent of 25-hydroxyvitamin D, ionized calcium, phosphate, and renal function. Further research is required to explore the underlying mechanisms and clinical relevance and to determine whether the use of age-related PTH reference ranges improves diagnostic accuracy, particularly in elderly individuals.

  4. Comparative photoelastic study of dental and skeletal anchorages in the canine retraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Aparecida de Assis Claro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare dental and skeletal anchorages in mandibular canine retraction by means of a stress distribution analysis. METHODS: A photoelastic model was produced from second molar to canine, without the first premolar, and mandibular canine retraction was simulated by a rubber band tied to two types of anchorage: dental anchorage, in the first molar attached to adjacent teeth, and skeletal anchorage with a hook simulating the mini-implant. The forces were applied 10 times and observed in a circular polariscope. The stresses located in the mandibular canine were recorded in 7 regions. The Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the stress in each region and between both anchorage systems. The stresses in the mandibular canine periradicular regions were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. RESULTS: Stresses were similar in the cervical region and the middle third. In the apical third, the stresses associated with skeletal anchorage were higher than the stresses associated with dental anchorage. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the highest stresses were identified in the cervical-distal, apical-distal, and apex regions with the use of dental anchorage, and in the apical-distal, apical-mesial, cervical-distal, and apex regions with the use of skeletal anchorage. CONCLUSIONS: The use of skeletal anchorage in canine retraction caused greater stress in the apical third than the use of dental anchorage, which indicates an intrusive component resulting from the direction of the force due to the position of the mini-implant and the bracket hook of the canine.

  5. Comparative photoelastic study of dental and skeletal anchorages in the canine retraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claro, Cristiane Aparecida de Assis; Chagas, Rosana Villela; Neves, Ana Christina Elias Claro; da Silva-Concílio, Laís Regiane

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare dental and skeletal anchorages in mandibular canine retraction by means of a stress distribution analysis. Methods A photoelastic model was produced from second molar to canine, without the first premolar, and mandibular canine retraction was simulated by a rubber band tied to two types of anchorage: dental anchorage, in the first molar attached to adjacent teeth, and skeletal anchorage with a hook simulating the mini-implant. The forces were applied 10 times and observed in a circular polariscope. The stresses located in the mandibular canine were recorded in 7 regions. The Mann-Whitney test was employed to compare the stress in each region and between both anchorage systems. The stresses in the mandibular canine periradicular regions were compared by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Results Stresses were similar in the cervical region and the middle third. In the apical third, the stresses associated with skeletal anchorage were higher than the stresses associated with dental anchorage. The results of the Kruskal-Wallis test showed that the highest stresses were identified in the cervical-distal, apical-distal, and apex regions with the use of dental anchorage, and in the apical-distal, apical-mesial, cervical-distal, and apex regions with the use of skeletal anchorage. Conclusions The use of skeletal anchorage in canine retraction caused greater stress in the apical third than the use of dental anchorage, which indicates an intrusive component resulting from the direction of the force due to the position of the mini-implant and the bracket hook of the canine. PMID:24713566

  6. Phosphorylation and prolyl isomerization independently regulate the signal adapter function of CrkII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidpeter, Philipp A M; Schmid, Franz X

    2014-12-12

    The signaling protein CrkII switches between forms with high or low binding affinity. Both phosphorylation and native-state prolyl isomerization were suggested to regulate the transition between these forms. Here we analyzed how phosphorylation at Tyr222 and Tyr252 and the Pro238Ala substitution affect signal transfer of human and chicken CrkII to a downstream target. Human CrkII is regulated by phosphorylation only, but chicken CrkII is regulated by Pro238 trans→cis isomerization and by Tyr222 phosphorylation. Surprisingly, they act in an independent fashion. Apparently, the allosteric transition to a low-activity form can be induced by phosphorylation or prolyl isomerization located at distant sites in CrkII. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Monk-Hansen, Tea

    2014-01-01

    Aims Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome...... in CAD patients. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship among CFR, systolic and diastolic function, peripheral vascular function, and cardiopulmonary fitness in CAD patients. Methods and Results Forty patients with median left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) 49 (interquartile 46....... Conclusions Coronary flow reserve measured noninvasively predicts cardiopulmonary fitness independently of resting systolic and diastolic function in CAD patients, indicating that cardiac output during maximal exercise is dependent on the ability of the coronary circulation to adapt to the higher metabolic...

  8. Structural and functional similarity between the Vgll1-TEAD and the YAP-TEAD complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pobbati, Ajaybabu V; Chan, Siew Wee; Lee, Ian; Song, Haiwei; Hong, Wanjin

    2012-07-03

    The structure of the complex between the transcription cofactor Vgll1 and the transcription factor TEAD4, the mammalian equivalent of the Drosophila Vestigial and Scalloped, respectively, is determined in this study. Remarkably, Vgll1 interacts with TEAD in a manner similar to the transcription coactivators, as well as oncogenes YAP and TAZ, despite having a varied primary sequence. Vgll1-TEAD complex upregulates the expression of IGFBP-5, a proliferation-promoting gene, and facilitates anchorage-independent cell proliferation. The YAP/TAZ-TEAD complex also upregulates several other proliferation-promoting genes and also promotes anchorage-independent cell proliferation. Given its structural and functional similarity to YAP/TAZ, Vgll1 has the potential to promote cancer progression. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Adiposity, physical activity, and muscle quality are independently related to physical function performance in middle-aged postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward-Ritacco, Christie L; Adrian, Amanda L; Johnson, Mary Ann; Rogers, Laura Q; Evans, Ellen M

    2014-10-01

    Poor physical function performance is associated with risks for disability in late life; however, determinants of physical function are not well characterized in middle-aged women. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to examine the contributions of body composition, physical activity, muscle capacity, and muscle quality to physical function performance. Postmenopausal women (N = 64; mean [SD] age, 58.6 [3.6] y) were assessed for body composition via dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, for physical activity via accelerometer (steps per day), and for physical function via Timed Up and Go, 30-second chair stand, and 6-minute walk. Leg strength was assessed using isokinetic dynamometry at 60° second. Leg power was assessed with the Nottingham Leg Extensor Power Rig. Muscle quality was calculated as (1) the ratio of leg strength at 60° second to upper leg lean mass and (2) the ratio of leg power to total lower body lean mass. Regression analyses revealed the following: (1) age and muscle quality calculated with leg power are independently related to Timed Up and Go, explaining 12% and 11% of the variance, respectively (P quality calculated with leg strength are independently related to 30-second chair stand, explaining 12% and 10% of the variance, respectively (P quality calculated with leg strength, steps per day, and adiposity are independent predictors of 6-minute walk, collectively explaining 51% of the variance. In postmenopausal women, a more optimal body composition (including lower adiposity and higher lean mass) and higher levels of physical activity are associated with better physical function performance at midlife.

  10. Extracellular matrix turnover and inflammatory markers independently predict functional status and outcome in chronic heart failure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Radauceanu, Anca; Ducki, Camille; Virion, Jean-Marc; Rossignol, Patrick; Mallat, Ziad; McMurray, John; Van Veldhuisen, Dirk J.; Tavazzi, Luigi; Mann, Douglas L.; Capiaumont-Vin, Josette; Li, Minjiang; Hanriot, Didier; Zannad, Faiez

    Background: Inflammatory pathways may promote extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling and chronic heart failure (CHF) progression. The relationship between markers of inflammation and of ECM remodeling, and their influence oil functional status and outcomes has not been examined in a large cohort of

  11. Successful aging as a continuum of functional independence: lessons from physical disability models of aging.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lowry, K.A.; Vallejo, A.N.; Studenski, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    Successful aging is a multidimensional construct that could be viewed as a continuum of achievement. Based on the disability model proposed by the WHO International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, successful aging includes not only the presence or absence of disease, but also

  12. Impulse-response function of splanchnic circulation with model-independent constraints: theory and experimental validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Keiding, S; Bass, L

    2003-01-01

    Modeling physiological processes using tracer kinetic methods requires knowledge of the time course of the tracer concentration in blood supplying the organ. For liver studies, however, inaccessibility of the portal vein makes direct measurement of the hepatic dual-input function impossible in hu...

  13. Automatic denoising of functional MRI data: combining independent component analysis and hierarchical fusion of classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Beckmann, Christian F; Glasser, Matthew F; Griffanti, Ludovica; Smith, Stephen M

    2014-04-15

    Many sources of fluctuation contribute to the fMRI signal, and this makes identifying the effects that are truly related to the underlying neuronal activity difficult. Independent component analysis (ICA) - one of the most widely used techniques for the exploratory analysis of fMRI data - has shown to be a powerful technique in identifying various sources of neuronally-related and artefactual fluctuation in fMRI data (both with the application of external stimuli and with the subject "at rest"). ICA decomposes fMRI data into patterns of activity (a set of spatial maps and their corresponding time series) that are statistically independent and add linearly to explain voxel-wise time series. Given the set of ICA components, if the components representing "signal" (brain activity) can be distinguished form the "noise" components (effects of motion, non-neuronal physiology, scanner artefacts and other nuisance sources), the latter can then be removed from the data, providing an effective cleanup of structured noise. Manual classification of components is labour intensive and requires expertise; hence, a fully automatic noise detection algorithm that can reliably detect various types of noise sources (in both task and resting fMRI) is desirable. In this paper, we introduce FIX ("FMRIB's ICA-based X-noiseifier"), which provides an automatic solution for denoising fMRI data via accurate classification of ICA components. For each ICA component FIX generates a large number of distinct spatial and temporal features, each describing a different aspect of the data (e.g., what proportion of temporal fluctuations are at high frequencies). The set of features is then fed into a multi-level classifier (built around several different classifiers). Once trained through the hand-classification of a sufficient number of training datasets, the classifier can then automatically classify new datasets. The noise components can then be subtracted from (or regressed out of) the original

  14. The application of mini-implants for orthodontic anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Y-C; Hsieh, C-H; Chen, C-H; Shen, Y-S; Huang, I-Y; Chen, C-M

    2006-08-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the use of mini-implants for skeletal anchorage, and to assess their stability and the causes of failure. Forty-five mini-implants were used in orthodontic treatment. The diameter of the implants was 2mm, and their lengths were 8, 10, 12 and 14mm. The drill procedure was directly through the cortical bone without any incision or flap operation. Two weeks later, a force of 100-200g was applied by an elastometric chain or NiTi coil spring. Risk factors for the failure of mini-implants were examined statistically using the Chi-square or Fisher exact test as applicable. The average placement time of a mini-implant was about 10-15min. Four mini-implants loosened after orthodontic force loading. The overall success rate was 91.1%. The location of the implant was the significant factor related to failure. In conclusion, the mini-implants are easy to insert for skeletal anchorage and could be successful in the control of tooth movement.

  15. Localization of Presynaptic Plasticity Mechanisms Enables Functional Independence of Synaptic and Ectopic Transmission in the Cerebellum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharine L. Dobson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the cerebellar molecular layer parallel fibre terminals release glutamate from both the active zone and from extrasynaptic “ectopic” sites. Ectopic release mediates transmission to the Bergmann glia that ensheathe the synapse, activating Ca2+-permeable AMPA receptors and glutamate transporters. Parallel fibre terminals exhibit several forms of presynaptic plasticity, including cAMP-dependent long-term potentiation and endocannabinoid-dependent long-term depression, but it is not known whether these presynaptic forms of long-term plasticity also influence ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia. Stimulation of parallel fibre inputs at 16 Hz evoked LTP of synaptic transmission, but LTD of ectopic transmission. Pharmacological activation of adenylyl cyclase by forskolin caused LTP at Purkinje neurons, but only transient potentiation at Bergmann glia, reinforcing the concept that ectopic sites lack the capacity to express sustained cAMP-dependent potentiation. Activation of mGluR1 caused depression of synaptic transmission via retrograde endocannabinoid signalling but had no significant effect at ectopic sites. In contrast, activation of NMDA receptors suppressed both synaptic and ectopic transmission. The results suggest that the signalling mechanisms for presynaptic LTP and retrograde depression by endocannabinoids are restricted to the active zone at parallel fibre synapses, allowing independent modulation of synaptic transmission to Purkinje neurons and ectopic transmission to Bergmann glia.

  16. Reform of Kosovo Tax System after independence and its key functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.Sc. Bedri Peci

    2013-12-01

    However, policy and tax system of Kosovo should be more in function of economic development by achieving equilibrium between direct and indirect taxes, increasing efficiency of public expenditures and to offer more tax incentives. Designers’ preliminary requirement is to analyze fiscal, economic, etc., effects of each tax form which aims to apply in accordance with tax policy objectives and to analyze the role and effects of tax incentives to each tax form. Taking into account that Kosovo regarding the application of tax incentives of CIT, compared with other countries is the last, designers by using the experiences of other countries should apply more tax incentives in order that tax policy to be more in function for economic development

  17. GABARAPL1 tumor suppressive function is independent of its conjugation to autophagosomes in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poillet-Perez, Laura; Jacquet, Marine; Hervouet, Eric; Gauthier, Thierry; Fraichard, Annick; Borg, Christophe; Pallandre, Jean-René; Gonzalez, Bruno J; Ramdani, Yasmina; Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël; Delage-Mourroux, Régis; Despouy, Gilles

    2017-08-22

    The GABARAPL1 protein belongs to the ATG8 family whose members are involved in autophagy. Our laboratory previously demonstrated that GABARAPL1 associates with autophagic vesicles, regulates autophagic flux and acts as a tumor suppressor protein in breast cancer. In this study, we aimed to determine whether GABARAPL1 conjugation to autophagosomes is necessary for its tumor suppressive functions using the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line overexpressing GABARAPL1 or a G116A mutant, which is unable to be lipidated and associated to autophagosomes. We show that the G116A mutation impaired GABARAPL1 function in autophagosome/lysosome fusion and inhibited lysosome activity but did not alter MTOR and ULK1 activities or tumor growth in vivo . Our results demonstrate for the first time that GABARAPL1 plays different regulatory functions during early and late stages of autophagy, independently or not of its conjugation to autophagosomes, but its tumor suppressive function appeared to be independent of its conjugation to autophagic vesicles.

  18. 33 CFR 162.136 - Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. 162.136 Section 162.136 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD... REGULATIONS § 162.136 Connecting waters from Lake Huron to Lake Erie; anchorage grounds. (a) In the Detroit...

  19. 76 FR 15246 - Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-21

    ...-AA01 Anchorage Regulations; Narragansett Bay and Rhode Island Sound, RI AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... Rhode Island Sound south of Brenton Point, Rhode Island, for use by vessels waiting to enter... Sound that under current informal practice is routinely used by mariners as an anchorage while waiting...

  20. Flexural Strengthening of RC Slabs with Prestressed CFRP Strips Using Different Anchorage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Sena-Cruz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Externally Bonded Reinforcement (EBR technique has been widely used for flexural strengthening of concrete structures by using carbon fiber-reinforced polymers (CFRP. EBR technique offers several structural advantages when the CFRP material is prestressed. This paper presents an experimental and numerical study on reinforced (RC slabs strengthened in flexure with prestressed CFRP strips as a structural strengthening system. The strips are applied as an externally bonded reinforcement (EBR and anchored with either a mechanical or a gradient anchorage. The former foresees metallic anchorage plates fixed to the concrete substrate, while the latter is based on an accelerated epoxy resin curing followed by a segment-wise prestress force decrease at the strip ends. Both anchorage systems, in combination with different CFRP strip geometries, were subjected to static loading tests. It could be demonstrated that the composite strip’s performance is better exploited when prestressing is used, with slightly higher overall load carrying capacities for mechanical anchorages than for the gradient anchorage. The performed investigations by means of a cross-section analysis supported the experimental observation that in case a mechanical anchorage is used, progressive strip debonding changes the fully bonded configuration to an unbonded end-anchored system. The inclusion of defined debonding criteria for both the anchorage zones and free length between the anchorage regions allowed to precisely capture the ultimate loading forces.

  1. 33 CFR 166.200 - Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Shipping safety fairways and anchorage areas, Gulf of Mexico. 166.200 Section 166.200 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY SHIPPING SAFETY FAIRWAYS Designations of Fairways and Fairway Anchorages §...

  2. Evaluation of treatment in the Smart Home IRIS in terms of functional independence and occupational performance and satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocepek, Julija; Roberts, Anne E K; Vidmar, Gaj

    2013-01-01

    The development of assistive technologies, home modifications, and smart homes has rapidly advanced in the last two decades. Health professionals have recognised the benefits of these technologies in improving individual's quality of life. The Smart Home IRIS was established in 2008 within the University Rehabilitation Institute in Ljubljana with the aim to enable persons with disabilities and elderly people to test various assistive technologies and technical solutions for their independent living. We investigated the effect of treatments in the Smart Home IRIS. A convenience sample of 59 persons with disabilities and elderly people (aged 24-81 years) who were treated in the Smart Home IRIS from April to December 2011 participated. Standardised instruments--the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM)--were administered at the first assessment in the Smart Home IRIS and at a second assessment at the participant's home after 6-12 months. All the outcomes statistically significantly improved from the first to the second assessment. The treatments in the Smart Home IRIS appeared to contribute to higher occupational performance and satisfaction with performance and higher functional independence of persons with disabilities and elderly people.

  3. Evaluation of Treatment in the Smart Home IRIS in terms of Functional Independence and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julija Ocepek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of assistive technologies, home modifications, and smart homes has rapidly advanced in the last two decades. Health professionals have recognised the benefits of these technologies in improving individual’s quality of life. The Smart Home IRIS was established in 2008 within the University Rehabilitation Institute in Ljubljana with the aim to enable persons with disabilities and elderly people to test various assistive technologies and technical solutions for their independent living. We investigated the effect of treatments in the Smart Home IRIS. A convenience sample of 59 persons with disabilities and elderly people (aged 24–81 years who were treated in the Smart Home IRIS from April to December 2011 participated. Standardised instruments—the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM—were administered at the first assessment in the Smart Home IRIS and at a second assessment at the participant’s home after 6–12 months. All the outcomes statistically significantly improved from the first to the second assessment. The treatments in the Smart Home IRIS appeared to contribute to higher occupational performance and satisfaction with performance and higher functional independence of persons with disabilities and elderly people.

  4. Structural and Functional Diversity of Plant Virus 3′-Cap-Independent Translation Enhancers (3′-CITEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Truniger

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Most of the positive-strand RNA plant viruses lack the 5′-cap and/or the poly(A-tail that act synergistically to stimulate canonical translation of cellular mRNAs. However, they have RNA elements in the 5′- or 3′-untranslated regions of their RNAs that are required for their cap-independent translation. Cap-independent translation enhancers (CITEs have been identified in the genomic 3′-end of viruses belonging to the family Tombusviridae and the genus Luteovirus. Seven classes of 3′-CITEs have been described to date based on their different RNA structures. They generally control the efficient formation of the translation initiation complex by varying mechanisms. Some 3′-CITEs bind eukaryotic translation initiation factors, others ribosomal subunits, bridging these to the 5′-end by different mechanisms, often long-distance RNA–RNA interactions. As previously proposed and recently found in one case in nature, 3′-CITEs are functionally independent elements that are transferable through recombination between viral genomes, leading to potential advantages for virus multiplication. In this review, the knowledge on 3′-CITEs and their functioning is updated. We also suggest that there is local structural conservation in the regions interacting with eIF4E of 3′-CITEs belonging to different classes.

  5. Fab-based inhibitors reveal ubiquitin independent functions for HIV Vif neutralization of APOBEC3 restriction factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Binning

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The lentiviral protein Viral Infectivity Factor (Vif counteracts the antiviral effects of host APOBEC3 (A3 proteins and contributes to persistent HIV infection. Vif targets A3 restriction factors for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation by recruiting them to a multi-protein ubiquitin E3 ligase complex. Here, we describe a degradation-independent mechanism of Vif-mediated antagonism that was revealed through detailed structure-function studies of antibody antigen-binding fragments (Fabs to the Vif complex. Two Fabs were found to inhibit Vif-mediated A3 neutralization through distinct mechanisms: shielding A3 from ubiquitin transfer and blocking Vif E3 assembly. Combined biochemical, cell biological and structural studies reveal that disruption of Vif E3 assembly inhibited A3 ubiquitination but was not sufficient to restore its packaging into viral particles and antiviral activity. These observations establish that Vif can neutralize A3 family members in a degradation-independent manner. Additionally, this work highlights the potential of Fabs as functional probes, and illuminates how Vif uses a multi-pronged approach involving both degradation dependent and independent mechanisms to suppress A3 innate immunity.

  6. Speech discrimination difficulties in High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder are likely independent of auditory hypersensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Andrew Dunlop

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD, characterised by impaired communication skills and repetitive behaviours, can also result in differences in sensory perception. Individuals with ASD often perform normally in simple auditory tasks but poorly compared to typically developed (TD individuals on complex auditory tasks like discriminating speech from complex background noise. A common trait of individuals with ASD is hypersensitivity to auditory stimulation. No studies to our knowledge consider whether hypersensitivity to sounds is related to differences in speech-in-noise discrimination. We provide novel evidence that individuals with high-functioning ASD show poor performance compared to TD individuals in a speech-in-noise discrimination task with an attentionally demanding background noise, but not in a purely energetic noise. Further, we demonstrate in our small sample that speech-hypersensitivity does not appear to predict performance in the speech-in-noise task. The findings support the argument that an attentional deficit, rather than a perceptual deficit, affects the ability of individuals with ASD to discriminate speech from background noise. Finally, we piloted a novel questionnaire that measures difficulty hearing in noisy environments, and sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds. Psychometric analysis using 128 TD participants provided novel evidence for a difference in sensitivity to non-verbal and verbal sounds, and these findings were reinforced by participants with ASD who also completed the questionnaire. The study was limited by a small and high-functioning sample of participants with ASD. Future work could test larger sample sizes and include lower-functioning ASD participants.

  7. Mini-Implants in the Anchorage Armamentarium: New Paradigms in the Orthodontics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaru Yamaguchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Paradigms have started to shift in the orthodontic world since the introduction of mini-implants in the anchorage armamentarium. Various forms of skeletal anchorage, including miniscrews and miniplates, have been reported in the literature. Recently, great emphasis has been placed on the miniscrew type of temporary anchorage device (TAD. These devices are small, are implanted with a relatively simple surgical procedure, and increase the potential for better orthodontic results. Therefore, miniscrews not only free orthodontists from anchorage-demanding cases, but they also enable clinicians to have good control over tooth movement in 3 dimensions. The miniplate type also produces significant improvements in treatment outcomes and has widened the spectrum of orthodontics. The purpose of this paper is to update clinicians on the current concepts and versatile uses and clinical applications of skeletal anchorage in orthodontics.

  8. Anchorage Failure of RC beams strengthened with FRP at the bottom face

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Täljsten, Björn; Arifovic, Fedja

    2009-01-01

    When RC beams are strengthened by FRP plates bonded to the bottom face of the beam they fail due to the lack of the mechanical anchorage of the plate. This paper shows that it is possible to relate the anchorage failure of tension face FRP-plated beams to the crack sliding capacity of the beams...... of tension face plated beams. The assumption is that the FRP-plate must be extended at least one critical anchorage length beyond the theoretical occurrence of the critical diagonal crack........ The method suggested gives the highly desirable occurrence of the critical diagonal shear crack. The occurrence of this crack is suggested as the anchorage failure mechanism of the plate. The failure load that produces the sliding in such crack is shown to be a lower bound to the anchorage failure load...

  9. The Feldenkrais Method(®) can enhance cognitive function in independent living older adults: A case-series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullmann, Gerhild; Williams, Harriet G

    2016-07-01

    Poor cognitive health a major concern of aging individuals, can compromise independent living. More than 16 million people in the United States are affected by cognitive impairment. We have studied the effects of the Feldenkrais Method(®) on cognitive function. In this case series with three participants cognitive function was assessed with the Trail Making Test A and B at baseline and after the Feldenkrais intervention. All participants improved performance on Trail Making Test A and B after completing the Feldenkrais intervention indicating that Feldenkrais lessons may offset age-related decline in cognitive function. The results of this case series warrant larger scale studies on cognitive outcomes of Feldenkrais interventions in clinical and non-clinical populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coronary Flow Reserve Predicts Cardiopulmonary Fitness in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease Independently of Systolic and Diastolic Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Snoer, Martin; Olsen, Rasmus Huan; Monk-Hansen, Tea

    2014-01-01

    Aims Despite revascularization and optimal medical treatment, patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) have reduced exercise capacity. In the absence of coronary artery stenosis, coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a measure of coronary microvascular function, and a marker of future poor outcome......–55) with documented CAD without significant left anterior descending artery (LAD) stenosis underwent cardiorespiratory exercise test with measurement of VO2peak, digital measurement of endothelial function and arterial stiffness, and an echocardiography with measurement of LVEF using the biplane Simpson model, mitral....... Conclusions Coronary flow reserve measured noninvasively predicts cardiopulmonary fitness independently of resting systolic and diastolic function in CAD patients, indicating that cardiac output during maximal exercise is dependent on the ability of the coronary circulation to adapt to the higher metabolic...

  11. Assessment of executive functioning in binge-eating disorder independent of weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eneva, Kalina T; Arlt, Jean M; Yiu, Angelina; Murray, Susan M; Chen, Eunice Y

    2017-08-01

    Executive functioning (EF) problems may serve as vulnerability or maintenance factors for Binge-Eating Disorder (BED). However, it is unclear if EF problems observed in BED are related to overweight status or BED status. The current study extends this literature by examining EF in overweight and normal-weight BED compared to weight-matched controls. Participants were normal-weight women with BED (n = 23), overweight BED (n = 32), overweight healthy controls (n = 48), and normal-weight healthy controls (n = 29). The EF battery utilized tests from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Toolbox and Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). After controlling for years of education and minority status, overweight individuals performed more poorly than normal-weight individuals on a task of cognitive flexibility requiring generativity (p < .01), and speed on psychomotor performance tasks (p = .01). Normal-weight and overweight BED performed worse on working memory tasks compared to controls (p = .04). Unexpectedly, normal-weight BED individuals out-performed all other groups on an inhibitory control task (p < .01). No significant differences were found between the four groups on tasks of planning. Regardless of weight status, BED is associated with working memory problems. Replication of the finding that normal-weight BED is associated with enhanced inhibitory control is needed. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Patients Induces an Increased Contractility in Vein Grafts Independent of Endothelial Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio Joo Turoni

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the impact of oxidative stress on vascular reactivity to vasoconstrictors and on nitric oxide (NO bioavailability in saphenous vein (SV graft with endothelial dysfunction from hypertensive patients (HT. Methods. Endothelial function, vascular reactivity, oxidative state, nitrites and NO release were studied in isolated SV rings from HT and normotensive patients (NT. Only rings with endothelial dysfunction were used. Results. HT rings presented a hyperreactivity to vasoconstrictors that was reverted by diphenylene iodonium (DPI. In NT, no effect of DPI was obtained, but Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME increased the contractile response. NO was present in SV rings without endothelial function. Nitrites were higher in NT than in HT (1066.1 ± 86.3 pmol/mg; n=11 versus 487.8 ± 51.6; n=23; P<0.01 and inhibited by nNOS inhibitor. L-arginine reversed this effect. Antioxidant agents increased nitrites and NO contents only in HT. The anti-nNOS-stained area by immunohistochemistry was higher in NT than HT. HT showed an elevation of oxidative state. Conclusions. Extraendothelial NO counter-regulates contractility in SV. However, this action could be altered in hypertensive situations by an increased oxidative stress or a decreased ability of nNOS to produce NO. Further studies should be performed to evaluate the implication of these results in graft patency rates.

  13. Reduced serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT function causes insulin resistance and hepatic steatosis independent of food intake.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoning Chen

    Full Text Available Serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT is a key regulator of serotonin neurotransmission and a major target of antidepressants. Antidepressants, such as selectively serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs, that block SERT function are known to affect food intake and body weight. Here, we provide genetic evidence that food intake and metabolism are regulated by separable mechanisms of SERT function. SERT-deficient mice ate less during both normal diet and high fat diet feeding. The reduced food intake was accompanied with markedly elevated plasma leptin levels. Despite reduced food intake, SERT-deficient mice exhibited glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, and progressively developed obesity and hepatic steatosis. Several lines of evidence indicate that the metabolic deficits of SERT-deficient mice are attributable to reduced insulin-sensitivity in peripheral tissues. First, SERT-deficient mice exhibited beta-cell hyperplasia and islet-mass expansion. Second, biochemical analyses revealed constitutively elevated JNK activity and diminished insulin-induced AKT activation in the liver of SERT-deficient mice. SERT-deficient mice exhibited hyper-JNK activity and hyperinsulinemia prior to the development of obesity. Third, enhancing AKT signaling by PTEN deficiency corrected glucose tolerance in SERT-deficient mice. These findings have potential implications for designing selective SERT drugs for weight control and the treatment of metabolic syndromes.

  14. Cooperative and independent functions of FGF and Wnt signaling during early inner ear development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Kevin D; Mahoney Rogers, Amanda A; Zhang, Jian; Shim, Katherine

    2015-10-06

    In multiple vertebrate organisms, including chick, Xenopus, and zebrafish, Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF) and Wnt signaling cooperate during formation of the otic placode. However, in the mouse, although FGF signaling induces Wnt8a expression during induction of the otic placode, it is unclear whether these two signaling pathways functionally cooperate. Sprouty (Spry) genes encode intracellular antagonists of receptor tyrosine kinase signaling, including FGF signaling. We previously demonstrated that the Sprouty1 (Spry1) and Sprouty2 (Spry2) genes antagonize FGF signaling during induction of the otic placode. Here, we investigate cross talk between FGF/SPRY and Wnt signaling during otic placode induction and assess whether these two signaling pathways functionally cooperate during early inner ear development in the mouse. Embryos were generated carrying combinations of a Spry1 null allele, Spry2 null allele, β-catenin null allele, or a Wnt reporter transgene. Otic phenotypes were assessed by in situ hybridization, semi-quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR, immunohistochemistry, and morphometric analysis of sectioned tissue. Comparison of Spry1, Spry2, and Wnt reporter expression in pre-otic and otic placode cells indicates that FGF signaling precedes and is active in more cells than Wnt signaling. We provide in vivo evidence that FGF signaling activates the Wnt signaling pathway upstream of TCF/Lef transcriptional activation. FGF regulation of Wnt signaling is functional, since early inner ear defects in Spry1 and Spry2 compound mutant embryos can be genetically rescued by reducing the activity of the Wnt signaling pathway. Interestingly, we find that although the entire otic placode increases in size in Spry1 and Spry2 compound mutant embryos, the size of the Wnt-reporter-positive domain does not increase to the same extent as the Wnt-reporter-negative domain. This study provides genetic evidence that FGF and Wnt signaling cooperate during early inner ear

  15. Left ventricular long axis function assessed during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance is an independent predictor of adverse cardiac events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangarajan, Vibhav; Chacko, Satish Jacob; Romano, Simone; Jue, Jennifer; Jariwala, Nikhil; Chung, Jaehoon; Farzaneh-Far, Afshin

    2016-06-07

    Left ventricular pump function requires a complex interplay involving myocardial fibers orientated in the longitudinal, oblique and circumferential directions. Long axis dysfunction appears to be an early marker for a number of pathological states. We hypothesized that mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) measured during cine-cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) reflects changes in long axis function and may be an early marker for adverse cardiovascular outcomes. The aims of this study were therefore: 1) To assess the feasibility and reproducibility of MAPSE measurements during routine cine-CMR; and 2) To assess whether MAPSE, as a surrogate for long axis function, is a predictor of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE). Four hundred consecutive patients undergoing CMR were prospectively enrolled. MAPSE was measured in the 4-chamber cine view. Patients were prospectively followed for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) - death, non-fatal myocardial infarction, hospitalization for heart failure or unstable angina, and late revascularization. Cox proportional hazards regression modeling was used to identify factors independently associated with MACE. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) was calculated to assess whether addition of MAPSE resulted in improved risk reclassification of MACE. Seventy-two MACE occurred during a median follow-up of 14.5 months. By Kaplan-Meier analysis, patients with lateral MAPSE cine-CMR is an independent predictor of MACE.

  16. 33 CFR 165.556 - Regulated Navigation Area; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; Chesapeake and Delaware Canal, Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. 165.556 Section 165.556 Navigation and..., Chesapeake City Anchorage Basin, MD. (a) Location. The following area is a regulated navigation area: All waters of the Chesapeake and Delaware (C & D) Canal within the anchorage basin at Chesapeake City...

  17. Scheme-Independent Series Expansions at an Infrared Zero of the Beta Function in Asymptotically Free Gauge Theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, T. A.; Shrock, R.

    2016-01-01

    We consider an asymptotically free vectorial gauge theory, with gauge group $G$ and $N_f$ fermions in a representation $R$ of $G$, having an infrared (IR) zero in the beta function at $\\alpha_{IR}$. We present general formulas for scheme-independent series expansions of quantities, evaluated...... operators up to order $\\Delta_f^3$. The results are compared with rigorous upper bounds on anomalous dimensions of operators in conformally invariant theories. Our other results include an analysis of the limit $N_c \\to \\infty$, $N_f \\to \\infty$ with $N_f/N_c$ fixed, calculation and analysis of Pad...

  18. Lithocholic acid feeding results in direct hepato-toxicity independent of neutrophil function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Benjamin L; Li, Feng; Xie, Yuchao; Farhood, Anwar; Fickert, Peter; Trauner, Michael; Jaeschke, Hartmut

    2014-07-03

    Lithocholic acid (LCA) supplementation in the diet results in intrahepatic cholestasis and bile infarcts. Previously we showed that an innate immune response is critical for cholestatic liver injury in the bile duct ligated mice. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the role of neutrophils in the mechanism of liver injury caused by feeding mice a diet containing LCA. C57BL/6 mice were given control or 1% LCA containing diet for 24-96 h and then examined for parameters of hepatotoxicity. Plasma ALT levels were significantly increased by 48 h after LCA feeding, which correlated with both neutrophil recruitment to the liver and upregulation of numerous pro-inflammatory genes. The injury was confirmed by histology. Deficiency in intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression or inhibition of neutrophil function failed to protect against the injury. Bile acid levels were quantified in plasma and bile of LCA-fed mice after 48 and 96 h. Only the observed biliary levels of taurochenodeoxycholic acid and potentially tauro-LCA caused direct cytotoxicity in mouse hepatocytes. These data support the conclusion that neutrophil recruitment occurs after the onset of bile acid-induced necrosis in LCA-fed animals, and is not a primary mechanism of cell death when cholestasis occurs through accumulation of hydrophobic bile acids. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Success rates and factors associated with failure of temporary anchorage devices: A prospective clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Shehab A; Alyan, Doha; Fayed, Mona S; Alhammadi, Maged S; Mostafa, Yehya A

    2018-03-06

    The objective of the present study was to investigate success rates and associated factors affecting temporary anchorage device (TAD) failure in different biomechanical applications. A total of 180 TADs were used as a part of 82 patients' treatment plan (24 males and 58 females); their mean age was 21.41 years. Three types of TADs were used: 50 (3M ESPE, Neuss, Germany), 56 (Bone screw; Jeil Medical, Seoul, Korea), and 74 (Morelli, Sorocaba, Brazil). Eight maxillary and four mandibular sites were selected for insertion. Three different lengths (6, 8, and 10 mm) and three different diameters (1.5, 1.6, and 1.8 mm) were used. The force levels were set at 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 g. Patient-, implant-, and operator-dependent factors were evaluated throughout the 266 days of function. Qualitative variables were described by proportions and percentages and analyzed using χ 2 test. The overall success rate was 82.2%. The higher age group showed a significantly higher success rate. Oral hygiene showed a statistically-significant (P ˂ .05) difference between both success and failure groups. All other patient-related factors showed no significant differences. Regarding force levels used, the highest success rate was in 250 g and the lowest was in 100 g. There were no significant differences between both groups regarding other implant- and operator-related factors. Temporary anchorage devices have a good success rate and are beneficial to be integrated in orthodontic treatment planning. Patient age, oral hygiene, and force level are the most significant factors affecting TAD success. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  20. 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake: a photographic tour of Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoms, Evan E.; Haeussler, Peter J.; Anderson, Rebecca D.; McGimsey, Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    On March 27, 1964, at 5:36 p.m., a magnitude 9.2 earthquake, the largest recorded earthquake in U.S. history, struck southcentral Alaska (fig. 1). The Great Alaska Earthquake (also known as the Good Friday Earthquake) occurred at a pivotal time in the history of earth science, and helped lead to the acceptance of plate tectonic theory (Cox, 1973; Brocher and others, 2014). All large subduction zone earthquakes are understood through insights learned from the 1964 event, and observations and interpretations of the earthquake have influenced the design of infrastructure and seismic monitoring systems now in place. The earthquake caused extensive damage across the State, and triggered local tsunamis that devastated the Alaskan towns of Whittier, Valdez, and Seward. In Anchorage, the main cause of damage was ground shaking, which lasted approximately 4.5 minutes. Many buildings could not withstand this motion and were damaged or collapsed even though their foundations remained intact. More significantly, ground shaking triggered a number of landslides along coastal and drainage valley bluffs underlain by the Bootlegger Cove Formation, a composite of facies containing variably mixed gravel, sand, silt, and clay which were deposited over much of upper Cook Inlet during the Late Pleistocene (Ulery and others, 1983). Cyclic (or strain) softening of the more sensitive clay facies caused overlying blocks of soil to slide sideways along surfaces dipping by only a few degrees. This guide is the document version of an interactive web map that was created as part of the commemoration events for the 50th anniversary of the 1964 Great Alaska Earthquake. It is accessible at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Alaska Science Center website: http://alaska.usgs.gov/announcements/news/1964Earthquake/. The website features a map display with suggested tour stops in Anchorage, historical photographs taken shortly after the earthquake, repeat photography of selected sites, scanned documents

  1. AKT-independent signaling downstream of oncogenic PIK3CA mutations in human cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Krishna M; Barbie, David A; Davies, Michael A; Rabinovsky, Rosalia; McNear, Chontelle J; Kim, Jessica J; Hennessy, Bryan T; Tseng, Hsiuyi; Pochanard, Panisa; Kim, So Young; Dunn, Ian F; Schinzel, Anna C; Sandy, Peter; Hoersch, Sebastian; Sheng, Qing; Gupta, Piyush B; Boehm, Jesse S; Reiling, Jan H; Silver, Serena; Lu, Yiling; Stemke-Hale, Katherine; Dutta, Bhaskar; Joy, Corwin; Sahin, Aysegul A; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana Maria; Lluch, Ana; Rameh, Lucia E; Jacks, Tyler; Root, David E; Lander, Eric S; Mills, Gordon B; Hahn, William C; Sellers, William R; Garraway, Levi A

    2009-07-07

    Dysregulation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathway occurs frequently in human cancer. PTEN tumor suppressor or PIK3CA oncogene mutations both direct PI3K-dependent tumorigenesis largely through activation of the AKT/PKB kinase. However, here we show through phosphoprotein profiling and functional genomic studies that many PIK3CA mutant cancer cell lines and human breast tumors exhibit only minimal AKT activation and a diminished reliance on AKT for anchorage-independent growth. Instead, these cells retain robust PDK1 activation and membrane localization and exhibit dependency on the PDK1 substrate SGK3. SGK3 undergoes PI3K- and PDK1-dependent activation in PIK3CA mutant cancer cells. Thus, PI3K may promote cancer through both AKT-dependent and AKT-independent mechanisms. Knowledge of differential PI3K/PDK1 signaling could inform rational therapeutics in cancers harboring PIK3CA mutations.

  2. Gummy smile and facial profile correction using miniscrew anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaku, Masato; Kojima, Shunichi; Sumi, Hiromi; Koseki, Hiroyuki; Abedini, Sara; Motokawa, Masahide; Fujita, Tadashi; Ohtani, Junji; Kawata, Toshitsugu; Tanne, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    This case report describes the treatment of a case involving a skeletal Class II facial profile with a gummy smile. While treating a facial profile and a gummy smile, the outcome may not always be successful with orthodontic therapy alone. For this reason, surgical therapy is often chosen to gain an esthetic facial profile and a good smile. However, sometimes the patients reject surgical treatment and an alternative method must be considered. Skeletal anchorage systems such as miniscrews are now frequently used for correcting severe malocclusion that should be treated by surgical therapy. In this case report, we treated a skeletal Class II malocclusion with a convex profile and a gummy smile using miniscrews, which were placed in the upper posterior and anterior areas. The active treatment period was 3.5 years, and the patient's teeth continued to be stable after a retention period of 36 months.

  3. Association of quality of life of carers with quality of life and functional independence of stroke survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepak Ganjiwale

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke has a great impact not only on patients′ but also on their caregivers′ lives. Carers may experience high levels of burden that can result in deterioration of their health status, social life, and well-being. Association between quality of life (QOL of carers and that of stroke survivors in Indian setting is not much researched. Aims and Settings: To find out QOL and mental health of caregivers of individuals with stroke visiting Physiotherapy Department of Tertiary Care Center in Western India. Design and Methodology: A cross-sectional survey to find QOL and mental health of caregiver of stroke survivors, self-administered screening instrument WHO-QOL BREF, functional independence measurement (FIM scale, and BRIEF COPE were used for data collection on adult populations. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was performed by descriptive analysis and correlation. Result: Fifty-four stroke patients and their caregivers (all adults were included in the study. Average FIM score was 83.75 (18.46 while median was 90 (25. FIM score of patients did not much affect QOL of caregivers. Discussion: Analysis of QOL data showed that QOL of caregivers was good in all domains, but patient′s QOL was good only in social relations. There was no correlation found in QOL of carers and stroke survivors. Nine percent of change in caregivers social relationship scores can be attributed to patients′ sphincter scores. Conclusion: QOL of carers and stroke survivors may be independent. Stroke patients in the study required a moderate assistance for their functional independence which does not seem to affect the caregivers QOL significantly.

  4. A Dominant Mutation in Human RAD51 Reveals Its Function in DNA Interstrand Crosslink Repair Independent of Homologous Recombination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Anderson T; Kim, Taeho; Wagner, John E; Conti, Brooke A; Lach, Francis P; Huang, Athena L; Molina, Henrik; Sanborn, Erica M; Zierhut, Heather; Cornes, Belinda K; Abhyankar, Avinash; Sougnez, Carrie; Gabriel, Stacey B; Auerbach, Arleen D; Kowalczykowski, Stephen C; Smogorzewska, Agata

    2015-08-06

    Repair of DNA interstrand crosslinks requires action of multiple DNA repair pathways, including homologous recombination. Here, we report a de novo heterozygous T131P mutation in RAD51/FANCR, the key recombinase essential for homologous recombination, in a patient with Fanconi anemia-like phenotype. In vitro, RAD51-T131P displays DNA-independent ATPase activity, no DNA pairing capacity, and a co-dominant-negative effect on RAD51 recombinase function. However, the patient cells are homologous recombination proficient due to the low ratio of mutant to wild-type RAD51 in cells. Instead, patient cells are sensitive to crosslinking agents and display hyperphosphorylation of Replication Protein A due to increased activity of DNA2 and WRN at the DNA interstrand crosslinks. Thus, proper RAD51 function is important during DNA interstrand crosslink repair outside of homologous recombination. Our study provides a molecular basis for how RAD51 and its associated factors may operate in a homologous recombination-independent manner to maintain genomic integrity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of complete functional status of patients with stroke by Functional Independence Measure scale on admission, discharge, and six months poststroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Alikhani, Ebrahim; Bayat, Masume; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Karimzadeh, Afshin

    2016-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the patients with stroke by Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale, at the times of admission to hospital, discharge, and six-month poststroke, and to determine the level of improvement in patients after rehabilitative procedures. Methods: A total number of 108 patients with stroke entered the study who were admitted to neurology ward. They all received rehabilitation consultation, and occupational and physical therapies were prescribed for them. Finally, their functional status was evaluated by FIM scale. Results: The median (and range) of FIM scores were 86 (15-119), 102 (16-123) and 119 (17-126) at admission, discharge, and after six-month follow-up, respectively. Our observations showed a significant improvement in FIM scores (P < 0.001). About 13, 30, and 76 percent of the patients in individual functional tasks of motor domain and 61, 75, and 86 percent in cognitive domain got the score of 6 or 7 (complete or partial independence) on admission, discharge, and after six months, respectively. There was a reverse correlation between age and FIM improvement and also duration of hospitalization (P = 0.002). Conclusion: The study showed that the FIM is a valid tool for evaluation of patients with stroke, their follow-up and tracking the disease course. Moreover, we concluded that patients with stroke make a significant improvement in their functional status overtime. The exact effect of rehabilitative procedures and comparison with no treatment, must be assessed in separate studies. PMID:28435628

  6. Evaluation of complete functional status of patients with stroke by Functional Independence Measure scale on admission, discharge, and six months poststroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Alikhani, Ebrahim; Bayat, Masume; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Karimzadeh, Afshin

    2016-10-07

    Background: To evaluate the patients with stroke by Functional Independence Measure (FIM) scale, at the times of admission to hospital, discharge, and six-month poststroke, and to determine the level of improvement in patients after rehabilitative procedures. Methods: A total number of 108 patients with stroke entered the study who were admitted to neurology ward. They all received rehabilitation consultation, and occupational and physical therapies were prescribed for them. Finally, their functional status was evaluated by FIM scale. Results: The median (and range) of FIM scores were 86 (15-119), 102 (16-123) and 119 (17-126) at admission, discharge, and after six-month follow-up, respectively. Our observations showed a significant improvement in FIM scores (P < 0.001). About 13, 30, and 76 percent of the patients in individual functional tasks of motor domain and 61, 75, and 86 percent in cognitive domain got the score of 6 or 7 (complete or partial independence) on admission, discharge, and after six months, respectively. There was a reverse correlation between age and FIM improvement and also duration of hospitalization (P = 0.002). Conclusion: The study showed that the FIM is a valid tool for evaluation of patients with stroke, their follow-up and tracking the disease course. Moreover, we concluded that patients with stroke make a significant improvement in their functional status overtime. The exact effect of rehabilitative procedures and comparison with no treatment, must be assessed in separate studies.

  7. Inspection Mechanism and Experimental Study of Prestressed Reverse Tension Method under PC Beam Bridge Anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhang

    2018-03-01

    the prestress under anchorage is directly related to the structural security and performance of PC beam bridge. The reverse tension method is a kind of inspection which confirms the prestress by exerting reversed tension load on the exposed prestressing tendon of beam bridge anchoring system. The thesis elaborately expounds the inspection mechanism and mechanical effect of reverse tension method, theoretically analyzes the influential elements of inspection like tool anchorage deformation, compression of conjuncture, device glide, friction of anchorage loop mouth and elastic compression of concrete, and then presents the following formula to calculate prestress under anchorage. On the basis of model experiment, the thesis systematically studies some key issues during the reverse tension process of PC beam bridge anchorage system like the formation of stress-elongation curve, influential factors, judgment method of prestress under anchorage, variation trend and compensation scale, verifies the accuracy of mechanism analysis and demonstrates: the prestress under anchorage is less than or equal to 75% of the ultimate strength of prestressing tendon, the error of inspect result is less than 1%, which can meet with the demands of construction. The research result has provided theoretical basis and technical foundation for the promotion and application of reverse tension in bridge construction.

  8. Morphologic and hemodynamic analysis of dental pulp in dogs after molar intrusion with the skeletal anchorage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Yuichi; Daimaruya, Takayoshi; Iikubo, Masahiro; Kanzaki, Reiko; Takahashi, Ichiro; Sugawara, Junji; Sasano, Takashi

    2007-08-01

    We have successfully treated skeletal open bite by intruding posterior teeth with the skeletal anchorage system. Our aim in this study was to morphologically and hemodynamically evaluate the changes in pulp tissues when molars are radically intruded. The mandibular fourth premolars of 9 adult beagle dogs were divided into 3 groups: a sham operated group (n = 6, 3 dogs), 4-month intrusion group (n = 6, 3 dogs), and a further 4-month retention group (n = 6, 3 dogs). We evaluated the morphological changes of the pulp and dentin-the amount of vacuolar degeneration in the odontoblast layer, the predentin width and nervous continuity in the pulp tissue, and the pulpal blood-flow response evoked by electrical stimulation in the dental pulp. Extreme molar intrusion with the skeletal anchorage system caused slight degenerative changes in the pulp tissue, followed by recovery after the orthodontic force was released. Circulatory system and nervous functions were basically maintained during the intrusion, although a certain level of downregulation was observed. These morphologic and functional regressive changes in the pulp tissue after molar intrusion improved during the retention period. Histologic changes and changes in pulpal blood flow and function are reversible, even during radical intrusion of molars.

  9. Establishing score equivalence of the Functional Independence Measure motor scale and the Barthel Index, utilising the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health and Rasch measurement theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prodinger, Birgit; O'Connor, Rory J; Stucki, Gerold; Tennant, Alan

    2017-05-16

    Two widely used outcome measures to assess functioning in neurological rehabilitation are the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™) and the Barthel Index. The current study aims to establish the equivalence of the total score of the FIM™ motor scale and the Barthel Index through the application of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health, and Rasch measurement theory. Secondary analysis of a large sample of patients with stroke, spinal cord injury, and multiple sclerosis, undergoing rehabilitation was conducted. All patients were assessed at the same time on both the FIM™ and the Barthel Index. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Linking Rules were used to establish conceptual coherency between the 2 scales, and the Rasch measurement model to establish an exchange of the total scores. Using the FIM™ motor scale, items from both scales linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health d4 Mobility or d5 Self-care chapters. Their co-calibration satisfied the assumptions of the Rasch model for each of 3 diagnostic groups. A ceiling effect was observed for the Barthel Index when contrasted against the FIM™ motor scale. Having a Rasch interval metric to transform scores between the FIM™ motor scale and Barthel Index is valuable for monitoring functioning, meta-analysis, quality audits and hospital benchmarking.

  10. The nutrient transceptor/PKA pathway functions independently of TOR and responds to leucine and Gcn2 in a TOR-independent manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Michaela; Kankipati, Harish Nag; Kimpe, Marlies; Van Zeebroeck, Griet; Zhang, Zhiqiang; Thevelein, Johan M

    2017-08-01

    Two nutrient-controlled signalling pathways, the PKA and TOR pathway, play a major role in nutrient regulation of growth as well as growth-correlated properties in yeast. The relationship between the two pathways is not well understood. We have used Gap1 and Pho84 transceptor-mediated activation of trehalase and phosphorylation of fragmented Sch9 as a read-out for rapid nutrient activation of PKA or TORC1, respectively. We have identified conditions in which L-citrulline-induced activation of Sch9 phosphorylation is compromised, but not activation of trehalase: addition of the TORC1 inhibitor, rapamycin and low levels of L-citrulline. The same disconnection was observed for phosphate activation in phosphate-starved cells. The leu2 auxotrophic mutation reduces amino acid activation of trehalase, which is counteracted by deletion of GCN2. Both effects were also independent of TORC1. Our results show that rapid activation of the TOR pathway by amino acids is not involved in rapid activation of the PKA pathway and that effects of Gcn2 inactivation as well as leu2 auxotrophy all act independently of the TOR pathway. Hence, rapid nutrient signalling to PKA and TOR in cells arrested by nutrient starvation acts through parallel pathways. © FEMS 2017.

  11. Adapted Tango Improves Mobility, Motor-Cognitive Function, and Gait but Not Cognition in Older Adults in Independent Living.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackney, Madeleine E; Byers, Colleen; Butler, Gail; Sweeney, Morgan; Rossbach, Lauren; Bozzorg, Aaron

    2015-10-01

    To determine the efficacy of adapted tango for improving mobility, motor-cognitive function, and gait; to determine whether former dance experience was associated with improvements; and to evaluate participant satisfaction, changes in depression, and quality of life. Quasi-experimental, two-group, repeated-measures preintervention, postintervention, and 3-month postintervention study. Diverse senior independent living communities in an urban metropolitan area. Individuals aged 59 to 95 (73% aged 80 and older; 31% nonwhite, 72% female) (N = 74). Participants were assigned to 20 sessions of 90-minute tango (n = 62) or health education (n = 12) classes over 12 weeks. Mobility, motor-cognitive function, gait, cognition, and psychosocial function were evaluated before, immediately after, and 3 months after the intervention. Two (groups) by two (before and after) repeated-measures analyses of variance with post hoc comparisons were used to evaluate differences in primary analyses. Secondary analyses from immediately after to 3 months after were used to examine the data for retention of any gains. Forty-four tango and 10 education participants completed 20 sessions. Significant group by time interactions revealed that tango improved mobility (P = .006), backward and fast gait speeds (P cognitive function (P = .03). Education improved depression (P = .001). No relationship was noted between previous dance experience and improvements. Gains were maintained 3 months after the intervention. Adapted tango may improve mobility, gait and motor-cognitive function more than health education classes in older adults. Further research is necessary to confirm these findings. © 2015, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2015, The American Geriatrics Society.

  12. Metacognition moderates the relationship between dysfunctional self-appraisal and social functioning in prolonged schizophrenia independent of psychopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Alison V; Hasson-Ohayon, Ilanit; Vohs, Jenifer; Minor, Kyle S; Leonhardt, Bethany L; Buck, Kelly D; George, Sunita; Lysaker, Paul H

    2016-08-01

    Both dysfunctional self-appraisal and metacognitive deficits, or impairments in the ability to form complex and integrated ideas about oneself and others, may contribute to social deficits in schizophrenia. Little is known, however, about how they interact with each other. In this study, we examined the hypothesis that both higher metacognition and more positive self-appraisal are necessary for increased social functioning. Concurrent assessments of self-appraisal, metacognition, and social functioning were gathered from 66 adults with schizophrenia in a non-acute phase of disorder. Three forms of self-appraisal were used: self-esteem, hope and self-efficacy. Metacognition was assessed using the Metacognitive Assessment Scale-Abbreviated, and social functioning with the Quality of Life Scale. Measures of psychopathology, neurocognition and social cognition were also gathered for use as potential covariates. A single index of self-appraisal was generated from subjecting the assessments of self-appraisal to a principal components analysis. Linear regression analyses revealed that after controlling for severity of psychopathology, metacognition moderated the effect of the self-appraisal factor score upon social functioning. A median split of metacognition and the self-appraisal index yielded four groups. ANCOVA analyses revealed that participants with higher levels of metacognition and more positive self-appraisal had greater capacities for social relatedness than all other participants, regardless of levels of positive and negative symptoms. Correlational analyses revealed that metacognition but not self-appraisal was related to the frequencies of social contact independent of the effects of psychopathology. Assessments of social cognition and neurocognition were not significantly linked with social dysfunction. Greater social functioning is made possible by a combination of both more positive self-appraisals and greater metacognitive capacity. Individuals with

  13. Upper extremity function in persons with tetraplegia: relationships between strength, capacity, and the spinal cord independence measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudhe, Claudia; van Hedel, Hubertus J A

    2009-06-01

    To quantify the relationship between the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM III), arm and hand muscle strength, and hand function tests in persons with tetraplegia. A total of 29 individuals with tetraplegia (motor level between cervical 4 and thoracic 1; sensory-motor complete and incomplete) participated. The total score, category scores, and separate items of the SCIM III were compared to the upper extremity motor score (UEMS), an extended manual muscle test (MMT) for 11 upper extremity muscles, and 6 functional capacity tests of the hand. Spearman's correlation coefficients (r(s)) and regression analyses were performed. The SCIM III sum score correlated well with the sum scores of the 3 tests (r(s) > or = .76). The SCIM III self-care category correlated better with the tests ( r(s) > or = .80) compared to the other categories (r( s) SCIM III self-care item "grooming" highly correlated with muscle strength and hand capacity items (r(s) > or = .80). A combination of hand muscle tests and the key grasping task explained over 90% of the variability in the self-care category scores. The SCIM III self-care category reflects upper extremity performance as it contains especially useful and valid items that relate to upper extremity function and capacity tests.

  14. Association of ideomotor apraxia with lesion site, etiology, neglect, and functional independence in patients with first ever stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Civelek, Gul Mete; Atalay, Ayce; Turhan, Nur

    2015-04-01

    Ideomotor apraxia (IMA) is characterized by the inability to correctly imitate hand gestures and voluntarily pantomime tool use. The relationship between IMA and characteristics of stroke has not been totally elucidated. This study aimed to find out associations between presence of IMA and stroke etiology, site of the lesions, neglect, and temporal and functional parameters of stroke in patients with first ever stroke. Thirty-nine patients with first ever stroke were included. Patients with severe cognitive deficits were excluded. Assessment tools included Ideomotor Apraxia Test, Functional Independence Measure (FIM), Brunnstrom recovery stages, Mini Mental Test (MMT), and star cancellation test. Etiology (hemorrhagic or ischemic) and site of stroke was assessed through brain imaging methods. Location and size of ischemic lesion was determined by using the Oxfordshire Community Stroke Project system. IMA was identified in 35.9% of the patients. Patients with IMA had significantly lower FIM scores both on admission and discharge (P = 0.001, P = 0.001). Presence of IMA was significantly associated with the presence of neglect (P = 0.004), total anterior circulation ischemia (TACI) (P stroke etiology had no impact on the presence of IMA. IMA was in concordance with poor cognitive and functional state and was not limited to left hemisphere lesions. The study revealed strong associations between IMA, neglect, and TACI. Every patient with stroke should be evaluated for the presence of IMA on admission to rehabilitation unit.

  15. Deriving a Barthel Index from the Northwick Park Dependency Scale and the Functional Independence Measure: are they equivalent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Williams, Heather; Rose, Hilary; Harris, Sarah; Jackson, Diana

    2010-12-01

    to examine the extent of agreement between Barthel Index scores derived from Northwick Park Dependency Scores (NPDS) and the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) ratings, in an inpatient setting. previously described conversion criteria were applied in a secondary analysis of a large existing dataset, gathered in a tertiary specialist inpatient neurorehabilitation unit. patients with neurological disabilities (N = 1347), mainly following acquired brain injury. comparison of Barthel scores derived from the NPDS (rated by nursing staff) and from parallel FIM scores (rated by the therapy team). very strong intraclass correlations were observed between the total scores (0.93, PBarthel Index ratings derived from NPDS and FIM scores. However, scores may be affected by differential performance with nursing and therapy staff, and should not automatically be regarded as equivalent.

  16. Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol suppresses cytotoxic T lymphocyte function independent of CB1 and CB 2, disrupting early activation events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmaus, Peer W F; Chen, Weimin; Kaplan, Barbara L F; Kaminski, Norbert E

    2012-12-01

    Previously, CD8(+) T cells were found to be a sensitive target for suppression by Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) in a murine model of influenza infection. To study the effect of Δ(9)-THC on CD8(+) cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), an allogeneic model of MHC I mismatch was used to elicit CTL. In addition, to determine the requirement for the cannabinoid receptors 1 (CB(1)) and 2 (CB(2)) in Δ(9)-THC-mediated CTL response modulation, mice null for both receptors were used (CB(1) (-/-)CB(2) (-/-)). Δ(9)-THC suppressed CTL function independent of CB(1) and CB(2) as evidenced by reduction of (51)Cr release by CTL generated from CB(1) (-/-)CB(2) (-/-) mice. Furthermore, viability in CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner with Δ(9)-THC, independent of CB(1) and CB(2), but no effect of Δ(9)-THC on proliferation was observed, suggesting that Δ(9)-THC decreases the number of T cells initially activated. Δ(9)-THC increased expression of the activation markers, CD69 in CD8(+) cells and CD25 in CD4(+) cells in a concentration-dependent manner in cells derived from WT and CB(1) (-/-)CB(2) (-/-) mice. Furthermore, Δ(9)-THC synergized with the calcium ionophore, ionomycin, to increase CD69 expression on both CD4(+) and CD8(+) cells. In addition, without stimulation, Δ(9)-THC increased CD69 expression in CD8(+) cells from CB(1) (-/-)CB(2) (-/-) and WT mice. Overall, these results suggest that CB(1) and CB(2) are dispensable for Δ(9)-THC-mediated suppression and that perturbation of Ca(2+) signals during T cell activation plays an important role in the mechanism by which Δ(9)-THC suppresses CTL function.

  17. Independent component analysis using prior information for signal detection in a functional imaging system of the retina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barriga, E Simon; Pattichis, Marios; Ts'o, Dan; Abramoff, Michael; Kardon, Randy; Kwon, Young; Soliz, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a statistical technique that estimates a set of sources mixed by an unknown mixing matrix using only a set of observations. For this purpose, the only assumption is that the sources are statistically independent. In many applications, some information about the nature of the unknown signals is available. In this paper we show a method for incorporating prior information about the mixing matrix to increase the levels of detection of responses to visual stimuli. Experimentally, our method matches the performance of known ICA algorithms for high SNR and can greatly improve the performance for low levels of SNR or low levels of signal-to-background ratio (SBR). For the problem of signal extraction, we have achieved detection for signals as small as 0.01% (-40 dB SBR) in hybrid live/synthetic data simulations. In experiments using a functional imager of the retina, measured changes in reflectance in response to visual stimulus are in the order of 0.1-1% of the total pixel intensity value, which makes the functional signal difficult to detect by standard methods. The results of the analysis show that using ICA-P signal levels of 0.1% can be detected. The approach also generalizes the standard Infomax algorithm which can be thought of as a special case of ICA-P when the confidence parameter or a tolerance value is zero. For in vivo animal experiments, we show that signal detection agreement over a range of confidence values parameters can be used to establish reflectance changes in response to the visual stimulus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Functional Reserve: Experience Participating in Instrumental Activities of Daily Living is Associated with Gender and Functional Independence in Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berezuk, Courtney; Zakzanis, Konstantine K; Ramirez, Joel; Ruocco, Anthony C; Edwards, Jodi D; Callahan, Brandy L; Black, Sandra E

    2017-01-01

    Gender differences in instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease may be explained by gender differences in IADL involvement. We introduce a novel theoretical construct, termed functional reserve, and empirically examine gender differences in IADL experience as a proxy of this reserve. We cross-sectionally examined men (n = 502) and women (n = 340) with MCI from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Demographic factors, depressive symptoms, neuropsychological scores, and IADL experience were included as independent variables and total Functional Activities Questionnaire (FAQ) scores as the dependent variable. Regression analyses were performed on the full cohort and stratified by gender to identify differential predictive relationships for men and women. Gender was associated with total FAQ (p cognitive measures accounted for the most variance in functional dependence (12% explained, p reserve. This concept of functional reserve may have implications for identifying individuals at risk for IADL dependence, preventing or delaying decline, and potentially treating functional impairment.

  19. 77 FR 5743 - Special Anchorage Areas; Port of New York, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-06

    ... along the shoreline they fall within the jurisdiction of the States of New Jersey and New York. Both New... special anchorage areas in Sheepshead Bay, NY. We expect minimal additional cost impacts on the tug and...

  20. Calculation of absorbed dose of anchorage-dependent cells from internal beta-rays irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Jianwei; Huang Gang; Li Shijun

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To elicit the formula of internal dosimetry in anchorage-dependent cells by beta-emitting radionuclides from uniformly distributed volume sources. Methods: By means of the definition of absorbed dose and the MIRD (Medical International Radiation Dose) scheme the formula of internal dosimetry was reasonably deduced. Firstly, studying the systems of suspension culture cells. Then, taking account of the speciality of the systems of the anchorage-dependent cells and the directions of irradiation, the absorbed dose of anchorage -dependent cells was calculated by the accumulated radioactivity, beta-ray energy, and the volume of the cultured systems. Results: The formula of internal dosimetry of suspension culture cells and anchorage-dependent cells were achieved. At the same time, the formula of internal dosimetry of suspension culture cells was compared with that of MIRD and was confirmed accurate. Conclusion: The formula of internal dosimetry is concise, reliable and accurate

  1. Functional independence: A comparison of the changes during neurorehabilitation between patients with non-traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage and intracerebral hemorrhage or acute ischemic stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stabel, Henriette Holm; Pedersen, Asger Roer; Johnsen, Søren Paaske

    2017-01-01

    Objective To compare the changes in functional independence measured by the FIM after specialized neurorehabilitation between patients with nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) or acute ischemic stroke (AIS). Design Historical cohort study...

  2. Transfer and anchorage bond behaviour in self-compacting concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rigueira-Víctor, J. W.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Self-compacting concretes (SCC provide solutions to the problems facing precast concrete construction, enhancing competitiveness, reducing turnaround times and improving final product quality. SCC is fast becoming a key product for the future development of the precast pre-stressed concrete industry.The present paper compares the bond performance of SCC and traditional concrete (TC. The bond performance results confirm the viability of SCC in precast pre-stressed concrete manufacture, despite a slightly higher loss of pre-stressing force and slightly greater anchorage lengths in SCC with a low water/cement ratio. No differences in transfer or anchorage length were detected,however, when high strength TC and SCC were compared. The ECADA test method proved to be well suited to detecting the differences between the concretes analyzed.El desarrollo de los hormigones autocompactantes (SCCofrece muchas posibilidades a las construcciones con hormigón prefabricado, aumentando su competitividad, reduciéndolos plazos de fabricación y ofreciendo mejoras en la calidad del producto final. El SCC se está convirtiendo en un producto clave para el futuro desarrollo de la industria de prefabricados de hormigón pretensado.En este estudio se compara el comportamiento adherente de los SCC con el de los hormigones tradicionales (TC actuales. Los resultados obtenidos confirman la viabilidad del uso de los SCC para la fabricación de elementos prefabricados con hormigón pretensado, en lo relativo a su comportamiento adherente, aunque con la necesidad de considerar unas pérdidas de pretensado ligeramente mayores. Asimismo,debe esperarse un ligero aumento de las longitudes de anclaje cuando se trabaje con SCC de baja relación agua/cemento. Sin embargo, no se han detectado diferencias de comportamiento entre ambos tipos de hormigón cuando la resistencia a compresión es alta en lo relativo a las longitudes de transmisión y anclaje. El método de ensayo ECADA

  3. Lingual orthodontic treatment and absolute anchorage to correct an impacted maxillary canine in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaushu, Stella; Becker, Adrian; Chaushu, Gavriel

    2008-12-01

    There are 2 major drawbacks to the classic orthodontic-surgical approach for resolution of impacted teeth in adults: appearance and duration of treatment. This case report illustrates the lingual orthodontic treatment of an adult with an impacted maxillary canine; absolute anchorage was achieved with a miniscrew placed in the palate. The combination of invisible appliances and a nondental anchorage system is particularly useful in adults and should make treatment available to more patients.

  4. Concrete Growth and Fatigue Analysis of Chickamauga Lock Miter Gate Anchorages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-19

    ER D C TR -1 7- 10 Concrete Growth and Fatigue Analysis of Chickamauga Lock Miter Gate Anchorages En gi ne er R es ea rc h an d D...default. ERDC TR-17-10 September 2017 Concrete Growth and Fatigue Analysis of Chickamauga Lock Miter Gate Anchorages Matthew D. Smith, Allen...failure is expected. This analysis included a review of existing structural analysis reports, estimates and prediction of observed concrete growth in

  5. 78 FR 9811 - Anchorages; Captain of the Port Puget Sound Zone, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-12

    ... area with a radius of 600 yards, having its center at 48 31'09'' N, 122 34'55'' W. (11) Cap Sante Tug and Barge General Anchorage. The Cap Sante Tug and Barge General Anchorage includes all waters... northeast tip of Cap Sante; then southeast to 48 30'53'' N, 122 35'28'' W; then west southwest to 48 30'45...

  6. Maxillary protraction at early ages. The revolution of new bone anchorage appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano-Mendoza, B; Iglesias-Linares, A; Yañez-Vico, R M; Mendoza-Mendoza, A; Alió-Sanz, J J; Solano-Reina, E

    2012-01-01

    An update is provided on the different types of early treatment for class III malocclusions of maxillary origin. There is an increasing tendency to prescribe maxillary orthopedic treatment with skeletal anchorage, with the purpose of enhancing the skeletal and reducing the dentoalveolar effects--offering a management option for children with important deformations that otherwise would have to wait until adult age to receive surgical treatment. A literature review has been made of maxillary bone orthopedic traction appliances in growing children with class III malocclusions. A Medline (PubMed) search was made using the following MeSH terms: Cephalometric, Child, Malocclusion class III/therapy, Extraoral traction appliances, Palatal expansion, Bone plates, Skeletal anchorage, Orthodontic anchorage. Many articles show that the greatest maxillary advances are obtained at very early ages, though with a greater tendency towards relapse. However skeletal anchorage has been seen to afford a lesser relapse rate and greater dentofacial orthopedic efficiency due to its low dentoalveolar impact. In any case, further randomized clinical studies are needed to firmly establish the quantifiable differences in terms of maxillary advance, optimum traction age, optimum traction appliance and potential side effects. At present, the incorporation of surgically inserted bone anchorage appliances (miniplates and miniscrews) offers a purely orthopedic approach to treatment, with minimization of the undesirable side effects of traditional dentofacial orthopedic compensation based on dentoalveolar anchorage. Nevertheless, further studies are needed to consolidate the supporting scientific evidence in this field.

  7. Drosophila Clock Is Required in Brain Pacemaker Neurons to Prevent Premature Locomotor Aging Independently of Its Circadian Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra Vaccaro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Circadian clocks control many self-sustained rhythms in physiology and behavior with approximately 24-hour periodicity. In many organisms, oxidative stress and aging negatively impact the circadian system and sleep. Conversely, loss of the clock decreases resistance to oxidative stress, and may reduce lifespan and speed up brain aging and neurodegeneration. Here we examined the effects of clock disruptions on locomotor aging and longevity in Drosophila. We found that lifespan was similarly reduced in three arrhythmic mutants (ClkAR, cyc0 and tim0 and in wild-type flies under constant light, which stops the clock. In contrast, ClkAR mutants showed significantly faster age-related locomotor deficits (as monitored by startle-induced climbing than cyc0 and tim0, or than control flies under constant light. Reactive oxygen species accumulated more with age in ClkAR mutant brains, but this did not appear to contribute to the accelerated locomotor decline of the mutant. Clk, but not Cyc, inactivation by RNA interference in the pigment-dispersing factor (PDF-expressing central pacemaker neurons led to similar loss of climbing performance as ClkAR. Conversely, restoring Clk function in these cells was sufficient to rescue the ClkAR locomotor phenotype, independently of behavioral rhythmicity. Accelerated locomotor decline of the ClkAR mutant required expression of the PDF receptor and correlated to an apparent loss of dopaminergic neurons in the posterior protocerebral lateral 1 (PPL1 clusters. This neuronal loss was rescued when the ClkAR mutation was placed in an apoptosis-deficient background. Impairing dopamine synthesis in a single pair of PPL1 neurons that innervate the mushroom bodies accelerated locomotor decline in otherwise wild-type flies. Our results therefore reveal a novel circadian-independent requirement for Clk in brain circadian neurons to maintain a subset of dopaminergic cells and avoid premature locomotor aging in Drosophila.

  8. Virtual planning for vertical control using temporary anchorage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Accorsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The new and innovative technologies are unprecedentedly improving the level of proficiency in orthodontics in the recent history of this area of expertise. The proliferation of advances, such as self-ligating systems, temporary anchorage devices, shape-memory wires, robotically wire bending, intraoral scanners, cone-beam computed tomography, bring the virtual planning, and confection of dental devices through CAD/CAM systems to the real world. In order to get efficiency and efficacy in orthodontics with these new technologies, we must understand the importance of systemically managed clinical information, medical, and dentistry history of the patients, including the images resources, which ensures the use of a communication that is assisted by the technology, with an interdisciplinary team so that the database is able to help and support the process of therapeutic decision-making. This paper presents the clinical case of a borderline patient for orthognathic surgery who had his final treatment planning supported by these new tools for three-dimensional diagnosis and virtual planning.

  9. Using the Spinal Cord Independence Measure III to measure functional recovery in a post-acute spinal cord injury program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackerman, P; Morrison, S A; McDowell, S; Vazquez, L

    2010-05-01

    A prospective design was conducted using admission and discharge Spinal Cord Independence Measure III (SCIM-III) data for persons discharged from a post-acute rehabilitation program. The purpose of this study is to analyze the functional gains as measured by the SCIM-III that occur during a post-acute rehabilitation program. Shepherd Center, Atlanta, GA, USA. Participants were included if they had a motor complete spinal cord injury (SCI), were within 12 months from the date of injury and completed the recommended length of stay. Median SCIM-III changes between admission and discharge were calculated by subgroups (C1-4, C5, C6, C7-8, T1-6 and T7-12) based on the American Spinal Injury Association motor injury levels. Ceiling and floor effects were examined by item and the percentage of participants showing change between admission and discharge were calculated. In all, 114 participants were included in the analysis. The median total SCIM-III score at admission was 42 (range 13-68), whereas the median total SCIM-III score at discharge was 50 (range 16-72). The median improvement of 5 points in total SCIM-III score between admission and discharge was statistically significant. Significant improvements were also observed between admission and discharge across all subgroups except C1-4. Ceiling and floor effects were noted in some subgroups. The SCIM-III seems to be an effective measure for functional assessment of persons with SCI in a post-acute rehabilitation program. There are some ceiling and floor effects noted; however, the SCIM-III seems to be sensitive enough to capture functional changes during a post-acute rehabilitation program.

  10. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongjie; Wang, Peipei; Wang, Guang-Chuan; Yang, Jie; Sun, Xianlin; Wu, Wenzhe; Qiu, Yang; Shu, Ting; Zhao, Xiaolu; Yin, Lei; Qin, Cheng-Feng; Hu, Yuanyang; Zhou, Xi

    2015-01-01

    RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71), which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3′-to-5′ unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16), another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings increase our

  11. Human Enterovirus Nonstructural Protein 2CATPase Functions as Both an RNA Helicase and ATP-Independent RNA Chaperone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongjie Xia

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available RNA helicases and chaperones are the two major classes of RNA remodeling proteins, which function to remodel RNA structures and/or RNA-protein interactions, and are required for all aspects of RNA metabolism. Although some virus-encoded RNA helicases/chaperones have been predicted or identified, their RNA remodeling activities in vitro and functions in the viral life cycle remain largely elusive. Enteroviruses are a large group of positive-stranded RNA viruses in the Picornaviridae family, which includes numerous important human pathogens. Herein, we report that the nonstructural protein 2CATPase of enterovirus 71 (EV71, which is the major causative pathogen of hand-foot-and-mouth disease and has been regarded as the most important neurotropic enterovirus after poliovirus eradication, functions not only as an RNA helicase that 3'-to-5' unwinds RNA helices in an adenosine triphosphate (ATP-dependent manner, but also as an RNA chaperone that destabilizes helices bidirectionally and facilitates strand annealing and complex RNA structure formation independently of ATP. We also determined that the helicase activity is based on the EV71 2CATPase middle domain, whereas the C-terminus is indispensable for its RNA chaperoning activity. By promoting RNA template recycling, 2CATPase facilitated EV71 RNA synthesis in vitro; when 2CATPase helicase activity was impaired, EV71 RNA replication and virion production were mostly abolished in cells, indicating that 2CATPase-mediated RNA remodeling plays a critical role in the enteroviral life cycle. Furthermore, the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities of 2CATPase are also conserved in coxsackie A virus 16 (CAV16, another important enterovirus. Altogether, our findings are the first to demonstrate the RNA helicase and chaperoning activities associated with enterovirus 2CATPase, and our study provides both in vitro and cellular evidence for their potential roles during viral RNA replication. These findings

  12. The H-Function and Probability Density Functions of Certain Algebraic Combinations of Independent Random Variables with H-Function Probability Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-05-01

    functions and the H- function," Boletin do la Academia de Ciencias Fisicas Matematicas v Naturales (Caracas), 31, 95- 102 (1971). 120. Jain, U. C...Society, 37, 329- 334 (1973). 32. Oliver, M. L., and S. L. Kalla, "On the derivative of Fox’s H- function," (Spanish) Acta 14,dlcana de Ciencia -v...34 Universidade de Lisboa Revista de Faculdade de Ciencias FMatematicas, II, Series A, 13, 109-114 (1969-70). 92. Bajpai, S. D., "On some results involving Fox’s H

  13. Cross-diagnostic validity in a generic instrument: an example from the Functional Independence Measure in Scandinavia

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    Grimby G

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To analyse the cross-diagnostic validity of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM™ motor items in patients with spinal cord injury, stroke and traumatic brain injury and the comparability of summed scores between these diagnoses. Methods Data from 471 patients on FIM™ motor items at admission (stroke 157, spinal cord injury 157 and traumatic brain injury 157, age range 11–90 years and 70 % male in nine rehabilitation facilities in Scandinavia, were fitted to the Rasch model. A detailed analysis of scoring functions of the seven categories of the FIM™ motor items was made prior to testing fit to the model. Categories were re-scored where necessary. Fit to the model was assessed initially within diagnosis and then in the pooled data. Analysis of Differential Item Functioning (DIF was undertaken in the pooled data for the FIM™ motor scale. Comparability of sum scores between diagnoses was tested by Test Equating. Results The present seven category scoring system for the FIM™ motor items was found to be invalid, necessitating extensive rescoring. Despite rescoring, the item-trait interaction fit statistic was significant and two individual items showed misfit to the model, Eating and Bladder management. DIF was also found for Spinal Cord Injury, compared with the other two diagnoses. After adjustment, it was possible to make appropriate comparisons of sum scores between the three diagnoses. Conclusion The seven-category response function is a problem for the FIM™ instrument, and a reduction of responses might increase the validity of the instrument. Likewise, the removal of items that do not fit the underlying trait would improve the validity of the scale in these groups. Cross-diagnostic DIF is also a problem but for clinical use sum scores on group data in a generic instrument such as the FIM™ can be compared with appropriate adjustments. Thus, when planning interventions (group or individual, developing

  14. SmD1 Modulates the miRNA Pathway Independently of Its Pre-mRNA Splicing Function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Peng Xiong

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available microRNAs (miRNAs are a class of endogenous regulatory RNAs that play a key role in myriad biological processes. Upon transcription, primary miRNA transcripts are sequentially processed by Drosha and Dicer ribonucleases into ~22-24 nt miRNAs. Subsequently, miRNAs are incorporated into the RNA-induced silencing complexes (RISCs that contain Argonaute (AGO family proteins and guide RISC to target RNAs via complementary base pairing, leading to post-transcriptional gene silencing by a combination of translation inhibition and mRNA destabilization. Select pre-mRNA splicing factors have been implicated in small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways in fission yeast, worms, flies and mammals, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Here, we show that SmD1, a core component of the Drosophila small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle (snRNP implicated in splicing, is required for miRNA biogenesis and function. SmD1 interacts with both the microprocessor component Pasha and pri-miRNAs, and is indispensable for optimal miRNA biogenesis. Depletion of SmD1 impairs the assembly and function of the miRISC without significantly affecting the expression of major canonical miRNA pathway components. Moreover, SmD1 physically and functionally associates with components of the miRISC, including AGO1 and GW182. Notably, miRNA defects resulting from SmD1 silencing can be uncoupled from defects in pre-mRNA splicing, and the miRNA and splicing machineries are physically and functionally distinct entities. Finally, photoactivatable-ribonucleoside-enhanced crosslinking and immunoprecipitation (PAR-CLIP analysis identifies numerous SmD1-binding events across the transcriptome and reveals direct SmD1-miRNA interactions. Our study suggests that SmD1 plays a direct role in miRNA-mediated gene silencing independently of its pre-mRNA splicing activity and indicates that the dual roles of splicing factors in post-transcriptional gene regulation may be

  15. Estrogen Therapy, Independent of Timing, Improves Cardiac Structure and Function in Oophorectomized mRen2.Lewis Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessup, Jewell A.; Wang, Hao; MacNamara, Lindsay M.; Presley, Tennille D.; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B.; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Alex F.; Groban, Leanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective mRen2.Lewis Rats exhibit exacerbated increases in blood pressure, left ventricular (LV) remodeling, and diastolic impairment following the loss of estrogens. In this same model, depletion of estrogens has marked effects on the cardiac biopterin profile concomitant with suppressed nitric oxide (NO) release. With respect to the establishment of overt systolic hypertension after oophorectomy (OVX), we assessed the effects of timing chronic 17 β-estradiol (E2) therapy on myocardial function, structure, and the cardiac NO system. Methods Oophrectomy (OVX; n=24) or sham-operation (Sham; n=13) was performed in 4-week-old, female mRen2.Lewis rats. Following randomization, OVX rats received E2 immediately (OVX + early E2; n=7), E2 at 11 weeks of age (OVX + late E2 N=8), or no E2 at all (OVX N=9). Results Early E2 was associated with lower body weight, less hypertension-related cardiac remodeling, and decreased LV filling pressure compared to OVX rats without E2 supplementation. Late E2 similarly attenuated the adverse effects of ovarian hormone loss on tissue-Doppler derived LV filling pressures and perivascular fibrosis, and significantly improved myocardial relaxation, or mitral annular velocity (e′). Early and late exposure to E2 decreased dihydrobiopterin, but only late E2 yielded significant increases in cardiac nitrite concentrations. Conclusions Although there were some similarities between early and late E2 treatment on preservation of diastolic function and cardiac structure after OVX, the lusitropic potential of E2 was most consistent with late supplementation. The cardioprotective effects of late E2 were independent of blood pressure and may have occurred through regulation of cardiac biopterins and NO production. PMID:23481117

  16. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline; Sun, Jianmin; Jögi, Annika; Neumann, Drorit; Rönnstrand, Lars; Påhlman, Sven

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα + ) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells

  17. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the lifestyle Interventions and Independence for elders (LIFE) study physical activity intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeski, W Jack; Axtell, Robert; Fielding, Roger; Katula, Jeffrey; King, Abby C; Manini, Todd M; Marsh, Anthony P; Pahor, Marco; Rego, Alvito; Tudor-Locke, Catrine; Newman, Mark; Walkup, Michael P; Miller, Michael E

    2013-01-01

    The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE) Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500) that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA) on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old) who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants’ motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of participants noted slight conflict with being able to meet the demands of the program and 6.4% indicated that the degree of conflict would be moderate. Accelerometry data collected during PA training revealed that the average intensity – 1,555 counts/minute for men and 1,237 counts/minute for women – was well below the cutoff point used to classify exercise as being of moderate intensity or higher for adults. Also, a sizable subgroup required one or more rest stops. These data illustrate that it is not feasible to have a single exercise prescription for older adults with compromised function. Moreover, the concept of what constitutes “moderate” exercise or an appropriate volume of work is dictated by the physical capacities of each individual and the level of comfort/stability in actually executing a specific prescription. PMID:24049442

  18. EPO-independent functional EPO receptor in breast cancer enhances estrogen receptor activity and promotes cell proliferation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinbothe, Susann; Larsson, Anna-Maria; Vaapil, Marica; Wigerup, Caroline [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Sun, Jianmin [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); Jögi, Annika [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Neumann, Drorit [Department of Cell and Developmental Biology, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel); Rönnstrand, Lars [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); Påhlman, Sven, E-mail: sven.pahlman@med.lu.se [Department of Laboratory Medicine, Translational Cancer Research, Medicon Village, Lund University, SE-223 81 Lund (Sweden); CREATE Health, Sackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv (Israel)

    2014-02-28

    Highlights: • New anti-human EPOR antibody confirms full-length EPOR expression in breast cancer cells. • Proliferation of breast cancer cells is not affected by rhEPO treatment in vitro. • EPOR knockdown impairs proliferation of ERa positive breast cancer cells. • EPOR knockdown reduces AKT phosphorylation and ERa activity. - Abstract: The main function of Erythropoietin (EPO) and its receptor (EPOR) is the stimulation of erythropoiesis. Recombinant human EPO (rhEPO) is therefore used to treat anemia in cancer patients. However, clinical trials have indicated that rhEPO treatment might promote tumor progression and has a negative effect on patient survival. In addition, EPOR expression has been detected in several cancer forms. Using a newly produced anti-EPOR antibody that reliably detects the full-length isoform of the EPOR we show that breast cancer tissue and cells express the EPOR protein. rhEPO stimulation of cultured EPOR expressing breast cancer cells did not result in increased proliferation, overt activation of EPOR (receptor phosphorylation) or a consistent activation of canonical EPOR signaling pathway mediators such as JAK2, STAT3, STAT5, or AKT. However, EPOR knockdown experiments suggested functional EPO receptors in estrogen receptor positive (ERα{sup +}) breast cancer cells, as reduced EPOR expression resulted in decreased proliferation. This effect on proliferation was not seen in ERα negative cells. EPOR knockdown decreased ERα activity further supports a mechanism by which EPOR affects proliferation via ERα-mediated mechanisms. We show that EPOR protein is expressed in breast cancer cells, where it appears to promote proliferation by an EPO-independent mechanism in ERα expressing breast cancer cells.

  19. Nonsurgical treatment of an adult with a skeletal Class II gummy smile using zygomatic temporary anchorage devices and improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Yuji; Ono, Takashi

    2017-11-01

    Patients with a severe gummy smile and a skeletal Class II profile are difficult to treat. This case report describes an effective treatment alternative for improving a gummy smile in a patient with a severe Class II molar relationship, severe crowding, and lip protrusion using zygomatic anchorage devices and improved superelastic nickel-titanium wires. A 36-year-old woman had an excessive overjet and a deep overbite with a bilateral Angle Class II molar relationship. The cephalometric analysis demonstrated a Class II skeletal relationship (ANB, 9.5°), retroclination of the mandible (FMA, 38.4°), and severe labial inclination of the mandibular incisors (IMPA, 101.9°). The main treatment objectives included normalizing the overjet and overbite, improving the gummy smile, and establishing a satisfactory occlusion. During treatment with fixed appliances, intrusion of the total maxillary dentition using skeletal anchorage and elimination of the bimaxillary protrusion were achieved. Improvement of the lateral profile and gummy smile enhanced facial esthetics. Intrusion and distalization of the maxillary dentition with skeletal anchorage and improved superelastic nickel-titanium wires provided a satisfactory dental occlusion, esthetic improvement, and adequate function. This approach should be considered as an alternative treatment option to orthognathic surgery for adults with high-angle skeletal Class II malocclusion and a gummy smile. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Pre-operative functional mobility as an independent determinant of inpatient functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty during three periods that coincided with changes in clinical pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Sluis, G; Goldbohm, R A; Elings, J E; Nijhuis-van der Sanden, M W; Akkermans, R P; Bimmel, R; Hoogeboom, T J; van Meeteren, N L

    2017-02-01

    To investigate whether pre-operative functional mobility is a determinant of delayed inpatient recovery of activities (IRoA) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in three periods that coincided with changes in the clinical pathway. All patients (n = 682, 73% women, mean age 70 years, standard deviation 9) scheduled for TKA between 2009 and 2015 were pre-operatively screened for functional mobility by the Timed-up-and-Go test (TUG) and De Morton mobility index (DEMMI). The cut-off point for delayed IRoA was set on the day that 70% of the patients were recovered, according to the Modified Iowa Levels of Assistance Scale (mILAS) (a 5-item activity scale). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, we added either the TUG or the DEMMI to a reference model including established determinants. Both the TUG (Odds Ratio (OR) 1.10 per second, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.06 to 1.15) and the DEMMI (OR 0.96 per point on the 100-point scale, 95% CI 0.95 to 0.98) were statistically significant determinants of delayed IRoA in a model that also included age, BMI, ASA score and ISAR score. These associations did not depend on the time period during which the TKA took place, as assessed by tests for interaction. Functional mobility, as assessed pre-operatively by the TUG and DEMMI, is an independent and stable determinant of delayed inpatient recovery of activities after TKA. Future research, focusing on improvement of pre-operative functional mobility through tailored physiotherapy intervention, should indicate whether such intervention enhances post-operative recovery among high-risk patients. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:211-17. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  1. Experimental study and stress analysis of rock bolt anchorage performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Chen

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new method was developed to apply pull-and-shear loads to the bolt specimen in order to evaluate the anchorage performance of the rebar bolt and the D-Bolt. In the tests, five displacing angles (0°, 20°, 40°, 60°, and 90°, two joint gaps (0 mm and 30 mm, and three kinds of host rock materials (weak concrete, strong concrete, and concrete-granite were considered, and stress–strain measurements were conducted. Results show that the ultimate loads of both the D-Bolt and the rebar bolt remained constant with any displacing angles. The ultimate displacement of the D-Bolt changed from 140 mm at the 0° displacing angle (pure pull to approximately 70 mm at a displacing angle greater than 40°. The displacement capacity of the D-Bolt is approximately 3.5 times that of the rebar bolt under pure pull and 50% higher than that of the rebar bolt under pure shear. The compressive stress exists at 50 mm from the bolt head, and the maximum bending moment value rises with the increasing displacing angle. The rebar bolt mobilises greater applied load than the D-Bolt when subjected to the maximum bending. The yielding length (at 0° of the D-Bolt is longer than that of the rebar bolt. The displacement capacity of the bolts increased with the joint gap. The bolt subjected to joint gap effect yields more quickly with greater bending moment and smaller applied load. The displacement capacities of the D-Bolt and the rebar bolt are greater in the weak host rock than that in the hard host rock. In pure shear condition, the ultimate load of the bolts slightly decreases in the hard rock. The yielding speed in the hard rock is higher than that in the weak rock.

  2. [Fear of falling and the relationship with the measure of functional independence and quality of life in post-Cerebral Vascular Accident (Stroke) victims].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Raquel Buarque Caminha; Laurentino, Glória Elizabeth Carneiro; Melo, Priscilla Gonçalves de; Cabral, Dinalva Lacerda; Correa, João Carlos Ferrari; Teixeira-Salmela, Luci Fuscaldi

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the fear of falling of 52 chronic post-stroke individuals and to assess its relationship with measures of functional independence and quality of life (QOL). Fear of falling was assessed by the Brazilian version of Falls Efficacy Scale International (FES-I-BRAZIL) and functional independence by the Functional Independence Measure (FIM) and QOL by the Stroke Specific Quality of Life (SSQOL) scale. Spearman's correlation coefficients were calculated to verify the associations between FES-I-BRAZIL and the other instruments, and the Mann-Whitney U test to compare groups with low and high fall concerns. There was a predominance of individuals with high concerns regarding falling, higher QOL, and independence. FES-I-BRAZIL was statistically associated with FIM and SSQOL. Significant relationships were also found between FES-I-Brazil with FIM transfer and locomotion sub-scales, as well as with the following SSQOL energy, family role, language, mobility, mood, self-care, and upper extremity function domains. Thus, fear of falling may contribute to reduced functional independence and QOL in post-stroke individuals and should be included in the evaluation process of these patients to ensure greater benefits during rehabilitation.

  3. Independent component analysis using prior information for signal detection in a functional imaging system of the retina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barriga, E. Simon; Pattichis, Marios; Ts’o, Dan; Abramoff, Michael; Kardon, Randy; Kwon, Young; Soliz, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Independent component analysis (ICA) is a statistical technique that estimates a set of sources mixed by an unknown mixing matrix using only a set of observations. For this purpose, the only assumption is that the sources are statistically independent. In many applications, some information about

  4. Positive-selection and ligation-independent cloning vectors for large scale in planta expression for plant functional genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Sang-Keun; Kim, Saet-Byul; Yeom, Seon-In; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Choi, Doil

    2010-12-01

    Transient expression is an easy, rapid and powerful technique for producing proteins of interest in plants. Recombinational cloning is highly efficient but has disadvantages, including complicated, time consuming cloning procedures and expensive enzymes for large-scale gene cloning. To overcome these limitations, we developed new ligation-independent cloning (LIC) vectors derived from binary vectors including tobacco mosaic virus (pJL-TRBO), potato virus X (pGR106) and the pBI121 vector-based pMBP1. LIC vectors were modified to enable directional cloning of PCR products without restriction enzyme digestion or ligation reactions. In addition, the ccdB gene, which encodes a potent cell-killing protein, was introduced between the two LIC adapter sites in the pJL-LIC, pGR-LIC, and pMBP-LIC vectors for the efficient selection of recombinant clones. This new vector does not require restriction enzymes, alkaline phosphatase, or DNA ligase for cloning. To clone, the three LIC vectors are digested with SnaBI and treated with T4 DNA polymerase, which includes 3' to 5' exonuclease activity in the presence of only one dNTP (dGTP for the inserts and dCTP for the vector). To make recombinants, the vector plasmid and the insert PCR fragment were annealed at room temperature for 20 min prior to transformation into the host. Bacterial transformation was accomplished with 100% efficiency. To validate the new LIC vector systems, we were used to coexpressed the Phytophthora AVR and potato resistance (R) genes in N. benthamiana by infiltration of Agrobacterium. Coexpressed AVR and R genes in N. benthamiana induced the typical hypersensitive cell death resulting from in vivo interaction of the two proteins. These LIC vectors could be efficiently used for high-throughput cloning and laboratory-scale in planta expression. These vectors could provide a powerful tool for high-throughput transient expression assays for functional genomic studies in plants.

  5. Disability measures in stroke: relationship among the Barthel Index, the Functional Independence Measure, and the Modified Rankin Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sooyeon; Hartzema, Abraham G; Duncan, Pamela W; Min-Lai, Sue

    2004-04-01

    Residual disability after stroke presents a major economic and humanistic burden. To quantify disability in patients, activities of daily living (ADL; Barthel Index [BI], and motor component of Functional Independence Measure [M-FIM]) and categorical disability measures (Modified Rankin Scale [MRS]) are used. The purpose of this study is to examine the predicting ability of ADL measures to global disability scale. Kansas City Stroke Study data were used for the present study. Correlation coefficient, Kruskal-Wallis test, and polytomous logistic regression analysis were applied to examine the relationship between the ADL measure and global disability scale. Model fit statistics were examined to verify logistic regression appropriateness. A categorization scheme, which minimized the false-positive response rate, was selected as the optimal categorizing system. The 3 measures were highly correlated. Both BI and M-FIM differentiated disability better in lower than higher disability. In logistic regression, BI differentiated 4 disability levels; M-FIM differentiated 3 levels in MRS. However, on the basis of results of the Kruskal-Wallis and multiple comparison tests, we suspect that M-FIM may have the potential to predict MRS categories better with a different model. The proposed categorization scheme can serve as a translation between measures. However, because of the ceiling effect of BI and M-FIM, the translation could not be completed for all 6 levels of MRS. No apparent variation over time in the categorization scheme was observed. Further research needs to be conducted to develop better prediction models explaining the relationship between M-FIM and MRS.

  6. Automated Determination of Arterial Input Function for Dynamic Susceptibility Contrast MRI from Regions around Arteries Using Independent Component Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon Chen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF measurement using dynamic susceptibility contrast- (DSC- MRI requires accurate estimation of the arterial input function (AIF. The present work utilized the independent component analysis (ICA method to determine the AIF in the regions adjacent to the middle cerebral artery (MCA by the alleviated confounding of partial volume effect. Materials and Methods. A series of spin-echo EPI MR scans were performed in 10 normal subjects. All subjects received 0.2 mmol/kg Gd-DTPA contrast agent. AIFs were calculated by two methods: (1 the region of interest (ROI selected manually and (2 weighted average of each component selected by ICA (weighted-ICA. The singular value decomposition (SVD method was then employed to deconvolve the AIF from the tissue concentration time curve to obtain quantitative CBF values. Results. The CBF values calculated by the weighted-ICA method were 41.1 ± 4.9 and 22.1 ± 2.3 mL/100 g/min for cortical gray matter (GM and deep white matter (WM regions, respectively. The CBF values obtained based on the manual ROIs were 53.6 ± 12.0 and 27.9 ± 5.9 mL/100 g/min for the same two regions, respectively. Conclusion. The weighted-ICA method allowed semiautomatic and straightforward extraction of the ROI adjacent to MCA. Through eliminating the partial volume effect to minimum, the CBF thus determined may reflect more accurate physical characteristics of the T2⁎ signal changes induced by the contrast agent.

  7. Maxillary incisors changes during space closure with conventional and skeletal anchorage methods: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaratne, Yasas Shri Nalaka; Uribe, Flavio; Janakiraman, Nandakumar

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review was to compare the antero-posterior, vertical and angular changes of maxillary incisors with conventional anchorage control techniques and mini-implant based space closure methods. The electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library and Open Grey were searched for potentially eligible studies using a set of predetermined keywords. Full texts meeting the inclusion criteria as well as their references were manually searched. The primary outcome data (linear, angular, and vertical maxillary incisor changes) and secondary outcome data (overbite changes, soft tissue changes, biomechanical factors, root resorption and treatment duration) were extracted from the selected articles and entered into spreadsheets based on the type of anchorage used. The methodological quality of each study was assessed. Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The amount of incisor retraction was greater with buccally placed mini-implants than conventional anchorage techniques. The incisor retraction with indirect anchorage from palatal mini-implants was less when compared with buccally placed mini-implants. Incisor intrusion occurred with buccal mini-implants, whereas extrusion was seen with conventional anchorage. Limited data on the biomechanical variables or adverse effects such as root resorption were reported in these studies. More RCT's that take in to account relevant biomechanical variables and employ three-dimensional quantification of tooth movements are required to provide information on incisor changes during space closure.

  8. Quantification of temperature effect on impedance monitoring via PZT interface for prestressed tendon anchorage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2017-12-01

    In this study, the quantification of temperature effect on impedance monitoring via a PZT interface for prestressed tendon-anchorage is presented. Firstly, a PZT interface-based impedance monitoring technique is selected to monitor impedance signatures by predetermining sensitive frequency bands. An analytical model is designed to represent coupled dynamic responses of the PZT interface-tendon anchorage system. Secondly, experiments on a lab-scaled tendon anchorage are described. Impedance signatures are measured via the PZT interface for a series of temperature and prestress-force changes. Thirdly, temperature effects on measured impedance responses of the tendon anchorage are estimated by quantifying relative changes in impedance features (such as RMSD and CCD indices) induced by temperature variation and prestress-force change. Finally, finite element analyses are conducted to investigate the mechanism of temperature variation and prestress-loss effects on the impedance responses of prestressed tendon anchorage. Temperature effects on impedance monitoring are filtered by effective frequency shift-based algorithm for distinguishing prestress-loss effects on impedance signatures.

  9. MAXILLARY INCISORS CHANGES DURING SPACE CLOSURE WITH CONVENTIONAL AND SKELETAL ANCHORAGE METHODS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasas Shri Nalaka JAYARATNE

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The objective of this systematic review was to compare the antero-posterior, vertical and angular changes of maxillary incisors with conventional anchorage control techniques and mini-implant based space closure methods. Materials and Methods: The electronic databases Pubmed, Scopus, ISI Web of knowledge, Cochrane Library and Open Grey were searched for potentially eligible studies using a set of predetermined keywords. Full texts meeting the inclusion criteria as well as their references were manually searched. The primary outcome data (linear, angular, and vertical maxillary incisor changes and secondary outcome data (overbite changes, soft tissue changes, biomechanical factors, root resorption and treatment duration were extracted from the selected articles and entered into spreadsheets based on the type of anchorage used. The methodological quality of each study was assessed. Results: Six studies met the inclusion criteria. The amount of incisor retraction was greater with buccally placed mini-implants than conventional anchorage techniques. The incisor retraction with indirect anchorage from palatal mini-implants was less when compared with buccally placed mini-implants. Incisor intrusion occurred with buccal mini-implants, whereas extrusion was seen with conventional anchorage. Limited data on the biomechanical variables or adverse effects such as root resorption were reported in these studies. Conclusion: More RCT’s that take in to account relevant biomechanical variables and employ three-dimensional quantification of tooth movements are required to provide information on incisor changes during space closure.

  10. Does a Wii-based exercise program enhance balance control of independently functioning older adults? A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laufer Y

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Yocheved Laufer, Gali Dar, Einat Kodesh Physical Therapy Department, Faculty of Social Welfare and Health Sciences, University of Haifa, Haifa, Israel Background: Exercise programs that challenge an individual’s balance have been shown to reduce the risk of falls among older adults. Virtual reality computer-based technology that provides the user with opportunities to interact with virtual objects is used extensively for entertainment. There is a growing interest in the potential of virtual reality-based interventions for balance training in older adults. This work comprises a systematic review of the literature to determine the effects of intervention programs utilizing the Nintendo Wii console on balance control and functional performance in independently functioning older adults.Methods: Studies were obtained by searching the following databases: PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, EMBASE, SPORTdiscus, and Google Scholar, followed by a hand search of bibliographic references of the included studies. Included were randomized controlled trials written in English in which Nintendo Wii Fit was used to enhance standing balance performance in older adults and compared with an alternative exercise treatment, placebo, or no treatment.Results: Seven relevant studies were retrieved. The four studies examining the effect of Wii-based exercise compared with no exercise reported positive effects on at least one outcome measure related to balance performance in older adults. Studies comparing Wii-based training with alternative exercise programs generally indicated that the balance improvements achieved by Wii-based training are comparable with those achieved by other exercise programs.Conclusion: The review indicates that Wii-based exercise programs may serve as an alternative to more conventional forms of exercise aimed at improving balance control. However, due to the great variability between studies in terms of the intervention protocols and outcome measures, as

  11. Testing procedures based on the empirical characteristic functions I: Goodness-of-fit, testing for symmetry and independence

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušková, Marie

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2008), s. 225-233 ISSN 1210-3195 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : goodness-of-fit test * symmetry test * test for independence Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research

  12. Promoting physical activity for elders with compromised function: the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study physical activity intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rejeski WJ

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available W Jack Rejeski,1 Robert Axtell,2 Roger Fielding,3 Jeffrey Katula,1 Abby C King,4 Todd M Manini,5 Anthony P Marsh,1 Marco Pahor,5 Alvito Rego,6 Catrine Tudor-Locke,7 Mark Newman,8 Michael P Walkup,9 Michael E Miller9  On behalf of the LIFE Study Investigator Group 1Department of Health and Exercise Science, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, 2Exercise Science Department, Southern Connecticut State University, New Haven, CT, 3Nutrtion, Exercise Physiology, and Sarcopenia Laboratory, Jean Mayer US Department of Agriculture Human Nutrition Research Center on Aging at Tufts University, Boston, MA, 4Department of Health Research and Policy and Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, 5Department of Aging and Geriatric Research, College of Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, 6Department of Internal Medicine, Northwestern School of Medicine, Chicago, IL, 7Pennington Biomedical Research Center, Baton Rouge, LA, 8Department of Epidemiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 9Department of Biostatistical Sciences, Division of Public Health Sciences, School of Medicine, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA Abstract: The Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders (LIFE Study is a Phase III randomized controlled clinical trial (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01072500 that will provide definitive evidence regarding the effect of physical activity (PA on major mobility disability in older adults (70–89 years old who have compromised physical function. This paper describes the methods employed in the delivery of the LIFE Study PA intervention, providing insight into how we promoted adherence and monitored the fidelity of treatment. Data are presented on participants' motives and self-perceptions at the onset of the trial along with accelerometry data on patterns of PA during exercise training. Prior to the onset of training, 31.4% of

  13. Adult Class II Division 1 patient with severe gummy smile treated with temporary anchorage devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Rui; Huang, Lan; Bai, Ding

    2011-07-01

    A 23-year-old Mongolian woman came for a consultation with chief complaints of protrusive lips and a gummy smile. The clinical examination showed a convex profile, a protrusive maxilla, excessively proclined and extruded maxillary incisors, and a Class II Division 1 malocclusion. Temporary anchorage devices (TADs) in the posterior dental region were used as anchorage for the retraction and intrusion of her maxillary anterior teeth. Those appliances, combined with a compensatory curved maxillary archwire, eliminated the severe gummy smile and the protrusive profile, and corrected the molar relationship from Class II to Class I. With no extra temporary anchorage devices in the anterior region for intrusion, the treatment was workable and simple. The patient received a satisfactory occlusion and an attractive smile. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Anchorage of titanium implants with different surface characteristics: an experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J

    2000-01-01

    was performed after 1 and 3 weeks. Removal torque (RMT) tests of the implants were performed 4 weeks after the second surgery in group A and 9 weeks after the second surgery in group B. Thus, in group A, two healing groups were created, representing 4 and 6 weeks, respectively. The corresponding healing groups......: The present study demonstrated that a clear relation exists between surface roughness, described in Sa values, and implant anchorage assessed by RMT measurements. The anchorage appeared to increase with the maturation of bone tissue during healing....

  15. Identification of independent association signals and putative functional variants for breast cancer risk through fine-scale mapping of the 12p11 locus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Chenjie; Guo, Xingyi; Long, Jirong

    2016-01-01

    carriers in the Consortium of Investigators of Modifiers of BRCA1/2 (CIMBA). Stepwise regression analyses were performed to identify independent association signals. Data from the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements project (ENCODE) and the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) were used for functional annotation. RESULTS...

  16. Increased prothrombin activation in protein S-deficient plasma under flow conditions on endothelial cell matrix: an independent anticoagulant function of protein S in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van't Veer, C.; Hackeng, T. M.; Biesbroeck, D.; Sixma, J. J.; Bouma, B. N.

    1995-01-01

    Protein S is a vitamin K-dependent nonenzymatic coagulation factor involved in the regulation of activated protein C (aPC). In this study, we report an aPC-independent anticoagulant function of protein S in plasma under flow conditions. Plasma, anticoagulated with low-molecular-weight heparin

  17. Comparing the Functional Independence Measure and the interRAI/MDS for use in the functional assessment of older adults: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stolee Paul

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rehabilitation of older persons is often complicated by increased frailty and medical complexity - these in turn present challenges for the development of health information systems. Objective investigation and comparison of the effectiveness of geriatric rehabilitation services requires information systems that are comprehensive, reliable, valid, and sensitive to clinically relevant changes in older persons. The Functional Independence Measure is widely used in rehabilitation settings - in Canada this is used as the central component of the National Rehabilitation Reporting System of the Canadian Institute of Health Information. An alternative system has been developed by the interRAI consortium. We conducted a literature review to compare the development and measurement properties of these two systems. Methods English language literature published between 1983 (initial development of the FIM and 2008 was searched using Medline and CINAHL databases, and the reference lists of retrieved articles. Relevant articles were summarized and charted using the criteria proposed by Streiner. Additionally, attention was paid to the ability of the two systems to address issues particularly relevant to older rehabilitation clients, such as medical complexity, comorbidity, and responsiveness to small but clinically meaningful improvements. Results In total, 66 articles were found that met the inclusion criteria. The majority of FIM articles studied inpatient rehabilitation settings; while the majority of interRAI/MDS articles focused on nursing home settings. There is evidence supporting the reliability of both instruments. There were few articles that investigated the construct validity of the interRAI/MDS. Conclusion Additional psychometric research is needed on both the FIM and MDS, especially with regard to their use in different settings and with different client groups.

  18. The Impact of Multiple Concussions on Emotional Distress, Post-Concussive Symptoms, and Neurocognitive Functioning in Active Duty United States Marines Independent of Combat Exposure or Emotional Distress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lathan, Corinna E.; Bleiberg, Joseph; Tsao, Jack W.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Controversy exists as to whether the lingering effects of concussion on emotional, physical, and cognitive symptoms is because of the effects of brain trauma or purely to emotional factors such as post-traumatic stress disorder or depression. This study examines the independent effects of concussion on persistent symptoms. The Defense Automated Neurobehavioral Assessment, a clinical decision support tool, was used to assess neurobehavioral functioning in 646 United States Marines, all of whom were fit for duty. Marines were assessed for concussion history, post-concussive symptoms, emotional distress, neurocognitive functioning, and deployment history. Results showed that a recent concussion or ever having experienced a concussion was associated with an increase in emotional distress, but not with persistent post-concussive symptoms (PPCS) or neurocognitive functioning. Having had multiple lifetime concussions, however, was associated with greater emotional distress, PPCS, and reduced neurocognitive functioning that needs attention and rapid discrimination, but not for memory-based tasks. These results are independent of deployment history, combat exposure, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and depression. Results supported earlier findings that a previous concussion is not generally associated with post-concussive symptoms independent of covariates. In contrast with other studies that failed to find a unique contribution for concussion to PPCS, however, evidence of recent and multiple concussion was seen across a range of emotional distress, post-concussive symptoms, and neurocognitive functioning in this study population. Results are discussed in terms of implications for assessing concussion on return from combat. PMID:25003552

  19. Nonextraction treatment with temporary skeletal anchorage devices to correct a Class II Division 2 malocclusion with excessive gingival display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Makoto; Sannohe, Minayo; Nagasaka, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Kaoru; Sugawara, Junji

    2014-01-01

    The patient was a 22-year-old Japanese woman who complained of a gummy smile. She had several other orthodontic problems, including crowding of the maxillary anterior teeth, retroclination of the maxillary central incisors, excessive maxillary incisor display, a deep overbite, Class II dental relationships, a Class II profile, and a long face. Two options for the correction of these problems were proposed. The first option was to extract the maxillary first premolars to correct the Class II relationship and implant a miniscrew to correct the gingival display; the second option was to place 2 miniplates for distalization of the maxillary molars and a miniscrew to correct the gingival smile without premolar extractions. The patient chose the second option. After placing a preadjusted bracketed system, 2 miniplates were placed in the zygomatic buttresses bilaterally with monocortical screws, and 1 miniscrew was fixed between the root apices of the maxillary central incisors. Distalization and intrusion of the maxillary molars and intrusion of the maxillary incisors were simultaneously started with those temporary skeletal anchorage devices functioning as absolute orthodontic anchors. The total treatment period was approximately 22 months. Her orthodontic problems were corrected. According to the cephalometric evaluation, the entire maxillary dentition was significantly distalized, and her maxillary incisors were successfully intruded, with the mandible showing a slight counterclockwise rotation. Thanks to the temporary anchorage devices combined with miniplates and a miniscrew, we were able to predictably achieve her treatment goals without premolar extractions, orthognathic surgery, and the need for patient compliance. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty for complex fractures of the proximal humerus in elderly patients: impact on the level of independency, early function, and pain medication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfensperger, Fabian; Grüninger, Patrick; Dietrich, Michael; Völlink, Mathias; Benninger, Emanuel; Schläppi, Michel; Meier, Christoph

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated early functional outcome, quality of life, and the level of independency in elderly patients after primary reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) for complex fractures of the proximal humerus. This was a prospective case series that included 33 patients, aged ≥70 years, with a high level of independency who received RSA for complex fractures of the humerus (Orthopaedic Trauma Association B2/C) from January 2012 to April 2014. Level of independency, quality of life (Short Form 36 Health Survey score), early functional outcome (Constant-Murley score, Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand Outcome Measure), and pain medication (World Health Organization grading) were obtained at the 6-month follow-up and 1 year after surgery. The Constant-Murley score was 64 ± 14 after 6 months and 71 ± 12 at 1 year (P < .001), reaching 87% compared with the contralateral shoulder. The Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder and Hand score reached 29 ± 20 at 6 months and 30 ± 21 at 1 year. The Short Form 36 score was comparable to normative data. After 6 months, 84% of our study group were back at their previous level of independency. Within 1 year, this rate increased to 91%. At the 1-year follow-up, analgesia intake was back at the level before the injury in 97% of the patients. Primary RSA provides good early functional results, reliable pain control, and excellent restoration of an independent life style in elderly patients. Thus, RSA may be considered for active patients with a high demand on shoulder function. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. A Manual for the Anchorage School District Bilingual Education Program Revised Scope and Sequence, K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Maria Nieves Bumanlag Lilagan

    The manual offers a systematic set of procedures and relevant information to facilitate effective use of the Anchorage school district (ASD) bilingual education program (BEP). The historical background of the program's development is presented, available manuals for teaching English to limited English proficiency (LEP) students and related…

  2. 77 FR 35104 - Notice of Request To Release Airport Property at Merrill Field Airport, Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... delivered to: Michelle Colby, Real Estate Services Manager, DOWL HKM, 4041 B Street, Anchorage, AK 99503...- 271-3665, email [email protected] or Michelle Colby, Real Estate Services Manager, DOWL HKM, 4041... Section 6.13 of the State of Alaska Right of Way Manual. This purchase offer was predicated on DOT&PF's...

  3. Thick-Walled Cylinder Theory Applied on a Conical Wedge Anchorage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennitz, Anders; Grip, Niklas; Schmidt, Jacob Wittrup

    2011-01-01

    Conical wedge anchorages are frequently used to anchor steel tendons in prestressing applications within the construction industry. To replace the steel tendons with non-corrosive and low weight FRPs (Fiber Reinforced Polymers), the different mechanical interactions between the steel and FRPs call...

  4. Biofilm formation on surface characterized micro-implants for skeletal anchorage in orthodontics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chin, Yeen; Sandham, John; de Vries, Jacob; van der Mei, Henderina; Busscher, Hendrik

    Micro-implants are increasingly popular in clinical orthodontics to effect skeletal anchorage. However, biofilm formation on their surfaces and subsequent infection of peri-implant tissues can result in either exfoliation or surgical removal of these devices. The present study aimed to assess

  5. Revisiting the stability of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Chen Jane Yao

    2015-11-01

    Conclusion: This study revealed that once the dental surgeon becomes familiar with the procedure, the stability of orthodontic mini-implants depends on the type of mini-implant, age of the patient, implantation site, and the healing time of the mini-implant. Miniplates are a more feasible anchorage system when miniscrews fail repeatedly.

  6. Evaluating School Wellness Policy in Curbing Childhood Obesity in Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, Wendy G.; Garcia, Gabriel M.; Hoffman, Pamela K.

    2014-01-01

    In 2006, the Anchorage School District implemented a school wellness policy to address the problem of obesity among its elementary-aged students. We assessed whether the addition of this policy is effective in protecting or preventing students from becoming overweight/obese over time. The methods involved following two cohorts of students for 5…

  7. A study of the mechanical strength of miniscrews and miniplates for skeletal anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chen Lu

    2011-09-01

    Conclusions: Successful outcomes were confirmed for the skeletal anchorage concept for orthodontic treatment using miniscrews and miniplates. The mechanical strength of the miniscrews and miniplates was studied to prove the stability of fixation to resist orthodontic forces in the vertical and horizontal directions.

  8. 77 FR 19155 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages; Incorporation by Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    ... Participation I. FMVSS No. 210 FMVSS No. 210, ``Seat belt assembly anchorages,'' applies to passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles (MPVs), trucks, and buses. The standard establishes requirements for seat belt.... 210 and Figure 2 in FMVSS No. 222, ``School bus passenger seating and crash protection''). \\1\\ For lap...

  9. 75 FR 66686 - Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standards; Seat Belt Assembly Anchorages, School Bus Passenger...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-29

    ... Anchorages, School Bus Passenger Seating and Crash Protection AGENCY: National Highway Traffic Safety... published on October 21, 2008, which upgraded NHTSA's school bus passenger crash protection requirements.... We make clearer the procedure specifying how we will measure the height of school bus passenger torso...

  10. 76 FR 80394 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service [2253-665] Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management has completed an inventory of human...

  11. 75 FR 23804 - Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Notice of Inventory Completion: Alaska State Office, Bureau of Land Management, Anchorage, AK; Museum of the Aleutians, Unalaska, AK; and University... Act (NAGPRA), 25 U.S.C. 3003, of the completion of an inventory of human remains and associated...

  12. Skeletal anchorage in orthodontics : A review of various systems in animal and human studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Krista I.; Raghoebar, Gerry M.; Vissink, Arjan; Sandham, John

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of the present investigation was to review and evaluate the current literature on skeletal bone anchorage in orthodontics with regard to success rates of the various systems. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, and Cochrane searches (period January 1966 to January 2006, English

  13. Attitudes of orthodontists and laypersons towards tooth extractions and additional anchorage devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidsanu Changsiripun

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the attitudes of orthodontists and laypersons towards the choice of extracting second premolars, rather than first premolars, based on tooth condition and the use of additional anchorage devices. Methods Questionnaires were sent to two groups: 324 orthodontists who were members of the Thai Association of Orthodontists, and 100 randomly selected Thai laypersons aged above 20 years and who were unrelated to the field of dentistry. Descriptive and chi-square statistics were used to analyze the data. Results Questionnaires were returned by 142 orthodontists (43.8% and completed by 100 laypersons. The larger the size of the caries lesion in the maxillary second premolar was found, the more orthodontists and laypersons both chose to extract a carious maxillary second premolar instead of a healthy maxillary first premolar. For orthodontists, the use of mini-implant anchorage was significantly related to their extraction decision. Orthodontists who were familiar with mini-implants usage would choose to extract the second premolar at a lower size of extent of caries. Besides, when larger sizes of caries lesions in maxillary second premolars were considered, laypersons tended to have greater acceptance of the use of additional anchorage devices in order to keep the healthy maxillary first premolar. Conclusions In this study, tooth condition and the use of anchorage devices are currently the main considerations by both orthodontists and laypersons when selecting the teeth to be extracted for orthodontic treatment.

  14. Does Duloxetine Improve Cognitive Function Independently of Its Antidepressant Effect in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder and Subjective Reports of Cognitive Dysfunction?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tracy L. Greer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cognitive deficits are commonly reported by patients with major depressive disorder (MDD. Duloxetine, a dual serotonin/noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, may improve cognitive deficits in MDD. It is unclear if cognitive improvements occur independently of antidepressant effects with standard antidepressant medications. Methods. Thirty participants with MDD who endorsed cognitive deficits at screening received 12-week duloxetine treatment. Twenty-one participants completed treatment and baseline and posttreatment cognitive testing. The Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery was used to assess the following cognitive domains: attention, visual memory, executive function/set shifting and working memory, executive function/spatial planning, decision making and response control, and verbal learning and memory. Results. Completers showed significant cognitive improvements across several domains on tasks assessing psychomotor function and mental processing speed, with additional improvements in visual and verbal learning and memory, and affective decision making and response control. Overall significance tests for executive function tasks were also significant, although individual tasks were not, perhaps due to the small sample size. Most notably, cognitive improvements were observed independently of symptom reduction on all domains except verbal learning and memory. Conclusions. Patients reporting baseline cognitive deficits achieved cognitive improvements with duloxetine treatment, most of which were independent of symptomatic improvement. This trial is registered with NCT00933439.

  15. Functional SNP associated with birth weight in independent populations identified with a permutation step added to GBLUP-GWAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study was conducted as an initial assessment of a newly available genotyping assay containing about 34,000 common SNP included on previous SNP chips, and 199,000 sequence variants predicted to affect gene function. Objectives were to identify functional variants associated with birth weight in...

  16. From Microstructure-Independent Formulas for Composite Materials to Rank-One Convex, Non-quasiconvex Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grabovsky, Yury

    2018-02-01

    Examples of non-quasiconvex functions that are rank-one convex are rare. In this paper we construct a family of such functions by means of the algebraic methods of the theory of exact relations for polycrystalline composite materials, developed to identify G-closed sets of positive codimensions. The algebraic methods are used to construct a set of materials of positive codimension that is closed under lamination but is not G-closed. The well-known link between G-closed sets and quasiconvex functions and sets closed under lamination and rank-one convex functions is then used to construct a family of rotationally invariant, nonnegative, and 2-homogeneous rank-one convex functions, that are not quasiconvex.

  17. Adults' perceptions of children's independence and other sex-role characteristics as a function of child's gender label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, N J; Hibbs, K; Milholland, T

    1978-12-01

    Male and female college students were presented with a photograph labeled as a 5-yr.-old boy or girl and heard statements attributed to the child. They then rated the child on sex-role traits and responded to open-ended questions about the child. The primary findings involved sex of child by sex of adult interactions on ratings of independence and leadership: in both cases, same-sex children were rated higher than opposite-sex children. There was also some evidence that women having high contact with children rated the child more extremely on opposite-sex traits than did those with little contact.

  18. A QEEG index of level of functional dependence for people sustaining acquired brain injury: the Seville Independence Index (SINDI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leon-Carrion, Jose; Martin-Rodriguez, Juan Francisco; Damas-Lopez, Jesus; Martin, Juan Manuel Barroso Y; Dominguez-Morales, Maria Del Rosario

    2008-01-01

    To find an easy-to-use, valid and reliable tool for evaluating the level of functional dependence of an individual with brain damage who seeks a diagnosis of his/her functional dependence in daily activities. Eighty-one patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) in post-acute phase, 40 traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 41 cerebral vascular accident (CVA), were assessed using quantitative electroencephalography (QEEG) and grouped according to the FIM + FAM scale. Discriminant analysis was performed on QEEG variables to obtain a discriminant function with the best discriminative capacity between functionality groups. Discriminant analysis showed classification accuracy of 100% in the training set sample and 75% in an external cross-validation sample; 100% sensitivity and 100% specificity were reached. Coherence measures were the most numerous variables in the function. These results point out that the discriminant function may be a useful tool in objective evaluations of patients seeking a diagnosis of their level of dependence and that it could be included in current functionality assessment protocols.

  19. Comparative Analysis of Benzoxazinoid Biosynthesis in Monocots and Dicots: Independent Recruitment of Stabilization and Activation Functions[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Regina; Rattei, Thomas; Haslbeck, Martin; Schwab, Wilfried; Gierl, Alfons; Frey, Monika

    2012-01-01

    Benzoxazinoids represent preformed protective and allelophatic compounds that are found in a multitude of species of the family Poaceae (Gramineae) and occur sporadically in single species of phylogenetically unrelated dicots. Stabilization by glucosylation and activation by hydrolysis is essential for the function of these plant defense compounds. We isolated and functionally characterized from the dicot larkspur (Consolida orientalis) the benzoxazinoid-specific UDP-glucosyltransferase and β-glucosidase that catalyze the enzymatic functions required to avoid autotoxicity and allow activation upon challenge by herbivore and pathogen attack. A phylogenetic comparison of these enzymes with their counterparts in the grasses indicates convergent evolution by repeated recruitment from homologous but not orthologous genes. The data reveal a great evolutionary flexibility in recruitment of these essential functions of secondary plant metabolism. PMID:22415274

  20. Screw-type implants used as anchorage for lingual orthodontic mechanics: a case of bimaxillary protrusion with second premolar extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Masayoshi; Miyawaki, Shouichi; Noguchi, Haruhiro; Kirita, Tadaaki

    2004-10-01

    We present a case of bialveolar protrusion treated with second premolar extraction. The patient did not agree to placement of a visible labial appliance or to the use of a headgear. Therefore, a lingual orthodontic appliance was used, and titanium screws were placed into the buccal alveolar bone for orthodontic absolute anchorage and support of en masse retraction of the anterior teeth. Cephalometric superimposition and panoramic radiographs showed little anchorage loss and good occlusion at the end of treatment. Our results suggest that lingual treatment combined with a screw-type implant anchorage provides reliable and comfortable results for those seeking invisible treatment.

  1. Independent Directors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringe, Wolf-Georg

    2013-01-01

    about board independence in Western jurisdictions, a surprising disharmony prevails about the justification, extent and purpose of independence requirements. These considerations lead me to question the benefits of the current system. Instead, this paper proposes a new, ‘functional’ concept of board...

  2. Multiple independent analyses reveal only transcription factors as an enriched functional class associated with microRNAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Croft, Laurence J; Szklarczyk, Damian; Jensen, Lars J

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Transcription factors (TFs) have long been known to be principally activators of transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The growing awareness of the ubiquity of microRNAs (miRNAs) as suppressive regulators in eukaryotes, suggests the possibility of a mutual, preferential......RNA targets, appear not to select for real miRNA targets to any degree. Our manually validated text-mining results also suggests that miRNAs may be activated by more TFs than other classes of genes, as 7% of miRNA:TF co-occurrences in the literature were TFs activating miRNAs. This was confirmed when thirdly......, we found enrichment for predicted, conserved TF binding sites in miRNA and TF genes compared to other gene classes. CONCLUSIONS: We see enrichment of connections between miRNAs and TFs using several independent methods, suggestive of a network of mutual activating and suppressive regulation. We have...

  3. Herbst appliance with skeletal anchorage versus dental anchorage in adolescents with Class II malocclusion: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Klaus Barretto Dos Santos Lopes; Lima, Tatiana; Palomares, Nathália; Carvalho, Felipe de Assis; Quintão, Cátia; Miguel, José Augusto Mendes; Lin, Yin-Ling; Su, Ting-Li; O'Brien, Kevin

    2017-11-25

    The Herbst appliance is an orthodontic appliance that is used for the correction of class II malocclusion with skeletal discrepancies. Research has shown that this is effective. However, a potential harm is excessive protrusion of the lower front teeth. This is associated with gingival recession, loss of tooth support, and root resorption. This trial evaluates a method of reducing this problem. The study is a single-center, randomised, assessor-blinded, superiority clinical trial with parallel 1:1 allocation. Male and female young people (10-14 years old) with prominent front teeth (class II, division 1) will be treated in one orthodontic clinic. Group 1 will be treated with the conventional Herbst appliance with dental anchorage and group 2 with the Herbst appliance with indirect skeletal anchorage for 12 months. The primary objective will be to compare the proclination of the lower incisors between the Herbst appliance with dental anchorage and skeletal anchorage. Secondary objectives will be to evaluate the changes occurring between the groups in the mandible, maxilla, lower and upper molars, and in gingival recession and root resorption at the end of the treatment. Additionally, the young patient's experience using the appliances will be assessed. The primary outcome measure will be the amount of lower incisor proclination at the end of treatment. This will be assessed by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) superimposition. Secondary outcome measures will be the changes in the mandible, maxilla, lower and upper molars at the end of treatment assessed by tomography superimposition and the young patient's experience using the appliances assessed by self-reported questionnaires and semi-structured interviews. The randomisation method will be blocked randomisation, using software to generate a randomised list. The allocation concealment will be done in opaque envelopes numbered from 1 to 40 containing the treatment modality. The randomisation will be

  4. Functional independence measure evaluation in individuals with stroke disability Avaliação da medida de independência funcional de indivíduos com seqüelas de acidente vascular encefálico (AVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Nunes Ávila

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The stroke is characterized by a lesion that strikes one of the vessels that irrigates the cerebral region. People who have suffered a stroke present functional loss, showing difficulties in locomotion and self-care. Objective: To evaluate the functional independence mesure of individuals with stroke’s sequalae during the realization of their routinal activities, submitted to physical therapy in a hospital phase (considered acute phase and in an outpatient phase (considered chronic phase. Materials and Methods: In the period between March 2007 and May 2008, 26 patients have been evaluated, 12 in the hospitalar phase and 14 in the outpatient phase, with ages between 44 and 80. Patients were from both genders and presented sequalae of stroke. The data was collected using the Functional Independence Measure (FIM instrument. Results: On the hospitalar group, a significant difference has been noticed between the initial score and the final score (p=0,011. The items “self-care”, “locomotion” and “communication” were the ones that presented the highest evolution. On the outpatient group, there were no significant differences between scores of both evaluations (p>0,10. Conclusions: In the hospitalar phase, patients who have suffered a stroke presented a faster recovery in the first weeks. On the other hand, those patients in the outpatient phase have remained stable.Introdução: O acidente vascular encefálico (AVE é caracterizado por uma lesão que acomete um dos vasos que irrigam a região cerebral. Pessoas que sofrem AVE apresentam perda funcional, manifestando dificuldades na locomoção e no cuidado pessoal. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a evolução da capacidade de independência funcional de indivíduos com seqüela de AVE na realização de atividades da vida diária, submetidos a tratamento fisioterapêutico na fase hospitalar (considerada fase aguda e na fase ambulatorial (considerada fase cr

  5. American = Independent?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markus, Hazel Rose

    2017-09-01

    U.S. American cultures and psyches reflect and promote independence. Devos and Banaji (2005) asked, does American equal White? This article asks, does American equal independent? The answer is that when compared to people in East Asian or South Asian contexts, people in American contexts tend to show an independent psychological signature-a sense of self as individual, separate, influencing others and the world, free from influence, and equal to, if not better than, others (Markus & Conner, 2013). Independence is a reasonable description of the selves of people in the White, middle-class American mainstream. Yet it is a less good characterization of the selves of the majority of Americans who are working-class and/or people of color. A cultural psychological approach reveals that much of North American psychology is still grounded in an independent model of the self and, as such, neglects social contexts and the psychologies of a majority of Americans. Given the prominence of independence in American ideas and institutions, the interdependent tendencies that arise from intersections of national culture with social class, race, and ethnicity go unrecognized and are often misunderstood and stigmatized. This unseen clash of independence and interdependence is a significant factor in many challenges, including those of education, employment, health, immigration, criminal justice, and political polarization.

  6. Model independent analysis of gluonic pole matrix elements and universality of transverse-momentum-dependent fragmentation functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gamberg, L. P.; Mukherjee, A.B.; Mulders, P.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Gluonic pole matrix elements explain the appearance of single spin asymmetries (SSA) in high-energy scattering processes. They involve a combination of operators which are odd under time reversal (T-odd). Such matrix elements appear in principle both for parton distribution functions and parton

  7. Depressive and conduct disorder symptoms in youth living with HIV: the independent and interactive roles of coping and neuropsychological functioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salama, Christina; Morris, Mary; Armistead, Lisa; Koenig, Linda J; Demas, Penelope; Ferdon, Corinne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2013-01-01

    Emerging research suggests the importance of psychosocial characteristics (e.g., coping and social support) for positive adaptation among youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. However, little is known about how these traits interact with cognitive abilities to impact emotional and behavioral adjustment. This study examined whether coping skills and executive functioning interact in their association with psychological adjustment in HIV-positive youth. Data from Project Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS (ALPHA), a study to examine psychosocial, behavioral and neuropsychological functioning of youth with behaviorally acquired HIV, were used. Fifty-nine participants, aged 14-23, diagnosed with HIV prior to age 20 and receiving care in one of two HIV clinics in Atlanta or New York City, were recruited, consented and enrolled. Participants completed measures of depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory), conduct disorder (Adolescent Symptom Index), and use of positive and negative coping strategies (Kidcope). The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) assessed abstract reasoning (categories completed) and cognitive inflexibility (perseverative errors). In this sample of HIV-positive youth, depressive symptoms were best predicted by an interactive combination of negative coping skills and poor neuropsychological functioning. Neuropsychological functioning (cognitive inflexibility) and negative coping skills were directly associated with conduct disorder symptoms. Results highlight the importance of including neuropsychological assessment in the evaluation of HIV-positive youth, particularly those with emotional or behavioral problems.

  8. Relationship Between Functional Capacity and Community Responsibility in Patients with Schizophrenia: Differences Between Independent and Assisted Living Settings

    OpenAIRE

    Mausbach, Brent T.; Depp, Colin A.; Cardenas, Veronica; Jeste, Dilip V.; Patterson, Thomas L.

    2008-01-01

    We examined factors potentially associated with level of community responsibility among middle-aged and older patients with schizophrenia. Participants in residential care facilities engaged in significantly fewer community responsibilities than those residing in the community. However, demographic and clinical characteristics did not explain these differences. Further, greater functional capacity was associated with greater community responsibility among participants residing in the communit...

  9. Complement activation by PEG-functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes is independent of PEG molecular mass and surface density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Alina Joukainen; Windschiegl, Barbara; Ilbasmis-Tamer, Sibel

    2013-01-01

    Carboxylated (4%) multi-walled carbon nanotubes were covalently functionalized with poly(ethylene glycol)1000 (PEG1000), PEG1500 and PEG4000 with a PEG loading of approximately 11% in all cases. PEG loading generated non-uniform and heterogeneous higher surface structures and increased nanotube...

  10. Metformin Improves Endothelial Function and Reduces Blood Pressure in Diabetic Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats Independent from Glycemia Control : Comparison to Vildagliptin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamidi Shishavan, Mahdi; Henning, Robert H; van Buiten, Azuwerus; Goris, Maaike; Deelman, Leo E; Buikema, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    Metformin confers vascular benefits beyond glycemia control, possibly via pleiotropic effects on endothelial function. In type-1-diabetes-mellitus (T1DM-)patients metformin improved flow-mediated dilation but also increased prostaglandin(PG)-F-2 alpha, a known endothelial-contracting factor. To

  11. Fundamental Evaluation of Adaptation and Human Capabilities in a Condition Using a System to Give a User an Artificial Oculomotor Function to Control Directions of Both Eyes Independently

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumio Mizuno

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available To investigate flexible adaptation of visual system, we developed a system to provide a user an artificial oculomotor function to control directions of both eyes. The system named “Virtual Chameleon” consists of two CCD cameras independently controlled and a head-mounted display. The user can control each tracking directions of two cameras with sensors set to both hands so that the user can get independent arbitrary view fields for both eyes. We performed fundamental experiments to evaluate capability to evaluate adaptation to use of Virtual Chameleon and effects on the user's capabilities. Eleven healthy volunteers with normal and corrected-to-normal vision participated in the experiments. The experiments were tests to find out each position of targets put in both side of a subject. In the experiments, a condition using Virtual Chameleon and a condition without it was adopted. We obtained accuracy rates and time intervals to find out target positions as experimental results. The experiments showed all of volunteers became able to actively control independent visual axes and correctly understood two different views by using Virtual Chameleon, even though two independent view fields yielded binocular rivalry to volunteers and binocular rivalry reduced human capabilities compared to cases without Virtual Chameleon.

  12. Takifugu rubripes cation independent mannose 6-phosphate receptor: Cloning, expression and functional characterization of the IGF-II binding domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A, Ajith Kumar; Nadimpalli, Siva Kumar

    2018-01-31

    Mannose 6-phosphate/IGF-II receptor mediated lysosomal clearance of insulin-like growth factor-II is significantly associated with the evolution of placental mammals. The protein is also referred to as the IGF-II receptor. Earlier studies suggested relatively low binding affinity between the receptor and ligand in prototherian and metatherian mammals. In the present study, we cloned the IGF-II binding domain of the early vertebrate fugu fish and expressed it in bacteria. A 72000Da truncated receptor containing the IGF-II binding domain was obtained. Analysis of this protein (covering domains 11-13 of the CIMPR) for its affinity to fish and human IGF-II by ligand blot assays and ELISA showed that the expressed receptor can specifically bind to both fish and human IGF-II. Additionally, a peptide-specific antibody raised against the region of the IGF-II binding domain also was able to recognize the IGF-II binding regions of mammalian and non-mammalian cation independent MPR protein. These interactions were further characterized by Surface Plasma resonance support that the receptor binds to fish IGF-II, with a dissociation constant of 548nM. Preliminary analysis suggests that the binding mechanism as well as the affinity of the fish and human receptor for IGF-II may have varied according to different evolutionary pressures. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Extraction of fast neuronal changes from multichannel functional near-infrared spectroscopy signals using independent component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morren, Geert; Wolf, Martin; Lemmerling, Philippe; Wolf, Ursula; Choi, Jee H.; Gratton, Enrico; De Lathauwer, Lieven; Van Huffel, Sabine

    2002-06-01

    Fast changes in the range of milliseconds in the optical properties of cerebral tissue, which are associated with brain activity, can be detected using non-invasive near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). These changes in light scattering are due to an alteration in the refractive index at neuronal membranes. The aim of this study was to develop highly sensitive data analysis algorithms to detect this fast signal, which is small compared to other physiological signals. A frequency-domain tissue oximeter, whose laser diodes were modulated at 110MHz was used. The amplitude, mean intensity and phase of the modulated optical signal was measured at 96Hz sample rate. The probe consisting of 4 crossed source detector pairs was placed above the motor cortex, contralateral to the hand performing a tapping exercise consisting of alternating rest- and tapping periods of 20s each. The tapping frequency, which was set to 3.55Hz or 2.5 times the heart rate of the subject to avoid the influence of harmonics on the signal, could not be observed in any of the individual signals measured by the detectors. An adaptive filter was used to remove the arterial pulsatility from the optical signals. Independent Component Analysis allowed to separate signal components in which the tapping frequency was clearly visible.

  14. IL-15Rα deficiency in skeletal muscle alters respiratory function and the proteome of mitochondrial subpopulations independent of changes to the mitochondrial genome

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Grant C.; Nichols, Cody; Guo, Ge; Croston, Tara L.; Thapa, Dharendra; Hollander, John M.; Pistilli, Emidio E.

    2016-01-01

    Interleukin-15 receptor alpha knockout (IL15RαKO) mice exhibit a greater skeletal muscle mitochondrial density with an altered mitochondrial morphology. However, the mechanism and functional impact of these changes have not been determined. In this study, we characterized the functional, proteomic, and genomic alterations in mitochondrial subpopulations isolated from the skeletal muscles of IL15RαKO mice and B6129 background control mice. State 3 respiration was greater in interfibrillar mitochondria and whole muscle ATP levels were greater in IL15RαKO mice supporting the increases in respiration rate. However, the state 3/state 4 ratio was lower, suggesting some degree of respiratory uncoupling. Proteomic analyses identified several markers independently in mitochondrial subpopulations that are associated with these functional alterations. Next Generation Sequencing of mtDNA revealed a high degree of similarity between the mitochondrial genomes of IL15RαKO mice and controls in terms of copy number, consensus coding and the presence of minor alleles, suggesting that the functional and proteomic alterations we observed occur independent of alterations to the mitochondrial genome. These data provide additional evidence to implicate IL-15Rα as a regulator of skeletal muscle phenotypes through effects on the mitochondrion, and suggest these effects are driven by alterations to the mitochondrial proteome. PMID:26458787

  15. Exercise training and antioxidant supplementation independently improve cognitive function in adult male and female GFAP-APOE mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Chaudhari

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: Exercise was the most effective treatment at improving cognitive function in both genotypes and sex, while antioxidants seemed to be effective only in the APOE4. In young adult mice only non-spatial learning and memory were improved. The combination of the two treatments did not yield further improvement in cognition, and there was no antagonistic action of the antioxidant supplementation on the beneficial effects of exercise.

  16. Accounting for Independent Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonenstein, Burton

    The diversity of independent schools in size, function, and mode of operation has resulted in a considerable variety of accounting principles and practices. This lack of uniformity has tended to make understanding, evaluation, and comparison of independent schools' financial statements a difficult and sometimes impossible task. This manual has…

  17. Independence of Internal Auditors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montondon, Lucille; Meixner, Wilda F.

    1993-01-01

    A survey of 288 college and university auditors investigated patterns in their appointment, reporting, and supervisory practices as indicators of independence and objectivity. Results indicate a weakness in the positioning of internal auditing within institutions, possibly compromising auditor independence. Because the auditing function is…

  18. 76 FR 39386 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... graduate and undergraduate marine biology students conducted approximately 600 hours of scientific... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  19. 75 FR 38465 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-02

    ..., from May 4 through November 18, 2009, trained graduate and undergraduate marine biology students... Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to the Port of Anchorage Marine Terminal Redevelopment Project AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration...

  20. Use of a structured functional evaluation process for independent medical evaluations of claimants presenting with disabling mental illness: rationale and design for a multi-center reliability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Monica; de Boer, Wout; Schandelmaier, Stefan; Leibold, Andrea; Marelli, Renato; Jeger, Joerg; Hoffmann-Richter, Ulrike; Mager, Ralph; Schaad, Heinz; Zumbrunn, Thomas; Vogel, Nicole; Bänziger, Oskar; Busse, Jason W; Fischer, Katrin; Kunz, Regina

    2016-07-29

    Work capacity evaluations by independent medical experts are widely used to inform insurers whether injured or ill workers are capable of engaging in competitive employment. In many countries, evaluation processes lack a clearly structured approach, standardized instruments, and an explicit focus on claimants' functional abilities. Evaluation of subjective complaints, such as mental illness, present additional challenges in the determination of work capacity. We have therefore developed a process for functional evaluation of claimants with mental disorders which complements usual psychiatric evaluation. Here we report the design of a study to measure the reliability of our approach in determining work capacity among patients with mental illness applying for disability benefits. We will conduct a multi-center reliability study, in which 20 psychiatrists trained in our functional evaluation process will assess 30 claimants presenting with mental illness for eligibility to receive disability benefits [Reliability of Functional Evaluation in Psychiatry, RELY-study]. The functional evaluation process entails a five-step structured interview and a reporting instrument (Instrument of Functional Assessment in Psychiatry [IFAP]) to document the severity of work-related functional limitations. We will videotape all evaluations which will be viewed by three psychiatrists who will independently rate claimants' functional limitations. Our primary outcome measure is the evaluation of claimant's work capacity as a percentage (0 to 100 %), and our secondary outcomes are the 12 mental functions and 13 functional capacities assessed by the IFAP-instrument. Inter-rater reliability of four psychiatric experts will be explored using multilevel models to estimate the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Additional analyses include subgroups according to mental disorder, the typicality of claimants, and claimant perceived fairness of the assessment process. We hypothesize that a

  1. Independent specialisation of myosin II paralogues in muscle vs. non-muscle functions during early animal evolution: a ctenophore perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayraud, Cyrielle; Alié, Alexandre; Jager, Muriel; Chang, Patrick; Le Guyader, Hervé; Manuel, Michaël; Quéinnec, Eric

    2012-07-02

    the result of neofunctionalisation within the ctenophore lineage, making independent origin of ctenophore muscle cells a likely option.

  2. Differential requirement for P2X7R function in IL-17 dependent vs. IL-17 independent cellular immune responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, J A; Jankowska-Gan, E; Shi, L; Roenneburg, D; Hegde, S; Greenspan, D S; Wilkes, D S; Denlinger, L C; Burlingham, W J

    2014-07-01

    IL17-dependent autoimmunity to collagen type V (Col V) has been associated with lung transplant obliterative bronchiolitis. Unlike the T helper 1 (Th1)-dependent immune responses to Tetanus Toxoid (TT), the Th17 response to Col V in lung transplant patients and its Th1/17 variant observed in coronary artery disease patients requires IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor α and CD14(+) cells. Given the involvement of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in monocyte IL-1β responses, we investigated its role in Th17-, Th1/17- and Th1-mediated proinflammatory responses. Transfer of antigen-pulsed peripheral blood mononucleated cells (PBMCs) from Col V-reactive patients into SCID mouse footpads along with P2X7R antagonists revealed a selective inhibition of Col V-, but not TT-specific swelling responses. P2X7R inhibitors blocked IL-1β induction from monocytes, including both Col V-α1 peptide-induced (T-dependent), as well as native Col V-induced (T-independent) responses. Significantly higher P2X7R expression was found on CXCR3(neg) CCR4(+)/6(+) CD4(+) [Th17] versus CXCR3(+)CCR4/6(neg) CD4(+) [Th1] subsets in PBMCs, suggesting that the paradigm of selective dependence on P2X7R might extend beyond Col V autoimmunity. Indeed, P2X7R inhibitors suppressed not only anti-Col V, but also Th1/17-mediated alloimmunity, in a heart transplant patient without affecting anti-viral Epstein-Barr virus responses. These results suggest that agents targeting the P2X7R might effectively treat Th17-related transplant pathologies, while maintaining Th1-immunity to infection. © Copyright 2014 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  3. The anterior piriform cortex is sufficient for detecting depletion of an indispensable amino acid, showing independent cortical sensory function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudell, J.B.; Rechs, A.J.; Kelman, T.J.; Ross-Inta, C.M.; Hao, S.; Gietzen, D.W.

    2011-01-01

    Protein synthesis requires a continuous supply of all the indispensable (essential) amino acids (IAAs). If any IAA is deficient, animals must obtain the limiting AA by diet selection. Sensing of IAA deficiency requires an intact anterior piriform cortex (APC), but does it act alone? Shortly after rats begin eating an IAA deficient diet, the meal ends and excitatory field post-synaptic potentials (EPSP) are activated in the APC; from there neurons project to feeding circuits; the meal ends within 20 min. Within the APC in vivo, uncharged tRNA activates the general amino acid control non-derepressing 2 (GCN2) enzyme system increasing phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor (P-eIF2α), which blocks general protein synthesis. If this paleocortex is sufficient for sensing IAA depletion, both neuronal activation and P-eIF2α should occur in an isolated APC slice. We used standard techniques for electrophysiology and immunohistochemistry. After rats ate IAA devoid or imbalanced diets, their depleted slices responded to different stimuli with increased EPSP amplitudes. Slices from rats fed a control diet were bathed in artificial CSF replete with all AAs ± the IAA, threonine, or a tRNA synthetase blocker, L-threoninol, or its inactive isomer, D-threoninol. Thr depletion in vitro increased both EPSP amplitudes and P-eIF2α. L-(but not D-) threoninol also increased EPSP amplitudes relative to control. Thus, we show independent excitation of the APC with responses parallel to those known in vivo. These data suggest a novel idea: in addition to classical processing of peripheral sensory input, direct primary sensing may occur in mammalian cortex. PMID:21289166

  4. Independent specialisation of myosin II paralogues in muscle vs. non-muscle functions during early animal evolution: a ctenophore perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    other paralogue, PpiMHCIIb1, was the result of neofunctionalisation within the ctenophore lineage, making independent origin of ctenophore muscle cells a likely option. PMID:22747595

  5. Independent specialisation of myosin II paralogues in muscle vs. non-muscle functions during early animal evolution: a ctenophore perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayraud Cyrielle

    2012-07-01

    expression of the other paralogue, PpiMHCIIb1, was the result of neofunctionalisation within the ctenophore lineage, making independent origin of ctenophore muscle cells a likely option.

  6. Malic enzyme and malolactic enzyme pathways are functionally linked but independently regulated in Lactobacillus casei BL23.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landete, José María; Ferrer, Sergi; Monedero, Vicente; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2013-09-01

    Lactobacillus casei is the only lactic acid bacterium in which two pathways for l-malate degradation have been described: the malolactic enzyme (MLE) and the malic enzyme (ME) pathways. Whereas the ME pathway enables L. casei to grow on l-malate, MLE does not support growth. The mle gene cluster consists of three genes encoding MLE (mleS), the putative l-malate transporter MleT, and the putative regulator MleR. The mae gene cluster consists of four genes encoding ME (maeE), the putative transporter MaeP, and the two-component system MaeKR. Since both pathways compete for the same substrate, we sought to determine whether they are coordinately regulated and their role in l-malate utilization as a carbon source. Transcriptional analyses revealed that the mle and mae genes are independently regulated and showed that MleR acts as an activator and requires internalization of l-malate to induce the expression of mle genes. Notwithstanding, both l-malate transporters were required for maximal l-malate uptake, although only an mleT mutation caused a growth defect on l-malate, indicating its crucial role in l-malate metabolism. However, inactivation of MLE resulted in higher growth rates and higher final optical densities on l-malate. The limited growth on l-malate of the wild-type strain was correlated to a rapid degradation of the available l-malate to l-lactate, which cannot be further metabolized. Taken together, our results indicate that L. casei l-malate metabolism is not optimized for utilization of l-malate as a carbon source but for deacidification of the medium by conversion of l-malate into l-lactate via MLE.

  7. Executive functioning independently predicts self-rated health and improvement in self-rated health over time among community-dwelling older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Joanna Edel; Lawlor, Brian A

    2016-01-01

    Self-rated health, as distinct from objective measures of health, is a clinically informative metric among older adults. The purpose of our study was to examine the cognitive and psychosocial factors associated with self-rated health. 624 participants over the age of 60 were assessed at baseline, and of these, 510 were contacted for a follow-up two years later. Measures of executive function and self-rated health were assessed at baseline, and self-rated health was assessed at follow-up. We employed multiple linear regression analyses to investigate the relationship between executive functioning and self-rated health, while controlling for demographic, psychosocial and biological variables. Controlling for other relevant variables, executive functioning independently and solely predicted self-rated health, both at a cross-sectional level, and also over time. Loneliness was also found to cross-sectionally predict self-rated health, although this relationship was not present at a longitudinal level. Older adults' self-rated health may be related to their executive functioning and to their loneliness. Self-rated health appeared to improve over time, and the extent of this improvement was also related to executive functioning at baseline. Self-rated health may be a judgement made of one's functioning, especially executive functioning, which changes with age and therefore may be particularly salient in the reflections of older adults.

  8. Impedance-Based Cable Force Monitoring in Tendon-Anchorage Using Portable PZT-Interface Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh-Canh Huynh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a portable PZT interface for tension force monitoring in the cable-anchorage subsystem is developed. Firstly, the theoretical background of the impedance-based method is presented. A few damage evaluation approaches are outlined to quantify the variation of impedance signatures. Secondly, a portable PZT interface is designed to monitor impedance signatures from the cable-anchorage subsystem. One degree-of-freedom analytical model of the PZT interface is established to explain how to represent the loss of cable force from the change in the electromechanical impedance of the PZT interface as well as reducing the sensitive frequency band by implementing the interface device. Finally, the applicability of the proposed PZT-interface technique is experimentally evaluated for cable force-loss monitoring in a lab-scaled test structure.

  9. Maxillary molar intrusion with zygomatic anchorage in open bite treatment: lateral and oblique cephalometric evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Talles Fernando Medeiros de; Nakao, Cecília Yuriko; Gonçalves, João Roberto; Santos-Pinto, Ary

    2015-03-01

    We aimed to use lateral and oblique radiographs to evaluate dental and skeletal changes arising from maxillary molar intrusion with zygomatic anchorage in open bite patients. We conducted a pilot study including nine patients (six females and three males; mean age, 18.7 ± 5.1 years) with skeletal open bite treated with titanium miniplates for posterior dentoalveolar intrusion. Lateral and oblique (right and left, 45°) radiographs were obtained before (T1) and 6 months after intrusion (T2). A paired t test was used for statistical evaluation. The maxillary posterior teeth were intruded 2.03 ± 0.87 mm (p open bite with skeletal anchorage provided intrusion of molars and counterclockwise rotation of the mandible, resulting in open bite closure.

  10. Patterned Anchorage to the Apical Extracellular Matrix Defines Tissue Shape in the Developing Appendages of Drosophila

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Robert P.; Matamoro-Vidal, Alexis; Ribeiro, Paulo S.; Tapon, Nic; Houle, David; Salazar-Ciudad, Isaac; Thompson, Barry J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary How tissues acquire their characteristic shape is a fundamental unresolved question in biology. While genes have been characterized that control local mechanical forces to elongate epithelial tissues, genes controlling global forces in epithelia have yet to be identified. Here, we describe a genetic pathway that shapes appendages in Drosophila by defining the pattern of global tensile forces in the tissue. In the appendages, shape arises from tension generated by cell constriction and localized anchorage of the epithelium to the cuticle via the apical extracellular-matrix protein Dumpy (Dp). Altering Dp expression in the developing wing results in predictable changes in wing shape that can be simulated by a computational model that incorporates only tissue contraction and localized anchorage. Three other wing shape genes, narrow, tapered, and lanceolate, encode components of a pathway that modulates Dp distribution in the wing to refine the global force pattern and thus wing shape. PMID:26190146

  11. Indian Board of Orthodontics case report: Orthodontic management of vertical excess using skeletal anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajit J Kalia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available B.B., a 21-year-old girl, presented with the chief complaint of forwardly placed upper front teeth and gummy smile. Diagnosis revealed prognathic maxilla and average mandible, Class II skeletal base with vertical growth pattern, end-on molars and Class II canine relationship bilaterally, convex profile, potentially incompetent lips, gummy smile, and protrusive lower lip. The patient′s treatment plan was extraction of all first bicuspids and retraction using temporary anchorage devices. Anchorage was reinforced using microimplants in the maxillary arch and second molar banding in the mandibular arch. The implants were placed high up in the vestibule to have more of an intrusive component and to reduce gummy smile at the end of the treatment.

  12. Horizontal lifelines - review of regulations and simple design method considering anchorage rigidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galy, Bertrand; Lan, André

    2018-03-01

    Among the many occupational risks construction workers encounter every day falling from a height is the most dangerous. The objective of this article is to propose a simple analytical design method for horizontal lifelines (HLLs) that considers anchorage flexibility. The article presents a short review of the standards and regulations/acts/codes concerning HLLs in Canada the USA and Europe. A static analytical approach is proposed considering anchorage flexibility. The analytical results are compared with a series of 42 dynamic fall tests and a SAP2000 numerical model. The experimental results show that the analytical method is a little conservative and overestimates the line tension in most cases with a maximum of 17%. The static SAP2000 results show a maximum 2.1% difference with the analytical method. The analytical method is accurate enough to safely design HLLs and quick design abaci are provided to allow the engineer to make quick on-site verification if needed.

  13. Blood oxygen depletion is independent of dive function in a deep diving vertebrate, the northern elephant seal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica U Meir

    Full Text Available Although energetics is fundamental to animal ecology, traditional methods of determining metabolic rate are neither direct nor instantaneous. Recently, continuous blood oxygen (O2 measurements were used to assess energy expenditure in diving elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, demonstrating that an exceptional hypoxemic tolerance and exquisite management of blood O2 stores underlie the extraordinary diving capability of this consummate diver. As the detailed relationship of energy expenditure and dive behavior remains unknown, we integrated behavior, ecology, and physiology to characterize the costs of different types of dives of elephant seals. Elephant seal dive profiles were analyzed and O2 utilization was classified according to dive type (overall function of dive: transit, foraging, food processing/rest. This is the first account linking behavior at this level with in vivo blood O2 measurements in an animal freely diving at sea, allowing us to assess patterns of O2 utilization and energy expenditure between various behaviors and activities in an animal in the wild. In routine dives of elephant seals, the blood O2 store was significantly depleted to a similar range irrespective of dive function, suggesting that all dive types have equal costs in terms of blood O2 depletion. Here, we present the first physiological evidence that all dive types have similarly high blood O2 demands, supporting an energy balance strategy achieved by devoting one major task to a given dive, thereby separating dive functions into distinct dive types. This strategy may optimize O2 store utilization and recovery, consequently maximizing time underwater and allowing these animals to take full advantage of their underwater resources. This approach may be important to optimizing energy expenditure throughout a dive bout or at-sea foraging trip and is well suited to the lifestyle of an elephant seal, which spends > 90% of its time at sea submerged making diving its

  14. Blood oxygen depletion is independent of dive function in a deep diving vertebrate, the northern elephant seal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Robinson, Patrick W; Vilchis, L Ignacio; Kooyman, Gerald L; Costa, Daniel P; Ponganis, Paul J

    2013-01-01

    Although energetics is fundamental to animal ecology, traditional methods of determining metabolic rate are neither direct nor instantaneous. Recently, continuous blood oxygen (O2) measurements were used to assess energy expenditure in diving elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), demonstrating that an exceptional hypoxemic tolerance and exquisite management of blood O2 stores underlie the extraordinary diving capability of this consummate diver. As the detailed relationship of energy expenditure and dive behavior remains unknown, we integrated behavior, ecology, and physiology to characterize the costs of different types of dives of elephant seals. Elephant seal dive profiles were analyzed and O2 utilization was classified according to dive type (overall function of dive: transit, foraging, food processing/rest). This is the first account linking behavior at this level with in vivo blood O2 measurements in an animal freely diving at sea, allowing us to assess patterns of O2 utilization and energy expenditure between various behaviors and activities in an animal in the wild. In routine dives of elephant seals, the blood O2 store was significantly depleted to a similar range irrespective of dive function, suggesting that all dive types have equal costs in terms of blood O2 depletion. Here, we present the first physiological evidence that all dive types have similarly high blood O2 demands, supporting an energy balance strategy achieved by devoting one major task to a given dive, thereby separating dive functions into distinct dive types. This strategy may optimize O2 store utilization and recovery, consequently maximizing time underwater and allowing these animals to take full advantage of their underwater resources. This approach may be important to optimizing energy expenditure throughout a dive bout or at-sea foraging trip and is well suited to the lifestyle of an elephant seal, which spends > 90% of its time at sea submerged making diving its most "natural

  15. Maxillary protraction using skeletal anchorage and intermaxillary elastics in Skeletal Class III patients

    OpenAIRE

    Esenlik, El?in; A?larc?, Cahide; Albayrak, Gayem Ero?lu; F?nd?k, Yavuz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the treatment of a patient with skeletal Class III malocclusion with maxillary retrognathia using skeletal anchorage devices and intermaxillary elastics. Miniplates were inserted between the mandibular lateral incisor and canine teeth on both sides in a male patient aged 14 years 5 months. Self-drilling mini-implants (1.6 mm diameter, 10 mm length) were installed between the maxillary second premolar and molar teeth, and Class III elastics were used ...

  16. Plant Functional Diversity Can Be Independent of Species Diversity: Observations Based on the Impact of 4-Yrs of Nitrogen and Phosphorus Additions in an Alpine Meadow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wei; Cheng, Ji-Min; Yu, Kai-Liang; Epstein, Howard E; Guo, Liang; Jing, Guang-Hua; Zhao, Jie; Du, Guo-Zhen

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have widely documented the decrease in species diversity in response to addition of nutrients, however functional diversity is often independent from species diversity. In this study, we conducted a field experiment to examine the effect of nitrogen and phosphorus fertilization ((NH4)2 HPO4) at 0, 15, 30 and 60 g m-2 yr-1 (F0, F15, F30 and F60) after 4 years of continuous fertilization on functional diversity and species diversity, and its relationship with productivity in an alpine meadow community on the Tibetan Plateau. To this purpose, three community-weighted mean trait values (specific leaf area, SLA; mature plant height, MPH; and seed size, SS) for 30 common species in each fertilization level were determined; three components of functional diversity (functional richness, FRic; functional evenness, FEve; and Rao's index of quadratic entropy, FRao) were quantified. Our results showed that: (i) species diversity sharply decreased, but functional diversity remained stable with fertilization; (ii) community-weighted mean traits (SLA and MPH) had a significant increase along the fertilization level; (iii) aboveground biomass was not correlated with functional diversity, but it was significantly correlated with species diversity and MPH. Our results suggest that decreases in species diversity due to fertilization do not result in corresponding changes in functional diversity. Functional identity of species may be more important than functional diversity in influencing aboveground productivity in this alpine meadow community, and our results also support the mass ratio hypothesis; that is, the traits of the dominant species influenced the community biomass production.

  17. Multiple independent analyses reveal only transcription factors as an enriched functional class associated with microRNAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Croft Larry

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transcription factors (TFs have long been known to be principally activators of transcription in eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The growing awareness of the ubiquity of microRNAs (miRNAs as suppressive regulators in eukaryotes, suggests the possibility of a mutual, preferential, self-regulatory connectivity between miRNAs and TFs. Here we investigate the connectivity from TFs and miRNAs to other genes and each other using text mining, TF promoter binding site and 6 different miRNA binding site prediction methods. Results In the first approach text mining of PubMed abstracts reveal statistically significant associations between miRNAs and both TFs and signal transduction gene classes. Secondly, prediction of miRNA targets in human and mouse 3’UTRs show enrichment only for TFs but not consistently across prediction methods for signal transduction or other gene classes. Furthermore, a random sample of 986 TarBase entries was scored for experimental evidence by manual inspection of the original papers, and enrichment for TFs was observed to increase with score. Low-scoring TarBase entries, where experimental evidence is anticorrelated miRNA:mRNA expression with predicted miRNA targets, appear not to select for real miRNA targets to any degree. Our manually validated text-mining results also suggests that miRNAs may be activated by more TFs than other classes of genes, as 7% of miRNA:TF co-occurrences in the literature were TFs activating miRNAs. This was confirmed when thirdly, we found enrichment for predicted, conserved TF binding sites in miRNA and TF genes compared to other gene classes. Conclusions We see enrichment of connections between miRNAs and TFs using several independent methods, suggestive of a network of mutual activating and suppressive regulation. We have also built regulatory networks (containing 2- and 3-loop motifs for mouse and human using predicted miRNA and TF binding sites and we have developed a web server

  18. Impedance monitoring at tendon-anchorage via mountable PZT interface and temperature-effect compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Thanh-Canh; Nguyen, Tuan-Cuong; Choi, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Jeong-Tae

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the pre-stress force in pre-stressed concrete (PSC) girders is monitored via mountable PZT interface under varying temperature. Firstly, an impedance-based technique using mountable PZT interface is proposed for pre-stress-loss monitoring in tendon-anchorage systems. A cross correlation-based temperature-effect compensation algorithm using an effective frequency shift (EFS) of impedance signatures is visited. Secondly, lab-scale experiments are performed on a PSC girder instrumented with a mountable PZT interface at tendon-anchorage. A series of temperature variation and pre-stress-loss events are simulated for the lab-scale PSC girder. Thirdly, the feasibility of the mountable PZT interface for pre-stress-loss monitoring in tendon-anchorage is experimentally verified under constant temperature conditions. Finally, the PZT interface device is examined for pre-stress-loss monitoring under temperature changes to validate its applicability. The temperature effect on impedance signatures is compensated by minimizing cross-correlation deviation between impedance patterns of the mountable PZT interface.

  19. Lower incisor intrusion with intraoral transosseous stainless steel wire anchorage in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-chao; Huang, Ji-na; Lin, Xin-ping

    2010-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the potential use of intraoral transosseous stainless steel wires as anchorage for intrusion of the lower incisors using a rabbit model. Placement of intraoral transosseous stainless steel wires around incisors is similar to that of intraoral transosseous wiring of edentulous mandibular fractures. Ten male New Zealand rabbits, 9 +/- 1.5 months of age, average weight 1.8 +/- 0.3 kg, were used in this study. One lower incisor was intruded with a 50 g bilateral force using a coil spring for 10 weeks, while the other incisor served as the control. Clinical measurements of the distances between the occlusal edges of the incisors (EE) were performed weekly with a calliper. In addition to standard descriptive statistical calculations, a paired Student's t-test was used for comparison of the two groups. All surgical sites healed uneventfully after insertion of the wires. Significant differences were found in the change of EE between the experimental and control sides from 4 weeks onwards. Intrusion of the incisor, 4 +/- 0.58 mm, was seen on the test side, while EE on the control side remained unchanged. Within the limits of this animal study, it is concluded that the intraoral transosseous stainless steel wire anchorage system is a cost-effective method for intrusion of lower incisors when the use of other anchorage system is not possible.

  20. The Plurality of Harbors at Caesarea: The Southern Anchorage in Late Antiquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratzlaff, Alexandra; Galili, Ehud; Waiman-Barak, Paula; Yasur-Landau, Assaf

    2017-08-01

    The engineering marvel of Sebastos, or Portus Augusti as it was called in Late Antiquity (284-638 CE), dominated Caesarea's harbor center along modern Israel's central coast but it was only one part of a larger maritime complex. The Southern Anchorage provides a case study as one portion of the Caesarea complex, as well as a node within the regional network of anchorages and small harbors. Ceramics recovered from here show a high percentage of locally, and provincially, produced storage jars engaged in maritime trade. The ceramic evidence points towards an intensified regional trade or cabotage rather than favouring long distance trade from large port to port. Working out of these small harbors, opportunities arose for greater flexibility in specialization of commodities and materials passing through the network of subsidiary ports, contributing to a more diversified market economy. This analysis provides another example in the growing focus on how these simple and semi-modified anchorages in the Eastern Mediterranean were often the predominant economic networks connecting hinterland and coastal trade.

  1. Skeletal anchorage for the correction of bimaxillary protrusion and gummy smile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P P Biswas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Many methods of achieving maximum anchorage have been experimented by various clinicians through the years. Usage of mini implants has its own limitations, inconsistent results being the most common. However, anchorage using mini plates produced consistent results even though it requires a minor invasive surgical procedure. The aim was to retract and correct a gummy smile of 5 mm, diagnosed to be due to a vertical maxillary excess, with mini plates used bilaterally in the zygomatic buttress region. A modified “L” shaped surgical stainless steel mini plate was inserted and stabilized with 3 screws in the anterior region of the zygomatic buttress and sutured with the tip of the surgical plate exposed in the oral cavity for the attachment of an elastomeric chain to the arch wire. The gummy smile was fully corrected with minimal intrusion of maxillary anteriors. Cephalometrically, there was intrusion and retraction of maxillary incisors with absolutely no anchor loss. The modified surgical mini plate is an excellent tool for the successful correction of the gummy smile and also has proved to be a very efficient absolute anchorage system for en masse retraction.

  2. Analysis of C. elegans NR2E nuclear receptors defines three conserved clades and ligand-independent functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber Katherine P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The nuclear receptors (NRs are an important class of transcription factors that are conserved across animal phyla. Canonical NRs consist of a DNA-binding domain (DBD and ligand-binding domain (LBD. While most animals have 20–40 NRs, nematodes of the genus Caenorhabditis have experienced a spectacular proliferation and divergence of NR genes. The LBDs of evolutionarily-conserved Caenorhabditis NRs have diverged sharply from their Drosophila and vertebrate orthologs, while the DBDs have been strongly conserved. The NR2E family of NRs play critical roles in development, especially in the nervous system. In this study, we explore the phylogenetics and function of the NR2E family of Caenorhabditis elegans, using an in vivo assay to test LBD function. Results Phylogenetic analysis reveals that the NR2E family of NRs consists of three broadly-conserved clades of orthologous NRs. In C. elegans, these clades are defined by nhr-67, fax-1 and nhr-239. The vertebrate orthologs of nhr-67 and fax-1 are Tlx and PNR, respectively. While the nhr-239 clade includes orthologs in insects (Hr83, an echinoderm, and a hemichordate, the gene appears to have been lost from vertebrate lineages. The C. elegans and C. briggsae nhr-239 genes have an apparently-truncated and highly-diverged LBD region. An additional C. elegans NR2E gene, nhr-111, appears to be a recently-evolved paralog of fax-1; it is present in C. elegans, but not C. briggsae or other animals with completely-sequenced genomes. Analysis of the relatively unstudied nhr-111 and nhr-239 genes demonstrates that they are both expressed—nhr-111 very broadly and nhr-239 in a small subset of neurons. Analysis of the FAX-1 LBD in an in vivo assay revealed that it is not required for at least some developmental functions. Conclusions Our analysis supports three conserved clades of NR2E receptors, only two of which are represented in vertebrates, indicating three ancestral NR2E genes in the

  3. Coordinating structural and functional synapse development: postsynaptic p21-activated kinase independently specifies glutamate receptor abundance and postsynaptic morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, Stephanie D; Davis, Graeme W

    2004-08-04

    Here, we show that postsynaptic p21-activated kinase (Pak) signaling diverges into two genetically separable pathways at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction. One pathway controls glutamate receptor abundance. Pak signaling within this pathway is specified by a required interaction with the adaptor protein Dreadlocks (Dock). We demonstrate that Dock is localized to the synapse via an Src homology 2-mediated protein interaction. Dock is not necessary for Pak localization but is necessary to restrict Pak signaling to control glutamate receptor abundance. A second genetically separable function of Pak kinase signaling controls muscle membrane specialization through the regulation of synaptic Discs-large. In this pathway, Dock is dispensable. We present a model in which divergent Pak signaling is able to coordinate two different features of postsynaptic maturation, receptor abundance, and muscle membrane specialization.

  4. Independence of protein kinase C-delta activity from activation loop phosphorylation: structural basis and altered functions in cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yin; Belkina, Natalya V; Graham, Caroline; Shaw, Stephen

    2006-04-28

    Activation loop phosphorylation plays critical regulatory roles for many kinases. Unlike other protein kinase Cs (PKC), PKC-delta does not require phosphorylation of its activation loop (Thr-507) for in vitro activity. We investigated the structural basis for this unusual capacity and its relevance to PKC-delta function in intact cells. Mutational analysis demonstrated that activity without Thr-507 phosphorylation depends on 20 residues N-terminal to the kinase domain and a pair of phenylalanines (Phe-500/Phe-527) unique to PKC-delta in/near the activation loop. Molecular modeling demonstrated that these elements stabilize the activation loop by forming a hydrophobic chain of interactions from the C-lobe to activation loop to N-terminal (helical) extension. In cells PKC-delta mediates both apoptosis and transcription regulation. We found that the T507A mutant of the PKC-delta kinase domain resembled the corresponding wild type in mediating apoptosis in transfected HEK293T cells. But the T507A mutant was completely defective in AP-1 and NF-kappaB reporter assays. A novel assay in which the kinase domain of PKC-delta and its substrate (a fusion protein of PKC substrate peptide with green fluorescent protein) were co-targeted to lipid rafts revealed a major substrate-selective defect of the T507A mutant in phosphorylating the substrate in cells. In vitro analysis showed strong product inhibition on the T507A mutant with particular substrates whose characteristics suggest it contributes to the substrate selective defect of the PKC-delta T507A mutant in cells. Thus, activation loop phosphorylation of PKC-delta may regulate its function in cells in a novel way.

  5. Functional activity and white matter microstructure reveal the independent effects of age of acquisition and proficiency on second-language learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Emily S; Joanisse, Marc F

    2016-12-01

    Two key factors govern how bilingual speakers neurally maintain two languages: the speakers' second language age of acquisition (AoA) and their subsequent proficiency. However, the relative roles of these two factors have been difficult to disentangle given that the two can be closely correlated, and most prior studies have examined the two factors in isolation. Here, we combine functional magnetic resonance imaging with diffusion tensor imaging to identify specific brain areas that are independently modulated by AoA and proficiency in second language speakers. First-language Mandarin Chinese speakers who are second language speakers of English were scanned as they performed a picture-word matching task in either language. In the same session we also acquired diffusion-weighted scans to assess white matter microstructure, along with behavioural measures of language proficiency prior to entering the scanner. Results reveal gray- and white-matter networks involving both the left and right hemisphere that independently vary as a function of a second-language speaker's AoA and proficiency, focused on the superior temporal gyrus, middle and inferior frontal gyrus, parahippocampal gyrus, and the basal ganglia. These results indicate that proficiency and AoA explain separate functional and structural networks in the bilingual brain, which we interpret as suggesting distinct types of plasticity for age-dependent effects (i.e., AoA) versus experience and/or predisposition (i.e., proficiency). Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. IFN-γ extends the immune functions of Guanylate Binding Proteins to inflammasome-independent antibacterial activities during Francisella novicida infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Wallet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Guanylate binding proteins (GBPs are interferon-inducible proteins involved in the cell-intrinsic immunity against numerous intracellular pathogens. The molecular mechanisms underlying the potent antibacterial activity of GBPs are still unclear. GBPs have been functionally linked to the NLRP3, the AIM2 and the caspase-11 inflammasomes. Two opposing models are currently proposed to explain the GBPs-inflammasome link: i GBPs would target intracellular bacteria or bacteria-containing vacuoles to increase cytosolic PAMPs release ii GBPs would directly facilitate inflammasome complex assembly. Using Francisella novicida infection, we investigated the functional interactions between GBPs and the inflammasome. GBPs, induced in a type I IFN-dependent manner, are required for the F. novicida-mediated AIM2-inflammasome pathway. Here, we demonstrate that GBPs action is not restricted to the AIM2 inflammasome, but controls in a hierarchical manner the activation of different inflammasomes complexes and apoptotic caspases. IFN-γ induces a quantitative switch in GBPs levels and redirects pyroptotic and apoptotic pathways under the control of GBPs. Furthermore, upon IFN-γ priming, F. novicida-infected macrophages restrict cytosolic bacterial replication in a GBP-dependent and inflammasome-independent manner. Finally, in a mouse model of tularemia, we demonstrate that the inflammasome and the GBPs are two key immune pathways functioning largely independently to control F. novicida infection. Altogether, our results indicate that GBPs are the master effectors of IFN-γ-mediated responses against F. novicida to control antibacterial immune responses in inflammasome-dependent and independent manners.

  7. Multi-Day Recordings of Wearable Sensors Are Valid and Sensitive Measures of Function and Independence in Human Spinal Cord Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brogioli, Michael; Popp, Werner L; Schneider, Sophie; Albisser, Urs; Brust, Anne K; Frotzler, Angela; Gassert, Roger; Curt, Armin; Starkey, Michelle L

    2017-03-15

    Wearable sensor assessment tools have proven to be reliable in measuring function in normal and impaired movement disorders during well-defined assessment protocols. While such assessments can provide valid and sensitive measures of upper limb activity in spinal cord injury (SCI), no assessment tool has yet been introduced into unsupervised daily recordings to complement clinical assessments during rehabilitation. The objective of this study was to measure the overall amount of upper-limb activity in subjects with acute SCI using wearable sensors and relate this to lesion characteristics, independence, and function. The overall amount of upper extremity activity counts, measures of wheeling (speed and distance), and limb-use laterality were measured in 30 in-patients with an acute cervical or thoracic SCI three months after injury. The findings were related to the international standards for neurological classification of SCI, the spinal cord independence measure, and the upper extremity motor scores of the Graded and Redefined Assessment of Strength, Sensibility, and Prehension. Overall upper extremity activity counts were successfully recorded in all patients and correlated with the neurological level of injury and independence. Clinical measures of proximal muscle strength were related to overall activity count and peak velocity of wheeling. Compared with paraplegics, tetraplegics showed significantly lower activity counts and increased limb-use laterality. This is the first cross-sectional study showing the feasibility and clinical value of sensor recordings during unsupervised daily activities in rehabilitation. The strong relationship between sensor-based measures and clinical outcomes supports the application of such technology to assess and track changes in function during rehabilitation and in clinical trials.

  8. Poor sleep quality predicts decreased cognitive function independently of chronic mountain sickness score in young soldiers with polycythemia stationed in Tibet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fan-Yi; Li, Qiang; Liu, Shi-Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the association between poor sleep and cognitive function in people with polycythemia at high altitude. The aim of this study was to survey the sleep quality of individuals with polycythemia at high altitude and determine its association with cognitive abilities. We surveyed 230 soldiers stationed in Tibet (all men; mean age 21-52±4.30 yr) at altitudes ranging from 3658 to 3996 m. All participants were given a blood tests for hemoglobin level and a questionnaire survey of cognitive function. Polycythemia was defined as excessive erythrocytosis (Hb≥21 g/dL in men or ≥19 g/dL in women). Poor sleepers were defined as having a global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index score (PSQI)>5. Cognitive abilities were determined by the Chinese revision of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale and the Benton Visual Retention Test. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the association between the PSQI and cognitive function. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent effect of sleep quality on cognitive function. The global PSQI score of enrolled participants was 8.14±3.79. Seventy-five (32.6%) soldiers were diagnosed with polycythemia. The proportion of poor sleepers was 1.45 times greater in those with polycythemia compared with those without polycythemia [95% (confidence interval) CI 1.82-2.56], and they had a statistically significant lower score for cognitive function. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that the global PSQI score was negatively associated with IQ (β=0.11, 95% CI -0.16 to -0.05) and digit symbol scores (β=0.66, 95% CI -0.86 to -0.44). Poor sleep quality was determined to be an independent predictor of impaired IQ [odds ratio (OR) 1.59, 95% CI 1.30-1.95] and digit symbol score (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07-1.31) in logistic regression analysis. The present study showed that for young soldiers with polycythemia at high altitude impaired subjective sleep quality was an independent

  9. Fibronectin has a dual role in locomotion and anchorage of primary chick fibroblasts and can promote entry into the division cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couchman, J R; Rees, D A; Green, M R

    1982-01-01

    Fibronectin (FN), which is already known to be a natural factor for fibroblast spreading on substrata, has now been shown to be essential for two distinct types of adhesion with different biological functions in chick heart fibroblasts, namely adhesion directed toward locomotion and toward statio...... for stationary anchorage can be dramatically enhanced by addition of cell-derived FN at an appropriate stage, and this promotes entry into the growth cycle. New macromolecular synthesis in addition to FN is necessary for focal adhesion development but not for locomotion....... stationary anchorage for growth. Manipulation of culture conditions and the use of antisera of differing specificities has demonstrated that both exogenous and cell-derived FN are important in each process. The organization of the fibronectin-containing matrix differs between the two states. Immunoelectron...... microscopy with a colloidal gold marker reveals the presence of small membrane-associated plaques of fibronectin in motile cells with associated submembranous specialization. A fibrillar matrix containing fibronectin is dominant in nonmotile, growing fibroblasts. The development of focal adhesions...

  10. Post-exercise contractility, diastolic function, and pressure: Operator-independent sensor-based intelligent monitoring for heart failure telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giannoni Massimo

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background New sensors for intelligent remote monitoring of the heart should be developed. Recently, a cutaneous force-frequency relation recording system has been validated based on heart sound amplitude and timing variations at increasing heart rates. Aim To assess sensor-based post-exercise contractility, diastolic function and pressure in normal and diseased hearts as a model of a wireless telemedicine system. Methods We enrolled 150 patients and 22 controls referred for exercise-stress echocardiography, age 55 ± 18 years. The sensor was attached in the precordial region by an ECG electrode. Stress and recovery contractility were derived by first heart sound amplitude vibration changes; diastolic times were acquired continuously. Systemic pressure changes were quantitatively documented by second heart sound recording. Results Interpretable sensor recordings were obtained in all patients (feasibility = 100%. Post-exercise contractility overshoot (defined as increase > 10% of recovery contractility vs exercise value was more frequent in patients than controls (27% vs 8%, p 1 in 20 patients and in none of the controls (p 1 in only 3 patients (p Conclusion Post-exercise contractility, diastolic time and pressure changes can be continuously measured by a cutaneous sensor. Heart disease affects not only exercise systolic performance, but also post-exercise recovery, diastolic time intervals and blood pressure changes – in our study, all of these were monitored by a non-invasive wearable sensor.

  11. The Function of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor (HIF) Is Independent of the Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein OS-9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Kirsten; Patak, Pauline; Bernardini, André; Fandrey, Joachim; Metzen, Eric

    2011-01-01

    The protein “amplified in osteosarcoma-9” (OS-9) has been shown previously to interact with the prolyl hydroxylases PHD2 and PHD3. These enzymes initiate oxygen-dependent degradation of the α-subunit of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), a transcription factor that adapts cells to insufficient oxygen supply (hypoxia). A new model has been proposed where OS-9 triggers PHD dependent degradation of HIF-α. It was the aim of our study to define the molecular mode of action of OS-9 in the regulation of PHD and HIF activity. Although initial co-immunoprecipitation experiments confirmed physical interaction between OS-9 and PHD2, neither overexpression nor lentiviral inhibition of OS-9 expression affected HIF regulation. Subcellular localization experiments revealed a distinct reticular staining pattern for OS-9 while PHD2 was mainly localized in the cytoplasm. Further cell fractionation experiments and glycosylation tests indicated that OS-9 is a luminal ER protein. In vivo protein interaction analysis by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) showed no significant physical interaction of overexpressed PHD2-CFP and OS-9-YFP. We conclude that OS-9 plays no direct functional role in HIF degradation since physical interaction of OS-9 with oxygen sensing HIF prolyl hydroxylases cannot occur in vivo due to their different subcellular localization. PMID:21559462

  12. Inhibition of Curcumin on ZAKα Activity Resultant in Apoptosis and Anchorage-Independent Growth in Cancer Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jin-Sun; Wang, Tsu-Shing; Lin, Ming Cheng; Lin, Wei-Wen; Yang, Jaw-Ji

    2017-10-31

    Curcumin, a popular yellow pigment of the dietary spice turmeric, has been reported to inhibit cell growth and to induce apoptosis in a wide variety of cancer cells. Although numerous studies have investigated anticancer effects of curcumin, the precise molecular mechanism of action remains unidentified. Whereas curcumin mediates cell survival and apoptosis through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling cascades, its impact on the upstream regulation of MAPK is unclear. The leucine-zipper and sterile-α motif kinase alpha (ZAKα), a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K), activates the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and NF-κB pathway. This paper investigated the prospective involvement of ZAKα in curcumin-induced effects on cancer cells. Our results suggest that the antitumor activity of curcumin is mediated via a mechanism involving inhibition of ZAKα activity.

  13. The LKB1 tumor suppressor differentially affects anchorage independent growth of HPV positive cervical cancer cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mack, Hildegard I.D.; Munger, Karl, E-mail: kmunger@rics.bwh.harvard.edu

    2013-11-15

    Infection with high-risk human papillomaviruses is causally linked to cervical carcinogenesis. However, most lesions caused by high-risk HPV infections do not progress to cancer. Host cell mutations contribute to malignant progression but the molecular nature of such mutations is unknown. Based on a previous study that reported an association between liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor loss and poor outcome in cervical cancer, we sought to determine the molecular basis for this observation. LKB1-negative cervical and lung cancer cells were reconstituted with wild type or kinase defective LKB1 mutants and we examined the importance of LKB1 catalytic activity in known LKB1-regulated processes including inhibition of cell proliferation and elevated resistance to energy stress. Our studies revealed marked differences in the biological activities of two kinase defective LKB1 mutants in the various cell lines. Thus, our results suggest that LKB1 may be a cell-type specific tumor suppressor. - Highlights: • LKB1 is a tumor suppressor that is linked to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. • Peutz-Jeghers syndrome patients have a high incidence of cervical cancer. • Cervical cancer is caused by HPV infections. • This study investigates LKB1 tumor suppressor activity in cervical cancer.

  14. Pre-operative functional mobility as an independent determinant of inpatient functional recovery after total knee arthroplasty during three periods that coincided with changes in clinical pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, G. van der; Goldbohm, R.A.; Elings, J.E.; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, M.W.G.; Akkermans, R.P.; Bimmel, R.; Hoogeboom, T.J.; Meeteren, N.L. van

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To investigate whether pre-operative functional mobility is a determinant of delayed inpatient recovery of activities (IRoA) after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) in three periods that coincided with changes in the clinical pathway. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All patients (n = 682, 73% women, mean

  15. A critical role for transcription factor Smad4 in T cell function that is independent of transforming growth factor β receptor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Ai-Di; Zhang, Song; Wang, Yunqi; Xiong, Hui; Curtis, Thomas A; Wan, Yisong Y

    2015-01-20

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) suppresses T cell function to maintain self-tolerance and to promote tumor immune evasion. Yet how Smad4, a transcription factor component of TGF-β signaling, regulates T cell function remains unclear. Here we have demonstrated an essential role for Smad4 in promoting T cell function during autoimmunity and anti-tumor immunity. Smad4 deletion rescued the lethal autoimmunity resulting from transforming growth factor-beta receptor (TGF-βR) deletion and compromised T-cell-mediated tumor rejection. Although Smad4 was dispensable for T cell generation, homeostasis, and effector function, it was essential for T cell proliferation after activation in vitro and in vivo. The transcription factor Myc was identified to mediate Smad4-controlled T cell proliferation. This study thus reveals a requirement of Smad4 for T-cell-mediated autoimmunity and tumor rejection, which is beyond the current paradigm. It highlights a TGF-βR-independent role for Smad4 in promoting T cell function, autoimmunity, and anti-tumor immunity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Ten-year effects of the advanced cognitive training for independent and vital elderly cognitive training trial on cognition and everyday functioning in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebok, George W; Ball, Karlene; Guey, Lin T; Jones, Richard N; Kim, Hae-Young; King, Jonathan W; Marsiske, Michael; Morris, John N; Tennstedt, Sharon L; Unverzagt, Frederick W; Willis, Sherry L

    2014-01-01

    To determine the effects of cognitive training on cognitive abilities and everyday function over 10 years. Ten-year follow-up of a randomized, controlled single-blind trial (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE)) with three intervention groups and a no-contact control group. Six U.S. cities. A volunteer sample of 2,832 persons (mean baseline age 73.6; 26% African American) living independently. Ten training sessions for memory, reasoning, or speed of processing; four sessions of booster training 11 and 35 months after initial training. Objectively measured cognitive abilities and self-reported and performance-based measures of everyday function. Participants in each intervention group reported less difficulty with instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs) (memory: effect size = 0.48, 99% confidence interval (CI) = 0.12-0.84; reasoning: effect size = 0.38, 99% CI = 0.02-0.74; speed of processing: effect size = 0.36, 99% CI = 0.01-0.72). At a mean age of 82, approximately 60% of trained participants, versus 50% of controls (P cognitive abilities at 10 years (reasoning: effect size = 0.23, 99% CI = 0.09-0.38; speed of processing: effect size = 0.66, 99% CI = 0.43-0.88). Memory training effects were no longer maintained for memory performance. Booster training produced additional and durable improvement for the reasoning intervention for reasoning performance (effect size = 0.21, 99% CI = 0.01-0.41) and the speed-of-processing intervention for speed-of-processing performance (effect size = 0.62, 99% CI = 0.31-0.93). Each Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly cognitive intervention resulted in less decline in self-reported IADL compared with the control group. Reasoning and speed, but not memory, training resulted in improved targeted cognitive abilities for 10 years. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Decoding the encoding of functional brain networks: An fMRI classification comparison of non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), independent component analysis (ICA), and sparse coding algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jianwen; Douglas, Pamela K; Wu, Ying Nian; Brody, Arthur L; Anderson, Ariana E

    2017-04-15

    Brain networks in fMRI are typically identified using spatial independent component analysis (ICA), yet other mathematical constraints provide alternate biologically-plausible frameworks for generating brain networks. Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF) would suppress negative BOLD signal by enforcing positivity. Spatial sparse coding algorithms (L1 Regularized Learning and K-SVD) would impose local specialization and a discouragement of multitasking, where the total observed activity in a single voxel originates from a restricted number of possible brain networks. The assumptions of independence, positivity, and sparsity to encode task-related brain networks are compared; the resulting brain networks within scan for different constraints are used as basis functions to encode observed functional activity. These encodings are then decoded using machine learning, by using the time series weights to predict within scan whether a subject is viewing a video, listening to an audio cue, or at rest, in 304 fMRI scans from 51 subjects. The sparse coding algorithm of L1 Regularized Learning outperformed 4 variations of ICA (pnegative BOLD signal, had the poorest accuracy compared to the ICA and sparse coding algorithms. Holding constant the effect of the extraction algorithm, encodings using sparser spatial networks (containing more zero-valued voxels) had higher classification accuracy (pNegative BOLD signal may capture task-related activations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Prophylactic neuroprotection against stroke: low-dose, prolonged treatment with deferoxamine or deferasirox establishes prolonged neuroprotection independent of HIF-1 function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yanxin; Rempe, David A

    2011-01-01

    Prophylactic neuroprotection against stroke could reduce stroke burden in thousands of patients at high risk of stroke, including those with recent transient ischemic attacks (TIAs). Prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors (PHIs), such as deferoxamine (DFO), reduce stroke volume when administered at high doses in the peristroke period, which is largely mediated by the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor (HIF-1). Yet, in vitro experiments suggest that PHIs may also induce neuroprotection independent of HIF-1. In this study, we examine chronic, prophylactic, low-dose treatment with DFO, or another iron chelator deferasirox (DFR), to determine whether they are neuroprotective with this paradigm and mediate their effects through a HIF-1-dependent mechanism. In fact, prophylactic administration of low-dose DFO or DFR significantly reduces stroke volume. Surprisingly, DFO remained neuroprotective in mice haploinsufficient for HIF-1 (HIF-1+/−) and transgenic mice with conditional loss of HIF-1 function in neurons and astrocytes. Similarly, DFR was neuroprotective in HIF-1+/− mice. Neither DFO nor DFR induced expression of HIF-1 targets. Thus, low-dose chronic administration of DFO or DFR induced a prolonged neuroprotective state independent of HIF-1 function. As DFR is an orally administered and well-tolerated medication in clinical use, it has promise for prophylaxis against stroke in patients at high risk of stroke. PMID:21245873

  19. Anchorage of equipment - requirements and verification methods with emphasis on equipment of existing and constructed VVER-type nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masopust, R.

    1999-01-01

    Criteria and verification methods which are recommended for use in the capacity evaluation of anchorage of safety-related equipment at WWER-type nuclear power plants are presented. Developed in compliance with the relevant basic standards documents specifically for anchorage of WWER-type equipment components, the criteria and methods cover different types of anchor bolts and other anchorage elements which are typical of existing, constructed, or reconstructed WWER-type nuclear power plants

  20. Comparative evaluation of sagittal anchorage loss in lingual and labial appliances during space closure: A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivanand Venkatesh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The purpose of this investigation was to assess and compare the anchorage loss between labial and lingual appliance systems during space closure. Materials and Methods: Twenty subjects were part of the study among which 10 subjects (mean age 21 ± 3.6 years were treated using lingual appliance system (0.018" slot-STb™ and 10 subjects (mean age 19 ± 6.1 years were treated using labial preadjusted edgewise appliance system (0.018" slot-MBT™ . First premolar extractions were performed to enable retraction of anterior teeth. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken at two intervals, before starting space closure and after space closure that were connoted as T0 and T1 and were analyzed using the method described by Pancherz to measure anchorage loss. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was used to evaluate intraexaminer reliability of the measurements. Student′s t-test was performed to verify any statistical significant correlation between the labial and lingual appliance systems. Statistical differences were determined at the 95% confidence level (P < 0.05. Results: The results showed that all ICC for lingual and labial group were ≥0.90 showing good repeatability of the measurements. Mean anchorage loss of 1.238 ± 0.17 mm in lingual appliance system and an anchorage loss of 2.06 ± 0.39 mm occurred with the labial appliance system. On the comparison between the two appliance systems, lingual appliance demonstrated a significantly lesser anchorage loss than did the labial appliance. Interpretation and Conclusion: This prospective study concludes with the fact that lingual appliance provided better anchorage control than labial appliance during space closure. Use of lingual appliance could be considered in critical anchorage cases when compared with labial appliance.

  1. Are Independent Fiscal Institutions Really Independent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Franek

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade the number of independent fiscal institutions (known also as fiscal councils has tripled. They play an important oversight role over fiscal policy-making in democratic societies, especially as they seek to restore public finance stability in the wake of the recent financial crisis. Although common functions of such institutions include a role in analysis of fiscal policy, forecasting, monitoring compliance with fiscal rules or costing of spending proposals, their roles, resources and structures vary considerably across countries. The aim of the article is to determine the degree of independence of such institutions based on the analysis of the independence index of independent fiscal institutions. The analysis of this index values may be useful to determine the relations between the degree of independence of fiscal councils and fiscal performance of particular countries. The data used to calculate the index values will be derived from European Commission and IMF, which collect sets of information about characteristics of activity of fiscal councils.

  2. Probabilistic conditional independence structures

    CERN Document Server

    Studeny, Milan

    2005-01-01

    Probabilistic Conditional Independence Structures provides the mathematical description of probabilistic conditional independence structures; the author uses non-graphical methods of their description, and takes an algebraic approach.The monograph presents the methods of structural imsets and supermodular functions, and deals with independence implication and equivalence of structural imsets.Motivation, mathematical foundations and areas of application are included, and a rough overview of graphical methods is also given.In particular, the author has been careful to use suitable terminology, and presents the work so that it will be understood by both statisticians, and by researchers in artificial intelligence.The necessary elementary mathematical notions are recalled in an appendix.

  3. EFFECT OF END ANCHORAGE LENGTH AND STIRRUP RATIO ON BOND AND SHEAR CAPACITY OF CONCRETE BEAMS WITH NONMETALLIC REINFORCEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RENDY THAMRIN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the effect of end anchorage length and stirrup ratio on bond and shear capacity of concrete beams reinforced with Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP bars. This study was carried out using test data on nine simply supported reinforced concrete beams with stirrups. The beams were subjected to two point monotonic loads and the test variables were the length of end anchorage and the stirrup ratio. Theoretical equations for calculating bond strength and shear capacity obtained from literature were applied and then compared with experimental values. Beams with inadequate end anchorage length showed premature bond failure even when there was sufficient stirrup ratio. Beams with adequate end anchorage length failed in shear or flexure modes depending on the stirrup ratio. A numerical model for bond stress and slip in response to pullout forces was also used to determine analytically the bond stress distributions along end anchorage. The behavior of tensile force acting on the stirrups was also examined. Finally, a simple model for predicting tension force acting on the stirrups was proposed.

  4. Effectiveness of interceptive treatment of class III malocclusions with skeletal anchorage: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Rodríguez de Guzmán-Barrera

    Full Text Available Recently, new strategies for treating class III malocclusions have appeared. Skeletal anchorage appears to reduce the dentoalveolar effects while maximising the orthopaedic effect in growing patients. The purpose of this systematic review and meta-analysis is to examine the effectiveness of bone anchorage devices for interceptive treatment of skeletal class III malocclusions. Searches were made in the Pubmed, Embase, Scopus and Cochrane databases, as well as in a grey literature database, and were complemented by hand-searching. The criteria for eligibility were: patients who had undergone orthodontic treatment with skeletal anchorage (miniplates and miniscrews. Patients with syndromes or craniofacial deformities or who had undergone maxillofacial surgery were excluded. The following variables were recorded for each article: author, year of publication, type of study, sample size, dropouts, demographic variables, treatment carried out, radiographic study (2D or 3D, follow-up time, and quality of the articles on the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. The means and confidence intervals of the following variables were employed: Wits, overjet, ANB, SNA and SNB. Initially, 239 articles were identified. After removing the duplicates and applying the selection criteria, 9 were included in the qualitative synthesis and 7 in the quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis. It may be concluded that skeletal anchorage is an effective treatment for improving skeletal Class III malocclusion, but when compared with other traditional treatments such as disjunction and face mask, there is no clear evidence that skeletal anchorage improves the results.

  5. Clinical application of micro-implant anchorage in initial orthodontic retraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahabuddin, Shaji; Mascarenhas, Rohan; Iqbal, Mahamad; Husain, Akhter

    2015-02-01

    Micro-implant is a device that is temporarily fixed to bone for the purpose of enhancing orthodontic anchorage either by supporting the teeth of the reactive unit or by obviating the need for the reactive unit altogether, and which is subsequently removed after use. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical efficiency of micro-implants in reinforcing anchorage during the initial retraction of anterior teeth, check the rate of initial retraction for 8 weeks, and assess the stability of micro-implants during this period. Eighteen micro-implants were placed (10 in the maxilla and 8 in the mandible) and immediately loaded with 200-250 g of force using 9-mm closed coil Nitinol springs. The amount of space closure was measured every 2 weeks until the eighth week. Cephalometric measurements were made at the end of the study to evaluate anchor loss, if any. Micro-implant stability was also assessed. The rate of initial retraction in the maxilla at the end of 8 weeks was 1.65 mm/quadrant and 1.51 mm/quadrant in the mandible. The amount of retraction on the left side of the arches was 1.66 mm/quadrant and 1.49 mm/quadrant on the right side. The average initial retraction for both arches per month was 0.78 mm. An anchor loss of 0.1 mm (0.06%) was observed in the maxilla while no mandibular anchor loss was recorded. The rate of initial retraction observed in the maxilla was more than that achieved in the mandible. Initial retraction was also more on the left side of the arches. There was no anchor loss in the mandible. The micro-implant-reinforced anchorage was helpful in minimizing anchor loss and accepted heavy traction forces but did not bring about a faster rate of retraction.

  6. Advanced Age, High β-CTX Levels, and Impaired Renal Function are Independent Risk Factors for All-Cause One-Year Mortality in Hip Fracture Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulin, Tonko; Kruljac, Ivan; Kirigin, Lora; Merc, Marcela; Pavić, Marina; Trcin, Mirna Tominac; Bokulić, Adrijana; Megla, Željka Bukovec; Kaštelan, Darko

    2016-01-01

    Risk factors for increased mortality in hip fracture patients include older age, male sex, fracture type, bone mineral density, and pre-existing co-morbidities. The role of biochemical and other anthropometric parameters on hip fracture mortality remains unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the risk factors for one-year mortality in patients with hip fractures. A total of 236 consecutive patients (59 males) with hip fractures were followed over a one-year period. Patient age, gender, type of fracture, type of treatment, time from admission to surgery, type of anesthesia, body mass index, and electrocardiograms were recorded. Complete blood counts, serum electrolytes, urea, creatinine, d-dimers, calcium, phosphate, osteocalcin, and beta-isomerised C-terminal telopeptide of collagen type I (β-CTX) were measured at admission and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was calculated. Multivariate Cox regression models were used to analyze the association of these parameters with survival. One-year mortality rate was 28.4%. Age was independently associated with mortality (HR 1.117, 95% CI 1.062-1.174, P 0.276 g/L (3.5 vs. 25.7%, HR 9.5, 95% CI 2.11-42.76). Advanced age, high β-CTX levels, and impaired renal function are independent risk factors of mortality in patients with hip fractures.

  7. Androgen receptor gene CAG repeat polymorphism independently influences recovery of male sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy in postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tirabassi, Giacomo; Delli Muti, Nicola; Corona, Giovanni; Maggi, Mario; Balercia, Giancarlo

    2014-05-01

    Few and contradictory studies have evaluated the possible influence of androgen receptor (AR) gene CAG repeat polymorphism on male sexual function. In this study we evaluated the role of AR gene CAG repeat polymorphism in the recovery of sexual function after testosterone replacement therapy (TRT) in men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, a condition which is often associated with hypopituitarism and in which the sexual benefits of TRT must be distinguished from those of pituitary-function replacement therapies. Fifteen men affected by postsurgical hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were retrospectively assessed before and after TRT. Main outcome measures included sexual parameters as assessed by the International Index of Erectile Function questionnaire, levels of pituitary dependent hormones (total testosterone, free T3, free T4, cortisol, insulin-like growth factor-1 [IGF-1], prolactin), and results of genetic analysis (AR gene CAG repeat number). Plasma concentrations of free T3, free T4, cortisol, and prolactin did not vary significantly between the two phases, while testosterone and IGF-1 increased significantly after TRT. A significant improvement in all sexual parameters studied was found. The number of CAG triplets was negatively and significantly correlated with changes in all the sexual parameters, while opposite correlations were found between changes in sexual parameters and changes in testosterone levels; no correlation of change in IGF1 with change in sexual parameters was reported. On multiple linear regression analysis, after correction for changes in testosterone, nearly all the associations between the number of CAG triplets and changes in sexual parameters were confirmed. Shorter length AR gene CAG repeat number is associated with the recovery of sexual function after TRT in postsurgical male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, independently of the effects of concomitant pituitary-replacement therapies. © 2014 International Society

  8. Functional connectivity analysis of the neural bases of emotion regulation: A comparison of independent component method with density-based k-means clustering method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Ling; Guo, Qian; Xu, Yi; Yang, Biao; Jiao, Zhuqing; Xiang, Jianbo

    2016-04-29

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is an important tool in neuroscience for assessing connectivity and interactions between distant areas of the brain. To find and characterize the coherent patterns of brain activity as a means of identifying brain systems for the cognitive reappraisal of the emotion task, both density-based k-means clustering and independent component analysis (ICA) methods can be applied to characterize the interactions between brain regions involved in cognitive reappraisal of emotion. Our results reveal that compared with the ICA method, the density-based k-means clustering method provides a higher sensitivity of polymerization. In addition, it is more sensitive to those relatively weak functional connection regions. Thus, the study concludes that in the process of receiving emotional stimuli, the relatively obvious activation areas are mainly distributed in the frontal lobe, cingulum and near the hypothalamus. Furthermore, density-based k-means clustering method creates a more reliable method for follow-up studies of brain functional connectivity.

  9. A comparison of the Barthel Index and the Functional Independence Measure as outcome measures in stroke rehabilitation: patterns of disability scale usage in clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangha, Harpreet; Lipson, David; Foley, Norine; Salter, Katherine; Bhogal, Sanjit; Pohani, Gina; Teasell, Robert W

    2005-06-01

    In order to compare the frequency and patterns of use of the Barthel Index (BI) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) in stroke rehabilitation trials, all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of stroke rehabilitation published between 1968 and 2002 were identified and reviewed to determine the frequency with which the BI and FIM measures were used relative to other measures of disability. The date and location of each study citing either the FIM or the BI were also recorded. Studies were assigned ratings of methodological quality based on the physiotherapy evidence database (PEDro) scoring system. Comparisons of the age, frequency and continents of origin and methodological quality of the studies were explored. Results indicate that the BI and FIM were the most common measures of disability used in RCTs examining stroke rehabilitation. However, the BI was used more often than the FIM (n=86, Pscale use in stroke rehabilitation research.

  10. Seismic Margin Assessment and Reinforcement of Safety-Related Equipment Considering its Anchorage Degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Ho-Sam; Jung, Dong-Yeoul

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes the overall approach and review results of the Seismic Margin Assessment (SMA) for safety-related equipment considering anchorage degradation. The equipment seismic reinforcement performed following the SMA review results is also described. The SMA review was based on the methodology in EPRI Reports NP-6041 and NP-7498, and it was conducted using the data obtained from the USI A-46 seismic evaluation. The seismic margin earthquake selected for SMA review was based on the recommendations in EPRI NP-6041 and NUREG-1407, and it has a peak ground acceleration (PGA) of 0.3g. (author)

  11. Correction of gummy smile in a patient of vertical maxillary excess using absolute anchorage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekta Lahoti

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the orthodontic treatment of a 24-year-old female patient with gummy smile and proclination along with a hyperdivergent profile. The patient showed excessive gingival display in both the anterior and posterior areas in the maxilla. Such situation in an adult patient often demands surgical therapy. However, due to patient reluctance toward surgery, the gummy smile was treated by the intrusion of the whole maxillary arch. After alignment and leveling, absolute anchorage system as well as a modified transpalatal arch was designed to achieve posterosuperior movement of the entire upper dentition. The active treatment period was 2.3 years.

  12. [Intruding upper incisors using mini-screw anchorage in patients with gummy smile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yun-Yi; Zhou, Yan-Heng; Lin, Jiu-Xiang

    2009-08-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of mini-screw anchorage on intruding upper incisors in patients with gummy smile. Sixteen female patients (mean age: 23.8 years) were involved in this study. The mini-screws were placed between upper lateral incisors and canines on both sides for intruding upper incisors together with fixed appliance. The cephalometric analysis was carried out. Totally 63 teeth in 16 patients were intruded successfully and the deep overbite was decreased by (2.74 +/- 2.00) mm (P gummy smile by intruding upper incisors with mini-screw implant.

  13. Randomized clinical trial comparing control of maxillary anchorage with 2 retraction techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tian-Min; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Oh, Hee Soo; Boyd, Robert L; Korn, Edward L; Baumrind, Sheldon

    2010-11-01

    The objective of this pilot randomized clinical trial was to investigate the relative effectiveness of anchorage conservation of en-masse and 2-step retraction techniques during maximum anchorage treatment in patients with Angle Class I and Class II malocclusions. Sixty-four growing subjects (25 boys, 39 girls; 10.2-15.9 years old) who required maximum anchorage were randomized to 2 treatment techniques: en-masse retraction (n = 32) and 2-step retraction (n = 32); the groups were stratified by sex and starting age. Each patient was treated by a full-time clinic instructor experienced in the use of both retraction techniques at the orthodontic clinic of Peking University School of Stomatology in China. All patients used headgear, and most had transpalatal appliances. Lateral cephalograms taken before treatment and at the end of treatment were used to evaluate treatment-associated changes. Differences in maxillary molar mesial displacement and maxillary incisor retraction were measured with the before and after treatment tracings superimposed on the anatomic best fit of the palatal structures. Differences in mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar were compared between the 2 treatment techniques, between sexes, and between different starting-age groups. Average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar was slightly less in the en-masse group than in the 2-step group (mean, -0.36 mm; 95% CI, -1.42 to 0.71 mm). The average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar for both treatment groups pooled (n = 63, because 1 patient was lost to follow-up) was 4.3 ± 2.1 mm (mean ± standard deviation). Boys had significantly more mesial displacement than girls (mean difference, 1.3 mm; P <0.03). Younger adolescents had significantly more mesial displacement than older adolescents (mean difference, 1.3 mm; P <0.02). Average mesial displacement of the maxillary first molar with 2-step retraction was slightly greater than that for en-masse retraction, but the

  14. A Rad53 independent function of Rad9 becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of the Recq helicase Sgs1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Nielsen

    Full Text Available The conserved family of RecQ DNA helicases consists of caretaker tumour suppressors, that defend genome integrity by acting on several pathways of DNA repair that maintain genome stability. In budding yeast, Sgs1 is the sole RecQ helicase and it has been implicated in checkpoint responses, replisome stability and dissolution of double Holliday junctions during homologous recombination. In this study we investigate a possible genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD9 in the cellular response to methyl methane sulphonate (MMS induced damage and compare this with the genetic interaction between SGS1 and RAD24. The Rad9 protein, an adaptor for effector kinase activation, plays well-characterized roles in the DNA damage checkpoint response, whereas Rad24 is characterized as a sensor protein also in the DNA damage checkpoint response. Here we unveil novel insights into the cellular response to MMS-induced damage. Specifically, we show a strong synergistic functionality between SGS1 and RAD9 for recovery from MMS induced damage and for suppression of gross chromosomal rearrangements, which is not the case for SGS1 and RAD24. Intriguingly, it is a Rad53 independent function of Rad9, which becomes crucial for genome maintenance in the absence of Sgs1. Despite this, our dissection of the MMS checkpoint response reveals parallel, but unequal pathways for Rad53 activation and highlights significant differences between MMS- and hydroxyurea (HU-induced checkpoint responses with relation to the requirement of the Sgs1 interacting partner Topoisomerase III (Top3. Thus, whereas earlier studies have documented a Top3-independent role of Sgs1 for an HU-induced checkpoint response, we show here that upon MMS treatment, Sgs1 and Top3 together define a minor but parallel pathway to that of Rad9.

  15. Synergistic or independent impacts of low frequency of going outside the home and social isolation on functional decline: A 4-year prospective study of urban Japanese older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, Yoshinori; Nishi, Mariko; Fukaya, Taro; Hasebe, Masami; Nonaka, Kumiko; Koike, Takashi; Suzuki, Hiroyuki; Murayama, Yoh; Saito, Masashige; Kobayashi, Erika

    2017-03-01

    Decreased frequency of going outside the home and being socially isolated are regarded as predictors of poor health. The object of the present study was to clarify whether these factors have synergistic or independent impacts on future functional decline. We examined a prospective cohort of 2427 community-dwelling persons, aged ≥65 years, who responded to the baseline mail survey in Wako City, in 2008. Participants were asked about the frequency of going outside the home, social isolation status (having contact less than once a week with anyone outside household), functional capacity (Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Gerontology-Index of Competence), age, sex, annual income, self-rated health, depressive mood and mobility. Of 1575 persons (72.1%) who completely responded to the follow-up survey (T2) in 2012, we defined the groups as follows: group 1, not isolated and going outside the home every day (n = 897); group 2, not isolated and going outside the home less than every day (n = 311); group 3, isolated and going outside the home every day (n = 224); and group 4, isolated and going outside the home less than every day (n = 143). Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the variables identifying group 3 for men and group 2 for women with reference to group 1 were predictors of subsequent functional decline even after adjustment for confounders (odds ratios 2.01, 1.63; 95% CI 1.20-3.38, 1.03-2.56, respectively). Social isolation regardless of going outside the home every day for men and going outside the home less than every day regardless of being not socially isolated for women might predict functional decline. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 500-508. © 2016 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  16. Functional and cosmetic outcome of full- versus split-thickness skin grafts in pediatric palmar surface burns: a prospective, independent evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Queenie E; Barzi, Federica; Harvey, John G; Holland, Andrew J A

    2013-01-01

    Palmar hand burns continue to be a common injury in the pediatric population, with long-term implications for function, hand rehabilitation, and psychosocial well-being in a growing child. Debate over the choice of full-thickness skin grafts (FTSG) and split skin grafts (SSG) for optimal subsequent functional and cosmetic outcomes continues. This study prospectively evaluated children who required skin grafting of palmar burns at our institution between January 2008 and December 2009. A clinical assessment of the grafted area and donor site using the Vancouver Scar Scale, together with assessment of sensation, hair growth, and the development of contracture was performed by an independent clinician. Thirty-four (16%) of 214 palm burns that presented to our institution during this period required grafting, of which 26 (77%) agreed to participate in this study. At a mean 13.5 months postsurgery, pliability was significantly enhanced in FTSG compared with SSG (P burns after FTSG, although with the exception of scar pliability these differences were small.

  17. 3D Retraction Force Vector Indicator for Anterior en masse Retraction with Miniscrew Anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavankumar Janardan Vibhute

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Miniscrews are used for providing anchorage in orthodontics and have become an integral part in the orthodontic treatment of severely protrusive patients for maximum retraction of anterior teeth after premolar extractions. Often the miniscrews are placed according to the availability of safe zone, interradicular clearance and type of mucosa. Sometime loosening and failure of miniscrew and reinsertion with change in site lead to asymmetry in positioning. This uneven positioning of miniscrew imposes unbalanced biomechanics in the same jaw. Force vectors of space closing auxiliary spring differs on both side and causes disturbance in occlusion or asymmetry in arch form. This article shows how ′3D force vector indicator′ can be used to overcome the problems arise due to asymmetric retraction forces with miniscrew anchorage. This technique measures and specifies the correct location of implant head, i.e. 3D position of the posterior point of attachment for retraction auxiliary and its direction of vector with respect to the fixed appliance and the underlying dentition.

  18. Urban encroachment on the wilderness: moose-vehicle collisions in Anchorage, Alaska, 1991-1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, L C; Conway, G A

    1998-01-01

    Moose have successfully adapted to urban sprawl in Anchorage, Alaska, using greenbelt areas for shelter, forage, and protection. However, the proximity of moose to people poses unique hazards: a collision with a moose may cause significant injury and vehicle damage. Moose-vehicle collisions were identified using Municipality of Anchorage records. Completeness of reporting was assessed from Alaska Department of Fish and Game records. The moose-vehicle collision rate increased significantly from 38 to 49.2/100,000/yr during the study period (p = .005, x2 = 7.795). Of 519 reported moose-auto collisions, 120 (23%) resulted in injury to 158 people, with no human fatalities. Most collisions (291 or 56%) occurred between 1800 and 0200 hours; 411 (79%) occurred after dark; 154 (30%) occurred during December and January; and slick road conditions were identified in 280 (54%) incidents. Incidents occurred primarily near greenbelt areas. Moose-vehicle collisions often occur at night, on unlighted, slick road surfaces. Moose-vehicle collisions may be prevented by: reducing speed limits around green-belt areas, brighter vehicle headlights, placement of street lights in known moose areas, underpasses for wildlife at known crossings, and snow removal to reduce berm height in known moose areas.

  19. Menentukan Besar Anchorage Loss Gigi Molar Pertama Atas pada Model Studi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi Suhardi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Anchorage loss may frequently be found on the first upper molar during orthodontic treatment, especially while canines are retracted. There are several means used to determine whether anchorage loss has occurred, i.e. radiographically by cephalometric tracing, and clinically by measuring some point of references on the study model. There are many variables available on the study model used as point of references, i.e. anterior and posterior palatal raphe, the third medial rugae point, and mesial and distal points of the first molar. Use as points and lines references are the third medial rugae points and the line drawn between the anterior and posterior raphe point (the median palatal raphe line. THe linear measurement drawn from the mesial point of first molar and the thir medial rugae point perpendicular to the median palatal raphe line are utilized to determine the intensity meovement could be determined by measuring the angle of line drawn from mesial and distal point of the first molar to the median palatal raphe line.

  20. The relative and absolute reliability of the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale in community-dwelling frail elderly Japanese people using long-term care insurance services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-06-01

    The newly developed Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living in terms of both independence and difficulty. The reliability of this new scale has not been assessed. The aim of this study was to examine the relative reliability and absolute reliability of the newly developed scale in community-dwelling frail elderly people in Japan. Participants were 47 community-dwelling elderly subjects (22 for assessing test-retest reliability and 25 for assessing inter-rater reliability). As relative reliability indices, intra-class correlation coefficients were used. From an absolute reliability perspective, we conducted Bland-Altman analysis and calculated the limit of agreement or minimal detectable change to determine the acceptable range of error. Intra-class correlation coefficients for test-retest and inter-rater reliability were 0.90 (P reliability was -5.2 to 1.8, representing an increase of over six points for improvement and a decrease of over two points for decline of basic activities of daily living ability. The minimal detectable change for inter-rater reliability was 3.7, indicating that a three-point difference might be existed between difference raters. The results of this study demonstrated that the FIDS appeared to be a reliable instrument for use in Japanese community-dwelling frail elderly people. While further research using a large and more diverse sample of participants is needed, our findings support the use of FIDS in clinical practice or clinical research targeting frail elderly Japanese people.

  1. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs-independent functions of fish oil on glucose and lipid metabolism in diet-induced obese mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wakutsu Masaki

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fish oil is known to improve lifestyle-related diseases. These effects occur partly via activation of PPARs by the n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids included abundantly in fish oil. We investigated fish oil functions on glucose and lipid metabolism that are both dependent on and independent of PPARs pathway. Methods Mice were fed a diet containing 30 en% beef tallow (B diet for twelve weeks to induce obesity. The mice were then divided into two groups which were fed either a B diet or a diet containing 30 en% fish oil (F diet. Each group was further divided into two groups which were administered PPARα and γ antagonists or vehicle once a day for three weeks. Results The F diet groups showed lower triglyceride levels in plasma and liver than the B diet groups, but PPARs antagonists did not affect the triglyceride levels in either diet groups. The F diet groups also showed improvement of glucose tolerance compared with the B diet groups. However, PPARs antagonists made glucose tolerance worse in the F diet group but improved it in the B diet group. Therefore, by the administration of antagonists, glucose tolerance was inversely regulated between the B and F diets, and hypolipidemic action in the plasma and liver of the F diet group was not affected. Conclusion These results suggest that fish oil decreases lipid levels in plasma and liver via PPARs pathway-independent mechanism, and that glucose tolerance is inversely regulated by PPARs antagonists under diets containing different oils.

  2. Cognitive Function in Normal-Weight, Overweight, and Obese Older Adults: An Analysis of the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly Cohort

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Hsu-Ko; Jones, Richard N.; Milberg, William P.; Tennstedt, Sharon; Talbot, Laura; Morris, John N.; Lipsitz, Lewis A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To assess how elevated body mass index (BMI) affects cognitive function in elderly people. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Data for this cross-sectional study were taken from a multicenter randomized controlled trial, the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly trial. PARTICIPANTS The analytic sample included 2,684 normal-weight, overweight, or obese subjects aged 65 to 94. MEASUREMENTS Evaluation of cognitive abilities was performed in several domains: global cognition, memory, reasoning, and speed of processing. Cross-sectional association between body weight status and cognitive functions was analyzed using multiple linear regression. RESULTS Overweight subjects had better performance on a reasoning task (β = 0.23, standard error (SE) = 0.11, P = .04) and the Useful Field of View (UFOV) measure (β = −39.46, SE = 12.95, P = .002), a test of visuospatial speed of processing, after controlling for age, sex, race, years of education, intervention group, study site, and cardiovascular risk factors. Subjects with class I (BMI 30.0–34.9 kg/m2) and class II (BMI>35.0 kg/m2) obesity had better UFOV measure scores (β = −38.98, SE = 14.77, P = .008; β = −35.75, SE = 17.65, and P = .04, respectively) in the multivariate model than normal-weight subjects. The relationships between BMI and individual cognitive domains were nonlinear. CONCLUSION Overweight participants had better cognitive performance in terms of reasoning and visuospatial speed of processing than normal-weight participants. Obesity was associated with better performance in visuospatial speed of processing than normal weight. The relationship between BMI and cognitive function should be studied prospectively. PMID:16420204

  3. The Responsiveness of the Lucerne ICF-Based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale: A Comparison with the Functional Independence Measure and the Barthel Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanbellingen, Tim; Ottiger, Beatrice; Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Mehrholz, Jan; Bohlhalter, Stephan; Nef, Tobias; Nyffeler, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Good responsive functional outcome measures are important to measure change in stroke patients. The aim of study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects of the motor, cognition, and communication subscales of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS) with the motor and cognition subscales of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM), and the Barthel Index (BI), in a large cohort of stroke patients. One hundred eighteen stroke patients participated in this study. Admission and discharge score distributions of the LIMOS motor, LIMOS cognition and communication, FIM motor and FIM cognition, and BI were analyzed based on skewness and kurtosis. Floor and ceiling effects of the scales were determined. Internal responsiveness was assessed with t -tests, effect sizes (ESs), and standardized response means (SRMs). External responsiveness was investigated with linear regression analyses. The LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition and communication subscales were more responsive, expressed by higher ESs (ES = 0.65, SRM = 1.17 and ES = 0.52, SRM = 1.17, respectively) as compared with FIM motor (ES = 0.54, SRM = 0.96) and FIM cognition (ES = 0.41, SRM = 0.88) and the BI (ES = 0.41, SRM = 0.65). The LIMOS subscales showed neither floor nor ceiling effects at admission and discharge (all scales, might have the potential to better detect changes in functional outcome of stroke patients, compared with the FIM motor and FIM cognition and the BI.

  4. The responsiveness of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS: a comparison with the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Barthel Index (BI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Vanbellingen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Good responsive functional outcome measures are important to measure change in stroke patients. The aim of study was to compare the internal and external responsiveness, floor and ceiling effects of the motor, cognition & communication subscales of the Lucerne ICF-based Multidisciplinary Observation Scale (LIMOS with the motor and cognition subscales of the Functional Independence Measure (FIM, and the Barthel Index (BI, in a large cohort of stroke patients.Methods: One hundred and eighteen stroke patients participated in this study. Admission and discharge score distributions of the LIMOS motor, LIMOS cognition & communication, FIM motor and FIM cognition, and BI were analyzed based on skewness and kurtosis. Floor and ceiling effects of the scales were determined. Internal responsiveness was assessed with t-tests, effect sizes (ES and standardized response means (SRMs. External responsiveness was investigated with linear regression analyses.Results: The LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication subscales were more responsive, expressed by higher effect sizes (ES = 0.65, SRM = 1.17 and ES = 0.52, SRM = 1.17 respectively as compared with FIM motor (ES = 0.54, SRM = 0.96 and FIM cognition (ES = 0.41, SRM = 0.88, and the BI (ES = 0.41, SRM = 0.65. The LIMOS subscales showed neither floor nor ceiling effects at admission and discharge (all < 15%. In contrast, ceiling effects were found for the FIM motor (16%, FIM cognition (15% at discharge and the BI (at admission (22% and discharge (43%. LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication subscales significantly correlated (p < 0.0001 with a change in the FIM motor and FIM cognition subscales, suggesting good external responsiveness.Conclusions: We found that the LIMOS motor and LIMOS cognition & communication, which are ICF-based multidisciplinary standardized observation scales, might have the potential to better detect changes in functional outcome of stroke patients, compared to

  5. Independence in appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming-Rasmussen, Bent; Quick, Reiner; Liempd, Dennis van

    2011-01-01

    article presents research contributions to the question whether the auditor is to continue to provide both audit and non-audit services (NAS) to an audit client. Research results show that this double function for the same audit client is a problem for stakeholders' confidence in auditor independence...

  6. Function Modelling Of The Market And Assessing The Degree Of Similarity Between Real Properties - Dependent Or Independent Procedures In The Process Of Office Property Valuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barańska Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Referring to the developed and presented in previous publications (e.g. Barańska 2011 two-stage algorithm for real estate valuation, this article addresses the problem of the relationship between the two stages of the algorithm. An essential part of the first stage is the multi-dimensional function modelling of the real estate market. As a result of selecting the model best fitted to the market data, in which the dependent variable is always the price of a real property, a set of market attributes is obtained, which in this model are considered to be price-determining. In the second stage, from the collection of real estate which served as a database in the process of estimating model parameters, the selected objects are those which are most similar to the one subject to valuation and form the basis for predicting the final value of the property being valued. Assessing the degree of similarity between real properties can be carried out based on the full spectrum of real estate attributes that potentially affect their value and which it is possible to gather information about, or only on the basis of those attributes which were considered to be price-determining in function modelling. It can also be performed by various methods. This article has examined the effect of various approaches on the final value of the property obtained using the two-stage prediction. In order fulfill the study aim precisely as possible, the results of each calculation step of the algorithm have been investigated in detail. Each of them points to the independence of the two procedures.

  7. Genetic deletion of the bacterial sensor NOD2 improves murine Crohn’s disease-like ileitis independent of functional dysbiosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corridoni, D.; Rodriguez-Palacios, A.; Di Stefano, G.; Di Martino, L.; Antonopoulos, D. A.; Chang, E. B.; Arseneau, K. O.; Pizarro, T. T.; Cominelli, F.

    2016-11-16

    Although genetic polymorphisms in NOD2 (nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing 2) have been associated with the pathogenesis of Crohn’s disease (CD), little is known regarding the role of wild-type (WT) NOD2 in the gut. To date, most murine studies addressing the role of WT Nod2 have been conducted using healthy (ileitis/colitis-free) mouse strains. Here, we evaluated the effects of Nod2 deletion in a murine model of spontaneous ileitis, i.e., the SAMP1Yit/Fc (SAMP) strain, which closely resembles CD. Remarkably, Nod2 deletion improved both chronic cobblestone ileitis (by 50% assessed, as the % of abnormal mucosa at 24 wks of age), as well as acute dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis. Mechanistically, Th2 cytokine production and Th2-transcription factor activation (i.e., STAT6 phosphorylation) were reduced. Microbiologically, the effects of Nod2 deletion appeared independent of fecal microbiota composition and function, assessed by 16S rRNA and metatranscriptomics. Our findings indicate that pharmacological blockade of NOD2 signaling in humans could improve health in Th2-driven chronic intestinal inflammation.

  8. Tie2 signaling cooperates with TNF to promote the pro-inflammatory activation of human macrophages independently of macrophage functional phenotype.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel García

    Full Text Available Angiopoietin (Ang -1 and -2 and their receptor Tie2 play critical roles in regulating angiogenic processes during development, homeostasis, tumorigenesis, inflammation and tissue repair. Tie2 signaling is best characterized in endothelial cells, but a subset of human and murine circulating monocytes/macrophages essential to solid tumor formation express Tie2 and display immunosuppressive properties consistent with M2 macrophage polarization. However, we have recently shown that Tie2 is strongly activated in pro-inflammatory macrophages present in rheumatoid arthritis patient synovial tissue. Here we examined the relationship between Tie2 expression and function during human macrophage polarization. Tie2 expression was observed under all polarization conditions, but was highest in IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages. While TNF enhanced expression of a common restricted set of genes involved in angiogenesis and inflammation in GM-CSF, IFN-γ and IL-10 -differentiated macrophages, expression of multiple chemokines and cytokines, including CXCL3, CXCL5, CXCL8, IL6, and IL12B was further augmented in the presence of Ang-1 and Ang-2, via Tie2 activation of JAK/STAT signaling. Conditioned medium from macrophages stimulated with Ang-1 or Ang-2 in combination with TNF, sustained monocyte recruitment. Our findings suggest a general role for Tie2 in cooperatively promoting the inflammatory activation of macrophages, independently of polarization conditions.

  9. Ptpn11 Deletion in CD4+ Cells Does Not Affect T Cell Development and Functions but Causes Cartilage Tumors in a T Cell-Independent Manner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, S M Shahjahan; Jayasuriya, Chathuraka T; Salter, Alexander I; Reilly, Emma C; Fugere, Céline; Yang, Wentian; Chen, Qian; Brossay, Laurent

    2017-01-01

    The ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2, encoded by Ptpn11 ) is required for constitutive cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and the regulation of immune responses. During development and maturation, subsets of T cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors known to associate with phosphatases, which in turn, dephosphorylate key players of activating receptor signaling pathways. We hypothesized that SHP-2 deletion would have major effects on T cell development by altering the thresholds for activation, as well as positive and negative selection. Surprisingly, using mice conditionally deficient for SHP-2 in the T cell lineage, we show that the development of these lymphocytes is globally intact. In addition, our data demonstrate that SHP-2 absence does not compromise T cell effector functions, suggesting that SHP-2 is dispensable in these cells. Unexpectedly, in aging mice, Ptpn11 gene deletion driven by CD4 Cre recombinase leads to cartilage tumors in wrist bones in a T cell-independent manner. These tumors resemble miniature cartilaginous growth plates and contain CD4-lineage positive chondrocyte-like cells. Altogether these results indicate that SHP-2 is a cartilage tumor suppressor during aging.

  10. Ptpn11 Deletion in CD4+ Cells Does Not Affect T Cell Development and Functions but Causes Cartilage Tumors in a T Cell-Independent Manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shahjahan Miah

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The ubiquitously expressed tyrosine phosphatase Src homology region 2 domain-containing phosphatase-2 (SHP-2, encoded by Ptpn11 is required for constitutive cellular processes including proliferation, differentiation, and the regulation of immune responses. During development and maturation, subsets of T cells express a variety of inhibitory receptors known to associate with phosphatases, which in turn, dephosphorylate key players of activating receptor signaling pathways. We hypothesized that SHP-2 deletion would have major effects on T cell development by altering the thresholds for activation, as well as positive and negative selection. Surprisingly, using mice conditionally deficient for SHP-2 in the T cell lineage, we show that the development of these lymphocytes is globally intact. In addition, our data demonstrate that SHP-2 absence does not compromise T cell effector functions, suggesting that SHP-2 is dispensable in these cells. Unexpectedly, in aging mice, Ptpn11 gene deletion driven by CD4 Cre recombinase leads to cartilage tumors in wrist bones in a T cell-independent manner. These tumors resemble miniature cartilaginous growth plates and contain CD4-lineage positive chondrocyte-like cells. Altogether these results indicate that SHP-2 is a cartilage tumor suppressor during aging.

  11. Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Expression Licenses Type-2 Helper T Cells to Function in a T Cell Receptor-Independent Fashion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minutti, Carlos M; Drube, Sebastian; Blair, Natalie; Schwartz, Christian; McCrae, Jame C; McKenzie, Andrew N; Kamradt, Thomas; Mokry, Michal; Coffer, Paul J; Sibilia, Maria; Sijts, Alice J; Fallon, Padraic G; Maizels, Rick M; Zaiss, Dietmar M

    2017-10-17

    Gastro-intestinal helminth infections trigger the release of interleukin-33 (IL-33), which induces type-2 helper T cells (Th2 cells) at the site of infection to produce IL-13, thereby contributing to host resistance in a T cell receptor (TCR)-independent manner. Here, we show that, as a prerequisite for IL-33-induced IL-13 secretion, Th2 cells required the expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and of its ligand, amphiregulin, for the formation of a signaling complex between T1/ST2 (the IL-33R) and EGFR. This shared signaling complex allowed IL-33 to induce the EGFR-mediated activation of the MAP-kinase signaling pathway and consequently the expression of IL-13. Lack of EGFR expression on T cells abrogated IL-13 expression in infected tissues and impaired host resistance. EGFR expression on Th2 cells was TCR-signaling dependent, and therefore, our data reveal a mechanism by which antigen presentation controls the innate effector function of Th2 cells at the site of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Carbetocin is a Functional Selective Gq Agonist That Does Not Promote Oxytocin Receptor Recycling After Inducing β-Arrestin-Independent Internalisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passoni, I; Leonzino, M; Gigliucci, V; Chini, B; Busnelli, M

    2016-04-01

    Carbetocin, a long-acting oxytocin analogue, has been reported to elicit interesting and peculiar behavioural effects. The present study investigated the molecular pharmacology of carbetocin, aiming to better understand the molecular basis of its action in the brain. Using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensors, we characterised the effects of carbetocin on the three human oxytocin/vasopressin receptors expressed in the nervous system: the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) and the vasopressin V1a (V1aR) and V1b (V1bR) receptors. Our results indicate that (i) carbetocin activates the OXTR but not the V1aR and V1bR at which it may act as an antagonist; (ii) carbetocin selectively activates only the OXTR/Gq pathway displaying a strong functional selectivity; (iii) carbetocin is a partial agonist at the OXTR/Gq coupling; (iv) carbetocin promotes OXTR internalisation via a previously unreported β-arrestin-independent pathway; and (v) carbetocin does not induce OXTR recycling to the plasma membrane. Altogether, these molecular pharmacology features identify carbetocin as a substantially different analogue compared to the endogenous oxytocin and, consequently, carbetocin is not expected to mimic oxytocin in the brain. Whether these unique features of carbetocin could be exploited therapeutically remains to be established. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Society for Neuroendocrinology.

  13. The "Real Self" and Inauthenticity: The Importance of Self-Concept Anchorage for Emotional Experiences in the Workplace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Melissa M.

    2007-01-01

    I examine the utility of self-concept anchorage (as described by Turner 1976) in the analysis of inauthenticity in the workplace. As controlling internally felt emotion may distance the worker from her true feelings or true self, the management of emotion in the workplace can produce feelings of inauthenticity in the worker. This relationship has…

  14. 33 CFR 110.236 - Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal anchorages. 110.236 Section 110.236 Navigation and... Grounds § 110.236 Pacific Ocean off Barbers Point, Island of Oahu, Hawaii: Offshore pipeline terminal... shall notify the Captain of the Port, Honolulu, Hawaii, and the Commanding Officer, U.S. Naval Air...

  15. A mixed-methods approach for analysing social support and social anchorage of single mothers’ personal networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lumino, Rosaria; Ragozini, Giancarlo; van Duijn, Marijtje; Vitale, Maria Prosperina

    2017-01-01

    The present paper analyses the relationship among social support and personal networks by focusing on social anchorage, which is a specific dimension of social support conveying to what extent people feel integrated into their personal networks. Specifying when, why, and how personal relationships

  16. Orthodontic treatment of gummy smile by maxillary total intrusion with a midpalatal absolute anchorage system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ryoon-Ki; Lim, Seung-Min; Heo, Jung-Min; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2013-06-01

    This article describes the orthodontic treatment of a 31-year-old Korean female patient with gummy smile and crowding. The patient showed excessive gingival display in both the anterior and posterior areas and a large difference in gingival heights between the anterior and posterior teeth in the maxilla. To correct the gummy smile, we elected to intrude the entire maxillary dentition instead of focusing only on the maxillary anterior teeth. Alignment and leveling were performed, and a midpalatal absolute anchorage system as well as a modified lingual arch was designed to achieve posterosuperior movement of the entire upper dentition. The active treatment period was 18 months. The gummy smile and crowding were corrected, and the results were stable at 21 months post-treatment.

  17. Management of severe anterior open-bite in an adult patient using miniscrews as skeletal anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachala, Madhukar Reddy; Harikrishnan, Pandurangan

    2010-01-01

    Anterior open bite is often caused by a downward rotation of the mandible and/or by excessive eruption of the posterior teeth. In such cases, it is difficult to establish absolute anchorage for molar intrusion by traditional orthodontic mechanics. This is a case report of successful treatment of a severe anterior open bite using miniscrew anchorage. A female patient of 20 yrs presented with symmetrical frontal facial appearance, increased anterior facial height, convex profile and incompetent lips. Dentally, she had lost both mandibular first molars due to caries and both maxillary first molars were extruded. She had class II canine relationship, 5 mm overjet, 5 mm anterior open bite, 3 mm mandibular midline diastema and a spacing of 2 mm in the maxillary arch. The treatment objectives were to correct the anterior open bite and establish ideal overjet and overbite and to restore the mandibular first molars with fixed prosthesis. Titanium miniscrews (1.3 mm diameter and 9 mm length) were implanted bilaterally in the maxillary arch between the second premolar and the first molar, and an intrusion force was applied with NiTi closed coil springs for 8 months. After molar intrusion, the same screws were used for en masse retraction of the entire dentition (third molars were extracted) for 4 months. The results showed that, after an active treatment of 20 months, the maxillary molars were intruded about 4 mm each and good occlusion was achieved. In conclusion, the miniscrews were very useful in the non-surgical management of adult anterior open bite cases.

  18. Revisiting the stability of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Chung-Chen Jane; Chang, Hao-Hueng; Chang, Jenny Zwei-Chieng; Lai, Hsiang-Hua; Lu, Shao-Chun; Chen, Yi-Jane

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study is to comprehensively analyze the potential factors affecting the failure rates of three types of mini-implants used for orthodontic anchorage. Data were collected on 727 mini-implants (miniplates, predrilled titanium miniscrews, and self-drilling stainless steel miniscrews) in 220 patients. The factors related to mini-implant failure were investigated using a Chi-square test for univariate analysis and a generalized estimating equation model for multivariate analysis. The failure rate for miniplates was significantly lower than for miniscrews. All types of mini-implants, especially the self-drilling stainless steel miniscrews, showed decreased stability if the previous implantation had failed. The stability of predrilled titanium miniscrews and self-drilling stainless steel miniscrews were comparable at the first implantation. However, the failure rate of stainless steel miniscrews increased at the second implantation. The univariate analysis showed that the following variables had a significant influence on the failure rates of mini-implants: age of patient, type of mini-implant, site of implantation, and characteristics of the soft tissue around the mini-implants. The generalized estimating equation analysis revealed that mini-implants with miniscrews used in patients younger than 35 years, subjected to orthodontic loading after 30 days and implanted on the alveolar bone ridge, have a significantly higher risk of failure. This study revealed that once the dental surgeon becomes familiar with the procedure, the stability of orthodontic mini-implants depends on the type of mini-implant, age of the patient, implantation site, and the healing time of the mini-implant. Miniplates are a more feasible anchorage system when miniscrews fail repeatedly. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Consolidated results of the AECB staff's detailed review of Ontario Hydro Nuclear's integrated independent performance assessment and safety system functional inspection findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    In January 1997, Ontario Hydro announced that a team of nuclear industry experts from the United States, called the Nuclear Performance Advisory Group (NPAG), had been employed to help manage its nuclear program and to implement needed improvements in Ontario Hydro Nuclear (OHN) operations. In the spring of 1997, NPAG initiated a series of detailed reviews of OHN's operations, at its Pickering, Bruce and Darlington nuclear generating stations and in OHN's Head Office groups. These reviews, called 'Independent Integrated Performance Assessments' (UPA) and 'Safety System Functional Inspections' (SSFI), were carried out in April and May of this year with the objective of developing 'an integrated, accurate, and comprehensive understanding of the performance of OHN'.They were conducted in response to a request from the President of Ontario Hydro for a 'brutally honest' assessment of Ontario Hydro Nuclear. NPAG has since been integrated into Ontario Hydro's line organization. Ontario Hydro's Board of Directors received the results of the IIPAs and SSFIs and an Ontario Hydro report titled Basis for Continued Operation on August 12, 1997. AECB staff has been reviewing the reports containing these results since receiving them at that time. The conclusions of these studies are extremely critical of the management of Ontario Hydro Nuclear. They identify a large number of shortcomings in the operation and maintenance of the nuclear generating stations. Ontario Hydro states in the IIPA and SSFI reports that the reports are, by design, negative in slant and emphasize the weaknesses in performance rather than the strengths. The reports conclude that the stations can continue to operate safety while the near and long term improvements are implemented. This report contains the consolidated results of the AECB staffs detailed review of the IIPA and SSFI findings. (author)

  20. Excess pressure integral predicts cardiovascular events independent of other risk factors in the conduit artery functional evaluation substudy of Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Justin E; Lacy, Peter; Tillin, Therese; Collier, David; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Francis, Darrel P; Malaweera, Anura; Mayet, Jamil; Stanton, Alice; Williams, Bryan; Parker, Kim H; McG Thom, Simon A; Hughes, Alun D

    2014-07-01

    Excess pressure integral (XSPI), a new index of surplus work performed by the left ventricle, can be calculated from blood pressure waveforms and may indicate circulatory dysfunction. We investigated whether XSPI predicted future cardiovascular events and target organ damage in treated hypertensive individuals. Radial blood pressure waveforms were acquired by tonometry in 2069 individuals (aged, 63±8 years) in the Conduit Artery Functional Evaluation (CAFE) substudy of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT). Measurements of left ventricular mass index (n=862) and common carotid artery intima media thickness (n=923) were also performed. XSPI and the integral of reservoir pressure were lower in people treated with amlodipine±perindopril than in those treated with atenolol±bendroflumethiazide, although brachial systolic blood pressure was similar. A total of 134 cardiovascular events accrued during a median 3.4 years of follow-up; XSPI was a significant predictor of cardiovascular events after adjustment for age and sex, and this relationship was unaffected by adjustment for conventional cardiovascular risk factors or Framingham risk score. XSPI, central systolic blood pressure, central augmentation pressure, central pulse pressure, and integral of reservoir pressure were correlated with left ventricular mass index, but only XSPI, augmentation pressure, and central pulse pressure were associated positively with carotid artery intima media thickness. Associations between left ventricular mass index, XSPI, and integral of reservoir pressure and carotid artery intima media thickness and XSPI were unaffected by multivariable adjustment for other covariates. XSPI is a novel indicator of cardiovascular dysfunction and independently predicts cardiovascular events and targets organ damage in a prospective clinical trial. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  1. HCN4 ion channel function is required for early events that regulate anatomical left-right patterning in a nodal and lefty asymmetric gene expression-independent manner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaibhav P. Pai

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Laterality is a basic characteristic of all life forms, from single cell organisms to complex plants and animals. For many metazoans, consistent left-right asymmetric patterning is essential for the correct anatomy of internal organs, such as the heart, gut, and brain; disruption of left-right asymmetry patterning leads to an important class of birth defects in human patients. Laterality functions across multiple scales, where early embryonic, subcellular and chiral cytoskeletal events are coupled with asymmetric amplification mechanisms and gene regulatory networks leading to asymmetric physical forces that ultimately result in distinct left and right anatomical organ patterning. Recent studies have suggested the existence of multiple parallel pathways regulating organ asymmetry. Here, we show that an isoform of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN family of ion channels (hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 4, HCN4 is important for correct left-right patterning. HCN4 channels are present very early in Xenopus embryos. Blocking HCN channels (Ih currents with pharmacological inhibitors leads to errors in organ situs. This effect is only seen when HCN4 channels are blocked early (pre-stage 10 and not by a later block (post-stage 10. Injections of HCN4-DN (dominant-negative mRNA induce left-right defects only when injected in both blastomeres no later than the 2-cell stage. Analysis of key asymmetric genes' expression showed that the sidedness of Nodal, Lefty, and Pitx2 expression is largely unchanged by HCN4 blockade, despite the randomization of subsequent organ situs, although the area of Pitx2 expression was significantly reduced. Together these data identify a novel, developmental role for HCN4 channels and reveal a new Nodal-Lefty-Pitx2 asymmetric gene expression-independent mechanism upstream of organ positioning during embryonic left-right patterning.

  2. A Comparison between Two Instruments for Assessing Dependency in Daily Activities: Agreement of the Northwick Park Dependency Score with the Functional Independence Measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Svensson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. There is a need for tools to assess dependency among persons with severe impairments. Objectives. The aim was to compare the Functional Independence Measure (FIM and the Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS, in a sample from in-patient rehabilitation. Material and Methods. Data from 115 persons (20 to 65 years of age with neurological impairments was gathered. Analyses were made of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value. Agreement of the scales was assessed with kappa and concordance with Goodman-Kruskal’s gamma. Scale structures were explored using the Rank-Transformable Pattern of Agreement (RTPA. Content validation was performed. Results. The sensitivity of the NPDS as compared to FIM varied between 0.53 (feeding and 1.0 (mobility and specificity between 0.64 (mobility and 1.0 (bladder. The positive predictive value varied from 0.62 (mobility to 1.0 (bladder, and the negative predictive value varied from 0.48 (bowel to 1.0 (mobility. Agreement between the scales was moderate to good (four items and excellent (three items. Concordance was good, with a gamma of −.856, an asymptotic error (ase of .025, and P<.000. The parallel reliability between the FIM and the NPDS showed a tendency for NPDS to be more sensitive (having more categories when dependency is high. Conclusion. FIM and NPDS complement each other. NPDS can be used as a measure for severely injured patients who are sensitive when there is a high need of nursing time.

  3. Comparison of the measurement properties of the Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale with the Barthel Index in community-dwelling elderly people in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takashi; Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Matsui, Nobuko; Arai, Kenji; Ando, Makoto; Morimoto, Kazuhiro; Fujita, Naoki; Takahashi, Yuki; Kawazoe, Moe; Watanabe, Shuichiro

    2017-04-01

    The new Functional Independence and Difficulty Scale (FIDS) is a tool for assessing the performance of basic activities of daily living (BADL). Because many BADL measures already exist, it is important to know whether FIDS can offer added benefit over the existing measures. This study compared measurement properties between the FIDS and a representative BADL assessment tool, the Barthel Index (BI). Recruitment of the participants was done on the basis of convenience sampling. Participants were community-dwelling elderly Japanese subjects (n = 314; age ≥65 years) divided into a healthy elderly group [n = 225; subjects not using long-term care insurance (LTCI) services] and frail elderly group (n = 89; subjects using LTCI services). For each group, ceiling effect (percent participation with the maximum score) was calculated, and it was compared between the two scales. Associations between the FIDS, BI and Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 8 Health Survey (SF-8) were evaluated by Spearman correlation coefficient and partial correlations. Partial correlations coefficients to SF-8 were compared between the two scales. FIDS showed a relatively small ceiling effect compared to the BI. Compared to the BI, FIDS showed a significant positive partial correlation with the broader aspect of the SF-8 subscales, but the strength of correlation between FIDS and SF-8 was weak to negligible. The FIDS might be less affected by ceiling effect than the BI. Additional studies using a sufficient number of probability samples are needed to clarify whether FIDS has any benefit over BI in terms of correlations with the SF-8.

  4. The vitamin D receptor is involved in the regulation of human breast cancer cell growth via a ligand-independent function in cytoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trivedi, Trupti; Zheng, Yu; Fournier, Pierrick G J; Murthy, Sreemala; John, Sutha; Schillo, Suzanne; Dunstan, Colin R; Mohammad, Khalid S; Zhou, Hong; Seibel, Markus J; Guise, Theresa A

    2017-04-18

    Vitamin D has pleiotropic effects on multiple tissues, including malignant tumors. Vitamin D inhibits breast cancer growth through activation of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and via classical nuclear signaling pathways. Here, we demonstrate that the VDR can also function in the absence of its ligand to control behaviour of human breast cancer cells both outside and within the bone microenvironment. Stable shRNA expression was used to knock down VDR expression in MCF-7 cells, generating two VDR knockdown clonal lines. In ligand-free culture, knockdown of VDR in MCF-7 cells significantly reduced proliferation and increased apoptosis, suggesting that the VDR plays a ligand-independent role in cancer cell growth. Implantation of these VDR knockdown cells into the mammary fat pad of nude mice resulted in reduced tumor growth in vivo compared with controls. In the intra-tibial xenograft model, VDR knockdown greatly reduced the ability of the cells to form tumors in the bone microenvironment. The in vitro growth of VDR knockdown cells was rescued by the expression of a mutant form of VDR which is unable to translocate to the nucleus and hence accumulates in the cytoplasm. Thus, our data indicate that in the absence of ligand, the VDR promotes breast cancer growth both in vitro and in vivo and that cytoplasmic accumulation of VDR is sufficient to produce this effect in vitro. This new mechanism of VDR action in breast cancer cells contrasts the known anti-proliferative nuclear actions of the VDR-vitamin D ligand complex.

  5. Prediction of post-revascularization functional recovery of asynergic myocardium using quantitative thallium-201 rest-redistribution tomography: has the reverse redistribution pattern an independent significance?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sciagra, R.; Pupi, A.; Pellegri, M.; Matteini, M.; Bisi, G. [Nuclear Medicine Unit, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, University of Florence (Italy); Santoro, G.M.; Fazzini, P.F. [Division of Cardiology, Careggi Hospital, Florence (Italy)

    1998-06-01

    We evaluated whether reverse redistribution has an independent significance for the prediction of post-revascularization recovery, particularly as compared with the quantification of redistribution activity. We studied 26 coronary artery disease patients with left ventricular dysfunction, who underwent {sup 201}Tl rest-redistribution single-photon emission tomography (SPET) and echocardiography before revascularization. Viability was defined by the detection of wall motion improvement on follow-up echocardiography. {sup 201}Tl activity was considered normal if {>=}80%, moderately reduced if <80% but {>=}50%, and severely decreased if <50%. Reverse redistribution was defined as a defect in redistribution images with {>=}10% decrease in relative {sup 201}Tl activity compared with the resting value. Reverse redistribution was detected in 33 segments (10%). Baseline dysfunction was equally observed in the reverse redistribution and in the non-reverse redistribution segments (64% vs 56%, P=0.40) and the rate of asynergic segments with post-revascularization recovery was not different between the two groups (33% vs 54%, P=0.11). The rate of functional recovery in redistribution defects without reverse redistribution was 53% in moderate and 30% in severe defects; the corresponding values for the reverse redistribution segments were 50% and 27% (all non-significant versus non-reverse redistribution segments). For the prediction of post-revascularization recovery in asynergic segments, the detection of reverse redistribution on rest-redistribution {sup 201}Tl SPET does not add any information to the quantitative analysis of redistribution activity.(orig./MG) (orig.) With 2 figs., 2 tabs., 37 refs.

  6. Structure of human POFUT1, its requirement in ligand-independent oncogenic Notch signaling, and functional effects of Dowling-Degos mutations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McMillan, Brian J.; Zimmerman, Brandon; Egan, Emily D.; Lofgren, Michael; Xu, Xiang; Hesser, Anthony; Blacklow, Stephen C.

    2017-03-17

    Protein O-fucosyltransferase-1 (POFUT1), which transfers fucose residues to acceptor sites on serine and threonine residues of epidermal growth factor-like repeats of recipient proteins, is essential for Notch signal transduction in mammals. Here, we examine the consequences of POFUT1 loss on the oncogenic signaling associated with certain leukemia-associated mutations of human Notch1, report the structures of human POFUT1 in free and GDP-fucose bound states, and assess the effects of Dowling-Degos mutations on human POFUT1 function. CRISPR-mediated knockout of POFUT1 in U2OS cells suppresses both normal Notch1 signaling, and the ligand-independent signaling associated with leukemogenic mutations of Notch1. Normal and oncogenic signaling are rescued by wild-type POFUT1 but rescue is impaired by an active-site R240A mutation. The overall structure of the human enzyme closely resembles that of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein, with an overall backbone RMSD of 0.93 Å, despite primary sequence identity of only 39% in the mature protein. GDP-fucose binding to the human enzyme induces limited backbone conformational movement, though the side chains of R43 and D244 reorient to make direct contact with the fucose moiety in the complex. The reported Dowling-Degos mutations of POFUT1, except for M262T, fail to rescue Notch1 signaling efficiently in the CRISPR-engineered POFUT1-/- background. Together, these studies identify POFUT1 as a potential target for cancers driven by Notch1 mutations and provide a structural roadmap for its inhibition.

  7. Assessment of changes following en-masse retraction with mini-implants anchorage compared to two-step retraction with conventional anchorage in patients with class II division 1 malocclusion: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sibaie, Salma; Hajeer, Mohammad Y

    2014-06-01

    No randomized controlled trial has tried to compare treatment outcomes between the sliding en-masse retraction of upper anterior teeth supported by mini-implants and the two-step sliding retraction technique employing conventional anchorage devices. To evaluate skeletal, dental, and soft tissue changes following anterior teeth retraction. Parallel-groups randomized controlled trial on patients with class II division 1 malocclusion treated at the University of Al-Baath Dental School in Hamah, Syria between July 2011 and May 2013. One hundred and thirty-three patients with an upper dentoalveolar protrusion were evaluated and 80 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Randomization was performed using computer-generated tables; allocation was concealed using sequentially numbered opaque and sealed envelopes. Fifty-six participants were analysed (mean age 22.34 ± 4.56 years). They were randomly distributed into two groups with 28 patients in each group (1:1 allocation ratio). Following first premolar extraction, space closure was accomplished using either the en-masse technique with mini-implants or the two-step technique with transpalatal arches (TPAs). The antero-posterior displacements of upper incisal edges and upper first molars were measured on lateral cephalograms at three assessment times. Assessor blinding was employed. A bodily retraction (-4.42 mm; P mini-implants group, whereas upper anterior teeth retraction was achieved by controlled palatal tipping in the TPA group. When retracting anterior teeth in patients with moderate to severe protrusion, the en-masse retraction based on mini-implants anchorage gave superior results compared to the two-step retraction based on conventional anchorage in terms of speed, dental changes, anchorage loss, and aesthetic outcomes.

  8. Bio-cultural anchorage of the prickly pear cactus in Tlalnepantla (Morelos, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torres-Salcido, Gerardo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The prickly pear cactus is a source of food with strong bio-cultural anchorage in Mexico. This is due to at least three factors: 1 the nature and heritage of cacti; 2 cultural heritage; and 3 the socio-cultural relationships with historical and symbolic roots that have facilitated knowledge of how to cultivate it and how to use it. The aim of this article is to put factors of territorial anchorage and its historical transformation in context by examining the case of the municipality of Tlalnepantla in the state of Morelos, Mexico. This community has experienced accelerated change due to the exchange of traditional crops for the prickly pear cactus and the integration of farming, commercialization and agro-transformation. Our hypothesis is that the market, internal conflicts and a lack of socio-institutional coordination have put social organization into crisis, favoring the territorial spread of the prickly pear cactus and making the Local Agro-Food Systems (LAFS of Tlalnepantla less competitive. The conclusions highlight important economic and social advances whose roots lie in the strengthening and anchorage of the territory-product. However, circumstances both internal and external to the community persist, such as intra-community conflicts, the international market and cultural paradigm shifts that affect the producers and put consolidation of the LAFS at risk.El nopal es un alimento con un fuerte anclaje bio-cultural en México, propiciado por al menos tres factores: 1 la naturaleza y el patrimonio de cactáceas; 2 el patrimonio cultural; y, 3 las relaciones socio-culturales que han permitido un “saber hacer” y un “saber utilizar” con raíces históricas y simbólicas. El objetivo es situar los factores de anclaje territorial y su transformación histórica tomando como caso el municipio de Tlalnepantla, en el estado de Morelos, México. Esta comunidad ha experimentado un acelerado cambio por la reconversión de los cultivos

  9. Skeletal anchorage for intrusion of bimaxillary molars in a patient with skeletal open bite and temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwasa, Akihiko; Horiuchi, Shinya; Kinouchi, Nao; Izawa, Takashi; Hiasa, Masahiro; Kawai, Nobuhiko; Yasue, Akihiro; Hassan, Ali H; Tanaka, Eiji

    2017-01-01

    The treatment of severe skeletal anterior open bite is extremely difficult in adults, and orthognathic surgery is generally selected for its treatment. We report the case of an 18-year-old adult patient with skeletal anterior open bite and temporomandibular disorders who was successfully treated using temporary anchorage devices. She had an open bite of -2.0 mm and an increased facial height. Miniplates were implanted in both the maxilla and mandible, and molar intrusion resulted in counterclockwise rotation of the mandible over a period of 12 months. After active treatment, her upper and lower first molars were intruded by approximately 2 mm and her overbite became +2.5 mm. Her retrognathic profile improved with counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. Orthodontic treatment aided with skeletal anchorage is beneficial for intrusion of bimaxillary molars in patients with anterior open bite.

  10. The U.S. Department of Energy Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs, Anchorage, Alaska, Roundtable Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-04-14

    The Anchorage, Alaska Roundtable on Tribal Energy Policy convened at 10:00 a.m., Thursday April 15th, at the downtown Anchorage Hilton. The meeting was held by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Indian Energy Policy and Programs (Office of Indian Energy). Tracey LeBeau, Director of the Office of Indian Energy, and Pilar Thomas, Deputy Director-Policy of the Office of Indian Energy, represented DOE. Approximately twenty-seven people attended the meeting, including representatives of three native Alaskan villages, four Alaskan tribal corporations representing more than 40 tribal governments, as well as representatives from tribal associations and conferences. Interested state, federal, and non-profit representatives also were present. A full list of attendees is at the end of this summary. The meeting was facilitated by the Udall Foundation’s U.S. Institute for Environmental Conflict Resolution (U.S. Institute).  

  11. Metallurgical Behavior of Ti-6Al-4V Alloy Mini-Implants as a Temporary Anchorage Device in Orthodontics Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendoza-Bravo Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of mini implants as a temporary anchorage device in orthodontics is a new technique that allows the movement of teeth in an efficient and predictable way. Although they have started to be used in Germany, Japan and South Korea, there is still the need to analyze and diffuse the advantages this procedure can offer over the traditional techniques. The objective of this research work was to analyze the integrity of Ti-6Al-4V mini implants temporary employed for 4 months on three patients as an anchorage device. The mini implants were analyzed by means of electron scanning microscopy in order to determine superficial and microstructural changes as well as the interaction with human tissue. Results showed the presence of wear on the thread zone caused during the insertion into the maxilar bone. The adherence of organic tissue was also observed on two mini-implants.

  12. Treatment Effects of Occipitomental Anchorage Appliance of Maxillary Protraction Combined with Chincup Traction in Children with Class III Malocclusion

    OpenAIRE

    Hsiang-Chien Lin; Hong-Po Chang; Hsin-Fu Chang

    2007-01-01

    Little information related to the treatment effects of the occipitomental anchorage (OMA) appliance of maxillary (Mx) protraction combined with chincup traction is available. The aim of this study was to investigate the treatment effects of the OMA orthopedic appliance on patients with Class III malocclusion. Methods: Pretreatment and post-treatment cephalometric records of 20 consecutively treated patients with Class III malocclusions were evaluated and compared with a matched sample of u...

  13. Effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices in patients with anterior open bite: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Saleem Alsafadi; Mohannad M. Alabdullah; Humam Saltaji; Anas Abdo; Mohamed Youssef

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective The objective of the study is to assess the effect of molar intrusion with temporary anchorage devices on the vertical facial morphology and mandibular rotation during open bite treatment in the permanent dentition. Methods We performed a systematic review of the published data in seven electronic databases up to September 2015. We considered studies for inclusion if they were examining the effects of posterior teeth intrusion on the vertical facial morphology with open bit...

  14. Marked induction of the helix-loop-helix protein Id3 promotes the gammadelta T cell fate and renders their functional maturation Notch independent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritsen, Jens Peter Holst; Wong, Gladys W; Lee, Sang-Yun

    2009-01-01

    )-inhibitor of DNA binding 3 (Id3) pathway plays a defining role in this process. In particular, Id3 expression served to regulate adoption of the gammadelta fate. Moreover, Id3 was both necessary and sufficient to enable gammadelta-lineage cells to differentiate independently of Notch signaling and become competent...

  15. Modified Adherence Method (MAM) for Electrofusion of Anchorage-Dependent Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ušaj, Marko; Kandušer, Maša

    2015-01-01

    The artificially induced cell fusion is a useful experimental tool in biology, biotechnology and medicine. The electrofusion is a physical method for cell fusion that applies high-voltage electric pulses. The use of electric pulses causes cell membrane structural changes which bring the cell membrane in the so-called fusogenic state. When such fusogenic membranes are in close contact cell fusion takes place. Physical contact between fusion partners can be achieved by various methods and one of them is modified adherence method (MAM) described in detail here on B16-F1 cell line. The method is based on the fact that living cells form contacts in confluent culture. However, instead of using confluent cell culture, in modified adherence method cells are plated in suitable concentration and allowed to form contacts for only short predetermined period of time. During that time the cells are only slightly attached to the dish surface maintaining the spherical shape. Observed high fusion yields up to 50 % obtained by MAM in situ by dual-color fluorescence microscopy are among the highest in field of electrofusion. The method can be readily adapted to other anchorage-dependent cell lines.

  16. Bilateral en-masse distalization of maxillary posterior teeth with skeletal anchorage: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Noorollahian

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to introduce a new method for bilateral distal movement of the entire maxillary posterior segment. Case report: A 17-year-old girl with Class I skeletal malocclusion (end-to-end molar relationships, deviated midline and space deficiency for left maxillary canine was referred for orthodontic treatment. She did not accept maxillary first premolars extraction. A modified Hyrax appliance (Dentaurum Ispringen, Germany was used for bilateral distalization of maxillary posterior teeth simultaneously. Expansion vector was set anteroposteriorly. Posterior legs of Hyrax were welded to first maxillary molar bands. All posterior teeth on each side consolidated with a segment of 0.017 × 0.025-in stainless steel wire from the buccal side. Anterior legs of Hyrax were bent into eyelet form and attached to the anterior palate with two mini-screws (2 × 10 mm (Jeil Medical Corporation Seoul, South Korea. Hyrax opening rate was 0.8 mm per month. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to evaluate the extent of distal movement. 3.5-mm distalization of posterior maxillary teeth was achieved in five months. Results: A nearly bodily distal movement without anchorage loss was obtained. Conclusion: The mini-screw-supported modified Hyrax appliance was found to be helpful for achieving en-masse distal movement of maxillary posterior teeth.

  17. An isomeric reaction benchmark set to test if the performance of state-of-the-art density functionals can be regarded as independent of the external potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwabe, Tobias

    2014-07-28

    Some representative density functionals are assessed for isomerization reactions in which heteroatoms are systematically substituted with heavier members of the same element group. By this, it is investigated if the functional performance depends on the elements involved, i.e. on the external potential imposed by the atomic nuclei. Special emphasis is placed on reliable theoretical reference data and the attempt to minimize basis set effects. Both issues are challenging for molecules including heavy elements. The data suggest that no general bias can be identified for the functionals under investigation except for one case - M11-L. Nevertheless, large deviations from the reference data can be found for all functional approximations in some cases. The average error range for the nine functionals in this test is 17.6 kcal mol(-1). These outliers depreciate the general reliability of density functional approximations.

  18. Long-term adherence to exercise: the relationship with functional fitness and personal motivation among community-dwelling independent-living older women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipe de Souto BarretoI

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study were to examine the relationships between functional fitness, self-esteem, aesthetic body care and long-term adherence to dance, and to identify other characteristics related to dance adherence in the elderly. METHODS: Seventeen women, aged 59-86 years-old, who practised a type of dance labeled "bodily expression". RESULTS: Functional fitness was correlated to dance adherence and was the only factor related to this variable in a linear regression analysis. Self-esteem and aesthetic body care seemed to play an indirect role on adherence. Functional fitness, specially upper-body flexibility and lower-body muscular function, and interest in dance (qualitative data were related to long-term adherence to dance. CONCLUSIONS: Functional fitness and interest in exercising were the main aspects related to participants' long-term adherence to dance.

  19. Pedicle screw anchorage of carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK screws under cyclic loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindtner, Richard A; Schmid, Rene; Nydegger, Thomas; Konschake, Marko; Schmoelz, Werner

    2018-03-01

    Pedicle screw loosening is a common and significant complication after posterior spinal instrumentation, particularly in osteoporosis. Radiolucent carbon fiber-reinforced polyetheretherketone (CF/PEEK) pedicle screws have been developed recently to overcome drawbacks of conventional metallic screws, such as metal-induced imaging artifacts and interference with postoperative radiotherapy. Beyond radiolucency, CF/PEEK may also be advantageous over standard titanium in terms of pedicle screw loosening due to its unique material properties. However, screw anchorage and loosening of CF/PEEK pedicle screws have not been evaluated yet. The aim of this biomechanical study therefore was to evaluate whether the use of this alternative nonmetallic pedicle screw material affects screw loosening. The hypotheses tested were that (1) nonmetallic CF/PEEK pedicle screws resist an equal or higher number of load cycles until loosening than standard titanium screws and that (2) PMMA cement augmentation further increases the number of load cycles until loosening of CF/PEEK screws. In the first part of the study, left and right pedicles of ten cadaveric lumbar vertebrae (BMD 70.8 mg/cm 3  ± 14.5) were randomly instrumented with either CF/PEEK or standard titanium pedicle screws. In the second part, left and right pedicles of ten vertebrae (BMD 56.3 mg/cm 3  ± 15.8) were randomly instrumented with either PMMA-augmented or nonaugmented CF/PEEK pedicle screws. Each pedicle screw was subjected to cyclic cranio-caudal loading (initial load ranging from - 50 N to + 50 N) with stepwise increasing compressive loads (5 N every 100 cycles) until loosening or a maximum of 10,000 cycles. Angular screw motion ("screw toggling") within the vertebra was measured with a 3D motion analysis system every 100 cycles and by stress fluoroscopy every 500 cycles. The nonmetallic CF/PEEK pedicle screws resisted a similar number of load cycles until loosening as the contralateral standard

  20. Defining and Selecting Independent Directors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Pichet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Drawing from the Enlightened Shareholder Theory that the author first developed in 2011, this theoretical paper with practical and normative ambitions achieves a better definition of independent director, while improving the understanding of the roles he fulfils on boards of directors. The first part defines constructs like firms, Governance system and Corporate governance, offering a clear distinction between the latter two concepts before explaining the four main missions of a board. The second part defines the ideal independent director by outlining the objective qualities that are necessary and adding those subjective aspects that have turned this into a veritable profession. The third part defines the ideal process for selecting independent directors, based on nominating committees that should themselves be independent. It also includes ways of assessing directors who are currently in function, as well as modalities for renewing their mandates. The paper’s conclusion presents the Paradox of the Independent Director.

  1. Quantity and quality of urban storm runoff from the Chester Creek basin Anchorage, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabets, T.P.

    1987-01-01

    Urbanization has affected both the flow characteristics and water quality of streams in the Chester Creek basin, of Anchorage, Alaska. Peak flows are higher in the urban rather than rural parts of the basin, and the percent of effective impervious area has a significant effect on storm runoff volumes and peaks. Water quality in the Chester Creek basin varies according to season and flow conditions. During low or base-flow conditions, concentrations of most water quality constituents measured are within State of Alaska drinking water standards, except for fecal coliform bacteria. During periods of high flow due to snowmelt or rainfall, concentrations of trace metal lead usually exceed recommended maximum levels. The primary sources of trace metal lead and suspended sediments are commercial areas , while the primary source of nutrients and fecal coliform bacteria is residential areas. Streamflow and water quality data collected at five sites representing different land-use categories were used to calibrate and verify three U.S. Geological Survey computer-based models: the Distributed Routing Rainfall-Runoff Model-Version II (DR3M-II), the Multi-Event Urban Runoff Quality Model (DR3M-QUAL), and the Precipitation Runoff Modeling Systems (PRMS). The PRMS can be used to simulate the effects of increased urbanization on daily flows. The DR3M-II can be used to simulate storm effects on small basins of < 40 acres. The DR3M-QUAL can be used to estimate seasonal loads of suspended sediment from basins of < 40 acres. (Lantz-PTT)

  2. Preliminary assessment report for Camp Carroll Training Center, Installation 02045, Anchorage, Alaska. Installation Restoration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krokosz, M.; Sefano, J.

    1993-08-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at the Alaska Army National Guard property known as Camp Carroll Training Center, located on the Fort Richardson Army facility near Anchorage, Alaska. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for the completion of preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing, corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, types and quantities of hazardous substances used, the nature and amounts of wastes generated or stored at the facility, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. The primary environmentally significant operations (ESOs) associated with the property are (1) the Alaska Air National Guard storage area behind Building S57112 (Organizational Maintenance Shop [OMS] 6); (2) the state of Alaska maintenance facility and the soil/tar-type spill north of the state of Alaska maintenance facility; (3) the waste storage area adjacent to OMS 6; (4) the contaminated area from leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) and the oil-water separator; and (5) soil staining in the parking area at the Camp Carroll Headquarters Building. Camp Carroll appears to be in excellent condition from an environmental standpoint, and current practices are satisfactory. Argonne recommends that the Alaska Department of Military Affairs consider remediation of soil contamination associated with all storage areas, as well as reviewing the practices of other residents of the facility. Argonne also recommends that the current methods of storing waste material behind Building S57112 (OMS 6) be reviewed for alternatives.

  3. A study of depression, perceived loneliness, cognitive function and independence in daily activities in home and institution based older people: A cross sectional comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddhi Desai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Old age homes are on the rise in India. Older people staying in such institutions have specific psychosocial issues that may affect their cognitive performance and daily living. Materials and Methods: 71 older people, 39 institution based and 32 community-based were recruited with serial sampling after screening on mini-mental state examination and were evaluated with geriatric depression scale, University of California, Los Angeles scale, Lawton′s instrumental activities of daily living scale and montreal cognitive assessment scale. Results: Prevalence of depression was significantly higher in older people who were institution based, widowers and females. The severity of perceived loneliness was higher in females, institution based and depressed older people. The severity of depression correlated with independence in daily activities, cognition, and perceived loneliness only in institution based older people. Discussion: Older people in institutions have a higher psychosocial burden than the community-based older people. Family support prevents the attrition effect of depression on cognition and independence in daily activities in the community-based older people.

  4. Neuromuscular adaptations predict functional disability independently of clinical pain and psychological factors in patients with chronic non-specific low back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Jean-Daniel; Abboud, Jacques; St-Pierre, Charles; Piché, Mathieu; Descarreaux, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Patients with chronic low back pain exhibit characteristics such as clinical pain, psychological symptoms and neuromuscular adaptations. The purpose of this study was to determine the independent contribution of clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations to disability in patients with chronic low back pain. Clinical pain intensity, pain catastrophizing, fear-avoidance beliefs, anxiety, neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain were assessed in 52 patients with chronic low back pain. Lumbar muscle electromyographic activity was assessed during a flexion-extension task (flexion relaxation phenomenon) to assess both chronic neuromuscular adaptations and neuromuscular responses to experimental pain during the task. Multiple regressions showed that independent predictors of disability included neuromuscular adaptations to chronic pain (β=0.25, p=0.006, sr(2)=0.06), neuromuscular responses to experimental pain (β=-0.24, p=0.011, sr(2)=0.05), clinical pain intensity (β=0.28, p=0.002, sr(2)=0.08) and psychological factors (β=0.58, ppain intensity and psychological factors, and contribute to inter-individual differences in patients' disability. This suggests that disability, in chronic low back pain patients, is determined by a combination of factors, including clinical pain, psychological factors and neuromuscular adaptations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. ZmCPK1, a calcium-independent kinase member of the Zea mays CDPK gene family, functions as a negative regulator in cold stress signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckwerth, Philipp; Ehlert, Britta; Romeis, Tina

    2015-03-01

    Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) have been shown to play important roles in plant environmental stress signal transduction. We report on the identification of ZmCPK1 as a member of the maize (Zea mays) CDPK gene family involved in the regulation of the maize cold stress response. Based upon in silico analysis of the Z. mays cv. B73 genome, we identified that the maize CDPK gene family consists of 39 members. Two CDPK members were selected whose gene expression was either increased (Zmcpk1) or decreased (Zmcpk25) in response to cold exposure. Biochemical analysis demonstrated that ZmCPK1 displays calcium-independent protein kinase activity. The C-terminal calcium-binding domain of ZmCPK1 was sufficient to mediate calcium independency of a previously calcium-dependent enzyme in chimeric ZmCPK25-CPK1 proteins. Furthermore, co-transfection of maize mesophyll protoplasts with active full-length ZmCPK1 suppressed the expression of a cold-induced marker gene, Zmerf3 (ZmCOI6.21). In accordance, heterologous overexpression of ZmCPK1 in Arabidopsis thaliana yielded plants with altered acclimation-induced frost tolerance. Our results identify ZmCPK1 as a negative regulator of cold stress signalling in maize. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Mini-placa como ancoragem ortodôntica: relato de caso Mini screw as orthodontic anchorage: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz Zétola

    2005-08-01

    ígida pode ser utilizada com bastante propriedade no tratamento ortodôntico qunado for requerida uma ancoragem máxima.It is needless to say that anchorage control is necessary to a successful orthodontic treatment. Without it, it would be impossible to obtain an ideal occlusion through orthodontic mechanics in the majority of cases. The utilization of rigid devices, originated from face traumatology and implant dentistry principles, to obtain rigid anchorage in orthodontics revolutionized the way of treating cases with an unsatisfactory prognosis. Specially in cases where a lot of anchorage is needed and it is difficult or impossible to get it. The objective of this article was to revise the literature related to the use of mini-screw implant systems, to report a case where it was utilized and to discuss some aspects related to the usage of rigid anchorage orthodontics. The rigid anchorage was used in a 39 year old female patient, who had the upper left molars with a relevant extrusion due to the absence of the lower left molars. Fixed appliances were placed on the upper arch with a TPA connecting the second bicuspids. The TPA was used to anchor the intrusion of the upper left molars. A quad-helix appliance was used to correct the upper right third molar crossbite. Since the orthodontic intrusion with only dental anchorage did not have a satisfactory result, an "L" shaped titanium plate was placed on the maxilla, at the apical region of the upper first and second left molars, with the purpose of obtaining a rigid orthodontic anchorage to intrude them. Elastics were used during five months with intrusive force,the obtained intrusion was 6 millimeters. After the removal of the appliance, upper and lower dental bleaching was made and final prosthesis were placed over the implants. Through the literature reviewed and the case reported, it can be concluded that rigid anchorage can be indicated in orthodontic treatments where there is lack of anchorage or the need of an absolute

  7. An independent, general method for checking consistency between diffraction data and partial radial distribution functions derived from them: the example of liquid water

    OpenAIRE

    Steinczinger, Z.; Pusztai, L.

    2012-01-01

    There are various routes for deriving partial radial distribution functions of disordered systems from experimental diffraction (and/or EXAFS) data. Due to limitations and errors of experimental data, as well as to imperfections of the evaluation procedures, it is of primary importance to confirm that the end result (partial radial distribution functions) and the primary information (diffraction data) are consistent with each other. We introduce a simple approach, based on Reverse Monte Carlo...

  8. A novel gelatin-based micro-cavitary hydrogel for potential application in delivery of anchorage dependent cells: A study with vasculogenesis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leong, Wenyan; Fan, Changjiang; Wang, Dong-An

    2016-10-01

    Hydrogels have been widely regarded as promising tissue engineering scaffolds and cell delivery vehicles, however, their inherent submicron- or nano-scale polymer networks severely inhibit the settlement of anchorage dependent cells (ADCs). Here, using endothelial progenitor outgrowth cells (EPOCs) as the typical ADCs, a gelatin-based micro-cavitary gel (namely Gel-MCG) is developed with gelatin-methacrylate and gelatin microspheres as precursor and porogens, respectively, to promote cellular focal adhesion and functions. The introduction of micro-cavitary structures within the Gel-MCG improves its physical properties as well as creates numerous gel-microcavity interfaces within gel-based matrices. Compared with conventional gelatin gel (Gel-G) scaffold, the Gel-MCG provides more suitable microenvironments for EPOCs' attachment, spreading, and proliferation, and then which leads to enhanced endothelial differentiation and vascularization as demonstrated by higher expressions of endothelial markers. The Gel-MCG system shows great potential as vehicle for the delivery of ADCs in tissue engineering. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. An independent, general method for checking consistency between diffraction data and partial radial distribution functions derived from them: the example of liquid water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Steinczinger

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available There are various routes for deriving partial radial distribution functions of disordered systems from experimental diffraction (and/or EXAFS data. Due to limitations and errors of experimental data, as well as to imperfections of the evaluation procedures, it is of primary importance to confirm that the end result (partial radial distribution functions and the primary information (diffraction data are consistent with each other. We introduce a simple approach, based on Reverse Monte Carlo modelling, that is capable of assessing this dilemma. As a demonstration, we use the most frequently cited set of "experimental" partial radial distribution functions on liquid water and investigate whether the 3 partials (O-O, O-H and H-H are consistent with the total structure factor of pure liquid D2O from neutron diffraction and that of H2O from X-ray diffraction. We find that while neutron diffraction on heavy water is in full agreement with all the 3 partials, the addition of X-ray diffraction data clearly shows problems with the O-O partial radial distribution function. We suggest that the approach introduced here may also be used to establish whether partial radial distribution functions obtained from statistical theories of the liquid state are consistent with the measured structure factors.

  10. Comparison of rate of En masse retraction and anchorage loss in conventional labial appliance with labial and lingual force: A clinical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilshad Quraishi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The rate of en masse retraction and anchorage loss were compared between labial appliance with lingual force and conventional labial appliance. Subjects and Methods: The sample consists of 14 patients and they were divided into two groups. In Group 1 – labial appliance with lingual force, elastomeric chain was placed from the palatal surface of the canines to the palatal surface of the molars. In Group 2 – labial appliance with labial force, elastomeric chain was placed from the crimpable hook distal to lateral incisor to the molar tube hooks. The rate of en masse retraction and anchorage loss was calculated for both the groups during retraction in dental casts (R0, initial; R1, 4 weeks; R2, 8 weeks; and R3, 12 weeks. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's paired t-test. Results: The rate of retraction was faster and anchorage loss was lower with labial appliance with lingual force, i.e., Group 1. The difference of anchorage loss in Group 1 and Group 2 shows t = 4.824 and P value= 0.000, which is statistically highly significant. The difference of rate of retraction in Group 1 and Group 2 shows t = 3.573 and P value = 0.004, which is statistically signifcant. Conclusions: The rate of retraction was faster and anchorage loss was lower with labial appliance with lingual force, thus indicating that this new technique of space closure utilizes biomechanical advantage of lingual force in conventional labial appliance.

  11. Independence and Product Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Skeide, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Starting from elementary considerations about independence and Markov processes in classical probability we arrive at the new concept of conditional monotone independence (or operator-valued monotone independence). With the help of product systems of Hilbert modules we show that monotone conditional independence arises naturally in dilation theory.

  12. Mini-screw implant or transpalatal arch-mediated anchorage reinforcement during canine retraction: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Mohit; Sharma, Vineet; Khanna, Bharat

    2012-06-01

    To compare mesial movement of upper first molars during maxillary canine retraction using a pre-adjusted edgewise appliance provided by anchorage reinforcement and a transpalatal arch or mini-screw implant. Randomized clinical trial. Department of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Armed Forces Medical College, Pune, India. From a cohort of subjects requiring the extraction of both upper first premolars and pre-adjusted edgewise appliances to correct their malocclusion, a total of 30 were randomly allocated to receive two different forms of anchorage reinforcement: group A--receiving mini-screw implant and group B--receiving a transpalatal arch Group A subjects received titanium mini-screw implants placed at the start of treatment between the maxillary second premolar and maxillary first molar. Maxillary second premolars were secured to the mini-screw implants using of 0.010-inch stainless steel ligature wire. Group B subjects received a custom-made transpalatal arch which was soldered to maxillary first molar bands. Active canine retraction was initiated in both groups on placement of a 0.019×0.025-inch stainless steel archwire using nickel titanium closed coil springs. Mesial movement of the upper first molars as measured on pre- (T1) and post-treatment (T2) lateral skull radiographs. The results showed that in group A the mean mesial movement of the first molars between T1 and T2 was 0.0 mm (SD 0.02; P = 0.90), whereas in Group B there was a mean forward movement of the first maolars of 2.48 mm (SD 0.71; Pimplants placed prior to levelling and aligning were able to provide absolute anchorage during maxillary canine retraction, in contrast to a transpalatal arch.

  13. Induced ankylosis of a primary molar for skeletal anchorage in the mandible as alternative to mini-implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelopoulou, Matina V; Koletsi, Despina; Vadiakas, George; Halazonetis, Demetrios J

    2015-01-01

    Mesial protraction of mandibular posterior teeth requires increased anchorage to avoid undesired tooth movements. Orthodontic mini-implants have become a popular and successful way to increase skeletal anchorage in such cases. However, mini-implants may cause injury to adjacent teeth or anatomical structures and may lead to tissue inflammation. Induced ankylosed primary teeth have been used in the past as abutments for the protraction of the maxilla in cases of maxillary retrognathism. However, this technique has not been described in the literature for the protraction of mandibular molars. The aim of this paper is to present, through a case report, an alternative to mini-implant devices to maximize anchorage in the mandible by inducing ankylosis on a primary molar. A 13-year-old female with class II right malocclusion, deep bite, and congenitally missing right second premolars was referred for orthodontic treatment. Treatment plan involved removal of the primary teeth and mesial protraction of the posterior. In the mandible, ankylosis was induced on the retained primary second molar by extraction, bisection, replantation of the mesial part after endodontic treatment, and bonding of a rigid splint. Ankylosis was diagnosed after 10 weeks and a closing T-loop sectional wire was inserted to move the permanent first molar mesially. At 6 months, the remaining space was closed using elastic chain on a rectangular stainless steel wire with tip-back bends, supported by class II elastics. Induced ankylosis of primary teeth can be an alternative to orthodontic mini-implants in selected cases, with minimal risks and maximum biocompatibility.

  14. Combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin for enhancing cell affinity of poly(lactide-co-glycolide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hong; Hu, Xixue; Yang, Fei; Bei, Jianzhong; Wang, Shenguo

    2007-10-01

    Surface characteristics greatly influence attachment and growth of cells on biomaterials. Although polylactone-type biodegradable polymers have been widely used as scaffold materials for tissue engineering, lack of cell recognition sites, poor hydrophilicity and low surface energy lead to a bad cell affinity of the polymers, which limit the usage of polymers as scaffolds in tissue engineering. In the present study, surface of poly (L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was modified by a method of combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin. Modification effect of the method was compared with other methods of oxygen plasma treatment, cationized gelatin or gelatin coating and combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of gelatin. The change of surface property was compared by contact angles, surface energy, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), attenuated total reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurement. The optimum oxygen pretreatment time determined by surface energy was 10 min when the power was 50 W and the oxygen pressure was 20 Pa. Analysis of the stability of gelatin and cationized gelatin anchored on PLGA by XPS, ATR-FTIR, contact angles and surface energy measurement indicated the cationized gelatin was more stable than gelatin. The result using mouse NIH 3T3 fibroblasts as model cells to evaluate cell affinity in vitro showed the cationized gelatin-anchored PLGA (OCG-PLGA) was more favorable for cell attachment and growth than oxygen plasma treated PLGA (O-PLGA) and gelatin-anchored PLGA (OG-PLGA). Moreover cell affinity of OCG-PLGA could match that of collagen-anchored PLGA (AC-PLGA). So the surface modification method combining oxygen plasma treatment with anchorage of cationized gelatin provides a universally effective way to enhance cell affinity of polylactone-type biodegradable polymers.

  15. Intrusão dentária utilizando mini-implantes Orthodontic intrusion with mini-implant anchorage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma Martins de Araújo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: dentre os diversos tipos de movimentos dentários induzidos ortodonticamente, o de intrusão é, sem dúvida, um dos mais difíceis de serem conseguidos. A mecânica intrusiva convencional, apesar de viável, é complexa, no que diz respeito ao controle de seus efeitos colaterais. Isso, em grande parte, refere-se à dificuldade em se obter uma ancoragem satisfatória. Neste contexto, os mini-implantes, por oferecerem efetiva ancoragem esquelética, têm se mostrado de extrema valia para os ortodontistas, tornando a intrusão, tanto de dentes anteriores quanto posteriores, um procedimento cada vez mais simples, do ponto de vista mecânico. OBJETIVO: pretende-se, então, neste artigo, descrever e demonstrar, clinicamente, as diversas possibilidades de utilização dos mini-implantes como recurso de ancoragem para o movimento de intrusão.INTRODUCTION: Among all different varieties of orthodontically induced tooth movement, intrusion is, without doubt, one of the most difficult movements to be reached. Conventional intrusive biomechanics, although possible, may lead to undesirable side-effects. These events, in most cases, are related to the difficulty in obtaining an efficient anchorage unit. Then, mini-implants, because of their high success rates of effective skeletal anchorage, are valuable devices to orthodontists, transforming the intrusion movement, both at the anterior and the posterior regions, a more and more uncomplicated biomechanical procedure. AIM: to describe and show, clinically, different ways of using mini-implants as an anchorage system to intrusion movement.

  16. Tiotropium improves lung function, exacerbation rate, and asthma control, independent of baseline characteristics including age, degree of airway obstruction, and allergic status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kerstjens, Huib A M; Moroni-Zentgraf, Petra; Tashkin, Donald P

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many patients with asthma remain symptomatic despite treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) with or without long-acting β2-agonists (LABAs). Tiotropium add-on to ICS plus a LABA has been shown to improve lung function and reduce exacerbation risk in patients with symptomatic ast...

  17. Elevation of IL-6 in the allergic asthmatic airway is independent of inflammation but associates with loss of central airway function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bunn Janice Y

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airway that is characterized by a Th2-type of immune response with increasing evidence for involvement of Th17 cells. The role of IL-6 in promoting effector T cell subsets suggest that IL-6 may play a functional role in asthma. Classically IL-6 has been viewed as an inflammatory marker, along with TNFα and IL-1β, rather than as regulatory cytokine. Objective To investigate the potential relationship between IL-6 and other proinflammatory cytokines, Th2/Th17 cytokines and lung function in allergic asthma, and thus evaluate the potential role of IL-6 in this disease. Methods Cytokine levels in induced sputum and lung function were measured in 16 healthy control and 18 mild-moderate allergic asthmatic subjects. Results The levels of the proinflammatory biomarkers TNFα and IL-1β were not different between the control and asthmatic group. In contrast, IL-6 levels were specifically elevated in asthmatic subjects compared with healthy controls (p S = 0.53, p Conclusions In mild-moderate asthma, IL-6 dissociates from other proinflammatory biomarkers, but correlates with IL-13 levels. Furthermore, IL-6 may contribute to impaired lung function in allergic asthma.

  18. Is Pelvic Floor Dysfunction an Independent Threat to Sexual Function? A Cross-Sectional Study in Women With Pelvic Floor Dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-Yun-Fong, Ryan J; Larouche, Maryse; Hyakutake, Momoe; Koenig, Nicole; Lovatt, Catherine; Geoffrion, Roxana; Brotto, Lori A; Lee, Terry; Cundiff, Geoffrey W

    2017-02-01

    Prior studies have reported an association of sexual dysfunction with pelvic floor dysfunction (PFD), but without defining causation. To investigate predictors of sexual function in women with PFD, including pelvic organ prolapse, stress urinary incontinence, overactive bladder, obstructed defecation, and fecal incontinence. This retrospective cross-sectional study included 755 women (mean age = 56 years, 68% postmenopausal) referred for PFD (2008-2013). Subjects underwent standardized history and examination, including demographics and assessment of pelvic floor function and sexual function using validated quality-of-life instruments. The physical examination included body mass index, Pelvic Organ Prolapse Quantification measurements, and pelvic muscle strength (Oxford scale). Proportional odds regression analysis tested patient characteristics, PFD, and other determinants of sexual dysfunction as predictors of sexual function. The Pelvic Floor Distress Inventory (PFDI-20) and Pelvic Floor Impact Questionnaire (PFIQ-7) to assess PFD and the Short Personal Experiences Questionnaire to assess sexual function. The prevalence of PFD included pelvic organ prolapse (72%), stress urinary incontinence (66%), overactive bladder (78%), fecal incontinence (41%), and obstructed defecation (70%). Most subjects (74%) had a sexual partner and most (56%) reported recent sexual intercourse. Participants reported a low level of sexual desire and sexual enjoyment and moderate levels of sexual arousal and orgasm. When stratified by sexual enjoyment, 46% enjoyed sex and this group had lower PFDI and PFIQ scores, reflecting less quality-of-life burden. Pelvic organ prolapse, obstructed defecation, and fecal incontinence were associated with not enjoying sex. However, when adjusted for other determinants of sexual dysfunction (eg, aging, dyspareunia, atrophy, and partner issues), these associations disappeared. Women with PFD also have a large burden of sexual dysfunction, although

  19. Short-axis epicardial volume change is a measure of cardiac left ventricular short-axis function, which is independent of myocardial wall thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugander, Martin; Carlsson, Marcus; Arheden, Håkan

    2010-02-01

    Fractional shortening (FS) by echocardiography is considered to represent the short-axis contribution to the stroke volume (SV), also called short-axis function. However, FS is mathematically coupled to the amount of myocardium, since it rearranges during atrioventricular plane displacement (AVPD). The SV is the sum of the volumes generated by 1) reduction in outer volume of the heart, and 2) inner AVPD. The long-axis contribution to the SV is generated by AVPD, and thus the short-axis contribution is the remaining outer volume change of the heart, which should be unrelated to myocardial wall thickness. We hypothesized that both endocardial and midwall shortening indexed to SV are dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas epicardial volume change (EVC) indexed to SV is not. Twelve healthy volunteers (normals), 12 athletes, and 12 patients with dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction EVC was defined as SV minus long-axis function. Endocardial and midwall shortening were measured in a midventricular short-axis slice. Endocardial shortening/SV and midwall shortening/SV both varied in relation to end-diastolic myocardial wall thickness (R(2) = 0.16, P = 0.008 and R(2) = 0.14, P = 0.012, respectively), whereas EVC/SV did not (R(2) = 0.00, P = 0.37). FS is dependent on myocardial wall thickness, whereas EVC is not and therefore represents true short-axis function. This is not surprising considering that FS is mainly caused by rearrangement of myocardium secondary to long-axis function. FS is therefore not synonymous with short-axis function.

  20. Introduction to algebraic independence theory

    CERN Document Server

    Philippon, Patrice

    2001-01-01

    In the last five years there has been very significant progress in the development of transcendence theory. A new approach to the arithmetic properties of values of modular forms and theta-functions was found. The solution of the Mahler-Manin problem on values of modular function j(tau) and algebraic independence of numbers pi and e^(pi) are most impressive results of this breakthrough. The book presents these and other results on algebraic independence of numbers and further, a detailed exposition of methods created in last the 25 years, during which commutative algebra and algebraic geometry exerted strong catalytic influence on the development of the subject.

  1. Frame independent cosmological perturbations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokopec, Tomislav; Weenink, Jan, E-mail: t.prokopec@uu.nl, E-mail: j.g.weenink@uu.nl [Institute for Theoretical Physics and Spinoza Institute, Utrecht University, Leuvenlaan 4, 3585 CE Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2013-09-01

    We compute the third order gauge invariant action for scalar-graviton interactions in the Jordan frame. We demonstrate that the gauge invariant action for scalar and tensor perturbations on one physical hypersurface only differs from that on another physical hypersurface via terms proportional to the equation of motion and boundary terms, such that the evolution of non-Gaussianity may be called unique. Moreover, we demonstrate that the gauge invariant curvature perturbation and graviton on uniform field hypersurfaces in the Jordan frame are equal to their counterparts in the Einstein frame. These frame independent perturbations are therefore particularly useful in relating results in different frames at the perturbative level. On the other hand, the field perturbation and graviton on uniform curvature hypersurfaces in the Jordan and Einstein frame are non-linearly related, as are their corresponding actions and n-point functions.

  2. IL-6, in synergy with IL-7 or IL-15, stimulates TCR-independent proliferation and functional differentiation of CD8+ T lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, Julien; Ramanathan, Sheela; Leblanc, Chantal; Cloutier, Alexandre; McDonald, Patrick P; Ilangumaran, Subburaj

    2008-06-15

    Recent reports have shown that IL-21, in synergy with IL-15, stimulates proliferation of CD8(+) T lymphocytes in the absence of signaling via the TCR. In this study, we show that IL-6, which induces phosphorylation of STAT3 similarly to IL-21, also can stimulate proliferation of CD8(+) T cells in synergy with IL-7 or IL-15. IL-6 displays a stronger synergy with IL-7 than with IL-15 to stimulate naive CD8(+) T cells. Concomitant stimulation by IL-6 or IL-21 augments phosphorylation and DNA-binding activity of STAT5 induced by IL-7 or IL-15. Like IL-21, IL-6 reduces the TCR signaling threshold required to stimulate CD8(+) T cells. Prior culture of P14 TCR transgenic CD8 T cells with IL-6 or IL-21 in the presence of IL-7 or IL-15 augments their proliferation and cytolytic activity upon subsequent stimulation by Ag. Furthermore, cytokine stimulation induces quantitatively and qualitatively distinct phenotypic changes on CD8(+) T cells compared with those induced by TCR signaling. We propose that the ability of IL-6 to induce TCR-independent activation of CD8(+) T cells in synergy with IL-7 or IL-15 may play an important role in the transition from innate to adaptive immunity.

  3. Differential retention of tumor- and differentiation-suppressor functions in cells derived from a human squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, D R; Montero-Puerner, Y; Beckett, M A; Cowan, J M; Weichselbaum, R R; Diamond, A M

    1992-01-01

    Three morphologically distinct cell lines--F.2a, V, and B.2--were isolated from a single human squamous cell carcinoma. Although all three cell lines can grow indefinitely in culture, they differ in a number of important transformation-related phenotypes. Only B.2 is strongly tumorigenic when injected into the flanks of nude mice, and only V can efficiently grow in semisolid media. The dominance of these traits was investigated by generating somatic cell hybrids among the three cell lines. F.2a was able to suppress the tumorigenicity of B.2 cells, whereas B.2 inhibited the capacity for anchorage-independent growth of V, the latter trait being a function of the ability of these epithelial cells to differentiate when deprived of support. The influence of exogenously added growth factors was also evaluated. This study indicates that the particular tumor we examined consisted of a heterogeneous population of cells with distinct growth and differentiation capacities.

  4. Muscular weakness represents the main limiting factor of walk, functional independence and quality of life of myelopathy patients associated to HTLV-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Costa Caiafa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT HTLV-1-associated myelopathy is a progressive disabling disease associated with gait abnormalities. Objective To identify and quantify the main muscles affected by weakness and spasticity, their impact on gait, functional capacity and on quality of life of HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. Method We evaluated lower limbs muscular strength according to the Medical Research Council scale, spasticity according to the modified Ashworth scale, daily activities according to the Barthel Index and quality of life according to the Short-Form Health Survey-36 of 26 HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients. Results The muscles most affected by weakness included the dorsal flexors and knee flexors. Spasticity predominated in the hip adductor muscles and in plantar flexors. Assistance for locomotion, minimal dependence in daily activities, limitations in functional capacity and physical aspects were the most common findings. Conclusion The impairment of gait, functional dependence and quality of life were predominantly a consequence of intense muscle weakness in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy patients.

  5. The two tryptophans of β2-microglobulin have distinct roles in function and folding and might represent two independent responses to evolutionary pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monti Maria

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We have recently discovered that the two tryptophans of human β2-microglobulin have distinctive roles within the structure and function of the protein. Deeply buried in the core, Trp95 is essential for folding stability, whereas Trp60, which is solvent-exposed, plays a crucial role in promoting the binding of β2-microglobulin to the heavy chain of the class I major histocompatibility complex (MHCI. We have previously shown that the thermodynamic disadvantage of having Trp60 exposed on the surface is counter-balanced by the perfect fit between it and a cavity within the MHCI heavy chain that contributes significantly to the functional stabilization of the MHCI. Therefore, based on the peculiar differences of the two tryptophans, we have analysed the evolution of β2-microglobulin with respect to these residues. Results Having defined the β2-microglobulin protein family, we performed multiple sequence alignments and analysed the residue conservation in homologous proteins to generate a phylogenetic tree. Our results indicate that Trp60 is highly conserved, whereas some species have a Leu in position 95; the replacement of Trp95 with Leu destabilizes β2-microglobulin by 1 kcal/mol and accelerates the kinetics of unfolding. Both thermodynamic and kinetic data fit with the crystallographic structure of the Trp95Leu variant, which shows how the hydrophobic cavity of the wild-type protein is completely occupied by Trp95, but is only half filled by Leu95. Conclusions We have established that the functional Trp60 has been present within the sequence of β2-microglobulin since the evolutionary appearance of proteins responsible for acquired immunity, whereas the structural Trp95 was selected and stabilized, most likely, for its capacity to fully occupy an internal cavity of the protein thereby creating a better stabilization of its folded state.

  6. Independent and Combined Association of Muscle Strength and Cardiorespiratory Fitness in Youth With Insulin Resistance and β-Cell Function in Young Adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Ried-Larsen, Mathias; Ekelund, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    ergometer test. Insulin resistance (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance [HOMA-IR]) and β-cell function (homeostasis model assessment of β-cell function [HOMA-B]) were estimated from fasting serum insulin and glucose that were obtained in youth and at follow-up in young adulthood.......RESULTSFor each 1-SD difference in isometric muscle strength (0.16 N/kg) in youth, fasting insulin, HOMA-IR, and HOMA-B in young adulthood changed with -11.3% (95% CI, -17.0 to -5.2), -12.2% (-18.2 to -5.7), and -8.9% (-14.4 to -3.0), respectively, in young adulthood after adjustment for CRF and personal...... lifestyle and demographic factors. Results for CRF were very similar in magnitude, and the magnitude of associations for both exposures was unchanged with additional adjustment for general or abdominal adiposity in youth. Combined associations of muscle strength and CRF with fasting insulin, HOMA...

  7. Response of a 14-story Anchorage, Alaska, building in 2002 to two close earthquakes and two distant Denali fault earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celebi, M.

    2004-01-01

    The recorded responses of an Anchorage, Alaska, building during four significant earthquakes that occurred in 2002 are studied. Two earthquakes, including the 3 November 2002 M7.9 Denali fault earthquake, with epicenters approximately 275 km from the building, generated long trains of long-period (>1 s) surface waves. The other two smaller earthquakes occurred at subcrustal depths practically beneath Anchorage and produced higher frequency motions. These two pairs of earthquakes have different impacts on the response of the building. Higher modes are more pronounced in the building response during the smaller nearby events. The building responses indicate that the close-coupling of translational and torsional modes causes a significant beating effect. It is also possible that there is some resonance occurring due to the site frequency being close to the structural frequency. Identification of dynamic characteristics and behavior of buildings can provide important lessons for future earthquake-resistant designs and retrofit of existing buildings. ?? 2004, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  8. Asymmetrical distalization of maxillary molars with zygomatic anchorage, improved superelastic nickel-titanium alloy wires, and open-coil springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishida, Takayoshi; Yoon, Hyung Sik; Ono, Takashi

    2013-10-01

    In nongrowing patients with skeletal Class II malocclusion, premolar extraction or maxillary distalization can be used as camouflage treatment. Zygomatic anchorage enables distalization in uncooperative or noncompliant patients. We describe 1 such procedure in a 24-year-old woman. We used novel improved superelastic nickel-titanium archwires combined with nickel-titanium open-coil springs to provide a constant and continuous low force to the dentition. We were able to successfully eliminate the protrusive profile and correct the Class II molar relationship using this system of zygomatic anchorage. The posterior occlusal relationships were improved to achieve Class I canine and molar relationships on both sides, and ideal overbite and overjet relationships were established. Facial esthetics was improved with decreased protrusion of the upper and lower lips. The method used here is a promising alternative to traditional distalization techniques and might offer an effective and simple means of distalizing maxillary molars in uncooperative patients. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparison of tooth displacement between buccal mini-implants and palatal plate anchorage for molar distalization: a finite element study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Il-Jun; Kook, Yoon-Ah; Sung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Kee-Joon; Chun, Youn-Sic; Mo, Sung-Seo

    2014-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to mechanically evaluate distalization modalities through the application of skeletal anchorage using finite element analysis. Base models were constructed from commercial teeth models. A finite element model was created and three treatment modalities were modified to make 10 models. Modalities 1 and 2 placed mini-implants in the buccal side, and modality 3 placed a plate on the palatal side. Distalization with the palatal plate in modality 3 showed bodily molar movement and insignificant displacement of the incisors. Placing mini-implants on the buccal side in modalities 1 and 2 caused the first molar to be distally tipped and extruded, while the incisors were labially flared and intruded. Distalization with the palatal plate rather than mini-implants on the buccal side provided bodily molar movement without tipping or extrusion. It is recommended to use our findings as a clinical guide for the application of skeletal anchorage devices for molar distalization. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Intrusion of maxillary incisors by mini-screw anchorage of Angle Class II division 2 malocclusion cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Falahi, Bilal A; Hammad, Shaza M; El-Kenawy, Mohammed H; Fouda, Maher A

    2012-01-01

    to evaluate the effects of the upper incisor teeth intrusion by mini-screw on the amount of overbite and on the dental and skeletal parameters of the jaws. Ten patients were selected from the outpatient clinic of the Department of Orthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University with Angle's Class II division 2 malocclusions. Ages ranged from 13 to 19 years with deep overbite of 4mm or more requiring intrusion of the maxillary incisors. Alignment of the upper and lower dental arches was done with a pre-adjusted edgewise technique, then a mini-screw as anchorage for the intrusion of the upper incisor segment was inserted for every patient below the anterior nasal spine connected to a utility arch wire. The overbite was corrected from 6 mm to 1.8 mm (p<.001) by upper incisor intrusion and the gummy smile was improved. No extrusion of upper first permanent molars was observed. The maxillary incisors were effectively intruded by using mini-screws as orthodontic anchorage. Good occlusion and facial esthetics were achieved with no counteractive movements in the molars.

  11. ACE inhibition with spirapril improves diastolic function at rest independent of vasodilation during treatment with spirapril in mild to moderate hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J R; Drabaek, H; Gleerup, Christian Peter-Ole G.

    1996-01-01

    the patients entered three periods lasting four weeks each, wherein they were treated with placebo, spirapril, or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure, hemodynamic variables (stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output, index of contractility, and systemic vascular resistance), echocardiography (left ventricular...... mass), and Doppler-derived atrial to early (A/E)-ratio velocity time integrals (VTI) were measured at the end of each of the four periods. Spirapril lowered the A/E-ratio VTIs (0.57, 0.12-1.00) (P ... indicate that spirapril lowers A/E ratio within four weeks in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. It thereby seems able to improve left ventricular diastolic function. The effect is not dependent upon changes in hemodynamic variables, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, or end...

  12. ACE inhibition with spirapril improves diastolic function at rest independent of vasodilation during treatment with spirapril in mild to moderate hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J R; Drabaek, H; Gleerup, Christian Peter-Ole G.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of the ACE inhibitor spirapril and of hydrochlorothiazide on left ventricular diastolic function were studied. Thirteen patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension completed this randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover study. After a three-week run-in period...... the patients entered three periods lasting four weeks each, wherein they were treated with placebo, spirapril, or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure, hemodynamic variables (stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output, index of contractility, and systemic vascular resistance), echocardiography (left ventricular...... mass), and Doppler-derived atrial to early (A/E)-ratio velocity time integrals (VTI) were measured at the end of each of the four periods. Spirapril lowered the A/E-ratio VTIs (0.57, 0.12-1.00) (P hydrochlorothiazide (0.83, 0...

  13. ACE inhibition with spirapril improves diastolic function at rest independent of vasodilation during treatment with spirapril in mild to moderate hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, J R; Drabaek, H; Fornitz, Gitte Gleerup

    1996-01-01

    indicate that spirapril lowers A/E ratio within four weeks in patients with mild to moderate essential hypertension. It thereby seems able to improve left ventricular diastolic function. The effect is not dependent upon changes in hemodynamic variables, blood pressure, left ventricular mass, or end...... the patients entered three periods lasting four weeks each, wherein they were treated with placebo, spirapril, or hydrochlorothiazide. Blood pressure, hemodynamic variables (stroke volume, heart rate, cardiac output, index of contractility, and systemic vascular resistance), echocardiography (left ventricular.......44-1.25), and the drug normalized the A/E-ratio VTI in those patients with elevated values. The hemodynamic variables, left ventricular mass, and end-systolic wall stress were unchanged during all three treatments. There were no significant changes in mean blood pressure during the treatment periods. These results...

  14. The Pseudomonas syringae type III effector AvrRpt2 functions downstream or independently of SA to promote virulence on Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongying; Kloek, Andrew P; Cuzick, Alayne; Moeder, Wolfgang; Tang, Dingzhong; Innes, Roger W; Klessig, Daniel F; McDowell, John M; Kunkel, Barbara N

    2004-02-01

    AvrRpt2, a Pseudomonas syringae type III effector protein, functions from inside plant cells to promote the virulence of P. syringae pv. tomato strain DC3000 (PstDC3000) on Arabidopsis thaliana plants lacking a functional copy of the corresponding RPS2 resistance gene. In this study, we extended our understanding of AvrRpt2 virulence activity by exploring the hypothesis that AvrRpt2 promotes PstDC3000 virulence by suppressing plant defenses. When delivered by PstDC3000, AvrRpt2 suppresses pathogen-related (PR) gene expression during infection, suggesting that AvrRpt2 suppresses defenses mediated by salicylic acid (SA). However, AvrRpt2 promotes PstDC3000 growth on transgenic plants expressing the SA-degrading enzyme NahG, indicating that AvrRpt2 does not promote bacterial virulence by modulating SA levels during infection. AvrRpt2 general virulence activity does not depend on the RPM1 resistance gene, as mutations in RPM1 had no effect on AvrRpt2-induced phenotypes. Transgenic plants expressing AvrRpt2 displayed enhanced susceptibility to PstDC3000 strains defective in type III secretion, indicating that enhanced susceptibility of these plants is not because of suppression of defense responses elicited by other type III effectors. Additionally, avrRpt2 transgenic plants did not exhibit increased susceptibility to Peronospora parasitica and Erysiphe cichoracearum, suggesting that AvrRpt2 virulence activity is specific to P. syringae.

  15. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus Worsens the Profile of Cardiometabolic Risk Markers and Decrease Indexes of Beta-Cell Function Independently of Insulin Resistance in Nondiabetic Women with a Parental History of Type 2 Diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Sokup

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Women with a history of both parental type 2 diabetes (pt2DM and previous gestational diabetes (pGDM represent a group at high risk of cardiovascular events. We hypothesized that pGDM changes cardiometabolic risk markers levels as well as theirs associations with glucose indices in nondiabetic pt2DM women. Methods. Anthropometric parameters, glucose regulation (OGTT, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR, beta-cell function, lipid levels, parameters of endothelial dysfunction, and inflammation were evaluated in 55 women with pt2DM, 40 with both pt2DM and pGDM 2–24 months postpartum, and 35 controls. Results. Prediabetes was diagnosed more frequently in women with both pt2DM and pGDM in comparison with women with only pt2DM (10 versus 8, P=0.04. The pGDM group had higher LDL-cholesterol, sICAM-1, tPa Ag, fibrinogen, and lower beta-cell function after adjustment for HOMA-IR, in comparison with pt2DM group. In pt2DM group postchallenge glucose correlated independently with hsCRP and in pGDM group fasting glucose with HOMA-IR. Conclusions. pGDM exerts a combined effect on cardiometabolic risk markers in women with pt2DM. In these women higher LDL-cholesterol, fibrinogen, sICAM-1, tPa Ag levels and decreased beta cell function are associated with pGDM independently of HOMA-IR index value. Fasting glucose is an important cardiometabolic risk marker and is independently associated with HOMA-IR.

  16. c-Abl antagonizes the YAP oncogenic function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, R; Adler, J; Ricardo Lax, I; Shanzer, M; Porat, Z; Reuven, N; Shaul, Y

    2015-06-01

    YES-associated protein (YAP) is a central transcription coactivator that functions as an oncogene in a number of experimental systems. However, under DNA damage, YAP activates pro-apoptotic genes in conjunction with p73. This program switching is mediated by c-Abl (Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene) via phosphorylation of YAP at the Y357 residue (pY357). YAP as an oncogene coactivates the TEAD (transcriptional enhancer activator domain) family transcription factors. Here we asked whether c-Abl regulates the YAP-TEAD functional module. We found that DNA damage, through c-Abl activation, specifically depressed YAP-TEAD-induced transcription. Remarkably, c-Abl counteracts YAP-induced transformation by interfering with the YAP-TEAD transcriptional program. c-Abl induced TEAD1 phosphorylation, but the YAP-TEAD complex remained unaffected. In contrast, TEAD coactivation was compromised by phosphomimetic YAP Y357E mutation but not Y357F, as demonstrated at the level of reporter genes and endogenous TEAD target genes. Furthermore, YAP Y357E also severely compromised the role of YAP in cell transformation, migration, anchorage-independent growth, and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human mammary MCF10A cells. These results suggest that YAP pY357 lost TEAD transcription activation function. Our results demonstrate that YAP pY357 inactivates YAP oncogenic function and establish a role for YAP Y357 phosphorylation in cell-fate decision.

  17. Commonwealth of (Independent States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vrućinić Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the stages from the establishment itself to the present day of the functioning of such a specific regional organization as the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS, the article seeks to further explain the meaning of its existence, efficiency and functioning. The CIS was created in order to make the dissolution of a major world super-power, which throughout the 20th century together with the USA defined the bipolar world, as painless as possible, especially for the new countries and its nationally and ethnically diverse population. During the early years after the dissolution of the USSR, the CIS played a major role in a more flexible and less severe dissolution of the Soviet empire, alleviating the consequences for its people. A more efficient functioning among the republics in all fields was also one of the tasks of the Commonwealth, to which it was devoted to the extent which was permitted by the then, not too favourable circumstances. Difficult years of economic crisis did not allow the CIS to mutually integrate its members as much as possible on the economy level. Thanks to the economic recovery of the post-Soviet states in the early 21st century, the Commonwealth has also been transformed, reformed, and renewed, and all this in order to achieve better and more fruitful cooperation between the members. The CIS may serve as a proper example of how the former Soviet Union states are inextricably linked by social, security-political, economic, cultural, communication-transport, and other ties, thanks to the centuries-long existence of the peoples of these states in this area, despite both internal and external factors which occasionally, but temporarily halt the post-Soviet integration. Mathematically expressed, the CIS members are naturally predisposed, to be reciprocally depended on each other, just as they also have the capacity for successful cooperation in the future times and epochs brought on by the modern world.

  18. Central Bank independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile DEDU

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present the key aspects regarding central bank’s independence. Most economists consider that the factor which positively influences the efficiency of monetary policy measures is the high independence of the central bank. We determined that the National Bank of Romania (NBR has a high degree of independence. NBR has both goal and instrument independence. We also consider that the hike of NBR’s independence played an important role in the significant disinflation process, as headline inflation dropped inside the targeted band of 3% ± 1 percentage point recently.

  19. Androgen replacement therapy improves function in male rat muscles independently of hypertrophy and activation of the Akt/mTOR pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hourdé, C; Jagerschmidt, C; Clément-Lacroix, P; Vignaud, A; Ammann, P; Butler-Browne, G S; Ferry, A

    2009-04-01

    We analysed the effect of physiological doses of androgens following orchidectomy on skeletal muscle and bone of male rats, as well as the relationships between muscle performance, hypertrophy and the Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signalling pathway involved in the control of anabolic and catabolic muscle metabolism. We studied the soleus muscle and tibia from intact rats (SHAM), orchidectomized rats treated for 3 months with vehicle (ORX), nandrolone decanoate (NAN) or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). Orchidectomy had very little effect on the soleus muscle. However, maximal force production by soleus muscle (+69%) and fatigue resistance (+35%) in NAN rats were both increased when compared with ORX rats. In contrast, DHT treatment did not improve muscle function. The relative number of muscle fibres expressing slow myosin heavy chain and citrate synthase activity were not different in NAN and ORX rats. Moreover, NAN and DHT treatments did not modify muscle weights and cross-sectional area of muscle fibres. Furthermore, phosphorylation levels of downstream targets of the Akt/mTOR signalling pathway, Akt, ribosomal protein S6 and eukaryotic initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 were similar in muscles of NAN, DHT and ORX rats. In addition, trabecular tibia from NAN and DHT rats displayed higher bone mineral density and bone volume when compared with ORX rats. Only in NAN rats was this associated with increased bone resistance to fracture. Physiological doses of androgens are beneficial to muscle performance in orchidectomized rats without relationship to muscle and fibre hypertrophy and activation of the Akt/mTOR signalling pathway. Taken together our data clearly indicate that the activity of androgens on muscle and bone could participate in the global improvement of musculoskeletal status in the context of androgen deprivation induced by ageing.

  20. Induction of anchorage-independent growth of human embryonic fibroblasts with a deletion in the short arm of chromosome 11 by human papillomavirus type 16 DNA