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Sample records for ancestry highly correlated

  1. Blood group genotyping in a population of highly diverse ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, J; Castilho, L; Rios, M; De Souza, C A

    2001-01-01

    Accurate phenotyping of red blood cells (RBCs) can be difficult in transfusion-dependent patients such as those with thalassemia and sickle cell anemia because of the presence of previously transfused RBCs in the patient's circulation. Recently, the molecular basis associated with the expression of many blood group antigens was established. This allowed the development of a plethora of polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based tests for identification of the blood group antigens by testing DNA. The new technologies complement phenotyping and overcome some of the limitations of hemagglutination assays. These molecular assays were developed on the basis of DNA sequences of individuals of Caucasian ancestry. The present study addresses the concern that these genotyping assays may not be applicable to populations of highly diverse ancestry because of variability in intronic regions or because of unrecognized alleles. We determined both phenotype and genotype for RH D, K 1/K 2, JK A/JK B, FY A/ FY B-GATA in 250 normal blood donors using PCR. Phenotype and genotype results agreed in 100% of the cases, indicating that molecular genotyping protocols can be effectively applied to populations with a highly diverse genetic background. However, genotyping for Duffy antigens provided information that could not be obtained by phenotyping. Essentially, 30.5 % of the donors with the FY B gene typed as Fy(b-) because of mutations in the GATA box. This information is very useful for the management of transfusion dependent patients. PMID:11170227

  2. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D;

    2006-01-01

    frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among the...... female settlers of the Faroe Islands. Compared to other admixed populations of the North Atlantic region, the population of the Faroe Islands appears to have the highest level of asymmetry in Scandinavian vs British Isles ancestry proportions among female and male settlers of the archipelago....

  3. Highly discrepant proportions of female and male Scandinavian and British Isles ancestry within the isolated population of the Faroe Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als, Thomas D; Jorgensen, Tove H; Børglum, Anders D;

    2006-01-01

    The Faroe Islands in the North Atlantic Ocean are inhabited by a small population, whose origin is thought to date back to the Viking Age. Historical, archaeological and linguistic evidence indicates that the present population of the Faroe Islands may have a mixture of Scandinavian and British...... frequency-based admixture approach taking private haplotypes into account by the use of phylogenetic information. While previous studies have suggested an excess of Scandinavian ancestry among the male settlers of the Faroe Islands, the current study indicates an excess of British Isles ancestry among the...

  4. Amerind ancestry, socioeconomic status and the genetics of type 2 diabetes in a Colombian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desmond D Campbell

    Full Text Available The "thrifty genotype" hypothesis proposes that the high prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D in Native Americans and admixed Latin Americans has a genetic basis and reflects an evolutionary adaptation to a past low calorie/high exercise lifestyle. However, identification of the gene variants underpinning this hypothesis remains elusive. Here we assessed the role of Native American ancestry, socioeconomic status (SES and 21 candidate gene loci in susceptibility to T2D in a sample of 876 T2D cases and 399 controls from Antioquia (Colombia. Although mean Native American ancestry is significantly higher in T2D cases than in controls (32% v 29%, this difference is confounded by the correlation of ancestry with SES, which is a stronger predictor of disease status. Nominally significant association (P1 was observed for markers selected from previous T2D genome-wide association studies, consistent with a role for Old World variants in susceptibility to T2D in Latin Americans. No association was found to the only known Native American-specific gene variant previously associated with T2D in a Mexican sample (rs9282541 in ABCA1. An admixture mapping scan with 1,536 ancestry informative markers (AIMs did not identify genome regions with significant deviation of ancestry in Antioquia. Exclusion analysis indicates that this scan rules out ~95% of the genome as harboring loci with ancestry risk ratios >1.22 (at P < 0.05.

  5. African ancestry and its correlation to type 2 diabetes in African Americans: a genetic admixture analysis in three U.S. population cohorts.

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    Ching-Yu Cheng

    Full Text Available The risk of type 2 diabetes is approximately 2-fold higher in African Americans than in European Americans even after adjusting for known environmental risk factors, including socioeconomic status (SES, suggesting that genetic factors may explain some of this population difference in disease risk. However, relatively few genetic studies have examined this hypothesis in a large sample of African Americans with and without diabetes. Therefore, we performed an admixture analysis using 2,189 ancestry-informative markers in 7,021 African Americans (2,373 with type 2 diabetes and 4,648 without from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study, the Jackson Heart Study, and the Multiethnic Cohort to 1 determine the association of type 2 diabetes and its related quantitative traits with African ancestry controlling for measures of SES and 2 identify genetic loci for type 2 diabetes through a genome-wide admixture mapping scan. The median percentage of African ancestry of diabetic participants was slightly greater than that of non-diabetic participants (study-adjusted difference = 1.6%, P<0.001. The odds ratio for diabetes comparing participants in the highest vs. lowest tertile of African ancestry was 1.33 (95% confidence interval 1.13-1.55, after adjustment for age, sex, study, body mass index (BMI, and SES. Admixture scans identified two potential loci for diabetes at 12p13.31 (LOD = 4.0 and 13q14.3 (Z score = 4.5, P = 6.6 × 10(-6. In conclusion, genetic ancestry has a significant association with type 2 diabetes above and beyond its association with non-genetic risk factors for type 2 diabetes in African Americans, but no single gene with a major effect is sufficient to explain a large portion of the observed population difference in risk of diabetes. There undoubtedly is a complex interplay among specific genetic loci and non-genetic factors, which may both be associated with overall admixture, leading to the observed ethnic differences in diabetes

  6. Genomics assisted ancestry deconvolution in grape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Sawler

    Full Text Available The genus Vitis (the grapevine is a group of highly diverse, diploid woody perennial vines consisting of approximately 60 species from across the northern hemisphere. It is the world's most valuable horticultural crop with ~8 million hectares planted, most of which is processed into wine. To gain insights into the use of wild Vitis species during the past century of interspecific grape breeding and to provide a foundation for marker-assisted breeding programmes, we present a principal components analysis (PCA based ancestry estimation method to calculate admixture proportions of hybrid grapes in the United States Department of Agriculture grape germplasm collection using genome-wide polymorphism data. We find that grape breeders have backcrossed to both the domesticated V. vinifera and wild Vitis species and that reasonably accurate genome-wide ancestry estimation can be performed on interspecific Vitis hybrids using a panel of fewer than 50 ancestry informative markers (AIMs. We compare measures of ancestry informativeness used in selecting SNP panels for two-way admixture estimation, and verify the accuracy of our method on simulated populations of admixed offspring. Our method of ancestry deconvolution provides a first step towards selection at the seed or seedling stage for desirable admixture profiles, which will facilitate marker-assisted breeding that aims to introgress traits from wild Vitis species while retaining the desirable characteristics of elite V. vinifera cultivars.

  7. Characterizing the admixed African ancestry of African Americans

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharia, Fouad; Basu, Analabha; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Go, Alan S.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Iribarren, Carlos; Knowles, Joshua W.; Li, Jun; Narasimhan, Balasubramanian; Sidney, Steven; Southwick, Audrey; Myers, Richard M.; Quertermous, Thomas; Risch, Neil

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Accurate, high-throughput genotyping allows the fine characterization of genetic ancestry. Here we applied recently developed statistical and computational techniques to the question of African ancestry in African Americans by using data on more than 450,000 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genotyped in 94 Africans of diverse geographic origins included in the...

  8. What Ancestry Can Tell Us About the Genetic Origins of Inter-Ethnic Differences in Asthma Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Pacheco, Natalia; Flores, Carlos; Oh, Sam S; Burchard, Esteban G; Pino-Yanes, Maria

    2016-07-01

    Differences in asthma prevalence have been described across different populations, suggesting that genetic ancestry can play an important role in this disease. In fact, several studies have demonstrated an association between African ancestry with increased asthma susceptibility and severity, higher immunoglobulin E levels, and lower lung function. In contrast, Native American ancestry has been shown to have a protective role for this disease. Genome-wide association studies have allowed the identification of population-specific genetic variants with varying allele frequency among populations. Additionally, the correlation of genetic ancestry at the chromosomal level with asthma and related traits by means of admixture mapping has revealed regions of the genome where ancestry is correlated with the disease. In this review, we discuss the evidence supporting the association of genetic ancestry with asthma susceptibility and asthma-related traits, and highlight the regions of the genome harboring ancestry-specific genetic risk factors. PMID:27393700

  9. Comparison of genome-wide variation between Malawians and African ancestry HapMap populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Bonnie R; North, Kari E; Wang, Yunfei; Mwapasa, Victor; Franceschini, Nora; Meshnick, Steven R; Lange, Ethan M

    2010-06-01

    Understanding genetic variation between populations is important because it affects the portability of human genome-wide analytical methods. We compared genetic variation and substructure between Malawians and other African and non-African HapMap populations. Allele frequencies and adjacent linkage disequilibrium (LD) were measured for 617 715 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across subject genomes. Allele frequencies in the Malawian population (N=226) were highly correlated with allele frequencies in HapMap populations of African ancestry (AFA, N=376), namely Yoruban in Ibadan, Nigeria (Spearman's r(2)=0.97), Luhya in Webuye, Kenya (r(2)=0.97), African Americans in the southwest United States (r(2)=0.94) and Maasai in Kinyawa, Kenya (r(2)=0.91). This correlation was much lower between Malawians and other ancestry populations (r(2)0.82, other ancestries r(2)Maasai in Kenyawa, Kenya (rs3769013, rs730005, rs3769012, rs2304370; P-values <1 x 10(-33)). PMID:20485449

  10. What Is Genetic Ancestry Testing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... type of test because Y chromosome and mitochondrial DNA test results, which represent only single ancestral lines, do ... relationships. On a larger scale, combined genetic ancestry test results from many people can be used ... promotes the use of DNA testing in genealogy. The American Society of Human ...

  11. Forensic ancestry analysis with two capillary electrophoresis ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Santos, C; Fondevila, M; Ballard, D;

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but these...... relationship between input DNA and signal strength as each marker is detected with a single dye, so mixed DNA is more reliably detected. We report the results of a collaborative inter-laboratory exercise of 19 participants (15 from the EDNAP European DNA Profiling group) that assessed a 34-plex SNP test using...... DNA mixture as well as achieving complete and concordant profiles in nearly all cases. Lastly, two participants successfully ran parallel next-generation sequencing analyses (each using different systems) and achieved high levels of genotyping concordance using the exercise PCR primer mixes unmodified....

  12. Evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in Beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant H5N1 and H5N2 influenza A viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andy M.; Reeves, Andrew; Teslaa, Joshua L.; Nashold, Sean W.; Donnelly, Tyrone F.; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S.

    2016-01-01

    Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November–December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds.

  13. Evidence for common ancestry among viruses isolated from wild birds in Beringia and highly pathogenic intercontinental reassortant H5N1 and H5N2 influenza A viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramey, Andrew M; Reeves, Andrew B; TeSlaa, Joshua L; Nashold, Sean; Donnelly, Tyrone; Bahl, Justin; Hall, Jeffrey S

    2016-06-01

    Highly pathogenic clade 2.3.4.4 H5N8, H5N2, and H5N1 influenza A viruses were first detected in wild, captive, and domestic birds in North America in November-December 2014. In this study, we used wild waterbird samples collected in Alaska prior to the initial detection of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 influenza A viruses in North America to assess the evidence for: (1) dispersal of highly pathogenic influenza A viruses from East Asia to North America by migratory birds via Alaska and (2) ancestral origins of clade 2.3.4.4 H5 reassortant viruses in Beringia. Although we did not detect highly pathogenic influenza A viruses in our sample collection from western Alaska, we did identify viruses that contained gene segments sharing recent common ancestry with intercontinental reassortant H5N2 and H5N1 viruses. Results of phylogenetic analyses and estimates for times of most recent common ancestry support migratory birds sampled in Beringia as maintaining viral diversity closely related to novel highly pathogenic influenza A virus genotypes detected in North America. Although our results do not elucidate the route by which highly pathogenic influenza A viruses were introduced into North America, genetic evidence is consistent with the hypothesized trans-Beringian route of introduction via migratory birds. PMID:26944444

  14. Forensic ancestry analysis with two capillary electrophoresis ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels: Results of a collaborative EDNAP exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, C; Fondevila, M; Ballard, D; Banemann, R; Bento, A M; Børsting, C; Branicki, W; Brisighelli, F; Burrington, M; Capal, T; Chaitanya, L; Daniel, R; Decroyer, V; England, R; Gettings, K B; Gross, T E; Haas, C; Harteveld, J; Hoff-Olsen, P; Hoffmann, A; Kayser, M; Kohler, P; Linacre, A; Mayr-Eduardoff, M; McGovern, C; Morling, N; O'Donnell, G; Parson, W; Pascali, V L; Porto, M J; Roseth, A; Schneider, P M; Sijen, T; Stenzl, V; Court, D Syndercombe; Templeton, J E; Turanska, M; Vallone, P M; van Oorschot, R A H; Zatkalikova, L; Carracedo, Á; Phillips, C

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but these currently rely on SNaPshot single base extension chemistry that can fail to detect mixed DNA. Insertion-deletion polymorphism (Indel) tests have been developed using dye-labeled primers that allow direct capillary electrophoresis detection of PCR products (PCR-to-CE). PCR-to-CE maintains the direct relationship between input DNA and signal strength as each marker is detected with a single dye, so mixed DNA is more reliably detected. We report the results of a collaborative inter-laboratory exercise of 19 participants (15 from the EDNAP European DNA Profiling group) that assessed a 34-plex SNP test using SNaPshot and a 46-plex Indel test using PCR-to-CE. Laboratories were asked to type five samples with different ancestries and detect an additional mixed DNA sample. Statistical inference of ancestry was made by participants using the Snipper online Bayes analysis portal plus an optional PCA module that analyzes the genotype data alongside calculation of Bayes likelihood ratios. Exercise results indicated consistent genotyping performance from both tests, reaching a particularly high level of reliability for the Indel test. SNP genotyping gave 93.5% concordance (compared to the organizing laboratory's data) that rose to 97.3% excluding one laboratory with a large number of miscalled genotypes. Indel genotyping gave a higher concordance rate of 99.8% and a reduced no-call rate compared to SNP analysis. All participants detected the mixture from their Indel peak height data and successfully assigned the correct ancestry to the other samples using Snipper, with the exception of one laboratory with SNP miscalls that incorrectly assigned ancestry of two samples and did not obtain

  15. Particle correlations in high-multiplicity reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive review of the results obtained in the study of short range correlations in high-multiplicity events is presented: introduction of the fundamental short-range order hypothesis, introduction of clusters in nondiffractive events (only the production of identical, independent, and neutral clusters was considered); search for short range dynamical effects between particles coming from the decay of a same cluster by studying two-particle rapidity correlations in inclusive and semi-inclusive experiments; study of transverse momentum correlations

  16. On universal common ancestry, sequence similarity, and phylogenetic structure: the sins of P-values and the virtues of Bayesian evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theobald Douglas L

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The universal common ancestry (UCA of all known life is a fundamental component of modern evolutionary theory, supported by a wide range of qualitative molecular evidence. Nevertheless, recently both the status and nature of UCA has been questioned. In earlier work I presented a formal, quantitative test of UCA in which model selection criteria overwhelmingly choose common ancestry over independent ancestry, based on a dataset of universally conserved proteins. These model-based tests are founded in likelihoodist and Bayesian probability theory, in opposition to classical frequentist null hypothesis tests such as Karlin-Altschul E-values for sequence similarity. In a recent comment, Koonin and Wolf (K&W claim that the model preference for UCA is "a trivial consequence of significant sequence similarity". They support this claim with a computational simulation, derived from universally conserved proteins, which produces similar sequences lacking phylogenetic structure. The model selection tests prefer common ancestry for this artificial data set. Results For the real universal protein sequences, hierarchical phylogenetic structure (induced by genealogical history is the overriding reason for why the tests choose UCA; sequence similarity is a relatively minor factor. First, for cases of conflicting phylogenetic structure, the tests choose independent ancestry even with highly similar sequences. Second, certain models, like star trees and K&W's profile model (corresponding to their simulation, readily explain sequence similarity yet lack phylogenetic structure. However, these are extremely poor models for the real proteins, even worse than independent ancestry models, though they explain K&W's artificial data well. Finally, K&W's simulation is an implementation of a well-known phylogenetic model, and it produces sequences that mimic homologous proteins. Therefore the model selection tests work appropriately with the artificial

  17. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Bruna Ribeiro de Andrade; D'Elia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Amador, Marcos Antônio Trindade; Santos, Ney Pereira Carneiro; Santos, Sidney Emanuel Batista; da Cruz Castelli, Erick; Witkin, Steven S; Miot, Hélio Amante; Miot, Luciane Donida Bartoli; da Silva, Márcia Guimarães

    2016-06-01

    Ancestry information can be useful in investigations of diseases with a genetic or infectious background. As the Brazilian population is highly admixed physical traits tend to be poor indicators of ancestry. The assessment of ancestry by ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can exclude the subjectivity of self-declared ethnicity and reported family origin. We aimed to evaluate the reliability of self-reported ethnicity or reported family origin as indicators of genomic ancestry in a female population from the Southeast of Brazil. Two cohorts were included: 404 women asked to self-report their ethnicity (Pop1) and 234 women asked to report their family's origin (Pop2). Identification of AIMs was performed using a panel of 61 markers and results were plotted against parental populations-Amerindian, Western European and Sub-Saharan African-using Structure v2.3.4. In Pop1 57.4 % of women self-reported as white, 34.6 % as brown and 8.0 % as black. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 66.8, 12.6 and 16.6 %. In Pop2, 66.4 % of women declared European origin, 23.9 % African origin and 26.9 % Amerindian. Median global European, Amerindian and African contributions were 80.8, 7.3 and 7.6 %, respectively. Only 31.0 and 21.0 % of the global variation in African and European contributions, respectively, could be explained by self-reported ethnicity and reported family origin only accounted for 20.0 and 5.0 % of the variations observed in African and European ancestries, respectively. Amerindian ancestry did not influence self-reported ethnicity or declared family origin. Neither self-reported ethnicity nor declared family origin are reliable indicators of genomic ancestry in these Brazilian populations. PMID:26984822

  18. Effects of cis and trans genetic ancestry on gene expression in African Americans.

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    Alkes L Price

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Variation in gene expression is a fundamental aspect of human phenotypic variation. Several recent studies have analyzed gene expression levels in populations of different continental ancestry and reported population differences at a large number of genes. However, these differences could largely be due to non-genetic (e.g., environmental effects. Here, we analyze gene expression levels in African American cell lines, which differ from previously analyzed cell lines in that individuals from this population inherit variable proportions of two continental ancestries. We first relate gene expression levels in individual African Americans to their genome-wide proportion of European ancestry. The results provide strong evidence of a genetic contribution to expression differences between European and African populations, validating previous findings. Second, we infer local ancestry (0, 1, or 2 European chromosomes at each location in the genome and investigate the effects of ancestry proximal to the expressed gene (cis versus ancestry elsewhere in the genome (trans. Both effects are highly significant, and we estimate that 12+/-3% of all heritable variation in human gene expression is due to cis variants.

  19. Admixture in Latin America: geographic structure, phenotypic diversity and self-perception of ancestry based on 7,342 individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ruiz-Linares

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú. These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry.

  20. Admixture in Latin America: Geographic Structure, Phenotypic Diversity and Self-Perception of Ancestry Based on 7,342 Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Linares, Andrés; Adhikari, Kaustubh; Acuña-Alonzo, Victor; Quinto-Sanchez, Mirsha; Jaramillo, Claudia; Arias, William; Fuentes, Macarena; Pizarro, María; Everardo, Paola; de Avila, Francisco; Gómez-Valdés, Jorge; León-Mimila, Paola; Hunemeier, Tábita; Ramallo, Virginia; Silva de Cerqueira, Caio C.; Burley, Mari-Wyn; Konca, Esra; de Oliveira, Marcelo Zagonel; Veronez, Mauricio Roberto; Rubio-Codina, Marta; Attanasio, Orazio; Gibbon, Sahra; Ray, Nicolas; Gallo, Carla; Poletti, Giovanni; Rosique, Javier; Schuler-Faccini, Lavinia; Salzano, Francisco M.; Bortolini, Maria-Cátira; Canizales-Quinteros, Samuel; Rothhammer, Francisco; Bedoya, Gabriel; Balding, David; Gonzalez-José, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    The current genetic makeup of Latin America has been shaped by a history of extensive admixture between Africans, Europeans and Native Americans, a process taking place within the context of extensive geographic and social stratification. We estimated individual ancestry proportions in a sample of 7,342 subjects ascertained in five countries (Brazil, Chile, Colombia, México and Perú). These individuals were also characterized for a range of physical appearance traits and for self-perception of ancestry. The geographic distribution of admixture proportions in this sample reveals extensive population structure, illustrating the continuing impact of demographic history on the genetic diversity of Latin America. Significant ancestry effects were detected for most phenotypes studied. However, ancestry generally explains only a modest proportion of total phenotypic variation. Genetically estimated and self-perceived ancestry correlate significantly, but certain physical attributes have a strong impact on self-perception and bias self-perception of ancestry relative to genetically estimated ancestry. PMID:25254375

  1. ObStruct: a method to objectively analyse factors driving population structure using Bayesian ancestry profiles.

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    Velimir Gayevskiy

    Full Text Available Bayesian inference methods are extensively used to detect the presence of population structure given genetic data. The primary output of software implementing these methods are ancestry profiles of sampled individuals. While these profiles robustly partition the data into subgroups, currently there is no objective method to determine whether the fixed factor of interest (e.g. geographic origin correlates with inferred subgroups or not, and if so, which populations are driving this correlation. We present ObStruct, a novel tool to objectively analyse the nature of structure revealed in Bayesian ancestry profiles using established statistical methods. ObStruct evaluates the extent of structural similarity between sampled and inferred populations, tests the significance of population differentiation, provides information on the contribution of sampled and inferred populations to the observed structure and crucially determines whether the predetermined factor of interest correlates with inferred population structure. Analyses of simulated and experimental data highlight ObStruct's ability to objectively assess the nature of structure in populations. We show the method is capable of capturing an increase in the level of structure with increasing time since divergence between simulated populations. Further, we applied the method to a highly structured dataset of 1,484 humans from seven continents and a less structured dataset of 179 Saccharomyces cerevisiae from three regions in New Zealand. Our results show that ObStruct provides an objective metric to classify the degree, drivers and significance of inferred structure, as well as providing novel insights into the relationships between sampled populations, and adds a final step to the pipeline for population structure analyses.

  2. Ancestry analysis in the 11-M Madrid bomb attack investigation.

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    Christopher Phillips

    Full Text Available The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48. Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The

  3. The Hmong Diaspora: preserved South-East Asian genetic ancestry in French Guianese Asians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Mazières, Stéphane; Guitard, Evelyne; Giscard, Pierre-Henri; Bois, Etienne; Larrouy, Georges; Dugoujon, Jean-Michel

    2012-01-01

    The Hmong Diaspora is one of the widest modern human migrations. Mainly localised in South-East Asia, the United States of America, and metropolitan France, a small community has also settled the Amazonian forest of French Guiana. We have biologically analysed 62 individuals of this unique Guianese population through three complementary genetic markers: mitochondrial DNA (HVS-I/II and coding region SNPs), Y-chromosome (SNPs and STRs), and the Gm allotypic system. All genetic systems showed a high conservation of the Asian gene pool (Asian ancestry: mtDNA=100.0%; NRY=99.1%; Gm=96.6%), without a trace of founder effect. When compared across various Asian populations, the highest correlations were observed with Hmong-Mien groups still living in South-East Asia (Fst<0.05; P-value<0.05). Despite a long history punctuated by exodus, the French Guianese Hmong have maintained their original genetic diversity. PMID:23199638

  4. Chromosome Connections: Compelling Clues to Common Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Larry

    2013-01-01

    Students compare banding patterns on hominid chromosomes and see striking evidence of their common ancestry. To test this, human chromosome no. 2 is matched with two shorter chimpanzee chromosomes, leading to the hypothesis that human chromosome 2 resulted from the fusion of the two shorter chromosomes. Students test that hypothesis by looking for…

  5. Correlations in high-energy interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The short-range correlations in rapidity whose existence has been firmly established in high-energy interactions are used to explain chaotic multiplicity behavior in proton-nucleon collisions at 800 GeV. In order to determine the values of higher-order moments from the second-order moment, we have used the pure birth approximation which is in agreement with the ''linked pair'' approximation of Carruthers. The calculated values of the normalized factorial moments for a given bin size show a good agreement with our data

  6. Information system agnostic ancestry for digital objects

    OpenAIRE

    Heuscher, S J B

    2010-01-01

    More and more information is becoming available in digital form, most of it derived from digital sources. Digital information is made available as digital objects composed of a sequence of bits and managed by information systems. To date, these digital objects have no independent identification which can be refered outside of a specific information system. However, they normally outlive these systems and can be copied to other systems. In order for the ancestry of digital information to span ...

  7. Genetic analysis of ancestry, admixture and selection in Bolivian and Totonac populations of the New World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watkins W

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Populations of the Americas were founded by early migrants from Asia, and some have experienced recent genetic admixture. To better characterize the native and non-native ancestry components in populations from the Americas, we analyzed 815,377 autosomal SNPs, mitochondrial hypervariable segments I and II, and 36 Y-chromosome STRs from 24 Mesoamerican Totonacs and 23 South American Bolivians. Results and Conclusions We analyzed common genomic regions from native Bolivian and Totonac populations to identify 324 highly predictive Native American ancestry informative markers (AIMs. As few as 40–50 of these AIMs perform nearly as well as large panels of random genome-wide SNPs for predicting and estimating Native American ancestry and admixture levels. These AIMs have greater New World vs. Old World specificity than previous AIMs sets. We identify highly-divergent New World SNPs that coincide with high-frequency haplotypes found at similar frequencies in all populations examined, including the HGDP Pima, Maya, Colombian, Karitiana, and Surui American populations. Some of these regions are potential candidates for positive selection. European admixture in the Bolivian sample is approximately 12%, though individual estimates range from 0–48%. We estimate that the admixture occurred ~360–384 years ago. Little evidence of European or African admixture was found in Totonac individuals. Bolivians with pre-Columbian mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroups had 5–30% autosomal European ancestry, demonstrating the limitations of Y-chromosome and mtDNA haplogroups and the need for autosomal ancestry informative markers for assessing ancestry in admixed populations.

  8. High precision studies of directional correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two applications of the method of directional correlations are described. The first part deals with gamma-gamma directional correlations measurements. A total of 27 cascades have been studied in 97Tc, 206Pb and 206Bi. Information is obtained on the angular momenta of levels, multipolarities of electromagnetic transitions and further, reduced transition probabilities. The later part of this thesis describes a determination of anisotropic directional correlation between gamma-rays and LX-rays in 160Dy. To the authors' knowledge this is the first observation of an anisotropic correlation between gamma rays and X-rays following internal conversion. (Auth.)

  9. Maximum-likelihood estimation of recent shared ancestry (ERSA)

    OpenAIRE

    Huff, Chad D.; Witherspoon, David J.; Simonson, Tatum S.; Xing, Jinchuan; Watkins, W Scott; Zhang, Yuhua; Tuohy, Therese M; Neklason, Deborah W.; Burt, Randall W.; Guthery, Stephen L; Woodward, Scott R.; Jorde, Lynn B

    2011-01-01

    Accurate estimation of recent shared ancestry is important for genetics, evolution, medicine, conservation biology, and forensics. Established methods estimate kinship accurately for first-degree through third-degree relatives. We demonstrate that chromosomal segments shared by two individuals due to identity by descent (IBD) provide much additional information about shared ancestry. We developed a maximum-likelihood method for the estimation of recent shared ancestry (ERSA) from the number a...

  10. Pacifiplex: an ancestry-informative SNP panel centred on Australia and the Pacific region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Carla; Phillips, Christopher; Fondevila, Manuel; Daniel, Runa; van Oorschot, Roland A H; Burchard, Esteban G; Schanfield, Moses S; Souto, Luis; Uacyisrael, Jolame; Via, Marc; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, Maria V

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of human population variation is an area of considerable interest in the forensic, medical genetics and anthropological fields. Several forensic single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) assays provide ancestry-informative genotypes in sensitive tests designed to work with limited DNA samples, including a 34-SNP multiplex differentiating African, European and East Asian ancestries. Although assays capable of differentiating Oceanian ancestry at a global scale have become available, this study describes markers compiled specifically for differentiation of Oceanian populations. A sensitive multiplex assay, termed Pacifiplex, was developed and optimized in a small-scale test applicable to forensic analyses. The Pacifiplex assay comprises 29 ancestry-informative marker SNPs (AIM-SNPs) selected to complement the 34-plex test, that in a combined set distinguish Africans, Europeans, East Asians and Oceanians. Nine Pacific region study populations were genotyped with both SNP assays, then compared to four reference population groups from the HGDP-CEPH human diversity panel. STRUCTURE analyses estimated population cluster membership proportions that aligned with the patterns of variation suggested for each study population's currently inferred demographic histories. Aboriginal Taiwanese and Philippine samples indicated high East Asian ancestry components, Papua New Guinean and Aboriginal Australians samples were predominantly Oceanian, while other populations displayed cluster patterns explained by the distribution of divergence amongst Melanesians, Polynesians and Micronesians. Genotype data from Pacifiplex and 34-plex tests is particularly well suited to analysis of Australian Aboriginal populations and when combined with Y and mitochondrial DNA variation will provide a powerful set of markers for ancestry inference applied to modern Australian demographic profiles. On a broader geographic scale, Pacifiplex adds highly informative data for inferring the ancestry

  11. Genomic African and Native American Ancestry and Chagas Disease: The Bambui (Brazil) Epigen Cohort Study of Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Background The influence of genetic ancestry on Trypanosoma cruzi infection and Chagas disease outcomes is unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We used 370,539 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) to examine the association between individual proportions of African, European and Native American genomic ancestry with T. cruzi infection and related outcomes in 1,341 participants (aged ≥ 60 years) of the Bambui (Brazil) population-based cohort study of aging. Potential confounding variables included sociodemographic characteristics and an array of health measures. The prevalence of T. cruzi infection was 37.5% and 56.3% of those infected had a major ECG abnormality. Baseline T. cruzi infection was correlated with higher levels of African and Native American ancestry, which in turn were strongly associated with poor socioeconomic circumstances. Cardiomyopathy in infected persons was not significantly associated with African or Native American ancestry levels. Infected persons with a major ECG abnormality were at increased risk of 15-year mortality relative to their counterparts with no such abnormalities (adjusted hazard ratio = 1.80; 95% 1.41, 2.32). African and Native American ancestry levels had no significant effect modifying this association. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that African and Native American ancestry have no influence on the presence of major ECG abnormalities and had no influence on the ability of an ECG abnormality to predict mortality in older people infected with T. cruzi. In contrast, our results revealed a strong and independent association between prevalent T. cruzi infection and higher levels of African and Native American ancestry. Whether this association is a consequence of genetic background or differential exposure to infection remains to be determined. PMID:27182885

  12. Typing of 111 ancestry informative markers in an Albanian population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ribeiro, Joana; Pereira, V.; Kondili, A.; Miniati, P.; Børsting, C.; Morling, N.

    2015-01-01

    Genetically based prediction of ancestry has a great potential in forensic genetics and may be used as an investigative lead in crime case work or missing person identification.The EUROFORGEN-NoE consortium developed four PCR and SBE multiplexes for typing of 111 ancestry informative markers (AIM...

  13. Sampling Quantum Nonlocal Correlations with High Probability

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Guillén, C. E.; Jiménez, C. H.; Palazuelos, C.; Villanueva, I.

    2016-05-01

    It is well known that quantum correlations for bipartite dichotomic measurements are those of the form {γ=(vectors u i and v j are in the unit ball of a real Hilbert space. In this work we study the probability of the nonlocal nature of these correlations as a function of {α=m/n}, where the previous vectors are sampled according to the Haar measure in the unit sphere of {R^m}. In particular, we prove the existence of an {α_0 > 0} such that if {α≤ α_0}, {γ} is nonlocal with probability tending to 1 as {n→ ∞}, while for {α > 2}, {γ} is local with probability tending to 1 as {n→ ∞}.

  14. Socioeconomic and nutritional factors account for the association of gastric cancer with Amerindian ancestry in a Latin American admixed population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latife Pereira

    Full Text Available Gastric cancer is one of the most lethal types of cancer and its incidence varies worldwide, with the Andean region of South America showing high incidence rates. We evaluated the genetic structure of the population from Lima (Peru and performed a case-control genetic association study to test the contribution of African, European, or Native American ancestry to risk for gastric cancer, controlling for the effect of non-genetic factors. A wide set of socioeconomic, dietary, and clinic information was collected for each participant in the study and ancestry was estimated based on 103 ancestry informative markers. Although the urban population from Lima is usually considered as mestizo (i.e., admixed from Africans, Europeans, and Native Americans, we observed a high fraction of Native American ancestry (78.4% for the cases and 74.6% for the controls and a very low African ancestry (<5%. We determined that higher Native American individual ancestry is associated with gastric cancer, but socioeconomic factors associated both with gastric cancer and Native American ethnicity account for this association. Therefore, the high incidence of gastric cancer in Peru does not seem to be related to susceptibility alleles common in this population. Instead, our result suggests a predominant role for ethnic-associated socioeconomic factors and disparities in access to health services. Since Native Americans are a neglected group in genomic studies, we suggest that the population from Lima and other large cities from Western South America with high Native American ancestry background may be convenient targets for epidemiological studies focused on this ethnic group.

  15. Building a forensic ancestry panel from the ground up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillips, C; Parson, W; Lundsberg, Birgitte Møller;

    2014-01-01

    Emerging next-generation sequencing technologies will enable DNA analyses to add pigmentation predictive and ancestry informative (AIM) SNPs to the range of markers detectable from a single PCR test. This prompted us to re-appraise current forensic and genomics AIM-SNPs and from the best sets...... to minimize bias when estimating co-ancestry proportions in individuals with admixed ancestries. The differentiation of European from Middle East or South Asian ancestries was not chosen as a characteristic in order to concentrate on introducing Oceanian differentiation for the first time in a forensic AIM......-specific divergence in at least four groups. We describe subsets of 88, 55, 28, 20 and 12 AIMs, enabling both new and existing SNP genotyping technologies to exploit the best markers identified for forensic ancestry analysis....

  16. European Ancestry Predominates in Neuromyelitis Optica and Multiple Sclerosis Patients from Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Antônio Carlos; Lana-Peixoto, Marco Aurélio; Rocha, Cristiane Franklin; Brito, Maria Lucia; de Oliveira, Enedina Maria Lobato; Bichuetti, Denis Bernardi; Gabbai, Alberto Alan; Diniz, Denise Sisterolli; Kaimen-Maciel, Damacio Ramon; Comini-Frota, Elizabeth Regina; Vieira Wiezel, Claudia E.; Muniz, Yara Costa Netto; da Silva Costa, Roberta Martins; Mendes-Junior, Celso Teixeira; Donadi, Eduardo Antônio; Barreira, Amilton Antunes; Simões, Aguinaldo Luiz

    2013-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS) presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs) to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. Methods Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP), Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP). Principal Findings European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7%) patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5%) patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil. PMID:23527051

  17. European ancestry predominates in neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis patients from Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doralina Guimarães Brum

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Neuromyelitis optica (NMO is considered relatively more common in non-Whites, whereas multiple sclerosis (MS presents a high prevalence rate, particularly in Whites from Western countries populations. However, no study has used ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate the genetic ancestry contribution to NMO patients. METHODS: Twelve AIMs were selected based on the large allele frequency differences among European, African, and Amerindian populations, in order to investigate the genetic contribution of each ancestral group in 236 patients with MS and NMO, diagnosed using the McDonald and Wingerchuck criteria, respectively. All 128 MS patients were recruited at the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto (MS-RP, Southeastern Brazil, as well as 108 healthy bone marrow donors considered as healthy controls. A total of 108 NMO patients were recruited from five Neurology centers from different Brazilian regions, including Ribeirão Preto (NMO-RP. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: European ancestry contribution was higher in MS-RP than in NMO-RP (78.5% vs. 68.7% patients. In contrast, African ancestry estimates were higher in NMO-RP than in MS-RP (20.5% vs. 12.5% patients. Moreover, principal component analyses showed that groups of NMO patients from different Brazilian regions were clustered close to the European ancestral population. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that European genetic contribution predominates in NMO and MS patients from Brazil.

  18. High-order correlation of chaotic bosons and fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hong-Chao

    2016-08-01

    We theoretically study the high-order correlation functions of chaotic bosons and fermions. Based on the different parity of the Stirling number, the products of the first-order correlation functions are well classified and employed to represent the high-order correlation function. The correlation of bosons conduces a bunching effect, which will be enhanced as order N increases. Different from bosons, the anticommutation relation of fermions leads to the parity of the Stirling number, which thereby results in a mixture of bunching and antibunching behaviors in high-order correlation. By further investigating third-order ghost diffraction and ghost imaging, the differences between the high-order correlations of bosons and fermions are discussed in detail. A larger N will dramatically improve the ghost image quality for bosons, but a good strategy should be carefully chosen for the fermionic ghost imaging process due to its complex correlation components.

  19. Inferring geographic coordinates of origin for Europeans using small panels of ancestry informative markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petros Drineas

    Full Text Available Recent large-scale studies of European populations have demonstrated the existence of population genetic structure within Europe and the potential to accurately infer individual ancestry when information from hundreds of thousands of genetic markers is used. In fact, when genomewide genetic variation of European populations is projected down to a two-dimensional Principal Components Analysis plot, a surprising correlation with actual geographic coordinates of self-reported ancestry has been reported. This substructure can hamper the search of susceptibility genes for common complex disorders leading to spurious correlations. The identification of genetic markers that can correct for population stratification becomes therefore of paramount importance. Analyzing 1,200 individuals from 11 populations genotyped for more than 500,000 SNPs (Population Reference Sample, we present a systematic exploration of the extent to which geographic coordinates of origin within Europe can be predicted, with small panels of SNPs. Markers are selected to correlate with the top principal components of the dataset, as we have previously demonstrated. Performing thorough cross-validation experiments we show that it is indeed possible to predict individual ancestry within Europe down to a few hundred kilometers from actual individual origin, using information from carefully selected panels of 500 or 1,000 SNPs. Furthermore, we show that these panels can be used to correctly assign the HapMap Phase 3 European populations to their geographic origin. The SNPs that we propose can prove extremely useful in a variety of different settings, such as stratification correction or genetic ancestry testing, and the study of the history of European populations.

  20. Highly noise resistant multiqubit quantum correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze robustness of correlations of the N-qubit GHZ and Dicke states against white noise admixture. For sufficiently large N, the Dicke states (for any number of excitations) lead to more robust violation of local realism than the GHZ states (e.g. for N > 8 for the W state). We also identify states that are the most resistant to white noise. Surprisingly, it turns out that these states are the GHZ states augmented with fully product states. Based on our numerical analysis conducted up to N = 8, and an analytical formula derived for any N parties, we conjecture that the three-qubit GHZ state augmented with a product of (N − 3) pure qubits is the most robust against white noise admixture among any N-qubit state. As a by-product, we derive a single Bell inequality and show that it is violated by all pure entangled states of a given number of parties. This gives an alternative proof of Gisin’s theorem. (paper)

  1. Multiplex genotyping system for efficient inference of matrilineal genetic ancestry with continental resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Oven Mannis

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In recent years, phylogeographic studies have produced detailed knowledge on the worldwide distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA variants, linking specific clades of the mtDNA phylogeny with certain geographic areas. However, a multiplex genotyping system for the detection of the mtDNA haplogroups of major continental distribution that would be desirable for efficient DNA-based bio-geographic ancestry testing in various applications is still missing. Results Three multiplex genotyping assays, based on single-base primer extension technology, were developed targeting a total of 36 coding-region mtDNA variants that together differentiate 43 matrilineal haplo-/paragroups. These include the major diagnostic haplogroups for Africa, Western Eurasia, Eastern Eurasia and Native America. The assays show high sensitivity with respect to the amount of template DNA: successful amplification could still be obtained when using as little as 4 pg of genomic DNA and the technology is suitable for medium-throughput analyses. Conclusions We introduce an efficient and sensitive multiplex genotyping system for bio-geographic ancestry inference from mtDNA that provides resolution on the continental level. The method can be applied in forensics, to aid tracing unknown suspects, as well as in population studies, genealogy and personal ancestry testing. For more complete inferences of overall bio-geographic ancestry from DNA, the mtDNA system provided here can be combined with multiplex systems for suitable autosomal and, in the case of males, Y-chromosomal ancestry-sensitive DNA markers.

  2. Variation in APOL1 Contributes to Ancestry-Level Differences in HDLc-Kidney Function Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Rebecca Bentley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low levels of high-density cholesterol (HDLc accompany chronic kidney disease, but the association between HDLc and the estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR in the general population is unclear. We investigated the HDLc-eGFR association in nondiabetic Han Chinese (HC, n=1100, West Africans (WA, n=1497, and African Americans (AA, n=1539. There were significant differences by ancestry: HDLc was positively associated with eGFR in HC (β=0.13, P<0.0001, but negatively associated among African ancestry populations (WA: −0.19, P<0.0001; AA: −0.09, P=0.02. These differences were also seen in nationally-representative NHANES data (among European Americans: 0.09, P=0.005; among African Americans −0.14, P=0.03. To further explore the findings in African ancestry populations, we investigated the role of an African ancestry-specific nephropathy risk variant, rs73885319, in the gene encoding HDL-associated APOL1. Among AA, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed only with the risk genotype (−0.38 versus 0.001; P=0.03. This interaction was not seen in WA. In summary, counter to expectation, an inverse HDLc-eGFR association was observed among those of African ancestry. Given the APOL1 × HDLc interaction among AA, genetic factors may contribute to this paradoxical association. Notably, these findings suggest that the unexplained mechanism by which APOL1 affects kidney-disease risk may involve HDLc.

  3. High-speed low-cost correlator for single molecule fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsu-Yang; Lin, Hsin-Yu; White, Jonathon D.; Fann, Wunshain

    2009-02-01

    Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) has been extensively applied to study the kinetics and photophysics of molecules as well as interactions between molecules by extracting information from the fluctuation of signals. In particular, single molecule applications of FCS promise the greatest amounts of information. Ideally, one would like to carry out FCS in real-time; however, due to the time-consuming nature of the correlation process, performing the correlation in real-time is totally nontrivial. Generally an expensive hardware correlator or a TCSPC board is required for this purpose. Recently highly-efficient algorithms based on multi-tau method have been proposed to build up a software correlator. In this work, we set forth an innovative algorithm capable of realizing the real-time correlation, without turning to the multi-tau method. This algorithm takes advantage of the low count rate generally existing in the FCS experiments, directly using the time interval between each photon its adjacent photon to efficiently update the correlation function. Based on this efficiency, it is possible to build a low-cost software correlator with just an ordinary counter board. We practically demonstrate the feasibility by setting up this correlator to measure the diffusion motion of rhodamine 6G in water using FCS. The algorithm was validated by duplicating the signal from the photon detector and sending it to both the ordinary counter board with our software correlator and a commercial correlator simultaneously. The perfect coincidence of the correlation curves from these two correlators and the real-time display of the correlation function indicate the validity and practicability of our approach.

  4. Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amidou N'Diaye

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2 approximately 0.8. More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA results for adult height in 20,427 individuals of African ancestry with replication in up to 16,436 African Americans. We found two novel height loci (Xp22-rs12393627, P = 3.4×10(-12 and 2p14-rs4315565, P = 1.2×10(-8. As a group, height associations discovered in European-ancestry samples replicate in individuals of African ancestry (P = 1.7×10(-4 for overall replication. Fine-mapping of the European height loci in African-ancestry individuals showed an enrichment of SNPs that are associated with expression of nearby genes when compared to the index European height SNPs (P<0.01. Our results highlight the utility of genetic studies in non-European populations to understand the etiology of complex human diseases and traits.

  5. Isotope correlation studies relative to high enrichment test reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several correlations of fission product isotopic ratios with atom percent fission and neutron flux, for highly enriched 235U fuel irradiated in two different water moderated thermal reactors, have been evaluated. In general, excellent correlations were indicated for samples irradiated in the same neutron spectrum; however, significant differences in the correlations were noted with the change in neutron spectrum. For highly enriched 235U fuel, the correlation of the isotopic ratio 143Nd/145+146Nd with atom percent fission has wider applicability than the other fission product isotopic ratio evaluated. The 137Cs/135Cs atom ratio shows promise for correlation with neutron flux. Correlations involving heavy element ratios are very sensitive to the neutron spectrum

  6. Fast Face-Recognition Optical Parallel Correlator Using High Accuracy Correlation Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Kodate, Kashiko

    2005-11-01

    We designed and fabricated a fully automatic fast face recognition optical parallel correlator [E. Watanabe and K. Kodate: Appl. Opt. 44 (2005) 5666] based on the VanderLugt principle. The implementation of an as-yet unattained ultra high-speed system was aided by reconfiguring the system to make it suitable for easier parallel processing, as well as by composing a higher accuracy correlation filter and high-speed ferroelectric liquid crystal-spatial light modulator (FLC-SLM). In running trial experiments using this system (dubbed FARCO), we succeeded in acquiring remarkably low error rates of 1.3% for false match rate (FMR) and 2.6% for false non-match rate (FNMR). Given the results of our experiments, the aim of this paper is to examine methods of designing correlation filters and arranging database image arrays for even faster parallel correlation, underlining the issues of calculation technique, quantization bit rate, pixel size and shift from optical axis. The correlation filter has proved its excellent performance and higher precision than classical correlation and joint transform correlator (JTC). Moreover, arrangement of multi-object reference images leads to 10-channel correlation signals, as sharply marked as those of a single channel. This experiment result demonstrates great potential for achieving the process speed of 10000 face/s.

  7. Forensic ancestry analysis with two capillary electrophoresis ancestry informative marker (AIM) panels:Results of a collaborative EDNAP exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, C.; Fondevila, M; Ballard, D; Banemann, R; Bento, A. M.; Børsting, C; Branicki, W.; Brisighelli, F.; Burrington, M.; Capal, T.; Chaitanya, L; Daniel, R; Decroyer, V.; R. England; Gettings, K. B.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing interest in forensic ancestry tests, which are part of a growing number of DNA analyses that can enhance routine profiling by obtaining additional genetic information about unidentified DNA donors. Nearly all ancestry tests use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), but these currently rely on SNaPshot single base extension chemistry that can fail to detect mixed DNA. Insertion-deletion polymorphism (Indel) tests have been developed using dye-labeled primers that allow di...

  8. High Dimensional Correlation Matrices: CLT and Its Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Jiti Gao; Xiao Han; Guangming Pan; Yanrong Yang

    2014-01-01

    Statistical inferences for sample correlation matrices are important in high dimensional data analysis. Motivated by this, this paper establishes a new central limit theorem (CLT) for a linear spectral statistic (LSS) of high dimensional sample correlation matrices for the case where the dimension p and the sample size $n$ are comparable. This result is of independent interest in large dimensional random matrix theory. Meanwhile, we apply the linear spectral statistic to an independence test ...

  9. Wide distribution and altitude correlation of an archaic high-altitude-adaptive EPAS1 haplotype in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackinger, Sophie; Kraaijenbrink, Thirsa; Xue, Yali; Mezzavilla, Massimo; Asan; van Driem, George; Jobling, Mark A; de Knijff, Peter; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Ayub, Qasim

    2016-04-01

    High-altitude adaptation in Tibetans is influenced by introgression of a 32.7-kb haplotype from the Denisovans, an extinct branch of archaic humans, lying within the endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1), and has also been reported in Sherpa. We genotyped 19 variants in this genomic region in 1507 Eurasian individuals, including 1188 from Bhutan and Nepal residing at altitudes between 86 and 4550 m above sea level. Derived alleles for five SNPs characterizing the core Denisovan haplotype (AGGAA) were present at high frequency not only in Tibetans and Sherpa, but also among many populations from the Himalayas, showing a significant correlation with altitude (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.75, p value 3.9 × 10(-11)). Seven East- and South-Asian 1000 Genomes Project individuals shared the Denisovan haplotype extending beyond the 32-kb region, enabling us to refine the haplotype structure and identify a candidate regulatory variant (rs370299814) that might be interacting in an additive manner with the derived G allele of rs150877473, the variant previously associated with high-altitude adaptation in Tibetans. Denisovan-derived alleles were also observed at frequencies of 3-14 % in the 1000 Genomes Project African samples. The closest African haplotype is, however, separated from the Asian high-altitude haplotype by 22 mutations whereas only three mutations, including rs150877473, separate the Asians from the Denisovan, consistent with distant shared ancestry for African and Asian haplotypes and Denisovan adaptive introgression. PMID:26883865

  10. Long-range correlations in high multiplicity and collisions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gunther Roland

    2015-05-01

    This review summarizes recent discoveries in high-energy proton+proton and proton+nucleus collisions, with particular attention on the observation of long-range azimuthal correlations in high multiplicity collisions. These correlations, which resemble those seen in ultrarelativistic nucleus–nucleus collisions, provide a unique window into the physics of the very early collision stage in high energy nuclear interactions. Here we present a compilation of the most important experimental results and briefly discuss successes and challenges for a selection of theoretical approaches.

  11. A comparison of high-frequency cross-correlation measures

    OpenAIRE

    Precup, O. V.; Iori, G.

    2004-01-01

    On a high-frequency scale the time series are not homogeneous, therefore standard correlation measures can not be directly applied to the raw data. There are two ways to deal with this problem. The time series can be homogenised through an interpolation method [1] (linear or previous tick) and then the Pearson correlation statistic computed. Recently, methods that can handle raw non-synchronous time series have been developed [2,4]. This paper compares two traditional methods that use interpo...

  12. Self-similarity correlations in high-temperature superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermally induced structural phase transitions produce self-similar quasi-2D chain-like structure in the CuO2 planes. Self-similar, scale invariant wave functions-solutions of the scale invariant Hamiltonian-represent states of long range correlations. These intrinsically correlated states can be observed as carriers of super-current. The conformal invariant string theory is proposed as a first approximation to describe the mechanism of high-temperature superconductivity. (author) 8 refs

  13. Ancestry informative markers and complete blood count parameters in Brazilian blood donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela E. S. Felix

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete blood count is very useful in clinical diagnoses when reference ranges are well established for the population. Complete blood counts and allele frequencies of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs were analyzed in Brazilians with the aim of characterizing the hematological values of an admixed population. Positive associations were observed between gender and neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and platelet counts. No significant differences were found for age, alcohol consumption, educational status, ethnicity, smoking in respect to the complete blood count values. In general, men had higher red blood cell values, while women had higher values for white blood cells and platelets. The study of the population was highly heterogeneous with mean proportions (± SE of African, European and Amerindian ancestry being 49.0 ± 3.0%, 44.0 ± 9.0% and 7.0 ± 9.0%, respectively. Amerindian ancestry showed limited contribution to the makeup of the population, but estimated ancestral proportions were statistically significant (r = 0.9838; P<0.001. These hematologic values are similar to Afro-Americans, another admixed population.

  14. Resolving the ancestry of Austronesian-speaking populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Pedro A; Trejaut, Jean A; Rito, Teresa; Cavadas, Bruno; Hill, Catherine; Eng, Ken Khong; Mormina, Maru; Brandão, Andreia; Fraser, Ross M; Wang, Tse-Yi; Loo, Jun-Hun; Snell, Christopher; Ko, Tsang-Ming; Amorim, António; Pala, Maria; Macaulay, Vincent; Bulbeck, David; Wilson, James F; Gusmão, Leonor; Pereira, Luísa; Oppenheimer, Stephen; Lin, Marie; Richards, Martin B

    2016-03-01

    There are two very different interpretations of the prehistory of Island Southeast Asia (ISEA), with genetic evidence invoked in support of both. The "out-of-Taiwan" model proposes a major Late Holocene expansion of Neolithic Austronesian speakers from Taiwan. An alternative, proposing that Late Glacial/postglacial sea-level rises triggered largely autochthonous dispersals, accounts for some otherwise enigmatic genetic patterns, but fails to explain the Austronesian language dispersal. Combining mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome and genome-wide data, we performed the most comprehensive analysis of the region to date, obtaining highly consistent results across all three systems and allowing us to reconcile the models. We infer a primarily common ancestry for Taiwan/ISEA populations established before the Neolithic, but also detected clear signals of two minor Late Holocene migrations, probably representing Neolithic input from both Mainland Southeast Asia and South China, via Taiwan. This latter may therefore have mediated the Austronesian language dispersal, implying small-scale migration and language shift rather than large-scale expansion. PMID:26781090

  15. Trouble shooting for covariance fitting in highly correlated data

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Boram; Lee, Weonjong; Jung, Chulwoo

    2011-01-01

    We report a possible solution to the trouble that the covariance fitting fails when the data is highly correlated and the covariance matrix has small eigenvalues. As an example, we choose the data analysis of highly correlated $B_K$ data on the basis of the SU(2) staggered chiral perturbation theory. Basically, the essence of the problem is that we do not have an accurate fitting function so that we cannot fit the highly correlated and precise data. When some eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are small, even a tiny error of fitting function can produce large chi-square and spoil the fitting procedure. We have applied a number of prescriptions available in the market such as diagonal approximation and cutoff method. In addition, we present a new method, the eigenmode shift method which fine-tunes the fitting function while keeping the covariance matrix untouched.

  16. Read-only high accuracy volume holographic optical correlator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian; Li, Jingming; Cao, Liangcai; He, Qingsheng; Jin, Guofan

    2011-10-01

    A read-only volume holographic correlator (VHC) is proposed. After the recording of all of the correlation database pages by angular multiplexing, a stand-alone read-only high accuracy VHC will be separated from the VHC recording facilities which include the high-power laser and the angular multiplexing system. The stand-alone VHC has its own low power readout laser and very compact and simple structure. Since there are two lasers that are employed for recording and readout, respectively, the optical alignment tolerance of the laser illumination on the SLM is very sensitive. The twodimensional angular tolerance is analyzed based on the theoretical model of the volume holographic correlator. The experimental demonstration of the proposed read-only VHC is introduced and discussed.

  17. A cryo high-vacuum shuttle for correlative cryogenic investigations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tacke, S.; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Reichelt, R.; Klingauf, J.

    Praha : Czechoslovak Microscopy Society, 2014. ISBN 978-80-260-6720-7. [International Microscopy Congres /18./. Praha (CZ), 07.09.2014-12.09.2014] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-20012S Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : cryo-preparation * cryo high-vacuum shuttle * correlative microscopy Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering

  18. High Temperature, high pressure equation of state density correlations and viscosity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapriyal, D.; Enick, R.; McHugh, M.; Gamwo, I.; Morreale, B.

    2012-07-31

    Global increase in oil demand and depleting reserves has derived a need to find new oil resources. To find these untapped reservoirs, oil companies are exploring various remote and harsh locations such as deep waters in Gulf of Mexico, remote arctic regions, unexplored deep deserts, etc. Further, the depth of new oil/gas wells being drilled has increased considerably to tap these new resources. With the increase in the well depth, the bottomhole temperature and pressure are also increasing to extreme values (i.e. up to 500 F and 35,000 psi). The density and viscosity of natural gas and crude oil at reservoir conditions are critical fundamental properties required for accurate assessment of the amount of recoverable petroleum within a reservoir and the modeling of the flow of these fluids within the porous media. These properties are also used to design appropriate drilling and production equipment such as blow out preventers, risers, etc. With the present state of art, there is no accurate database for these fluid properties at extreme conditions. As we have begun to expand this experimental database it has become apparent that there are neither equations of state for density or transport models for viscosity that can be used to predict these fundamental properties of multi-component hydrocarbon mixtures over a wide range of temperature and pressure. Presently, oil companies are using correlations based on lower temperature and pressure databases that exhibit an unsatisfactory predictive capability at extreme conditions (e.g. as great as {+-} 50%). From the perspective of these oil companies that are committed to safely producing these resources, accurately predicting flow rates, and assuring the integrity of the flow, the absence of an extensive experimental database at extreme conditions and models capable of predicting these properties over an extremely wide range of temperature and pressure (including extreme conditions) makes their task even more daunting.

  19. Associations of PON1 and genetic ancestry with obesity in early childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Huen

    Full Text Available Obesity in children has become an epidemic in the U.S. and is particularly prominent in minority populations such as Mexican-Americans. In addition to physical activity and diet, genetics also plays a role in obesity etiology. A few studies in adults and adolescents suggest a link between obesity and paraoxonase 1 (PON1, a multifunctional enzyme that can metabolize organophosphate pesticides and also has antioxidant properties. We determined PON1192 genotype and arylesterase levels (ARYase, measure of PON1 enzyme quantity, to characterize the relationship between PON1 and obesity in young Mexican-American children (n = 373 living in an agricultural community in California. Since PON1 polymorphisms and obesity both vary between ethnic groups, we estimated proportional genetic ancestry using 106 ancestral informative markers (AIMs. Among children, PON1192 allele frequencies were 0.5 for both alleles, and the prevalence of obesity was high (15% and 33% at ages two and five, respectively. The average proportion of European, African, and Native American ancestry was 0.40, 0.09, and 0.51, yet there was wide inter-individual variation. We found a significantly higher odds of obesity (9.3 and 2.5- fold in PON1192QQ children compared to PON1192RR children at ages two and five, respectively. Similar relationships were seen with BMI Z-scores at age two and waist circumference at age five. After adjusting for genetic ancestry in models of PON1 and BMI Z-score, effect estimates for PON1192 genotype changed 15% and 9% among two and five year old children, respectively, providing evidence of genetic confounding by population stratification. However even after adjustment for genetic ancestry, the trend of increased BMI Z-scores with increased number of PON1192 Q alleles remained. Our findings suggest that PON1 may play a role in obesity independent of genetic ancestry and that studies of PON1 and health outcomes, especially in admixed populations, should

  20. A Comparison of High-Frequency Cross-Correlation Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Precup, Ovidiu; Iori, Giulia

    2004-01-01

    On a high-frequency scale the time series are not homogeneous, therefore standard correlation measures can not be directly applied to the raw data. There are two ways to deal with this problem. The time series can be homogenised through an interpolation method \\cite{Dacorogna} (linear or previous tick) and then the Pearson correlation statistic computed. Recently, methods that can handle raw non-synchronous time series have been developed \\cite{Reno1,deJong}. This paper compares two tradition...

  1. Paracoccidioidomycosis: High-resolution computed tomography-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Methods: The study included 23 adult patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. All patients had undergone HRCT, and the images were retrospectively analyzed by two chest radiologists, who reached decisions by consensus. An experienced lung pathologist reviewed all pathological specimens. The HRCT findings were correlated with histopathologic data. Results: The predominant HRCT findings included areas of ground-glass opacities, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, airspace consolidation, cavitation, and fibrosis. The main pathological features consisted of alveolar and interlobular septal inflammatory infiltration, granulomas, alveolar exudate, cavitation secondary to necrosis, and fibrosis. Conclusion: Paracoccidioidomycosis can present different tomography patterns, which can involve both the interstitium and the airspace. These abnormalities can be pathologically correlated with inflammatory infiltration, granulomatous reaction, and fibrosis.

  2. Paracoccidioidomycosis: High-resolution computed tomography-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchiori, Edson, E-mail: edmarchiori@gmail.com [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Valiante, Paulo Marcos, E-mail: valiante.rlk@terra.com.br [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Mano, Claudia Mauro, E-mail: cacaumano@gmail.com [Fluminense Federal University, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zanetti, Glaucia, E-mail: glauciazanetti@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Petropolis Faculty of Medicine, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Escuissato, Dante L., E-mail: danteescuissato@gmail.com [Federal University of Parana, Curitiba (Brazil); Souza, Arthur Soares, E-mail: asouzajr@gmail.com [Faculty of Medicine of Rio Preto, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Capone, Domenico, E-mail: domenicocap@gmail.com [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Methods: The study included 23 adult patients with pulmonary paracoccidioidomycosis. All patients had undergone HRCT, and the images were retrospectively analyzed by two chest radiologists, who reached decisions by consensus. An experienced lung pathologist reviewed all pathological specimens. The HRCT findings were correlated with histopathologic data. Results: The predominant HRCT findings included areas of ground-glass opacities, nodules, interlobular septal thickening, airspace consolidation, cavitation, and fibrosis. The main pathological features consisted of alveolar and interlobular septal inflammatory infiltration, granulomas, alveolar exudate, cavitation secondary to necrosis, and fibrosis. Conclusion: Paracoccidioidomycosis can present different tomography patterns, which can involve both the interstitium and the airspace. These abnormalities can be pathologically correlated with inflammatory infiltration, granulomatous reaction, and fibrosis.

  3. Electron-electron correlation in highly charged atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relativistic random-phase approximation (RRPA) is introduced to account for electron-electron correlation in atoms and ions of high nuclear charge where non-relativistic many-body methods are inadequate. To provide a basis for this study of the RRPA, the Dirac-Fock (DF) theory is reviewed. Applications of the DF equations to determine inner-electron binding energies in heavy atoms are given illustrating the influence of relativistic effects in situations where correlations are unimportant. The RRPA equations are derived as natural generalizations of the DF equations. Examples of RRPA calculations of discrete excitations and of photoionization are given illustrating situations where both relativistic and correlation effects play important roles

  4. Recent admixture in an Indian population of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narang, Ankita; Jha, Pankaj; Rawat, Vimal; Mukhopadhyay, Arijit; Mukhopadhayay, Arijit; Dash, Debasis; Basu, Analabha; Mukerji, Mitali

    2011-07-15

    Identification and study of genetic variation in recently admixed populations not only provides insight into historical population events but also is a powerful approach for mapping disease loci. We studied a population (OG-W-IP) that is of African-Indian origin and has resided in the western part of India for 500 years; members of this population are believed to be descendants of the Bantu-speaking population of Africa. We have carried out this study by using a set of 18,534 autosomal markers common between Indian, CEPH-HGDP, and HapMap populations. Principal-components analysis clearly revealed that the African-Indian population derives its ancestry from Bantu-speaking west-African as well as Indo-European-speaking north and northwest Indian population(s). STRUCTURE and ADMIXTURE analyses show that, overall, the OG-W-IPs derive 58.7% of their genomic ancestry from their African past and have very little inter-individual ancestry variation (8.4%). The extent of linkage disequilibrium also reveals that the admixture event has been recent. Functional annotation of genes encompassing the ancestry-informative markers that are closer in allele frequency to the Indian ancestral population revealed significant enrichment of biological processes, such as ion-channel activity, and cadherins. We briefly examine the implications of determining the genetic diversity of this population, which could provide opportunities for studies involving admixture mapping. PMID:21737057

  5. A furnace for high temperature perturbed angular correlation measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forker, M.; Herz, W.; Huetten, U.; Mueller, M.; Muesseler, R.; Schmidberger, J.; Simon, D.; Weingarten, A.; Bedi, S.C. (Inst. fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik, Univ. Bonn (Germany))

    1993-04-01

    A compact furnace for perturbed angular correlation (PAC) measurements at high temperatures is described. Using a graphite heating element, the furnace combines small dimensions and high temperatures. With an outer diameter of only 23 mm and outer walls at room temperature, it provides sample temperatures up to 2350 K. Test measurements carried out up to this temperature with the standard PAC probe [sup 181]Ta in Zr and Hf metal and in undoped zirconia ZrO[sub 2] show problems arising from interactions of the sample with furnace materials, but at the same time illustrate the great potential of high-temperature PAC spectroscopy for solid state reaction studies. (orig.).

  6. Search for Correlated High Energy Cosmic Ray Events with CHICOS

    CERN Document Server

    Carlson, B E; Jillings, C J; Larson, M B; Lynn, T W; McKeown, R D; Hill, J E; Falkowski, B J; Seki, R; Sepikas, J; Yodh, G B; Hill, James E.

    2005-01-01

    We present the results of a search for time correlations in high energy cosmic ray data (primary E > 10^{14} eV) collected by the California HIgh school Cosmic ray ObServatory (CHICOS) array. Data from 60 detector sites spread over an area of 400 km^2 were studied for evidence of correlated events separated by more than 1 km with coincidence times ranging from 1 microsec up to 1 second. All searches were consistent with the absence of excess coincidences except for a 2.9 sigma excess observed for coincidence times less than 10 microsec. We report upper limits for the coincidence probability as a function of coincidence time.

  7. Covariance fitting of highly correlated $B_K$ data

    CERN Document Server

    Yoon, Boram; Jung, Chulwoo; Lee, Weonjong

    2011-01-01

    We present the reason why we use the diagonal approximation (uncorrelated fitting) when we perform the data analysis of highly correlated $B_K$ data on the basis of the SU(2) staggered chiral perturbation theory. Basically, the essence of the problem is that we do not have enough statistics to determine the small eigenvalues of the covariance matrix with a high precision. As a result, we have the smallest eigenvalue, which is smaller than the statistical error of the covariance matrix, corresponding to an unphysical eigenmode. We have applied a number of prescriptions available in the market such as the cutoff method and modified covariance matrix method. It turns out that the cutoff method is not a good prescription and the modified covariance matrix method is an even worse one. The diagonal approximation turns out to be a good prescription if the data points are somehow correlated and the statistics are relatively poor.

  8. On discriminant analysis techniques and correlation structures in high dimensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Line Katrine Harder

    This paper compares several recently proposed techniques for performing discriminant analysis in high dimensions, and illustrates that the various sparse methods dier in prediction abilities depending on their underlying assumptions about the correlation structures in the data. The techniques...... generally focus on two things: Obtaining sparsity (variable selection) and regularizing the estimate of the within-class covariance matrix. For high-dimensional data, this gives rise to increased interpretability and generalization ability over standard linear discriminant analysis. Here, we group the...... methods in two: Those who assume independence between the variables and thus use a diagonal estimate of the within-class covariance matrix, and those who assume dependence between the variables and thus use an estimate of the within-class covariance matrix, which also estimates the correlations between...

  9. pp spin correlations at high p/sub T/

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New data are presented for measurements of the spin correlation in pp reactions with longitudinally polarized beam and target. Data were obtained at 11.75 GeV/c for both elastic scattering and for π+- and π--production at high p/sub T/ in pp reactions at 11.75 GeV/c. A comparison is made with recent predictions of quark-parton models

  10. Exploring the Y Chromosomal Ancestry of Modern Panamanians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viola Grugni

    Full Text Available Geologically, Panama belongs to the Central American land-bridge between North and South America crossed by Homo sapiens >14 ka ago. Archaeologically, it belongs to a wider Isthmo-Colombian Area. Today, seven indigenous ethnic groups account for 12.3% of Panama's population. Five speak Chibchan languages and are characterized by low genetic diversity and a high level of differentiation. In addition, no evidence of differential structuring between maternally and paternally inherited genes has been reported in isthmian Chibchan cultural groups. Recent data have shown that 83% of the Panamanian general population harbour mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs of Native American ancestry. Considering differential male/female mortality at European contact and multiple degrees of geographical and genetic isolation over the subsequent five centuries, the Y-chromosome Native American component is expected to vary across different geographic regions and communities in Panama. To address this issue, we investigated Y-chromosome variation in 408 modern males from the nine provinces of Panama and one indigenous territory (the comarca of Kuna Yala. In contrast to mtDNA data, the Y-chromosome Native American component (haplogroup Q exceeds 50% only in three populations facing the Caribbean Sea: the comarca of Kuna Yala and Bocas del Toro province where Chibchan languages are spoken by the majority, and the province of Colón where many Kuna and people of mixed indigenous-African-and-European descent live. Elsewhere the Old World component is dominant and mostly represented by western Eurasian haplogroups, which signal the strong male genetic impact of invaders. Sub-Saharan African input accounts for 5.9% of male haplotypes. This reflects the consequences of the colonial Atlantic slave trade and more recent influxes of West Indians of African heritage. Overall, our findings reveal a local evolution of the male Native American ancestral gene pool, and a strong but

  11. Exploring the Y Chromosomal Ancestry of Modern Panamanians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Perego, Ugo Alessandro; Raveane, Alessandro; Lancioni, Hovirag; Olivieri, Anna; Ferretti, Luca; Woodward, Scott R; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Cooke, Richard; Myres, Natalie; Motta, Jorge; Torroni, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Semino, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Geologically, Panama belongs to the Central American land-bridge between North and South America crossed by Homo sapiens >14 ka ago. Archaeologically, it belongs to a wider Isthmo-Colombian Area. Today, seven indigenous ethnic groups account for 12.3% of Panama's population. Five speak Chibchan languages and are characterized by low genetic diversity and a high level of differentiation. In addition, no evidence of differential structuring between maternally and paternally inherited genes has been reported in isthmian Chibchan cultural groups. Recent data have shown that 83% of the Panamanian general population harbour mitochondrial DNAs (mtDNAs) of Native American ancestry. Considering differential male/female mortality at European contact and multiple degrees of geographical and genetic isolation over the subsequent five centuries, the Y-chromosome Native American component is expected to vary across different geographic regions and communities in Panama. To address this issue, we investigated Y-chromosome variation in 408 modern males from the nine provinces of Panama and one indigenous territory (the comarca of Kuna Yala). In contrast to mtDNA data, the Y-chromosome Native American component (haplogroup Q) exceeds 50% only in three populations facing the Caribbean Sea: the comarca of Kuna Yala and Bocas del Toro province where Chibchan languages are spoken by the majority, and the province of Colón where many Kuna and people of mixed indigenous-African-and-European descent live. Elsewhere the Old World component is dominant and mostly represented by western Eurasian haplogroups, which signal the strong male genetic impact of invaders. Sub-Saharan African input accounts for 5.9% of male haplotypes. This reflects the consequences of the colonial Atlantic slave trade and more recent influxes of West Indians of African heritage. Overall, our findings reveal a local evolution of the male Native American ancestral gene pool, and a strong but geographically

  12. Simultaneous correlative scanning electron and high-NA fluorescence microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalan Liv

    Full Text Available Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM is a unique method for investigating biological structure-function relations. With CLEM protein distributions visualized in fluorescence can be mapped onto the cellular ultrastructure measured with electron microscopy. Widespread application of correlative microscopy is hampered by elaborate experimental procedures related foremost to retrieving regions of interest in both modalities and/or compromises in integrated approaches. We present a novel approach to correlative microscopy, in which a high numerical aperture epi-fluorescence microscope and a scanning electron microscope illuminate the same area of a sample at the same time. This removes the need for retrieval of regions of interest leading to a drastic reduction of inspection times and the possibility for quantitative investigations of large areas and datasets with correlative microscopy. We demonstrate Simultaneous CLEM (SCLEM analyzing cell-cell connections and membrane protrusions in whole uncoated colon adenocarcinoma cell line cells stained for actin and cortactin with AlexaFluor488. SCLEM imaging of coverglass-mounted tissue sections with both electron-dense and fluorescence staining is also shown.

  13. Dynamics of Coulomb correlations in semiconductors in high magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromer, Neil Alan

    2002-05-01

    Current theories have been successful in explaining many nonlinear optical experiments in undoped semiconductors. However, these theories require a ground state which is assumed to be uncorrelated. Strongly correlated systems of current interest, such as a two dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field, cannot be explained in this manner because the correlations in the ground state and the low energy collective excitations cause a breakdown of the conventional techniques. We perform ultrafast time-resolved four-wave mixing on $n$-modulation doped quantum wells, which contain a quasi-two dimensional electron gas, in a large magnetic field, when only a single Landau level is excited and also when two levels are excited together. We find evidence for memory effects and as strong coupling between the Landau levels induced by the electron gas. We compare our results with simulations based on a new microscopic approach capable of treating the collective effects and correlations of the doped electrons, and find a good qualitative agreement. By looking at the individual contributions to the model, we determine that the unusual correlation effects seen in the experiments are caused by the scattering of photo-excited electron-hole pairs with the electron gas, leading to new excited states which are not present in undoped semiconductors, and also by exciton-exciton interactions mediated by the long-lived collective excitations of the electron gas, inter-Landau level magnetoplasmons.

  14. Superconducting correlations in the new high Tc systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a two part paper. The first part addresses the question of possible experimental arrangements that could be set up in understanding the similarities and differences in paired fermionic and paired spinless charged bosonic models of high Tc superconductors. The second part is an inquiry into a model high Tc cuprate superconductor that correlates Tc with the different geometrical arrangements of copper oxide complexes that occur in a variety of compounds. This model also exhibits a saturation of Tc as a function of number and types of copper oxide layers

  15. The contribution of ancestry, chance, and past and ongoing selection to adaptive evolution

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amitabh Joshi; Robinson B. Castillo; Laurence D. Mueller

    2003-12-01

    The relative contributions of ancestry, chance, and past and ongoing selection to variation in one adaptive (larval feeding rate) and one seemingly nonadaptive (pupation height) trait were determined in populations of Drosophila melanogaster adapting to either low or high larval densities in the laboratory. Larval feeding rates increased rapidly in response to high density, and the effects of ancestry, past selection and chance were ameliorated by ongoing selection within 15–20 generations. Similarly, in populations previously kept at high larval density, and then switched to low larval density, the decline of larval feeding rate to ancestral levels was rapid (15–20 generations) and complete, providing support for a previously stated hypothesis regarding the costs of faster feeding in Drosophila larvae. Variation among individuals was the major contributor to variation in pupation height, a trait that would superficially appear to be nonadaptive in the environmental context of the populations used in this study because it did not diverge between sets of populations kept at low versus high larval density for many generations. However, the degree of divergence among populations ($F_{\\text{ST}}$) for pupation height was significantly less than expected for a selectively neutral trait, and we integrate results from previous studies to suggest that the variation for pupation height among populations is constrained by stabilizing selection, with a flat, plateau-like fitness function that, consequently, allows for substantial phenotypic variation within populations. Our results support the view that the genetic imprints of history (ancestry and past selection) in outbreeding sexual populations are typically likely to be transient in the face of ongoing selection and recombination. The results also illustrate the heuristic point that different forms of selection—for example directional versus stabilizing selection—acting on a trait in different populations may

  16. Inter-laboratory evaluation of the EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP panel by massively parallel sequencing using the Ion PGM™.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardoff, M; Gross, T E; Santos, C; de la Puente, M; Ballard, D; Strobl, C; Børsting, C; Morling, N; Fusco, L; Hussing, C; Egyed, B; Souto, L; Uacyisrael, J; Syndercombe Court, D; Carracedo, Á; Lareu, M V; Schneider, P M; Parson, W; Phillips, C; Parson, W; Phillips, C

    2016-07-01

    The EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP (AIM-SNPs) panel is a forensic multiplex of 128 markers designed to differentiate an individual's ancestry from amongst the five continental population groups of Africa, Europe, East Asia, Native America, and Oceania. A custom multiplex of AmpliSeq™ PCR primers was designed for the Global AIM-SNPs to perform massively parallel sequencing using the Ion PGM™ system. This study assessed individual SNP genotyping precision using the Ion PGM™, the forensic sensitivity of the multiplex using dilution series, degraded DNA plus simple mixtures, and the ancestry differentiation power of the final panel design, which required substitution of three original ancestry-informative SNPs with alternatives. Fourteen populations that had not been previously analyzed were genotyped using the custom multiplex and these studies allowed assessment of genotyping performance by comparison of data across five laboratories. Results indicate a low level of genotyping error can still occur from sequence misalignment caused by homopolymeric tracts close to the target SNP, despite careful scrutiny of candidate SNPs at the design stage. Such sequence misalignment required the exclusion of component SNP rs2080161 from the Global AIM-SNPs panel. However, the overall genotyping precision and sensitivity of this custom multiplex indicates the Ion PGM™ assay for the Global AIM-SNPs is highly suitable for forensic ancestry analysis with massively parallel sequencing. PMID:27208666

  17. High intensity positron beam and angular correlation experiments at Livermore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A positron beam apparatus that produces a variable energy positron beam with sufficient intensity to perform new positron experiments in an ultrahigh vacuum environment has been installed at the Lawrence Livermore 100 MeV electron linac. We have installed two large area position sensitive gamma-ray detectors to measure angular correlations in two dimensions and a separate highly collimated detector to measure positronium energy distributions by time-of-flight velocity determination. Data from measurements on single crystals of Cu will be described

  18. Phylogenomic evidence of adaptive evolution in the ancestry of humans

    OpenAIRE

    Goodman, Morris; Sterner, Kirstin N.

    2010-01-01

    In Charles Darwin’s tree model for life’s evolution, natural selection adaptively modifies newly arisen species as they branch apart from their common ancestor. In accord with this Darwinian concept, the phylogenomic approach to elucidating adaptive evolution in genes and genomes in the ancestry of modern humans requires a well supported and well sampled phylogeny that accurately places humans and other primates and mammals with respect to one another. For more than a century, first from the ...

  19. Infinitely long branches and an informal test of common ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    de Oliveira Martins, Leonardo; Posada, David

    2016-01-01

    Background The evidence for universal common ancestry (UCA) is vast and persuasive. A phylogenetic test has been proposed for quantifying its odds against independently originated sequences based on the comparison between one versus several trees. This test was successfully applied to a well-supported homologous sequence alignment, which was however criticized on the basis of simulations showing that alignments without any phylogenetic structure could mislead its conclusions. Results Here we ...

  20. Ancestry Analysis in the 11-M Madrid Bomb Attack Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher Phillips; Lourdes Prieto; Manuel Fondevila; Antonio Salas; Antonio Gómez-Tato; José Alvarez-Dios; Antonio Alonso; Alejandro Blanco-Verea; María Brión; Marta Montesino; Angel Carracedo; María Victoria Lareu

    2009-01-01

    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a...

  1. Multiparticle correlations and intermittency in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The analysis of the intermittency signal observed in high energy experiments is presented using multiparticle distributions and correlation functions. The effect of the dimensional projection of the multiparticle distributions on one or two-dimensional subspace is discussed. The structure of the multiparticle cumulants is analyzed for the DELPHI e+e- annihilation data. The model of spatiotemporal intermittency is discussed in details and is shown to reproduce qualitatively the dependence of the intermittency strength on the target and projectile nuclei. A 1-dimensional (1D) cellular-automaton and a 1D forest-fire model is studied. On the example of the noncritical 1D Ising model the difficulties of the scaled factorial moment (SFM) method in extracting genuine scaling behaviour is illustrated. All these studies could serve as tools to test the sensibility of the SFM method as used in the analysis of the high energy production. (K.A.) 122 refs.; 38 figs.; 3 tabs

  2. Inter-laboratory evaluation of the EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP panel by massively parallel sequencing using the Ion PGM™

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eduardoff, M; Gross, T E; Santos, C;

    2016-01-01

    the exclusion of component SNP rs2080161 from the Global AIM-SNPs panel. However, the overall genotyping precision and sensitivity of this custom multiplex indicates the Ion PGM™ assay for the Global AIM-SNPs is highly suitable for forensic ancestry analysis with massively parallel sequencing.......The EUROFORGEN Global ancestry-informative SNP (AIM-SNPs) panel is a forensic multiplex of 128 markers designed to differentiate an individual's ancestry from amongst the five continental population groups of Africa, Europe, East Asia, Native America, and Oceania. A custom multiplex of Ampli......Seq™ PCR primers was designed for the Global AIM-SNPs to perform massively parallel sequencing using the Ion PGM™ system. This study assessed individual SNP genotyping precision using the Ion PGM™, the forensic sensitivity of the multiplex using dilution series, degraded DNA plus simple mixtures, and the...

  3. Identification, replication, and fine-mapping of Loci associated with adult height in individuals of african ancestry.

    OpenAIRE

    Amidou N'Diaye; Chen, Gary K.; Palmer, Cameron D; Bing Ge; Bamidele Tayo; Rasika A Mathias; Jingzhong Ding; Michael A Nalls; Adebowale Adeyemo; Véronique Adoue; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Larry Atwood; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Adult height is a classic polygenic trait of high heritability (h(2) approximately 0.8). More than 180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), identified mostly in populations of European descent, are associated with height. These variants convey modest effects and explain approximately10% of the variance in height. Discovery efforts in other populations, while limited, have revealed loci for height not previously implicated in individuals of European ancestry. Here, we performed a meta-analy...

  4. From Bows to Sound-Chests: Tracing the Ancestry of the Violin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janelle R. Finley

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The ancestry of the violin is a subject that has been studied, researched, debated, and written about in great detail. However, despite all of the research and study, the ancestry of the violin is still not certain. This paper presents two schools of thought that propose different theories as to how the ancestry of the violin should be determined and what instruments should be included in the ancestry of the violin. The first school of thought proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the bow. The second theory proposes that the violin’s ancestry should be traced through the sound-chest of the violin. This paper also presents the different arguments for and against each theory, the importance of this topic, and the paper’s position on this topic. Research for this paper was accomplished through the use of scholarly books on the subject of the history of the violin.

  5. On temporal correlations in high-resolution frequency counting

    CERN Document Server

    Dunker, Tim; Rønningen, Ole Petter

    2016-01-01

    We analyze noise properties of time series of frequency data from different counting modes of a Keysight 53230A frequency counter. We use a 10 MHz reference signal from a passive hydrogen maser connected via phase-stable Huber+Suhner Sucoflex 104 cables to the reference and input connectors of the counter. We find that the high resolution gap-free (CONT) frequency counting process imposes long-term correlations in the output data, resulting in a modified Allan deviation that is characteristic of random walk phase noise. Equally important, the CONT mode results in a frequency bias. In contrast, the counter's undocumented raw continuous mode (RCON) yields unbiased frequency stability estimates with white phase noise characteristics, and of a magnitude consistent with the counter's 20 ps single-shot resolution. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a 100-point running average filter in conjunction with the RCON mode yields resolution enhanced frequency estimates with flicker phase noise characteristics. For instance,...

  6. Academic correlates of Taiwanese senior high school students' happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Su-Yen; Lu, Luo

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relation between academic factors and senior high school students' general happiness using a nationally representative sample of 11,061 11th graders in Taiwan. Pearson correlation analyses indicated that English teacher-perceived academic performance, mathematics teacher-perceived academic performance, teacher academic support, classmate academic support, organizational processes, and school satisfaction were positively related to students' general happiness,while disturbance in class was negatively related. Regression analysis found that objective academic achievement, mathematics teacher-perceived academic achievement, classmate academic support, disturbance in class, organizational processes, and most importantly, students' overall appraisals of their own happiness with school helped predict students' general happiness, account for 18.4% of the total variance. Among these variables, objective academic achievement and disturbance in class were negatively associated with general happiness. Some of the study's findings are consistent with those in the literature and some extend established accounts, while others point to future research directions. PMID:20432611

  7. Overexpression of Eg5 correlates with high grade astrocytic neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liqiong; Liu, Xichun; Mare, Marcus; Dumont, Aaron S; Zhang, Haitao; Yan, Dong; Xiong, Zhenggang

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between Eg5 and histopathological grade of astrocytoma, Eg5 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical examination on 88 specimens including 25 cases of glioblastoma (WHO grade IV), 22 cases of anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III), 20 cases of diffuse astrocytoma (WHO grade II), and 21 cases of pilocytic astrocytoma (WHO grade I). The histopathological characteristics and Eg5 expression level of each tumor were assessed and statistically analyzed. Astrocytic tumors exhibited significant correlation of expression of Eg5 with higher WHO histopathological grades (p astrocytoma, 6-36% (mean 18.60%) of neoplastic cells in diffuse astrocytoma, and 2-28% (mean 13.48%) of neoplastic cells in pilocytic astrocytoma. In conclusion, overexpression of Eg5 associates with high-grade astrocytic neoplasm, and it may represent an independent diagnostic and prognostic factor in grading astrocytic tumors and predicting prognosis of astrocytic tumor patients. PMID:26456023

  8. Oxidative stress at high altitude: genotype–phenotype correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey P

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Priyanka Pandey,1,2 MA Qadar Pasha1,2 1CSIR-Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi, India; 2Department of Biotechnology, University of Pune, Ganeshkhind, Pune, India Abstract: It has been well-documented that the hypobaric hypoxic environment at high altitude (HA causes stress to both the permanent residents of HA and the sojourners. This oxidative stress primarily disturbs the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways, thereby upsetting normal human physiology, especially in sojourners. These environmental challenges have caused dynamic evolutionary changes within natives of HA, allowing them to develop adaptive plasticity. This review focuses on the genomic and biochemical features of the molecules involved in the oxygen-sensing and vascular homeostasis pathways with respect to HA pulmonary edema (HAPE and adaptation. We review the role of genetic markers such as HIF-prolyl hydroxylase 2, endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, endothelin 1, cytochrome b-245 alpha polypeptide, and glutathione S-transferase pi 1, as well as three circulatory biomarkers (nitric oxide, endothelin 1, and 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α, by highlighting approaches such as candidate gene and genome-wide, adopted in deciphering the pathways. A disagreement between the two approaches has also been highlighted. In addition, we discuss that an overrepresentation of wild-type alleles in HA natives and mutant alleles of same polymorphisms in HAPE patients implies that the allelic variants at the same locus are involved in adaptation and HAPE, respectively. Moreover, healthy sojourners present a number of genomic features similar to HA natives, further strengthening the concept of genetic predisposition. A trend in correlation between protective and risk alleles and altered levels of circulatory markers clearly documents the phenomenon of genotype–phenotype correlations. We conclude that the genetic and biochemical

  9. Empirical testing of a 23-AIMs panel of SNPs for ancestry evaluations in four major US populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Xiangpei; Warshauer, David H; King, Jonathan L; Churchill, Jennifer D; Chakraborty, Ranajit; Budowle, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Ancestry informative markers (AIMs) can be used to determine population affiliation of the donors of forensic samples. In order to examine ancestry evaluations of the four major populations in the USA, 23 highly informative AIMs were identified from the International HapMap project. However, the efficacy of these 23 AIMs could not be fully evaluated in silico. In this study, these 23 SNPs were multiplexed to test their actual performance in ancestry evaluations. Genotype data were obtained from 189 individuals collected from four American populations. One SNP (rs12149261) on chromosome 16 was removed from this panel because it was duplicated on chromosome 1. The resultant 22-AIMs panel was able to empirically resolve the four major populations as in the in silico study. Eight individuals were assigned to a different group than indicated on their samples. The assignments of the 22 AIMs for these samples were consistent with AIMs results from the ForenSeq(TM) panel. No departures from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were detected for all 22 SNPs in four US populations (after removing the eight problematic samples). The principal component analysis (PCA) results indicated that 181 individuals from these populations were assigned to the expected groups. These 22 SNPs can contribute to the candidate AIMs pool for potential forensic identification purposes in major US populations. PMID:26914801

  10. Polymorphisms of Estrogen Metabolism-Related Genes and Prostate Cancer Risk in Two Populations of African Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emeville, Elise; Ferdinand, Séverine; Punga, Augustin; Lufuma, Simon; Blanchet, Pascal; Romana, Marc; Multigner, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Background Estrogens are thought to play a critical role in prostate carcinogenesis. It has been suggested that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism are risk factors for prostate cancer. However, few studies have been performed on populations of African ancestry, which are known to have a high risk of prostate cancer. Objective We investigated whether functional polymorphisms of CYP17, CYP19, CYP1B1, COMT and UGT1A1 affected the risk of prostate cancer in two different populations of African ancestry. Methods In Guadeloupe (French West Indies), we compared 498 prostate cancer patients and 565 control subjects. In Kinshasa (Democratic Republic of Congo), 162 prostate cancer patients were compared with 144 controls. Gene polymorphisms were determined by the SNaPshot technique or short tandem repeat PCR analysis. Logistic regression was used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results The AA genotype and the A allele of rs4680 (COMT) appeared to be inversely associated with the risk of prostate cancer in adjusted models for both Afro-Caribbean and native African men. For the A allele, a significant inverse association was observed among cases with low-grade Gleason scores and localized clinical stage, in both populations. Conclusions These preliminary results support the hypothesis that polymorphisms of genes encoding enzymes involved in estrogen metabolism may modulate the risk of prostate cancer in populations of African ancestry. PMID:27074016

  11. New Evidence on the Common Ancestry of Tetrapods and Lungfish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Baohua

    2002-01-01

    @@ As reported in a recent issue of Nature (Aug. 15, 2002),two Chinese scientists pinpoint their newly discovered fossil fish as the most direct piece of evi dence on the common ancestry shared by tetrapods (all land verte brates including human beings) and lungfish. This latest advance in studying the origin and evolution of early fishes was jointly made by Professor Zhu Min from the CAS Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology & Paleoanthropology and his colleague Yu Xiaobo, now a Professor at the Biology Department of Kean University (New Jersey, USA).

  12. Covariance fitting of highly-correlated data in lattice QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Boram; Jang, Yong-Chull; Jung, Chulwoo; Lee, Weonjong

    2013-07-01

    We address a frequently-asked question on the covariance fitting of highly-correlated data such as our B K data based on the SU(2) staggered chiral perturbation theory. Basically, the essence of the problem is that we do not have a fitting function accurate enough to fit extremely precise data. When eigenvalues of the covariance matrix are small, even a tiny error in the fitting function yields a large chi-square value and spoils the fitting procedure. We have applied a number of prescriptions available in the market, such as the cut-off method, modified covariance matrix method, and Bayesian method. We also propose a brand new method, the eigenmode shift (ES) method, which allows a full covariance fitting without modifying the covariance matrix at all. We provide a pedagogical example of data analysis in which the cut-off method manifestly fails in fitting, but the rest work well. In our case of the B K fitting, the diagonal approximation, the cut-off method, the ES method, and the Bayesian method work reasonably well in an engineering sense. However, interpreting the meaning of χ 2 is easier in the case of the ES method and the Bayesian method in a theoretical sense aesthetically. Hence, the ES method can be a useful alternative optional tool to check the systematic error caused by the covariance fitting procedure.

  13. Shot Range and High Order Correlations in Proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Long, Shiyang

    2016-01-01

    The main chain dihedral angles play an important role to decide the protein conformation. The native states of a protein can be regard as an ensemble of a lot of similar conformations, in different conformations the main chain dihedral angles vary in a certain range. Each dihedral angle value can be described as a distribution, but only using the distribution can't describe the real conformation space. The reason is that the dihedral angle has correlation with others, especially the neighbor dihedral angles in primary sequence. In our study we analysis extensive molecular dynamics (MD) simulation trajectories of eleven proteins with different sizes and folds, we found that in stable second structure the correlations only exist between the dihedrals near to each other in primary sequence, long range correlations are rare. But in unstable structures (loop) long range correlations exist. Further we observed some characteristics of the short range correlations in different second structures ({\\alpha}-helix, {\\bet...

  14. New World cattle show ancestry from multiple independent domestication events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McTavish, Emily Jane; Decker, Jared E; Schnabel, Robert D; Taylor, Jeremy F; Hillis, David M

    2013-04-01

    Previous archeological and genetic research has shown that modern cattle breeds are descended from multiple independent domestication events of the wild aurochs (Bos primigenius) ∼10,000 y ago. Two primary areas of domestication in the Middle East/Europe and the Indian subcontinent resulted in taurine and indicine lines of cattle, respectively. American descendants of cattle brought by European explorers to the New World beginning in 1493 generally have been considered to belong to the taurine lineage. Our analyses of 47,506 single nucleotide polymorphisms show that these New World cattle breeds, as well as many related breeds of cattle in southern Europe, actually exhibit ancestry from both the taurine and indicine lineages. In this study, we show that, although European cattle are largely descended from the taurine lineage, gene flow from African cattle (partially of indicine origin) contributed substantial genomic components to both southern European cattle breeds and their New World descendants. New World cattle breeds, such as Texas Longhorns, provide an opportunity to study global population structure and domestication in cattle. Following their introduction into the Americas in the late 1400s, semiferal herds of cattle underwent between 80 and 200 generations of predominantly natural selection, as opposed to the human-mediated artificial selection of Old World breeding programs. Our analyses of global cattle breed population history show that the hybrid ancestry of New World breeds contributed genetic variation that likely facilitated the adaptation of these breeds to a novel environment. PMID:23530234

  15. Genome-wide Ancestry Patterns in Rapanui Suggest Pre-European Admixture with Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreno-Mayar, J. Víctor; Rasmussen, Simon; Seguin-Orlando, Andaine;

    2014-01-01

    . We found a mostly Polynesian ancestry among Rapanui and detected genome-wide patterns consistent with Native American and European admixture. By considering the distribution of local ancestry tracts of eight unrelated Rapanui, we found statistical support for Native American admixture dating to AD...

  16. Frequencies of HID-ion ampliseq ancestry panel markers among greenlanders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Espregueira Themudo, Gonçalo; Smidt Mogensen, Helle; Børsting, Claus;

    2016-01-01

    The HID-Ion AmpliSeq Ancestry Panel from Life Techologies includes 123 SNPs from the Seldin panel and 55 SNPs from Kidd panel in a single multiplex assay that helps to determine the continental biogeographic ancestry of individuals. We tested the panel on 104 Greenlanders, divided into a training...

  17. The ‘Stolen Generations' of Mothers and Daughters: Child Apprehension and Enhanced HIV Vulnerabilities for Sex Workers of Aboriginal Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Putu Duff; Brittany Bingham; Annick Simo; Delores Jury; Charlotte Reading; Kate Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The number of children in care of the state continues to grow in BC, Canada with a historical legacy of child apprehension among criminalized and marginalized populations, particularly women of Aboriginal ancestry and sex workers. However, there is a paucity of research investigating child apprehension experiences among marginalized mothers. The objective of the current analysis is to examine the prevalence and correlates of child apprehensions among female sex workers in Vanco...

  18. Simultaneous Correlative Scanning Electron and High-NA Fluorescence Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Liv, N.; Zonnevylle, A.C.; Narvaez, A.C.; Effting, A.P.J.; Voorneveld, P W; Lucas, M. S.; Hardwick, J. C.; Wepf, R.A.; Kruit, P.; Hoogenboom, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is a unique method for investigating biological structure-function relations. With CLEM protein distributions visualized in fluorescence can be mapped onto the cellular ultrastructure measured with electron microscopy. Widespread application of correlative microscopy is hampered by elaborate experimental procedures related foremost to retrieving regions of interest in both modalities and/or compromises in integrated approaches. We present a nov...

  19. High-sensitivity correlation spectrometer for shot noise measurements

    OpenAIRE

    Nieminen, Teemu

    2015-01-01

    Shot noise measurement is an important characterization method in nanophysics research, although shot noise correlation measurement setups have gained little attention in the literature. Most of the previous setups either utilize low frequencies around 1 MHz or rely on solely analog circuitry. This thesis presents a novel correlation spectrometer for low-temperature shot noise measurements. The setup utilizes a four-channel PCI-E digitizer card with a sample rate of 125 megasamples per se...

  20. Correlations and Fluctuations in High-Energy Nuclear Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Baym, Gordon; Blättel, B.; Frankfurt, L. L.; Heiselberg, H.; Strikman, M.

    1995-01-01

    Nucleon correlations in the target and projectile nuclei are shown to reduce significantly the fluctuations in multiple nucleon-nucleon collisions, total multiplicity and transverse energy in relativistic heavy-ion collisions, in particular for heavy projectile and target. The interplay between cross-section fluctuations, from color transparency and opacity, and nuclear correlations is calculated and found to be able to account for large fluctuations in transverse energy spectra. Numerical im...

  1. Indices of Paraoxonase and Oxidative Status Do Not Enhance the Prediction of Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Mixed-Ancestry South Africans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the association of indices of paraoxonase (PON1 and oxidative status with subclinical cardiovascular disease (CVD in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Participants were 491 adults (126 men who were stratified by diabetes status and body mass index (BMI. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT was used as a measure of subclinical CVD. Indices of PON1 and oxidative status were determined by measuring levels and activities (paraoxonase and arylesterase of PON1, antioxidant activity (ferric reducing antioxidant power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation markers (malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL. Diabetic subjects (28.9% displayed a significant decrease in PON1 status and antioxidant activity as well as increase in oxidized LDL and malondialdehyde. A similar profile was apparent across increasing BMI categories. CIMT was higher in diabetic than nondiabetic subjects (P<0.0001  but showed no variation across BMI categories. Overall, CIMT correlated negatively with indices of antioxidant activity and positively with measures of lipid oxidation. Sex, age, BMI, and diabetes altogether explained 29.2% of CIMT, with no further improvement from adding PON1 and/or antioxidant status indices. Though indices of PON1 and oxidative status correlate with CIMT, their measurements may not be useful for identifying subjects at high CVD risk in this population.

  2. Ancestry inference in complex admixtures via variable-length Markov chain linkage models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jesse M; Bercovici, Sivan; Elmore, Megan; Batzoglou, Serafim

    2013-03-01

    Inferring the ancestral origin of chromosomal segments in admixed individuals is key for genetic applications, ranging from analyzing population demographics and history, to mapping disease genes. Previous methods addressed ancestry inference by using either weak models of linkage disequilibrium, or large models that make explicit use of ancestral haplotypes. In this paper we introduce ALLOY, an efficient method that incorporates generalized, but highly expressive, linkage disequilibrium models. ALLOY applies a factorial hidden Markov model to capture the parallel process producing the maternal and paternal admixed haplotypes, and models the background linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations via an inhomogeneous variable-length Markov chain. We test ALLOY in a broad range of scenarios ranging from recent to ancient admixtures with up to four ancestral populations. We show that ALLOY outperforms the previous state of the art, and is robust to uncertainties in model parameters. PMID:23421795

  3. Gluon transverse momentum dependent correlators in polarized high energy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Boer, Daniel; van Daal, Tom; Mulders, Piet J; Signori, Andrea; Zhou, Yajin

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the gluon transverse momentum dependent correlators as Fourier transform of matrix elements of nonlocal operator combinations. At the operator level these correlators include both field strength operators and gauge links bridging the nonlocality. In contrast to the collinear PDFs, the gauge links are no longer unique for transverse momentum dependent PDFs (TMDs) and also Wilson loops lead to nontrivial effects. We look at gluon TMDs for unpolarized, vector and tensor polarized targets. In particular a single Wilson loop operators become important when one considers the small-x limit of gluon TMDs.

  4. Detection of ancestry informative HLA alleles confirms the admixed origins of Japanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakaoka, Hirofumi; Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Shyh-Yuh, Liou; Sawamoto, Taiji; Fujiwara, Tsutomu; Tsutsui, Naohisa; Suematsu, Koji; Shinagawa, Akira; Inoko, Hidetoshi; Inoue, Ituro

    2013-01-01

    The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1) of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD) between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago. PMID:23577161

  5. Detection of ancestry informative HLA alleles confirms the admixed origins of Japanese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirofumi Nakaoka

    Full Text Available The polymorphisms in the human leukocyte antigen (HLA region are powerful tool for studying human evolutionary processes. We investigated genetic structure of Japanese by using five-locus HLA genotypes (HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1, and -DPB1 of 2,005 individuals from 10 regions of Japan. We found a significant level of population substructure in Japanese; particularly the differentiation between Okinawa Island and mainland Japanese. By using a plot of the principal component scores, we identified ancestry informative alleles associated with the underlying population substructure. We examined extent of linkage disequilibrium (LD between pairs of HLA alleles on the haplotypes that were differentiated among regions. The LDs were strong and weak for pairs of HLA alleles characterized by low and high frequencies in Okinawa Island, respectively. The five-locus haplotypes whose alleles exhibit strong LD were unique to Japanese and South Korean, suggesting that these haplotypes had been recently derived from the Korean Peninsula. The alleles characterized by high frequency in Japanese compared to South Korean formed segmented three-locus haplotype that was commonly found in Aleuts, Eskimos, and North- and Meso-Americans but not observed in Korean and Chinese. The serologically equivalent haplotype was found in Orchid Island in Taiwan, Mongol, Siberia, and Arctic regions. It suggests that early Japanese who existed prior to the migration wave from the Korean Peninsula shared ancestry with northern Asian who moved to the New World via the Bering Strait land bridge. These results may support the admixture model for peopling of Japanese Archipelago.

  6. Spread of pedigree versus genetic ancestry in spatially distributed populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelleher, J; Etheridge, A M; Véber, A; Barton, N H

    2016-04-01

    Ancestral processes are fundamental to modern population genetics and spatial structure has been the subject of intense interest for many years. Despite this interest, almost nothing is known about the distribution of the locations of pedigree or genetic ancestors. Using both spatially continuous and stepping-stone models, we show that the distribution of pedigree ancestors approaches a travelling wave, for which we develop two alternative approximations. The speed and width of the wave are sensitive to the local details of the model. After a short time, genetic ancestors spread far more slowly than pedigree ancestors, ultimately diffusing out with radius ∼t rather than spreading at constant speed. In contrast to the wave of pedigree ancestors, the spread of genetic ancestry is insensitive to the local details of the models. PMID:26546979

  7. Multi-particle correlation observables in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Global features of exclusively measured events, including number correlations and vector correlations, and hybrid analysis of measurements of one or two specific fragments like spectator nuclei, high transverse momentum particles, polarization of one particle, etc., are considered

  8. Higher levels of neanderthal ancestry in East Asians than in Europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wall, Jeffrey D; Yang, Melinda A; Jay, Flora; Kim, Sung K; Durand, Eric Y; Stevison, Laurie S; Gignoux, Christopher; Woerner, August; Hammer, Michael F; Slatkin, Montgomery

    2013-05-01

    Neanderthals were a group of archaic hominins that occupied most of Europe and parts of Western Asia from ∼30,000 to 300,000 years ago (KYA). They coexisted with modern humans during part of this time. Previous genetic analyses that compared a draft sequence of the Neanderthal genome with genomes of several modern humans concluded that Neanderthals made a small (1-4%) contribution to the gene pools of all non-African populations. This observation was consistent with a single episode of admixture from Neanderthals into the ancestors of all non-Africans when the two groups coexisted in the Middle East 50-80 KYA. We examined the relationship between Neanderthals and modern humans in greater detail by applying two complementary methods to the published draft Neanderthal genome and an expanded set of high-coverage modern human genome sequences. We find that, consistent with the recent finding of Meyer et al. (2012), Neanderthals contributed more DNA to modern East Asians than to modern Europeans. Furthermore we find that the Maasai of East Africa have a small but significant fraction of Neanderthal DNA. Because our analysis is of several genomic samples from each modern human population considered, we are able to document the extent of variation in Neanderthal ancestry within and among populations. Our results combined with those previously published show that a more complex model of admixture between Neanderthals and modern humans is necessary to account for the different levels of Neanderthal ancestry among human populations. In particular, at least some Neanderthal-modern human admixture must postdate the separation of the ancestors of modern European and modern East Asian populations. PMID:23410836

  9. The Genetics of Bene Israel from India Reveals Both Substantial Jewish and Indian Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Natalie R.; Billing-Ross, Paul; Dubrovsky, Maya; Campbell, Christopher L.; Oddoux, Carole; Friedman, Eitan; Atzmon, Gil; Halperin, Eran; Ostrer, Harry; Keinan, Alon

    2016-01-01

    The Bene Israel Jewish community from West India is a unique population whose history before the 18th century remains largely unknown. Bene Israel members consider themselves as descendants of Jews, yet the identity of Jewish ancestors and their arrival time to India are unknown, with speculations on arrival time varying between the 8th century BCE and the 6th century CE. Here, we characterize the genetic history of Bene Israel by collecting and genotyping 18 Bene Israel individuals. Combining with 486 individuals from 41 other Jewish, Indian and Pakistani populations, and additional individuals from worldwide populations, we conducted comprehensive genome-wide analyses based on FST, principal component analysis, ADMIXTURE, identity-by-descent sharing, admixture linkage disequilibrium decay, haplotype sharing and allele sharing autocorrelation decay, as well as contrasted patterns between the X chromosome and the autosomes. The genetics of Bene Israel individuals resemble local Indian populations, while at the same time constituting a clearly separated and unique population in India. They are unique among Indian and Pakistani populations we analyzed in sharing considerable genetic ancestry with other Jewish populations. Putting together the results from all analyses point to Bene Israel being an admixed population with both Jewish and Indian ancestry, with the genetic contribution of each of these ancestral populations being substantial. The admixture took place in the last millennium, about 19–33 generations ago. It involved Middle-Eastern Jews and was sex-biased, with more male Jewish and local female contribution. It was followed by a population bottleneck and high endogamy, which can lead to increased prevalence of recessive diseases in this population. This study provides an example of how genetic analysis advances our knowledge of human history in cases where other disciplines lack the relevant data to do so. PMID:27010569

  10. Human cranial vault thickness in a contemporary sample of 1097 autopsy cases: relation to body weight, stature, age, sex and ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boer, H H Hans; Van der Merwe, A E Lida; Soerdjbalie-Maikoe, V Vidija

    2016-09-01

    The relation between human cranial vault thickness (CVT) and various elements of the physical anthropological biological profile is subject of ongoing discussion. Some results seem to indicate no correlation between CVT and the biological profile of the individual, whereas other results suggest that CVT measurements might be useful for identification purposes. This study assesses the correlation between CVT and body weight, stature, age, sex, and ancestry by reviewing data of 1097 forensic autopsies performed at the Netherlands Forensic Institute (NFI). In subadults (younger than 19 years of age at the time of death), all frontal, temporal, and occipital CVT measurements correlated moderately to strongly with indicators of growth (body weight, stature, and age). Neither sex nor ancestry correlated significantly with cranial thickness. In adults, body weight correlated with all CVT measurements. No meaningful correlation was found between CVT and stature or age. Females showed to have thicker frontal bones, and the occipital region was thicker in the Negroid subsample. All correlation in the adult group was weak, with the distribution of cranial thickness overlapping for a great deal between the groups. Based on these results, it was concluded that CVT generally cannot be used as an indicator for any part of the biological profile. PMID:26914798

  11. Arbitrary Truncated Levy Flight: Asymmetrical Truncation and High-Order Correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Vinogradov, Dmitry V

    2012-01-01

    The generalized correlation approach, which has been successfully used in statistical radio physics to describe non-Gaussian random processes, is proposed to describe stochastic financial processes. The generalized correlation approach has been used to describe a non-Gaussian random walk with independent, identically distributed increments in the general case, and high-order correlations have been investigated. The cumulants of an asymmetrically truncated Levy distribution have been found. The behaviors of asymmetrically truncated Levy flight, as a particular case of a random walk, are considered. It is shown that, in the Levy regime, high-order correlations between values of asymmetrically truncated Levy flight exist. The source of high-order correlations is the non-Gaussianity of the increments: the increment skewness generates threefold correlation, and the increment kurtosis generates fourfold correlation.

  12. Impact of ancestry and body size on sonographic ulnar nerve dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that geographic ancestry and body size have on ultrasonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve size measured at the elbow. Materials and methods: We performed anthropometric measurements of body size and ultrasonographic measurements of the ulnar nerve at the elbow on 13 Vietnamese and 24 European participants. Regression analysis was used to determine the effect of body size and geographic ancestry on ulnar nerve size. Results: BMI had the greatest impact on ulnar nerve size. The short axis diameter was least resilient, and the long axis diameter was the most resilient to the effects of body size and geographic ancestry. Discussion: The long axis diameter has an apparent immunity to the influences of overall body size, arm size, or geographic ancestry and has the most potential as a sensitive discriminator between normal nerves and nerves affected by ulnar neuropathy at the elbow.

  13. Quasiparticles of strongly correlated Fermi liquids at high temperatures and in high magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strongly correlated Fermi systems are among the most intriguing, best experimentally studied and fundamental systems in physics. There is, however, lack of theoretical understanding in this field of physics. The ideas based on the concepts like Kondo lattice and involving quantum and thermal fluctuations at a quantum critical point have been used to explain the unusual physics. Alas, being suggested to describe one property, these approaches fail to explain the others. This means a real crisis in theory suggesting that there is a hidden fundamental law of nature. It turns out that the hidden fundamental law is well forgotten old one directly related to the Landau-Migdal quasiparticles, while the basic properties and the scaling behavior of the strongly correlated systems can be described within the framework of the fermion condensation quantum phase transition (FCQPT). The phase transition comprises the extended quasiparticle paradigm that allows us to explain the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in these systems. In contrast to the Landau paradigm stating that the quasiparticle effective mass is a constant, the effective mass of new quasiparticles strongly depends on temperature, magnetic field, pressure, and other parameters. Our observations are in good agreement with experimental facts and show that FCQPT is responsible for the observed NFL behavior and quasiparticles survive both high temperatures and high magnetic fields.

  14. Genetic Ancestry-Smoking Interactions and Lung Function in African Americans: A Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Aldrich, Melinda C.; Kumar, Rajesh; Colangelo, Laura A.; Williams, L. Keoki; Sen, Saunak; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Meibohm, Bernd; Galanter, Joshua; Hu, Donglei; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Liu, Yongmei; Harris, Tamara B.; Ziv, Elad; Zmuda, Joseph; Garcia, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Background Smoking tobacco reduces lung function. African Americans have both lower lung function and decreased metabolism of tobacco smoke compared to European Americans. African ancestry is also associated with lower pulmonary function in African Americans. We aimed to determine whether African ancestry modifies the association between smoking and lung function and its rate of decline in African Americans. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated a prospective ongoing cohort of 1,281 Afr...

  15. Fast individual ancestry inference from DNA sequence data leveraging allele frequencies for multiple populations

    OpenAIRE

    Bansal, Vikas; Libiger, Ondrej

    2015-01-01

    Background Estimation of individual ancestry from genetic data is useful for the analysis of disease association studies, understanding human population history and interpreting personal genomic variation. New, computationally efficient methods are needed for ancestry inference that can effectively utilize existing information about allele frequencies associated with different human populations and can work directly with DNA sequence reads. Results We describe a fast method for estimating the...

  16. A panel of 74 AISNPs: Improved ancestry inference within Eastern Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cai-Xia; Pakstis, Andrew J; Jiang, Li; Wei, Yi-Liang; Sun, Qi-Fan; Wu, Hong; Bulbul, Ozlem; Wang, Ping; Kang, Long-Li; Kidd, Judith R; Kidd, Kenneth K

    2016-07-01

    Many ancestry informative SNP (AISNP) panels have been published. Ancestry resolution in them varies from three to eight continental clusters of populations depending on the panel used. However, none of these panels differentiates well among East Asian populations. To meet this need, we have developed a 74 AISNP panel after analyzing a much larger number of SNPs for Fst and allele frequency differences between two geographically close population groups within East Asia. The 74 AISNP panel can now distinguish at least 10 biogeographic groups of populations globally: Sub-Saharan Africa, North Africa, Europe, Southwest Asia, South Asia, North Asia, East Asia, Southeast Asia, Pacific and Americas. Compared with our previous 55-AISNP panel, Southeast Asia and North Asia are two newly assignable clusters. For individual ancestry assignment, the likelihood ratio and ancestry components were analyzed on a different set of 500 test individuals from 11 populations. All individuals from five of the test populations - Yoruba (YRI), European (CEU), Han Chinese in Henan (CHNH), Rondonian Surui (SUR) and Ticuna (TIC) - were assigned to their appropriate geographical regions unambiguously. For the other test populations, most of the individuals were assigned to their self-identified geographical regions with a certain degree of overlap with adjacent populations. These alternative ancestry components for each individual thus help give a clearer picture of the possible group origins of the individual. We have demonstrated that the new AISNP panel can achieve a deeper resolution of global ancestry. PMID:27077960

  17. Regional differences in awareness and attitudes regarding genetic testing for disease risk and ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonassaint, Charles R; Santos, Eunice R; Glover, Crystal M; Payne, Perry W; Fasaye, Grace-Ann; Oji-Njideka, Nefertiti; Hooker, Stanley; Hernandez, Wenndy; Foster, Morris W; Kittles, Rick A; Royal, Charmaine D

    2010-09-01

    Little is known about the lay public's awareness and attitudes concerning genetic testing and what factors influence their perspectives. The existing literature focuses mainly on ethnic and socioeconomic differences; however, here we focus on how awareness and attitudes regarding genetic testing differ by geographical regions in the US. We compared awareness and attitudes concerning genetic testing for disease risk and ancestry among 452 adults (41% Black and 67% female) in four major US cities, Norman, OK; Cincinnati, OH; Harlem, NY; and Washington, DC; prior to their participation in genetic ancestry testing. The OK participants reported more detail about their personal ancestries (p = 0.02) and valued ancestry testing over disease testing more than all other sites (p < 0.01). The NY participants were more likely than other sites to seek genetic testing for disease (p = 0.01) and to see benefit in finding out more about one's ancestry (p = 0.02), while the DC participants reported reading and hearing more about genetic testing for African ancestry than all other sites (p < 0.01). These site differences were not better accounted for by sex, age, education, self-reported ethnicity, religion, or previous experience with genetic testing/counseling. Regional differences in awareness and attitudes transcend traditional demographic predictors, such as ethnicity, age and education. Local sociocultural factors, more than ethnicity and socioeconomic status, may influence the public's awareness and belief systems, particularly with respect to genetics. PMID:20549517

  18. Paraoxonase1 Genetic Polymorphisms in a Mixed Ancestry African Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Macharia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 activity is markedly influenced by coding polymorphisms, Q/R at position 192 and M/L at position 55 of the PON1 gene. We investigated the frequencies of these polymorphisms and their effects on PON1 and antioxidant activities in 844 South African mixed ancestry individuals. Genotyping was done using allele-specific TaqMan technology, PON1 activities were measured using paraoxon and phenylacetate, oxidative status was determined by measuring the antioxidant activities of ferric reducing antioxidant power and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation markers included malondialdehyde and oxidized LDL. The frequencies of Q192R and L55M were 47.6% and 28.8%, respectively, and the most common corresponding alleles were 192R (60.4% and 55M (82.6%. The Q192 was significantly associated with 5.8 units’ increase in PON1 concentration and 15.4 units’ decrease in PONase activity after adjustment for age, sex, BMI, and diabetes, with suggestion of differential effects by diabetes status. The PON1 L55 variant was associated with none of the measured indices. In conclusion, we have shown that the Q192R polymorphism is a determinant of both PON1 concentration and activity and this association appeared to be enhanced in subjects with diabetes.

  19. Genetic ancestry of the extinct Javan and Bali tigers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Hao-Ran; Yamaguchi, Nobuyuki; Driscoll, Carlos A; Han, Yu; Bar-Gal, Gila Kahila; Zhuang, Yan; Mazak, Ji H; Macdonald, David W; O'Brien, Stephen J; Luo, Shu-Jin

    2015-01-01

    The Bali (Panthera tigris balica) and Javan (P. t. sondaica) tigers are recognized as distinct tiger subspecies that went extinct in the 1940s and 1980s, respectively. Yet their genetic ancestry and taxonomic status remain controversial. Following ancient DNA procedures, we generated concatenated 1750bp mtDNA sequences from 23 museum samples including 11 voucher specimens from Java and Bali and compared these to diagnostic mtDNA sequences from 122 specimens of living tiger subspecies and the extinct Caspian tiger. The results revealed a close genetic affinity of the 3 groups from the Sunda Islands (Bali, Javan, and Sumatran tigers P. t. sumatrae). Bali and Javan mtDNA haplotypes differ from Sumatran haplotypes by 1-2 nucleotides, and the 3 island populations define a monophyletic assemblage distinctive and equidistant from other mainland subspecies. Despite this close phylogenetic relationship, no mtDNA haplotype was shared between Sumatran and Javan/Bali tigers, indicating little or no matrilineal gene flow among the islands after they were colonized. The close phylogenetic relationship among Sunda tiger subspecies suggests either recent colonization across the islands, or else a once continuous tiger population that had subsequently isolated into different island subspecies. This supports the hypothesis that the Sumatran tiger is the closest living relative to the extinct Javan and Bali tigers. PMID:25754539

  20. Pulmonary lymphomas: high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathological correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the high-resolution computed tomography and anatomopathological findings of pulmonary lymphomas. We studied the chest high-resolution computed tomographs and histopathological data of 10 patients with biopsy-proven non-Hodgkin's or Hodgkin's disease. The most common radiologic findings in this series were areas of consolidation with air-bronchogram (n = 8). Others findings included multiple pulmonary nodules (n = 4), thickening of bronchovascular bundles (n =3) and foci of ground-glass attenuation (n =2). The present series results are consistent with the current available literature on radiographic appearance of the disease. The pathological correspondence of the areas of air space consolidation was alveolar filling by neoplastic cells, the thickening of bronchovascular bundles was secondary to lymphomatous cells infiltrates, and the areas of ground-glass attenuation corresponded to alveolar septal infiltration by these cells. (author)

  1. Financial correlations at ultra-high frequency: theoretical models and empirical estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Iacopo Mastromatteo; Matteo Marsili; Patrick Zoi

    2010-01-01

    A detailed analysis of correlation between stock returns at high frequency is compared with simple models of random walks. We focus in particular on the dependence of correlations on time scales - the so-called Epps effect. This provides a characterization of stochastic models of stock price returns which is appropriate at very high frequency.

  2. High-resolution x-ray scattering studies of charge ordering in highly correlated electron systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ghazi, M E

    2002-01-01

    addition, another very weak satellites with wavevector (1/2, 1, 1/2) were observed possibly due to spin ordering. two-dimensional in nature both by measurements of their correlation lengths and by measurement of the critical exponents of the charge stripe melting transition with an anomaly at x = 0.25. The results show by decreasing the hole concentration from the x = 0.33 to 0.2, the well-correlated charge stripes change to a glassy state at x = 0.25. The electronic transition into the charge stripe phase is second-order without any corresponding structural transition. Above the second-order transition critical scattering was observed due to fluctuations into the charge stripe phase. In a single-crystal of Nd sub 1 sub / sub 2 Sr sub 1 sub / sub 2 MnO sub 3 a series of phase transitions were observed using high-resolution synchrotron X-ray scattering. Above the charge ordering transition temperature, T sub C sub O , by measuring the peak profiles of Bragg reflections as a function of temperature, it was foun...

  3. GHz measurements of correlated electron systems in high magnetic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Edwards, R S

    2002-01-01

    This Thesis presents experiments performed on the high-frequency conductivity of materials in high magnetic fields. The angle dependence of resonances measured in the millimetre-wave absorption is studied using a rotating resonant cavity system, and the frequency dependence is measured using transmission techniques and a tuneable resonant cavity. Chapter 1 introduces the materials. These include the crystalline organic metals, the layered superconductor Sr sub 2 RUO sub 4 and the quantum Ising ferromagnet LiHoF sub 4. In Chapters 2 and 3, the necessary physics and experimental techniques for their investigation are outlined. Chapters 4 to 6 present measurements of cyclotron resonance in layered materials. Chapter 4 describes several models for the origin of cyclotron resonance harmonics, and describes the first definite measurement of the harmonics of a cyclotron resonance in an organic molecular metal, namely beta sup - (BEDT-TTF) sub 2 SF sub 5 CH sub 2 CF sub 2 SO sub 3. The angle dependence of the field p...

  4. Individual differences and correlates of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patihis, Lawrence

    2016-08-01

    Highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) is a recently identified ability that has been difficult to explain with existing memory science. The present study measured HSAM participants' and age/gender-matched controls' on a number of behavioural measures to test three main hypotheses: imaginative absorption, emotional arousal, and sleep. HSAM participants were significantly higher than controls on the dispositions absorption and fantasy proneness. These two dispositions also were associated with a measure of HSAM ability within the hyperthymesia participants. The emotional-arousal hypothesis yielded only weak support. The sleep hypothesis was not supported in terms of quantity, but sleep quality may be a small factor worthy of further research. Other individual differences are also documented using a predominantly exploratory analysis. Speculative pathways describing how the tendencies to absorb and fantasise could lead to enhanced autobiographical memory are discussed. PMID:26314991

  5. Circumpulsar Asteroids: Inferences from Nulling Statistics and High Energy Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Ryan; Cordes, J. M.

    2006-12-01

    We have proposed that some classes of radio pulsar variability are associated with the entry of neutral asteroidal material into the pulsar magnetosphere. The region surrounding neutron stars is polluted with supernova fall-back material, which collapses and condenses into an asteroid-bearing disk that is stable for millions of years. Over time, collisional and radiative processes cause the asteroids to migrate inward until they are heated to the point of ionization. For older and cooler pulsars, asteroids ionize within the large magnetospheres and inject a sufficient amount of charged particles to alter the electrodynamics of the gap regions and modulate emission processes. This extrinsic model unifies many observed phenomena of variability that occur on time scales that are disparate with the much shorter time scales associated with pulsars and their magnetospheres. One such type of variability is nulling, in which certain pulsars exhibit episodes of quiescence that for some objects may be as short as a few pulse periods, but, for others, is longer than days. Here, in the context of this model, we examine the nulling phenomenon. We analyze the relationship between in-falling material and the statistics of nulling. In addition, as motivation for further high energy observations, we consider the relationship between the nulling and other magnetospheric processes.

  6. Afro-derived Amazonian populations: inferring continental ancestry and population substructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Maciel, Luana Gomes; Ribeiro Rodrigues, Elzemar Martins; Carneiro Dos Santos, Ney Pereira; Ribeiro Dos Santos, Ândrea; Guerreiro, João Farias; Santos, Sidney

    2011-10-01

    A panel of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) was used to identify population substructure and estimate individual and overall interethnic admixture in 294 individuals from seven African-derived communities of the Brazilian Amazon. A panel of 48 biallelic markers, representing the insertion (IN) or the deletion (DEL) of small DNA fragments, was employed for this purpose. Overall interethnic admixture estimates showed high miscegenation with other ethnic groups in all populations (between 46% and 64%). The proportion of ancestral genes varied significantly among individuals of the sample: the contribution of African genes varied between 12% and 75%; of European genes between 10% and 73%; and of Amerindians genes between 8% and 66%. The obtained data reveal a high contribution of Amerindian genes in these communities, unlike in other African-derived communities of the Northeast and the South of Brazil. In addition, the majority of the Amerindian contribution may result from the preferential inclusion of indigenous women in the African descent groups. High heterogeneity of the proportion of interethnic admixture among analyzed individuals was found when the proportion of ancestral genes of each individual of the sample was estimated. This heterogeneity is reflected in the fact that four populations can be considered as substructured and that the global African descent sample is possibly formed by two subpopulations. PMID:22146065

  7. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julian R Homburger

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago, with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform

  8. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R.; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D.; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2015-01-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9–14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  9. Genomic Insights into the Ancestry and Demographic History of South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homburger, Julian R; Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gignoux, Christopher R; Nelson, Dominic; Sanchez, Elena; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A; Acevedo-Vasquez, Eduardo; Miranda, Pedro; Langefeld, Carl D; Gravel, Simon; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2015-12-01

    South America has a complex demographic history shaped by multiple migration and admixture events in pre- and post-colonial times. Settled over 14,000 years ago by Native Americans, South America has experienced migrations of European and African individuals, similar to other regions in the Americas. However, the timing and magnitude of these events resulted in markedly different patterns of admixture throughout Latin America. We use genome-wide SNP data for 437 admixed individuals from 5 countries (Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Chile, and Argentina) to explore the population structure and demographic history of South American Latinos. We combined these data with population reference panels from Africa, Asia, Europe and the Americas to perform global ancestry analysis and infer the subcontinental origin of the European and Native American ancestry components of the admixed individuals. By applying ancestry-specific PCA analyses we find that most of the European ancestry in South American Latinos is from the Iberian Peninsula; however, many individuals trace their ancestry back to Italy, especially within Argentina. We find a strong gradient in the Native American ancestry component of South American Latinos associated with country of origin and the geography of local indigenous populations. For example, Native American genomic segments in Peruvians show greater affinities with Andean indigenous peoples like Quechua and Aymara, whereas Native American haplotypes from Colombians tend to cluster with Amazonian and coastal tribes from northern South America. Using ancestry tract length analysis we modeled post-colonial South American migration history as the youngest in Latin America during European colonization (9-14 generations ago), with an additional strong pulse of European migration occurring between 3 and 9 generations ago. These genetic footprints can impact our understanding of population-level differences in biomedical traits and, thus, inform future medical

  10. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers ☆

    OpenAIRE

    Schellenberger, Pascale; Kaufmann, Rainer; Siebert, C. Alistair; Hagen, Christoph; Wodrich, Harald; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanome...

  11. Admixture mapping of end stage kidney disease genetic susceptibility using estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geiger Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of a genetic contribution to the higher prevalence and incidence of end stage kidney disease (ESKD among African Americans (AA remained unresolved, until recent findings using admixture mapping pointed to the association of a genomic locus on chromosome 22 with this disease phenotype. In the current study we utilize this example to demonstrate the utility of applying a multi-step admixture mapping approach. Methods A multi-step case only admixture mapping study, consisted of the following steps was designed: 1 Assembly of the sample dataset (ESKD AA; 2 Design of the estimated mutual information ancestry informative markers (n = 2016 screening panel 3; Genotyping the sample set whose size was determined by a power analysis (n = 576 appropriate for the initial screening panel; 4 Inference of local ancestry for each individual and identification of regions with increased AA ancestry using two different ancestry inference statistical approaches; 5 Enrichment of the initial screening panel; 6 Power analysis of the enriched panel 7 Genotyping of additional samples. 8 Re-analysis of the genotyping results to identify a genetic risk locus. Results The initial screening phase yielded a significant peak using the ADMIXMAP ancestry inference program applying case only statistics. Subgroup analysis of 299 ESKD patients with no history of diabetes yielded peaks using both the ANCESTRYMAP and ADMIXMAP ancestry inference programs. The significant peak was found on chromosome 22. Genotyping of additional ancestry informative markers on chromosome 22 that took into account linkage disequilibrium in the ancestral populations, and the addition of samples increased the statistical significance of the finding. Conclusions A multi-step admixture mapping analysis of AA ESKD patients replicated the finding of a candidate risk locus on chromosome 22, contributing to the heightened susceptibility of African Americans to develop non

  12. Genetic ancestry analysis in non-alcoholic fatty liver diseasepatients from Brazil and Portuga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    AIM To study the association between genetic ancestry,non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) metaboliccharacteristics in two cohorts of patients, from Brazil andPortugal.METHODS: We included 131 subjects from Brazil [(n =45 with simple steatosis (S. Steatosis) and n = 86 withnonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)] and 90 patientsfrom Portugal (n = 66, S. Steatosis; n = 24, NASH).All patients had biopsy-proven NAFLD. In histologicevaluation NAFLD activity score was used to assesshistology and more than 5 points defined NASH in thisstudy. Patients were divided into two groups accordingto histology diagnosis: simple steatosis or non-alcoholicstatohepatitis. Genetic ancestry was assessed usingreal-time polymerase chain reaction. Seven ancestryinformative markers (AT3-I/D, LPL, Sb19.3, APO, FYNull,PV92, and CKMM) with the greatest ethnicgeographicaldifferential frequencies (≥ 48%) wereused to define genetic ancestry. Data were analyzedusing R PROJECTS software. Ancestry allele frequenciesbetween groups were analyzed by GENEPOP online and the estimation of genetic ancestry contribution wasevaluated by ADMIX-95 software. The 5% alpha-errorwas considered as significant (P 〈 0.05).RESULTS: In the Brazilian sample, NASH was significantlymore frequent among the elderly patients withdiabetes (NASH 56 ± 1.1 years old vs S. Steatosis 51± 1.5 years old, P = 3.7 x 10-9), dyslipidemia (NASH63% vs S. Steatosis 37%, P = 0.009), higher fastingglucose levels (NASH 124 ± 5.2 vs S. Steatosis 106 ±5.3, P = 0.001) and Homeostatic Model of Assessmentindex 〉 2.5 [NASH 5.3 (70.8%) vs S. Steatosis 4.6(29.2%) P = 0.04]. In the Portuguese study population,dyslipidemia was present in all patients with NASH(P = 0.03) and hypertension was present in a largerpercentage of subjects in the S. Steatosis group (P =0.003, respectively). The genetic ancestry contributionamong Brazilian and Portuguese individuals with NASHwas similar

  13. Quantification of Maxillary Dental Arcade Curvature and the Estimation of Biological Ancestry in Forensic Anthropology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Melissa A; Guatelli-Steinberg, Debbie; Hubbe, Mark; Stout, Sam

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that palate shape is a useful indicator of biological ancestry in human remains. This study evaluates interobserver error in ancestry estimation using palate shape and explores palate shape variation in Gullah (descendants of West Africans) and Seminole (Indigenous American) population samples using geometric morphometric analysis. Ten participants were asked to ascribe biological ancestry and shape to 28 dental casts based on a classification scheme employed in previous studies. The mean correct classification was 42.0%, indicating that the likelihood of assigning the correct ancestry is very poor and not significantly different from random assignment (p = 0.12). The accuracy analysis based on categorical classification of the casts was complemented by geometric morphometric analysis of nine 3D landmarks reflecting palate shape of 158 casts. Principal component analysis results show no difference between populations regarding palate shape, and cross-validated discriminant function analysis correctly classified only 62.0% of the specimens. Combined, these results show that previous methods to estimate ancestry are inaccurate and that this inaccuracy is probably due to a lack of palate shape differences between groups, rather than limitation of the analytical method per se. Therefore, we recommend caution should be used when choosing to apply the analysis of palate shape in forensically relevant contexts. PMID:26259114

  14. Search for Cross-Correlations of Ultra--High-Energy Cosmic Rays with BL Lacertae Objects

    CERN Document Server

    Abbasi, R U; Amman, J F; Archbold, G; Atkins, R; Bellido, J A; Belov, K; Belz, J W; Ben-Zvi, S Y; Bergman, D R; Burt, G W; Cao, Z; Clay, R W; Connolly, B C; Deng, W; Dawson, B R; Fedorova, Y; Findlay, J; Finley, C B; Hanlon, W F; Hoffman, C M; Hughes, G A; Holzscheiter, M H; Hüntemeyer, P; Jui, C C H; Kim, K; Kirn, M A; Loh, E C; Maestas, M M; Manago, N; Marek, L J; Martens, K; Matthews, J A J; Matthews, J N; O'Neill, A; Painter, C A; Perera, L P; Reil, K; Riehle, R; Roberts, M; Sasaki, M; Schnetzer, S R; Simpson, K M; Sinnis, G; Smith, J D; Snow, R; Sokolsky, P; Song, C; Springer, R W; Stokes, B T; Thomas, J R; Thomas, S B; Thomson, G B; Tupa, D; Westerhoff, S; Wiencke, L R; Zech, A

    2005-01-01

    Data taken in stereo mode by the High Resolution Fly's Eye (HiRes) air fluorescence experiment are analyzed to search for correlations between the arrival directions of ultra--high-energy cosmic rays with the positions of BL Lacertae objects. Several previous claims of significant correlations between BL Lacs and cosmic rays observed by other experiments are tested. These claims are not supported by the HiRes data. However, we verify a recent analysis of correlations between HiRes events and a subset of confirmed BL Lacs from the 10th Veron Catalog, and we study this correlation in detail. Due to the a posteriori nature of the search, the significance level cannot be reliably estimated and the correlation must be tested independently before any claim can be made. We identify the precise hypotheses that will be tested with statistically independent data.

  15. High ERK Protein Expression Levels Correlate with Shorter Survival in Triple-Negative Breast Cancer Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Bartholomeusz, Chandra; Gonzalez-Angulo, Ana M.; Liu, Ping; Hayashi, Naoki; Lluch, Ana; Ferrer-Lozano, Jaime; Hortobágyi, Gabriel N.

    2012-01-01

    The clinical significance of extracellular signal–related kinase (ERK) was assessed in patients with triple-negative breast cancer versus patients with non–triple negative breast cancer. High ERK-2 levels were correlated with a lower overall survival rate and high phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase levels were correlated with a higher relapse-free survival rate in triple-negative breast cancer patients.

  16. New Perspectives on the Correlation of SAT Scores, High School Grades, and Socioeconomic Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, Rebecca; Greif Green, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    In studies of the SAT, correlations of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors (SES) are usually obtained using a university as the unit of analysis. This approach obscures an important structural aspect of the data: The high school grades received by a given institution come from a large number of high schools, all of which have…

  17. Color, race, and genomic ancestry in Brazil: dialogues between anthropology and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Ricardo Ventura; Fry, Peter H; Monteiro, Simone; Maio, Marcos Chor; Rodrigues, José Carlos; Bastos-Rodrigues, Luciana; Pena, Sérgio D J

    2009-12-01

    In the contemporary world, "race" narratives are so multifaceted that at times, different views of the concept appear mutually incompatible. In recent decades biologists, especially geneticists, have repeatedly stated that the notion of race does not apply to the human species. On the other hand, social scientists claim that race is highly significant in cultural, historical, and socioeconomic terms because it molds everyday social relations and because it is a powerful motivator for social and political movements based on race differences. In this paper we present the results of an interdisciplinary research project incorporating approaches from genetics and anthropology. Our objective is to explore the interface between information about biology/genetics and perceptions about color/ race in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. We argue that the data and interpretation of our research resonate far beyond the local level, stimulating discussion about methodological, theoretical, and political issues of wider national and international relevance. Topics addressed include the complex terminology of color/race classification in Brazil, perceptions about ancestry in the context of ideologies of Brazilian national identity, and the relationship between genetic information about the Brazilian population and a sociopolitical agenda that turns on questions of race and racism. PMID:20614657

  18. Genomic microsatellites identify shared Jewish ancestry intermediate between Middle Eastern and European populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillel Jossi

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic studies have often produced conflicting results on the question of whether distant Jewish populations in different geographic locations share greater genetic similarity to each other or instead, to nearby non-Jewish populations. We perform a genome-wide population-genetic study of Jewish populations, analyzing 678 autosomal microsatellite loci in 78 individuals from four Jewish groups together with similar data on 321 individuals from 12 non-Jewish Middle Eastern and European populations. Results We find that the Jewish populations show a high level of genetic similarity to each other, clustering together in several types of analysis of population structure. Further, Bayesian clustering, neighbor-joining trees, and multidimensional scaling place the Jewish populations as intermediate between the non-Jewish Middle Eastern and European populations. Conclusion These results support the view that the Jewish populations largely share a common Middle Eastern ancestry and that over their history they have undergone varying degrees of admixture with non-Jewish populations of European descent.

  19. A SNP test to identify Africanized honeybees via proportion of 'African' ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Nadine C; Harpur, Brock A; Lim, Julianne; Rinderer, Thomas E; Allsopp, Michael H; Zayed, Amro; Oldroyd, Benjamin P

    2015-11-01

    The honeybee, Apis mellifera, is the world's most important pollinator and is ubiquitous in most agricultural ecosystems. Four major evolutionary lineages and at least 24 subspecies are recognized. Commercial populations are mainly derived from subspecies originating in Europe (75-95%). The Africanized honeybee is a New World hybrid of A. m. scutellata from Africa and European subspecies, with the African component making up 50-90% of the genome. Africanized honeybees are considered undesirable for bee-keeping in most countries, due to their extreme defensiveness and poor honey production. The international trade in honeybees is restricted, due in part to bans on the importation of queens (and semen) from countries where Africanized honeybees are extant. Some desirable strains from the United States of America that have been bred for traits such as resistance to the mite Varroa destructor are unfortunately excluded from export to countries such as Australia due to the presence of Africanized honeybees in the USA. This study shows that a panel of 95 single nucleotide polymorphisms, chosen to differentiate between the African, Eastern European and Western European lineages, can detect Africanized honeybees with a high degree of confidence via ancestry assignment. Our panel therefore offers a valuable tool to mitigate the risks of spreading Africanized honeybees across the globe and may enable the resumption of queen and bee semen imports from the Americas. PMID:25846634

  20. Ancestry Estimation in Forensic Anthropology: Geometric Morphometric versus Standard and Nonstandard Interlandmark Distances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katherine Spradley, M; Jantz, Richard L

    2016-07-01

    Standard cranial measurements are commonly used for ancestry estimation; however, 3D digitizers have made cranial landmark data collection and geometric morphometric (GM) analyses more popular within forensic anthropology. Yet there has been little focus on which data type works best. The goal of the present research is to test the discrimination ability of standard and nonstandard craniometric measurements and data derived from GM analysis. A total of 31 cranial landmarks were used to generate 465 interlandmark distances, including a subset of 20 commonly used measurements, and to generate principal component scores from procrustes coordinates. All were subjected to discriminant function analysis to ascertain which type of data performed best for ancestry estimation of American Black and White and Hispanic males and females. The nonstandard interlandmark distances generated the highest classification rates for females (90.5%) and males (88.2%). Using nonstandard interlandmark distances over more commonly used measurements leads to better ancestry estimates for our current population structure. PMID:27364267

  1. An assessment of the portability of ancestry informative markers between human populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoneking Mark

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent work has shown that population stratification can have confounding effects on genetic association studies and statistical methods have been developed to correct for these effects. Subsets of markers that are highly-differentiated between populations, ancestry-informative markers (AIMs, have been used to correct for population stratification. Often AIMs are discovered in one set of populations and then employed in a different set of populations. The underlying assumption in these cases is that the population under study has the same substructure as the population in which the AIMs were discovered. The present study assesses this assumption and evaluates the portability between worldwide populations of 10 SNPs found to be highly-differentiated within Britain (BritAIMs. Methods We genotyped 10 BritAIMs in ~1000 individuals from 53 populations worldwide. We assessed the degree to which these 10 BritAIMs capture population stratification in other groups of populations by use of the Fst statistic. We used Fst values from 2750 random markers typed in the same set of individuals as an empirical distribution to which the Fst values of the 10 BritAIMs were compared. Results Allele frequency differences between continental groups for the BritAIMs are not unusually high. This is also the case for comparisons within continental groups distantly related to Britain. However, two BritAIMs show high Fst between European populations and two BritAIMs show high Fst between populations from the Middle East. Overall the median Fst across all BritAIMs is not unusually high compared to the empirical distribution. Conclusion We find that BritAIMs are generally not useful to distinguish between continental groups or within continental groups distantly related to Britain. Moreover, our analyses suggest that the portability of AIMs across geographical scales (e.g. between Europe and Britain can be limited and should therefore be taken into

  2. New multiphase choke correlations for a high flow rate Iranian oil field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Safar Beiranvand

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The multiphase flow through wellhead restrictions of an offshore oil field in Iran is investigated and two sets of new correlations are presented for high flow rate and water cut conditions. The both correlations are developed by using 748 actual data points, corresponding to critical flow conditions of gas-liquid mixtures through wellhead chokes. The first set of correlations is a modified Gilbert equation and predicts liquid flow rates as a function of flowing wellhead pressure, gas-liquid ratio and surface wellhead choke size. To minimize error in such condition, in the second correlation, free water, sediment and emulsion (BS & W is also considered as an effective parameter. The predicted oil flow rates by the new sets of correlations are in the excellent agreement with the measured ones. These results are found to be statistically superior to those predicted by other relevant published correlations. The both proposed correlations exhibit more accuracy (only 2.95% and 2.0% average error, respectively than the existent correlations. These results should encourage the production engineer which works at such condition to utilize the proposed correlations for future practical answers when a lack of available information, time, and calculation capabilities arises.

  3. The multiethnic ancestry of Bolivians as revealed by the analysis of Y-chromosome markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárdenas, Jorge Mario; Heinz, Tanja; Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Taboada-Echalar, Patricia; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    We have analyzed the specific male genetic component of 226 Bolivians recruited in five different regions ("departments"), La Paz, Cochabamba, Pando, Beni, and Santa Cruz. To evaluate the effect of geography on the distribution of genetic variability, the samples were also grouped into three main eco-geographical regions, namely, Andean, Sub-Andean, and Llanos. All the individuals were genotyped for 17 Y-STR and 32 Y-SNP markers. The average Y-chromosome Native American component in Bolivians is 28%, and it is mainly represented by haplogroup Q1a3a, while the average Y-chromosome European ancestry is 65%, and it is mainly represented by haplogroup R1b1-P25. The data indicate that there exists significant population sub-division in the country in terms of continental ancestry. Thus, the partition of ancestries in Llanos, Sub-Andean, and Andean regions is as follows (respectively): (i) Native American ancestry: 47%, 7%, and 19%, (ii) European ancestry: 46%, 86%, and 75%, and (iii) African ancestry: 7%, 7%, and 6%. The population sub-structure in the country is also well mirrored when inferred from an AMOVA analysis, indicating that among-population variance in the country reaches 9.74-11.15%. This suggests the convenience of using regional datasets for forensic applications in Bolivia, instead of using a global and single country database. By comparing the Y-chromosome patterns with those previously reported on the same individuals on autosomal SNPs and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), it becomes clear that Bolivians show a strong gender-bias. PMID:25450796

  4. No association between genetic ancestry and susceptibility to asthma or atopy in Canary Islanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pino-Yanes, María; Corrales, Almudena; Cumplido, José; González, Ruperto; Torres-Galván, María José; Fernández, Orlando Acosta; Sánchez-Machín, Inmaculada; Figueroa, Javier; Sánchez-Palacios, Anselmo; Villar, Jesús; Hernández, Mariano; Carrillo, Teresa; Flores, Carlos

    2012-09-01

    Asthma is a complex respiratory disease characterized by chronic inflammation of airways and frequently associated with atopic symptoms. The population from the Canary Islands, which has resulted from a recent admixture of North African and Iberian populations, shows the highest prevalence of asthma and atopic symptoms among the Spanish populations. Although environmental particularities would account for the majority of such disparity, genetic ancestry might play a role in increasing the susceptibility of asthma or atopy, as have been demonstrated in other recently African-admixed populations. Here, we aimed to explore whether genetic ancestry was associated with asthma or related traits in the Canary Islanders. For that, a total of 734 DNA samples from unrelated individuals of the GOA study, self-reporting at least two generations of ancestors from the Canary Islands (391 asthmatics and 343 controls), were successfully genotyped for 83 ancestry informative markers (AIMs), which allowed to precisely distinguishing between North African and Iberian ancestries. No association was found between genetic ancestry and asthma or related traits after adjusting by demographic variables differing among compared groups. Similarly, none of the individual AIMs was associated with asthma when results were considered in the context of the multiple comparisons performed (0.005 ≤ p value ≤ 0.042; 0.221 ≤ q value ≤ 0.443). Our results suggest that if genetic ancestry were involved in the susceptibility to asthma or related traits among Canary Islanders, its effects would be modest. Larger studies, examining more genetic variants, would be needed to explore such possibility. PMID:22710824

  5. Association of Circulating Renin and Aldosterone With Osteocalcin and Bone Mineral Density in African Ancestry Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuipers, Allison L; Kammerer, Candace M; Pratt, J Howard; Bunker, Clareann H; Wheeler, Victor W; Patrick, Alan L; Zmuda, Joseph M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension is associated with accelerated bone loss, and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system is a key regulator of blood pressure. Although components of this system are expressed in human bone cells, studies in humans are sparse. Thus, we studied the association of circulating renin and aldosterone with osteocalcin and bone mineral density. We recruited 373 African ancestry family members without regard to health status from 6 probands (mean family size: 62 and relative pairs: 1687). Participants underwent a clinical examination, dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry, and quantitative computed tomographic scans. Renin activity, aldosterone concentration, and osteocalcin were measured in fasting blood samples. Aldosterone/renin ratio was calculated as aldosterone concentration/renin activity. All models were analyzed using pedigree-based variance components methods. Full models included adjustment for age, sex, body composition, comorbidities, lifestyle factors, blood pressure, and antihypertensive medication. Higher renin activity was significantly associated with lower total osteocalcin and with higher trabecular bone mineral density (bothP<0.01). There were also significant genetic correlations between renin activity and whole-body bone mineral density. There were no associations with aldosterone concentration in any model and results for aldosterone/renin ratio were similar to those for renin activity. This is the first study to report a significant association between renin activity and a marker of bone turnover and bone mineral density in generally healthy individuals. Also, there is evidence for significant genetic pleiotropy and, thus, there may be a shared biological mechanism underlying both the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and bone metabolism that is independent of hypertension. PMID:26975710

  6. Estimates of Continental Ancestry Vary Widely among Individuals with the Same mtDNA Haplogroup

    OpenAIRE

    Emery, Leslie S.; Magnaye, Kevin M.; Bigham, Abigail W.; Akey, Joshua M.; Bamshad, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    The association between a geographical region and an mtDNA haplogroup(s) has provided the basis for using mtDNA haplogroups to infer an individual’s place of origin and genetic ancestry. Although it is well known that ancestry inferences using mtDNA haplogroups and those using genome-wide markers are frequently discrepant, little empirical information exists on the magnitude and scope of such discrepancies between multiple mtDNA haplogroups and worldwide populations. We compared genetic-ances...

  7. A genome-wide association study of breast cancer in women of African ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Fang; Chen, Gary K.; Stram, Daniel O.; Millikan, Robert C.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; John, Esther M; Bernstein, Leslie; Zheng, Wei; Palmer, Julie R.; Jennifer J Hu; Rebbeck, Tim R.; Ziegler, Regina G.; Nyante, Sarah; Bandera, Elisa V.; Sue A Ingles

    2012-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in diverse populations are needed to reveal variants that are more common and/or limited to defined populations. We conducted a GWAS of breast cancer in women of African ancestry, with genotyping of > 1,000,000 SNPs in 3,153 African American cases and 2,831 controls, and replication testing of the top 66 associations in an additional 3,607 breast cancer cases and 11,330 controls of African ancestry. Two of the 66 SNPs replicated (p < 0.05) in stage 2, wh...

  8. Cross-correlations in high-conductance states of a model cortical network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, John

    2010-01-01

    heterogeneity, population averages show systematic behavior. When the network is in a stationary state, the average correlations are generically small: correlation coefficients are of order 1/N, where N is the number of neurons in the network. However, when the input to the network varies strongly in time, much......(dansk abstrakt findes ikke) Neuronal firing correlations are studied using simulations of a simple network model for a cortical column in a high-conductance state with dynamically balanced excitation and inhibition.  Although correlations between individual pairs of neurons exhibit considerable...... larger values are found. In this situation, the network is out of balance, and the synaptic conductance is low, at times when the strongest firing occurs.  However, examination of the correlation functions of synaptic currents reveals that after these bursts, balance is restored within a few ms by a...

  9. A meta-analysis identifies new loci associated with body mass index in individuals of African ancestry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monda, Keri L.; Chen, Gary K.; Taylor, Kira C.; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Allison, Matthew A.; Bielak, Lawrence F.; Chen, Guanjie; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Rhie, Suhn K.; Li, Guo; Liu, Yongmei; Liu, Youfang; Lu, Yingchang; Nalls, Michael A.; Sun, Yan V.; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Ademola, Adeyinka; Amos, Christopher I.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bock, Cathryn H.; Britton, Angela; Broeckel, Ulrich; Cai, Quiyin; Caporaso, Neil E.; Carlson, Chris S.; Carpten, John; Casey, Graham; Chen, Wei-Min; Chen, Fang; Chen, Yii-Der I.; Chiang, Charleston W. K.; Coetzee, Gerhard A.; Demerath, Ellen; Deming-Halverson, Sandra L.; Driver, Ryan W.; Dubbert, Patricia; Feitosa, Mary F.; Feng, Ye; Freedman, Barry I.; Gillanders, Elizabeth M.; Gottesman, Omri; Guo, Xiuqing; Haritunians, Talin; Harris, Tamara; Harris, Curtis C.; Hennis, Anselm J. M.; Hernandez, Dena G.; McNeill, Lorna H.; Howard, Timothy D.; Howard, Barbara V.; Howard, Virginia J.; Johnson, Karen C.; Kang, Sun J.; Keating, Brendan J.; Kolb, Suzanne; Kuller, Lewis H.; Kutlar, Abdullah; Langefeld, Carl D.; Lettre, Guillaume; Lohman, Kurt; Lotay, Vaneet; Lyon, Helen; Manson, Joann E.; Maixner, William; Meng, Yan A.; Monroe, Kristine R.; Morhason-Bello, Imran; Murphy, Adam B.; Mychaleckyj, Josyf C.; Nadukuru, Rajiv; Nathanson, Katherine L.; Nayak, Uma; N'Diaye, Amidou; Nemesure, Barbara; Wu, Suh-Yuh; Leske, M. Cristina; Neslund-Dudas, Christine; Neuhouser, Marian; Nyante, Sarah; Ochs-Balcom, Heather; Ogunniyi, Adesola; Ogundiran, Temidayo O.; Ojengbede, Oladosu; Olopade, Olufunmilayo I.; Palmer, Julie R.; Ruiz-Narvaez, Edward A.; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Press, Michael F.; Rampersaud, Evandine; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Rodriguez-Gil, Jorge L.; Salako, Babatunde; Schadt, Eric E.; Schwartz, Ann G.; Shriner, Daniel A.; Siscovick, David; Smith, Shad B.; Wassertheil-Smoller, Sylvia; Speliotes, Elizabeth K.; Spitz, Margaret R.; Sucheston, Lara; Taylor, Herman; Tayo, Bamidele O.; Tucker, Margaret A.; Van Den Berg, David J.; Edwards, Digna R. Velez; Wang, Zhaoming; Wiencke, John K.; Winkler, Thomas W.; Witte, John S.; Wrensch, Margaret; Wu, Xifeng; Yang, James J.; Levin, Albert M.; Young, Taylor R.; Zakai, Neil A.; Cushman, Mary; Zanetti, Krista A.; Zhao, Jing Hua; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Yonglan; Zhou, Jie; Ziegler, Regina G.; Zmuda, Joseph M.; Fernandes, Jyotika K.; Gilkeson, Gary S.; Kamen, Diane L.; Hunt, Kelly J.; Spruill, Ida J.; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Ambs, Stefan; Arnett, Donna K.; Atwood, Larry; Becker, Diane M.; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bernstein, Leslie; Blot, William J.; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Bottinger, Erwin P.; Bowden, Donald W.; Burke, Gregory; Chanock, Stephen J.; Cooper, Richard S.; Ding, Jingzhong; Duggan, David; Evans, Michele K.; Fox, Caroline; Garvey, W. Timothy; Bradfield, Jonathan P.; Hakonarson, Hakon; Grant, Struan F. A.; Hsing, Ann; Chu, Lisa; Hu, Jennifer J.; Huo, Dezheng; Ingles, Sue A.; John, Esther M.; Jordan, Joanne M.; Kabagambe, Edmond K.; Kardia, Sharon L. R.; Kittles, Rick A.; Goodman, Phyllis J.; Klein, Eric A.; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Le Marchand, Loic; Liu, Simin; McKnight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert C.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Williams, L. Keoki; Patel, Sanjay R.; Peters, Ulrike; Pettaway, Curtis A.; Peyser, Patricia A.; Psaty, Bruce M.; Redline, Susan; Rotimi, Charles N.; Rybicki, Benjamin A.; Sale, Michele M.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Signorello, Lisa B.; Singleton, Andrew B.; Stanford, Janet L.; Strom, Sara S.; Thun, Michael J.; Vitolins, Mara; Zheng, Wei; Moore, Jason H.; Williams, Scott M.; Ketkar, Shamika; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Zonderman, Alan B.; Kooperberg, Charles; Papanicolaou, George J.; Henderson, Brian E.; Reiner, Alex P.; Hirschhorn, Joel N.; Loos, Ruth J. F.; North, Kari E.; Haiman, Christopher A.

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry and followed up t

  10. The effect of partonic wind on charm quark correlations in high-energy nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Zhu, X; Zhuang, P

    2007-01-01

    In high-energy collisions, massive heavy quarks are produced back-to-back initially and they are sensitive to early dynamical conditions. The strong collective partonic wind from the fast expanding quark-gluon plasma created in high-energy nuclear collisions modifies the correlation pattern significantly. As a result, the angular correlation function for D$\\bar{\\rm D}$ pairs is suppressed at the angle $\\Delta\\phi=\\pi$. While the hot and dense medium in collisions at RHIC ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=200$ GeV) can only smear the initial back-to-back D$\\bar {\\rm D}$ correlation, a clear and strong near side D$\\bar{\\rm D}$ correlation is expected at LHC ($\\sqrt{s_{NN}}=5500$ GeV).

  11. Econometric analysis of realized covariation: high frequency based covariance, regression, and correlation in financial economics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Shephard, N.

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyses multivariate high frequency financial data using realized covariation. We provide a new asymptotic distribution theory for standard methods such as regression, correlation analysis, and covariance. It will be based on a fixed interval of time (e.g., a day or week), allowing the...... number of high frequency returns during this period to go to infinity. Our analysis allows us to study how high frequency correlations, regressions, and covariances change through time. In particular we provide confidence intervals for each of these quantities....

  12. Matrix correlations for high-dimensional data: The modified RV-coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A.K.; Kiers, H.A.L.; Bijlsma, S.; Rubingh, C.M.; Erk, M.J. van

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Modern functional genomics generates high-dimensional datasets. It is often convenient to have a single simple number characterizing the relationship between pairs of such high-dimensional datasets in a comprehensive way. Matrix correlations are such numbers and are appealing since they

  13. Matrix correlations for high-dimensional data: the modified RV-coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.K. Smilde; H.A.L. Kiers; S. Bijlsma; C.M. Rubingh; M.J. van Erk

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Modern functional genomics generates high-dimensional datasets. It is often convenient to have a single simple number characterizing the relationship between pairs of such high-dimensional datasets in a comprehensive way. Matrix correlations are such numbers and are appealing since they

  14. Matrix correlations for high-dimensional data : The modified RV-coefficient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smilde, A. K.; Kiers, H. A. L.; Bijlsma, S.; Rubingh, C. M.; van Erk, M. J.

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: Modern functional genomics generates high-dimensional datasets. It is often convenient to have a single simple number characterizing the relationship between pairs of such high-dimensional datasets in a comprehensive way. Matrix correlations are such numbers and are appealing since they

  15. Puzzlingly High Correlations in fMRI Studies of Emotion, Personality, and Social Cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vul, Edward; Harris, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Pashler, Harold

    2009-01-01

    Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies of emotion, personality, and social cognition have drawn much attention in recent years, with high-profile studies frequently reporting extremely high (e.g., > 8) correlations between behavioral and self-report measures of personality or emotion and measures of brain activation. We show that…

  16. High Interleukin 17 Expression Is Correlated With Better Cardiac Function in Human Chagas Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Magalhães, Luisa M. D.; Villani, Fernanda N. A.; Nunes, Maria do Carmo P.; Gollob, Kenneth J.; Rocha, Manoel O. C.; Dutra, Walderez O.

    2012-01-01

    This study was designed to investigate whether the expression of interleukin 17 (IL-17) is associated with the indeterminate or cardiac clinical forms of Chagas disease and whether IL-17 expression can be correlated with patients' cardiac function. Our results demonstrated that cardiac Chagas patients have a lower intensity of expression of IL-17 by total lymphocytes and lower frequency of circulating T helper 17 cells. Correlative analysis showed that high IL-17 expression was associated wit...

  17. Correlating the Ancient Maya and Modern European Calendars with High-Precision AMS 14C Dating

    OpenAIRE

    Kennett, Douglas J.; Irka Hajdas; Culleton, Brendan J.; Soumaya Belmecheri; Simon Martin; Hector Neff; Jaime Awe; Graham, Heather V.; Freeman, Katherine H.; Lee Newsom; Lentz, David L.; Anselmetti, Flavio S; Mark Robinson; Norbert Marwan; John Southon

    2013-01-01

    The reasons for the development and collapse of Maya civilization remain controversial and historical events carved on stone monuments throughout this region provide a remarkable source of data about the rise and fall of these complex polities. Use of these records depends on correlating the Maya and European calendars so that they can be compared with climate and environmental datasets. Correlation constants can vary up to 1000 years and remain controversial. We report a series of high-resol...

  18. Counting the Founders: The Matrilineal Genetic Ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behar, Doron M.; Metspalu, Ene; Kivisild, Toomas; Rosset, Saharon; Tzur, Shay; Hadid, Yarin; Yudkovsky, Guennady; Rosengarten, Dror; Pereira, Luisa; Amorim, Antonio; Kutuev, Ildus; Gurwitz, David; Bonne-Tamir, Batsheva; Villems, Richard; Skorecki, Karl

    2008-01-01

    The history of the Jewish Diaspora dates back to the Assyrian and Babylonian conquests in the Levant, followed by complex demographic and migratory trajectories over the ensuing millennia which pose a serious challenge to unraveling population genetic patterns. Here we ask whether phylogenetic analysis, based on highly resolved mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenies can discern among maternal ancestries of the Diaspora. Accordingly, 1,142 samples from 14 different non-Ashkenazi Jewish communities were analyzed. A list of complete mtDNA sequences was established for all variants present at high frequency in the communities studied, along with high-resolution genotyping of all samples. Unlike the previously reported pattern observed among Ashkenazi Jews, the numerically major portion of the non-Ashkenazi Jews, currently estimated at 5 million people and comprised of the Moroccan, Iraqi, Iranian and Iberian Exile Jewish communities showed no evidence for a narrow founder effect, which did however characterize the smaller and more remote Belmonte, Indian and the two Caucasus communities. The Indian and Ethiopian Jewish sample sets suggested local female introgression, while mtDNAs in all other communities studied belong to a well-characterized West Eurasian pool of maternal lineages. Absence of sub-Saharan African mtDNA lineages among the North African Jewish communities suggests negligible or low level of admixture with females of the host populations among whom the African haplogroup (Hg) L0-L3 sub-clades variants are common. In contrast, the North African and Iberian Exile Jewish communities show influence of putative Iberian admixture as documented by mtDNA Hg HV0 variants. These findings highlight striking differences in the demographic history of the widespread Jewish Diaspora. PMID:18446216

  19. High-resolution heteronuclear correlation spectroscopy based on spatial encoding and coherence transfer in inhomogeneous fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kaiyu; Zhang, Zhiyong; Chen, Hao; Cai, Shuhui; Chen, Zhong

    2015-11-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy has been proven to be a powerful technique for chemical, biological, and medical studies. Heteronuclear single quantum correlation (HSQC) and heteronuclear multiple bond correlation (HMBC) are two frequently used 2D NMR methods. In combination with spatially encoded techniques, a heteronuclear 2D NMR spectrum can be acquired in several seconds and may be applied to monitoring chemical reactions. However, it is difficult to obtain high-resolution NMR spectra in inhomogeneous fields. Inspired by the idea of tracing the difference of precession frequencies between two different spins to yield high-resolution spectra, we propose a method with correlation acquisition option and J-resolved-like acquisition option to ultrafast obtain high-resolution HSQC/HMBC spectra and heteronuclear J-resolved-like spectra in inhomogeneous fields.

  20. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saba Amiri

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months. Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4–60 months who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2011. Sampling was carried out in several stages, and the Ages and Stage Questionnaire was completed by the participants. Data were analyzed with SPSS 18 software and independent t-test; Mann-Whitney and logistic-regression tests were used. Results: The average age of children in the low-risk pregnancy group was 22±16 months, and that in the high-risk pregnancy group was 18.9±14.8 months. The majority of children were female (53.1%. The prevalence of high-risk pregnancies was 80.5%, and the prevalence of developmental delay was 18.7%. Multiple pregnancies, low birth weight, habitual abortions, maternal medical disorders in pregnancy, and gestational diabetes had significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.04. In the logistic model, male gender, low birth weight, family marriage, and maternal medical disorders during pregnancy showed significant correlations with developmental delay in children (P<0.05. Additionally, abnormal body mass index (BMI and social and economic status showed probability values close to the significance level (P = 0.05, whereas other high-risk pregnancy variables had no correlation with developmental delay in children. A correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay (P = 0.002 and fine motor delay was observed (P = 0.02, but no correlation was observed between high-risk pregnancy and other developmental domains. Conclusion: This study showed that some high-risk pregnancy variables had a

  1. 75 FR 11940 - Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer; Information Collection; Ancestry and Ethnicity Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-12

    ... NATIONAL INTELLIGENCE Office of the Chief Human Capital Officer; Information Collection; Ancestry and... the Chief Human Capital Officer, ODNI, at Washington, DC 20511, or call 703-275-3369. Please cite... submitted on or before April 12, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Office of the Chief...

  2. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schellenberger, Pascale [Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Kaufmann, Rainer [Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, South Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3QU (United Kingdom); Siebert, C. Alistair; Hagen, Christoph [Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom); Wodrich, Harald [Microbiologie Fondamentale et Pathogénicité, MFP CNRS UMR 5234, University of Bordeaux SEGALEN, 146 rue Leo Seignat, 33076 Bordeaux (France); Grünewald, Kay, E-mail: kay@strubi.ox.ac.uk [Oxford Particle Imaging Centre, Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN (United Kingdom)

    2014-08-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. - Highlights: • Vitrified mammalian cell were imaged by fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy. • TetraSpeck fluorescence markers were added to correct shifts between cryo fluorescence channels. • FluoSpheres fiducials were used as reference points to assign new coordinates to cryoEM images. • Adenovirus particles were localised with an average correlation precision of 63 nm.

  3. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. - Highlights: • Vitrified mammalian cell were imaged by fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy. • TetraSpeck fluorescence markers were added to correct shifts between cryo fluorescence channels. • FluoSpheres fiducials were used as reference points to assign new coordinates to cryoEM images. • Adenovirus particles were localised with an average correlation precision of 63 nm

  4. Quantitative characterization of highly efficient correlated photon-pair source using biexciton resonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Yasuo; Oohata, Goro; Mizoguchi, Kohji

    2016-03-21

    A high efficiency method for the generation of correlated photon pairs accompanied by reliable means to characterize the efficiency of that process is needed in the study of entangled states, which have important potential applications in quantum information and quantum communication. In this study, we report the first characterization of the efficiency of generation of correlated photon pairs emitted from a CuCl single crystal using the biexciton-resonance hyper-parametric scattering (RHPS) method which is the highly efficient method of generation of correlated photon pairs. In order to characterize the generation efficiency and signal-to-noise ratio of correlated photon pairs using this method, we investigated the pump power dependence on the photon counting rate and coincidence counting rate under resonant excitation. The pump power dependence shows that the power characteristic of the photon counting rates changes from linear to quadratic dependence of the pump power. This behavior represents a superposition of contributions from correlated photon pairs and non-correlated photons. The analysis of the pump power dependence shows that one photon-pair is produced by a pump pulse with 2 x 106 photons. Moreover, the generation efficiency of this method obtained by calculating the number of generated photon pairs per pump power is comparable to that of several methods based on the χ(3) parametric process. PMID:27136797

  5. Pulmonary histiocytosis-X: high-resolution CT findings correlated with pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purposes of this study are to describe the high-resolution computed tomographic (HRCT) findings of pulmonary histiocytosis X and to evaluate the relationship between the extent of the lesion on HRCT and pulmonary function test (PFT). We retrospectively analyzed the HRCT findings of 8 patients with pathologically proved pulmonary histiocytosis X. The morphological pattern and incidence of the lesions were evaluated. The extent of the lesions were correlated with the results of PFT by calculating Spearman correlation. The most common HRCT findings were thick-walled cysts (n = 8) followed by nodules (n = 7). Other associated findings were reticulation, ground-glass opacification, and conglomerate nodules. The extent of the disease on HRCT was correlated inversely with percent predicted value of functional vital capacity. Common HRCT findings of pulmonary histiocytosis X were cysts with irregular wall thickening and nodules. The extent of the disease on HRCT correlated with the severity of restrictive pattern of PFT

  6. High-speed holographic correlation system for video identification on the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko

    2013-12-01

    Automatic video identification is important for indexing, search purposes, and removing illegal material on the Internet. By combining a high-speed correlation engine and web-scanning technology, we developed the Fast Recognition Correlation system (FReCs), a video identification system for the Internet. FReCs is an application thatsearches through a number of websites with user-generated content (UGC) and detects video content that violates copyright law. In this paper, we describe the FReCs configuration and an approach to investigating UGC websites using FReCs. The paper also illustrates the combination of FReCs with an optical correlation system, which is capable of easily replacing a digital authorization sever in FReCs with optical correlation.

  7. Association of genetic ancestry with breast cancer in ethnically diverse women from Chicago.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umaima Al-Alem

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Non-Hispanic (nH Black and Hispanic women are disproportionately affected by early onset disease, later stage, and with more aggressive, higher grade and ER/PR negative breast cancers. The purpose of this analysis was to examine whether genetic ancestry could account for these variation in breast cancer characteristics, once data were stratified by self-reported race/ethnicity and adjusted for potential confounding by social and behavioral factors. METHODS: We used a panel of 100 ancestry informative markers (AIMs to estimate individual genetic ancestry in 656 women from the "Breast Cancer Care in Chicago" study, a multi-ethnic cohort of breast cancer patients to examine the association between individual genetic ancestry and breast cancer characteristics. In addition we examined the association of individual AIMs and breast cancer to identify genes/regions that may potentially play a role in breast cancer disease disparities. RESULTS: As expected, nH Black and Hispanic patients were more likely than nH White patients to be diagnosed at later stages, with higher grade, and with ER/PR negative tumors. Higher European genetic ancestry was protective against later stage at diagnosis (OR 0.7 95%CI: 0.54-0.92 among Hispanic patients, and higher grade (OR 0.73, 95%CI: 0.56-0.95 among nH Black patients. After adjustment for multiple social and behavioral risk factors, the association with later stage remained, while the association with grade was not significant. We also found that the AIM SNP rs10954631 on chromosome 7 was associated with later stage (p = 0.02 and higher grade (p = 0.012 in nH Whites and later stage (p = 0.03 in nH Blacks. CONCLUSION: Non-European genetic ancestry was associated with later stage at diagnosis in ethnic minorities. The relation between genetic ancestry and stage at diagnosis may be due to genetic factors and/or unmeasured environmental factors that are overrepresented within certain racial

  8. Angular correlation between IceCube high-energy starting events and starburst sources

    CERN Document Server

    Moharana, Reetanjali

    2016-01-01

    Starburst galaxies and star-forming regions in the Milkyway, with high rate of supernova activities, are candidate sources of high-energy neutrinos. Using a gamma-ray selected sample of these sources we perform statistical analysis of their angular correlation with the four-year sample of high-energy starting events (HESE), detected by the IceCube Neutrino Observatory. We find that the two samples (starburst galaxies and local star-forming regions) are correlated with cosmic neutrinos at $\\sim (2-3)\\sigma$ (pre-trial) significance level, when the full HESE sample with deposited energy $\\gtrsim 20$~TeV is considered. However when we consider the HESE sample with deposited energy $\\gtrsim 60$~TeV, which is almost free of atmospheric neutrino and muon backgrounds, the significance of correlation decreased drastically. We perform a similar study for Galactic sources in the 2FHL catalog as well, obtaining $\\sim (2-3)\\sigma$ (pre-trial) correlation, however the significance of correlation increases with higher cuto...

  9. Correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy with high spatial precision and improved sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schorb, Martin [Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Briggs, John A.G., E-mail: john.briggs@embl.de [Structural and Computational Biology Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Cell Biology and Biophysics Unit, European Molecular Biology Laboratory, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-08-01

    Performing fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy on the same sample allows fluorescent signals to be used to identify and locate features of interest for subsequent imaging by electron microscopy. To carry out such correlative microscopy on vitrified samples appropriate for structural cryo-electron microscopy it is necessary to perform fluorescence microscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Here we describe an adaptation of a cryo-light microscopy stage to permit use of high-numerical aperture objectives. This allows high-sensitivity and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of vitrified samples. We describe and apply a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy workflow together with a fiducial bead-based image correlation procedure. This procedure allows us to locate fluorescent bacteriophages in cryo-electron microscopy images with an accuracy on the order of 50 nm, based on their fluorescent signal. It will allow the user to precisely and unambiguously identify and locate objects and events for subsequent high-resolution structural study, based on fluorescent signals. - Highlights: • Workflow for correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy. • Cryo-fluorescence microscopy setup incorporating a high numerical aperture objective. • Fluorescent signals located in cryo-electron micrographs with 50 nm spatial precision.

  10. Correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy with high spatial precision and improved sensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performing fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy on the same sample allows fluorescent signals to be used to identify and locate features of interest for subsequent imaging by electron microscopy. To carry out such correlative microscopy on vitrified samples appropriate for structural cryo-electron microscopy it is necessary to perform fluorescence microscopy at liquid-nitrogen temperatures. Here we describe an adaptation of a cryo-light microscopy stage to permit use of high-numerical aperture objectives. This allows high-sensitivity and high-resolution fluorescence microscopy of vitrified samples. We describe and apply a correlative cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy workflow together with a fiducial bead-based image correlation procedure. This procedure allows us to locate fluorescent bacteriophages in cryo-electron microscopy images with an accuracy on the order of 50 nm, based on their fluorescent signal. It will allow the user to precisely and unambiguously identify and locate objects and events for subsequent high-resolution structural study, based on fluorescent signals. - Highlights: • Workflow for correlated cryo-fluorescence and cryo-electron microscopy. • Cryo-fluorescence microscopy setup incorporating a high numerical aperture objective. • Fluorescent signals located in cryo-electron micrographs with 50 nm spatial precision

  11. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome haplotype motifs as diagnostic markers of Jewish ancestry: a reconsideration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofanelli, Sergio; Taglioli, Luca; Bertoncini, Stefania; Francalacci, Paolo; Klyosov, Anatole; Pagani, Luca

    2014-01-01

    Several authors have proposed haplotype motifs based on site variants at the mitochondrial genome (mtDNA) and the non-recombining portion of the Y chromosome (NRY) to trace the genealogies of Jewish people. Here, we analyzed their main approaches and test the feasibility of adopting motifs as ancestry markers through construction of a large database of mtDNA and NRY haplotypes from public genetic genealogical repositories. We verified the reliability of Jewish ancestry prediction based on the Cohen and Levite Modal Haplotypes in their “classical” 6 STR marker format or in the “extended” 12 STR format, as well as four founder mtDNA lineages (HVS-I segments) accounting for about 40% of the current population of Ashkenazi Jews. For this purpose we compared haplotype composition in individuals of self-reported Jewish ancestry with the rest of European, African or Middle Eastern samples, to test for non-random association of ethno-geographic groups and haplotypes. Overall, NRY and mtDNA based motifs, previously reported to differentiate between groups, were found to be more represented in Jewish compared to non-Jewish groups. However, this seems to stem from common ancestors of Jewish lineages being rather recent respect to ancestors of non-Jewish lineages with the same “haplotype signatures.” Moreover, the polyphyly of haplotypes which contain the proposed motifs and the misuse of constant mutation rates heavily affected previous attempts to correctly dating the origin of common ancestries. Accordingly, our results stress the limitations of using the above haplotype motifs as reliable Jewish ancestry predictors and show its inadequacy for forensic or genealogical purposes. PMID:25431579

  12. CGC/saturation approach for soft interactions at high energy: long range rapidity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotsman, E.; Maor, U. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Levin, E. [Tel Aviv University, Department of Particle Physics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Science, Tel Aviv (Israel); Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria and Centro Cientifico- Tecnologico de Valparaiso, Departemento de Fisica, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2015-11-15

    In this paper we continue our program to construct a model for high energy soft interactions that is based on the CGC/saturation approach. The main result of this paper is that we have discovered a mechanism that leads to large long range rapidity correlations and results in large values of the correlation function R(y{sub 1}, y{sub 2}) ≥ 1, which is independent of y{sub 1} and y{sub 2}. Such a behavior of the correlation function provides strong support for the idea that at high energies the system of partons that is produced is not only dense but also has strong attractive forces acting between the partons. (orig.)

  13. High plasma triglyceride levels strongly correlate with low kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A; Axel, A M; Lie, M E;

    2015-01-01

    signals to the GnRH neurons. METHODS: In this study, we measured body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, testosterone, and triglycerides after high fat diet exposure and correlated these parameters with the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of male rats....... In this model, a high fat diet (45% or 60% energy from fat, respectively) or a control diet (10% energy from fat) was provided after weaning for three months. RESULTS: We find a significant increase in body weight and plasma leptin concentration, but no change in the number of kisspeptin......-immunoreactive cells with increased fat in the diet. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells are not correlated with body weight, testosterone, leptin or insulin. However, we find that the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells is strongly and negatively correlated with the level of plasma triglycerides (R2=0.49, p=0...

  14. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan E Steck

    Full Text Available African Americans (AAs have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OHD3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OHD3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs.Plasma 25(OHD3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP classified as having either 'high' or 'low' aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OHD3.AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95% had the lowest mean plasma 25(OHD3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT 3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26-3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT 3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05-0.70 among men with high calcium intake. Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null.Among AAs, plasma 25(OHD3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OHD3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study.

  15. Determining the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic testing into primary care management of hypertensive patients with African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C R; Abul-Husn, N S; Ellis, S; Ramos, M A; Negron, R; Suprun, M; Zinberg, R E; Sabin, T; Hauser, D; Calman, N; Bagiella, E; Bottinger, E P

    2016-03-01

    People of African ancestry (Blacks) have increased risk of kidney failure due to numerous socioeconomic, environmental, and clinical factors. Two variants in the APOL1 gene are now thought to account for much of the racial disparity associated with hypertensive kidney failure in Blacks. However, this knowledge has not been translated into clinical care to help improve patient outcomes and address disparities. GUARDD is a randomized trial to evaluate the effects and challenges of incorporating genetic risk information into primary care. Hypertensive, non-diabetic, adults with self-reported African ancestry, without kidney dysfunction, are recruited from diverse clinical settings and randomized to undergo APOL1 genetic testing at baseline (intervention) or at one year (waitlist control). Providers are educated about genomics and APOL1. Guided by a genetic counselor, trained staff return APOL1 results to patients and provide low-literacy educational materials. Real-time clinical decision support tools alert clinicians of their patients' APOL1 results and associated risk status at the point of care. Our academic-community-clinical partnership designed a study to generate information about the impact of genetic risk information on patient care (blood pressure and renal surveillance) and on patient and provider knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors. GUARDD will help establish the effective implementation of APOL1 risk-informed management of hypertensive patients at high risk of CKD, and will provide a robust framework for future endeavors to implement genomic medicine in diverse clinical practices. It will also add to the important dialog about factors that contribute to and may help eliminate racial disparities in kidney disease. PMID:26747051

  16. Lactase persistence alleles reveal partial East African ancestry of southern African Khoe pastoralists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, Gwenna; Schlebusch, Carina M; Lombard, Marlize; Sjödin, Per; Soodyall, Himla; Jakobsson, Mattias

    2014-04-14

    The ability to digest milk into adulthood, lactase persistence (LP), as well as specific genetic variants associated with LP, is heterogeneously distributed in global populations. These variants were most likely targets of selection when some populations converted from hunter-gatherer to pastoralist or farming lifestyles. Specific LP polymorphisms are associated with particular geographic regions and populations; however, they have not been extensively studied in southern Africa. We investigate the LP-regulatory region in 267 individuals from 13 southern African populations (including descendants of hunter-gatherers, pastoralists, and agropastoralists), providing the first comprehensive study of the LP-regulatory region in a large group of southern Africans. The "East African" LP single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) (14010G>C) was found at high frequency (>20%) in a strict pastoralist Khoe population, the Nama of Namibia, suggesting a connection to East Africa, whereas the "European" LP SNP (13910C>T) was found in populations of mixed ancestry. Using genome-wide data from various African populations, we identify admixture (13%) in the Nama, from an Afro-Asiatic group dating to >1,300 years ago, with the remaining fraction of their genomes being from San hunter-gatherers. We also find evidence of selection around the LCT gene among Khoe-speaking groups, and the substantial frequency of the 14010C variant among the Nama is best explained by adaptation to digesting milk. These genome-local and genome-wide results support a model in which an East African group brought pastoralist practices to southern Africa and admixed with local hunter-gatherers to form the ancestors of Khoe people. PMID:24704072

  17. Mosaic maternal ancestry in the Great Lakes region of East Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Verónica; Pala, Maria; Salas, Antonio; Álvarez-Iglesias, Vanesa; Amorim, António; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Carracedo, Ángel; Clarke, Douglas J; Hill, Catherine; Mormina, Maru; Shaw, Marie-Anne; Dunne, David W; Pereira, Rui; Pereira, Vânia; Prata, Maria João; Sánchez-Diz, Paula; Rito, Teresa; Soares, Pedro; Gusmão, Leonor; Richards, Martin B

    2015-09-01

    The Great Lakes lie within a region of East Africa with very high human genetic diversity, home of many ethno-linguistic groups usually assumed to be the product of a small number of major dispersals. However, our knowledge of these dispersals relies primarily on the inferences of historical, linguistics and oral traditions, with attempts to match up the archaeological evidence where possible. This is an obvious area to which archaeogenetics can contribute, yet Uganda, at the heart of these developments, has not been studied for mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation. Here, we compare mtDNA lineages at this putative genetic crossroads across 409 representatives of the major language groups: Bantu speakers and Eastern and Western Nilotic speakers. We show that Uganda harbours one of the highest mtDNA diversities within and between linguistic groups, with the various groups significantly differentiated from each other. Despite an inferred linguistic origin in South Sudan, the data from the two Nilotic-speaking groups point to a much more complex history, involving not only possible dispersals from Sudan and the Horn but also large-scale assimilation of autochthonous lineages within East Africa and even Uganda itself. The Eastern Nilotic group also carries signals characteristic of West-Central Africa, primarily due to Bantu influence, whereas a much stronger signal in the Western Nilotic group suggests direct West-Central African ancestry. Bantu speakers share lineages with both Nilotic groups, and also harbour East African lineages not found in Western Nilotic speakers, likely due to assimilating indigenous populations since arriving in the region ~3000 years ago. PMID:26188410

  18. Early B-cell differentiation in Merkel cell carcinomas: clues to cellular ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zur Hausen, Axel; Rennspiess, Dorit; Winnepenninckx, Veronique; Speel, Ernst-Jan; Kurz, Anna Kordelia

    2013-08-15

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a highly malignant neuroendocrine nonmelanoma skin cancer, which is associated with the Merkel cell polyoma virus (MCPyV). Recently, expression of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT) and the paired box gene 5 (PAX 5) has been consistently reported in the majority of MCCs. We tested 21 MCCs for the expression of MCPyV, TdT, PAX5, IgG, IgM, IgA, kappa, and lambda by immunohistochemistry and assessed IgH and Igk rearrangement in all 21 MCCs. All of the MCCs revealed specific expression of PAX5 and 72.8% of the MCCs expressed TdT. In addition, most of the MCCs revealed specific expression of one or more Ig subclasses and kappa or lambda. One MCC did reveal monoclonal IgH and Igk rearrangement next to two other MCCs showing Igk rearrangement. As coexpression of TdT and PAX5 under physiologic circumstances is restricted to pro/pre- and pre-B cells we propose, on the basis of our results, that the cell of origin of MCCs is a pro/pre- or pre-B cell rather than the postmitotic Merkel cells. MCPyV infection and transformation of pro-/pre-B cells are likely to induce the expression of simple cytokeratins as has been shown for SV40 in other nonepithelial cells. This model of cellular ancestry of MCCs might impact therapy and possibly helps to understand why approximately 20% of MCCs are MCPyV-negative. PMID:23576560

  19. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Pascale; Kaufmann, Rainer; Siebert, C Alistair; Hagen, Christoph; Wodrich, Harald; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-08-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. PMID:24262358

  20. High-precision correlative fluorescence and electron cryo microscopy using two independent alignment markers☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellenberger, Pascale; Kaufmann, Rainer; Siebert, C. Alistair; Hagen, Christoph; Wodrich, Harald; Grünewald, Kay

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light and electron microscopy (CLEM) is an emerging technique which combines functional information provided by fluorescence microscopy (FM) with the high-resolution structural information of electron microscopy (EM). So far, correlative cryo microscopy of frozen-hydrated samples has not reached better than micrometre range accuracy. Here, a method is presented that enables the correlation between fluorescently tagged proteins and electron cryo tomography (cryoET) data with nanometre range precision. Specifically, thin areas of vitrified whole cells are examined by correlative fluorescence cryo microscopy (cryoFM) and cryoET. Novel aspects of the presented cryoCLEM workflow not only include the implementation of two independent electron dense fluorescent markers to improve the precision of the alignment, but also the ability of obtaining an estimate of the correlation accuracy for each individual object of interest. The correlative workflow from plunge-freezing to cryoET is detailed step-by-step for the example of locating fluorescence-labelled adenovirus particles trafficking inside a cell. PMID:24262358

  1. Crazy-paving: correlation between high resolution computed tomography and anatomopathological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present the high resolution computed tomography findings of various diseases which show a 'crazy-paving' pattern on CT. Cases of alveolar proteinosis, bronchoalveolar carcinoma, lipoid pneumonia and pneumocistosis are illustrated and correlated with the anatomopathological findings. (author)

  2. Beyond Correlations: Usefulness of High School GPA and Test Scores in Making College Admissions Decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawyer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Correlational evidence suggests that high school GPA is better than admission test scores in predicting first-year college GPA, although test scores have incremental predictive validity. The usefulness of a selection variable in making admission decisions depends in part on its predictive validity, but also on institutions' selectivity and…

  3. Electron-gamma perturbed angular correlation studies on high-TC superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent results on the study of high-TC superconductors using the e--γperturbed angular correlation technique are presented. The basic features of the experimental equipment and its installation at the ISOLDE facility are briefly described. Results obtained from 197mHg implanted into high quality Y1Ba2Cu3O6+δ epitaxy thin films are presented and discussed

  4. Correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4–60 months

    OpenAIRE

    Torabi, Fatemeh; Amir Ali Akbari, Sedigheh; Amiri, Saba; Soleimani, Farin; Alavi Majd, Hamid

    2012-01-01

    Background: The future development of children is considered more than ever now due to the advances in medical knowledge and thus the increase in survival rates of high-risk infants. This study investigated the correlation between high-risk pregnancy and developmental delay in children aged 4-60 months.Methods: This descriptive study was conducted on 401 mothers and their children (4-60 months) who visited health service centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, in 2...

  5. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Hu, Sheng Li; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Zhi Qiang; Zhao, Heng Li; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer’s disease (AD), stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200) detection, and neurocognitive assessment wa...

  6. Fuzzy Forests: Extending Random Forests for Correlated, High-Dimensional Data

    OpenAIRE

    Conn, Daniel; Ngun, Tuck; Li, Gang; Ramirez, Christina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we introduce fuzzy forests, a novel machine learning algorithm for ranking the importance of features in high-dimensional classication and regression problems. Fuzzy forests is specically designed to provide relatively unbiased rankings of variable importance in the presence of highly correlated features, especially when p >> n . We introduce our implementation of fuzzy forests in the R  package, fuzzyforest . Fuzzy forests works by t...

  7. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Sheng Li; Xiong, Wei; Dai, Zhi Qiang; Zhao, Heng Li; Feng, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP) may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD), stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200) detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and homocysteine was estimated at 500 m altitude, 3650 m altitude, 3 day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m), and 1 month after coming back to the 500 m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m). P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction. PMID:26731740

  8. Cognitive Changes during Prolonged Stay at High Altitude and Its Correlation with C-Reactive Protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng Li Hu

    Full Text Available Hypersensitive C-reaction protein (hsCRP may be a risk factor for cognitive impairment resulting from Alzheimer's disease (AD, stroke, and vascular dementia. This study explored the correlation of peripheral blood hsCRP level with cognitive decline due to high altitude exposure. The study was conducted on 100 male military participants who had never been to high altitude. Cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring, event related potentials (P300, N200 detection, and neurocognitive assessment was performed and total hsCRP, interleukin-6 (IL-6, and homocysteine was estimated at 500 m altitude, 3650 m altitude, 3 day, 1, and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m, and 1 month after coming back to the 500 m altitude. High altitude increased brain oxygen saturation, prolonged P300 and N200 latencies, injured cognitive functions, and raised plasma hsCRP levels. But they all recovered in varying degrees at 1 and 3 month post arriving at the base camp (4400 m. P300 latencies and hsCRP levels were strongly correlated to cognitive performances. These results suggested that cognitive deterioration occurred during the acute period of exposure to high altitude and may recover probably owning to acclimatization after extended stay at high altitude. Plasma hsCRP is inversely correlated to neurological cognition and it may be a potential biomarker for the prediction of high altitude induced cognitive dysfunction.

  9. A Meta-Analysis Identifies New Loci Associated with Body Mass index in Individuals of African Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Keri L Monda; Chen, Gary K.; Taylor, Kira C.; Palmer, Cameron; Edwards, Todd L.; Lange, Leslie A.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Adeyemo, Adebowale A.; Allison, Matthew A.; Bielak, Lawrence F; Chen, Guanji; Graff, Mariaelisa; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Rhie, Suhn K.; Li, Guo

    2013-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 36 loci associated with body mass index (BMI), predominantly in populations of European ancestry. We conducted a meta-analysis to examine the association of >3.2 million SNPs with BMI in 39,144 men and women of African ancestry, and followed up the most significant associations in an additional 32,268 individuals of African ancestry. We identified one novel locus at 5q33 (GALNT10, rs7708584, p=3.4×10−11) and another at 7p15 when combined ...

  10. High-pT azimuthal correlations of neutral strange baryons and mesons in STAR at RHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present results on two-particle azimuthal correlations of high-pT neutral strange baryons (Λ,Λ-bar) and mesons (KS0) associated with non-identified charged particles in d+Au and Au+Au collisions at √(sNN) = 200 GeV. In particular, we discuss properties of the near-side yield of associated charged particles as a function of centrality, transverse momentum and zT, as well as possible baryon/meson and particle/antiparticle differences. The results are compared to the proton and pion triggered correlations and to fragmentation and recombination models

  11. High Capsid–Genome Correlation Facilitates Creation of AAV Libraries for Directed Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonnenmacher, Mathieu; van Bakel, Harm; Hajjar, Roger J; Weber, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Directed evolution of adeno-associated virus (AAV) through successive rounds of phenotypic selection is a powerful method to isolate variants with improved properties from large libraries of capsid mutants. Importantly, AAV libraries used for directed evolution are based on the “natural” AAV genome organization where the capsid proteins are encoded in cis from replicating genomes. This is necessary to allow the recovery of the capsid DNA after each step of phenotypic selection. For directed evolution to be used successfully, it is essential to minimize the random mixing of capsomers and the encapsidation of nonmatching viral genomes during the production of the viral libraries. Here, we demonstrate that multiple AAV capsid variants expressed from Rep/Cap containing viral genomes result in near-homogeneous capsids that display an unexpectedly high capsid–DNA correlation. Next-generation sequencing of AAV progeny generated by bulk transfection of a semi-random peptide library showed a strong counter-selection of capsid variants encoding premature stop codons, which further supports a strong capsid–genome identity correlation. Overall, our observations demonstrate that production of “natural” AAVs results in low capsid mosaicism and high capsid–genome correlation. These unique properties allow the production of highly diverse AAV libraries in a one-step procedure with a minimal loss in phenotype–genotype correlation. PMID:25586687

  12. Rate-adaptive BCH coding for Slepian-Wolf coding of highly correlated sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Salmistraro, Matteo; Larsen, Knud J.; Huang, Xin; Luong, Huynh Van

    , given Y is highly skewed. In the analysis, noiseless feedback and noiseless communication are assumed. A rate-adaptive BCH code is presented and applied to distributed source coding. Simulation results for a fixed error probability show that rate-adaptive BCH achieves better performance than LDPCA (Low-Density......This paper considers using BCH codes for distributed source coding using feedback. The focus is on coding using short block lengths for a binary source, X, having a high correlation between each symbol to be coded and a side information, Y, such that the marginal probability of each symbol, Xi in X...... Parity-Check Accumulate) codes for high correlation between source symbols and the side information....

  13. Experimental measurement of acceleration correlations and pressure structure functions in high Reynolds number turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Xu, Haitao; Vincenzi, Dario; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of fluid particle accelerations in turbulent water flows between counter-rotating disks using three-dimensional Lagrangian particle tracking. By simultaneously following multiple particles with sub-Kolmogorov-time-scale temporal resolution, we measured the spatial correlation of fluid particle acceleration at Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers between 200 and 690. We also obtained indirect, non-intrusive measurements of the Eulerian pressure structure functions by integrating the acceleration correlations. Our experimental data provide strong support to the theoretical predictions of the acceleration correlations and the pressure structure function in isotropic high Reynolds number turbulence by Obukhov and Yaglom in 1951. The measured pressure structure functions display K41 scaling in the inertial range.

  14. Depict noise-driven nonlinear dynamic networks from output data by using high-order correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yang; Chen, Tianyu; Wang, Shihong; Hu, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Many practical systems can be described by dynamic networks, for which modern technique can measure their output signals, and accumulate extremely rich data. Nevertheless, the network structures producing these data are often deeply hidden in these data. Depicting network structures by analysing the available data turns to be significant inverse problems. On one hand, dynamics are often driven by various unknown facts, called noises. On the other hand, network structures of practical systems are commonly nonlinear, and different nonlinearities can provide rich dynamic features and meaningful functions of realistic networks. So far, no method, both theoretically or numerically, has been found to systematically treat the both difficulties together. Here we propose to use high-order correlation computations (HOCC) to treat nonlinear dynamics; use two-time correlations to treat noise effects; and use suitable basis and correlator vectors to unifiedly depict all dynamic nonlinearities and topological interaction l...

  15. Towards high velocity deformation characterisation of metals and composites using Digital Image Correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Rasmus Normann Wilken; Berggreen, Christian; Boyd, S.W;

    2010-01-01

    Characterisation of materials subject to high velocity deformation is necessary as many materials behave differently under such conditions. It is particularly important for accurate numerical simulation of high strain rate events. High velocity servo-hydraulic test machines have enabled material...... images and then extracting deformation data using Digital Image Correlation (DIC) from tensile testing in the intermediate strain rate regime available with the test machines. Three different materials, aluminium alloy 1050, S235 steel and glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP) were tested at different...

  16. Air pollution forecast in cities by an air pollution index highly correlated with meteorological variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are many different air pollution indexes which represent the global urban air pollution situation. The daily index studied here is also highly correlated with meteorological variables and this index is capable of identifying those variables that significantly affect the air pollution. The index is connected with attention levels of NO2, CO and O3 concentrations. The attention levels are fixed by a law proposed by the Italian Ministries of Health and Environment. The relation of that index with some meteorological variables is analysed by the linear multiple partial correlation statistical method. Florence, Milan and Vicence were selected to show the correlation among the air pollution index and the daily thermic excursion, the previous day's air pollution index and the wind speed. During the January-March period the correlation coefficient reaches 0.85 at Milan. The deterministic methods of forecasting air pollution concentrations show very high evaluation errors and are applied on limited areas around the observation stations, as opposed to the whole urban areas. The global air pollution, instead of the concentrations at specific observation stations, allows the evaluation of the level of the sanitary risk regarding the whole urban population. (Author)

  17. High correlation of Middle East respiratory syndrome spread with Google search and Twitter trends in Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Soo-Yong; Seo, Dong-Woo; An, Jisun; Kwak, Haewoon; Kim, Sung-Han; Gwack, Jin; Jo, Min-Woo

    2016-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was exported to Korea in 2015, resulting in a threat to neighboring nations. We evaluated the possibility of using a digital surveillance system based on web searches and social media data to monitor this MERS outbreak. We collected the number of daily laboratory-confirmed MERS cases and quarantined cases from May 11, 2015 to June 26, 2015 using the Korean government MERS portal. The daily trends observed via Google search and Twitter during the same time period were also ascertained using Google Trends and Topsy. Correlations among the data were then examined using Spearman correlation analysis. We found high correlations (>0.7) between Google search and Twitter results and the number of confirmed MERS cases for the previous three days using only four simple keywords: "MERS", " ("MERS (in Korean)"), " ("MERS symptoms (in Korean)"), and " ("MERS hospital (in Korean)"). Additionally, we found high correlations between the Google search and Twitter results and the number of quarantined cases using the above keywords. This study demonstrates the possibility of using a digital surveillance system to monitor the outbreak of MERS. PMID:27595921

  18. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, Anubha; Go, Min Jin; Zhang, Weihua; Below, Jennifer E.; Gaulton, Kyle J.; Ferreira, Teresa; Horikoshi, Momoko; Johnson, Andrew D.; Ng, Maggie C. Y.; Prokopenko, Inga; Saleheen, Danish; Wang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Goncalo R. Abecasis; Adair, Linda S

    2014-01-01

    To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signal...

  19. High Data Output and Automated 3D Correlative Light–Electron Microscopy Method

    OpenAIRE

    Vicidomini, Giuseppe; Gagliani, Maria C; Canfora, Michela; Cortese, Katia; Frosi, Fabio; Santangelo, Clara; Di Fiore, Pier Paolo; Boccacci, Patrizia; Diaspro, Alberto; Tacchetti, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    Correlative light/electron microscopy (CLEM) allows the simultaneous observation of a given subcellular structure by fluorescence light microscopy (FLM) and electron microscopy. The use of this approach is becoming increasingly frequent in cell biology. In this study, we report on a new high data output CLEM method based on the use of cryosections. We successfully applied the method to analyze the structure of rough and smooth Russell bodies used as model systems. The major advantages of our ...

  20. Deformation measurements of blast loaded plates using digital image correlation and high-speed photography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndambi J.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a study on the behaviour of aluminium plates subject to close range blast loads. Measurement of the full out-of-plane displacement field is performed combining two high-speed cameras in a stereoscopic set up and the digital image correlation technique. The measured displacement fields are compared to the calculated data using two different FEM codes. A good agreement has been found between both experimental and numerical data.

  1. Psychosocial Correlates of the Need for Physical Education and Sports in High School

    OpenAIRE

    Mihai Curelaru; Beatrice Abalasei; Mioara Cristea

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Sports and movement activities play an important role in the harmonious development of children; Special attention should be paid to the factors influencing their involvement in sportive activities. The aim of this study was related to identifying possible psychosocial correlates of the need for physical education and sports in Romanian society and increasing awareness on the importance of sports in everyday life. Approach: 1100 high school students from...

  2. Inverse correlation between quasiparticle mass and T c in a cuprate high-T c superconductor

    OpenAIRE

    Putzke, Carsten M; Malone, Liam D; Badoux, Sven; Vignolle, Baptiste; Vignolles, David; Tabis, Wojciech; Walmsley, Philip; Bird, Matthew J H; Hussey, Nigel,; Proust, Cyril; Carrington, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Close to a zero-temperature transition between ordered and disordered electronic phases, quantum fluctuations can lead to a strong enhancement of electron mass and to the emergence of competing phases such as superconductivity. A correlation between the existence of such a quantum phase transition and superconductivity is quite well established in some heavy fermion and iron-based superconductors, and there have been suggestions that high-temperature superconductivity in copper-oxide material...

  3. High-Resolution Algorithm for Image Segmentation in the Presence of Correlated Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Haiping; Bourennane, Salah; Fossati, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    Multiple line characterization is a most common issue in image processing. A specific formalism turns the contour detection issue of image processing into a source localization issue of array processing. However, the existing methods do not address correlated noise. As a result, the detection performance is degraded. In this paper, we propose to improve the subspace-based high-resolution methods by computing the fourth-order slice cumulant matrix of the received signals instead of second-orde...

  4. Ancestry informative markers and complete blood count parameters in Brazilian blood donors

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriela E. S. Felix; Kiyoko Abe-Sandes; Taísa M. Bonfim; Maria T. Bendicho; Patrícia Cisneiros; Rosalina Guedes; Cláudio J. F. Brandão; Alex J. L. Torres; Carlos Brites; Eduardo M. Netto; Roberto Meyer; Songeli M. Freire

    2010-01-01

    A complete blood count is very useful in clinical diagnoses when reference ranges are well established for the population. Complete blood counts and allele frequencies of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs) were analyzed in Brazilians with the aim of characterizing the hematological values of an admixed population. Positive associations were observed between gender and neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and platelet counts. No significant diff...

  5. Common Ancestry of Borrelia burgdorferi Sensu Lato Strains from North America and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Postic, D; Ras, N. Marti; Lane, R S; Humair, P.-F.; Wittenbrink, M. M.; Baranton, G

    1999-01-01

    Ten atypical European Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Borrelia spp.) strains were genetically characterized, and the diversity was compared to that encountered among related Borrelia spp. from North America. Phylogenetic analyses of a limited region of the genome and of the whole genome extend existing knowledge about borrelial diversity reported earlier in Europe and the United States. Our results accord with the evidence that North American and European strains may have a common ancestry.

  6. Assessing the reliability of eBURST using simulated populations with known ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Connor Thomas R; Fraser Christophe; Hanage William P; Turner Katherine ME; Spratt Brian G

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background The program eBURST uses multilocus sequence typing data to divide bacterial populations into groups of closely related strains (clonal complexes), predicts the founding genotype of each group, and displays the patterns of recent evolutionary descent of all other strains in the group from the founder. The reliability of eBURST was evaluated using populations simulated with different levels of recombination in which the ancestry of all strains was known. Results For strictly...

  7. Biogeographic Ancestry, Self-Identified Race, and Admixture-Phenotype Associations in the Heart SCORE Study

    OpenAIRE

    Halder, Indrani; Kip, Kevin E.; Mulukutla, Suresh R.; Aiyer, Aryan N.; Marroquin, Oscar C; Huggins, Gordon S.; Reis, Steven E.

    2012-01-01

    Large epidemiologic studies examining differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles between European Americans and African Americans have exclusively used self-identified race (SIR) to classify individuals. Recent genetic epidemiology studies of some CVD risk factors have suggested that biogeographic ancestry (BGA) may be a better predictor of CVD risk than SIR. This hypothesis was investigated in 464 African Americans and 771 European Americans enrolled in the Heart Strate...

  8. Multiplex genotyping system for efficient inference of matrilineal genetic ancestry with continental resolution

    OpenAIRE

    van Oven Mannis; Vermeulen Mark; Kayser Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In recent years, phylogeographic studies have produced detailed knowledge on the worldwide distribution of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variants, linking specific clades of the mtDNA phylogeny with certain geographic areas. However, a multiplex genotyping system for the detection of the mtDNA haplogroups of major continental distribution that would be desirable for efficient DNA-based bio-geographic ancestry testing in various applications is still missing. Results Three mult...

  9. Genome-Wide Association of Body Fat Distribution in African Ancestry Populations Suggests New Loci

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ching-Ti; Keri L Monda; Taylor, Kira C.; Lange, Leslie; Demerath, Ellen W; Palmas, Walter; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Jaclyn C Ellis; Mara Z Vitolins; Liu, Simin; Papanicolaou, George J.; Irvin, Marguerite R.; Xue, Luting; Griffin, Paula J.; Michael A Nalls

    2013-01-01

    Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in...

  10. Clines of nuclear DNA markers suggest a largely Neolithic ancestry of the European gene pool

    OpenAIRE

    Chikhi, Lounès; Destro-Bisol, Giovanni; Bertorelle, Giorgio; Pascali, Vincenzo; Barbujani, Guido

    1998-01-01

    Comparisons between archaeological findings and allele frequencies at protein loci suggest that most genes of current Europeans descend from populations that have been expanding in Europe in the last 10,000 years, in the Neolithic period. Recent mitochondrial data have been interpreted as indicating a much older, Paleolithic ancestry. In a spatial autocorrelation study at seven hypervariable loci in Europe (four microsatellites, two larger, tandem-repeat loci, and a sequence polymorphism) bro...

  11. Validation of two prediction models of undiagnosed chronic kidney disease in mixed-ancestry South Africans

    OpenAIRE

    Mogueo, Amelie; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Matsha, Tandi E.; Erasmus, Rajiv T; Kengne, Andre P.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a global challenge. Risk models to predict prevalent undiagnosed CKD have been published. However, none was developed or validated in an African population. We validated the Korean and Thai CKD prediction model in mixed-ancestry South Africans. Methods Discrimination and calibration were assessed overall and by major subgroups. CKD was defined as ‘estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR)

  12. Correlation between local slip rate and local high-frequency radiation capability in an earthquake fault

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For any earthquake, the slipping fault area and the source of high-frequency seismic waves, by and large, coincide. However on a more local scale the areas of high seismic slip rate and of increased high-frequency radiation capability (increased HF seismic luminosity) need not to be closely correlated. To study in more detail how slip rate and seismic luminosity are interrelated, a systematic analysis is performed that uses teleseismic P-waves of 23 intermediate-depth earthquakes of magnitude above 6.8. From each of the 344 'raw' broadband time functions, we first determine two time histories: (1) displacement and 2) squared, 0.5-2.5 Hz band-passed, velocity, or 'power', and then calculate the correlation coefficients, ρ, between them. The 0.5-2.5 Hz 'power' signal is distorted by the scattering in the Earth that smears it and generates P-coda. To overcome this difficulty, before performing the correlation analysis, the displacement is artificially distorted through the convolution with an appropriate time function, that simulates the scattering in the Earth. Even if a perfect correlation between fault slip and seismic luminosity is assumed the estimated values of ρ will be somewhat lower than unity, because of the random character of high-frequency waves. We estimated the average value ∼=0.52 for the correlation coefficient between the radiated time histories for displacement and 'power'. This value can be ascribed to the similar correlation coefficient between slip rate and RIF seismic luminosity over the source area. When two contributing factors - fluctuations and genuine mismatch of slip rate and mean luminosity - are isolated, fluctuations produce ρ=0.72 and the mismatch produces ρ=0.83. Thus the observed values of ρ indicate genuine differences between the distributions of the slip rate and the seismic luminosity over the fault area. These results provide important constraints both for the accurate wide-band simulation of strong ground motion and for

  13. High rates of sexual behavior in the general population: correlates and predictors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Långström, Niklas; Hanson, R Karl

    2006-02-01

    We studied 2450, 18-60-year-old men and women from a 1996 national survey of sexuality and health in Sweden to identify risk factors and correlates of elevated rates of sexual behavior (hypersexuality) in a representative, non-clinical population. Interviews and questionnaires measured various sexual behaviors, developmental risk factors, behavioral problems, and health indicators. The results suggested that correlates of high rates of intercourse were mostly positive, whereas the correlates of high rates of masturbation and impersonal sex were typically undesirable. For both men and women, high rates of impersonal sex were related to separation from parents during childhood, relationship instability, sexually transmitted disease, tobacco smoking, substance abuse, and dissatisfaction with life in general. The association between hypersexuality and paraphilic sexual interests (exhibitionism, voyeurism, masochism/sadism) was particularly and equally strong for both genders (odds ratios of 4.6-25.6). The results held, with a few exceptions, when controlling for age, being in a stable relationship, living in a major city, and same-sex sexual orientation. We conclude that elevated rates of impersonal sex are associated with a range of negative health indicators in the general population. PMID:16502152

  14. Disparities in Birth Weight and Gestational Age by Ethnic Ancestry in South American countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehby, George L.; Gili, Juan A.; Pawluk, Mariela; Castilla, Eduardo E.; López-Camelo, Jorge S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective We examine disparities in birth weight and gestational age by ethnic ancestry in 2000–2011 in eight South American countries. Methods The sample included 60480 singleton live-births. Regression models were estimated to evaluate differences in birth outcomes by ethnic ancestry controlling for time trends. Results Significant disparities were found in seven countries. In four countries – Brazil, Ecuador, Uruguay, and Venezuela – we found significant disparities in both low birth weight and preterm birth. Disparities in preterm birth alone were observed in Argentina, Bolivia, and Colombia. Several differences in continuous birth weight, gestational age, and fetal growth rate were also observed. There were no systematic patterns of disparities between the evaluated ethnic ancestry groups across the study countries, in that no racial/ethnic group consistently had the best or worst outcomes in all countries. Conclusions Racial/ethnic disparities in infant health are common in several South American countries. Differences across countries suggest that racial/ethnic disparities are driven by social and economic mechanisms. Researchers and policymakers should acknowledge these disparities and develop research and policy programs to effectively target them. PMID:25542227

  15. Positive Correlation Between Academic Library Services and High-Impact Practices for

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective – To investigate the perceived alignment between academic library services and high-impact practices (HIPs that affect student retention. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Public comprehensive universities in the United States of America with a Carnegie classification of master’s level as of January 2013. Subjects – 68 library deans or directors out of the 271 who were originally contacted. Methods – The author used Qualtrics software to create a survey based on the HIPs, tested the survey for reliability, and then distributed it to 271 universities. Library services were grouped into 1 of 3 library scales: library collection, library instruction, or library facilities. The survey consisted of a matrix of 10 Likert-style questions addressing the perceived level of alignment between the library scales and the HIPs. Each question provided an opportunity for the respondent to enter a “brief description of support practices” (p 477. Additional demographic questions addressed the years of experience of the respondent, undergraduate student enrollment of the university, and whether librarians held faculty rank. Main Results – The author measured Pearson correlation coefficients and found a positive correlation between the library scales and the HIPs. All three library scales displayed a moderately strong positive correlation between first-year seminars and experiences (HIP 1, common intellectual experiences (HIP 2, writing-intensive courses (HIP 4, undergraduate research (HIP 6, diversity and global learning (HIP 7, service learning and community-based learning (HIP 8, internships (HIP 9, and capstone courses and projects (HIP 10. The library collections scale and library facilities scale displayed a moderately strong correlation with learning communities (HIP 3 and collaborative assignments and projects (HIP 5. The library instruction scale displayed a strong positive correlation with HIP 3 and a very strong

  16. On The Origin Of High Energy Correlations in Gamma-ray Bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel

    2012-04-03

    I investigate the origin of the observed correlation between a gamma-ray burst's {nu}F{sub {nu}} spectral peak E{sub pk} and its isotropic equivalent energy E{sub iso} through the use of a population synthesis code to model the prompt gamma-ray emission from GRBs. By using prescriptions for the distribution of prompt spectral parameters as well as the population's luminosity function and co-moving rate density, I generate a simulated population of GRBs and examine how bursts of varying spectral properties and redshift would appear to a gamma-ray detector here on Earth. I find that a strong observed correlation can be produced between the source frame Epk and Eiso for the detected population despite the existence of only a weak and broad correlation in the original simulated population. The energy dependance of a gamma-ray detector's flux-limited detection threshold acts to produce a correlation between the source frame E{sub pk} and E{sub iso} for low luminosity GRBs, producing the left boundary of the observed correlation. Conversely, very luminous GRBs are found at higher redshifts than their low luminosity counterparts due to the standard Malquest bias, causing bursts in the low E{sub pk}, high E{sub iso} regime to go undetected because their E{sub pk} values would be redshifted to energies at which most gamma-ray detectors become less sensitive. I argue that it is this previously unexamined effect which produces the right boundary of the observed correlation. Therefore, the origin of the observed correlation is a complex combination of the instrument's detection threshold, the intrinsic cutoff in the GRB luminosity function, and the broad range of redshifts over which GRBs are detected. Although the GRB model presented here is a very simplified representation of the complex nature of GRBs, these simulations serve to demonstrate how selection effects caused by a combination of instrumental sensitivity and the cosmological nature of an

  17. Vortical fluid and $\\Lambda$ spin correlations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Pang, Long-Gang; Wang, Qun; Wang, Xin-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Fermions become polarized in a vortical fluid due to spin-vorticity coupling. The spin polarization density is proportional to the local fluid vorticity at the next-to-leading order of a gradient expansion in a quantum kinetic theory. Spin correlations of two $\\Lambda$-hyperons can therefore reveal the vortical structure of the dense matter in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We employ a (3+1)D viscous hydrodynamic model with event-by-event fluctuating initial conditions from A MultiPhase Transport (AMPT) model to calculate the vorticity distributions and $\\Lambda$ spin correlations. The azimuthal correlation of the transverse spin is shown to have a cosine form plus an offset due to a circular structure of the transverse vorticity around the beam direction and global spin polarization. The longitudinal spin correlation shows a structure of vortex-pairing in the transverse plane due to the convective flow of hot spots in the radial direction. The dependence on colliding energy, rapidity, centrality and sensi...

  18. Correlation between high-resolution computed tomography features and patients′ characteristics in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Prem

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: During the last few decades, high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT has come up as a new diagnostic modality to diagnose emphysematous and chronic bronchitis components of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. The present study was undertaken to evaluate for various quantitative and qualitative HRCT features in patients with COPD, and to detect patients′ characteristics that correlate with these HRCT features. Materials and Methods: Forty male patients with COPD attending the COPD clinic at a tertiary referral hospital and postgraduate medical institute were included in the study. Various HRCT features, including tracheal index, thoracic cage ratio, sterno-aortic distance, thoracic cross-sectional area, vascular attenuation, vascular distortion, mosaic attenuation pattern, and directly visible small airways, were evaluated and correlated with patients′ characteristics, including age, duration of illness, quantum of smoking, dyspnea score, quality-of-life index, and various spirometric indices. Results: We found significant correlations of various quantitative and qualitative HRCT features with age, duration of illness, quantum of smoking, quality-of-life index, and the spirometric indices showing the extent of airways obstruction. Conclusions: Various quantitative and qualitative HRCT features were found to correlate with patients′ characteristics, spirometric indices, and health-related quality-of-life score, suggesting that HRCT is useful not only in detecting emphysema and its various subtypes but also in predicting the extent and severity of COPD

  19. Theory of interparticle correlations in dense, high-temperature plasmas. V - Electric and thermal conductivities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimaru, S.; Tanaka, S.

    1985-01-01

    Ichimaru et al. (1985) have developed a general theory in which the interparticle correlations in dense, high-temperature multicomponent plasmas were formulated systematically over a wide range of plasma parameters. The present paper is concerned with an extension of this theory, taking into account the problems of the electronic transport in such high-density plasmas. It is shown that the resulting theory is capable of describing the transport coefficients accurately over a wide range of the density and temperature parameters. Attention is given to electric and thermal conductivities, generalized Coulomb logarithms, a comparison of the considered theory with other theories, and a comparison of the theory with experimental results.

  20. Bronchial asthma: correlation of high resolution computerized tomography findings with clinical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we did a sectional study of 31 asthmatic patients with several levels of disease severity, which were submitted to high resolution computed tomography of the thorax and spirometry, between the months of July, 1995 and August, 1997. The tomographic findings were correlated with the clinical classification of the patients and the most frequent tomographic findings were bronchial wall thickening, bronchial dilatation, air trapping, centrilobular opacities, cicatricial linear shadows, mucoid impaction, emphysema and atelectasis. In asthmatic patients of long duration we observed small airway disease and irreversible lesions as the predominant findings. In smoking patients there was no high frequency of emphysema. (author)

  1. Correlation of Electrical Noise with Non-radiative Current for High Power QWLs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The characteristics of low-frequency electrical noise, voltage-current (V-I) and electrical derivation for 980nm InGaAsP/InGaAs/GaAs high power double quantum well lasers(DQWLs) are measured under different conditions. The correlation of the low-frequency electrical noise with surface non-radiative current of devices is discussed. The results indicate the low-frequency electrical noise of 980nm DQWLs with high power is mainly 1/f noise and has good relation with the device surface current at low injection.

  2. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  3. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Andy; Kleinman, Paul K. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); McDonald, Anna G. [Office of the Chief Medical Examiner, Boston, MA (United States); Rosenberg, Andrew E. [University of Miami Hospital, Department of Pathology, Miami, FL (United States); Gupta, Rajiv [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2014-02-15

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm{sup 3}) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm{sup 3}). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  4. High-resolution CT with histopathological correlates of the classic metaphyseal lesion of infant abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is a common high specificity indicator of infant abuse and its imaging features have been correlated histopathologically in infant fatalities. High-resolution CT imaging and histologic correlates were employed to (1) characterize the normal infant anatomy surrounding the chondro-osseous junction, and (2) confirm the 3-D model of the CML previously inferred from planar radiography and histopathology. Long bone specimens from 5 fatally abused infants, whose skeletal survey showed definite or suspected CMLs, were studied postmortem. After skeletal survey, selected specimens were resected and imaged with high-resolution digital radiography. They were then scanned with micro-CT (isotropic resolution of 45 μm3) or with high-resolution flat-panel CT (isotropic resolutions of 200 μm3). Visualization of the bony structures was carried out using image enhancement, segmentation and isosurface extraction, together with volume rendering and multiplanar reformatting. These findings were then correlated with histopathology. Study of normal infant bone clarifies the 3-D morphology of the subperiosteal bone collar (SPBC) and the radiographic zone of provisional calcification (ZPC). Studies on specimens with CML confirm that this lesion is a fracture extending in a planar fashion through the metaphysis, separating a mineralized fragment. This disk-like mineralized fragment has two components: (1) a thick peripheral component encompassing the SPBC; and (2) a thin central component comprised predominantly of the radiologic ZPC. By manipulating the 3-D model, the varying appearances of the CML are displayed. High-resolution CT coupled with histopathology provides elucidation of the morphology of the CML, a strong indicator of infant abuse. This new information may prove useful in assessing the biomechanical factors that produce this strong indicator of abusive assaults in infants. (orig.)

  5. High accuracy heat transfer correlation on shell side of heat transfer tubes for pressurized water cooler in high temperature use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A primary pressurized water cooler (PPWC) with reverse-U type heat transfer tubes in the High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor (HTTR) cools the primary helium gas of 950degC from the reactor to approximately 400degC and its design heat capacity is 30MW. However, the heat transfer characteristics of the PPWC were not proven in detail because only a little experience about its design and construction has been obtained. The heat transfer correlations on the shell side were experimentally obtained by a 1/2 scale simulation test apparatus of the PPWC to improve design accuracy. These correlations can consider the effects of flow pattern around baffle plates, a seal mechanism to prevent by pass flow and an impingement plate with many small holes to improve heat transfer characteristics. (author)

  6. Phase behaviour and correlations of parallel hard squares: from highly confined to bulk systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinto, Miguel; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Varga, Szabolcs; Gurin, Peter; Velasco, Enrique

    2016-06-01

    We study a fluid of two-dimensional parallel hard squares in bulk and under confinement in channels, with the aim of evaluating the performance of fundamental-measure theory (FMT). To this purpose, we first analyse the phase behaviour of the bulk system using FMT and Percus–Yevick (PY) theory, and compare the results with molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. In a second step, we study the confined system and check the results against those obtained from the transfer matrix method and from our own Monte Carlo simulations. Squares are confined to channels with parallel walls at angles of 0° or 45° relative to the diagonals of the parallel hard squares, respectively, which allows for an assessment of the effect of the external-potential symmetry on the fluid structural properties. In general FMT overestimates bulk correlations, predicting the existence of a columnar phase (absent in simulations) prior to crystallization. The equation of state predicted by FMT compares well with simulations, although the PY approach with the virial route is better in some range of packing fractions. The FMT is highly accurate for the structure and correlations of the confined fluid due to the dimensional crossover property fulfilled by the theory. Both density profiles and equations of state of the confined system are accurately predicted by the theory. The highly non-uniform pair correlations inside the channel are also very well described by FMT.

  7. Phase behaviour and correlations of parallel hard squares: from highly confined to bulk systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Pinto, Miguel; Martínez-Ratón, Yuri; Varga, Szabolcs; Gurin, Peter; Velasco, Enrique

    2016-06-22

    We study a fluid of two-dimensional parallel hard squares in bulk and under confinement in channels, with the aim of evaluating the performance of fundamental-measure theory (FMT). To this purpose, we first analyse the phase behaviour of the bulk system using FMT and Percus-Yevick (PY) theory, and compare the results with molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo simulations. In a second step, we study the confined system and check the results against those obtained from the transfer matrix method and from our own Monte Carlo simulations. Squares are confined to channels with parallel walls at angles of 0° or 45° relative to the diagonals of the parallel hard squares, respectively, which allows for an assessment of the effect of the external-potential symmetry on the fluid structural properties. In general FMT overestimates bulk correlations, predicting the existence of a columnar phase (absent in simulations) prior to crystallization. The equation of state predicted by FMT compares well with simulations, although the PY approach with the virial route is better in some range of packing fractions. The FMT is highly accurate for the structure and correlations of the confined fluid due to the dimensional crossover property fulfilled by the theory. Both density profiles and equations of state of the confined system are accurately predicted by the theory. The highly non-uniform pair correlations inside the channel are also very well described by FMT. PMID:27115832

  8. Inverse correlation between quasiparticle mass and Tc in a cuprate high-Tc superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzke, Carsten; Malone, Liam; Badoux, Sven; Vignolle, Baptiste; Vignolles, David; Tabis, Wojciech; Walmsley, Philip; Bird, Matthew; Hussey, Nigel E.; Proust, Cyril; Carrington, Antony

    2016-01-01

    Close to a zero-temperature transition between ordered and disordered electronic phases, quantum fluctuations can lead to a strong enhancement of electron mass and to the emergence of competing phases such as superconductivity. A correlation between the existence of such a quantum phase transition and superconductivity is quite well established in some heavy fermion and iron-based superconductors, and there have been suggestions that high-temperature superconductivity in copper-oxide materials (cuprates) may also be driven by the same mechanism. Close to optimal doping, where the superconducting transition temperature Tc is maximal in cuprates, two different phases are known to compete with superconductivity: a poorly understood pseudogap phase and a charge-ordered phase. Recent experiments have shown a strong increase in quasiparticle mass m* in the cuprate YBa2Cu3O7-δ as optimal doping is approached, suggesting that quantum fluctuations of the charge-ordered phase may be responsible for the high-Tc superconductivity. We have tested the robustness of this correlation between m* and Tc by performing quantum oscillation studies on the stoichiometric compound YBa2Cu4O8 under hydrostatic pressure. In contrast to the results for YBa2Cu3O7-δ, we find that in YBa2Cu4O8, the mass decreases as Tc increases under pressure. This inverse correlation between m* and Tc suggests that quantum fluctuations of the charge order enhance m* but do not enhance Tc. PMID:27034989

  9. Inverse correlation between quasiparticle mass and T c in a cuprate high-T c superconductor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzke, Carsten; Malone, Liam; Badoux, Sven; Vignolle, Baptiste; Vignolles, David; Tabis, Wojciech; Walmsley, Philip; Bird, Matthew; Hussey, Nigel E; Proust, Cyril; Carrington, Antony

    2016-03-01

    Close to a zero-temperature transition between ordered and disordered electronic phases, quantum fluctuations can lead to a strong enhancement of electron mass and to the emergence of competing phases such as superconductivity. A correlation between the existence of such a quantum phase transition and superconductivity is quite well established in some heavy fermion and iron-based superconductors, and there have been suggestions that high-temperature superconductivity in copper-oxide materials (cuprates) may also be driven by the same mechanism. Close to optimal doping, where the superconducting transition temperature T c is maximal in cuprates, two different phases are known to compete with superconductivity: a poorly understood pseudogap phase and a charge-ordered phase. Recent experiments have shown a strong increase in quasiparticle mass m* in the cuprate YBa2Cu3O7-δ as optimal doping is approached, suggesting that quantum fluctuations of the charge-ordered phase may be responsible for the high-T c superconductivity. We have tested the robustness of this correlation between m* and T c by performing quantum oscillation studies on the stoichiometric compound YBa2Cu4O8 under hydrostatic pressure. In contrast to the results for YBa2Cu3O7-δ, we find that in YBa2Cu4O8, the mass decreases as T c increases under pressure. This inverse correlation between m* and T c suggests that quantum fluctuations of the charge order enhance m* but do not enhance T c. PMID:27034989

  10. Mass transfer in wetted-wall columns: correlations at high Reynolds numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Christian H.E.; Kiil, Søren; Thomsen, Henrik W.;

    1998-01-01

    The rate of gas-and liquid-phase mass transport in a pilot-scale wetted-wall column with an inner diameter of 3.26 cm and a length of 5 m was investigated. Empirical correlations for the physical liquid-phase mass transfer coefficient (k(L)(O)) and the gas-phase mass transfer coefficient (k......(G)) were determined. In dimensionless form, the correlations are given by Sh(L) = 0.01613 Re-G(0.664) Re-L(0.426) Sc-L(0.5) Sh(G) = 0.00031 Re-G(1.05) Re-L(0.207) Sc-G(0.5) and are valid at gas-phase Reynolds numbers from 7500 to 18,300 and liquid-phase Reynolds numbers from 4000 to 12,000, conditions...... of industrial relevance. To our knowledge, no correlations for Sh(G) have been reported in the literature which are valid at such high Reynolds numbers. The wetted-wall column was equipped with six intermediate measuring positions for gas and two for liquid samples, giving rise to a high accuracy...

  11. High-field MR imaging of craniopharyngiomas: Correlations with biochemical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventeen patients with craniopharyngiomas underwent MR imaging performed with a 1.5-unit. Correlations were made with CT and pathologic findings in all cases. Cystic collections were analyzed in seven cases (proteins, lactic dehydrogenase [LDH], lipid and ferrous content). Three-dimensional spin-echo sequences were performed with T1 and T2 weighting. Fast imaging was done in nine cases. Contrast medium (Gd-DTPA or Gd-DOTA) was intravenously injected in five patients. MR imaging clearly depicted the cystic and solid portions of the tumor; moreover, the solid vascularized parts and the cylic tumoral walls enhanced after contrast agent injection. Analysis of the cystic collections allowed correlation of the variable MR signals and the biochemical data: high concentrations of proteins and LDH, various lipid and iron contents. Calcifications were visualized in only seven cases. Relationships with the optic pathways, the hypothalmus, and the cisterns were precisely established

  12. High Isolation and Low Correlation Small Size Multi-Antenna for MIMO Mobile Terminals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    A new method of forming a four-port multi-antenna by a two-unit patch antenna array is proposed to design a high isolation low correlation stroll size multi-antenna. Dual polarization is real-ized by the method of feeding in two ports. Defec-ted Ground Structure (DGS) is used to eliminate the coupling between the two antenna units. The test results show that the isolation between two ports reaches around 20dB, and that the antenna correlation coefficients is less than 0. 5, which meets the requirements of future mobile communi-cation systems and provides a solution to multi-antenna of MIMO terminals.

  13. Velocity, correlation time and diffusivity measurements in highly turbulent gas flow by an MRI method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi; Newling, Ben

    2007-03-01

    We present non-invasive, quantitative MRI wind-tunnel measurements in flowing gas (velocity > 10 m/s) at high Reynolds numbers (Re > 10^5). Our measurement method is three-dimensional and has the potential for saving time over traditional pointwise techniques. The method is suitable for liquids and for gases. We demonstrate the use of the technique on different test sections (bluff obstruction, clark Y-wing and cylinder). The mean velocity of gas flowing past those sections has been measured. We also investigate methods to measure flow correlation times by changing the acquisition interval between excitation of the sample and detection of the signal. This may be accomplished by making separate measurements or by using a multiple-point acquisition method. A measurement of correlation time allows us to map turbulent diffusivity. The MRI data are compared with computational fluid dynamics.

  14. Correlation between milk and blood urea nitrogen in high and low yielding dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out in two dairy farms (Olocuilta and Los Conacastes) in the central region of El Salvador. Sixty Holstein cows were grouped according to milk yield and days in milk: high yielding (HY, 30-90 d in milk) and low yielding cows (LY, >180 d in milk). The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of milk yield and time after feeding on milk and blood urea-nitrogen (BUN) concentration, and to establish a correlation between these two parameters. On Olocuilta, HY cows had the highest BUN and milk urea nitrogen (MUN) concentrations. Blood urea nitrogen least squares concentration was 12.77 mg/dL and 13.98 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows, respectively; while the MUN average concentration was 12.30 mg/dL and 14.82 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows, respectively. BUN and MUN concentrations were similar at 30 min, one and two h post-feeding but by four h post-feeding BUN concentrations had decreased and were significantly lower than those of MUN (P < 0.05). On the other hand, in Conacastes the highest values were found for the LY group. BUN least square concentration was 11.22 mg/dL and 9.12 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows, respectively; while the MUN average concentration was 10.18 mg/dL and 8.83 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows, respectively. The reason for these differences seems to be related to protein balance. For instance on the Los Conacastes farm, protein balance was negative in the HY group (-88 g/d) while on Oloculita farm the balance was positive. The correlation between BUN and MUN for the Olocuilta farm had a regression coefficient of 0.84, and a correlation (r2) of 0.7543. For Los Conacastes these values were 1.04 and 0.9017, respectively. It should be noted that BUN and MUN concentrations were better correlated at 30 min, one h and two h after feeding and that the correlation decreased at four h post-feeding due to a drop in BUN concentration. It is concluded that BUN and MUN concentrations are not related directly to milk yield but with the

  15. High daily doses of benzodiazepines among Quebec seniors: prevalence and correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moride Yola

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines is generally contraindicated for seniors. While both patient and physician factors may influence the use of high daily doses, previous research on the effect of patient factors has been extremely limited. The objectives of this study were to determine the one year prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines, and examine physician and patient correlates of such use among Quebec community-dwelling seniors. Methods Patient information for 1423 community-dwelling Quebec seniors who participated in the Canadian Study of Health and Aging was linked to provincial health insurance administrative data bases containing detailed information on prescriptions received and prescribers. Results The standardized one year period prevalence of use of high daily doses of benzodiazepines was 7.9%. Use of high daily doses was more frequent among younger seniors and those who had reported anxiety during the previous year. Patients without cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from general practitioners, while those with cognitive impairment were more likely to receive high dose prescriptions from specialists. Conclusion High dose prescribing appears to be related to both patient and physician factors.

  16. Upper Palaeolithic Siberian genome reveals dual ancestry of Native Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raghavan, Maanasa; Skoglund, Pontus; Graf, Kelly E.;

    2014-01-01

    ,000-year-old individual (MA-1), from Mal'ta in south-central Siberia, to an average depth of 1×. To our knowledge this is the oldest anatomically modern human genome reported to date. The MA-1 mitochondrial genome belongs to haplogroup U, which has also been found at high frequency among Upper Palaeolithic...

  17. Effect of Strong Correlations on the High Energy Anomaly in Hole- and Electron-Doped High-Tc Superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moritz, B.; /SLAC, SIMES; Schmitt, F.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Meevasana, W.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Johnston, S.; /SLAC, SIMES /Waterloo U.; Motoyama, E.M.; /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Greven, M.; /SLAC, SIMES /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Lu, D.H.; /SLAC, SSRL; Kim, C.; /IPAP, Seoul; Scalettar, R.T.; /UC, Davis; Shen, Z.-X.; /SLAC, SIMES /Stanford U., Geballe Lab. /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept. /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Devereaux, T.P.; /SLAC, SIMES

    2010-02-15

    Recently, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) has been used to highlight an anomalously large band renormalization at high binding energies in cuprate superconductors: the high energy 'waterfall' or high energy anomaly (HEA). This paper demonstrates, using a combination of new ARPES measurements and quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that the HEA is not simply the byproduct of matrix element effects, but rather represents a cross-over from a quasi-particle band at low binding energies near the Fermi level to valence bands at higher binding energy, assumed to be of strong oxygen character, in both hole- and electron-doped cuprates. While photoemission matrix elements clearly play a role in changing the aesthetic appearance of the band dispersion, i.e. the 'waterfall'-like behavior, they provide an inadequate description for the physics that underlies the strong band renormalization giving rise to the HEA. Model calculations of the single-band Hubbard Hamiltonian showcase the role played by correlations in the formation of the HEA and uncover significant differences in the HEA energy scale for hole- and electron-doped cuprates. In addition, this approach properly captures the transfer of spectral weight accompanying both hole and electron doping in a correlated material and provides a unifying description of the HEA across both sides of the cuprate phase diagram.

  18. Measurement and correlation of high frequency behaviors of a very flexible beam undergoing large deformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A correlation method of high frequency behaviors of a very flexible beam undergoing large displacement is presented. The suggested method based on the experimental modal analysis leads to more accurate correlation results because it directly uses the modal parameters of each mode achieved from experiment. First, the modal testing and the parameter identification method are suggested for flexible multibody dynamics. Due to the flexibility of a very thin beam, traditional testing methods such as impact hammer or contact type accelerometer are not working well. The suggested measurement with high speed camera, even though the test beam is very flexible, is working well. Using measurements with a high speed camera, modal properties until the 5th mode are measured. And After measuring each damping ratio until the 5th mode, a generic damping model is constructed using inverse modal transformation technique. It's very interesting that the modal transformation technique can be also applied even in the ANCF simulation which uses the global displacement and finite slope as the nodal coordinates. The results of experiment and simulation are compared until the 5th mode frequency, respectively, by using ANCF forced vibration analysis. Through comparison between numerical simulation and experiment, this study showed that the proposed generic damping matrix, modal testing and parameter identification method is very proper in flexible multibody dynamic problems undergoing large deformation

  19. Herschel ATLAS: The angular correlation function of submillimetre galaxies at high and low redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Maddox, S J; Rigby, E; Eales, S; Cooray, A; Scott, D; Peacock, J A; Negrello, M; Smith, D J B; Benford, D; Amblard, A; Auld, R; Baes, M; Bonfield, D; Burgarella, D; Buttiglione, S; Cava, A; Clements, D; Dariush, A; de Zotti, G; Dye, S; Frayer, D; Fritz, J; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J; Herranz, D; Ibar, E; Ivison, R; Jarvis, M J; Lagache, G; Leeuw, L; Lopez-Caniego, M; Pascale, E; Pohlen, M; Rodighiero, G; Samui, S; Serjeant, S; Temi, P; Thompson, M; Verma, A

    2010-01-01

    We present measurements of the angular correlation function of galaxies selected from the first field of the H-ATLAS survey. Careful removal of the background from galactic cirrus is essential, and currently dominates the uncertainty in our measurements. For our 250 micron-selected sample we detect no significant clustering, consistent with the expectation that the 250 micron-selected sources are mostly normal galaxies at z<~ 1. For our 350 micron and 500 micron-selected samples we detect relatively strong clustering with correlation amplitudes A of 0.2 and 1.2 at 1', but with relatively large uncertainties. For samples which preferentially select high redshift galaxies at z~2-3 we detect significant strong clustering, leading to an estimate of r_0 ~ 7-11 h^{-1} Mpc. The slope of our clustering measurements is very steep, delta~2. The measurements are consistent with the idea that sub-mm sources consist of a low redshift population of normal galaxies and a high redshift population of highly clustered star-...

  20. Zygomycetes, Microsporidia, and the Evolutionary Ancestry of Sex Determination

    OpenAIRE

    Koestler, Tina; Ebersberger, Ingo

    2011-01-01

    Zygomycetes and their alleged sister taxon, the microsporidia, exclusively share the presence of a cluster of three genes encoding a sugar transporter, a high mobility group (HMG)-type transcription factor, and an RNA helicase. In zygomycetes, the HMG-type transcription factor acts as the sole sex determinant. This intimately ties the evolutionary history of this gene cluster to the evolution of sex determination. Here, we have unraveled the relationships of the two gene clusters by vicarious...

  1. Exploring the Y Chromosomal Ancestry of Modern Panamanians

    OpenAIRE

    Grugni, Viola; Battaglia, Vincenza; Perego, Ugo Alessandro; Raveane, Alessandro; Lancioni, Hovirag; OLIVIERI, ANNA; Ferretti, Luca; Woodward, Scott R.; Pascale, Juan Miguel; Cooke, Richard; Myres, Natalie; Motta, Jorge; Torroni, Antonio; Achilli, Alessandro; Semino, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Geologically, Panama belongs to the Central American land-bridge between North and South America crossed by Homo sapiens >14 ka ago. Archaeologically, it belongs to a wider Isthmo-Colombian Area. Today, seven indigenous ethnic groups account for 12.3% of Panama’s population. Five speak Chibchan languages and are characterized by low genetic diversity and a high level of differentiation. In addition, no evidence of differential structuring between maternally and paternally inherited genes has ...

  2. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Rijn Clementina M

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal plasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate HFS-induced central plasticity of sensory processing at the level of the brain using the electroencephalogram (EEG. To this end we measured evoked potentials in response to noxious electrical pinprick-like stimuli applied in the heterotopic skin area before, directly after and 30 minutes after HFS. Results We observed potential cortical electrophysiological correlates of heterotopic facilitation. Two different cortical correlates were found; the first one was a lateralized effect, i.e. a larger N100 amplitude on the conditioned arm than the control arm 30 minutes after end of HFS. This was comparable with the observed lateralized effect of visual analogue scale (VAS scores as response to the mechanical punctate stimuli. The second correlate seems to be a more general (non-lateralized effect, because the result affects both arms. On average for both arms the P200 amplitude increased significantly 30 minutes after end of HFS with respect to baseline. Conclusions We suggest that for studying heterotopic nociceptive facilitation the evoked brain response is suitable and relevant for investigating plasticity at the level of the brain and is perhaps a more sensitive and reliable marker than the perceived pain intensity (e.g. VAS.

  3. High-resolution computed tomography in silicosis: correlation with chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Agnaldo Jose [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Pedro Ernesto Univ. Hospital. Dept. of Respiratory Function]. E-mail: phel.lop@uol.com.br; Mogami, Roberto; Capone, Domenico; Jansen, Jose Manoel [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). School of Medical Sciences; Tessarollo, Bernardo [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Diagnostic Image; Melo, Pedro Lopes de [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. of Biology

    2008-05-15

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function findings, as well as to compare chest X-ray findings with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, in patients with silicosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 44 non-smoking patients without a history of tuberculosis. Chest X-ray findings were classified according to the International Labour Organization recommendations. Using a semiquantitative system, the following HRCT findings were measured: the full extent of pulmonary involvement; parenchymal opacities; and emphysema. Spirometry and forced oscillation were performed. Pulmonary volumes were evaluated using the helium dilution method, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was assessed. Results: Of the 44 patients studied, 41 were male. The mean age was 48.4 years. There were 4 patients who were classified as category 0 based on X-ray findings and as category 1 based on HRCT findings. Using HRCT scans, we identified progressive massive fibrosis in 33 patients, compared with only 23 patients when X-rays were used. Opacity score was found to correlate most closely with airflow, DLCO and compliance. Emphysema score correlated inversely with volume, DLCO and airflow. In this sample of patients presenting a predominance of large opacities (75% of the individuals), the deterioration of pulmonary function was associated with the extent of structural changes. Conclusions: In the early detection of silicosis and the identification of progressive massive fibrosis, HRCT scans are superior to X-rays. (author)

  4. High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tivnan, Matthew; Gurjar, Rajan; Wolf, David E; Vishwanath, Karthik

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) is a well-established optical technique that has been used for non-invasive measurement of blood flow in tissues. Instrumentation for DCS includes a correlation device that computes the temporal intensity autocorrelation of a coherent laser source after it has undergone diffuse scattering through a turbid medium. Typically, the signal acquisition and its autocorrelation are performed by a correlation board. These boards have dedicated hardware to acquire and compute intensity autocorrelations of rapidly varying input signal and usually are quite expensive. Here we show that a Raspberry Pi minicomputer can acquire and store a rapidly varying time-signal with high fidelity. We show that this signal collected by a Raspberry Pi device can be processed numerically to yield intensity autocorrelations well suited for DCS applications. DCS measurements made using the Raspberry Pi device were compared to those acquired using a commercial hardware autocorrelation board to investigate the stability, performance, and accuracy of the data acquired in controlled experiments. This paper represents a first step toward lowering the instrumentation cost of a DCS system and may offer the potential to make DCS become more widely used in biomedical applications. PMID:26274961

  5. Serum leptin levels correlation with high blood pressure in adult females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure serum leptin levels and compare them in lean and obese subjects and to identify correlation between serum leptin levels, heart rate and hypertension in lean and obese subjects among adult females. Seventy female subjects with different body mass indices were selected from OPD of Jinnah Medical and Dental College Hospital (OPD), Karachi. Heart rate was counted manually; blood pressure was measured by mercury sphygmomanometer while serum leptin was measured using enzyme-linked immunoassay. The outcomes hypertension and heart rate were correlated to risk factor leptin. Mean heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and serum leptin levels of obese people were 90+-1, 142+-2, 89+-1 and 24.13+-1.7 respectively, which were significantly higher as compared to lean subjects (p<0.05). All the parameters correlated positively and significantly with increasing BMI. There was a relationship of tachycardia and hypertension with high serum leptin levels in obesity. Serum leptin levels increase with the level of obesity. Hyper-leptinemia is associated with tachycardia and increases in both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in obesity via complex mechanisms. (author)

  6. Correlation between the High Density Lipoprotein and its Subtypes in Coronary Heart Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen Gao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To detect the changes of high density lipoprotein (HDL and its subtypes in serum of patients with coronary heart disease (CHD. Methods: 337 hospitalized patients were selected from our hospital during August, 2014 - January, 2015, and divided into CHD group (n = 190 and control group (n = 127. Lipoprint lipoprotein analyzer was used to classify low density lipoprotein (LDL particle size and its sub-components, as well as HDL particle size and its sub-components. The changes of the subtypes in patients with CHD were statistically analyzed. The possible mechanism was explored. Results: (1 Compared with the control group, the concentration of HDL in CHD patients reduced, HDLL significantly decreased (P S increased (P L had the most significant decreased; (3 HDL and all HDL subtypes were positively correlated with apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I, of which, HDLL had the biggest correlation with apoA-I (P M had a maximum correlation with HDL (P Conclusion: HDL maturation disorders existed in the serum of CHD patients, HDLL may be protected factor for CHD, whose decrease was closely related wit the risk increase of CHD. The cardiovascular protection function of HDLL may be related with apoA-I content.

  7. High Frequency Sampling of TTL Pulses on a Raspberry Pi for Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Tivnan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS is a well-established optical technique that has been used for non-invasive measurement of blood flow in tissues. Instrumentation for DCS includes a correlation device that computes the temporal intensity autocorrelation of a coherent laser source after it has undergone diffuse scattering through a turbid medium. Typically, the signal acquisition and its autocorrelation are performed by a correlation board. These boards have dedicated hardware to acquire and compute intensity autocorrelations of rapidly varying input signal and usually are quite expensive. Here we show that a Raspberry Pi minicomputer can acquire and store a rapidly varying time-signal with high fidelity. We show that this signal collected by a Raspberry Pi device can be processed numerically to yield intensity autocorrelations well suited for DCS applications. DCS measurements made using the Raspberry Pi device were compared to those acquired using a commercial hardware autocorrelation board to investigate the stability, performance, and accuracy of the data acquired in controlled experiments. This paper represents a first step toward lowering the instrumentation cost of a DCS system and may offer the potential to make DCS become more widely used in biomedical applications.

  8. High-resolution computed tomography in silicosis: correlation with chest radiography and pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To correlate tomographic findings with pulmonary function findings, as well as to compare chest X-ray findings with high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) findings, in patients with silicosis. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 44 non-smoking patients without a history of tuberculosis. Chest X-ray findings were classified according to the International Labour Organization recommendations. Using a semiquantitative system, the following HRCT findings were measured: the full extent of pulmonary involvement; parenchymal opacities; and emphysema. Spirometry and forced oscillation were performed. Pulmonary volumes were evaluated using the helium dilution method, and diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was assessed. Results: Of the 44 patients studied, 41 were male. The mean age was 48.4 years. There were 4 patients who were classified as category 0 based on X-ray findings and as category 1 based on HRCT findings. Using HRCT scans, we identified progressive massive fibrosis in 33 patients, compared with only 23 patients when X-rays were used. Opacity score was found to correlate most closely with airflow, DLCO and compliance. Emphysema score correlated inversely with volume, DLCO and airflow. In this sample of patients presenting a predominance of large opacities (75% of the individuals), the deterioration of pulmonary function was associated with the extent of structural changes. Conclusions: In the early detection of silicosis and the identification of progressive massive fibrosis, HRCT scans are superior to X-rays. (author)

  9. Correlation of immunologic status with high-resolution CT and distributions of pulmonary tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To investigate the correlation of cluster of differentiation (CD)4 lymphocyte counts with high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings and distribution of pulmonary tuberculosis. Material and Methods: Thirty-seven bacteriologically proven pulmonary tuberculosis, clinically non-AIDS, patients underwent HRCT and CD4 lymphocyte counts in peripheral blood cells were obtained within 3 days after the CT examinations. Patients were categorized into four groups according to CD4 lymphocyte counts (A >800; B 800-500; C 500-200; D <200). HRCT findings analyzed were as follows: typical, atypical, and mixed findings of post-primary tuberculosis, common, uncommon, and mixed distribution, and number of lobes involved. Results: CD4 lymphocyte counts correlated with the degree of the mixture of atypical CT findings (=0.565, p<0.001) and the degree of the mixture of uncommon distribution (=0.431, p<0.01). Number of involved lobes showed no statistically significant correlation (=0.209, p=0.21). Conclusion: In patients with low CD4 levels, atypical HRCT findings co-exist with typical findings, and uncommon sites are involved in addition to common sites

  10. Attempt of alpine glacier flow modeling based on correlation measurements of high resolution SAR images

    OpenAIRE

    Yan, Yajing; Ferro-Famil, Laurent; Gay, Michel; Fallourd, Renaud; Trouvé, Emmanuel; Vernier, Flavien

    2013-01-01

    International audience In this paper, an attempt of Alpine glacier flow modeling is performed based on a series of high resolution TerraSAR-X SAR images and a Digital Elevation Model. First, a glacier flow model is established according to the fluid mechanics theory in a simplified framework. Second, the displacement field over the glacier obtained from the sub-pixel image correlation of a series of TerraSAR-X SAR images is used to refine the model obtained previously. The comparison betwe...

  11. Treating jet correlations in high pile-up at hadron colliders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Hautmann

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Experiments in the high-luminosity runs at the Large Hadron Collider face the challenges of very large pile-up. Primary techniques to deal with this are based on precise vertex and track reconstruction. Outside tracker acceptances, however, lie regions of interest for many aspects of the LHC physics program. We explore complementary approaches to pile-up treatment and propose a data-driven jet-mixing method which can be used outside tracker acceptances without depending on Monte Carlo generators. The method can be applied to treat correlation observables and take into account, besides the jet transverse momentum pedestal, effects of hard jets from pile-up.

  12. Study of Isospin Correlation in High Energy Heavy Ion Interactions with the RHIC PHENIX. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Y.

    2003-06-08

    This report describes the research work performed under the support of the DOE research grant E-FG02-97ER4108. The work is composed of three parts: (1) Visual analysis and quality control of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PHENIX experiments carried out of Brookhaven National Laboratory. (2) Continuation of the data analysis of the EMU05/09/16 experiments for the study of the inclusive particle production spectra and multi-particle correlation. (3) Exploration of a new statistical means to study very high-multiplicity of nuclear-particle ensembles and its perspectives to apply to the higher energy experiments.

  13. Study of Isospin Correlation in High Energy Heavy Ion Interactions with the RHIC PHENIX. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the research work performed under the support of the DOE research grant E-FG02-97ER4108. The work is composed of three parts: (1) Visual analysis and quality control of the Micro Vertex Detector (MVD) of the PHENIX experiments carried out of Brookhaven National Laboratory. (2) Continuation of the data analysis of the EMU05/09/16 experiments for the study of the inclusive particle production spectra and multi-particle correlation. (3) Exploration of a new statistical means to study very high-multiplicity of nuclear-particle ensembles and its perspectives to apply to the higher energy experiments

  14. High-speed optical correlation-domain reflectometry without using acousto-optic modulator

    CERN Document Server

    Shizuka, Makoto; Hayashi, Neisei; Mizuno, Yosuke; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2015-01-01

    To achieve a distributed reflectivity measurement along an optical fiber, we develop a simplified cost-effective configuration of optical correlation- (or coherence-) domain reflectometry based on a synthesized optical coherence function by sinusoidal modulation. By excluding conventional optical heterodyne detection (practically, without using an acousto-optic modulator) and by exploiting the foot of the Fresnel reflection spectrum, the electrical bandwidth required for signal processing is lowered down to several megahertz. We evaluate the basic system performance and demonstrate its high-speed operation (10 ms for one scan) by tracking a moving reflection point in real time.

  15. Damage correlations in semiconductor devices exposed to gamma and high energy swift heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs are irradiated by different high energy swift heavy ions and 60Co gamma radiation in the dose range of 100 krad to 100 Mrad. The damage created by different heavy ions and 60Co gamma radiation in NPN rf power transistors and N-channel depletion MOSFETs have been correlated and studied in the same dose range. The recoveries in the electrical characteristics of different swift heavy ions and 60Co gamma irradiated devices have been studied after annihilation

  16. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion; Smith, Joseph D; Pagano, Ian S; Ako, Simon; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2012-01-01

    VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab) to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2). Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM(-)) at delivery. Results showed that PM(-) women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047) and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009) than PM(+) women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI) and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9) and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0) reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria. PMID:22761948

  17. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeung Lo Tutterrow

    Full Text Available VAR2CSA mediates sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes in the placenta, increasing the risk of poor pregnancy outcomes. Naturally acquired antibodies (Ab to placental parasites at delivery have been associated with improved pregnancy outcomes, but Ab levels and how early in pregnancy Ab must be present in order to eliminate placental parasites before delivery remains unknown. Antibodies to individual Duffy-binding like domains of VAR2CSA have been studied, but the domains lack many of the conformational epitopes present in full-length VAR2CSA (FV2. Thus, the purpose of this study was to describe the acquisition of Ab to FV2 in women residing in high and low transmission areas and determine how Ab levels during pregnancy correlate with clearance of placental parasites. Plasma samples collected monthly throughout pregnancy from pregnant women living in high and low transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4SCN was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+ and those without (PM(- at delivery. Results showed that PM(- women had significantly higher Ab levels (p = 0.0047 and proportion of high avidity Ab (p = 0.0009 than PM(+ women throughout pregnancy. Specifically, women with moderate to high Ab levels (>5,000 MFI and those with ≥ 35% high avidity Ab at 5-6 months were found to have 2.3 (95% CI, 1.0-4.9 and 7.6-fold (p = 0.0013, 95% CI: 1.2-50.0 reduced risk of placental malaria, respectively. These data show that high levels of Ab to FV2, particularly those with high avidity for FV2, produced by mid-pregnancy are important in clearing parasites from the placenta. Both high Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 may serve as correlates of protection for assessing immunity against placental malaria.

  18. Local Ancestry Inference in a Large US-Based Hispanic/Latino Study: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL)

    OpenAIRE

    Browning, Sharon R.; Kelsey Grinde; Anna Plantinga; Gogarten, Stephanie M.; Stilp, Adrienne M.; Kaplan, Robert C.; M. Larissa Avilés-Santa; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C.

    2016-01-01

    We estimated local ancestry on the autosomes and X chromosome in a large US-based study of 12,793 Hispanic/Latino individuals using the RFMix method, and we compared different reference panels and approaches to local ancestry estimation on the X chromosome by means of Mendelian inconsistency rates as a proxy for accuracy. We developed a novel and straightforward approach to performing ancestry-specific PCA after finding artifactual behavior in the results from an existing approach. Using the ...

  19. High correlation between quantitative ultrasound and DXA during 7 years of follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrasound is a quick, cheap and non-radiating device for assessing bone quality. We wanted to validate the method for clinical and epidemiological use. Eighty women, aged 53-73 years, with osteoporosis and/or fractures were followed repeatedly during 7 years. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) measurements (LUNAR Achilles) were compared with bone mineral density (BMD) and bone mineral content (BMC) estimated by DXA (LUNAR) in regions of interest. Changes in the speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation and stiffness were positively correlated with changes in BMD and BMC in all regions measured with DXA (r = 0.20-0.53; p = 0.09 to <0.0001). The QUS t-score at the left heel was positively correlated with the t-score at the right heel (r = 0.90, p < 0.0001). The DXA t-score of the left vs. the right femur was also positively correlated (r = 0.72-0.86; p < 0.0001). A t-score < -2.5 S.D. was found in 70% and 56% at baseline, and 74% and 65% at follow-up measured with QUS and DXA, respectively. The mean sensitivity of QUS vs. DXA was 79% and the mean specificity 45% over a 7-year period. A QUS t-score of <-3.65 S.D. was consistent with a DXA t-score of <-2.5 S.D. In conclusion, QUS was well correlated with DXA in all regions over the 7-year period. QUS can be used in settings without access to DXA and in epidemiological studies. The sensitivity was high but the specificity was low, implicating that DXA, if available, is recommended before treatment for osteoporosis. However, treatment can be started without DXA at a QUS t-score < -3.65 S.D., and especially in the presence of fractures.

  20. Ancestry and diversity of the HMG box superfamily

    OpenAIRE

    Laudet, V; Stehelin, D.; Clevers, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    The HMG box is a novel type of DNA-binding domain found in a diverse group of proteins. The HMG box superfamily comprises a.o. the High Mobility Group proteins HMG1 and HMG2, the nucleolar transcription factor UBF, the lymphoid transcription factors TCF-1 and LEF-1, the fungal mating-type genes mat-Mc and MATA1, and the mammalian sex-determining gene SRY. The superfamily dates back to at least 1,000 million years ago, as its members appear in animals, plants and yeast. Alignment of all known ...

  1. Ancestry of modern Europeans: contributions of ancient DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacan, Marie; Keyser, Christine; Crubézy, Eric; Ludes, Bertrand

    2013-07-01

    Understanding the peopling history of Europe is crucial to comprehend the origins of modern populations. Of course, the analysis of current genetic data offers several explanations about human migration patterns which occurred on this continent, but it fails to explain precisely the impact of each demographic event. In this context, direct access to the DNA of ancient specimens allows the overcoming of recent demographic phenomena, which probably highly modified the constitution of the current European gene pool. In recent years, several DNA studies have been successfully conducted from ancient human remains thanks to the improvement of molecular techniques. They have brought new fundamental information on the peopling of Europe and allowed us to refine our understanding of European prehistory. In this review, we will detail all the ancient DNA studies performed to date on ancient European DNA from the Middle Paleolithic to the beginning of the protohistoric period. PMID:23052219

  2. Deciphering Equine Evolution and Spatial Ancestry with Ancient Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jónsson, Hákon

    genetic anity to ancient individuals, which often represents the key question in human paleogenomic projects. We applied the computational infrastructure developed to complete the genomic characterization of extant members of the genus Equus, which is composed of horses, asses and zebras. We sequenced the......-flow between lineages despite considerable heterogeneity in chromosomal organization. Finally, we explored the genetic footprint of horse domestication and reconstructed the population context in which domestication took place, by sequencing complete genomes of ancient horses significantly predating......High-throughput sequencing has opened ancient DNA research to genomics, revolutionizing the amount of genetic information retrievable from archaeological and paleontological remains. Paleogenomics is still in infancy and requires substantial improvements in computational methods tailored to the...

  3. Genetic evidence for the Mongolian ancestry of Kalmyks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasidze, Ivan; Quinque, Dominique; Dupanloup, Isabelle; Cordaux, Richard; Kokshunova, Lyudmila; Stoneking, Mark

    2005-12-01

    The Kalmyks are an ethnic group along the lower Volga River in Russia who are thought to have migrated there from Mongolia about 300 years ago. To investigate their origins, we studied mtDNA and Y-chromosome variation in 99 Kalmyks. Both mtDNA HV1 sequences and Y-chromosome SNP haplogroups indicate a close relationship of Kalmyks with Mongolians. In addition, genetic diversity for both mtDNA and the Y chromosome are comparable in Kalmyks, Mongolians, and other Central Asian groups, indicating that the Kalmyk migration was not associated with a substantial bottleneck. The so-called "Genghis Khan" Y-chromosome short tandem repeat (STR) haplotype was found in high frequency (31.3%) among Kalmyks, further supporting a strong genetic connection between Kalmyks and Mongolians. Genetic analyses of even recent, relatively well-documented migrations such as of the Kalmyks can therefore lead to new insights concerning such migrations. PMID:16028228

  4. Morpho morphometrics: Shared ancestry and selection drive the evolution of wing size and shape in Morpho butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chazot, Nicolas; Panara, Stephen; Zilbermann, Nicolas; Blandin, Patrick; Le Poul, Yann; Cornette, Raphaël; Elias, Marianne; Debat, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Butterfly wings harbor highly diverse phenotypes and are involved in many functions. Wing size and shape result from interactions between adaptive processes, phylogenetic history, and developmental constraints, which are complex to disentangle. Here, we focus on the genus Morpho (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae, 30 species), which presents a high diversity of sizes, shapes, and color patterns. First, we generate a comprehensive molecular phylogeny of these 30 species. Next, using 911 collection specimens, we quantify the variation of wing size and shape across species, to assess the importance of shared ancestry, microhabitat use, and sexual selection in the evolution of the wings. While accounting for phylogenetic and allometric effects, we detect a significant difference in wing shape but not size among microhabitats. Fore and hindwings covary at the individual and species levels, and the covariation differs among microhabitats. However, the microhabitat structure in covariation disappears when phylogenetic relationships are taken into account. Our results demonstrate that microhabitat has driven wing shape evolution, although it has not strongly affected forewing and hindwing integration. We also found that sexual dimorphism of forewing shape and color pattern are coupled, suggesting a common selective force. PMID:26688277

  5. Genomic study of the Ket: a Paleo-Eskimo-related ethnic group with significant ancient North Eurasian ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegontov, Pavel; Changmai, Piya; Zidkova, Anastassiya; Logacheva, Maria D; Altınışık, N Ezgi; Flegontova, Olga; Gelfand, Mikhail S; Gerasimov, Evgeny S; Khrameeva, Ekaterina E; Konovalova, Olga P; Neretina, Tatiana; Nikolsky, Yuri V; Starostin, George; Stepanova, Vita V; Travinsky, Igor V; Tříska, Martin; Tříska, Petr; Tatarinova, Tatiana V

    2016-01-01

    The Kets, an ethnic group in the Yenisei River basin, Russia, are considered the last nomadic hunter-gatherers of Siberia, and Ket language has no transparent affiliation with any language family. We investigated connections between the Kets and Siberian and North American populations, with emphasis on the Mal'ta and Paleo-Eskimo ancient genomes, using original data from 46 unrelated samples of Kets and 42 samples of their neighboring ethnic groups (Uralic-speaking Nganasans, Enets, and Selkups). We genotyped over 130,000 autosomal SNPs, identified mitochondrial and Y-chromosomal haplogroups, and performed high-coverage genome sequencing of two Ket individuals. We established that Nganasans, Kets, Selkups, and Yukaghirs form a cluster of populations most closely related to Paleo-Eskimos in Siberia (not considering indigenous populations of Chukotka and Kamchatka). Kets are closely related to modern Selkups and to some Bronze and Iron Age populations of the Altai region, with all these groups sharing a high degree of Mal'ta ancestry. Implications of these findings for the linguistic hypothesis uniting Ket and Na-Dene languages into a language macrofamily are discussed. PMID:26865217

  6. Electron correlation in high energy double ionization of helium by Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliman, Zoran, E-mail: kaliman@phy.uniri.h [Department of Physics, University of Rijeka, Rijeka (Croatia); Pisk, Krunoslav, E-mail: pisk@irb.h [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P. O. Box 180, Zagreb (Croatia); University of Dubrovnik, Dubrovnik (Croatia); Suric, Tihomir, E-mail: suric@irb.h [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P. O. Box 180, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2010-07-21

    We report new results of calculations for double ionization of helium by high energy Compton scattering. Our calculation is based on a recently developed perturbative approach, which describes the process in terms of two amplitudes: the shake off (SO) amplitude which includes all initial state correlations and final state interaction (FSI) amplitude. The shake amplitude is based on sudden approximation, and we evaluate the amplitude using highly correlated ground state wave function. The FSI amplitude includes Coulomb interaction between the ejected electrons perturbatively. We present the energy dependence of R, the ratio of the double to single ionization cross-section in the energy range of 30-200 keV of the incident photon energy. We obtain R=0.82% at the asymptotic energy of 200 keV. In the range from 30 to 80 keV the superposition of the shake and FSI amplitude gives the energy dependence of R which agrees very well with the experimental data. We present also the calculation of doubly differential cross-section with respect to the slow ejected electron energy and angle between ejected electrons.

  7. The correlation of integral experiments and high-energy cross-sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The correlation of integral experiments and high-energy cross-sections. Recent work on the correlation of integral experiments and high-energy cross-sections is discussed. The importance of integral data where cross-section measurements are inadequate is pointed out. The sensitivity of estimates of fast fission of U238 to inelastic cross-sections and energy degradation in the MeV energy range is shown by comparison of integral data with Monte Carlo calculations. It is shown that the Snell experiment is a sensitive index to the absolute values of inelastic cross-sections above 1.4 MeV. The results of attempts by the Brookhaven Cross-Section Evaluation Group to reconcile measurements of inelastic cross-sections of U238 are given. Other areas where integral data and critical experiments can be used to reduce computational uncertainties are the fast effect in beryllium, and η of U233 at intermediate energies. Critical experiments can reduce the present uncertainty in Be (n, 2n) cross-sections and in intermediate energy values of η23. (author)

  8. The Far-Infrared Radio Correlation at High-z: Prospects for the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Murphy, Eric J

    2009-01-01

    In this conference proceedings article I summarize the recent work of Murphy (2009) which presents physically motivated predictions for the evolution of the Far-Infrared--radio correlation as a function of redshift arising from variations in the cosmic-ray (CR) electron cooling time-scales as Inverse Compton (IC) scattering off of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) becomes increasingly important. Since the non-thermal component of a galaxy's radio continuum is increasingly suppressed with redshift, radio continuum measurements at moderately high frequency ($\\sim$10 GHz) become one of the cleanest ways to quantify the star formation activity of galaxies at high redshifts unbiased by dust. Given the focus of the conference, extra emphasis placed on what this may mean for deep radio continuum surveys using next generation radio facilities such as the Square Kilometer Array (SKA).

  9. Correlation of Pc5 wave power inside and outside themagnetosphere during high speed streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Kessel

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available We show a clear correlation between the ULF wave power (Pc5 range inside and outside the Earth's magnetosphere during high speed streams in 1995. We trace fluctuations beginning 200RE upstream using Wind data, to fluctuations just upstream from Earth's bow shock and in the magnetosheath using Geotail data and compare to pulsations on the ground at the Kilpisjarvi ground station. With our 5-month data set we draw the following conclusions. ULF fluctuations in the Pc5 range are found in high speed streams; they are non-Alfvénic at the leading edge and Alfvénic in the central region. Compressional and Alfvénic fluctuations are modulated at the bow shock, some features of the waveforms are preserved in the magnetosheath, but overall turbulence and wave power is enhanced by about a factor of 10. Parallel (compressional and perpendicular (transverse power are at comparable levels in the solar wind and magnetosheath, both in the compression region and in the central region of high speed streams. Both the total parallel and perpendicular Pc5 power in the solar wind (and to a lesser extent in the magnetosheath correlate well with the total Pc5 power of the ground-based H-component magnetic field. ULF fluctuations in the magnetosheath during high speed streams are common at frequencies from 1–4mHz and can coincide with the cavity eigenfrequencies of 1.3, 1.9, 2.6, and 3.4mHz, though other discrete frequencies are also often seen.

    Key words. Interplanetary physics (MHD waves and turbulence – Magnetospheric physics (solar wind-magnetosphere interactions; MHD waves and instabilities

  10. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Teneurins: Conserved Features and Premetazoan Ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Richard P.; Beckmann, Jan; Leachman, Nathaniel T.; Schöler, Jonas; Chiquet-Ehrismann, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Teneurins are type II transmembrane proteins expressed during pattern formation and neurogenesis with an intracellular domain that can be transported to the nucleus and an extracellular domain that can be shed into the extracellular milieu. In Drosophila melanogaster, Caenorhabditis elegans, and mouse the knockdown or knockout of teneurin expression can lead to abnormal patterning, defasciculation, and abnormal pathfinding of neurites, and the disruption of basement membranes. Here, we have identified and analyzed teneurins from a broad range of metazoan genomes for nuclear localization sequences, protein interaction domains, and furin cleavage sites and have cloned and sequenced the intracellular domains of human and avian teneurins to analyze alternative splicing. The basic organization of teneurins is highly conserved in Bilateria: all teneurins have epidermal growth factor (EGF) repeats, a cysteine-rich domain, and a large region identical in organization to the carboxy-half of prokaryotic YD-repeat proteins. Teneurins were not found in the genomes of sponges, cnidarians, or placozoa, but the choanoflagellate Monosiga brevicollis has a gene encoding a predicted teneurin with a transmembrane domain, EGF repeats, a cysteine-rich domain, and a region homologous to YD-repeat proteins. Further examination revealed that most of the extracellular domain of the M. brevicollis teneurin is encoded on a single huge 6,829-bp exon and that the cysteine-rich domain is similar to sequences found in an enzyme expressed by the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum. This leads us to suggest that teneurins are complex hybrid fusion proteins that evolved in a choanoflagellate via horizontal gene transfer from both a prokaryotic gene and a diatom or algal gene, perhaps to improve the capacity of the choanoflagellate to bind to its prokaryotic prey. As choanoflagellates are considered to be the closest living relatives of animals, the expression of a primitive teneurin by an ancestral

  11. Global divergence of the human follicle mite Demodex folliculorum: Persistent associations between host ancestry and mite lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palopoli, Michael F; Fergus, Daniel J; Minot, Samuel; Pei, Dorothy T; Simison, W Brian; Fernandez-Silva, Iria; Thoemmes, Megan S; Dunn, Robert R; Trautwein, Michelle

    2015-12-29

    Microscopic mites of the genus Demodex live within the hair follicles of mammals and are ubiquitous symbionts of humans, but little molecular work has been done to understand their genetic diversity or transmission. Here we sampled mite DNA from 70 human hosts of diverse geographic ancestries and analyzed 241 sequences from the mitochondrial genome of the species Demodex folliculorum. Phylogenetic analyses recovered multiple deep lineages including a globally distributed lineage common among hosts of European ancestry and three lineages that primarily include hosts of Asian, African, and Latin American ancestry. To a great extent, the ancestral geography of hosts predicted the lineages of mites found on them; 27% of the total molecular variance segregated according to the regional ancestries of hosts. We found that D. folliculorum populations are stable on an individual over the course of years and that some Asian and African American hosts maintain specific mite lineages over the course of years or generations outside their geographic region of birth or ancestry. D. folliculorum haplotypes were much more likely to be shared within families and between spouses than between unrelated individuals, indicating that transmission requires close contact. Dating analyses indicated that D. folliculorum origins may predate modern humans. Overall, D. folliculorum evolution reflects ancient human population divergences, is consistent with an out-of-Africa dispersal hypothesis, and presents an excellent model system for further understanding the history of human movement. PMID:26668374

  12. Genetic association for renal traits among participants of African ancestry reveals new loci for renal function.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD is an increasing global public health concern, particularly among populations of African ancestry. We performed an interrogation of known renal loci, genome-wide association (GWA, and IBC candidate-gene SNP association analyses in African Americans from the CARe Renal Consortium. In up to 8,110 participants, we performed meta-analyses of GWA and IBC array data for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR, CKD (eGFR 30 mg/g and interrogated the 250 kb flanking region around 24 SNPs previously identified in European Ancestry renal GWAS analyses. Findings were replicated in up to 4,358 African Americans. To assess function, individually identified genes were knocked down in zebrafish embryos by morpholino antisense oligonucleotides. Expression of kidney-specific genes was assessed by in situ hybridization, and glomerular filtration was evaluated by dextran clearance. Overall, 23 of 24 previously identified SNPs had direction-consistent associations with eGFR in African Americans, 2 of which achieved nominal significance (UMOD, PIP5K1B. Interrogation of the flanking regions uncovered 24 new index SNPs in African Americans, 12 of which were replicated (UMOD, ANXA9, GCKR, TFDP2, DAB2, VEGFA, ATXN2, GATM, SLC22A2, TMEM60, SLC6A13, and BCAS3. In addition, we identified 3 suggestive loci at DOK6 (p-value = 5.3×10(-7 and FNDC1 (p-value = 3.0×10(-7 for UACR, and KCNQ1 with eGFR (p = 3.6×10(-6. Morpholino knockdown of kcnq1 in the zebrafish resulted in abnormal kidney development and filtration capacity. We identified several SNPs in association with eGFR in African Ancestry individuals, as well as 3 suggestive loci for UACR and eGFR. Functional genetic studies support a role for kcnq1 in glomerular development in zebrafish.

  13. High-latitude plasma convection from Cluster EDI: variances and solar wind correlations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Förster

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Based on drift velocity measurements of the EDI instruments on Cluster during the years 2001–2006, we have constructed a database of high-latitude ionospheric convection velocities and associated solar wind and magnetospheric activity parameters. In an earlier paper (Haaland et al., 2007, we have described the method, consisting of an improved technique for calculating the propagation delay between the chosen solar wind monitor (ACE and Earth's magnetosphere, filtering the data for periods of sufficiently stable IMF orientations, and mapping the EDI measurements from their high-altitude positions to ionospheric altitudes. The present paper extends this study, by looking at the spatial pattern of the variances of the convection velocities as a function of IMF orientation, and by performing sortings of the data according to the IMF magnitude in the GSM y-z plane, |ByzIMF|, the estimated reconnection electric field, Er,sw, the solar wind dynamic pressure, Pdyn, the season, and indices characterizing the ring current (Dst and tail activity (ASYM-H. The variability of the high-latitude convection shows characteristic spatial patterns, which are mirror symmetric between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres with respect to the IMF By component. The latitude range of the highest variability zone varies with IMF Bz similar to the auroral oval extent. The magnitude of convection standard deviations is of the same order as, or even larger than, the convection magnitude itself. Positive correlations of polar cap activity are found with |ByzIMF| and with Er,sw, in particular. The strict linear increase for small magnitudes of Er,sw starts to deviate toward a flattened increase above about 2 mV/m. There is also a weak positive correlation with Pdyn. At

  14. Nuclear correlation and finite interaction-range effects in high-energy $(e,e'p)$ nuclear transparency

    OpenAIRE

    Seki, Ryoichi; Shoppa, T. D.; Kohama, Akihisa; Yazaki, Koichi

    1995-01-01

    Nuclear transparency is calculated for high-energy, semi-inclusive $(e,e'p)$ reactions, by accounting for all orders of Glauber multiple-scattering and by using realistic finite-range $p N$ interaction and (dynamically and statistically) correlated nuclear wave functions. The nuclear correlation effect is reduced due to the $p N$ finite-range effect. The net effect is small, and depends sensitively on details of the nuclear correlations in finite nuclei, which are poorly known at present.

  15. Screening for the beta-thalassaemia trait: hazards among populations of West African Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    Gibson, Felicea; Mason, Karlene; Serjeant, Beryl; Kulozik, Andreas; Happich, Margit; Tolle, Gabriele; Hambleton, Ian; Serjeant, Graham

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the accuracy and characteristics of detecting the beta-thalassaemia trait in populations of West African ancestry. School children, aged 16–19 years, in Manchester Parish, Jamaica were screened to detect the genes which could give rise to offspring with sickle cell disease. Haematological indices and HbA2 levels in subjects with an MCH ≤ 26 pg and an RDW G in 19 (25%), −90 C>T in 7 (9%), the IVS II-849 A>G in 5 (6%) with smaller contributions from five oth...

  16. A high performance cost-effective digital complex correlator for an X-band polarimetry survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergano, Miguel; Rocha, Armando; Cupido, Luís; Barbosa, Domingos; Villela, Thyrso; Boas, José Vilas; Rocha, Graça; Smoot, George F

    2016-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the Milky Way radio emission is important to characterize galactic foregrounds masking extragalactic and cosmological signals. The update of the global sky models describing radio emissions over a very large spectral band requires high sensitivity experiments capable of observing large sky areas with long integration times. Here, we present the design of a new 10 GHz (X-band) polarimeter digital back-end to map the polarization components of the galactic synchrotron radiation field of the Northern Hemisphere sky. The design follows the digital processing trends in radio astronomy and implements a large bandwidth (1 GHz) digital complex cross-correlator to extract the Stokes parameters of the incoming synchrotron radiation field. The hardware constraints cover the implemented VLSI hardware description language code and the preliminary results. The implementation is based on the simultaneous digitized acquisition of the Cartesian components of the two linear receiver polarization channels. The design strategy involves a double data rate acquisition of the ADC interleaved parallel bus, and field programmable gate array device programming at the register transfer mode. The digital core of the back-end is capable of processing 32 Gbps and is built around an Altera field programmable gate array clocked at 250 MHz, 1 GSps analog to digital converters and a clock generator. The control of the field programmable gate array internal signal delays and a convenient use of its phase locked loops provide the timing requirements to achieve the target bandwidths and sensitivity. This solution is convenient for radio astronomy experiments requiring large bandwidth, high functionality, high volume availability and low cost. Of particular interest, this correlator was developed for the Galactic Emission Mapping project and is suitable for large sky area polarization continuum surveys. The solutions may also be adapted to be used at signal processing

  17. The correlates of urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in a high risk Australian aboriginal community

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Albuminuria marks renal disease and cardiovascular risk. It was estimated to contribute 75% of the risk of all-cause natural death in one Aboriginal group. The urine albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR) is commonly used as an index of albuminuria. This study aims to examine the associations between demographic factors, anthropometric index, blood pressure, lipid-protein measurements and other biomarkers and albuminuria in a cross-sectional study in a high-risk Australian Aboriginal population. The models will be evaluated for albuminuria at or above the microalbuminuria threshold, and at or above the “overt albuminuria” threshold with the potential to distinguish associations they have in common and those that differ. Methods This was a cross-sectional study of 598 adults aged 18–76 years. All participants were grouped into quartiles by age. Logistic regression models were used to explore the correlates of ACR categories. Results The significant correlates were systolic blood pressure (SBP), C-reactive protein (CRP), uric acid, diabetes, gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (marginally significant, p = 0.054) and serum albumin (negative association) for ACR 17+ (mg/g) for men and 25+ for women. Independent correlates were SBP, uric acid, diabetes, total cholesterol, alanine amino transferase (ALT), Cystatin C and serum albumin (negative association) for overt albuminuria; and SBP, CRP and serum albumin only for microalbuminuria. Conclusions This is the most detailed modelling of pathologic albuminuria in this setting to date. The somewhat variable association with risk factors suggests that microalbuminuria and overt albuminuria might reflect different as well as shared phenomena. PMID:23947772

  18. Radiation propagation in random media: From positive to negative correlations in high-frequency fluctuations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We survey research on radiation propagation or ballistic particle motion through media with randomly variable material density, and we investigate the topic with an emphasis on very high spatial frequencies. Our new results are based on a specific variability model consisting of a zero-mean Gaussian scaling noise riding on a constant value that is large enough with respect to the amplitude of the noise to yield overwhelmingly non-negative density. We first generalize known results about sub-exponential transmission from regular functions, which are almost everywhere continuous, to merely 'measurable' ones, which are almost everywhere discontinuous (akin to statistically stationary noises), with positively correlated fluctuations. We then use the generalized measure-theoretic formulation to address negatively correlated stochastic media without leaving the framework of conventional (continuum-limit) transport theory. We thus resolve a controversy about recent claims that only discrete-point process approaches can accommodate negative correlations, i.e., anti-clustering of the material particles. We obtain in this case the predicted super-exponential behavior, but it is rather weak. Physically, and much like the alternative discrete-point process approach, the new model applies most naturally to scales commensurate with the inter-particle distance in the material, i.e., when the notion of particle density breaks down due to Poissonian-or maybe not-so-Poissonian-number-count fluctuations occur in the sample volume. At the same time, the noisy structure must prevail up to scales commensurate with the mean-free-path to be of practical significance. Possible applications are discussed.

  19. Towards high velocity deformation characterisation of metals and composites using Digital Image Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulieu-Barton J.M.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Characterisation of materials subject to high velocity deformation is necessary as many materials behave differently under such conditions. It is particularly important for accurate numerical simulation of high strain rate events. High velocity servo-hydraulic test machines have enabled material testing in the strain rate regime from 1 – 500 ε/s. The range is much lower than that experienced under ballistic, shock or impact loads, nevertheless it is a useful starting point for the application of optical techniques. The present study examines the possibility of using high speed cameras to capture images and then extracting deformation data using Digital Image Correlation (DIC from tensile testing in the intermediate strain rate regime available with the test machines. Three different materials, aluminium alloy 1050, S235 steel and glass fibre reinforced plastic (GFRP were tested at different nominal strain rates ranging from quasi static to 200 ε/s. In all cases DIC was able to analyse data collected up to fracture and in some cases post fracture. The use of highspeed DIC made it possible to capture phenomena such as multiple necking in the aluminium specimens and post compression failure in GFRP specimens.

  20. High frequency magnetic fluctuations correlated with the inter-ELM pedestal evolution in ASDEX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laggner, F. M.; Wolfrum, E.; Cavedon, M.; Mink, F.; Viezzer, E.; Dunne, M. G.; Manz, P.; Doerk, H.; Birkenmeier, G.; Fischer, R.; Fietz, S.; Maraschek, M.; Willensdorfer, M.; Aumayr, F.; the EUROfusion MST1 Team; the ASDEX Upgrade Team

    2016-06-01

    In order to understand the mechanisms that determine the structure of the high confinement mode (H-mode) pedestal, the evolution of the plasma edge electron density and temperature profiles between edge localised modes (ELMs) is investigated. The onset of radial magnetic fluctuations with frequencies above 200 kHz is found to correlate with the stagnation of the electron temperature pedestal gradient. During the presence of these magnetic fluctuations the gradients of the edge electron density and temperature are clamped and stable against the ELM onset. The detected magnetic fluctuation frequency is analysed for a variety of plasma discharges with different electron pressure pedestals. It is shown that the magnetic fluctuation frequency scales with the neoclassically estimated \\text{E} × \\text{B} velocity at the plasma edge. This points to a location of the underlying instability in the gradient region. Furthermore, the magnetic signature of these fluctuations indicates a global mode structure with toroidal mode numbers of approximately 10. The fluctuations are also observed on the high field side with significant amplitude, indicating a mode structure that is symmetric on the low field side and high field side. The associated fluctuations in the current on the high field side might be attributed to either a strong peeling part or the presence of non-adiabatic electron response.

  1. The correlation between milk and blood urea nitrogen in high and low yielding dairy cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Excess rumen degradable protein in the diet leads to high ammonia production, which elevates rumen pH and rate of ammonia absorption, raising urea-nitrogen concentration in blood. Urea, which is a normal constituent of milk, diffuses quickly from blood into milk. An urea-nitrogen concentration higher than 20 mg/dL of milk suggests excess of protein supply in the diet, which can decrease production, cause fertility problems, and increase nitrogen excretion into the environment. The measurement of urea nitrogen in blood and milk has been proposed as a tool to monitor protein nutrition. A study was carried out in two dairy farms (Olocuilta and Los Conacastes) in the central region of El Salvador. Sixty Holstein cows were grouped according to milk yield and days in milk: high yielding (HY, 30 to 90 d in milk) and low yielding cows (LY, >180 d in milk). The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of the milk yield and time after feeding on milk and blood urea-nitrogen concentration, and to establish a correlation between these two parameters. Dietary crude protein was analyzed and a protein balance was done for each group using the NRC (2001) Dairy Cattle Program. Blood and milk samples were taken after feeding at 30 min, 1, 2 and 4 hours. Blood samples were centrifuged and sera were then stored at -20 deg C until analyzed. Blood urea-nitrogen (BUN) concentration was determined using a commercially available kit (HUMAN, Wiesbaden, Germany). Milk urea-nitrogen (MUN) was also determined with the use of a spectofotometric procedure (MERCK, Darmstadt, Germany). Blood and milk urea-nitrogen concentrations were analyzed using repeated measures analysis and the MIXED procedure of SAS. To determine the correlation between BUN and MUN, the GLM procedure of SAS was used (SAS Institute, Version 9.1.3, 2006). In Olocuilta HY cows presented the highest BUN and MUN concentrations. BUN least squares concentration was 12.77 mg/dL and 13.98 mg/dL for the LY and HY cows

  2. HIGH RESOLUTION SONOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF PALPABLE THYROID LESIONS WITH HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CORRELATION- A PROSP ECTIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Thyroid lesions are found in 3-7% of population wor ldwide. The overwhelming majority of thyroid nodules are benign in nature. Thyroid ca ncers are rare; however thyroid carcinoma is the most common malignancy involving the endocrine glan ds and is responsible for approximately 1.5% of new cancer cases annually. The clinical challeng e is to distinguish the few clinically significant malignant nodules from the many benign nodules beca use malignant thyroid lesions shows good long term prognosis after surgical excision. Aims : To Assess the sensitivity and specificity of sonographic findings in differentiation of benign a nd malignant thyroid lesion. Method: A hospital based prospective study was done on 100 patients wi th palpable thyroid nodules using high resolution ultrasonography and findings correlated with fine needle aspiration cytology. Result: Sensitivity and Specificity of sonography to differ entiate benign and malignant thyroid lesions (FNAC correlation was 70.59 % & 96.39 % respectively. Pr esence of non shadowing echogenic cholesterol crystals showed high sensitivity of 58.70 % and spe cificity of 83.33 % for benign thyroid nodules. Sensitivity and Specificity of absence of thin peri pheral halo around malignant lesions were 70.4 % & 65.8% respectively. Sensitivity and Specificity of hypoechogenicity for malignant lesions were 64.71 % and 98.80 %.Presence of fine calcification was sh owing high Sensitivity & Specificity of 64.71 % and 93.98 % respectively in malignant lesions. Pred ominant intra-nodular colour flow pattern in solid nodules was predictive of malignancy with Sensitivi ty 82.35 and Specificity 84.34 %. Higher RI value (greater than 0.77 were significantly found in mal ignant lesions with sensitivity of 78.57 % and specificity of 92.31%. Solid and predominantly soli d lesions show high Sensitivity, Specificity for being a malignant lesion 70.59 % & 55.42 respective ly but less Positive Predictive Value of24

  3. The human genome retains relics of its prokaryotic ancestry: human genes of archaebacterial and eubacterial origin exhibit remarkable differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Ponce, David; McInerney, James O

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotes are generally thought to stem from a fusion event involving an archaebacterium and a eubacterium. As a result of this event, contemporaneous eukaryotic genomes are chimeras of genes inherited from both endosymbiotic partners. These two coexisting gene repertoires have been shown to differ in a number of ways in yeast. Here we combine genomic and functional data in order to determine if and how human genes that have been inherited from both prokaryotic ancestors remain distinguishable. We show that, despite being fewer in number, human genes of archaebacterial origin are more highly and broadly expressed across tissues, are more likely to have lethal mouse orthologs, tend to be involved in informational processes, are more selectively constrained, and encode shorter and more central proteins in the protein-protein interaction network than eubacterium-like genes. Furthermore, consistent with endosymbiotic theory, we show that proteins tend to interact with those encoded by genes of the same ancestry. Most interestingly from a human health perspective, archaebacterial genes are less likely to be involved in heritable human disease. Taken together, these results show that more than 2 billion years after eukaryogenesis, the human genome retains at least two somewhat distinct communities of genes. PMID:21795752

  4. Genome-wide association of polycystic ovary syndrome implicates alterations in gonadotropin secretion in European ancestry populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, M Geoffrey; Urbanek, Margrit; Ehrmann, David A; Armstrong, Loren L; Lee, Ji Young; Sisk, Ryan; Karaderi, Tugce; Barber, Thomas M; McCarthy, Mark I; Franks, Stephen; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Welt, Corrine K; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia; Panidis, Dimitrios; Goodarzi, Mark O; Azziz, Ricardo; Zhang, Yi; James, Roland G; Olivier, Michael; Kissebah, Ahmed H; Stener-Victorin, Elisabet; Legro, Richard S; Dunaif, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common, highly heritable complex disorder of unknown aetiology characterized by hyperandrogenism, chronic anovulation and defects in glucose homeostasis. Increased luteinizing hormone relative to follicle-stimulating hormone secretion, insulin resistance and developmental exposure to androgens are hypothesized to play a causal role in PCOS. Here we map common genetic susceptibility loci in European ancestry women for the National Institutes of Health PCOS phenotype, which confers the highest risk for metabolic morbidities, as well as reproductive hormone levels. Three loci reach genome-wide significance in the case-control meta-analysis, two novel loci mapping to chr 8p23.1 [Corrected] and chr 11p14.1, and a chr 9q22.32 locus previously found in Chinese PCOS. The same chr 11p14.1 SNP, rs11031006, in the region of the follicle-stimulating hormone B polypeptide (FSHB) gene strongly associates with PCOS diagnosis and luteinizing hormone levels. These findings implicate neuroendocrine changes in disease pathogenesis. PMID:26284813

  5. Ductal carcinoma in situ. Correlations between high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging and histopathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine and correlate contrast-enhanced areas and multiple internal dark dots and lines on high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (HR-MRI) with findings in surgical specimens of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) and to evaluate the ability of HR-MRI to detect DCIS lesions and clarify HR-MRI features characteristic of DCIS. This study retrospectively reviewed 11 patients diagnosed with DCIS who had undergone HR-MRI. Pathological findings and results of HR-MRI were compared, and causes of periductal enhancements were analyzed. In all patients, HR-MRI using microscopic coils revealed ductally, segmentally, or regionally enhanced areas containing multiple dark dots and lines, representing local enhancement of stroma adjacent to the mammary duct containing DCIS. Neovascularization, infiltration of inflammatory cells, and focal edema occurred in enhanced periductal stroma. Poorly enhanced linear or dot-like structures correlated with dilated mammary ducts displaying necrosis and tumor impaction. DCIS was successfully depicted on HR-MRI using a microscopy coil in all 11 cases. Ductal, segmental, or regional areas of enhancement with multiple dark dots and lines on HR-MRI corresponded to mammary glands containing DCIS with periductal enhancement. (author)

  6. Ground-glass opacity in diffuse lung diseases: high-resolution computed tomography-pathology correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ground-glass opacity is a finding frequently seen in high-resolution computed tomography examinations of the chest and is characterized by hazy increased attenuation of lung, however without blurring of bronchial and vascular margins. Due to its un specificity, association with other radiological, clinical and pathological findings must be considered for an accurate diagnostic interpretation. In this paper were reviewed 62 computed tomography examinations of patients with diffuse pulmonary diseases of 14 different etiologies in which ground-glass opacity was the only or the most remarkable finding, and correlated this findings with pathology abnormalities seen on specimens obtained from biopsies or necropsies. In pneumocystosis, ground-glass opacities correlated histologically with alveolar occupation by a foaming material containing parasites, in bronchiole alveolar cell carcinoma with thickening of the alveolar septa and occupation of the lumen by mucus and tumoral cells, in paracoccidioidomycosis with thickening of the alveolar septa, areas of fibrosis and alveolar bronchopneumonia exudate, in sarcoidosis with fibrosis or clustering of granulomas and in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with alveolar septa thickening due to fibrosis. Alveolar occupation by blood was found in cases of leptospirosis, idiopathic hemo siderosis, metastatic kidney tumor and invasive aspergillosis whereas oily vacuole were seen in lipoid pneumonia, proteinaceous and lipo proteinaceous material in silico proteinosis and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, and edematous fluid in cardiac failure. (author)

  7. Measuring our peculiar velocity on the CMB with high-multipole off-diagonal correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our peculiar velocity with respect to the CMB rest frame is known to induce a large dipole in the CMB. However, the motion of an observer has also the effect of distorting the anisotropies at all scales, as shown by Challinor and Van Leeuwen (2002), due to aberration and Doppler effects. We propose to measure independently our local motion by using off-diagonal two-point correlation functions for high multipoles. We study the observability of the signal for temperature and polarization anisotropies. We point out that Planck can measure the velocity β with an error of about 30% and the direction with an error of about 20°. This method constitutes a cross-check, which can be useful to verify that our CMB dipole is due mainly to our velocity or to disentangle the velocity from other possible intrinsic sources. Although in this paper we focus on our peculiar velocity, a similar effect would result also from other intrinsic vectorial distortion of the CMB which would induce a dipolar lensing. Measuring the off-diagonal correlation terms is therefore a test for a preferred direction on the CMB sky

  8. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P1 (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV1 (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry

  9. Monte Carlo approach for hadron azimuthal correlations in high energy proton and nuclear collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ayala, Alejandro; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2012-01-01

    We use a Monte Carlo approach to study hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energies at mid-rapidity. We build a hadron event generator that incorporates the production of $2\\to 2$ and $2\\to 3$ parton processes and their evolution into hadron states. For nucleus-nucleus collisions we include the effect of parton energy loss in the Quark-Gluon Plasma using a modified fragmentation function approach. In the presence of the medium, for the case when three partons are produced in the hard scattering, we analyze the Monte Carlo sample in parton and hadron momentum bins to reconstruct the angular correlations. We characterize this sample by the number of partons that are able to hadronize by fragmentation within the selected bins. In the nuclear environment the model allows hadronization by fragmentation only for partons with momentum above a threshold $p_T^{{\\tiny{thresh}}}=2.4$ GeV. We argue that...

  10. Monte Carlo approach for hadron azimuthal correlations in high energy proton and nuclear collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayala, Alejandro; Dominguez, Isabel; Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Magnin, J.; Tejeda-Yeomans, Maria Elena

    2012-09-01

    We use a Monte Carlo approach to study hadron azimuthal angular correlations in high-energy proton-proton and central nucleus-nucleus collisions at the BNL Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider energies at midrapidity. We build a hadron event generator that incorporates the production of 2→2 and 2→3 parton processes and their evolution into hadron states. For nucleus-nucleus collisions we include the effect of parton energy loss in the quark-gluon plasma using a modified fragmentation function approach. In the presence of the medium, for the case when three partons are produced in the hard scattering, we analyze the Monte Carlo sample in parton and hadron momentum bins to reconstruct the angular correlations. We characterize this sample by the number of partons that are able to hadronize by fragmentation within the selected bins. In the nuclear environment the model allows hadronization by fragmentation only for partons with momentum above a threshold pTthresh=2.4 GeV. We argue that one should treat properly the effect of those partons with momentum below the threshold, because their interaction with the medium may lead to showers of low-momentum hadrons along the direction of motion of the original partons as the medium becomes diluted.

  11. High resolution CT in children with cystic fibrosis: correlation with pulmonary functions and radiographic scores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demirkazik, Figen Basaran E-mail: demirkaz@dialup.ankara.edu.tr; Ariyuerek, O. Macit; Oezcelik, Ugur; Goecmen, Ayhan; Hassanabad, Hossein K.; Kiper, Nural

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare the high resolution CT (HRCT) scores of the Bhalla system with pulmonary function tests and radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki clinical scoring system. Methods: HRCT of the chest was obtained in 40 children to assess the role of HRCT in evaluating bronchopulmonary pathology in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). The HRCT severity scores of the Bhalla system were compared with chest radiographic and clinical points of the Shwachman-Kulczycki scoring system and pulmonary function tests. Only 14 of the patients older than 6 years cooperated with spirometry. Results: HRCT scores correlated well with radiographic points (r=0.80, P<0.0001) and clinical points (r=0.67, P<0.0001) of the Shwachman-Kulczycki system, FVC (r=0.71 P=0.004) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.66, P=0.01). Although radiographic points correlated significantly with FVC (r=0.61, P=0.02) and FEV{sub 1} (r=0.56, P=0.04), HRCT provides a more precise scoring than the chest X-ray. Conclusion: The HRCT scoring system may provide a sensitive method of monitoring pulmonary disease status and may replace the radiographic scoring in the Shwachman-Kulczycki system. It may be helpful especially in follow-up of small children too young to cooperate with spirometry.

  12. Improvements in High Speed, High Resolution Dynamic Digital Image Correlation for Experimental Evaluation of Composite Drive System Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohlman, Lee W.; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Roberts, Gary D.; Handschuh, Robert Frederick

    2013-01-01

    Composite materials have the potential to reduce the weight of rotating drive system components. However, these components are more complex to design and evaluate than static structural components in part because of limited ability to acquire deformation and failure initiation data during dynamic tests. Digital image correlation (DIC) methods have been developed to provide precise measurements of deformation and failure initiation for material test coupons and for structures under quasi-static loading. Attempts to use the same methods for rotating components (presented at the AHS International 68th Annual Forum in 2012) are limited by high speed camera resolution, image blur, and heating of the structure by high intensity lighting. Several improvements have been made to the system resulting in higher spatial resolution, decreased image noise, and elimination of heating effects. These improvements include the use of a high intensity synchronous microsecond pulsed LED lighting system, different lenses, and changes in camera configuration. With these improvements, deformation measurements can be made during rotating component tests with resolution comparable to that which can be achieved in static tests

  13. Anisotropic particle production and azimuthal correlations in high-energy pA collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Dumitru, Adrian; Skokov, Vladimir

    2015-01-01

    We summarize some recent ideas relating to anisotropic particle production in high-energy collisions. Anisotropic gluon distributions lead to anisotropies of the single-particle azimuthal distribution and hence to disconnected contributions to multi-particle cumulants. When these dominate, the four-particle elliptic anisotropy $c_2\\{4\\}$ changes sign. On the other hand, connected diagrams for $m$-particle cumulants are found to quickly saturate with increasing $m$, a ``coherence'' quite unlike conventional ``non-flow'' contributions such as decays. Finally, we perform a first exploratory phenomenological analysis in order to estimate the amplitude ${\\cal A}$ of the $\\cos(2\\varphi)$ anisotropy of the gluon distribution at small $x$, and we provide a qualitative prediction for the elliptic asymmetry from three-particle correlations, $c_2\\{3\\}$.

  14. High prevalence of cardiometabolic risk factors in Hispanic adolescents: correlations with adipocytokines and markers of inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Cynthia M; Ortiz, Ana P; Fuentes-Mattei, Enrique; Velázquez-Torres, Guermarie; Santiago, Damarys; Giovannetti, Katya; Bernabe, Raúl; Lee, Mong-Hong; Yeung, Sai-Ching J

    2014-10-01

    This study assessed the association of cardiometabolic risk factors with systemic inflammation, insulin resistance, and adypocytokines in a Hispanic adolescent subgroup. A clinic-based sample of 101 Puerto Rican adolescents, 48 of whom were overweight or obese based on body mass index percentiles for age and sex, was recruited during 2010. Data were collected through interviews, blood pressure and anthropometric measurements, and blood drawing. Overall prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 16.8 % and increased to 37.5 % among overweight/obese youth. The overweight/obese group exhibited significantly (p reactive protein, fibrinogen, leptin, and IL-6 and lower levels of high density lipoprotein cholesterol, adiponectin, and IGF-1. Total adiponectin significantly correlated with most cardiovascular risk factors independent of sex, Tanner stage, and adiposity. Altered cardiometabolic and adipocytokine profiles were present in this Hispanic subgroup, reinforcing the need to strengthen strategies addressing childhood obesity. PMID:23828626

  15. A Correlation Study of Student Attitudes Toward Science in a Southern State High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barco-Southall, Crystal

    The purpose of this correlational research study was to examine the attitudes toward science of students in Grades 11 and 12 and to investigate if there were differences resulting from gender, grade level, ethnicity, and the level of the curriculum received in average or advanced placement (AP) honors science. The participants of this study consisted of 50 randomly selected male and female high school students who were enrolled in AP and average science classes in an urban Southern state high school. The study used the Test of Science Related Attitudes (TOSRA) instrument to measure students' attitudes toward science in seven categories including (a) Social Implications of Science, (b) Normality of Scientists, (c) Attitude Toward Scientific Inquiry, (d) Adoption of Scientific Attitudes, (e) Enjoyment of Science Lessons, (f) Leisure Interest in Science, and (g) Career Interest in Science. The quantitative component of the study allowed the researcher to determine whether there were gender differences in attitudes toward science based on the seven subscales and measuring different aspects of science attitudes. Statistical treatment of the TOSRA survey involved the use of descriptive statistics, Pearson correlation, and multiple and linear regression. Findings did not reveal significant gender differences on the total attitude scores although there were differences on several of the subscales. In addition, there were no significant differences in the mean attitude scores for grade level. However, the study did reveal differences in ethnicity and attitudes toward science. With regard to ethnicity, scores for Native Americans and Whites were higher than scores for Asians, African Americans, and Hispanics indicating that Native Americans and White students showed a more positive attitude toward science. Regarding the level of curriculum received by students who were exposed to advanced level science courses showed more positive attitudes toward science than those students

  16. Canine classical seminoma: a specific malignant type with human classifications is highly correlated with tumor angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human seminoma is classified as classical seminoma (SE) and spermatocytic seminoma (SS). Human SE is known to be more malignant and metastasizing more frequently than SS. Tumor angiogenesis is highly related with tumor progression and metastasis, with microvessel density (MVD) being an important parameter of metastatic potential. Canine seminoma is not yet well-established as SE or SS type including correlation with angiogenesis. We classified canine SE and SS, and then compared them to tumor associated vessels. Twenty-three cases of canine seminomas (2 intratubular, 9 diffuse, and 12 intratubular/diffuse seminomas showing both intratubular and diffuse patterns) were classified as SE or SS by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using monoclonal antibody against PLAP and by PAS stain. The histopathological data were then compared to see if there was a correlation with SE or SS. Angiogenesis of seminomas were evaluated by immunohistochemical assay using polyclonal antibody against Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and by calculating the means of MVD, vessels area and perimeters using computerized image analysis. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) program was used for various statistical analyses. The numbers of PLAP+/PAS+ canine SEs were 8/23 (34.8%) and PLAP-/PAS- SSs were 15/23 (61.2%). All SE cases (8/8, 100%) were intratubular/diffuse types. SS types included 2 intratubular (2/15, 13.3%), 9 diffuse (9/15, 60%), and 4 intratubular/diffuse (4/15, 26.7%) types. MVD and vascular parameters in SEs were significantly higher than in SSs, showing the highest value in the intratubular/diffuse type. Seminomas observed with neoplastic cells invasion of vessels presented higher perimeter and area values than seminomas without conformed neoplastic cells invasion. In this study, we demonstrated a positive relationship between canine SE and tumor angiogenesis. Furthermore, we also showed that a tumor cells invasion of vessels were a correlated vascular parameter. Although

  17. Psychosocial Correlates of the Need for Physical Education and Sports in High School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Curelaru

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Sports and movement activities play an important role in the harmonious development of children; Special attention should be paid to the factors influencing their involvement in sportive activities. The aim of this study was related to identifying possible psychosocial correlates of the need for physical education and sports in Romanian society and increasing awareness on the importance of sports in everyday life. Approach: 1100 high school students from the North-Eastern part of Romania answered a series of questionnaires that measured level of sports and movement appreciation, passion for sport, leisure and systematic sport practices, attitude towards bullying, instrumental and final values and, several socio-demographic variables: gender, parents’ level of education, type of high school attended and bullying. Results: The data showed that sport is more associated to boys, to students with low socioeconomic status and, to students attending centrally-located high schools; students who are passionate about sports manifest a negative attitude towards bullying. Conclusion: The results emphasized the need to reconsider Romanian academic curricula in order to stimulate competition activities in schools and to increase the number of sportive clubs and associations.

  18. High-frequency, correlated nuclear and electron oscillations in molecules in intense laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandrauk, André D. [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Chelkowski, Szczepan, E-mail: s.chelkowski@usherbrooke.ca [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada); Lu, Huizhong [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec, Canada J1K 2R1 (Canada)

    2013-03-12

    Highlights: ► Time-dependent Schrödinger equation is used to investigate the dynamics of molecules in intense laser fields. ► Correlations between electron and nuclei high frequency oscillations are demonstrated. ► Wavelet-transforms confirm the three-step model of harmonic generation. - Abstract: We have solved numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) describing dissociative-ionization of a H{sub 2} (and of a D{sub 2}) molecule exposed to intense short-pulse laser light in one dimension. From the time dependent wave function we calculated the total average acceleration of the two electrons and the relative proton acceleration and the average of internuclear distance. We find that the general shape of the power spectra of electron and proton motion is very similar except that for the electrons the peaks occur at odd harmonics whereas for protons the peaks occur at even harmonics. We relate this to the appearance of higher order polarizabilities. The wavelet time–frequency analysis shows that, surprisingly, time profiles of electron and proton accelerations are nearly identical for high order harmonics. The wavelet time profiles confirm predictions of the three-step quasi-classical model of harmonic generation by identifying several (up to three) electron return times with high precision.

  19. Ultrasonic attenuation measurements at very high SNR: Correlation, information theory and performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a system for ultrasonic wave attenuation measurements which is based on pseudo-random binary codes as transmission signals combined with on-the-fly correlation for received signal detection. The apparatus can receive signals in the nanovolt range against a noise background in the order of hundreds of microvolts and an analogue to digital convertor (ADC) bit-step also in the order of hundreds of microvolts. Very high signal to noise ratios (SNRs) are achieved without recourse to coherent averaging with its associated requirement for high sampling times. The system works by a process of dithering – in which very low amplitude received signals enter the dynamic range of the ADC by 'riding' on electronic noise at the system input. The amplitude of this 'useful noise' has to be chosen with care for an optimised design. The process of optimisation is explained on the basis of classical information theory and is achieved through a simple noise model. The performance of the system is examined for different transmitted code lengths and gain settings in the receiver chain. Experimental results are shown to verify the expected operation when the system is applied to a very highly attenuating material – an aerated slurry

  20. Forward-backward multiplicity correlations caused by centrality fluctuations in high-energy heavy-ion collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ronghua; Qian, Jing; Huo, Lei

    2016-04-01

    We consider that most of the long-range forward-backward multiplicity (FB) correlations in high energy A -A collisions are caused by the centrality fluctuation, and this phenomenon interferes with the measurement of the dynamical correlations greatly. We investigate the relationship between FB correlation strength and centrality by a Monte Carlo simulation and a derivation which are tested by A MultiPhases Transport (AMPT) model in Au+Au collisions at √{sNN}=200 GeV. We compare the FB correlation strengths of AMPT model with the results of the derivation at √{sNN} = 7.7 to 200 GeV. A comparison between the default AMPT model and string melting AMPT model with different partonic scattering sections is made. As a result, we consider that the FB correlation strengths may be dominated by the mixing of different centrality events, and the short-range correlation may be overwhelmed for the most central collisions.

  1. Frequencies of HID-ion ampliseq ancestry panel markers among greenlanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espregueira Themudo, Gonçalo; Smidt Mogensen, Helle; Børsting, Claus; Morling, Niels

    2016-09-01

    The HID-Ion AmpliSeq Ancestry Panel from Life Techologies includes 123 SNPs from the Seldin panel and 55 SNPs from Kidd panel in a single multiplex assay that helps to determine the continental biogeographic ancestry of individuals. We tested the panel on 104 Greenlanders, divided into a training set of 89 individuals and a test set of 15 individuals. All loci showed genotype distributions consistent with Hardy-Weinberg expectations. Linkage disequilibrium tests indicated that 14 pairs of loci were in association in Greenlanders. Population assignment of the training set to populations included in the HID SNP genotyper plugin placed most individuals in American, Asian, and in a few cases European populations. By including the genotype frequencies of this training set as a possible population of origin, all 15 individuals from the test set were correctly predicted to be Greenlanders using the Seldin SNPs, and nine were classified as Greenlanders using the Kidd SNPs. Population structure analysis indicated that Greenlanders have a genetic profile that is distinguishable from those of populations from America or Asia. PMID:27326551

  2. Ancestry of the Iban is predominantly Southeast Asian: genetic evidence from autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatum S Simonson

    Full Text Available Humans reached present-day Island Southeast Asia (ISEA in one of the first major human migrations out of Africa. Population movements in the millennia following this initial settlement are thought to have greatly influenced the genetic makeup of current inhabitants, yet the extent attributed to different events is not clear. Recent studies suggest that south-to-north gene flow largely influenced present-day patterns of genetic variation in Southeast Asian populations and that late Pleistocene and early Holocene migrations from Southeast Asia are responsible for a substantial proportion of ISEA ancestry. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that the ancestors of present-day inhabitants came mainly from north-to-south migrations from Taiwan and throughout ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago. We report a large-scale genetic analysis of human variation in the Iban population from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, located in the center of ISEA. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers analyzed here suggest that the Iban exhibit greatest genetic similarity to Indonesian and mainland Southeast Asian populations. The most common non-recombining Y (NRY and mitochondrial (mt DNA haplogroups present in the Iban are associated with populations of Southeast Asia. We conclude that migrations from Southeast Asia made a large contribution to Iban ancestry, although evidence of potential gene flow from Taiwan is also seen in uniparentally inherited marker data.

  3. Ancestry of the Iban is predominantly Southeast Asian: genetic evidence from autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonson, Tatum S; Xing, Jinchuan; Barrett, Robert; Jerah, Edward; Loa, Peter; Zhang, Yuhua; Watkins, W Scott; Witherspoon, David J; Huff, Chad D; Woodward, Scott; Mowry, Bryan; Jorde, Lynn B

    2011-01-01

    Humans reached present-day Island Southeast Asia (ISEA) in one of the first major human migrations out of Africa. Population movements in the millennia following this initial settlement are thought to have greatly influenced the genetic makeup of current inhabitants, yet the extent attributed to different events is not clear. Recent studies suggest that south-to-north gene flow largely influenced present-day patterns of genetic variation in Southeast Asian populations and that late Pleistocene and early Holocene migrations from Southeast Asia are responsible for a substantial proportion of ISEA ancestry. Archaeological and linguistic evidence suggests that the ancestors of present-day inhabitants came mainly from north-to-south migrations from Taiwan and throughout ISEA approximately 4,000 years ago. We report a large-scale genetic analysis of human variation in the Iban population from the Malaysian state of Sarawak in northwestern Borneo, located in the center of ISEA. Genome-wide single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers analyzed here suggest that the Iban exhibit greatest genetic similarity to Indonesian and mainland Southeast Asian populations. The most common non-recombining Y (NRY) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA haplogroups present in the Iban are associated with populations of Southeast Asia. We conclude that migrations from Southeast Asia made a large contribution to Iban ancestry, although evidence of potential gene flow from Taiwan is also seen in uniparentally inherited marker data. PMID:21305013

  4. Biogeographic ancestry, self-identified race, and admixture-phenotype associations in the Heart SCORE Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halder, Indrani; Kip, Kevin E; Mulukutla, Suresh R; Aiyer, Aryan N; Marroquin, Oscar C; Huggins, Gordon S; Reis, Steven E

    2012-07-15

    Large epidemiologic studies examining differences in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profiles between European Americans and African Americans have exclusively used self-identified race (SIR) to classify individuals. Recent genetic epidemiology studies of some CVD risk factors have suggested that biogeographic ancestry (BGA) may be a better predictor of CVD risk than SIR. This hypothesis was investigated in 464 African Americans and 771 European Americans enrolled in the Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation (Heart SCORE) Study in March and April 2010. Individual West African and European BGA were ascertained by means of a panel of 1,595 genetic ancestry informative markers. Individual BGA varied significantly among African Americans and to a lesser extent among European Americans. In the total cohort, BGA was not found to be a better predictor of CVD risk factors than SIR. Both measures predicted differences in the presence of the metabolic syndrome, waist circumference, triglycerides, body mass index, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol, lipoprotein A, and systolic and diastolic blood pressure between European Americans and African Americans. These results suggest that for most nongenetic cardiovascular epidemiology studies, SIR is sufficient for predicting CVD risk factor differences between European Americans and African Americans. However, higher body mass index and diastolic blood pressure were significantly associated with West African BGA among African Americans, suggesting that BGA should be considered in genetic cardiovascular epidemiology studies carried out among African Americans. PMID:22771727

  5. Association between Plasma 25-Hydroxyvitamin D, Ancestry and Aggressive Prostate Cancer among African Americans and European Americans in PCaP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steck, Susan E.; Arab, Lenore; Zhang, Hongmei; Bensen, Jeannette T.; Fontham, Elizabeth T. H.; Johnson, Candace S.; Mohler, James L.; Smith, Gary J.; Su, Joseph L.; Trump, Donald L.; Woloszynska-Read, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background African Americans (AAs) have lower circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] concentrations and higher prostate cancer (CaP) aggressiveness than other racial/ethnic groups. The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between plasma 25(OH)D3, African ancestry and CaP aggressiveness among AAs and European Americans (EAs). Methods Plasma 25(OH)D3 was measured using LC-MS/MS (Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry) in 537 AA and 663 EA newly-diagnosed CaP patients from the North Carolina-Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP) classified as having either ‘high’ or ‘low’ aggressive disease based on clinical stage, Gleason grade and prostate specific antigen at diagnosis. Mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations were compared by proportion of African ancestry. Logistic regression was used to calculate multivariable adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for high aggressive CaP by tertile of plasma 25(OH)D3. Results AAs with highest percent African ancestry (>95%) had the lowest mean plasma 25(OH)D3 concentrations. Overall, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with aggressiveness among AA men, an association that was modified by calcium intake (ORT3vs.T1: 2.23, 95%CI: 1.26–3.95 among men with low calcium intake, and ORT3vs.T1: 0.19, 95%CI: 0.05–0.70 among men with high calcium intake). Among EAs, the point estimates of the ORs were <1.0 for the upper tertiles with CIs that included the null. Conclusions Among AAs, plasma 25(OH)D3 was associated positively with CaP aggressiveness among men with low calcium intake and inversely among men with high calcium intake. The clinical significance of circulating concentrations of 25(OH)D3 and interactions with calcium intake in the AA population warrants further study. PMID:25919866

  6. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi; Masaaki Habara; Hidekazu Ikezazki; Ronggang Chen; Yoshinobu Naito; Kiyoshi Toko

    2010-01-01

    Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic t...

  7. Trans-ancestry genome-wide association study identifies 12 genetic loci influencing blood pressure and implicates a role for DNA methylation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kato, Norihiro; Loh, Marie; Takeuchi, Fumihiko;

    2015-01-01

    We carried out a trans-ancestry genome-wide association and replication study of blood pressure phenotypes among up to 320,251 individuals of East Asian, European and South Asian ancestry. We find genetic variants at 12 new loci to be associated with blood pressure (P = 3.9 × 10(-11) to 5.0 × 10(...

  8. Strongly correlated electrons at high pressure: an approach by inelastic X-Ray scattering; Electrons correles sous haute pression: une approche par diffusion inelastique des rayons X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueff, J.P

    2007-06-15

    Inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and associated methods has turn out to be a powerful alternative for high-pressure physics. It is an all-photon technique fully compatible with high-pressure environments and applicable to a vast range of materials. Standard focalization of X-ray in the range of 100 microns is typical of the sample size in the pressure cell. Our main aim is to provide an overview of experimental results obtained by IXS under high pressure in 2 classes of materials which have been at the origin of the renewal of condensed matter physics: strongly correlated transition metal oxides and rare-earth compounds. Under pressure, d and f-electron materials show behaviors far more complex that what would be expected from a simplistic band picture of electron delocalization. These spectroscopic studies have revealed unusual phenomena in the electronic degrees of freedom, brought up by the increased density, the changes in the charge-carrier concentration, the over-lapping between orbitals, and hybridization under high pressure conditions. Particularly we discuss about pressure induced magnetic collapse and metal-insulator transitions in 3d compounds and valence fluctuations phenomena in 4f and 5f compounds. Thanks to its superior penetration depth, chemical selectivity and resonant enhancement, resonant inelastic X-ray scattering has appeared extremely well suited to high pressure physics in strongly correlated materials. (A.C.)

  9. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status

  10. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis with coexisting emphysema : high-resolution CT and clinical correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Eun Young; Kim, Kyeong Ah; Oh, Yu Whan; Shim, Jae Jeong; Kang, Kyung Ho [Korea Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-05-01

    To correlate high-resolution CT (HRCT) findings with smoking history and pulmonary function test (PFT) in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) with or without coexisting emphsema. The study included 24 patients who had undergone HRCT and in whom IPF had been confirmed pathologically (n=7) and clinically (n=17). The patients included 19 men and 5 women aged between from 44 and 78(mean 59) years. HRCT findings were reviewed by two radiologists and assessed for the presence and extent of emphysema (CT emphysema score;CES) and honeycombing (CT honeycombing score;CHS). CES and CHS were retrospectively correlated with smoking status and pulmonary function test. Evidence of emphysema was seen on HRCT in 20 fo 24 patients with IPF (83%). CES was 14.3 and CHS was 18.1 in smokers with IPF, as compared with 1.8 and 6.7 in nonsmokers (p<0.01). Pulmonary function tests showed lower percent predicted FEVI (69.3%), FVC (64.7%), TLC (73.7%), and RV (77.3%), a lower percent predicted diffusing capacity of carbon monoxide (58.2%), and normal FEVI/FVC (99.1%). The pulmonary function test in smokers showed higher TLC and RV than in nonsmokers. Eight of nine patients whose CES was higher than their CHS, an seen on HRCT, were smokers and had a smoking history of 33.1 pack-years. Seven of 15 whose CHS was higher than their CES were smokers and had a smoking history of 16.8 pack-years. In patients with a higher CES than CHS pulmonary function test results showed normal TLC(85%) and RV(100.7%); this contrasted with decreased TLC(72%) and RV (68%) in patients whose CHS was higher than their CES. Emphysema is a frequently associated finding in patients with IPF, as seen on HRCT, and emphysema is more frequent and extensive in smokers with IPF than non-smokers. HRCT is useful for detecting emphysema in patients with IPF, and the extent of emphysema on HRCT correlates with the results of the pulmonary function test and smoking status.

  11. Reverse correlating love: highly passionate women idealize their partner's facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization--evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent their partner's facial appearance more favorably than individuals who are less passionately in love. In a within-participants design, heterosexual women completed two forced-choice classification tasks, one for their romantic partner and one for a male acquaintance, and a measure of passionate love. In each classification task, participants saw two faces superimposed with noise and selected the face that most resembled their partner (or an acquaintance). Classification images for each of high passion and low passion groups were calculated by averaging across noise patterns selected as resembling the partner or the acquaintance and superimposing the averaged noise on an average male face. A separate group of women evaluated the classification images on attractiveness, trustworthiness, and competence. Results showed that women who feel high (vs. low) passionate love toward their partner tend to represent his face as more attractive and trustworthy, even when controlling for familiarity effects using the acquaintance representation. Using an innovative method to study partner representations, these findings extend our understanding of cognitive processes in romantic relationships. PMID:25806540

  12. CORRELATION OF PRENATAL ULTRASOUND FINDINGS WITH PLACENTAL PATHOLOGY IN HIGH RISK PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To correlate the prenatal ultrasound findings with placental pathology in high risk pregnancy. METHOD: After approval by institutional ethical committee the prospective observational study was conducted in the department of obstetrics & gynecolo gy , NSCB Medical College , Jabalpur (M.P. from 1st September 201 0 to 31st august 2011. A total of 77 cases were studied including antenatal women with mean gestational age >= 28 weeks not in active labor with high risk factor (inclusion criteria. Prenatal ultrasound and histomorphology of placenta was done in the respective department of the same institution. Statistical analysis was done by using t test and chi square test. RESULT: The sensitivity of prenatal ultrasound to detect retroplacental clot was 1 6.7%.The cases with severe pre - eclampsia and IUGR had more number of cases with abnormal flow in Color Doppler than there with other risk factor. Infarcts and retroplacental clot were found only in cases of severe pre - eclampsia. The sensitivity of color Do ppler to detect abnormal placental pathology was found to be 76% . The prenatal ultrasound was not found sensitive enough to detect the placental infarcts. CONCLUSION: Placental pathologies adversely affect the perinatal outcome. Prenatal USG can identify a range of these abnormalities and can help to take timely action during antenatal period to improve the perinatal outcome

  13. Correlation of waterside corrosion and cladding microstructure in high-burnup fuel and gadolinia rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, H.M. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))

    1989-09-01

    Waterside corrosion of the Zircaloy cladding has been examined in high-burnup fuel rods from several BWRs and PWRs, as well as in 3 wt % gadolinia burnable poison rods obtained from a BWR. The corrosion behavior of the high-burnup rods was then correlated with results from a microstructural characterization of the cladding by optical, scanning-electron, and transmission-electron microscopy (OM, SEM, and TEM). OM and SEM examination of the BWR fuel cladding showed both uniform and nodular oxide layers 2 to 45 {mu}m in thickness after burnups of 11 to 30 MWd/kgU. For one of the BWRs, which was operated at 307{degree}C rather than the normal 288{degree}C, a relatively thick (50 to 70 {mu}m) uniform oxide, rather than nodular oxides, was observed after a burnup of 27 to 30 MWd/kgU. TEM characterization revealed a number of microstructural features that occurred in association with the intermetallic precipitates in the cladding metal, apparently as a result of irradiation-induced or -enhanced processes. The BWR rods that exhibited white nodular oxides contained large precipitates (300 to 700 nm in size) that were partially amorphized during service, indicating that a distribution of the large intermetallic precipitates is conductive to nodular oxidation. 23 refs., 9 figs.

  14. Correlation effects in high-Tc superconductors and heavy fermion compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes certain aspects of Highly Correlated Systems (HCS) such as high Tc superconductors (HTSC) and some new class of Heavy Fermion (HF) systems which have been studied recently. The problem is discussed on how the charge and spin degrees of freedom participate in the specific character of superconductivity in the copper oxides and competition of the magnetism and Kondo screening in heavy fermions. The electronic structure and possible superconducting mechanisms of HTSC compounds are discussed. The similarity and dissimilarity with HF compounds is pointed out. It is shown that the spins and carriers in the copper oxides are coupled in a very nontrivial way in order to introduce the discussion and the comparison of the Emery model, the t - J-model and the Kondo-Heisenberg model. It concerns attempts to derive from fundamental multi-band Hamiltonian the reduced effective Hamiltonians to extract and separate the relevant low-energy physics. A short review of the arguments which seem to support the spin-polaron pairing mechanism in HTSC are presented. Many other topics like the idea of mixed valence states in oxides, the role of charge transfer (CT) excitations, phase separation, self-consistent nonperturbative technique, etc. are also discussed. (author). 161 refs

  15. Correlation between High Resolution Dynamic MR Features and Prognostic Factors in Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To correlate high resolution dynamic MR features with prognostic factors in breast cancer. One hundred and ninety-four women with invasive ductal carcinomas underwent dynamic MR imaging using T1-weighted three dimensional fast low-angle shot (3D-FLASH) sequence within two weeks prior to surgery. Morphological and kinetic MR features were determined based on the breast imaging and reporting data system (BI-RADS) MR imaging lexicon. Histological specimens were analyzed for tumor size, axillary lymph node status, histological grade, expression of estrogen receptor (ER), expression of progesterone receptor (PR), and expression of p53, c-erbB-2, and Ki-67. Correlations between the MR features and prognostic factors were determined using the Pearson x2 test, linear-by-linear association, and logistic regression analysis. By multivariate analysis, a spiculated margin was a significant, independent predictor of a lower histological grade (p < 0.001), and lower expression of Ki-67 (p = 0.007). Rim enhancement was significant, independent predictor of a higher histological grade (p < 0.001), negative expression of ER (p 0.001), negative expression of PR (p < 0.001) and a larger tumor size (p = 0.006). A washout curve may predict a higher level of Ki-67 (p = 0.05). Most of the parameters of the initial enhancement phase cannot predict the status of the prognostic factors. Only the enhancement ratio may predict a larger tumor size (p 0.05). Of the BI-RADS-MR features, a spiculated margin may predict favorable prognosis, whereas rim enhancement or washout may predict unfavorable prognosis of breast cancer

  16. Influence of Anderson disorder on superconducting pairing correlations with s and d symmetry in high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The influence of Anderson disorder with degree W on pairing correlation functions with s* and dx2-y2 symmetry in a Cu4O8 cluster, which is an elementary fragment of a CuO2 plane (a common structural element of high-Tc superconductors), has been investigated by exact diagonalization. It has been shown that at a nearly optimal level of hole doping (0.25 excess carriers per copper atom) enhancement of the disorder results in significantly faster weakening of the correlations in the dx2-y2 channel than in the s* channel. The open-quotes superconductingclose quotes contribution to the dx2-y2 correlation and the critical value Wc, at which the superconducting correlations in the dx2-y2 channel vanish, have been evaluated. The results obtained are qualitatively consistent with experiments on the influence of nonmagnetic defects on high-Tc superconductors and attest to the mixed s*+d symmetry of the gap in p-type high-Tc superconductors for which the superconducting correlations in the s* channel dominate. In the case of electron doping of the Cu4O8 cluster, superconducting correlations with dx2-y2 symmetry are apparently completely absent, and the pairing correlators in the s* channel are weakly dependent on W. 43 refs., 8 figs

  17. Microwave Imaging Sensor Using Compact Metamaterial UWB Antenna with a High Correlation Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Moinul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The design of a compact metamaterial ultra-wideband (UWB antenna with a goal towards application in microwave imaging systems for detecting unwanted cells in human tissue, such as in cases of breast cancer, heart failure and brain stroke detection is proposed. This proposed UWB antenna is made of four metamaterial unit cells, where each cell is an integration of a modified split ring resonator (SRR, capacitive loaded strip (CLS and wire, to attain a design layout that simultaneously exhibits both a negative magnetic permeability and a negative electrical permittivity. This design results in an astonishing negative refractive index that enables amplification of the radiated power of this reported antenna, and therefore, high antenna performance. A low-cost FR4 substrate material is used to design and print this reported antenna, and has the following characteristics: thickness of 1.6 mm, relative permeability of one, relative permittivity of 4.60 and loss tangent of 0.02. The overall antenna size is 19.36 mm × 27.72 mm × 1.6 mm where the electrical dimension is 0.20 λ × 0.28 λ × 0.016 λ at the 3.05 GHz lower frequency band. Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR measurements have illustrated that this antenna exhibits an impedance bandwidth from 3.05 GHz to more than 15 GHz for VSWR < 2 with an average gain of 4.38 dBi throughout the operating frequency band. The simulations (both HFSS and computer simulation technology (CST and the measurements are in high agreement. A high correlation factor and the capability of detecting tumour simulants confirm that this reported UWB antenna can be used as an imaging sensor.

  18. Ancestry informative markers and complete blood count parameters in Brazilian blood donors Marcadores informativos de ancestralidade e parâmetros no hemograma de doadores de sangue brasileiros

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela E. S. Felix

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A complete blood count is very useful in clinical diagnoses when reference ranges are well established for the population. Complete blood counts and allele frequencies of Ancestry Informative Markers (AIMs were analyzed in Brazilians with the aim of characterizing the hematological values of an admixed population. Positive associations were observed between gender and neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, erythrocytes, hemoglobin, hematocrit, MCV, MCHC and platelet counts. No significant differences were found for age, alcohol consumption, educational status, ethnicity, smoking in respect to the complete blood count values. In general, men had higher red blood cell values, while women had higher values for white blood cells and platelets. The study of the population was highly heterogeneous with mean proportions (± SE of African, European and Amerindian ancestry being 49.0 ± 3.0%, 44.0 ± 9.0% and 7.0 ± 9.0%, respectively. Amerindian ancestry showed limited contribution to the makeup of the population, but estimated ancestral proportions were statistically significant (r = 0.9838; PO hemograma é muito útil no diagnóstico quando o intervalo de referência é adequadamente estabelecido para população. Com o objetivo de verificar os valores hematológicos em população heterogênea foi analisado o hemograma e frequências alélica de marcadores informativos de ancestralidade de brasileiros. Foi observada associação positiva entre sexo e os valores de neutrófilos, monócitos, eosinófilos, eritrócitos, hemoglobina, hematócrito, MCV, MCHC e plaquetas (IC 95%; P0,05. Os homens apresentaram valores maiores no eritrograma, enquanto no leucograma e plaquetograma foram as mulheres. Foi observado também que a população é altamente heterogênea e as médias proporcionais (±DP de ancestralidade Africana, Europeia e Ameríndia estimada foram: 49,0 ± 3,0 %, 44,0 ± 9,0% e 7,0 ± 9,0%, respectivamente. A contribuição ancestral ameríndia se

  19. Genome-Wide Association of the Laboratory-Based Nicotine Metabolite Ratio in Three Ancestries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baurley, James W.; Edlund, Christopher K.; Pardamean, Carissa I.; Conti, David V.; Krasnow, Ruth; Javitz, Harold S.; Hops, Hyman; Swan, Gary E.; Benowitz, Neal L.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic enzyme variation and other patient and environmental characteristics influence smoking behaviors, treatment success, and risk of related disease. Population-specific variation in metabolic genes contributes to challenges in developing and optimizing pharmacogenetic interventions. We applied a custom genome-wide genotyping array for addiction research (Smokescreen), to three laboratory-based studies of nicotine metabolism with oral or venous administration of labeled nicotine and cotinine, to model nicotine metabolism in multiple populations. The trans-3′-hydroxycotinine/cotinine ratio, the nicotine metabolite ratio (NMR), was the nicotine metabolism measure analyzed. Methods: Three hundred twelve individuals of self-identified European, African, and Asian American ancestry were genotyped and included in ancestry-specific genome-wide association scans (GWAS) and a meta-GWAS analysis of the NMR. We modeled natural-log transformed NMR with covariates: principal components of genetic ancestry, age, sex, body mass index, and smoking status. Results: African and Asian American NMRs were statistically significantly (P values ≤ 5E-5) lower than European American NMRs. Meta-GWAS analysis identified 36 genome-wide significant variants over a 43 kilobase pair region at CYP2A6 with minimum P = 2.46E-18 at rs12459249, proximal to CYP2A6. Additional minima were located in intron 4 (rs56113850, P = 6.61E-18) and in the CYP2A6-CYP2A7 intergenic region (rs34226463, P = 1.45E-12). Most (34/36) genome-wide significant variants suggested reduced CYP2A6 activity; functional mechanisms were identified and tested in knowledge-bases. Conditional analysis resulted in intergenic variants of possible interest (P values genome-wide association of CYP2A6 single nucleotide and insertion–deletion polymorphisms. We identify three regions of genome-wide significance: proximal, intronic, and distal to CYP2A6. We replicate the top-ranking single nucleotide polymorphism

  20. Ultraviolet digital image correlation (UV-DIC) for high temperature applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Ryan B.; Lambros, John

    2014-04-01

    A method is presented for extending two-dimensional digital image correlation (DIC) to a higher range of temperatures by using ultraviolet (UV) lights and UV optics to minimize the light emitted by specimens at those temperatures. The method, which we refer to as UV-DIC, is compared against DIC using unfiltered white light and DIC using filtered blue light which in the past have been used for high temperature applications. It is shown that at low temperatures for which sample glowing is not an issue all three methods produce the same results. At higher temperatures in our experiments, the unfiltered white light method showed significant glowing between 500 and 600 °C and the blue light between 800 and 900 °C, while the UV-DIC remained minimally affected until the material began nearing its melting point (about 1260 °C). The three methods were then used to obtain the coefficient of thermal expansion as a function of temperature for the nickel superalloy Hastelloy-X. All three methods give similar coefficients at temperatures below which glowing becomes significant, with the values also being comparable to the manufacturers specifications. Similar results were also seen in uniaxial tension tests.

  1. Correlation of analysis with high level vibration test results for primary coolant piping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic tests on a modified 1/2.5-scale model of pressurized water reactor (PWR) primary coolant piping were performed using a large shaking table at Tadotsu, Japan. The High Level Vibration Test (HLVT) program was part of a cooperative study between the United States (Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Brookhaven National Laboratory, NRC/BNL) and Japan (Ministry of International Trade and Industry/Nuclear Power Engineering Center). During the test program, the excitation level of each test run was gradually increased up to the limit of the shaking table and significant plastic strains, as well as cracking, were induced in the piping. To fully utilize the test results, NRC/BNL sponsored a project to develop corresponding analytical predictions for the nonlinear dynamic response of the piping for selected test runs. The analyses were performed using both simplified and detailed approaches. The simplified approaches utilize a linear solution and an approximate formulation for nonlinear dynamic effects such as the use of a deamplification factor. The detailed analyses were performed using available nonlinear finite element computer codes, including the MARC, ABAQUS, ADINA and WECAN codes. A comparison of various analysis techniques with the test results shows a higher prediction error in the detailed strain values in the overall response values. A summary of the correlation analyses was presented before the BNL. This paper presents a detailed description of the various analysis results and additional comparisons with test results

  2. Investigations of high-speed optical transmission systems employing Absolute Added Correlative Coding (AACC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong-Nhat, Nguyen; Elsherif, Mohamed A.; Malekmohammadi, Amin

    2016-07-01

    A novel multilevel modulation format based on partial-response signaling called Absolute Added Correlative Coding (AACC) is proposed and numerically demonstrated for high-speed fiber-optic communication systems. A bit error rate (BER) estimation model for the proposed multilevel format has also been developed. The performance of AACC is examined and compared against other prevailing On-Off-Keying and multilevel modulation formats e.g. non-return-to-zero (NRZ), 50% return-to-zero (RZ), 67% carrier-suppressed return-to-zero (CS-RZ), duobinary and four-level pulse-amplitude modulation (4-PAM) in terms of receiver sensitivity, spectral efficiency and dispersion tolerance. Calculated receiver sensitivity at a BER of 10-9 and chromatic dispersion tolerance of the proposed system are ∼-28.3 dBm and ∼336 ps/nm, respectively. The performance of AACC is delineated to be improved by 7.8 dB in terms of receiver sensitivity compared to 4-PAM in back-to-back scenario. The comparison results also show a clear advantage of AACC in achieving longer fiber transmission distance due to the higher dispersion tolerance in optical access networks.

  3. Pion correlations and calorimeter design for high energy heavy ion collisions. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.L.

    1997-04-01

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An updated multi-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-pion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au + Au reaction, taken with full event characterization.

  4. Pion and kaon correlations in high energy heavy-ion collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, K.L.; Wolf, K.L.

    1996-12-31

    Data analysis is in progress for recent experiments performed by the NA44 collaboration with the first running of 160 A GeV {sup 208}Pb-induced reactions at the CERN SPS. Identified singles spectra were taken for pions, kaons, protons, deuterons, antiprotons and antideuterons. Two-pion interferometry measurements were made for semi-central-triggered {sup 208}Pb + Pb collisions. An upgraded multi-particle spectrometer allows high statistics data sets of identified particles to be collected near mid-rapidity. A second series of experiments will be performed in the fall of 1995 with more emphasis on identical kaon interferometry and on the measurement of rare particle spectra and correlations. Modest instrumentation upgrades by TAMU are designed to increase the trigger function for better impact parameter selection and improved collection efficiency of valid events. An effort to achieve the highest degree of projectile-target stopping is outlined and it is argued that an excitation function on the SPS is needed to better understand reaction mechanisms. Analysis of experimental results is in the final stages at LBL in the EOS collaboration for two-pion interferometry in the 1.2 A GeV Au+Au reaction, taken with full event characterization. 35 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Down-regulation of p73 correlates with high histological grade in Japanese with breast carcinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Cai-wen; Izo Kimijima; Toru Otake; Rikiya Abe; Seiichi Takenoshita; ZHANG Guo-jun

    2011-01-01

    Background p73, a homologue of p53, has been located at chromosome 1 p36-33, a region of frequently observed loss of heterozygosity in breast cancers. The objective of the present study was to investigate the function of p73 in Japanese with breast cancers. Methods Sixty Japanese patients with breast cancer were assessed by polymerase chain reaction single strand confirmation polymorphism analysis and direct sequencing to detect the p73 allele. p73 mRNA levels were also determined in 40 out of 60 patients by reverse-transcriptional polymerase chain reaction. Results We analyzed the entire open reading frame of the p73 gene by polymerase chain reaction single strand confirmation polymorphism and sequencing, and failed to identify any mutations of p73 in the encoding regions detected.Loss of heterozygosity of p73 was infrequent and only found in 9% of breast carcinomas. We revealed a few polymorphisms with a frequency of 13%-29%, which had been reported previously. Down-regulation of p73 mRNA expression was observed in tumor tissues in comparison to the normal breast tissues. A significant inverse correlation was found between p73 transcripts and high histological grade, suggesting that down-regulated p73 expression could be related to poor prognosis in those patients. Conclusion Our results suggest that p73 may serve as a tumor suppressor gene and its expression plays a role in tumorigenesis in Japanese patients with breast cancer.

  6. Diffuse panbronchiolitis: high-resolution CT findings and correlation with pulmonary function test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diffuse panbronchiolitis(DPB) is a chronic inflammatory airway disease of unknown causes mainly affecting the respiratory bronchioles and the more proximal bronchi. Findings on chest radiographs and high-resolution CT(HRCT) are well known and Akira classified HRCT findings of DPB into four types. Purpose of this study is to evaluate the relationship between findings of HRCT and PFT. We retrospectively analyzed the chest radiographs and HRCT images of eleven patients with DPB and compared CT classification with pulmonary function test. Chest radiographs usually showed small nodular opacities throughout the both middle and lower lungs. The HRCT findings of DPB were centrilobularly distributed small nodular densities, branching linear densities contiguous with small round densities, dilated and thickened peripheral and central airways including bronchioles. More than one CT type by Akira's classification, usually two or three types, were found in nine patients. There was good correlation between CT types and FEV1%(ρ < 0.05), CT types and FEV1/FVC (ρ < 0.05) respectively. HRCT seems to be more useful for diagnosis and disease progression of DPB as compared with the chest radiographs or clinical stage such as pulmonary functions test

  7. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Go, Min Jin; Zhang, Weihua; Below, Jennifer E; Gaulton, Kyle J; Ferreira, Teresa; Horikoshi, Momoko; Johnson, Andrew D; Ng, Maggie C Y; Prokopenko, Inga; Saleheen, Danish; Wang, Xu; Zeggini, Eleftheria; Abecasis, Goncalo R; Adair, Linda S; Almgren, Peter; Atalay, Mustafa; Aung, Tin; Baldassarre, Damiano; Balkau, Beverley; Bao, Yuqian; Barnett, Anthony H; Barroso, Ines; Basit, Abdul; Been, Latonya F; Beilby, John; Bell, Graeme I; Benediktsson, Rafn; Bergman, Richard N; Boehm, Bernhard O; Boerwinkle, Eric; Bonnycastle, Lori L; Burtt, Noël; Cai, Qiuyin; Campbell, Harry; Carey, Jason; Cauchi, Stephane; Caulfield, Mark; Chan, Juliana C N; Chang, Li-Ching; Chang, Tien-Jyun; Chang, Yi-Cheng; Charpentier, Guillaume; Chen, Chien-Hsiun; Chen, Han; Chen, Yuan-Tsong; Chia, Kee-Seng; Chidambaram, Manickam; Chines, Peter S; Cho, Nam H; Cho, Young Min; Chuang, Lee-Ming; Collins, Francis S; Cornelis, Marylin C; Couper, David J; Crenshaw, Andrew T; van Dam, Rob M; Danesh, John; Das, Debashish; de Faire, Ulf; Dedoussis, George; Deloukas, Panos; Dimas, Antigone S; Dina, Christian; Doney, Alex S; Donnelly, Peter J; Dorkhan, Mozhgan; van Duijn, Cornelia; Dupuis, Josée; Edkins, Sarah; Elliott, Paul; Emilsson, Valur; Erbel, Raimund; Eriksson, Johan G; Escobedo, Jorge; Esko, Tonu; Eury, Elodie; Florez, Jose C; Fontanillas, Pierre; Forouhi, Nita G; Forsen, Tom; Fox, Caroline; Fraser, Ross M; Frayling, Timothy M; Froguel, Philippe; Frossard, Philippe; Gao, Yutang; Gertow, Karl; Gieger, Christian; Gigante, Bruna; Grallert, Harald; Grant, George B; Grrop, Leif C; Groves, Chrisropher J; Grundberg, Elin; Guiducci, Candace; Hamsten, Anders; Han, Bok-Ghee; Hara, Kazuo; Hassanali, Neelam; Hattersley, Andrew T; Hayward, Caroline; Hedman, Asa K; Herder, Christian; Hofman, Albert; Holmen, Oddgeir L; Hovingh, Kees; Hreidarsson, Astradur B; Hu, Cheng; Hu, Frank B; Hui, Jennie; Humphries, Steve E; Hunt, Sarah E; Hunter, David J; Hveem, Kristian; Hydrie, Zafar I; Ikegami, Hiroshi; Illig, Thomas; Ingelsson, Erik; Islam, Muhammed; Isomaa, Bo; Jackson, Anne U; Jafar, Tazeen; James, Alan; Jia, Weiping; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Jonsson, Anna; Jowett, Jeremy B M; Kadowaki, Takashi; Kang, Hyun Min; Kanoni, Stavroula; Kao, Wen Hong L; Kathiresan, Sekar; Kato, Norihiro; Katulanda, Prasad; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Kirkka M; Kelly, Ann M; Khan, Hassan; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Young Jin; Kinnunen, Leena; Klopp, Norman; Kong, Augustine; Korpi-Hyövälti, Eeva; Kowlessur, Sudhir; Kraft, Peter; Kravic, Jasmina; Kristensen, Malene M; Krithika, S; Kumar, Ashish; Kumate, Jesus; Kuusisto, Johanna; Kwak, Soo Heon; Laakso, Markku; Lagou, Vasiliki; Lakka, Timo A; Langenberg, Claudia; Langford, Cordelia; Lawrence, Robert; Leander, Karin; Lee, Jen-Mai; Lee, Nanette R; Li, Man; Li, Xinzhong; Li, Yun; Liang, Junbin; Liju, Samuel; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lind, Lars; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Lindholm, Eero; Liu, Ching-Ti; Liu, Jian Jun; Lobbens, Stéphane; Long, Jirong; Loos, Ruth J F; Lu, Wei; Luan, Jian'an; Lyssenko, Valeriya; Ma, Ronald C W; Maeda, Shiro; Mägi, Reedik; Männisto, Satu; Matthews, David R; Meigs, James B; Melander, Olle; Metspalu, Andres; Meyer, Julia; Mirza, Ghazala; Mihailov, Evelin; Moebus, Susanne; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohlke, Karen L; Morris, Andrew D; Mühleisen, Thomas W; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Musk, Bill; Nakamura, Jiro; Nakashima, Eitaro; Navarro, Pau; Ng, Peng-Keat; Nica, Alexandra C; Nilsson, Peter M; Njølstad, Inger; Nöthen, Markus M; Ohnaka, Keizo; Ong, Twee Hee; Owen, Katharine R; Palmer, Colin N A; Pankow, James S; Park, Kyong Soo; Parkin, Melissa; Pechlivanis, Sonali; Pedersen, Nancy L; Peltonen, Leena; Perry, John R B; Peters, Annette; Pinidiyapathirage, Janini M; Platou, Carl G; Potter, Simon; Price, Jackie F; Qi, Lu; Radha, Venkatesan; Rallidis, Loukianos; Rasheed, Asif; Rathman, Wolfgang; Rauramaa, Rainer; Raychaudhuri, Soumya; Rayner, N William; Rees, Simon D; Rehnberg, Emil; Ripatti, Samuli; Robertson, Neil; Roden, Michael; Rossin, Elizabeth J; Rudan, Igor; Rybin, Denis; Saaristo, Timo E; Salomaa, Veikko; Saltevo, Juha; Samuel, Maria; Sanghera, Dharambir K; Saramies, Jouko; Scott, James; Scott, Laura J; Scott, Robert A; Segrè, Ayellet V; Sehmi, Joban; Sennblad, Bengt; Shah, Nabi; Shah, Sonia; Shera, A Samad; Shu, Xiao Ou; Shuldiner, Alan R; Sigurđsson, Gunnar; Sijbrands, Eric; Silveira, Angela; Sim, Xueling; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Small, Kerrin S; So, Wing Yee; Stančáková, Alena; Stefansson, Kari; Steinbach, Gerald; Steinthorsdottir, Valgerdur; Stirrups, Kathleen; Strawbridge, Rona J; Stringham, Heather M; Sun, Qi; Suo, Chen; Syvänen, Ann-Christine; Takayanagi, Ryoichi; Takeuchi, Fumihiko; Tay, Wan Ting; Teslovich, Tanya M; Thorand, Barbara; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Tikkanen, Emmi; Trakalo, Joseph; Tremoli, Elena; Trip, Mieke D; Tsai, Fuu Jen; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Valladares-Salgado, Adan; Vedantam, Sailaja; Veglia, Fabrizio; Voight, Benjamin F; Wang, Congrong; Wareham, Nicholas J; Wennauer, Roman; Wickremasinghe, Ananda R; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wilson, James F; Wiltshire, Steven; Winckler, Wendy; Wong, Tien Yin; Wood, Andrew R; Wu, Jer-Yuarn; Wu, Ying; Yamamoto, Ken; Yamauchi, Toshimasa; Yang, Mingyu; Yengo, Loic; Yokota, Mitsuhiro; Young, Robin; Zabaneh, Delilah; Zhang, Fan; Zhang, Rong; Zheng, Wei; Zimmet, Paul Z; Altshuler, David; Bowden, Donald W; Cho, Yoon Shin; Cox, Nancy J; Cruz, Miguel; Hanis, Craig L; Kooner, Jaspal; Lee, Jong-Young; Seielstad, Mark; Teo, Yik Ying; Boehnke, Michael; Parra, Esteban J; Chambers, Jonh C; Tai, E Shyong; McCarthy, Mark I; Morris, Andrew P

    2014-03-01

    To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We observed a significant excess in the directional consistency of T2D risk alleles across ancestry groups, even at SNPs demonstrating only weak evidence of association. By following up the strongest signals of association from the trans-ethnic meta-analysis in an additional 21,491 cases and 55,647 controls of European ancestry, we identified seven new T2D susceptibility loci. Furthermore, we observed considerable improvements in the fine-mapping resolution of common variant association signals at several T2D susceptibility loci. These observations highlight the benefits of trans-ethnic GWAS for the discovery and characterization of complex trait loci and emphasize an exciting opportunity to extend insight into the genetic architecture and pathogenesis of human diseases across populations of diverse ancestry. PMID:24509480

  8. Genome-wide trans-ancestry meta-analysis provides insight into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes susceptibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mahajan, Anubha; Go, Min Jin; Zhang, Weihua;

    2014-01-01

    To further understanding of the genetic basis of type 2 diabetes (T2D) susceptibility, we aggregated published meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies (GWAS), including 26,488 cases and 83,964 controls of European, east Asian, south Asian and Mexican and Mexican American ancestry. We obs...

  9. Runoff pollutants of a highly trafficked urban road--correlation analysis and seasonal influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helmreich, Brigitte; Hilliges, Rita; Schriewer, Alexander; Horn, Harald

    2010-08-01

    The quality of road runoff at a highly trafficked road has been studied for 2 years. 63 storm events have been sampled and analyzed. Besides pH value and electric conductivity the concentrations of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni) and cadmium (Cd), both in dissolved and particulate form, de-icing salt, total and dissolved organic carbon (TOC and DOC), suspended solids (SS) have been monitored. Correlation analysis showed a significant relationship between the total metal concentrations with TOC and SS. A considerable seasonal increase in pollutant concentrations has been observed for Cu, TOC, SS, pH value and especially for Zn during the cold season. The mean values during winter time were multiple times higher than measured during the warm season. In contrast, the fractionation of heavy metals was not affected by seasonal variations, but remarkable fluctuations were observed between different rain events with dissolved fractions above 90%. As a result of this and due to the high pollutant load on fine particles, best management practices (BMPs) only implementing sedimentation are not recommended for treatment of heavily polluted urban road runoff. From the data obtained it can be concluded, that the de-icing salt has only a weak influence for higher pollutant concentrations. The increase of heavy metal concentrations occurs because of increased tear and wear due to application of gravel at cold weather conditions. No significant influence of the length of antecedent dry weather periods could be observed most likely due to street sweeping, winds and air turbulences caused by traffic. PMID:20579685

  10. High DEPTOR expression correlates with poor prognosis in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu NB

    2015-11-01

    . DEPTOR mRNA and protein expression was significantly higher in ESCC tissues than in normal adjacent esophageal squamous tissues. High DEPTOR expression was significantly correlated with regional lymph node status in the TNM stage of patients with ESCC. Kaplan–Meier survival curves showed that the rate of overall survival was significantly lower in patients with high DEPTOR expression than in those with low DEPTOR expression. Additionally, high DEPTOR expression was an independent prognostic predictor for ESCC patients. Conclusion: High DEPTOR expression is an independent prognostic biomarker indicating a worse prognosis for patients with ESCC. Keywords: DEPTOR, ESCC, prognosis

  11. Cross-correlation analysis between Chinese TF contracts and treasury ETF based on high-frequency data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yu; Chen, Shi

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the high-frequency cross-correlation relationship between Chinese treasury futures contracts and treasury ETF. We analyze the logarithmic return of these two price series, from which we can conclude that both return series are not normally distributed and the futures markets have greater volatility. We find significant cross-correlation between these two series. We further confirm the relationship using the DCCA coefficient and the DMCA coefficient. We quantify the long-range cross-correlation with DCCA method, and we further show that the relationship is multifractal. An arbitrage algorithm based on DFA regression with stable return is proposed in the last part.

  12. High-order correlation of non-Rayleigh speckle fields and its application in super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suzhen; Wang, Wei; Yu, Rong; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2016-05-01

    Classical correlation of Rayleigh speckle fields E(x) can only mimic second-order correlation in quantum imaging. Here, we propose a method to explore the high-order correlation of non-Rayleigh speckle fields E N (x) which shows a totally different property from the Rayleigh speckle fields. As a specific example, we illustrate and analyze in detail the third-order speckle scanning imaging which overcomes the diffraction barrier by a factor of \\sqrt{3} . The influences of diffractions in the illumination path and the detection path are also discussed. This investigation may pave the way for applications in super-resolution imaging.

  13. Correlation of Managers' Value Systems and Students' Moral Development in High Schools and Pre-University Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alavi, Hamid Reza; Rahimipoor, Tahereh

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this research was to understand the managers' value system, the students' moral development, and their relationship in the high schools and pre-universities of District One in Kerman City. The research method used was descriptive-correlational. The statistical population was composed of high school and pre-university managers and…

  14. Correlation among High School Senior Students' Test Anxiety, Academic Performance and Points of University Entrance Exam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatas, Hakan; Alci, Bulent; Aydin, Hasan

    2013-01-01

    Test anxiety seems like a benign problem to some people, but it can be potentially serious when it leads to high levels of distress and academic failure. The aim of this study is to define the correlation among high school senior students' test anxiety, academic performance (GPA) and points of university entrance exam (UEE). The study group…

  15. What can the nuclear high-spin properties tell us about the decrease of the pair-correlation energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pair-correlation energies at high spins are studied in cranking-HFB calculations under several model assumptions. The results are compared with experimental high-spin data: a) yrastlines of even-even nuclei b) systematics of rotational bands of odd-N nuclei and c) routhians of odd-N nuclei relative to corresponding routhians of neighbouring even-N isotopes. (author)

  16. Beyond Knowledge : Patterns of Sexuality and Correlates of High Risk Behaviour among Urban Youth in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    2004-01-01

    A community based cross-sectional study inquiring into determinants and correlates of sexual risk taking was conducted from June to December 2003. The objective of the study was describing sexual behavior and assessing socio-economic and cultural correlates of high-risk sexual behavior among urban youth in Addis Ababa. A multi-systemic perspective, an approach that focuses on the reciprocal relations among the personal, family, and extra family systems on sexual behavior was employed. Data we...

  17. Search for correlations of the arrival directions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays with specific point source candidates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A search has been made for correlations between the arrival directions of cosmic rays above 1019 eV and various classes of galactic and extragalactic point source candidates. The effects that the galactic and intergalactic magnetic fields would have on their arrival directions and times of flight have been considered. Although some statistical indications for directional correlations have been found, none is significant enough to give strong support to any specific model of the origin of high energy cosmic rays. (orig.)

  18. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955-2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E

    2016-01-01

    The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955-2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0-14, 15-29, 30-49, 50-69, 70-85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0-14 and 15-29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I-III or III-IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  19. Worldwide cutaneous malignant melanoma incidences analyzed by sex, age, and skin type over time (1955–2007): Is HPV infection of androgenic hair follicular melanocytes a risk factor for developing melanoma exclusively in people of European-ancestry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Stephen J.; Subramanian, Madhan; Godar, Dianne E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The cutaneous malignant melanoma (CMM) incidence has been increasing in an exponential manner in certain populations around the world for over 7 decades. To help illuminate the etiology, we performed worldwide temporal (1955–2007) CMM incidence analysis by sex, age (0–14, 15–29, 30–49, 50–69, 70–85+), and skin type on 6 continents using data from the International Agency for Research on Cancer. We observe an exponential increase in the CMM incidence over time and an increase of about 2 orders of magnitude between age groups 0–14 and 15–29 exclusively in European-ancestry populations around the world independent of skin type (I–III or III–IV). Other populations like the Chinese (III-IV) had much lower CMM incidences that either remained stable or temporally decreased but did not display a dramatic increase between the youngest age groups. The dramatic increase in the incidence between the youngest age groups found only in European-ancestry populations suggests one of the most important risk factors for CMM may be developing androgenic hair, the occurrence of which appears to correlate with the distribution of CMM over male and female body sites. Besides that potential new risk factor, the increasing CMM incidence with increasing age, known not to be from cumulative UV doses, may be associated with age-related changes to skin, i.e., thinning epidermis causing lower vitamin D3 levels, and hair, i.e., whitening from higher reactive oxygen species. The temporal exponential increasing CMM incidence in European-ancestry populations may be due to Human Papilloma Virus infection of follicular hair melanocytes, found in CMM biopsies. PMID:27588159

  20. High-speed holographic correlation system by a time-division recording method for copyright content management on the internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Eriko; Ikeda, Kanami; Kodate, Kashiko

    2012-10-01

    Using a holographic disc memory on which a huge amount of data can be stored, we constructed an ultra-high-speed, all-optical correlation system. In this method, multiplex recording is, however, restricted to "one page" on "one spot." In addition, signal information must be normalized as data of the same size, even if the object data size is smaller. Therefore, this system is difficult to apply to part of the object data scene (i.e., partial scene searching and template matching), while maintaining high accessibility and programmability. In this paper, we develop a holographic correlation system by a time division recording method that increases the number of multiplex recordings on the same spot. Assuming that a four-channel detector is utilized, 15 parallel correlations are achieved by a time-division recording method. Preliminary correlation experiments with the holographic optical disc setup are carried out by high correlation peaks at a rotational speed of 300 rpm. We also describe the combination of an optical correlation system for copyright content management that searches the Internet and detects illegal contents on video sharing websites.

  1. Malagasy Genetic Ancestry Comes from an Historical Malay Trading Post in Southeast Borneo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brucato, Nicolas; Kusuma, Pradiptajati; Cox, Murray P; Pierron, Denis; Purnomo, Gludhug A; Adelaar, Alexander; Kivisild, Toomas; Letellier, Thierry; Sudoyo, Herawati; Ricaut, François-Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Malagasy genetic diversity results from an exceptional protoglobalization process that took place over a thousand years ago across the Indian Ocean. Previous efforts to locate the Asian origin of Malagasy highlighted Borneo broadly as a potential source, but so far no firm source populations were identified. Here, we have generated genome-wide data from two Southeast Borneo populations, the Banjar and the Ngaju, together with published data from populations across the Indian Ocean region. We find strong support for an origin of the Asian ancestry of Malagasy among the Banjar. This group emerged from the long-standing presence of a Malay Empire trading post in Southeast Borneo, which favored admixture between the Malay and an autochthonous Borneo group, the Ma'anyan. Reconciling genetic, historical, and linguistic data, we show that the Banjar, in Malay-led voyages, were the most probable Asian source among the analyzed groups in the founding of the Malagasy gene pool. PMID:27381999

  2. The dynamics of mergers and acquisitions: ancestry as the seminal determinant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegas, Eduardo; Cockburn, Stuart P; Jensen, Henrik J; West, Geoffrey B

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the fundamental mechanisms behind the complex landscape of corporate mergers and acquisitions is of crucial importance to economies across the world. Adapting ideas from the fields of complexity and evolutionary dynamics to analyse business ecosystems, we show here that ancestry, i.e. the cumulative sum of historical mergers across all ancestors, is the key characteristic to company mergers and acquisitions. We verify this by comparing an agent-based model to an extensive range of business data, covering the period from the 1830s to the present day and a range of industries and geographies. This seemingly universal mechanism leads to imbalanced business ecosystems, with the emergence of a few very large, but sluggish 'too big to fail' entities, and very small, niche entities, thereby creating a paradigm where a configuration akin to effective oligopoly or monopoly is a likely outcome for free market systems. PMID:25383025

  3. Evolutionary ancestry and novel functions of the mammalian glucose transporter (GLUT family

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patron Nicola

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In general, sugar porters function by proton-coupled symport or facilitative transport modes. Symporters, coupled to electrochemical energy, transport nutrients against a substrate gradient. Facilitative carriers transport sugars along a concentration gradient, thus transport is dependent upon extracellular nutrient levels. Across bacteria, fungi, unicellular non-vertebrates and plants, proton-coupled hexose symport is a crucial process supplying energy under conditions of nutrient flux. In mammals it has been assumed that evolution of whole body regulatory mechanisms would eliminate this need. To determine whether any isoforms bearing this function might be conserved in mammals, we investigated the relationship between the transporters of animals and the proton-coupled hexose symporters found in other species. Results We took a comparative genomic approach and have performed the first comprehensive and statistically supported phylogenetic analysis of all mammalian glucose transporter (GLUT isoforms. Our data reveals the mammalian GLUT proteins segregate into five distinct classes. This evolutionary ancestry gives insight to structure, function and transport mechanisms within the groups. Combined with biological assays, we present novel evidence that, in response to changing nutrient availability and environmental pH, proton-coupled, active glucose symport function is maintained in mammalian cells. Conclusions The analyses show the ancestry, evolutionary conservation and biological importance of the GLUT classes. These findings significantly extend our understanding of the evolution of mammalian glucose transport systems. They also reveal that mammals may have conserved an adaptive response to nutrient demand that would have important physiological implications to cell survival and growth.

  4. The influence of climate on age at menarche: Augmented with the influence of ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Kitae

    2016-08-01

    Samples representative of South Korea, Indonesia, and Peninsular Malaysia were analyzed and the influence of climate on age at menarche was investigated. The sample size was 24,651 for Korea (birth years 1941-1992), for Indonesia 8331 (birth years 1944-1988) plus 20,519 (birth years 1978-1997), and 2842 for Peninsular Malaysia (birth years 1927-1968). Respondents recalled their age at menarche. The mean age at menarche was calculated for each birth year by country, and for Malaysia, additionally by ancestry. It has been found that mean ages at menarche for the early birth years were much younger in Indonesia than in Korea despite similar levels of socioeconomic conditions (proxied by GDP per capita). For example, for the birth year 1944, the mean age at menarche was 14.45 years for Indonesia and 16.19 years for Korea-a difference of 1.74 years. It was necessary to double the Korean GDP per capita to make the Korean mean age at menarche the same as the Indonesian one. Chinese and Malay women in Peninsular Malaysia were further analyzed, and the results provided indirect evidence that the difference between Korea and Indonesia was not due to ancestry differences. Results in multivariate settings provided consistent results. It has been concluded that climate exerts a significant influence on age at menarche because the relatively easy availability of food in the tropics increases energy intake while the absence of cold weather decreases energy expenditure on maintenance and activity. PMID:27369814

  5. A Method to Exploit the Structure of Genetic Ancestry Space to Enhance Case-Control Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodea, Corneliu A; Neale, Benjamin M; Ripke, Stephan; Daly, Mark J; Devlin, Bernie; Roeder, Kathryn

    2016-05-01

    One goal of human genetics is to understand the genetic basis of disease, a challenge for diseases of complex inheritance because risk alleles are few relative to the vast set of benign variants. Risk variants are often sought by association studies in which allele frequencies in case subjects are contrasted with those from population-based samples used as control subjects. In an ideal world we would know population-level allele frequencies, releasing researchers to focus on case subjects. We argue this ideal is possible, at least theoretically, and we outline a path to achieving it in reality. If such a resource were to exist, it would yield ample savings and would facilitate the effective use of data repositories by removing administrative and technical barriers. We call this concept the Universal Control Repository Network (UNICORN), a means to perform association analyses without necessitating direct access to individual-level control data. Our approach to UNICORN uses existing genetic resources and various statistical tools to analyze these data, including hierarchical clustering with spectral analysis of ancestry; and empirical Bayesian analysis along with Gaussian spatial processes to estimate ancestry-specific allele frequencies. We demonstrate our approach using tens of thousands of control subjects from studies of Crohn disease, showing how it controls false positives, provides power similar to that achieved when all control data are directly accessible, and enhances power when control data are limiting or even imperfectly matched ancestrally. These results highlight how UNICORN can enable reliable, powerful, and convenient genetic association analyses without access to the individual-level data. PMID:27087321

  6. Experiment towards continuous-variable entanglement swapping: Highly correlated four-partite quantum state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a protocol for performing entanglement swapping with intense pulsed beams. In a first step, the generation of amplitude correlations between two systems that have never interacted directly is demonstrated. This is verified in direct detection with electronic modulation of the detected photocurrents. The measured correlations are better than expected from a classical reconstruction scheme. In an entanglement swapping process, a four-partite entangled state is generated. We prove experimentally that the amplitudes of the four optical modes are quantum correlated 3 dB below shot noise, which is consistent with the presence of genuine four-party entanglement

  7. CHRONIC OTITIS MEDIA: HIGH RESOLUTION COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHIC EVALUATION OF THE TEMPORAL BONE WITH SURGICAL CORRELATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakenahalli P.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To correlate the sensitivity and specificity of High Resolution Computed Tomography (HRCT findings of temporal bone in chronic otitis media with surgical findings. MATERIALS & METHODS HRCT of temporal bone of fifty patients with chronic otitis media were evaluated prospectively between July 2012 and December 2013. The various pathological findings, complications and important anatomical variations were evaluated. These findings were compared with intraoperative findings. Statistical methods were carried out using SPSS for Windows (Version 16.0 and Minitab (Version 11.0 for windows. The sensitivity, specificity, false positive and false negative rates were calculated. The level of significance was considered significant for P-values <0.05. RESULTS HRCT is reliable for all the parameters like scutum erosion, ossicular erosion, mastoid pneumatisation, low lying dura, anterior lying sigmoid, Korner’s septum, cholesteatoma extension in middle ear and mastoid, and presence of complications like mastoiditis, mastoid abscess, mastoid cortex dehiscence, sigmoid sinus plate erosion, facial canal dehiscence, tegmen mastoideum erosion, labyrinthine fistula and intracranial complications with a P value <0.05 but not reliable for tegmen tympani erosion and posterior fossa dural plate erosion. Among the findings related to adjacent neurovascular structures, facial canal dehiscence was commonest followed by anterior lying sigmoid sinus and low lying dura. In ossicular erosion, incus was most commonly involved followed by stapes and malleus. Most of the mastoid in this study was sclerotic followed by pneumatised and diploic. The epitympanum and mastoid antrum were the most commonly involved areas in cholesteatoma followed by aditus, mastoid air cells, posterior tympanum, mesotympanum, hypotympanum, protympanum and perilabyrinthine air cells in decreasing order of frequency. CONCLUSIONS HRCT temporal bone is a reliable investigation in preoperative

  8. Climate correlates of 20 years of trophic changes in a high-elevation riparian system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T.E.

    2007-01-01

    The consequences of climate change for ecosystem structure and function remain largely unknown. Here, I examine the ability of climate variation to explain long-term changes in bird and plant populations, as well as trophic interactions in a high-elevation riparian system in central Arizona, USA, based on 20 years of study. Abundances of dominant deciduous trees have declined dramatically over the 20 years, correlated with a decline in overwinter snowfall. Snowfall can affect overwinter presence of elk, whose browsing can significantly impact deciduous tree abundance. Thus, climate may affect the plant community indirectly through effects on herbivores, but may also act directly by influencing water availability for plants. Seven species of birds were found to initiate earlier breeding associated with an increase in spring temperature across years. The advance in breeding time did not affect starvation of young or clutch size. Earlier breeding also did not increase the length of the breeding season for single-brooded species, but did for multi-brooded species. Yet, none of these phenology-related changes was associated with bird population trends. Climate had much larger consequences for these seven bird species by affecting trophic levels below (plants) and above (predators) the birds. In particular, the climate-related declines in deciduous vegetation led to decreased abundance of preferred bird habitat and increased nest predation rates. In addition, summer precipitation declined over time, and drier summers also were further associated with greater nest predation in all species. The net result was local extinction and severe population declines in some previously common bird species, whereas one species increased strongly in abundance, and two species did not show clear population changes. These data indicate that climate can alter ecosystem structure and function through complex pathways that include direct and indirect effects on abundances and interactions

  9. Lung parenchyma changes in ankylosing spondylitis: demonstration with high resolution CT and correlation with disease duration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senocak, Oezlem E-mail: emine.senocak@deu.edu.tr; Manisali, Metin; Oezaksoy, Dinc; Sevinc, Can; Akalin, Elif

    2003-02-01

    Objective: To analyze the spectrum of the lung parenchyma changes in ankylosing spondylitis (AS) with high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) and correlate the findings with disease duration. Material and methods: Twenty patients (18 male, 2 female) with the diagnosis of AS according to New York criteria were included in the study. None of the patients had history of tuberculosis, prolonged inorganic dust exposure and hospitalization for pneumonia. Seven of the patients were smokers, three patients were ex-smokers, and 10 patients were nonsmokers. The patients were assigned to three groups depending on disease duration. Group 1: patients with disease duration {<=}5 years (n: four patients), group 2: patients with disease duration {>=}6 years but {<=}10 years (n: four patients), group 3: patients with disease duration {>=}11 years (n: 12 patients). HRCT and pulmonary function tests (PFT) were performed in all patients. Results: HRCT demonstrated pathology in 17 patients (85%). Two patients in group 1, 4 patients in group 2 and 11 patients in group 3 had pulmonary parenchyma changes. Emphysema (9/20), septal thickening (9/20) and pleural thickening (9/20) were the most common changes followed by nodule (8/20) and subpleural band formation (7/20). Three patients had apical fibrosis (AF). Septal and pleural thickening (both 4/10) were the most common changes when only nonsmokers were considered. Among nine patients with emphysema three were nonsmokers. Conclusion: There is a wide spectrum in pulmonary parenchyma changes in AS. These changes begin in early stages of the disease and increase with disease duration. Although smoking complicates the spectrum of changes in pulmonary parenchyma, they are predominately in the form of interstitial inflammation.

  10. Local Ancestry Inference in a Large US-Based Hispanic/Latino Study: Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Sharon R; Grinde, Kelsey; Plantinga, Anna; Gogarten, Stephanie M; Stilp, Adrienne M; Kaplan, Robert C; Avilés-Santa, M Larissa; Browning, Brian L; Laurie, Cathy C

    2016-01-01

    We estimated local ancestry on the autosomes and X chromosome in a large US-based study of 12,793 Hispanic/Latino individuals using the RFMix method, and we compared different reference panels and approaches to local ancestry estimation on the X chromosome by means of Mendelian inconsistency rates as a proxy for accuracy. We developed a novel and straightforward approach to performing ancestry-specific PCA after finding artifactual behavior in the results from an existing approach. Using the ancestry-specific PCA, we found significant population structure within African, European, and Amerindian ancestries in the Hispanic/Latino individuals in our study. In the African ancestral component of the admixed individuals, individuals whose grandparents were from Central America clustered separately from individuals whose grandparents were from the Caribbean, and also from reference Yoruba and Mandenka West African individuals. In the European component, individuals whose grandparents were from Puerto Rico diverged partially from other background groups. In the Amerindian ancestral component, individuals clustered into multiple different groups depending on the grandparental country of origin. Therefore, local ancestry estimation provides further insight into the complex genetic structure of US Hispanic/Latino populations, which must be properly accounted for in genotype-phenotype association studies. It also provides a basis for admixture mapping and ancestry-specific allele frequency estimation, which are useful in the identification of risk factors for disease. PMID:27172203

  11. Quantification of Optic Disc Edema during Exposure to High Altitude Shows No Correlation to Acute Mountain Sickness

    OpenAIRE

    Willmann, Gabriel, 1977-; Fischer, M. Dominik; Schatz, Andreas; Schommer, Kai; Messias, Andre; Zrenner, Eberhart; Bartz-Schmidt, Karl U.; Gekeler, Florian

    2011-01-01

    Background The study aimed to quantify changes of the optic nerve head (ONH) during exposure to high altitude and to assess a correlation with acute mountain sickness (AMS). This work is related to the Tuebingen High Altitude Ophthalmology (THAO) study. Methodology/Principal Findings A confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscope (cSLO, Heidelberg Retina Tomograph, HRT3®) was used to quantify changes at the ONH in 18 healthy participants before, during and after rapid ascent to high altitude (4559 ...

  12. The Correlation Study of Race Results of University High Level Middle-distance Runners with Dietary Intervention

    OpenAIRE

    Tiehan Li

    2015-01-01

    The increasing improvement of university high level sports team’s technology and achievement, scientific and effective training have become the primary means of development. Author through studying the Correlation of race results of university high level middle distance runners with dietary intervention, concludes that the middle-distance runners during the training in addition to need an effective and highly targeted load and intensity arrangement, conditioning, simulation game training, sci...

  13. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shafqat Ahmad

    Full Text Available Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2, sex, study center (for multicenter studies, and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015. However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, Pinteraction  = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, Pinteraction  = 0.275 for Europeans. In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (Pinteraction  = 0.003 and the SEC16B rs10913469 (Pinteraction  = 0.025 variants showed evidence of SNP × physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.

  14. Gene × dietary pattern interactions in obesity: analysis of up to 68 317 adults of European ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Jennifer A; Follis, Jack L; Ngwa, Julius S; Smith, Caren E; Ahmad, Shafqat; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wojczynski, Mary K; Voortman, Trudy; Lemaitre, Rozenn N; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Houston, Denise K; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Qi, Qibin; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Mikkilä, Vera; North, Kari E; Siscovick, David S; Harald, Kennet; Mckeown, Nicola M; Johansson, Ingegerd; Rissanen, Harri; Liu, Yongmei; Lahti, Jari; Hu, Frank B; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rukh, Gull; Rich, Stephen; Booij, Lisanne; Dmitriou, Maria; Ax, Erika; Raitakari, Olli; Mukamal, Kenneth; Männistö, Satu; Hallmans, Göran; Jula, Antti; Ericson, Ulrika; Jacobs, David R; Van Rooij, Frank J A; Deloukas, Panos; Sjögren, Per; Kähönen, Mika; Djousse, Luc; Perola, Markus; Barroso, Inês; Hofman, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Viikari, Jorma; Uitterlinden, André G; Kalafati, Ioanna P; Franco, Oscar H; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Salomaa, Veikko; Borecki, Ingrid B; Knekt, Paul; Kritchevsky, Stephen B; Eriksson, Johan G; Dedoussis, George V; Qi, Lu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Orho-Melander, Marju; Zillikens, M Carola; Ingelsson, Erik; Lehtimäki, Terho; Renström, Frida; Cupples, L Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J F; Franks, Paul W

    2015-08-15

    Obesity is highly heritable. Genetic variants showing robust associations with obesity traits have been identified through genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether a composite score representing healthy diet modifies associations of these variants with obesity traits. Totally, 32 body mass index (BMI)- and 14 waist-hip ratio (WHR)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, and genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated in 18 cohorts of European ancestry (n = 68 317). Diet score was calculated based on self-reported intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and fried potatoes (unfavorable). Multivariable adjusted, linear regression within each cohort followed by inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to characterize: (a) associations of each GRS with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR and (b) diet score modification of genetic associations with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR. Nominally significant interactions (P = 0.006-0.04) were observed between the diet score and WHR-GRS (but not BMI-GRS), two WHR loci (GRB14 rs10195252; LYPLAL1 rs4846567) and two BMI loci (LRRN6C rs10968576; MTIF3 rs4771122), for the respective BMI-adjusted WHR or BMI outcomes. Although the magnitudes of these select interactions were small, our data indicated that associations between genetic predisposition and obesity traits were stronger with a healthier diet. Our findings generate interesting hypotheses; however, experimental and functional studies are needed to determine their clinical relevance. PMID:25994509

  15. Gene × dietary pattern interactions in obesity: analysis of up to 68 317 adults of European ancestry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettleton, Jennifer A.; Follis, Jack L.; Ngwa, Julius S.; Smith, Caren E.; Ahmad, Shafqat; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wojczynski, Mary K.; Voortman, Trudy; Lemaitre, Rozenn N.; Kristiansson, Kati; Nuotio, Marja-Liisa; Houston, Denise K.; Perälä, Mia-Maria; Qi, Qibin; Sonestedt, Emily; Manichaikul, Ani; Kanoni, Stavroula; Ganna, Andrea; Mikkilä, Vera; North, Kari E.; Siscovick, David S.; Harald, Kennet; Mckeown, Nicola M.; Johansson, Ingegerd; Rissanen, Harri; Liu, Yongmei; Lahti, Jari; Hu, Frank B.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Rukh, Gull; Rich, Stephen; Booij, Lisanne; Dmitriou, Maria; Ax, Erika; Raitakari, Olli; Mukamal, Kenneth; Männistö, Satu; Hallmans, Göran; Jula, Antti; Ericson, Ulrika; Jacobs,, David R.; Van Rooij, Frank J. A.; Deloukas, Panos; Sjögren, Per; Kähönen, Mika; Djousse, Luc; Perola, Markus; Barroso, Inês; Hofman, Albert; Stirrups, Kathleen; Viikari, Jorma; Uitterlinden, André G.; Kalafati, Ioanna P.; Franco, Oscar H.; Mozaffarian, Dariush; Salomaa, Veikko; Borecki, Ingrid B.; Knekt, Paul; Kritchevsky, Stephen B.; Eriksson, Johan G.; Dedoussis, George V.; Qi, Lu; Ferrucci, Luigi; Orho-Melander, Marju; Zillikens, M. Carola; Ingelsson, Erik; Lehtimäki, Terho; Renström, Frida; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Franks, Paul W.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is highly heritable. Genetic variants showing robust associations with obesity traits have been identified through genome-wide association studies. We investigated whether a composite score representing healthy diet modifies associations of these variants with obesity traits. Totally, 32 body mass index (BMI)- and 14 waist–hip ratio (WHR)-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms were genotyped, and genetic risk scores (GRS) were calculated in 18 cohorts of European ancestry (n = 68 317). Diet score was calculated based on self-reported intakes of whole grains, fish, fruits, vegetables, nuts/seeds (favorable) and red/processed meats, sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages and fried potatoes (unfavorable). Multivariable adjusted, linear regression within each cohort followed by inverse variance-weighted, fixed-effects meta-analysis was used to characterize: (a) associations of each GRS with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR and (b) diet score modification of genetic associations with BMI and BMI-adjusted WHR. Nominally significant interactions (P = 0.006–0.04) were observed between the diet score and WHR-GRS (but not BMI-GRS), two WHR loci (GRB14 rs10195252; LYPLAL1 rs4846567) and two BMI loci (LRRN6C rs10968576; MTIF3 rs4771122), for the respective BMI-adjusted WHR or BMI outcomes. Although the magnitudes of these select interactions were small, our data indicated that associations between genetic predisposition and obesity traits were stronger with a healthier diet. Our findings generate interesting hypotheses; however, experimental and functional studies are needed to determine their clinical relevance. PMID:25994509

  16. Customized patterned substrates for highly versatile correlative light-scanning electron microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Lorena Benedetti; Elisa Sogne; Simona Rodighiero; Davide Marchesi; Paolo Milani; Maura Francolini

    2014-01-01

    Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) combines the advantages of light and electron microscopy, thus making it possible to follow dynamic events in living cells at nanometre resolution. Various CLEM approaches and devices have been developed, each of which has its own advantages and technical challenges. We here describe our customized patterned glass substrates, which improve the feasibility of correlative fluorescence/confocal and scanning electron microscopy.

  17. Customized patterned substrates for highly versatile correlative light-scanning electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Lorena; Sogne, Elisa; Rodighiero, Simona; Marchesi, Davide; Milani, Paolo; Francolini, Maura

    2014-11-01

    Correlative light electron microscopy (CLEM) combines the advantages of light and electron microscopy, thus making it possible to follow dynamic events in living cells at nanometre resolution. Various CLEM approaches and devices have been developed, each of which has its own advantages and technical challenges. We here describe our customized patterned glass substrates, which improve the feasibility of correlative fluorescence/confocal and scanning electron microscopy.

  18. High-Quality Vector Field and Direct Vorticity Estimation Uusing the Affine Correlation Method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gronát, Petr

    Prague : Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, v. v. i., 2010 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 35-36 ISBN 978-80-87012-26-0. [ENGINEERING MECHANICS 2010. Svratka (CZ), 10.05.2010-13.05.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/08/1112; GA ČR GAP101/10/1230 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : PIV * normalized cross correlation * affine correlation * vortex detection Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  19. Experiment towards continuous-variable entanglement swapping: Highly correlated four-partite quantum state

    OpenAIRE

    Glöckl, Oliver; Lorenz, Stefan; Marquardt, Christoph; Heersink, Joel; Brownnutt, Michel; Silberhorn, Christine; Pan, Qing; van Loock, Peter; Korolkova, Natalia; Leuchs, Gerd

    2003-01-01

    We present a protocol for performing entanglement swapping with intense pulsed beams. In a first step, the generation of amplitude correlations between two systems that have never interacted directly is demonstrated. This is verified in direct detection with electronic modulation of the detected photocurrents. The measured correlations are better than expected from a classical reconstruction scheme. In the entanglement swapping process, a four--partite entangled state is generated. We prove e...

  20. Obesity and Other Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors among US High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Lowry; Lee, Sarah M.; Fulton, Janet E.; Zewditu Demissie; Laura Kann

    2013-01-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9–12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA) and participation in dai...

  1. Video game playing in high school students: health correlates, gender differences and problematic gaming

    OpenAIRE

    Desai, Rani A.; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra; Cavallo, Dana; Potenza, Marc N.

    2010-01-01

    There is concern about the potential for negative impact of video games on youth. However the existing literature on gaming is inconsistent and has often focused on aggression. Health correlates of gaming and the prevalence and correlates of problematic gaming have not been systematically studied. We anonymously surveyed 4,028 adolescents about gaming, reported problems with gaming, and other health behaviors. 51.2% of the sample reported gaming (76.3% of boys and 29.2% of girls). There were ...

  2. Correlation of waterside corrosion and cladding microstructure in high-burnup fuel and gadolinia rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterside corrosion of the Zircaloy cladding has been examined in high-burnup fuel rods from several BWRs and PWRs, as well as in 3 wt% gadolinia burnable poison rods obtained from a BWR. The corrosion behavior of the high-burnup rods was then correlated with results from a microstructural characterization of the cladding by optical, scanning-electron, and transmission-electron microscopy (OM, SEM, and TEM). OM and SEM examination of the BWR fuel cladding showed both uniform and nodular oxide layers 2 to 45 μm in thickness after burnups of 11 to 30 MWd/kgU. TEM characterization revealed a number of microstructural features that occurred in association with the intermetallic precipitates in the cladding metal, apparently as a result of irradiation-induced or -enhanced processes, i.e., (1) partial amorphization of large Zr-Fe-Cr and Zr-Fe-Ni precipitates (300 to 800 nm in size), (2) virtually complete amorphization of small intermetallic precipitates and subsequent dissolution of the alloying elements, and (3) spinodal-like fluctuation and redistribution of the alloying elements following the amorphization and dissolution. The BWR rods that exhibited white nodular oxides contained large precipitates (300 to 700 nm in size) that were partially amorphized during service, indicating that a distribution of the large intermetallic precipitates is conducive to nodular oxidation. Besides the microstructural features associated with the intermetallic precipitates, TEM stereo electron microscopy revealed microscopic zirconium hydrides (30 to 100 nm in size) that were too small to be resolved by OM or SEM. Stereoscopic examination revealed a tendency for precipitation of the microscopic hydrides with c-component dislocations as the burnup increased. Also, an examination of bright- and dark-field stereopair images revealed three-dimensional distributions of fine cubic-zirconium-oxide precipitates (5 to 10 nm in size) and unidentified ''black-dot'' (5 to 10 nm) and ''white

  3. Statistical Physics of Isotropic-Genesis Nematic Elastomers: I. Structure and Correlations at High Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Bing-Sui; Ye, Fangfu; Xing, Xiangjun; Goldbart, Paul M.

    2013-07-01

    Isotropic-genesis nematic elastomers (IGNEs) are liquid crystalline polymers (LCPs) that have been randomly, permanently cross-linked in the high-temperature state so as to form an equilibrium random solid. Thus, instead of being free to diffuse throughout the entire volume, as they would be in the liquid state, the constituent LCPs in an IGNE are mobile only over a finite, segment specific, length-scale controlled by the density of cross-links. We address the effects that such network-induced localization have on the liquid-crystalline characteristics of an IGNE, as probed via measurements made at high temperatures. In contrast with the case of uncross-linked LCPs, for IGNEs these characteristics are determined not only by thermal fluctuations but also by the quenched disorder associated with the cross-link constraints. To study IGNEs, we consider a microscopic model of dimer nematogens in which the dimers interact via orientation-dependent excluded volume forces. The dimers are, furthermore, randomly, permanently cross-linked via short Hookean springs, the statistics of which we model by means of a Deam-Edwards type of distribution. We show that at length-scales larger than the size of the nematogens this approach leads to a recently proposed, phenomenological Landau theory of IGNEs [Lu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett.108, 257803 (2012)], and hence predicts a regime of short-ranged oscillatory spatial correlations in the nematic alignment, of both thermal and glassy types. In addition, we consider two alternative microscopic models of IGNEs: (i) a wormlike chain model of IGNEs that are formed via the cross-linking of side-chain LCPs; and (ii) a jointed chain model of IGNEs that are formed via the cross-linking of main-chain LCPs. At large length-scales, both of these models give rise to liquid-crystalline characteristics that are qualitatively in line with those predicted on the basis of the dimer-and-springs model, reflecting the fact that the three models inhabit a

  4. High order correlation-polarization potential for vibrational excitation scattering of diatomic molecules by low-energy electrons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Hao; Sun Wei-Guo; Zeng Yang-Yang

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a correlation-polarization potential with high order terms for vibrational excitation in electron-molecule scattering. The new polarization potential generalizes the two-term approximation so that it can better reflect the dependence of correlation and polarization effects on the position coordinate of the scattering electron. It applies the new potential on the vibrational excitation scattering from N_2 in an energy range which includes the ~2Ⅱ_g shape resonance. The good agreement of theoretical resonant peaks with experiments shows that polarization potentials with high order terms are important and should be included in vibrational excitation scattering.

  5. Correlation test to assess low-level processing of high-density oligonucleotide microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bergh Jonas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are currently a number of competing techniques for low-level processing of oligonucleotide array data. The choice of technique has a profound effect on subsequent statistical analyses, but there is no method to assess whether a particular technique is appropriate for a specific data set, without reference to external data. Results We analyzed coregulation between genes in order to detect insufficient normalization between arrays, where coregulation is measured in terms of statistical correlation. In a large collection of genes, a random pair of genes should have on average zero correlation, hence allowing a correlation test. For all data sets that we evaluated, and the three most commonly used low-level processing procedures including MAS5, RMA and MBEI, the housekeeping-gene normalization failed the test. For a real clinical data set, RMA and MBEI showed significant correlation for absent genes. We also found that a second round of normalization on the probe set level improved normalization significantly throughout. Conclusion Previous evaluation of low-level processing in the literature has been limited to artificial spike-in and mixture data sets. In the absence of a known gold-standard, the correlation criterion allows us to assess the appropriateness of low-level processing of a specific data set and the success of normalization for subsets of genes.

  6. Different altered stage correlative expression of high abundance acute-phase proteins in sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lim Boon-Kiong

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The general enhanced expression of α1-antichymotrypsin (ACT, clusterin (CLU, α1-antitrypsin (AAT, haptoglobin β-chain (HAP, and leucine rich glycoprotein (LRG in the sera of patients with epithelial ovarian carcinoma (EOCa was recently reported. In the present study, we compared the expression of the serum acute-phase proteins (APPs in the patients according to their stages of cancer. Results Different altered stage correlative expression of the high abundance serum APPs was demonstrated in sera of the patients studied. While the expression of ACT, HAP and AAT appeared to demonstrate positive correlation with the three initial stages of the cancer, inverse correlation was apparently detected in the expression of LRG and CLU. For patients who were diagnosed with stage IV of the cancer, expression of the serum APPs did not conform to the altered progression changes. Conclusion Our results highlight the potential prognostic significance of selective high abundance serum APPs in patients with EOCa.

  7. High-resolution Givetian-Frasnian boundary recognition from conodont-chemo-stratigraphic correlation at Liujing, Guangxi, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江大勇; 郝维城; 丁干; 白顺良

    1999-01-01

    The Givetian-Frasnian boundary at Liujing, Guangxi, South China is for the first time recognized and correlated in high resolution using characteristic chemocycles of element abundance fluctuation integrated with conodont biostratigraphy. The first appearance of Ancyrodella rotundiloba early form is as a biomarker, and the boundary of lowering fluctuation of element abundance followed by a sequence of characteristic chemocycles with a sequence of conodonts is as an abiotic auxiliary marker. The error is not more than 0.10 Ma. The study indicates that in a quiet interval, characteristic chemocycles integrated with biomarkers can be used for boundary recognition and regional correlation in high resolution, and this method has potential for intercontinental correlation

  8. Genetic identification of Theobroma cacao L. trees with high Criollo ancestry in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez-Ovando, J A; Molina-Freaner, F; Nuñez-Farfán, J; Ovando-Medina, I; Salvador-Figueroa, M

    2014-01-01

    Criollo-type cacao trees are an important pool of genes with potential to be used in cacao breeding and selection programs. For that reason, we assessed the diversity and population structure of Criollo-type trees (108 cultivars with Criollo phenotypic characteristics and 10 Criollo references) using 12 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Cultivars were selected from 7 demes in the Soconusco region of southern Mexico. SSRs amplified 74 alleles with an average of 3.6 alleles per population. The overall populations showed an average observed heterozygosity of 0.28, indicating heterozygote deficiency (average fixation index F = 0.50). However, moderate allelic diversity was found within populations (Shannon index for all populations I = 0.97). Bayesian method analysis determined 2 genetic clusters (K = 2) within individuals. In concordance, an assignment test grouped 37 multilocus genotypes (including 10 references) into a first cluster (Criollo), 54 into a second (presumably Amelonado), and 27 admixed individuals unassigned at the 90% threshold likely corresponding to the Trinitario genotype. This classification was supported by the principal coordinate analysis and analysis of molecular variance, which showed 12% of variation among populations (FST = 0.123, P cocoa. PMID:25511024

  9. Probing superfluid properties in strongly correlated Fermi gases with high spatial resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weimer, Wolf

    2014-07-01

    In this thesis an apparatus to study ultracold fermionic {sup 6}Li with tunable interaction strength and dimensionality is presented. The apparatus is applied to investigate the speed of sound v{sub s} and the superfluid critical velocity v{sub c} across the transition from Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) to Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluidity. The results set benchmarks for theories describing strongly correlated systems. To measure v{sub c}, an obstacle, that is formed by a tightly focused laser beam, is moved through a superfluid sample with a constant velocity along a line of constant density. For velocities larger than v{sub c} heating of the gas is observed. The critical velocity is mapped out for various different interaction strengths covering the BEC-BCS crossover. According to the Landau criterion and Bogolyubov theory, v{sub c} should be closely related to v{sub s} in a Bose-Einstein condensate. The measurement of v{sub s} is conducted by creating a density modulation in the centre of the cloud and tracking the excited modulation. The velocities v{sub s} and v{sub c} are measured in a similar range of interaction strengths and in similar samples to ensure comparability. The apparatus which provides the ultracold samples is a two chamber design with a magneto-optical trap that is loaded via a Zeeman slower. The subsequent cooling steps are all-optical and finally create an ultracold oblate atom cloud inside a flat vacuum cell. This cell provides optimal optical access and is placed between two high numerical aperture microscope objectives. These objectives are used to probe the samples in-situ on length scales which are comparable to the intrinsic length scales of the gases. Similarly, optical dipole potentials are employed to manipulate the clouds on the same small length scales. The oblate samples are sufficiently flat such that there spatial extent along the microscope axes is smaller than the depth of field of the objectives. With an

  10. Pairing in high-density neutron matter including short- and long-range correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Dong; Rios, Arnau; Dussan, Helber; Dickhoff, Willem; Witte, Sam; Polls, Artur

    2016-03-01

    To address open questions in neutron star phenomenology, pairing gaps of 1S0 and 3P2 -3F2 channels in a wide range of densities has been calculated using three different interactions (AV18 CDbonn N3LO). Traditionally, the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS) approach has been used to compute gaps from bare nucleon-nucleon interactions. Here, we incorporate the influence of short- and long-range correlations in the pairing gaps. Short-range correlations (SRC) are treated including the appropriate fragmentation of single-particle states, and they suppress the gaps substantially. Long-range correlations(LRC) dress the pairing interaction via density and spin modes, and provide a relatively small correction. Results are relevant and parametrized in a user friendly way for neutron-star cooling scenarios, in particular in view of the recent observational data on Cassiopeia A.

  11. Studies of correlations between D and ${\\bar D}$ mesons in high energy photoproduction

    CERN Document Server

    Link, J M; Anjos, J C; Bediaga, I; Göbel, C; Magnin, J; Massafferri, A; De Miranda, J M; Pepe, I M; Polycarpo, E; Dos Reis, A C; Carrillo, S; Casimiro, E; Cuautle, E; Sánchez-Hernández, A; Uribe, C; Vázquez, F; Agostino, L; Cinquini, L; Cumalat, J P; O'Reilly, B; Segoni, I; Wahl, M; Butler, J N; Cheung, H W K; Chiodini, G; Gaines, I; Garbincius, P H; Garren, L A; Gottschalk, E E; Kasper, P H; Kreymer, A E; Kutschke, R; Wang, M; Benussi, L; Bertani, M; Bianco, S; Fabbri, Franco Luigi; Zallo, A; Reyes, M; Cawlfield, C; Kim, D Y; Rahimi, A; Wiss, J; Gardner, R; Kryemadhi, A; Chung, Y S; Kang, J S; Ko, B R; Kwak, J W; Lee, K B; Cho, K; Park, H; Alimonti, G; Barberis, S; Boschini, M; Cerutti, A; D'Angelo, P; Di Corato, M; Dini, P; Edera, L; Erba, S; Giammarchi, M; Inzani, P; Leveraro, F; Malvezzi, S; Menasce, D; Mezzadri, M; Moroni, L; Pedrini, D; Pontoglio, C; Prelz, F; Rovere, M; Sala, S; Davenport, T F; Arena, V; Boca, G; Bonomi, G; Gianini, G; Liguori, G; Lopes-Pegna, D; Merlo, M M; Pantea, D; Ratti, S P; Riccardi, C; Vitulo, P; Hernández, H; López, A M; Luiggi, E; Méndez, H; Paris, A; Quinones, J; Ramírez, J E; Zhang, Y; Wilson, J R; Handler, T; Mitchell, R; Engh, D; Hosack, M; Johns, W E; Nehring, M S; Sheldon, P D; Stenson, K; Vaandering, E W; Webster, M; Sheaff, M

    2003-01-01

    Studies of $D{\\bar D}$ correlations for a large sample of events containing fully and partially reconstructed pairs of charmed $D$ mesons recorded by the Fermilab photoproduction experiment FOCUS (FNAL-E831) are presented. Correlations between $D$ and ${\\bar D}$ mesons are used to study heavy quark production dynamics. We present results for fully and partially reconstructed charm pairs and comparisons to a recent version of \\textsc{Pythia} with default parameter settings. We also comment on the production of $\\psi(3770)$ in our data.

  12. On the intermittency and correlation integral of multiparticle final states in high energy collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown by both theoretical analysis and Monte Carlo simulation that using correlation integral instead of factorial moments in the investigation of intermittency phenomena will change the anomalous scaling behaviour in the decreasing of rapidity bin. It is pointed out that the correlation integral and factorial moments probably reflect different physical aspects. In order to eliminate the artificial factor in bin-division, a method of randomly moving the starting point of bin-division in the investigation of factorial moments is proposed. It is also shown that the spiky events have important contribution to the intermittency indices

  13. Genetic ancestry, self-reported race and ethnicity in African Americans and European Americans in the PCaP cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lara E Sucheston

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Family history and African-American race are important risk factors for both prostate cancer (CaP incidence and aggressiveness. When studying complex diseases such as CaP that have a heritable component, chances of finding true disease susceptibility alleles can be increased by accounting for genetic ancestry within the population investigated. Race, ethnicity and ancestry were studied in a geographically diverse cohort of men with newly diagnosed CaP. METHODS: Individual ancestry (IA was estimated in the population-based North Carolina and Louisiana Prostate Cancer Project (PCaP, a cohort of 2,106 incident CaP cases (2063 with complete ethnicity information comprising roughly equal numbers of research subjects reporting as Black/African American (AA or European American/Caucasian/Caucasian American/White (EA from North Carolina or Louisiana. Mean genome wide individual ancestry estimates of percent African, European and Asian were obtained and tested for differences by state and ethnicity (Cajun and/or Creole and Hispanic/Latino using multivariate analysis of variance models. Principal components (PC were compared to assess differences in genetic composition by self-reported race and ethnicity between and within states. RESULTS: Mean individual ancestries differed by state for self-reporting AA (p = 0.03 and EA (p = 0.001. This geographic difference attenuated for AAs who answered "no" to all ethnicity membership questions (non-ethnic research subjects; p = 0.78 but not EA research subjects, p = 0.002. Mean ancestry estimates of self-identified AA Louisiana research subjects for each ethnic group; Cajun only, Creole only and both Cajun and Creole differed significantly from self-identified non-ethnic AA Louisiana research subjects. These ethnicity differences were not seen in those who self-identified as EA. CONCLUSIONS: Mean IA differed by race between states, elucidating a potential contributing factor to these differences in AA

  14. Correlates to Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Status and Willingness to Vaccinate in Low-Income Philadelphia High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bass, Sarah B.; Leader, Amy; Shwarz, Michelle; Greener, Judith; Patterson, Freda

    2015-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the correlates of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination or willingness to be vaccinated in urban, minority adolescents. Methods: Using responses to the 2013 Youth Risk Behavior Survey in Philadelphia, a random sample of high schools provided weighted data representing 20,941 9th to 12th graders. Stratified by…

  15. Final Technical Report, Grant DE-FG02-91ER45443: Heavy fermions and other highly correlated electron systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Properties of highly correlated electrons, such as heavy fermion compounds, metal-insulator transitions, one-dimensional conductors and systems of restricted dimensionality are studied theoretically. The main focus is on Kondo insulators and impurity bands due to Kondo holes, the low-temperature magnetoresistivity of heavy fermion alloys, the n-channel Kondo problem, mesoscopic systems and one-dimensional conductors

  16. Correlating Student Interest and High School Preparation with Learning and Performance in an Introductory University Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlow, Jason J.?B.; Harrison, David M.; Meyertholen, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    We have studied the correlation of student performance in a large first year university physics course with their reasons for taking the course and whether or not the student took a senior-level high school physics course. Performance was measured both by the Force Concept Inventory and by the grade on the final examination. Students who took the…

  17. Final Technical Report, Grant DE-FG02-91ER45443: Heavy fermions and other highly correlated electron systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlottmann, P.

    1998-10-12

    Properties of highly correlated electrons, such as heavy fermion compounds, metal-insulator transitions, one-dimensional conductors and systems of restricted dimensionality are studied theoretically. The main focus is on Kondo insulators and impurity bands due to Kondo holes, the low-temperature magnetoresistivity of heavy fermion alloys, the n-channel Kondo problem, mesoscopic systems and one-dimensional conductors.

  18. Positive correlation between serum taurine and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Jeong Soon; Zhao, Xu; Kim, Sung Hoon; Chang, Kyung Ja

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between serum taurine level and serum adiponectin or leptin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. Five-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups for a period of 8 weeks (normal diet, N group; high-fat diet, HF group; high-fat diet + taurine, HFT group). Taurine was supplemented by dissolving in feed water (3% w/v), and the same amount of distilled water was orally administrated to N and HF groups. In serum, adiponectin level was higher in HFT group compared to HF group. The serum taurine level was negatively correlated with serum total cholesterol (TC) level and positively correlated with serum adiponectin level. These results suggest that dietary taurine supplementation has beneficial effects on total cholesterol and adiponectin levels in high-fat diet-induced obesity rats. PMID:23392875

  19. High-resolution imaging by scanning electron microscopy of semithin sections in correlation with light microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, Daisuke; Kusumi, Satoshi; Shodo, Ryusuke; Dan, Yukari; Ushiki, Tatsuo

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we introduce scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of semithin resin sections. In this technique, semithin sections were adhered on glass slides, stained with both uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and observed with a backscattered electron detector at a low accelerating voltage. As the specimens are stained in the same manner as conventional transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the contrast of SEM images of semithin sections was similar to TEM images of ultrathin sections. Using this technique, wide areas of semithin sections were also observed by SEM, without the obstruction of grids, which was inevitable for traditional TEM. This study also applied semithin section SEM to correlative light and electron microscopy. Correlative immunofluorescence microscopy and immune-SEM were performed in semithin sections of LR white resin-embedded specimens using a FluoroNanogold-labeled secondary antibody. Because LR white resin is hydrophilic and electron stable, this resin is suitable for immunostaining and SEM observation. Using correlative microscopy, the precise localization of the primary antibody was demonstrated by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. This method has great potential for studies examining the precise localization of molecules, including Golgi- and ER-associated proteins, in correlation with LM and SEM. PMID:26206941

  20. Spatial properties of twin-beam correlations at low- to high-intensity transition

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Machulka, R.; Haderka, Ondřej; Peřina Jr., J.; Lamperti, M.; Allevi, A.; Bondani, M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 22, č. 11 (2014), 13374-13379. ISSN 1094-4087 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/12/0382 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : twin-beam correlations * photon pairs * speckle patterns Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 3.488, year: 2014

  1. Correlation energy in a spin polarized two dimensional electron liquid in the high density limit

    OpenAIRE

    Chesi, S; Giuliani, G. F.

    2006-01-01

    We have obtained an analytic expression for the ring diagram contribution to the correlation energy of a two-dimensional electron liquid as a function of the uniform fractional spin polarization. Our results can be used to improve the interpolation formulas which represent the basic ingredient for the construction of modern spin-density functionals in two dimensions.

  2. ICE-based Custom Full-Mesh Network for the CHIME High Bandwidth Radio Astronomy Correlator

    CERN Document Server

    Bandura, Kevin; Dobbs, Matt; Gilbert, Adam; Ittah, David; Parra, Juan Mena; Smecher, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    New generation radio interferometers encode signals from thousands of antenna feeds across large bandwidth. Channelizing and correlating this data requires networking capabilities that can handle unprecedented data rates with reasonable cost. The Canadian Hydrogen Intensity Mapping Experiment (CHIME) correlator processes 8-bits from N=2048 digitizer inputs across 400~MHz of bandwidth. Measured in $N^2~\\times $ bandwidth, it is the largest radio correlator that has been built. Its digital back-end must exchange and reorganize the 6.6~terabit/s produced by its 128 digitizing and channelizing nodes, and feed it to the 256-node spatial correlator in a way that each node obtains data from all digitizer inputs but across a small fraction of the bandwidth (i.e. `corner-turn'). In order to maximize performance and reliability of the corner-turn system while minimizing cost, a custom networking solution has been implemented. The system makes use of Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) transceivers to implement direct,...

  3. Comparison of Genome Wide Variation between Malawians and African Ancestry HapMap Populations

    OpenAIRE

    Joubert, Bonnie R.; North, Kari E.; Wang, Yunfei; Mwapasa, Victor; Franceschini, Nora; Meshnick, Steven R; Lange, Ethan M.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding genetic variation between populations is important because it affects the portability of human genome wide analytical methods. We compared genetic variation and substructure between Malawians and other African and non-African HapMap populations. Allele frequencies and adjacent linkage disequilibrium (LD) were measured for 617,715 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) across subject genomes. Allele frequencies in the Malawian population (N = 226) were highly correlated with alle...

  4. Correlation between serum high-mobility group box-1 levels and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and troponin I in patients with coronary artery disease

    OpenAIRE

    YAO, HENG-CHEN; ZHAO, AI-PING; HAN, QIAN-FENG; Wu, Lei; YAO, DAO-KUO; Wang, Le-Xin

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between levels of serum high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and cardiac troponin I in patients with coronary artery disease. The levels of serum HMGB1, hs-CRP and cardiac troponin I were measured in 98 patients with coronary artery disease and in 30 healthy subjects. The correlation between serum HMGB1 levels and hs-CRP and cardiac troponin I levels was analyzed. Serum HMGB1 levels in patients...

  5. Probing Multi-Strange Dibaryon with Proton-Omega Correlation in High-energy Heavy Ion Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Morita, Kenji; Etminan, Faisal; Hatsuda, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    Two-particle intensity correlation between the proton ($p$) and the Omega-baryon ($\\Omega$) in high-energy heavy ion collisions is studied to unravel the possible spin-2 $p\\Omega$ dibaryon recently suggested by lattice QCD simulations. The ratio of correlation functions between small and large collision systems, $C_{\\rm SL}(Q)$, is proposed to be a new measure to extract the strong $p\\Omega$ interaction without much contamination from the Coulomb attraction. Relevance of this quantity to the experimental observables in heavy-ion collisions is also discussed.

  6. The influence of genetic ancestry and ethnicity on breast cancer survival associated with genetic variation in the TGF-β-signaling pathway: The Breast Cancer Health Disparities Study

    OpenAIRE

    Slattery, Martha L.; Lundgreen, Abbie; Stern, Marianna C.; Hines, Lisa; Wolff, Roger K.; Giuliano, Anna R.; Baumgartner, Kathy B.; John, Esther M.

    2013-01-01

    The TGF-β signaling pathway regulates cellular proliferation and differentiation. We evaluated genetic variation in this pathway, its association with breast cancer survival, and survival differences by genetic ancestry and self-reported ethnicity.

  7. Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Ti Liu

    Full Text Available Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC or waist-hip ratio (WHR, is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA. We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1. Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6 were followed-up (stage 2 in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8 for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8 for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8; RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8. Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN. Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02. In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept

  8. Correlation of double-contrast high-density barium enema, colonoscopy, and histology in children with special attention to disparities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colonscopic and double-contrast high-density barium enema (DCBE) findings were correlated in 68 patients (39 boys and 29 girls) aged 6 months to 18 years (mean 11.6 years) evaluated over a 24-month period. There was excellent correlation in 53 patients (78.0%) and good correlation in another 3 (4.4%) who had identical diagnoses and only slightly differing extent of disease reported. In 2 of these, DCBE showed more extensive disease, confirmed histologically in 1. Distal colitis seen on colonoscopy as reddening and neovascularity was missed on DCBE in 6 patients. Colonoscopy and DEBE failed to show a polyp in 1 patient each. One patient who had a normal DCBE and colonoscopy demonstrated a histological abnormality, and 1 patient with an abnormality on histology and DCBE was normal on colonscopy. A disparity resulted from the time between procedures in 1 patient and observer error in another. This high correlation is far better than any previously reported in children, supporting the use of high-density barium sulfate and double-contrast barium enemas in pediatric patients. (orig.)

  9. Differences in optic nerve structure between individuals of predominantly African and European ancestry: Implications for disease detection and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher A Girkin

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Christopher A GirkinUniversity of Alabama at Birmingham School of Medicine, Birmingham, AL, USAAbstract: Glaucoma disproportionately affects individual of African ancestry. Additionally, racial differences in the optic nerve head have been well described that may alter the vulnerability to intraocular pressure related injury and, in addition, alter the clinical ability to detect the presence of early optic nerve injury. This paper will review the literature describing racial differences in the optic nerve head between individuals of African and European ancestry with regards to the potential effects of these differences on the ability to detect glaucoma in different racial groups and to potential differences in the pathogenesis of glaucomatous injury.Keywords: primary open angle glaucoma, African American, optic nerve, optic disc, retinal nerve fiber layer

  10. Importance of local correlations for the order parameter of high-Tc superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an extension of the variational cluster approximation (VCA), the relevance of bath degrees of freedom in a cluster-embedding approach for the size of the d-wave superconducting order parameter is studied within the hole- and electron-doped two-dimensional Hubbard model at zero temperature. We discuss results obtained for a reference system consisting of a plaquette of four correlated and four bath sites in addition and compare with results obtained via VCA for the plain plaquette without bath sites on the one hand and with results from previous cellular (plaquette) dynamical mean-field calculations on the other. It is shown that local, i.e. temporal, correlations are essential: Including a single bath degree of freedom considerably decreases the order parameter and provides a substantial gain of binding energy. Bath sites are also seen to partially compensate for the artificial breaking of translational symmetry introduced by the real-space quantum cluster approach.

  11. Reverse Correlating Love: Highly Passionate Women Idealize Their Partner’s Facial Appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Gunaydin, Gul; DeLong, Jordan E.

    2015-01-01

    A defining feature of passionate love is idealization—evaluating romantic partners in an overly favorable light. Although passionate love can be expected to color how favorably individuals represent their partner in their mind, little is known about how passionate love is linked with visual representations of the partner. Using reverse correlation techniques for the first time to study partner representations, the present study investigated whether women who are passionately in love represent...

  12. Forward-Backward Multiplicity Correlations in Symmetric and Asymmetric High Energy Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugoccioni, Roberto

    2003-07-01

    Forward-backward correlations are explored within the two-component clan model of multiparticle production. It is found that existing data are well described, and, in hh collisions, that clans must be allowed to leak particles from one hemisphere to the other. General formulae given for the symmetric case are then extended to the asymmetric one, which is relevant for pA and AB collisions.

  13. Forward-Backward Multiplicity Correlations in Symmetric and Asymmetric High Energy Collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Ugoccioni, R

    2002-01-01

    Forward-backward correlations are explored within the two-component clan model of multiparticle production. It is found that existing data are well described, and, in hh collisions, that clans must be allowed to leak particles from one hemisphere to the other. General formulae given for the symmetric case are then extended to the asymmetric one, which is relevant for pA and AB collisions.

  14. Disseminated Kaposi's Sarcoma in Patients with HIV Infection Correlates to High Serum Levels of IL-10

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Paula Renata Lima; Farias, Kleber Juvenal Silva; Genre, Julieta; Oliveira, Carlo José Freire; Guedes, Paulo Marcos Matta; da Fonseca, Benedito Antônio Lopes

    2014-01-01

    Human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8) is the etiologic agent of all Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), the outcome of which is associated with immuno-dysregulation, resulting in the abnormal production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. We quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serum levels of interleukin (IL)-10, IL-17, interferon (IFN)-γ, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α from patients with KS-AIDS, classic KS, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) without KS. A correlation between HHV-8 molecul...

  15. HIV Prevalence Correlates with High-Risk Sexual Behavior in Ethiopia's Regions

    OpenAIRE

    Chris R. Kenyon; Tsoumanis, Achilleas; Schwartz, Ilan Steven

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence varies between 0.9 and 6.5% in Ethiopia’s eleven regions. Little has been published examining the reasons for this variation. Methods We evaluated the relationship between HIV prevalence by region and a range of risk factors in the 2005 and 2011 Ethiopian Demographic Health Surveys. Pearson’s correlation was used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and each variable. Results There was a strong association between HIV prevalence and three markers of sexu...

  16. Experimental measurement of acceleration correlations and pressure structure functions in high Reynolds number turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Haitao; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Vincenzi, Dario; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2007-01-01

    We present measurements of fluid particle accelerations in turbulent water flows between counter-rotating disks using three-dimensional Lagrangian particle tracking. By simultaneously following multiple particles with sub-Kolmogorov-time-scale temporal resolution, we measured the spatial correlation of fluid particle acceleration at Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers between 200 and 690. We also obtained indirect, non-intrusive measurements of the Eulerian pressure structure functions by inte...

  17. FAK overexpression and p53 mutations are highly correlated in human breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Golubovskaya, Vita M; Conway, Kathleen; Edmiston, Sharon N; Tse, Chiu-Kit; Lark, Amy L.; Livasy, Chad A.; Moore, Dominic; Millikan, Robert C.; Cance, William G

    2009-01-01

    Focal Adhesion Kinase (FAK) is overexpressed in a number of tumors, including breast cancer. Another marker of breast cancer tumorigenesis is the tumor suppressor gene p53 that is frequently mutated in breast cancer. In the present study, our aim was to find a correlation between FAK overexpression, p53 expression and mutation status in a population-based series of invasive breast cancer tumors from the Carolina Breast Cancer Study. Immunohistochemical analyses of 622 breast cancer tumors rev...

  18. Long range rapidity correlations and jet production in high energy nuclear collisions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Averichev, G. S.; Balewski, J.; Barannikova, O.; Barnby, L. S.; Baudot, J.; Baumgart, S.; Beavis, D.R.; Bellwied, R.; Benedosso, F.; Betancourt, M.J.; Betts, R. R.; Bhasin, A.; Bhati, A.K.; Bichsel, H.; Bielčík, Jaroslav; Bielčíková, Jana; Biritz, B.; Bland, L.C.; Bombara, M.; Bonner, B. E.; Botje, M.; Bouchet, J.; Braidot, E.; Brandin, A. V.; Bruna, E.; Bueltmann, S.; Burton, T. P.; Bysterský, Michal; Cai, X.Z.; Caines, H.; Sanchez, M.C.D.; Catu, O.; Cebra, D.; Cendejas, R.; Cervantes, M.C.; Chajecki, Z.; Chaloupka, Petr; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chen, H.F.; Chen, J.H.; Cheng, J.; Cherney, M.; Chikanian, A.; Choi, K.E.; Christie, W.; Clarke, R.F.; Codrington, M.J.M.; Corliss, R.; Cormier, T.M.; Coserea, R. M.; Cramer, J. G.; Crawford, H. J.; Das, D.; Dash, S.; Daugherity, M.; De Silva, L.C.; Dedovich, T. G.; DePhillips, M.; Derevschikov, A.A.; de Souza, R.D.; Didenko, L.; Djawotho, P.; Dunlop, J.C.; Mazumdar, M.R.D.; Edwards, W.R.; Efimov, L.G.; Elhalhuli, E.; Elnimr, M.; Emelianov, V.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Erazmus, B.; Estienne, M.; Eun, L.; Fachini, P.; Fatemi, R.; Fedorisin, J.; Feng, A.; Filip, P.; Finch, E.; Fine, V.; Fisyak, Y.; Gagliardi, C. A.; Gaillard, L.; Ganti, M. S.; Gangaharan, D.R.; Garcia-Solis, E.J.; Geromitsos, A.; Geurts, F.; Ghazikhanian, V.; Ghosh, P.; Gorbunov, Y.N.; Gordon, A.; Grebenyuk, O.; Grosnick, D.; Grube, B.; Guertin, S.M.; Guimaraes, K.S.F.F.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, N.; Guryn, W.; Haag, B.; Hallman, T.J.; Hamed, A.; Harris, J.W.; He, W.; Heinz, M.; Heppelmann, S.; Hippolyte, B.; Hirsch, A.; Hjort, E.; Hoffman, A.M.; Hoffmann, G.W.; Hofman, D.J.; Hollis, R.S.; Huang, H.Z.; Humanic, T.J.; Igo, G..; Iordanova, A.; Jacobs, P.; Jacobs, W.W.; Jakl, Pavel; Jena, C.; Jin, F.; Jones, C.L.; Jones, P.G.; Joseph, J.; Judd, E.G.; Kabana, S.; Kajimoto, K.; Kang, K.; Kapitán, Jan; Keane, D.; Kechechyan, A.; Kettler, D.; Khodyrev, V.Yu.; Kikola, D.P.; Kiryluk, J.; Kisiel, A.; Klein, S.R.; Knospe, A.G.; Kocoloski, A.; Koetke, D.D.; Kopytine, M.; Korsch, W.; Kotchenda, L.; Kushpil, Vasilij; Kravtsov, P.; Kravtsov, V.I.; Krueger, K.; Krus, M.; Kuhn, C.; Kumar, L.; Kurnadi, P.; Lamont, M.A.C.; Landgraf, J.M.; LaPointe, S.; Lauret, J.; Lebedev, A.; Lednický, Richard; Lee, Ch.; Lee, J.H.; Leight, W.; LeVine, M.J.; Li, N.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Lin, G.; Lindenbaum, S.J.; Lisa, M.A.; Liu, F.; Liu, J.; Liu, L.; Ljubicic, T.; Llope, W.J.; Longacre, R.S.; Love, W.A.; Lu, Y.; Ludlam, T.; Ma, G.L.; Ma, Y.G.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Majka, R.; Mall, O.I.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manweiler, R.; Margetis, S.; Markert, C.; Matis, H.S.; Matulenko, Yu.A.; McShane, T.S.; Meschanin, A.; Milner, R.; Minaev, N.G.; Mioduszewski, S.; Mischke, A.; Mitchell, J.; Mohanty, B.; Morozov, D.A.; Munhoz, M. G.; Nandi, B.K.; Nattrass, C.; Nayak, T. K.; Nelson, J.M.; Netrakanti, P.K.; Ng, M.J.; Nogach, L.V.; Nurushev, S.B.; Odyniec, G.; Ogawa, A.; Okada, H.; Okorokov, V.; Olson, D.; Pachr, M.; Page, B.S.; Pal, S.K.; Pandit, Y.; Panebratsev, Y.; Panitkin, S.Y.; Pawlak, T.; Peitzmann, T.; Perevoztchikov, V.; Perkins, C.; Peryt, W.; Phatak, S.C.; Poljak, N.; Poskanzer, A.M.; Potukuchi, B.V.K.S.; Prindle, D.; Pruneau, C.; Pruthi, N.K.; Putschke, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ray, R.L.; Redwine, R.; Reed, R.; Ridiger, A.; Ritter, H.G.; Roberts, J.B.; Rogachevskiy, O.V.; Romero, J.L.; Rose, A.; Roy, C.; Ruan, L.; Russcher, M.J.; Sahoo, R.; Sakrejda, I.; Sakuma, T.; Salur, S.; Sandweiss, J.; Sarsour, M.; Schambach, J.; Scharenberg, R.P.; Schmitz, N.; Seger, J.; Selyuzhenkov, I.; Seyboth, P.; Shabetai, A.; Shahaliev, E.; Shao, M.; Sharma, M.; Shi, S.S.; Shi, X.H.; Sichtermann, E.P.; Simon, F.; Singaraju, R.N.; Skoby, M.J.; Smirnov, N.; Snellings, R.; Sorensen, P.; Sowinski, J.; Spinka, H.M.; Srivastava, B.; Stadnik, A.; Stanislaus, T.D.S.; Staszak, D.; Strikhanov, M.; Stringfellow, B.; Suaide, A.A.P.; Suarez, M.C.; Subba, N.L.; Šumbera, Michal; Sun, X.M.; Sun, Y.; Sun, Z.; Surrow, B.; Symons, T.J.M.; de Toledo, A. S.; Takahashi, J.; Tang, A.H.; Tang, Z.; Tarnowsky, T.; Thein, D.; Thomas, J.H.; Tian, J.; Timmins, A.R.; Timoshenko, S.; Tokarev, M. V.; Trainor, T.A.; Tram, V.N.; Trattner, A.L.; Trentalange, S.; Tribble, R. E.; Tsai, O.D.; Ulery, J.; Ullrich, T.; Underwood, D.G.; Van Buren, G.; van Leeuwen, M.; Vander Molen, A.M.; Vanfossen, J.A.; Varma, R.; Vasconcelos, G.S.M.; Vasilevski, I.M.; Vasiliev, A. N.; Videbaek, F.; Vigdor, S.E.; Viyogi, Y. P.; Vokal, S.; Voloshin, S.A.; Wada, M.; Walker, M.; Wang, F.; Wang, G.; Wang, J.S.; Wang, Q.; Wang, X.; Wang, X.L.; Wang, Y.; Webb, G.; Webb, J.C.; Westfall, G.D.; Whitten, C.; Wieman, H.; Wissink, S.W.; Witt, R.; Wu, Y.; Tlustý, David; Xie, W.; Xu, N.; Xu, Q.H.; Xu, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, P.; Yepes, P.; Yip, K.; Yoo, I.K.; Yue, Q.; Zawisza, M.; Zbroszczyk, H.; Zhan, W.; Zhang, S.; Zhang, W.M.; Zhang, X.P.; Zhang, Y.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhong, C.; Zhou, J.; Zoulkarneev, R.; Zoulkarneeva, Y.; Zuo, J.X.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 6 (2009), 064912/1-064912/9. ISSN 0556-2813 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/07/0079; GA MŠk LC07048; GA MŠk LA09013 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505; CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : QUARK-GLUON PLASMA * CORRELATIONS * JETS Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 3.477, year: 2009

  19. Digital Signal Processing Using Stream High Performance Computing: A 512-Input Broadband Correlator for Radio Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocz, J.; Greenhill, L. J.; Barsdell, B. R.; Price, D.; Bernardi, G.; Bourke, S.; Clark, M. A.; Craig, J.; Dexter, M.; Dowell, J.; Eftekhari, T.; Ellingson, S.; Hallinan, G.; Hartman, J.; Jameson, A.; MacMahon, D.; Taylor, G.; Schinzel, F.; Werthimer, D.

    2015-03-01

    A "large-N" correlator that makes use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Graphics Processing Units has been deployed as the digital signal processing system for the Long Wavelength Array station at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (LWA-OV), to enable the Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages (LEDA). The system samples a ˜ 100 MHz baseband and processes signals from 512 antennas (256 dual polarization) over a ˜ 58 MHz instantaneous sub-band, achieving 16.8 Tops s-1 and 0.236 Tbit s-1 throughput in a 9 kW envelope and single rack footprint. The output data rate is 260 MB s-1 for 9-s time averaging of cross-power and 1 s averaging of total power data. At deployment, the LWA-OV correlator was the largest in production in terms of N and is the third largest in terms of complex multiply accumulations, after the Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The correlator's comparatively fast development time and low cost establish a practical foundation for the scalability of a modular, heterogeneous, computing architecture.

  20. Digital Signal Processing using Stream High Performance Computing: A 512-input Broadband Correlator for Radio Astronomy

    CERN Document Server

    Kocz, J; Barsdell, B R; Price, D; Bernardi, G; Bourke, S; Clark, M A; Craig, J; Dexter, M; Dowell, J; Eftekhari, T; Ellingson, S; Hallinan, G; Hartman, J; Jameson, A; MacMahon, D; Taylor, G; Schinzel, F; Werthimer, D

    2014-01-01

    A "large-N" correlator that makes use of Field Programmable Gate Arrays and Graphics Processing Units has been deployed as the digital signal processing system for the Long Wavelength Array station at Owens Valley Radio Observatory (LWA-OV), to enable the Large Aperture Experiment to Detect the Dark Ages (LEDA). The system samples a ~100MHz baseband and processes signals from 512 antennas (256 dual polarization) over a ~58MHz instantaneous sub-band, achieving 16.8Tops/s and 0.236 Tbit/s throughput in a 9kW envelope and single rack footprint. The output data rate is 260MB/s for 9 second time averaging of cross-power and 1 second averaging of total-power data. At deployment, the LWA-OV correlator was the largest in production in terms of N and is the third largest in terms of complex multiply accumulations, after the Very Large Array and Atacama Large Millimeter Array. The correlator's comparatively fast development time and low cost establish a practical foundation for the scalability of a modular, heterogeneo...

  1. 雅加达非华裔大学生中文学习动机调查 JAKARTA NON-CHINESE ANCESTRY INDONESIAN STUDENTSMOTIVATION OF CHINESE STUDYING

    OpenAIRE

    Fu Ruomei; Huang Yan; Ye Mei

    2011-01-01

    More and more non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian begin to learn Chinese,some of them even choose Chinese as their major in University.The survey of four major Chinese departments in Jakarta shows that intrinsic motivation is the most important motivation of Chinese studying. Interests and passion to Chinese language and culture encouraged the non-Chinese ancestry Indonesian students to study Chinese. To assist them overcome their difficulties in studying is very important for Chinese education i...

  2. The genetic legacy of Lonesome George survives: Giant tortoises with Pinta Island ancestry identified in Galápagos

    OpenAIRE

    Edwards, DL; Benavides, E; Garrick, RC; Gibbs, JP; Russello, MA; Dion, KB; Hyseni, C; Flanagan, JP; Tapia, W. (ed.); Caccone, A

    2013-01-01

    The death of Lonesome George, the last known purebred individual of Chelonoidis abingdoni native to Pinta Island, marked the extinction of one of 10 surviving giant tortoise species from the Galápagos Archipelago. Using a DNA reference dataset including historical C. abingdoni and >1600 living Volcano Wolf tortoise samples, a site on Isabela Island known to harbor hybrid tortoises, we discovered 17 individuals with ancestry in C. abingdoni. These animals belong to various hybrid categories, i...

  3. Sex-specific Effects of Exercise Ancestry on Metabolic, Morphological, and Gene Expression Phenotypes in Multiple Generations of Mouse Offspring

    OpenAIRE

    Guth, Lisa M.; Andrew T. Ludlow; Witkowski, Sarah; Marshall, Mallory R.; Lima, Laila C. J.; Venezia, Andrew C.; Xiao, Tao; Lee, Mei-Ling Ting; Spangenburg, Espen E.; Roth, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Early life and pre-conception environmental stimuli can affect adult health-related phenotypes. Exercise training is an environmental stimulus affecting many systems throughout the body and appears to alter offspring phenotypes. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of parental exercise training, or “exercise ancestry,” on morphological and metabolic phenotypes in two generations of mouse offspring. F0 C57BL/6 mice were exposed to voluntary exercise or sedentary lifestyle and bre...

  4. Identification, Replication, and Fine-Mapping of Loci Associated with Adult Height in Individuals of African Ancestry

    OpenAIRE

    N'Diaye, Amidou; Chen, Gary K.; Palmer, Cameron D; Ge, Bing; Tayo, Bamidele; Rasika A Mathias; Ding, Jingzhong; Michael A Nalls; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Adoue, Véronique; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Atwood, Larry; Bandera, Elisa V.; Becker, Lewis C.; Berndt, Sonja I.

    2011-01-01

    Author Summary Adult height is an ideal phenotype to improve our understanding of the genetic architecture of complex diseases and traits: it is easily measured and usually available in large cohorts, relatively stable, and mostly influenced by genetics (narrow-sense heritability of height h 2∼0.8). Genome-wide association (GWA) studies in individuals of European ancestry have identified >180 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with height. In the current study, we continued to ...

  5. Development of a panel of genome-wide ancestry informative markers to study admixture throughout the Americas.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua Mark Galanter

    Full Text Available Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R² > 0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance. Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region.

  6. Development of a Panel of Genome-Wide Ancestry Informative Markers to Study Admixture Throughout the Americas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galanter, Joshua Mark; Fernandez-Lopez, Juan Carlos; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Fernandez-Rozadilla, Ceres; Via, Marc; Hidalgo-Miranda, Alfredo; Contreras, Alejandra V.; Figueroa, Laura Uribe; Raska, Paola; Jimenez-Sanchez, Gerardo; Silva Zolezzi, Irma; Torres, Maria; Ponte, Clara Ruiz; Ruiz, Yarimar; Salas, Antonio; Nguyen, Elizabeth; Eng, Celeste; Borjas, Lisbeth; Zabala, William; Barreto, Guillermo; Rondón González, Fernando; Ibarra, Adriana; Taboada, Patricia; Porras, Liliana; Moreno, Fabián; Bigham, Abigail; Gutierrez, Gerardo; Brutsaert, Tom; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Moore, Lorna G.; Vargas, Enrique; Cruz, Miguel; Escobedo, Jorge; Rodriguez-Santana, José; Rodriguez-Cintrón, William; Chapela, Rocio; Ford, Jean G.; Bustamante, Carlos; Seminara, Daniela; Shriver, Mark; Ziv, Elad; Gonzalez Burchard, Esteban; Haile, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Most individuals throughout the Americas are admixed descendants of Native American, European, and African ancestors. Complex historical factors have resulted in varying proportions of ancestral contributions between individuals within and among ethnic groups. We developed a panel of 446 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) optimized to estimate ancestral proportions in individuals and populations throughout Latin America. We used genome-wide data from 953 individuals from diverse African, European, and Native American populations to select AIMs optimized for each of the three main continental populations that form the basis of modern Latin American populations. We selected markers on the basis of locus-specific branch length to be informative, well distributed throughout the genome, capable of being genotyped on widely available commercial platforms, and applicable throughout the Americas by minimizing within-continent heterogeneity. We then validated the panel in samples from four admixed populations by comparing ancestry estimates based on the AIMs panel to estimates based on genome-wide association study (GWAS) data. The panel provided balanced discriminatory power among the three ancestral populations and accurate estimates of individual ancestry proportions (R2>0.9 for ancestral components with significant between-subject variance). Finally, we genotyped samples from 18 populations from Latin America using the AIMs panel and estimated variability in ancestry within and between these populations. This panel and its reference genotype information will be useful resources to explore population history of admixture in Latin America and to correct for the potential effects of population stratification in admixed samples in the region. PMID:22412386

  7. Empirical Selection of Informative Microsatellite Markers within Co-ancestry Pig Populations Is Required for Improving the Individual Assignment Efficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Y. H. Li; Chu, H. P.; Jiang, Y. N.; Lin, C.Y.; Li, S. H.; Li, K. T.; Weng, G. J.; Cheng, C. C.; Lu, D. J.; Ju, Y. T.

    2014-01-01

    The Lanyu is a miniature pig breed indigenous to Lanyu Island, Taiwan. It is distantly related to Asian and European pig breeds. It has been inbred to generate two breeds and crossed with Landrace and Duroc to produce two hybrids for laboratory use. Selecting sets of informative genetic markers to track the genetic qualities of laboratory animals and stud stock is an important function of genetic databases. For more than two decades, Lanyu derived breeds of common ancestry and crossbreeds hav...

  8. Sequential change of fibrosing alveolitis on high-resolution CT: correlation with finding at pulmonary function test and bronchoalveolar lavage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate prospectively relationship between the extent of abnormalities of fibrosing alveolotro on high resolution CT and these of pulmonary function test, and bronchoalveolar lavage. This study included 27 patients with pathologically proved UIP. We prospectively analyzed correlation of the extent of ground glass opacity, consolidation, irregular lines with honeycombing on initial CT scan and quantitative change of ground glass opacity on follow up CT scans with pulmonary function test(PFT) and bronchoalveolar lavage(BAL). On initial CT scan, score of extent of disease significantly correlated with FEV1(r = -0.5148, ρ = 0.0310) and DLco(r -0.7102, ρ = 0.0001). Proportion of individual cell in BAL was not correlated with ground glass opacity or extent of disease; lymphocyte(ρ -0.0165, r = 0.9616), eosinophil (ρ = -0.0077, r = 0.9832), neutrophil (ρ = -0.1732, r = 0.5903). On follow up CT scan, quantitative change of ground glass opacity correlated with DLco/VA(r = -0.6825, ρ = 0.0025) and TLC (r = 0.5248, ρ = 0.0429). The quantitative analysis of extent of disease on HRCT in useful for evaluation of clinical status. Also change of ground glass opacity on follow-up HRCT significantly correlated with improvement of diffusing capacity in fibrosing alveolitis

  9. Comparing genetic ancestry and self-reported race/ethnicity in a multiethnic population in New York City

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Yin Leng Lee; Susan Teitelbaum; Mary S. Wolff; James G. Wetmur; Jia Chen

    2010-12-01

    Self-reported race/ethnicity is frequently used in epidemiological studies to assess an individual’s background origin. However, in admixed populations such as Hispanic, self-reported race/ethnicity may not accurately represent them genetically because they are admixed with European, African and Native American ancestry. We estimated the proportions of genetic admixture in an ethnically diverse population of 396 mothers and 188 of their children with 35 ancestry informative markers (AIMs) using the STRUCTURE version 2.2 program. The majority of the markers showed significant deviation from Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in our study population. In mothers self-identified as Black and White, the imputed ancestry proportions were 77.6% African and 75.1% European respectively, while the racial composition among self-identified Hispanics was 29.2% European, 26.0% African, and 44.8% Native American.We also investigated the utility of AIMs by showing the improved fitness of models in paraoxanase-1 genotype–phenotype associations after incorporating AIMs; however, the improvement was moderate at best. In summary, a minimal set of 35 AIMs is sufficient to detect population stratification and estimate the proportion of individual genetic admixture; however, the utility of these markers remains questionable.

  10. Genome-Wide DNA Methylation in Mixed Ancestry Individuals with Diabetes and Prediabetes from South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pheiffer, Carmen; Humphries, Stephen E.; Gamieldien, Junaid; Erasmus, Rajiv T.

    2016-01-01

    Aims. To conduct a genome-wide DNA methylation in individuals with type 2 diabetes, individuals with prediabetes, and control mixed ancestry individuals from South Africa. Methods. We used peripheral blood to perform genome-wide DNA methylation analysis in 3 individuals with screen detected diabetes, 3 individuals with prediabetes, and 3 individuals with normoglycaemia from the Bellville South Community, Cape Town, South Africa, who were age-, gender-, body mass index-, and duration of residency-matched. Methylated DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) was performed by Arraystar Inc. (Rockville, MD, USA). Results. Hypermethylated DMRs were 1160 (81.97%) and 124 (43.20%), respectively, in individuals with diabetes and prediabetes when both were compared to subjects with normoglycaemia. Our data shows that genes related to the immune system, signal transduction, glucose transport, and pancreas development have altered DNA methylation in subjects with prediabetes and diabetes. Pathway analysis based on the functional analysis mapping of genes to KEGG pathways suggested that the linoleic acid metabolism and arachidonic acid metabolism pathways are hypomethylated in prediabetes and diabetes. Conclusions. Our study suggests that epigenetic changes are likely to be an early process that occurs before the onset of overt diabetes. Detailed analysis of DMRs that shows gradual methylation differences from control versus prediabetes to prediabetes versus diabetes in a larger sample size is required to confirm these findings.

  11. Mitochondrial control region genetic diversity and maternal ancestry of a Brangus-Ibage cattle populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ernani Henkes

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The genetic diversity of 277 nucleotides in the mitochondrial DNA control region (nt 15,964 to 16,240 in reference sequence was analyzed in crossbreed beef cattle (Brangus-Ibage, 5/8 Bos primigenius taurus x 3/8 Bos primigenius indicus as well as in some Nellore samples (B. p. indicus. Fifty-seven mutations were found in Brangus-Ibage comprising 18 haplotypes (haplotype diversity, h = 0.851 ± 0.041 and nucleotide diversity, ntd = 0.009 ± 0.006 and 66 in Nellore (h = 1.00 ± 0.27, ntd = 0.014 ± 0.012. These data indicated sequence identities of 99.6 and 92.1% between the B. p. taurus' reference sequence and Brangus-Ibage and Nellore, respectively. The comparison of our data with sequence data for 612 individuals recovered from GenBank showed a total of 205 haplotypes defined by 99 polymorphic sites. Most of the variability (53% was due to differentiation within breeds. The phylogenetic tree constructed using the neighbor-joining method showed clearly the well-known dichotomy between B. p. taurus and B. p. indicus. The Brangus-Ibage clustered with B. p. taurus lineages; however, the displacement of Nellore from B. p. indicus branch probably indicates a substantial B. p. taurus maternal ancestry in some Nellore samples (obtained from GenBank and reflects the primarily male-driven introduction of this breed in Brazil.

  12. Genetic evidence for a mitochondriate ancestry in the 'amitochondriate' flagellate Trimastix pyriformis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Hampl

    Full Text Available Most modern eukaryotes diverged from a common ancestor that contained the alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria. The 'amitochondriate' anaerobic protist parasites that have been studied to date, such as Giardia and Trichomonas harbor mitochondrion-related organelles, such as mitosomes or hydrogenosomes. Yet there is one remaining group of mitochondrion-lacking flagellates known as the Preaxostyla that could represent a primitive 'pre-mitochondrial' lineage of eukaryotes. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an expressed sequence tag (EST survey on the preaxostylid flagellate Trimastix pyriformis, a poorly-studied free-living anaerobe. Among the ESTs we detected 19 proteins that, in other eukaryotes, typically function in mitochondria, hydrogenosomes or mitosomes, 12 of which are found exclusively within these organelles. Interestingly, one of the proteins, aconitase, functions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle typical of aerobic mitochondria, whereas others, such as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and [FeFe] hydrogenase, are characteristic of anaerobic hydrogenosomes. Since Trimastix retains genetic evidence of a mitochondriate ancestry, we can now say definitively that all known living eukaryote lineages descend from a common ancestor that had mitochondria.

  13. Genetic evidence for a mitochondriate ancestry in the 'amitochondriate' flagellate Trimastix pyriformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampl, Vladimir; Silberman, Jeffrey D; Stechmann, Alexandra; Diaz-Triviño, Sara; Johnson, Patricia J; Roger, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    Most modern eukaryotes diverged from a common ancestor that contained the alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont that gave rise to mitochondria. The 'amitochondriate' anaerobic protist parasites that have been studied to date, such as Giardia and Trichomonas harbor mitochondrion-related organelles, such as mitosomes or hydrogenosomes. Yet there is one remaining group of mitochondrion-lacking flagellates known as the Preaxostyla that could represent a primitive 'pre-mitochondrial' lineage of eukaryotes. To test this hypothesis, we conducted an expressed sequence tag (EST) survey on the preaxostylid flagellate Trimastix pyriformis, a poorly-studied free-living anaerobe. Among the ESTs we detected 19 proteins that, in other eukaryotes, typically function in mitochondria, hydrogenosomes or mitosomes, 12 of which are found exclusively within these organelles. Interestingly, one of the proteins, aconitase, functions in the tricarboxylic acid cycle typical of aerobic mitochondria, whereas others, such as pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase and [FeFe] hydrogenase, are characteristic of anaerobic hydrogenosomes. Since Trimastix retains genetic evidence of a mitochondriate ancestry, we can now say definitively that all known living eukaryote lineages descend from a common ancestor that had mitochondria. PMID:18167542

  14. Correlating Questionnaire Data with Actual Usage Data in a Mobile Learning Study for High School Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalloo, Vani; Mohan, Permanand

    2012-01-01

    A mobile learning research project was conducted in Trinidad and Tobago to determine if mobile learning can assist high school students in learning mathematics. Several innovative techniques were used in this research to address the problem of high failure rates of mathematics in high schools in the Caribbean. A mobile learning application was…

  15. High brightness single mode source of correlated photon pairs using a photonic crystal fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Fulconis, J; Wadsworth, W J; Russell, P S J; Rarity, J G

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate a picosecond source of correlated photon pairs using a micro-structured fibre with zero dispersion around 715 nm wavelength. The fibre is pumped in the normal dispersion regime at ~708 nm and phase matching is satisfied for widely spaced parametric wavelengths. Here we generate up to 10^7 photon pairs per second in the fibre at wavelengths of 587 nm and 897 nm. On collecting the light in single-mode-fibre-coupled Silicon avalanche diode photon counting detectors we detect ~3.2.10^5 coincidences per second at pump power 0.5 mW.

  16. Correlates of the Reading Interest of Chinese High School Students in International Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Wenji Dai

    2013-01-01

    Reading builds and shapes a man’s life as part of the society he chooses to belong. It is an essential tool for learning especially for young students who should possess a level of interest in reading to enable them to understand and appreciate materials and tools for learning.The study underscores the significance of reading interest in one’s learning process and analyzes the different correlates that affect it and their extent. It brings to fore important features of independent and variabl...

  17. Obesity and other correlates of physical activity and sedentary behaviors among US high school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowry, Richard; Lee, Sarah M; Fulton, Janet E; Demissie, Zewditu; Kann, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA) can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9-12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA) and participation in daily PA (DPA), vigorous PA (VPA), muscle-strengthening activity (MSA), viewing television (TV), and using computers or video games (C/VG). A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors. PMID:23606950

  18. Obesity and Other Correlates of Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors among US High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Lowry

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding correlates of physical activity (PA can help inform and improve programs that promote PA among youth. We analyzed data from the 2010 National Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Study, a representative sample of US students in grades 9–12. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between PA correlates (obesity, physical education classes, sports team participation, attitude toward PA, adult support for PA, and environmental support for PA and participation in daily PA (DPA, vigorous PA (VPA, muscle-strengthening activity (MSA, viewing television (TV, and using computers or video games (C/VG. A positive attitude toward PA and adult support for PA were both associated with increased PA and decreased sedentary behavior. However, among students who lived in neighborhoods that were not safe for PA, a positive attitude toward PA was not associated with increased DPA or decreased sedentary behavior and was less strongly associated with VPA and MSA. Efforts to increase PA among youth should promote a positive attitude toward PA among youth and encourage adult family members to support their efforts to be active. Policies that promote safe neighborhoods may work synergistically with a positive attitude toward PA to increase participation in PA and decrease sedentary behaviors.

  19. High clusterin expression correlates with a poor outcome in stage II colorectal cancers.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kevans, David

    2012-02-01

    The role of clusterin in tumor growth and progression remains unclear. Overexpression of cytoplasmic clusterin has been studied in aggressive colon tumors; however, no correlation between clusterin expression and survival in colorectal cancer has been identified to date. We assessed levels of clusterin expression in a group of stage II colorectal cancer patients to assess its utility as a prognostic marker. The study included 251 patients with stage II colorectal cancer. Tissue microarrays were constructed and immunohistochemistry done and correlated with clinical features and long term outcome. Dual immunofluorescence and confocal microscopy were used with terminal deoxynucleotidyl-transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling probes and clusterin antibody to assess the degree of co localization. Percentage epithelial cytoplasmic staining was higher in tumor compared with nonadjacent normal mucosa (P < 0.001). Within the stromal compartment, percentage cytoplamic staining and intensity was lower in tumor tissue compared with normal nonadjacent mucosa (P < or = 0.001). Survival was significantly associated with percentage epithelial cytoplasmic staining (P < 0.001), epithelial cytoplasmic staining intensity (P < 0.001), percentage stromal cytoplasmic staining (P = 0.002), and stromal cytoplasmic staining intensity (P < 0.001). Clusterin levels are associated with poor survival in stage II colorectal cancer.

  20. Statistical-noise reduction in correlation analysis of high-energy nuclear collisions with event-mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, R. L.; Bhattarai, P.

    2016-06-01

    The error propagation and statistical-noise reduction method of Reid and Trainor for two-point correlation applications in high-energy collisions is extended to include particle-pair references constructed by mixing two particles from all event-pair combinations within event subsets of arbitrary size. The Reid-Trainor method is also applied to other particle-pair mixing algorithms commonly used in correlation analysis of particle production from high-energy nuclear collisions. The statistical-noise reduction, inherent in the Reid-Trainor event-mixing procedure, is shown to occur for these other event-mixing algorithms as well. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented which verify the predicted degree of noise reduction. In each case the final errors are determined by the bin-wise particle-pair number, rather than by the bin-wise single-particle count.

  1. Statistical-noise reduction in correlation analysis of high-energy nuclear collisions with event-mixing

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, R L

    2016-01-01

    The error propagation and statistical-noise reduction method of Reid and Trainor for two-point correlation applications in high-energy collisions is extended to include particle-pair references constructed by mixing two particles from all event-pair combinations within event subsets of arbitrary size. The Reid-Trainor method is also applied to other particle-pair mixing algorithms commonly used in correlation analysis of particle production from high-energy nuclear collisions. The statistical-noise reduction, inherent in the Reid-Trainor event-mixing procedure, is shown to occur for these other event-mixing algorithms as well. Monte Carlo simulation results are presented which verify the predicted degree of noise reduction. In each case the final errors are determined by the bin-wise particle-pair number, rather than by the bin-wise single-particle count.

  2. Dynamical Higher-Twist and High x-Bjorken Phenomena: A Window to Quark-Quark Correlations in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of the power-law corrections to Bjorken scaling and the behavior of structure functions in the highly stressed xbj --> 1 regime of electroproduction can lead to new information on the quark-quark correlations controlling the nucleon wavefunction at far-off-shell kinematics. Electroproduction on nuclei at A > xbj > 1 are sensitive to hidden-color components of the nuclear wavefunction. A distinctive dynamical higher-twist order of (1/Q2) correction, which is dynamically enhanced at high xbj, can arise from the interference of amplitudes where the lepton scatters from two different valence quarks of the target. Measurements of the parity-violating left-right asymmetry ALR in elastic and inelastic polarized electron scattering at large xbj can confirm the structure of the quark-quark correlations and other QCD physics at the amplitude level

  3. Advanced Taste Sensors Based on Artificial Lipids with Global Selectivity to Basic Taste Qualities and High Correlation to Sensory Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Kobayashi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Effective R&D and strict quality control of a broad range of foods, beverages, and pharmaceutical products require objective taste evaluation. Advanced taste sensors using artificial-lipid membranes have been developed based on concepts of global selectivity and high correlation with human sensory score. These sensors respond similarly to similar basic tastes, which they quantify with high correlations to sensory score. Using these unique properties, these sensors can quantify the basic tastes of saltiness, sourness, bitterness, umami, astringency and richness without multivariate analysis or artificial neural networks. This review describes all aspects of these taste sensors based on artificial lipid, ranging from the response principle and optimal design methods to applications in the food, beverage, and pharmaceutical markets.

  4. Concentration and mass dependence of transport coefficients and correlation functions in binary mixtures with high mass asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenz, W; Mryglod, I M; Prytula, O; Folk, R

    2009-08-01

    Correlation functions and transport coefficients of self-diffusion and shear viscosity of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture with components differing only in their particle mass are studied up to high values of the mass ratio mu, including the limiting case mu = infinity, for different mole fractions x. Within a large range of x and mu the product of the diffusion coefficient of the heavy species D(2) and the total shear viscosity of the mixture eta(m) is found to remain constant, obeying a generalized Stokes-Einstein relation. At high liquid density, large mass ratios lead to a pronounced cage effect that is observable in the mean square displacement, the velocity autocorrelation function, and the van Hove correlation function. PMID:19792112

  5. Concentration and mass dependence of transport coefficients and correlation functions in binary mixtures with high mass asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenz, W.; Mryglod, I. M.; Prytula, O.; Folk, R.

    2009-08-01

    Correlation functions and transport coefficients of self-diffusion and shear viscosity of a binary Lennard-Jones mixture with components differing only in their particle mass are studied up to high values of the mass ratio μ , including the limiting case μ=∞ , for different mole fractions x . Within a large range of x and μ the product of the diffusion coefficient of the heavy species D2 and the total shear viscosity of the mixture ηm is found to remain constant, obeying a generalized Stokes-Einstein relation. At high liquid density, large mass ratios lead to a pronounced cage effect that is observable in the mean square displacement, the velocity autocorrelation function, and the van Hove correlation function.

  6. Quantifying bulk electrode strain and material displacement within lithium batteries via high-speed operando tomography and digital volume correlation

    OpenAIRE

    Finegan, D. P.; Tudisco, E.; Scheel, M; Robinson, J B; Taiwo, O. O.; Eastwood, D. S.; Lee, P. D.; Di Michiel, M.; Bay, B.; Hall, S. A.; Hinds, G.; Brett, D. J. L.; Shearing, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    Tracking the dynamic morphology of active materials during operation of lithium batteries is essential for identifying causes of performance loss. Digital volume correlation (DVC) is applied to high-speed operando synchrotron X-ray computed tomography of a commercial Li/MnO2 primary battery during discharge. Real-time electrode material displacement is captured in 3D allowing degradation mechanisms such as delamination of the electrode from the current collector and electrode crack formation ...

  7. Self-injury, suicide ideation, and sexual orientation: differences in causes and correlates among high school students

    OpenAIRE

    Whitney DeCamp; Bakken, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: Background: Research has suggested that sexual minority youth are more likely to experience a number of behavioral and health-related risk factors due to their exposure to negative attitudes and beliefs about sexual minorities. Few studies, however, have examined the prevalence of non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) among sexual minority youth. With self-cutting and suicidal ideation common in middle and high schools, understanding the antecedents and correlates of such behavior may hel...

  8. Global continental weathering trends across the Early Permian glacial to postglacial transition : correlating high- and low-paleolatitude sedimentary records

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Jianghai; Cawood, Peter A.; Du, Yuansheng; Feng, Bin; Yan, Jiaxin

    2014-01-01

    Time-equivalent Early Permian sedimentary successions from high-latitude Gondwana basins and from equatorial accumulations in North China, covering the glacial to postglacial transition, display correlatable trends in continental weathering intensity based on chemical index of alteration (CIA) values. The successions display a pattern of CIA values that varies with latitude, similar to modern estuarine suspended sediments. Based on the modern-day CIA-temperature correlation, the glacial Early...

  9. Correlates of sunscreen use among high school students: a cross-sectional survey

    OpenAIRE

    Coups Elliot J; Heckman Carolyn J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Adolescents put themselves at risk of later skin cancer development and accelerated photo-aging due to their high rates of ultraviolet radiation exposure and low rates of skin protection. The purpose of the current study was to determine which of the Integrative Model constructs are most closely associated with sunscreen use among high school students. Methods The current study of 242 high school students involved a survey based on the Integrative Model including demograph...

  10. Changes in gut microbiota in rats fed a high fat diet correlate with obesity-associated metabolic parameters.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginie Lecomte

    Full Text Available The gut microbiota is emerging as a new factor in the development of obesity. Many studies have described changes in microbiota composition in response to obesity and high fat diet (HFD at the phylum level. In this study we used 16s RNA high throughput sequencing on faecal samples from rats chronically fed HFD or control chow (n = 10 per group, 16 weeks to investigate changes in gut microbiota composition at the species level. 53.17% dissimilarity between groups was observed at the species level. Lactobacillus intestinalis dominated the microbiota in rats under the chow diet. However this species was considerably less abundant in rats fed HFD (P<0.0001, this being compensated by an increase in abundance of propionate/acetate producing species. To further understand the influence of these species on the development of the obese phenotype, we correlated their abundance with metabolic parameters associated with obesity. Of the taxa contributing the most to dissimilarity between groups, 10 presented significant correlations with at least one of the tested parameters, three of them correlated positively with all metabolic parameters: Phascolarctobacterium, Proteus mirabilis and Veillonellaceae, all propionate/acetate producers. Lactobacillus intestinalis was the only species whose abundance was negatively correlated with change in body weight and fat mass. This species decreased drastically in response to HFD, favouring propionate/acetate producing bacterial species whose abundance was strongly correlated with adiposity and deterioration of metabolic factors. Our observations suggest that these species may play a key role in the development of obesity in response to a HFD.

  11. Correlation of PUV and SUV in the extremities while using PEM as a high-resolution positron emission scanner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahim, Sania [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX (United States); Mawlawi, Osama; Taylor, Shree; Millican, Richelle; Swanston, Nancy M.; Rohren, Eric M. [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Diagnostic Imaging, Houston, TX (United States); Fox, Patricia [The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Division of Biostatistics, Houston, TX (United States); Brown, J.E. [Yale University Hospital, Department of Radiology, New Haven, CT (United States)

    2014-04-15

    Owing to its unique configuration of two adjustable plate detectors positron emission mammography, or PEM, could theoretically also function as a high-resolution positron emission scanner for the extremities or neck. PEM quantitates its activity via a ''PEM uptake value,'' or PUV, and although its relationship to the standardized uptake value, or SUV, has been demonstrated in the breasts, to our knowledge there are no studies validating PUV in other sites such as the extremities. This was a retrospective chart review of two separate protocols of a total of 15 patients. The patients all had hypermetabolic lesions in the extremities or neck on imaging with PET/CT and were sent after their PET/CT to PEM for further imaging. Owing to the sequential nature of these examinations no additional radiotracer was administered. Spearman's rank order correlation was calculated between the PUVmax obtained from PEM images, and the SUVmax for all. Spearman's rank order correlation for all sites was 0.42, which is not significantly different from 0 (p = 0.13). When neck lesions were excluded from the group, there was a strong and statistically significant correlation between PUVmax and SUVmax, with Spearman's rank correlation of 0.73, and significantly different from 0 (p = 0.0068). The correlation of PUV and SUV in the extremities indicates the potential use of PEM as a semiquantitative, high-resolution positron emission scanner and warrants further investigation, especially in the realms of disease processes that often present in the extremities, such as melanoma, osteomyelitis, and arthritis, as well as playing a role in the imaging of patients with metallic hardware post-limb salvage surgery. (orig.)

  12. Identifying Senior High School Students' Misconceptions about Statistical Correlation, and Their Possible Causes: An Exploratory Study Using Concept Mapping with Interviews

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tzu-Chien; Lin, Yi-Chun; Tsai, Chin-Chung

    2009-01-01

    Correlation is an essential concept in statistics; however, students may hold misconceptions about correlation, even after receiving instruction. This study aimed to elucidate (1) the misconceptions held by senior high school students about correlation, using the tool of concept mapping along with interviewing, (2) the possible causes of these…

  13. Imaging actinic keratosis by high-definition optical coherence tomography. Histomorphologic correlation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boone, Marc A L M; Norrenberg, Sarah; Jemec, Gregor B E;

    2013-01-01

    With the continued development of non-invasive therapies for actinic keratosis such as PDT and immune therapies, the non-invasive diagnosis and monitoring become increasingly relevant. High-definition optical coherence tomography is a high-resolution imaging tool, with micrometre resolution in bo...

  14. High avidity antibodies to full-length VAR2CSA correlate with absence of placental malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tutterrow, Yeung Lo; Salanti, Ali; Avril, Marion;

    2012-01-01

    transmission areas in Cameroon were evaluated for Ab to FV2 and the proportion of high avidity Ab (i.e., Ab that remain bound in the presence of 3M NH(4)SCN) was assessed. Ab levels and proportion of high avidity Ab were compared between women with placental malaria (PM(+)) and those without (PM...

  15. Benchmarking exchange-correlation functionals for hydrogen at high pressures using quantum Monte Carlo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, Raymond C. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Mcminis, Jeremy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); McMahon, Jeffrey M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Pierleoni, Carlo [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), L' aquila (Italy). Lab. Nazionali del Gran Sasso (INFN-LNGS); Ceperley, David M. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana, IL (United States); Morales, Miguel A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-05-01

    The ab initio phase diagram of dense hydrogen is very sensitive to errors in the treatment of electronic correlation. Recently, it has been shown that the choice of the density functional has a large effect on the predicted location of both the liquid-liquid phase transition and the solid insulator-to-metal transition in dense hydrogen. To identify the most accurate functional for dense hydrogen applications, we systematically benchmark some of the most commonly used functionals using quantum Monte Carlo. By considering several measures of functional accuracy, we conclude that the van der Waals and hybrid functionals significantly outperform local density approximation and Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof. We support these conclusions by analyzing the impact of functional choice on structural optimization in the molecular solid, and on the location of the liquid-liquid phase transition.

  16. Anti-Correlated Pigment Fluctuations of Allophycocyanin for Highly Efficient Photosynthetic Light Harvesting in Cyanobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Andrew; Nome, Rene; Scherer, Norbert

    2008-03-01

    The phycobiliprotein, allophycocyanin (APC), is an excellent model system for the study of light harvesting pigment interactions with a protein bath. This work investigates the relaxation of electronic excitations in APC with electric field-resolved transient grating and photon echo spectroscopies. Transient grating experiments observe a 35 fs internal conversion process between single exciton levels. Most importantly, our analysis shows that anti-correlated phycocyanobilin pigment energy level fluctuations cause the anti-diagonal orientation of the node in the measured dispersive photon echo spectrum. We believe this novel observation to reflect concerted protein bath fluctuations over the 2 nm length scale that separates the pigments. Consideration of the Forster energy transfer rate theory suggests that APC has evolved with this property to enhance its photosynthetic light harvesting efficiency.

  17. Correlation Testing for Affine Invariant Properties on $\\mathbb{F}_p^n$ in the High Error Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Hatami, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Recently there has been much interest in Gowers uniformity norms from the perspective of theoretical computer science. This is mainly due to the fact that these norms provide a method for testing whether the maximum correlation of a function $f:\\mathbb{F}_p^n \\rightarrow \\mathbb{F}_p$ with polynomials of degree at most $d \\le p$ is non-negligible, while making only a constant number of queries to the function. This is an instance of {\\em correlation testing}. In this framework, a fixed test is applied to a function, and the acceptance probability of the test is dependent on the correlation of the function from the property. This is an analog of {\\em proximity oblivious testing}, a notion coined by Goldreich and Ron, in the high error regime. In this work, we study general properties which are affine invariant and which are correlation testable using a constant number of queries. We show that any such property (as long as the field size is not too small) can in fact be tested by Gowers uniformity tests, and he...

  18. Pulmonary sarcoidosis: correlation of expiratory high-resolution CT findings with inspiratory patterns and pulmonary function tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To assess the presence and extent of air trapping (AT) on chest high-resolution CT (HRCT) in sarcoidosis and to correlate such findings with patterns, lesion extent on inspiratory CT and pulmonary function tests (PFT). Material and Methods: Thirty patients with sarcoidosis underwent inspiratory and expiratory HRCT and PFT. HRCT images were evaluated for presence, distribution and AT extent as well as the predominant HRCT pattern and the extent of lesions at inspiration. Attenuation difference in the AT regions at expiration and at inspiration were calculated. The presence and extent of AT were correlated with PFT, extent of involvement and predominant inspiratory patterns. Results: AT was present in 25/30 patients with no lung zone predilection. AT was the only CT indication of pulmonary sarcoidosis in 3/30 patients who also had normal PFT. Attenuation difference between inspiration and expiration ranged from -40 HU to 106 HU. In 2 patients, a paradoxical decrease of lung attenuation was observed at expiration. A significant correlation was found between AT extent at expiration, with residual volume-total lung capacity ratio and residual volume. Conclusion: AT is an additional HRCT finding in sarcoidosis. AT may involve any lung zone, including costophrenic angles and may be the only CT feature of pulmonary sarcoidosis. Strong correlation is only found with PFT values that are specific for incomplete lung emptying at expiration

  19. High-resolution long-reach distributed Brillouin sensing based on combined time-domain and correlation-domain analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elooz, David; Antman, Yair; Levanon, Nadav; Zadok, Avi

    2014-03-24

    A new scheme for distributed Brillouin sensing of strain and temperature in optical fibers is proposed, analyzed and demonstrated experimentally. The technique combines between time-domain and correlation-domain analysis. Both Brillouin pump and signal waves are repeatedly co-modulated by a relatively short, high-rate phase sequence, which introduces Brillouin interactions in a large number of discrete correlation peaks. In addition, the pump wave is also modulated by a single amplitude pulse, which leads to a temporal separation between the generation of different peaks. The Brillouin amplification of the signal wave at individual peak locations is resolved in the time domain. The technique provides the high spatial resolution and long range of unambiguous measurement offered by correlation-domain Brillouin analysis, together with reduced acquisition time through the simultaneous interrogation of a large number of resolution points. In addition, perfect Golomb codes are used in the phase modulation of the two waves instead of random sequences, in order to reduce noise due to residual, off-peak Brillouin interactions. The principle of the method is supported by extensive numerical simulations. Using the proposed scheme, the Brillouin gain spectrum is mapped experimentally along a 400 m-long fiber under test with a spatial resolution of 2 cm, or 20,000 resolution points, with only 127 scans per choice of frequency offset between pump and signal. Compared with corresponding phase-coded, Brillouin correlation domain analysis schemes with equal range and resolution, the acquisition time is reduced by a factor of over 150. A 5 cm-long hot spot, located towards the output end of the pump wave, is properly identified in the measurements. The method represents a significant advance towards practical high-resolution and long range Brillouin sensing systems. PMID:24663994

  20. Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Langdon, Weston; Donahue, Manus J.; van der Kolk, Anja G.; Rane, Swati; Strother, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct.

  1. Behavioral, Neural, and Life History Correlates of Selective Breeding for High Voluntary Exercise in House Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Keeney, Brooke Kelley

    2011-01-01

    My research utilized a long-term artificial selection experiment in which mice (Mus domesticus) are selectively bred on the basis of voluntary exercise (high levels of voluntary wheel running: four replicate High Runner or HR lines) to address how a specific motivated behavior is generated in the brain, and how this may affect the performance of other motivated behaviors and organismic processes (e.g., reproduction). I studied the endocannabinoid system, one signaling system involved in cont...

  2. Correlation of findings in clinical and high resolution ultrasonography examinations of the painful shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Micheroli, Raphael; Kyburz, Diego; Ciurea, Adrian; Dubs, Beat; Toniolo, Martin; Bisig, Samuel Pascal; Tamborrini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: High resolution ultrasonography is a non-painful and non-invasive imaging technique which is useful for the assessment of shoulder pain causes, as clinical examination often does not allow an exact diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the findings of clinical examination and high resolution ultrasonography in patients presenting with painful shoulder. METHODS: Non-interventional observational study of 100 adult patients suffering from unilateral shoulder pain. Exclusi...

  3. Correlation of findings in clinical and high resolution ultrasonography examinations of the painful shoulder

    OpenAIRE

    Micheroli, Raphael; Kyburz, Diego; Ciurea, Adrian; Dubs, Beat; Toniolo, Martin; Bisig, Samuel Pascal; Tamborrini, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Objective High resolution ultrasonography is a non-painful and non-invasive imaging technique which is useful for the assessment of shoulder pain causes, as clinical examination often does not allow an exact diagnosis. The aim of this study was to compare the findings of clinical examination and high resolution ultrasonography in patients presenting with painful shoulder. Methods Non-interventional observational study of 100 adult patients suffering from unilateral shoulder pain. Exclusion cr...

  4. Correlating Hemodynamic Magnetic Resonance Imaging with high-field Intracranial Vessel Wall Imaging in Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langdon, Weston; Donahue, Manus J.; van der Kolk, Anja G.; Rane, Swati; Strother, Megan K.

    2014-01-01

    Vessel wall magnetic resonance imaging at ultra-high field (7 Tesla) can be used to visualize vascular lesions noninvasively and holds potential for improving stroke-risk assessment in patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. We present the first multi-modal comparison of such high-field vessel wall imaging with more conventional (i) 3 Tesla hemodynamic magnetic resonance imaging and (ii) digital subtraction angiography in a 69-year-old male with a left temporal ischemic infarct. PMID:25426229

  5. CORRELATIONS BETWEEN BLOOD PRESSURE AND BODY WEIGHT, SERUM LEPTIN IN HIGH CALORIE DIET-INDUCED OBESE RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Zhi; Ma Aiqun; Yang Chun; Tian Hongyan

    2006-01-01

    Objective To examine the change of body weight (BW) and blood pressure (BP) in obese rats, clarify relationships between BP and BW and other factors. Methods Male Spraque-Dawley rats were fed either with normal diet (ND) or high calorie diet (HC) for 20 weeks. BW and BP of tail artery were observed biweekly and tetraweekly respectively; serum leptin and fasting insulin (FINS) were detected by enzyme-linked immunoadsordent assay (ELISA) and radioimmunoassay (RIA) respectively. Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and free fatty acid(FFA) were measured by conventional means. Results BW, abdominal fat weight (AFW), ratio of abdominal fat weight to body weight (RF/W), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), serum levels of leptin and FINS, FPG, FFA increased in the HD group after 20 weeks diet intervention (P<0.05 or P<0.01). SBP was strongly correlated with BW, leptin, FINS and FFA (P<0.05), DBP was correlated with FFA (r=0.47, P<0.05). In addition, leptin was positively correlated with BW, AFW, RF/W, FINS and FFA (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Conclusion In this study of high calorie-diet induced rats, the gain of BW is accompanied by increased BP. The obese rats have hyperleptinemia, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia which may have important effects on the development of obesity-related hypertension. RF/W is the key factor in which affect serum leptin level.

  6. Asbestosis and other pulmonary fibrosis in asbestos-exposed workers: high-resolution CT features with pathological correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, Hiroaki [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Radiology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Kishimoto, Takumi [Okayama Rosai Hospital, Asbestos Research Center, Okayama (Japan); Ashizawa, Kazuto [Nagasaki University Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Department of Clinical Oncology, Nagasaki (Japan); Kato, Katsuya [Kawasaki Medical School, Department of Diagnostic Radiology 2, Okayama (Japan); Okamoto, Kenzo [Hokkaido Chuo Hospital, Department of Pathology, Iwamizawa, Hokkaido (Japan); Honma, Koichi [Dokkyo Medical University, Department of Pathology, Mibu, Tochigi (Japan); Hayashi, Seiji [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Osaka (Japan); Akira, Masanori [National Hospital Organization Kinki-Chuo Chest Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Osaka (Japan)

    2016-05-15

    The purpose was to identify distinguishing CT features of pathologically diagnosed asbestosis, and correlate diagnostic confidence with asbestos body burden. Thirty-three workers (mean age at CT: 73 years) with clinical diagnoses of asbestosis, who were autopsied (n = 30) or underwent lobectomy (n = 3), were collected. Two radiologists independently scored high-resolution CT images for various CT findings and the likelihood of asbestosis was scored. Two pathologists reviewed the pathology specimens and scored the confidence of their diagnoses. Asbestos body count was correlated with CT and pathology scores. Pathologically, 15 cases were diagnosed as asbestosis and 18 cases with various lung fibroses other than asbestosis. On CT, only the score of the subpleural curvilinear lines was significantly higher in asbestosis (p = 0.03). Accuracy of CT diagnosis of asbestosis with a high confidence ranged from 0.73 to 0.79. Asbestos body count positively correlated with CT likelihood of asbestosis (r = 0.503, p = 0.003), and with the confidence level of pathological diagnosis (r = 0.637, p < 0.001). Subpleural curvilinear lines were the only clue for the diagnosis of asbestosis. However, this was complicated by other lung fibrosis, especially at low asbestos body burden. (orig.)

  7. Asbestosis and other pulmonary fibrosis in asbestos-exposed workers: high-resolution CT features with pathological correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose was to identify distinguishing CT features of pathologically diagnosed asbestosis, and correlate diagnostic confidence with asbestos body burden. Thirty-three workers (mean age at CT: 73 years) with clinical diagnoses of asbestosis, who were autopsied (n = 30) or underwent lobectomy (n = 3), were collected. Two radiologists independently scored high-resolution CT images for various CT findings and the likelihood of asbestosis was scored. Two pathologists reviewed the pathology specimens and scored the confidence of their diagnoses. Asbestos body count was correlated with CT and pathology scores. Pathologically, 15 cases were diagnosed as asbestosis and 18 cases with various lung fibroses other than asbestosis. On CT, only the score of the subpleural curvilinear lines was significantly higher in asbestosis (p = 0.03). Accuracy of CT diagnosis of asbestosis with a high confidence ranged from 0.73 to 0.79. Asbestos body count positively correlated with CT likelihood of asbestosis (r = 0.503, p = 0.003), and with the confidence level of pathological diagnosis (r = 0.637, p < 0.001). Subpleural curvilinear lines were the only clue for the diagnosis of asbestosis. However, this was complicated by other lung fibrosis, especially at low asbestos body burden. (orig.)

  8. The Correlation Study of Race Results of University High Level Middle-distance Runners with Dietary Intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiehan Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The increasing improvement of university high level sports team’s technology and achievement, scientific and effective training have become the primary means of development. Author through studying the Correlation of race results of university high level middle distance runners with dietary intervention, concludes that the middle-distance runners during the training in addition to need an effective and highly targeted load and intensity arrangement, conditioning, simulation game training, scientific and rational dietary ratio also plays a decisive role on training and competition results. Dietary intervention can affect the athletes' body composition to change to make the body maintains a high hemoglobin concentration, improving their anaerobic threshold power and its heart rate level to stabilize the supply of oxygen in a normal environment. Meanwhile, the experiment proved that dietary intervention can improve the ability of the players to restore the body to ensure the quality of conditioning and competitive state, lay a foundation for maintaining and improving athletic performance.

  9. Dissecting the high-z interstellar medium through intensity mapping cross-correlations

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, Paolo; Lagache, Guilaine

    2016-01-01

    We explore the detection, with upcoming spectroscopic surveys, of three-dimensional power spectra of emission line fluctuations produced in different phases of the Interstellar Medium (ISM) by ionized carbon, ionized nitrogen and neutral oxygen at redshift z>4. The emission line [CII] from ionized carbon at 157.7 micron, and multiple emission lines from carbon monoxide, are the main targets of planned ground-based surveys, and an important foreground for future space-based surveys like the Primordial Inflation Explorer (PIXIE). However, the oxygen [OI] (145.5 micron) line, and the nitrogen [NII] (121.9 micron and 205.2 micron) lines, might be detected in correlation with [CII] with reasonable signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). These lines are important coolants of both the neutral and the ionized medium, and probe multiple phases of the ISM. We compute predictions of the three-dimensional power spectra for two surveys designed to target the [CII] line, showing that they have the required sensitivity to detect cross...

  10. Devonian Frasnian-Famennian Transitional Milankovitch Cycles and High-Resolution Stratigraphic Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Four hierarchical cyclothems, superbundlesets, bundlesets,bundles and laminae, have been identified from the Devonian Frasnian-Famennian carbonate strata in Guangxi, South China. Their hierarchical structures, ratio relation ships and sequence in conodont zones are continuous and stable and can be traced across different facies zones and sedi mentary basins. Our data show that hierarchically organized superbundlesets, bundlesets, bundles and laminae correspond to the long eccentricity, eccentricity, obliquity or precession and sub-Milankovitch cycles respectively. Their periods were 400,000, 100,000, 33,333, 16,667 and 8,000-17,000 a, respectively. The ratios of long eccentricity to eccentricity, ec centricity to obliquity, and eccentricity to precession in the Devonian are 1:4, 1:3 and 1:6 respectively. Using these hier archical Milankovitch cyclothems, chronostratigraphical division and correlation can be realized at a resolution of 100 ka or 10 ka at the Frasnian-Famennian transition. The time intervals of the Upper rhenana Zone, linguiformis Zone, and the Lower, Middle and Upper triangularis Zone are 0.6, 0.8, 0.3, 0.3 and 0.3 Ma, respectively. Sea-level changes of the Frasnian-Famennian transition were not coherent and synchronous at the resolution of 100 ka or 10 ka in the basin-slope carbonate sequences of Guangxi, South China.

  11. I. Concepts of Highly Excited Electronic Systems / II. Electronic Correlation Mapping from Finite to Extended Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berakdar, Jamal

    2006-02-01

    Knowledge of the excitation characteristics of matter is decisive for the descriptions of a variety of dynamical processes, which are of significant technological interest. E.g. transport properties and the optical response are controlled by the excitation spectrum. This self-contained work is a coherent presentation of the quantum theory of correlated few-particle excitations in electronic systems. It begins with a compact resume of the quantum mechanics of single particle excitations. Particular emphasis is put on Green function methods, which offer a natural tool to unravel the relations between the physics of small and large electronic systems. The book contains explicit expressions for the Coulomb Green function of two charge particles and a generalization to three-body systems. Techniques for the many-body Green function of finite systems are introduced and some explicit calculations of the Green functions are given. Concrete examples are provided and the theories are contrasted with experimental data, when available. A complimentary volume presents an up-to-date selection of applications of the developed concepts and a comparison with available experiments is made

  12. Highly-correlated Charges in Block Copolyelectrolytes: Charge as a Tool for Morphology Manipulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sing, Charles; Zwanikken, Jos; Olvera de La Cruz, Monica

    2014-03-01

    Block copolymers that include at least one charged block have been of great technological interest due to their use in materials for battery membranes. These materials are difficult to understand theoretically, however, due to the disparate length scale effects of charge correlation and chain conformation driving the microphase separation of these systems. Using a new theoretical approach that can account for both of these effects that is based of hybrid liquid state integral equation-self consistent field theory (LS-SCFT) calculations, we elucidate the fundamental physics underpinning the thermodynamics of these materials. In particular, we demonstrate four main effects that drive the phase behavior of block copolyelectrolytes: Coulombic cohesion, counterion entropy, excluded volume, and ion self energy effects. Tuning parameters such as charge fraction and dielectric constant can be used to explore different microphase-separated morphologies on an axis orthogonal to traditional routes of manipulating block copolymers (i.e. χ N and block fraction). This expands the palette of tools that can be used to tune this important class of polymeric materials.

  13. The rate of nonallelic homologous recombination in males is highly variable, correlated between monozygotic twins and independent of age.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline A L MacArthur

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Nonallelic homologous recombination (NAHR between highly similar duplicated sequences generates chromosomal deletions, duplications and inversions, which can cause diverse genetic disorders. Little is known about interindividual variation in NAHR rates and the factors that influence this. We estimated the rate of deletion at the CMT1A-REP NAHR hotspot in sperm DNA from 34 male donors, including 16 monozygotic (MZ co-twins (8 twin pairs aged 24 to 67 years old. The average NAHR rate was 3.5 × 10(-5 with a seven-fold variation across individuals. Despite good statistical power to detect even a subtle correlation, we observed no relationship between age of unrelated individuals and the rate of NAHR in their sperm, likely reflecting the meiotic-specific origin of these events. We then estimated the heritability of deletion rate by calculating the intraclass correlation (ICC within MZ co-twins, revealing a significant correlation between MZ co-twins (ICC = 0.784, p = 0.0039, with MZ co-twins being significantly more correlated than unrelated pairs. We showed that this heritability cannot be explained by variation in PRDM9, a known regulator of NAHR, or variation within the NAHR hotspot itself. We also did not detect any correlation between Body Mass Index (BMI, smoking status or alcohol intake and rate of NAHR. Our results suggest that other, as yet unidentified, genetic or environmental factors play a significant role in the regulation of NAHR and are responsible for the extensive variation in the population for the probability of fathering a child with a genomic disorder resulting from a pathogenic deletion.

  14. African Ancestry Analysis and Admixture Genetic Mapping for Proliferative Diabetic Retinopathy in African Americans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Arti; Chen, Ching J.; Penman, Alan; Hancock, Heather; James, Maurice; Husain, Deeba; Andreoli, Christopher; Li, Xiaohui; Kuo, Jane Z.; Idowu, Omolola; Riche, Daniel; Papavasilieou, Evangelia; Brauner, Stacey; Smith, Sataria O.; Hoadley, Suzanne; Richardson, Cole; Kieser, Troy; Vazquez, Vanessa; Chi, Cheryl; Fernandez, Marlene; Harden, Maegan; Cotch, Mary Frances; Siscovick, David; Taylor, Herman A.; Wilson, James G.; Reich, David; Wong, Tien Y.; Klein, Ronald; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Patterson, Nick; Sobrin, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To examine the relationship between proportion of African ancestry (PAA) and proliferative diabetic retinopathy (PDR) and to identify genetic loci associated with PDR using admixture mapping in African Americans with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Methods. Between 1993 and 2013, 1440 participants enrolled in four different studies had fundus photographs graded using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study scale. Cases (n = 305) had PDR while controls (n = 1135) had nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (DR) or no DR. Covariates included diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1C, systolic blood pressure, income, and education. Genotyping was performed on the Affymetrix platform. The association between PAA and PDR was evaluated using logistic regression. Genome-wide admixture scanning was performed using ANCESTRYMAP software. Results. In the univariate analysis, PDR was associated with increased PAA (odds ratio [OR] = 1.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.16–1.59, P = 0.0002). In multivariate regression adjusting for traditional DR risk factors, income and education, the association between PAA and PDR was attenuated and no longer significant (OR = 1.21, 95% CI = 0.59–2.47, P = 0.61). For the admixture analyses, the maximum genome-wide score was 1.44 on chromosome 1. Conclusions. In this largest study of PDR in African Americans with T2D to date, an association between PAA and PDR is not present after adjustment for clinical, demographic, and socioeconomic factors. No genome-wide significant locus (defined as having a locus-genome statistic > 5) was identified with admixture analysis. Further analyses with even larger sample sizes are needed to definitively assess if any admixture signal for DR is present. PMID:26098467

  15. Deciphering and dating the red panda's ancestry and early adaptive radiation of Musteloidea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Jun J; Wolsan, Mieczyslaw; Minami, Shinji; Hosoda, Tetsuji; Sinaga, Martua H; Hiyama, Kozue; Yamaguchi, Yasunori; Suzuki, Hitoshi

    2009-12-01

    Few species have been of more disputed affinities than the red or lesser panda (Ailurus fulgens), an endangered endemic Southeast Asian vegetarian member of the placental mammalian order Carnivora. This peculiar carnivoran has mostly been classified with raccoons (Procyonidae) or bears (Ursidae), grouped with the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) in their own family, or considered a separate lineage of equivocal ancestry. Recent molecular studies have indicated a close affinity of the red panda to a clade of procyonids and mustelids (weasels, otters, martens, badgers, and allies), but have failed to unambiguously resolve the position of this species relative to mephitids (skunks and stink badgers). We examined the relationship of the red panda to other extant species of the carnivoran suborder Caniformia using a set of concatenated approximately 5.5-kb sequences from protein-coding exons of five nuclear genes. Bayesian, maximum likelihood, and parsimony phylogenetic analyses strongly supported the red panda as the closest living relative of a clade containing Procyonidae and Mustelidae to the exclusion of Mephitidae. These three families together with the red panda (which is classified here as a single extant species of a distinct family, Ailuridae) compose the superfamily Musteloidea, a clade strongly supported by all our phylogenetic analyses as sister to the monophyletic Pinnipedia (seals, sea lions, walruses). The approximately unbiased, Kishino-Hasegawa, and Templeton topology tests rejected (Pfossil evidence that extends the early adaptive radiation of the total clade of musteloids to the Eocene-Oligocene transition and also suggests Asia as a center of this radiation. PMID:19699810

  16. Subcritical Crack Growth in Ceramic Composites at High Temperature Measured Using Digital Image Correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mumm, D.R.; Morris, W.L.; Dadkhah, M.S.; Cox, B.N.

    1996-01-11

    An in situ experimental technique is described that allows high resolution, high sensitivity determination of displacements and full-field strains during high temperature mechanical testing. The technique is used to investigate elevated temperature crack growth in SiC/Nicalon sub f composites. At 1150 degrees C, the reinforcing fibers have a higher creep susceptibility than the matrix. Fiber creep leads to relaxation of crack bridging tractions, resulting in subcritical crack growth. Differential image analysis is used to measure the crack opening displacement profile u(x) of an advancing, bridged crack. With appropriate modeling, such data can be used to determine the traction law, from which the mechanics of cracking and failure may be determined.

  17. ARTHROSCOPY AND HIGH RESOLUTION ULTRASOUND CORRELATION IN INTERNAL DERANGEMENT OF KNEE: A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timma Reddy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available BACK GROUND : Internal derangement of Knee is a serious injury with a high morbidity for the patient. It is imperative that this condition should be identified as early as possible and correct treatment instituted at the earliest. High resolution Ultrasound ( HRUS is a viable alternative to Arthroscopy in diagnosing this serious condition. MATERIALS & METHODS : In a prospective study we investigated internal derangement of knee (IDK with High resolution ultrasound (HRUS, in 189 patients, over a period of 4 years i.e . , from august 2011 to august 2015, in the department of Orthopedics, and Traumatology, Osmania Medical College/ Hospital, Hyderabad. Aim was to d etermine effectiveness of ultrasound in diagnosing IDK and to compare with Arthroscopy. Ultrasound showed good sensitivity (91.3% and specificity (90.6% and the figures were comparable to arthroscopic findings. CONCLUSIONS : We conclude that ultrasound is a simple, accurate, inexpensive and non - invasive way of diagnosing knee disorders with a learning curve.

  18. Correlated band structure and the ground-state phase diagram in high-TC cuprates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review results obtained with a recently proposed variational cluster approach (VCA) for the competition between d-wave superconductivity (dSC) and antiferromagnetism (AF) in the high-TC cuprates. Comparing the single-particle spectra of a two-dimensional Hubbard model with quantum Monte-Carlo (QMC) and experimental data, we verify that the VCA correctly treats the low-energy excitations. The cluster calculations reproduce the overall ground-state phase diagram of the high-temperature superconductors both for electron- and hole-doping. In particular, they include salient features such as the enhanced robustness of the AF state in case of electron doping. For electron- but also for hole-doping, we clearly identify a tendency to phase separation into a mixed AF-dSC phase at low and a pure dSC-phase at high doping

  19. Correlation between high-resolution CT and pathologic findings of tumor in pulmonary carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the value of high-resolution CT (HRCT) in the diagnosis of pulmonary carcinoma, HRCT was performed in vivo before operation and radiographic and pathologic findings of inflated and fixed lungs were examined after operation (22 primary cases). Only three of 14 adenocarcinomas and three of six squamous cell carcinomas showed ill-defined margins and adjacent subtle high-attenuation areas, representing the alveoli on the lining by neoplastic cells or infiltration of lymphatic cells surrounding the tumor. In the other 16 cases, including two cases of small cell carcinoma, well-defined margins represented mucus secretion or filling entirely with neoplastic cells within alveoli

  20. Azimuthal correlations of high-p{sub T} photons and hadrons in Au+Au collisions at STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietel, T.

    2006-07-01

    The STAR experiment observed a modification of the azimuthal correlations between a trigger particle and associated particles in central Au+Au collisions, where trigger particles with 4 GeVcorrelations between regions of high energy deposition in the electro-magnetic calorimeter as trigger- and charged tracks as associated particles. The data sample had been enriched by online event selection, allowing for the selection of trigger particles with a transverse energy of more than 10 GeV and associated particles with more than 2, 3 or 4 GeV. The trigger particles are a mixture of photon pairs from the decays of neutral pions and single photons, mainly from photon-jet events, with small contributions from other hadron decays and fragmentation photons. (orig.)

  1. Correlation between switching to n-type conductivity and structural defects in highly Mg-doped InN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khromov, S.; Persson, P. O. Å.; Monemar, B.; Rosen, J.; Janzén, E.; Darakchieva, V., E-mail: vanya.darakchieva@liu.se [Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping University, S-581 83 Linköping (Sweden); Wang, X. [State Key Laboratory of Artificial Microstructure and Mesoscopic Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Yoshikawa, A. [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan)

    2015-06-08

    The effect of Mg doping on the microstructure of InN epitaxial films in relation to their free-charge carrier properties has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration corrected scanning TEM. We observe a direct correlation between Mg concentration and the formation of stacking faults. The threading dislocation density is found to be independent of Mg concentration. The critical Mg concentration for the on-set of stacking faults formation is determined and found to correlate with the switch from p- to n-type conductivity in InN. Potential mechanisms involving stacking faults and point defect complexes are invoked in order to explain the observed conductivity reversal. Finally, the stacking faults are structurally determined and their role in the reduction of the free electron mobility in highly doped InN:Mg is discussed.

  2. Azimuthal correlations of high-pT photons and hadrons in Au+Au collisions at STAR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The STAR experiment observed a modification of the azimuthal correlations between a trigger particle and associated particles in central Au+Au collisions, where trigger particles with 4 GeVTtriggerTtrigger<4 GeV were selected. This thesis studies azimuthal correlations between regions of high energy deposition in the electro-magnetic calorimeter as trigger- and charged tracks as associated particles. The data sample had been enriched by online event selection, allowing for the selection of trigger particles with a transverse energy of more than 10 GeV and associated particles with more than 2, 3 or 4 GeV. The trigger particles are a mixture of photon pairs from the decays of neutral pions and single photons, mainly from photon-jet events, with small contributions from other hadron decays and fragmentation photons. (orig.)

  3. Correlation between switching to n-type conductivity and structural defects in highly Mg-doped InN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of Mg doping on the microstructure of InN epitaxial films in relation to their free-charge carrier properties has been investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and aberration corrected scanning TEM. We observe a direct correlation between Mg concentration and the formation of stacking faults. The threading dislocation density is found to be independent of Mg concentration. The critical Mg concentration for the on-set of stacking faults formation is determined and found to correlate with the switch from p- to n-type conductivity in InN. Potential mechanisms involving stacking faults and point defect complexes are invoked in order to explain the observed conductivity reversal. Finally, the stacking faults are structurally determined and their role in the reduction of the free electron mobility in highly doped InN:Mg is discussed

  4. Social Media Use, Loneliness, and Academic Achievement: A Correlational Study with Urban High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Roque; Golz, Nancy; Polega, Meaghan

    2015-01-01

    This study explored the association between social media use, loneliness, and academic achievement in high school students and identified the demographic characteristics associated with these three elements. This study also aimed to identify the percentage of variance in loneliness accounted for by social media use and GPA. Participants were 345…

  5. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Heck, C.H. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is

  6. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Heck, C.H. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is t

  7. Angular correlations in double ionization of Helium by high-energy Compton scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaliman, Z. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Omladinska 14, Rijeka (Croatia)], E-mail: kaliman@ffri.hr; Pisk, K.; Suric, T. [Rudjer Boskovic Institute, P.O. Box 180, Zagreb (Croatia)

    2007-09-21

    We present theoretical results for double differential cross section d{sup 2}{sigma}/d{omega}{sub 1}d{omega}{sub 2} in the process of double ionization of Helium by high-energy Compton scattering. We discuss the energy and angular dependence of the cross section, as well as the relative importance of shake and final state interaction mechanisms.

  8. Correlates of Attitudes Favorable to Racial Discrimination Among High School Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chadwick, Bruce A.; And Others

    The behavior-specific attitude "tendency to discriminate" is distinguished from the general tendency toward negative stereotyping (prejudice). Thirteen independent variables are evaluated as predictors of this tendency. Subjects were students in a racially integrated high school in the Pacific Northwest. Among white students, the most significant…

  9. Psychosocial Correlates of Substance Use: Comparing High School Students with Incarcerated Offenders in Hong Kong.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Connie S. Y.; Tang, Catherine S. K.; Schwarzer, Ralf

    1997-01-01

    Explores the interplay of various factors that may jointly predict the frequency of drug use and the intention for further use. Drug-use prevalence data for 969 adolescents, high school students, and imprisoned offenders linked drug-use frequencies with psychosocial variables such as disinhibition, peer drug use, peer pressure, and other factors.…

  10. Correlations among Five Variables and the Biology Performance of a Sample of Jamaican High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair-Walters, Shonette; Soyibo, Kola

    2004-01-01

    This study investigates whether or not (a) 252 Jamaican high school students (168 boys, 84 girls, 171 grade 10 and 81 grade 11 students) had favourable attitudes to biology, (b) their level of biology performance was satisfactory, (c) there were significant differences in their performance based on their gender, grade level, school-type,…

  11. Cognitive Correlates of Performance in Algorithms in a Computer Science Course for High School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avancena, Aimee Theresa; Nishihara, Akinori

    2014-01-01

    Computer science for high school faces many challenging issues. One of these is whether the students possess the appropriate cognitive ability for learning the fundamentals of computer science. Online tests were created based on known cognitive factors and fundamental algorithms and were implemented among the second grade students in the…

  12. Cytohistological correlation of endocervical gland involvement with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Kir

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: Diagnosis of HSIL-EGI may be possible on Pap smears with a high positive predictive value and specificity but low sensitivity, possibly due to cytological sampling limitations. To clarify the results of the present study, more extensive studies with a particular emphasis on the sampling of the endocervical glandular area for cytological evaluation of the cervix are needed.

  13. Brief Report: Biochemical Correlates of Clinical Impairment in High Functioning Autism and Asperger's Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger's disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance…

  14. Both serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D and calcium levels may increase the risk of incident prostate cancer in Caribbean men of African ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Maria D; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K; Lindsay, Carole M; Smith, Garrett; Bennett, Franklyn I; McFarlane-Anderson, Norma; Aiken, William; Coard, Kathleen C M

    2015-06-01

    Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] concentrations have been associated with both higher and lower risk of prostate cancer (PCa), whereas elevated levels of circulating calcium has been related to higher risks. However, there are few studies that account for effects of both calcium and 25(OH)D concentrations on incident PCa in a black population. We examined these relationships in a case-control study of men 40-80 years old with newly diagnosed, histologically confirmed PCa in Jamaica, a tropical country. Mean serum calcium concentrations was higher among cases (2.32 ± 0.19 mmol/L) than controls, (2.27 ± 0.30 mmol/L) (P = 0.023) however, there were no differences in 25(OH)D by cancer status (cases, 33.67 ± 12.71 ng/mL; controls (32.25 ± 12.59 ng/mL). Serum calcium was not correlated with 25(OH)D (partial correlation: r, 0.06; P = 0.287). Multivariable-adjusted models showed a positive linear relationship between PCa and serum calcium (OR, 1.12; CI, 1.00-1.25 per 0.1 nmol/L). Serum 25(OH)D concentration also showed a positive association with PCa (OR, 1.23; CI, 1.01-1.49 per 10 ng/mL). The odds of PCa in men with serum 25(OH)D tertile 2 was OR, 2.18; CI, 1.04-4.43 and OR, 2.47 CI, 1.20-4.90 for tertile 3 (P(trend) = 0.013). Dietary intakes of calcium showed no relationship with PCa. Despite the strong relationship between serum calcium and vitamin D the mechanism by which each affects prostate cancer risk in men of African ancestry needs additional investigation. PMID:25858172

  15. Ventilation-perfusion scanning and pulmonary angiography: correlation in clinical high-probability pulmonary embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During a 3-year period, 173 clinically selected patients underwent pulmonary angiography to confirm or exclude acute pulmonary embolism. All patients had undergone ventilation-perfusion (V/Q) scanning (167 patients) or perfusion scanning alone (six) before angiography. Angiography was done because the results of the V/Q scanning did not satisfy the clinician's needs for certainty. The results of the V/Q and studies were compared to determine the relative accuracy of V/Q scanning in this clinical setting. Pulmonary embolism was found in seven (15%) of 47 patients with low-probability scans, 11 (32%) of 34 patients with intermediate-probability scans, 22 (39%) of 57 patients with indeterminate scans, and 23 (66%) of 35 patients with high-probability scans. In this clinically selected population, low-probability scans were more accurate in excluding pulmonary embolism than were high-probability scans in establishing that diagnosis

  16. Correlation of high energy muons with primary composition in extensive air shower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Ozaki, S.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahasi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    An experimental investigation of high energy muons above 200 GeV in extensive air showers has been made for studying high energy interaction and primary composition of cosmic rays of energies in the range 10 to the 14th power approx. 10 to the 15th power eV. The muon energies are estimated from the burst sizes initiated by the muons in the rock, which are measured by four layers of proportional counters, each of area 5 x 2.6 sq m, placed at 30 m.w.e. deep, Funasaka tunnel vertically below the air shower array. These results are compared with Monte Carlo simulations based on the scaling model and the fireball model for two primary compositions, all proton and mixed.

  17. Brief Report: Biochemical correlates of clinical impairment in high functioning autism and Asperger’s disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Kleinhans, Natalia M.; Richards, Todd; Weaver, Kurt E.; Liang, Olivia; Dawson, Geraldine; Aylward, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction has been proposed as a critical contributor to social impairment in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The current study investigated biochemical abnormalities in the amygdala in 20 high functioning adults with autistic disorder or Asperger’s disorder and 19 typically developing adults matched on age and IQ. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy was used to measure n-acetyl aspartate (NAA), creatine/phosphocreatine (Cre), choline/choline containing compounds (Cho), and Myoinosito...

  18. A high performance cost-effective digital complex correlator for an X-band polarimetry survey

    OpenAIRE

    Bergano, Miguel; Rocha, Armando; Cupido, Luís; Barbosa, Domingos; Villela, Thyrso; Boas, José Vilas; Rocha, Graça; Smoot, George F.

    2016-01-01

    The detailed knowledge of the Milky Way radio emission is important to characterize galactic foregrounds masking extragalactic and cosmological signals. The update of the global sky models describing radio emissions over a very large spectral band requires high sensitivity experiments capable of observing large sky areas with long integration times. Here, we present the design of a new 10 GHz (X-band) polarimeter digital back-end to map the polarization components of the galactic synchrotron ...

  19. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    OpenAIRE

    van Rijn Clementina M; van Heck Casper H; van den Broeke Emanuel N; Wilder-Smith Oliver HG

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate HFS-induced central plasticity of sensory processing at the level of the brain using the electroencephalogram (EEG). To this end we measured evoked potentials in response to ...

  20. Positive Correlation Between Academic Library Services and High-Impact Practices for

    OpenAIRE

    Saori Wendy Herman, MLIS, AHIP

    2016-01-01

    Objective – To investigate the perceived alignment between academic library services and high-impact practices (HIPs) that affect student retention. Design – Survey questionnaire. Setting – Public comprehensive universities in the United States of America with a Carnegie classification of master’s level as of January 2013. Subjects – 68 library deans or directors out of the 271 who were originally contacted. Methods – The author used Qualtrics software to create a survey b...

  1. A convex pseudo-likelihood framework for high dimensional partial correlation estimation with convergence guarantees

    OpenAIRE

    Khare, Kshitij; Oh, Sang-Yun; Rajaratnam, Bala

    2013-01-01

    Sparse high dimensional graphical model selection is a topic of much interest in modern day statistics. A popular approach is to apply l1-penalties to either (1) parametric likelihoods, or, (2) regularized regression/pseudo-likelihoods, with the latter having the distinct advantage that they do not explicitly assume Gaussianity. As none of the popular methods proposed for solving pseudo-likelihood based objective functions have provable convergence guarantees, it is not clear if corresponding...

  2. Computing Highly Correlated Positions Using Mutual Information and Graph Theory for G Protein-Coupled Receptors

    OpenAIRE

    Fatakia, Sarosh N.; Costanzi, Stefano; Chow, Carson C.

    2009-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a superfamily of seven transmembrane-spanning proteins involved in a wide array of physiological functions and are the most common targets of pharmaceuticals. This study aims to identify a cohort or clique of positions that share high mutual information. Using a multiple sequence alignment of the transmembrane (TM) domains, we calculated the mutual information between all inter-TM pairs of aligned positions and ranked the pairs by mutual information. A ...

  3. Endotoxin levels correlate positively with a sedentary lifestyle and negatively with highly trained subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Oyama Lila M; Damaso Ana R; Seelaender Marília; Carnevali Luiz C; Caperuto Erico C; Souza Hélio A; Pimentel Gustavo D; Rosa Jose C; Lira Fabio S; de Mello Marco T; Santos Ronaldo V

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Introduction A sedentary lifestyle increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes. This phenomenon is supported by recent studies suggesting a chronic, low-grade inflammation status. Endotoxin derived from gut flora may be key to the development of inflammation by stimulating the secretion of inflammatory factors. This study aimed to examine plasma inflammatory markers and endotoxin levels in individuals with a sedentary lifestyle and/or in highly trai...

  4. Neural correlates of heterotopic facilitation induced after high frequency electrical stimulation of nociceptive pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Broeke, E.N. van den; Heck, C.H. van; Rijn, C.M. van; Wilder-Smith, O.H.G.

    2011-01-01

    Background High frequency electrical stimulation (HFS) of primary nociceptive afferents in humans induce a heightened sensitivity in the surrounding non-stimulated skin area. Several studies suggest that this heterotopic effect is the result of central (spinal) plasticity. The aim of this study is to investigate HFS-induced central plasticity of sensory processing at the level of the brain using the electroencephalogram (EEG). To this end we measured evoked potentials in response to noxious e...

  5. Charged particle production and correlations at high transverse momentum at the CERN intersecting storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the production of identified charged particles in pp collisions at c.m. energy of 63 GeV in events with an identified high-psub(T) trigger particle. The measurements were performed at the CERN Intersecting Storage Rings using the Axial Field Spectrometer. Production ratios are presented as a function of psub(T) in the range 2.5 to 8 GeV/c. (orig.)

  6. Entanglement, EPR correlations and mesoscopic quantum superposition by the high-gain quantum injected parametric amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Caminati, Marco; De Martini, Francesco; Perris, Riccardo; Sciarrino, Fabio; Secondi, Veronica

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the multiparticle quantum superposition and the persistence of multipartite entanglement of the quantum superposition generated by the quantum injected high-gain optical parametric amplification of a single photon. The physical configuration based on the optimal universal quantum cloning has been adopted to investigate how the entanglement and the quantum coherence of the system persists for large values of the nonlinear parametric gain g.

  7. Correlates of sunscreen use among high school students: a cross-sectional survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coups Elliot J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adolescents put themselves at risk of later skin cancer development and accelerated photo-aging due to their high rates of ultraviolet radiation exposure and low rates of skin protection. The purpose of the current study was to determine which of the Integrative Model constructs are most closely associated with sunscreen use among high school students. Methods The current study of 242 high school students involved a survey based on the Integrative Model including demographic and individual difference factors, skin protection-related beliefs and outcome evaluations, normative beliefs, self-efficacy, sunscreen cues and availability, intentions, and sunscreen use. Our analyses included multiple linear regressions and bootstrapping to test for mediation effects. Results Sunscreen use was significantly associated with female gender, greater skin sensitivity, higher perceived sunscreen benefits, higher skin protection importance, more favorable sunscreen user prototype, stronger skin protection norms, greater perceived skin protection behavioral control, and higher sunscreen self-efficacy. Intentions to use sunscreen mediated the relationships between most skin protection-related beliefs and sunscreen use. Conclusions The current study identified specific variables that can be targeted in interventions designed to increase sunscreen use among adolescents.

  8. Preference and intake frequency of high sodium foods and dishes and their correlations with anthropometric measurements among Malaysian subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choong, Stella Sinn-Yee; Balan, Sumitha Nair; Chua, Leong-Siong; Say, Yee-How

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the preference and intake frequency of a list of 15 commonly available high sodium Malaysian foods/dishes, discretionary salt use, and their possible association with demographics, blood pressures and anthropometric measurements among 300 Malaysian university students (114 males, 186 females; 259 ethnic Chinese, 41 Indians; 220 lean, 80 overweight). French fries and instant soup noodle were found to be the most preferred and most frequently consumed salty food, respectively, while salted fish was least preferred and least frequently consumed. Males had a significantly higher intake frequency of at least 6 of the salty foods, but the preference of most salty foods was not significantly different between genders. Ethnic Chinese significantly preferred more and took more frequently traditional and conventional Malaysian foods like asam laksa (a Malaysian salty-sour-spicy noodle in fish stock), salted biscuits and salted vegetable, while Indians have more affinity and frequency towards eating salty Western foods. Body Mass Index was significantly negatively correlated with the intake frequency of canned/packet soup and salted fish while waist circumference was significantly positively correlated with the preference of instant noodle. Also, an increased preference of potato chips and intake frequency of salted biscuits seemed to lead to a decreased WHR. Other than these, all the other overweight/obesity indicators did not seem to fully correlate with the salty food preference and intake frequency. Nevertheless, the preference and intake frequency of asam laksa seemed to be significant negative predictors for blood pressures. Finally, increased preference and intake frequency of high sodium shrimp paste (belacan)-based foods like asam laksa and belacan fried rice seemed to discourage discretionary salt use. In conclusion, the preference and intake frequency of the high sodium belacan-based dish asam laksa seems to be a good predictor for ethnic

  9. Pre-surgical high resolution ultrasound of facial basal cell carcinoma: correlation with histology

    OpenAIRE

    Bobadilla, Francisco; Wortsman, Ximena; Muñoz, Carla; Segovia, Laura; Espinoza, Miguel; Gregor B.E. Jemec

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to analyze the scope of pre-surgical high resolution ultrasound in basal cell carcinoma (BCC). BCC is the most common human cancer. According to recent large prospective studies incomplete excision of BCC is higher than expected. Pre-operative imaging may aid surgical planning by identifying the extent and location of a neoplasm, which can be interesting at zones with higher risk of recurrences such as the face. These are slow growing tumors but there are so...

  10. Time-Correlated High-Speed Video and Lightning Mapping Array Results For Triggered Lightning Flashes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastvedt, E. M.; Eack, K.; Edens, H. E.; Aulich, G. D.; Hunyady, S.; Winn, W. P.; Murray, C.

    2009-12-01

    Several lightning flashes triggered by the rocket-and-wire technique at Langmuir Laboratory's Kiva facility on South Baldy (approximately 3300 meters above sea level) were captured on high-speed video during the summers of 2008 and 2009. These triggered flashes were also observed with Langmuir Laboratory's Lightning Mapping Array (LMA), a 3-D VHF time-of-arrival system. We analyzed nine flashes (obtained in four different storms) for which the electric field at ground was positive (foul-weather). Each was initiated by an upward positive leader that propagated into the cloud. In all cases observed, the leader exhibited upward branching, and most of the flashes had multiple return strokes.

  11. Severity of sepsisis is correlated with the elevation of serum high-mobility group box 1 in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU Li-chao; XIONG Li-ze; QIN Ming-zhe; ZHENG Li-na; LU Yan; WANG Qiang; PENG Dao-rong; YU Xin-ping; XIN Yu-chang; JI Gen-lin

    2009-01-01

    Background Sepsis is a leading cause of death in the intensive care units. The late inflammatory cytokine,high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), plays a critical role in sepsis. In the present study, we investigated the association between the serum HMGB1 levels and the severity of organ injury in the lipopolysaccharide-induced sepsis in rats.Methods To produce an animal model of sepsis with different degree of organ injury, animals were treated with three different doses of lipopolysaccharide (4, 8 and 16 mg/kg), and the animals in control group were treated with the same volume of the vehicle (saline). The levels of serum HMGB1 were measured at 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, 32 and 48 hours after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or vehicle injection, meanwhile the biochemical and histopathological indicators for the severity of organ injury were assessed.Results The level of HMGB1 had a positive, high correlation with the abnormal changes of serum cardiac troponin Ⅰ, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine and blood urea nitrogen, as well as the pathologic scores of heart, lung, liver and kidney.Conclusions The level of serum HMGB1 is highly correlated with the severity of sepsis in rats, suggesting that HMGB1 could serve as a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis and management of sepsis.

  12. High-latitude tree growth and satellite vegetation indices: Correlations and trends in Russia and Canada (1982-2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, Logan T.; Beck, Pieter S. A.; Bunn, Andrew G.; Lloyd, Andrea H.; Goetz, Scott J.

    2011-03-01

    Vegetation in northern high latitudes affects regional and global climate through energy partitioning and carbon storage. Spaceborne observations of vegetation, largely based on the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), suggest decreased productivity during recent decades in many regions of the Eurasian and North American boreal forests. To improve interpretation of NDVI trends over forest regions, we examined the relationship between NDVI from the advanced very high resolution radiometers and tree ring width measurements, a proxy of tree productivity. We collected tree core samples from spruce, pine, and larch at 22 sites in northeast Russia and northwest Canada. Annual growth rings were measured and used to generate site-level ring width index (RWI) chronologies. Correlation analysis was used to assess the association between RWI and summer NDVI from 1982 to 2008, while linear regression was used to examine trends in both measurements. The correlation between NDVI and RWI was highly variable across sites, though consistently positive (r = 0.43, SD = 0.19, n = 27). We observed significant temporal autocorrelation in both NDVI and RWI measurements at sites with evergreen conifers (spruce and pine), though weak autocorrelation at sites with deciduous conifers (larch). No sites exhibited a positive trend in both NDVI and RWI, although five sites showed negative trends in both measurements. While there are technological and physiological limitations to this approach, these findings demonstrate a positive association between NDVI and tree ring measurements, as well as the importance of considering lagged effects when modeling vegetation productivity using satellite data.

  13. Recent ice cap snowmelt in Russian High Arctic and anti-correlation with late summer sea ice extent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glacier surface melt dynamics throughout Novaya Zemlya (NovZ) and Severnaya Zemlya (SevZ) serve as a good indicator of ice mass ablation and regional climate change in the Russian High Arctic. Here we report trends of surface melt onset date (MOD) and total melt days (TMD) by combining multiple resolution-enhanced active and passive microwave satellite datasets and analyze the TMD correlations with local temperature and regional sea ice extent. The glacier surface snowpack on SevZ melted significantly earlier (−7.3 days/decade) from 1992 to 2012 and significantly longer (7.7 days/decade) from 1995 to 2011. NovZ experienced large interannual variability in MOD, but its annual mean TMD increased. The snowpack melt on NovZ is more sensitive to temperature fluctuations than SevZ in recent decades. After ruling out the regional temperature influence using partial correlation analysis, the TMD on both archipelagoes is statistically anti-correlated with regional late summer sea ice extent, linking land ice snowmelt dynamics to regional sea ice extent variations. (letter)

  14. Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia: High-resolution computed tomography–pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to describe the high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) features of fatal cases of Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia and to correlate them with pathologic findings. Methods: The study included six adult patients who died following Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia. All patients had undergone HRCT, and the images were retrospectively analyzed by two chest radiologists, who reached decisions by consensus. Two experienced lung pathologists reviewed all pathological specimens. The HRCT findings were correlated with the histopathologic data. Results: The predominant HRCT findings included areas of airspace consolidation (n = 6) and ground-glass opacities (n = 3). The main pathological features consisted of diffuse alveolar damage with hyaline membrane formation (n = 5), associated with various degrees of pulmonary congestion, edema, hemorrhage, inflammatory infiltration and bronchiolitis. A patient who survived longer showed findings of organizing pneumonia. Conclusion: Fatal cases of Influenza A (H1N1) virus-associated pneumonia can present as areas of consolidation on CT, with or without ground-glass opacities. These abnormalities can be pathologically correlated with diffuse alveolar damage. Patients with longer survival may present with findings of organizing pneumonia.

  15. Inclusion of correlations in the empirical selection of intranuclear cascade nucleons from high-energy hadron-nucleus collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The very high energy (5 GeV to 20 TeV) hadron-nucleus differential particle production model found in the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA87 has been adapted for inclusion in the transport code HETC88. The empirical selection of intranuclear cascade nucleons has been modified to provide simple correlations with the randomly selected number of hadron-nucleon collisions. A standard method of calculating the excitation energy of the compound nucleus preceding an added evaporation step by assuming the particles are produced in a one-dimensional nuclear well is applied. This method, coupled with the above correlations, leads to improved correlations of the excitation energy with the A and Z of the compound nucleus, and then to greatly improved distributions of the residual nuclei following evaporation. The frequency distributions of low energy (β < .7) charged particles show good agreement with experiment for 200 GeV protons incident on emulsions. Average multiplicities of shower and grey particles after evaporation for protons and pions incident on several elements are also compared with experiment. 23 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab

  16. The Correlation Between Electron Density and Temperature in Low and High Strength Crustal Magnetic Field Regions at Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamandy, T.; Andersson, L.; Fowler, C. M.; Ergun, R.; Connerney, J. E. P.; Brain, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Langmuir Probe and Waves Instrument (LPW) onboard the MAVEN spacecraft is the first Langmuir probe to map out the upper atmosphere of Mars. The instrument provides measurements (amongst other variables) of electron density (Ne) and temperature (Te). The overarching scientific goal of MAVEN is to determining how Mars lost its atmosphere and to understand the physical processes governing this escape and the above quantities play a crucial role in understanding this. Ne and Te information is critical for determining the efficiency of the different photochemical reaction rates and thereby in understanding the upper atmospheric composition. Understanding the upper atmosphere allows the MAVEN mission to calculate escape rates. Photochemical reactions and collisions dominate below the exobase region (~150-~180 km). Above the exobase, particles with energies greater than the Mars gravity well can escape. On the dayside solar EUV heats the atmosphere at lower altitudes and produces the ionosphere. It is of great interest to understand the how the electron density and temperature correlate. The presented study therefore shows the correlation between Ne and Te. This study investigates how different solar zenith angles affect these quantities and evaluates if closed magnetic field lines (as expected to occur over crustal magnetic fields) change the correlation between the two. Many previous studies have shown that crustal fields affect the plasma at high altitudes. In this study we present how the magnetic field influences the photochemical and the plasma processes close to the exobase via analyzing Ne and Te.

  17. High-Precision U-Pb Geochronology and Correlation: An example Using the Neoproterozic-Cambrian Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowring, S. A.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Amthor, J.; Martin, M. E.

    2001-05-01

    The precise, global correlation of Precambrian and Paleozoic sedimentary rocks can be achieved using temporally calibrated chemostratigraphic records. This approach is essential for determining rates and causes of environmental and faunal change, including mass extinctions. For example, The Neoproterozoic is marked by major environmental change, including periods of global glaciation, large fluctuations in the sequestration of carbon and major tectonic reorganization followed by the explosive diversification of animals in the earliest Cambrian. The extreme climatic change associated with these glaciations have been implicated as a possible trigger for the Cambrian explosion. The recognition of thin zircon-bearing air-fall ash in Neoproterozoic and Cambrian rocks has allowed the establishment of a high-precision temporal framework for animal evolution and is helping to untangle the history of glaciations. In some cases analytical uncertainties translate to age uncertainties of less than 1 Ma and when integrated with chemostratigraphy, the potential for global correlations at even higher resolution. Progress in the global correlation of Neoproterozoic strata has been achieved through the use of C and Sr isotope chemostratigraphy although it has been hampered by a lack of precise geochronological and faunal control. For example, the period from ca 800-580 Ma is characterized by at least two and perhaps as many as four glacial events that are interpreted by many to be global glaciations on a "Snowball Earth". A lack of precise chronological constraints on the number and duration of glaciations, multiple large excursions in the carbon isotopic record, and an absence of detailed biostratigraphy have complicated global correlation and hindered our understanding of this important period of Earth history. However, the ongoing integration of chemostratigraphic and geochronological data are improving temporal resolution and detailed correlations. These data are critical for

  18. High-frequency, correlated nuclear and electron oscillations in molecules in intense laser fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandrauk, André D.; Chelkowski, Szczepan; Lu, Huizhong

    2013-03-01

    We have solved numerically the time-dependent Schrödinger equation (TDSE) describing dissociative-ionization of a H2 (and of a D2) molecule exposed to intense short-pulse laser light in one dimension. From the time dependent wave function we calculated the total average acceleration of the two electrons and the relative proton acceleration and the average of internuclear distance. We find that the general shape of the power spectra of electron and proton motion is very similar except that for the electrons the peaks occur at odd harmonics whereas for protons the peaks occur at even harmonics. We relate this to the appearance of higher order polarizabilities. The wavelet time-frequency analysis shows that, surprisingly, time profiles of electron and proton accelerations are nearly identical for high order harmonics. The wavelet time profiles confirm predictions of the three-step quasi-classical model of harmonic generation by identifying several (up to three) electron return times with high precision.

  19. Calculation and Correlation of the Unsteady Flowfield in a High Pressure Turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhle, Milind A.; Liu, Jong S.; Panovsky, Josef; Keith, Theo G., Jr.; Mehmed, Oral

    2002-01-01

    Forced vibrations in turbomachinery components can cause blades to crack or fail due to high-cycle fatigue. Such forced response problems will become more pronounced in newer engines with higher pressure ratios and smaller axial gap between blade rows. An accurate numerical prediction of the unsteady aerodynamics phenomena that cause resonant forced vibrations is increasingly important to designers. Validation of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes used to model the unsteady aerodynamic excitations is necessary before these codes can be used with confidence. Recently published benchmark data, including unsteady pressures and vibratory strains, for a high-pressure turbine stage makes such code validation possible. In the present work, a three dimensional, unsteady, multi blade-row, Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes code is applied to a turbine stage that was recently tested in a short duration test facility. Two configurations with three operating conditions corresponding to modes 2, 3, and 4 crossings on the Campbell diagram are analyzed. Unsteady pressures on the rotor surface are compared with data.

  20. Structural and spectroscopic evidence for stable chemical bonds and the correlation with high Tc superconductivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is discovered that in the high-Tc superconducting YBa2−xLaxCu3Oz system, by structural analysis and Raman spectroscopy, a stable ‘fixed triangle’ structure exists in the CuO2 planes. All chemical bonds and angles constituting the O(3)–Cu(2)–O(2) triangle are almost constant with doping. The frequencies and linewidths of the out-of-phase c-axis O(2)–O(3) buckling modes around 337 cm−1 and the in-plane Cu(2)–O(2) bond stretching modes around 534 cm−1 are both independent of the doping level, providing direct evidence for the stability of this fixed triangle. It was previously revealed that just these two phonons couple strongly with the antinodal and nodal electronic states, respectively, resulting in an anisotropic electron–phonon interaction in the cuprates. This work implies that the stability of the CuO2 subunit and phonons related to it might be quite important in inducing the d-wave high-Tc superconductivity and should be paid more attention. (paper)