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Sample records for ancestor emergence constitution

  1. The Last Universal Common Ancestor: emergence, constitution and genetic legacy of an elusive forerunner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Labedan Bernard

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the reclassification of all life forms in three Domains (Archaea, Bacteria, Eukarya, the identity of their alleged forerunner (Last Universal Common Ancestor or LUCA has been the subject of extensive controversies: progenote or already complex organism, prokaryote or protoeukaryote, thermophile or mesophile, product of a protracted progression from simple replicators to complex cells or born in the cradle of "catalytically closed" entities? We present a critical survey of the topic and suggest a scenario. Results LUCA does not appear to have been a simple, primitive, hyperthermophilic prokaryote but rather a complex community of protoeukaryotes with a RNA genome, adapted to a broad range of moderate temperatures, genetically redundant, morphologically and metabolically diverse. LUCA's genetic redundancy predicts loss of paralogous gene copies in divergent lineages to be a significant source of phylogenetic anomalies, i.e. instances where a protein tree departs from the SSU-rRNA genealogy; consequently, horizontal gene transfer may not have the rampant character assumed by many. Examining membrane lipids suggest LUCA had sn1,2 ester fatty acid lipids from which Archaea emerged from the outset as thermophilic by "thermoreduction," with a new type of membrane, composed of sn2,3 ether isoprenoid lipids; this occurred without major enzymatic reconversion. Bacteria emerged by reductive evolution from LUCA and some lineages further acquired extreme thermophily by convergent evolution. This scenario is compatible with the hypothesis that the RNA to DNA transition resulted from different viral invasions as proposed by Forterre. Beyond the controversy opposing "replication first" to metabolism first", the predictive arguments of theories on "catalytic closure" or "compositional heredity" heavily weigh in favour of LUCA's ancestors having emerged as complex, self-replicating entities from which a genetic code arose under natural

  2. Emergency Powers and Constitutional Change in the Late Middle Ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article gives an account of late medieval theories and practices of emergency powers. More particularly, it examines the relation between emergency powers and constitutional change. It thus seeks to explain how, in the course of the 13th and 14th centuries, European rulers began using their

  3. the emerging international constitutional order: the implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    obligations that traditionally constituted core elements of the exercise of public power within the nation state, namely .... legal order containing (inter alia) the outer limits for the exercise of public power emerges. 12 ICJ, Advisory ..... Hoffmeister F “Die Europaïsche Menschenrechtskonvention als. Grundrechtsverfassung und ...

  4. COMPARATIVE FEDERALISM WITH REFERENCE TO CONSTITUTIONAL MACHINERY FAILURE (EMERGENCY) IN INDIA AND PAKISTA

    OpenAIRE

    Panch Rishi Dev Sharma

    2017-01-01

    The constitutions and courts both in India and in Pakistan have shown their aspirations and fundamental faith in the federal structure but in practice there is a strong centripetal bias in each of their constitutional-political structures. This bias becomes more evident when the constitution sanctions power to the centre to proclaim emergency situations in the provinces on the basis of Constitutional Machinery Failure. Emerging from their colonial roots, the constitutions of India and Pakista...

  5. A molecular clock dates the common ancestor of European-type porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus at more than 10 years before the emergence of disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, Roald; Oleksiewicz, Martin B.; Krabbe Petersen, Anne Mette

    2001-01-01

    an accurate molecular clock for the European PRRSV ORF 3 gene, place the root in the genealogy, estimate the rate of nucleotide substitution, and date the most recent common viral ancestor of the data set to 1979; more than 10 years before the onset of the European epidemic. Based on these findings, we...... conclude that PRRSV virus most likely entered the pig population some time before the epidemic emergence of the virus, and hence, that emergence of European-type PRRSV is not the result of a recent species transmission event. Together, our results show that ORF3 sequencing is a valuable epidemiologic tool...... for examining the emergence and spread of PRRSV in Europe. As such, the panel of well-characterized and highly divergent ORF3 sequences described in this study provides a reference point for future molecular epidemiologic studies....

  6. the emerging international constitutional order: the implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    (Zurich); Professor of International Constitutional Law, Universiteit van Amsterdam, The. Netherlands; Extraordinary ... public power between different international legal subjects on the concept of a. 'total' constitutional order ..... normative supremacy of human rights obligations - also in relation to obligations flowing from the ...

  7. The emerging international constitutional order: the implications of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This vision of an international constitutional model is inspired by the intensification in the shift of public decision-making away from the nation state towards international actors of a regional (for example EU) or functional (for example WTO, UN) nature, and its eroding impact on the notion of a “total” constitutional order, ...

  8. Just Trust Us: A Short History of Emergency Powers and Constitutional Change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, M.

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on the relationship between governmental emergency power (ie, the power to derogate from the laws in emergencies) and constitutional change. It seeks to explain how, in the past, uses of emergency power contributed to constitutional transformations. Three historical examples are

  9. Constitutional Reform and Emergency Powers in Egypt and Tunisia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwitter, Andrej

    Legal mechanisms governing the state of emergency can play an important role in authoritarian rule and post-revolutionary transition periods. Egypt has experienced the terror of a regime empowered by emergency law. In Tunisia, emergency law was not so much an issue before but rather after the

  10. Random ancestor trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Naim, E; Krapivsky, P L

    2010-01-01

    We investigate a network growth model in which the genealogy controls the evolution. In this model, a new node selects a random target node and links either to this target node, or to its parent, or to its grandparent, etc; all nodes from the target node to its most ancient ancestor are equiprobable destinations. The emerging random ancestor tree is very shallow: the fraction g n of nodes at distance n from the root decreases super-exponentially with n, g n = e −1 /(n − 1)!. We find that a macroscopic hub at the root coexists with highly connected nodes at higher generations. The maximal degree of a node at the nth generation grows algebraically as N 1/β n , where N is the system size. We obtain the series of nontrivial exponents which are roots of transcendental equations: β 1 ≅1.351 746, β 2 ≅1.682 201, etc. As a consequence, the fraction p k of nodes with degree k has an algebraic tail, p k ∼ k −γ , with γ = β 1 + 1 = 2.351 746

  11. COMPARATIVE FEDERALISM WITH REFERENCE TO CONSTITUTIONAL MACHINERY FAILURE (EMERGENCY IN INDIA AND PAKISTA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panch Rishi Dev Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitutions and courts both in India and in Pakistan have shown their aspirations and fundamental faith in the federal structure but in practice there is a strong centripetal bias in each of their constitutional-political structures. This bias becomes more evident when the constitution sanctions power to the centre to proclaim emergency situations in the provinces on the basis of Constitutional Machinery Failure. Emerging from their colonial roots, the constitutions of India and Pakistan contain an identical provision on Constitutional Machinery Failure Emergency which has been misused and abused regularly and has been the biggest question mark on federal claims of the two States. This unique system of Constitutional Machinery Failure Emergency has also gone through a number of radical changes in India and Pakistan, which often have been influenced by each other. The article specifies the socio-political-constitutional background of Constitutional Machinery Failure resulting in Provincial Emergency, both in India and in Pakistan, their respective use and abuse by the Executive, legislative attempts to amend and control such power, and judicial response, with similarities and differences in respect of justifiability of such Emergency Proclamations.

  12. Hunt the Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Osgood

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available Anyone familiar with the BBC's long-running television series 'Meet the Ancestors' will recognise much of the format for the online game 'Hunt the Ancestor'. The site is based around a fictional rescue excavation in Greenshire; its aims are to recover a prehistoric burial under threat of destruction by a quarry. Despite the fact that the intention is to excavate human remains and produce the eponymous reconstructed human face at the end (and is it just me or do these always look just about the same?, it introduces the user to some important archaeological concepts.

  13. The galaxy ancestor problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.

    2012-11-01

    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  14. Emergence of inter-identity alliances in struggles for transformation of the Kenyan constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Mwathi Mati

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Struggles for transformation of the Kenyan constitution brought into alliances disparate movements from below, sections of middleclass, and factions of political, economic and religious elites, in challenging the government. The emergence of these alliances presents useful cases for examining the dynamic relationship and politics between these movements, and also for probing social movement theory. Specifically, given the centrality of identity consciousness in movements, how were intrinsic class, religious, gender, generational and ethnic identity interests, contestations and cleavages overcome to enable inter-identity alliances in these struggles? More critically, how relevant are the dominant social movement theories in explaining this phenomenon? Is theoretical straightjacketing useful for analysing movements with such diversity? Drawing from in-depth interviews and existing literature on Kenyan constitutional reform struggles, this paper illustrates how alliances between the different identities and movements were forged to allow for a common struggle. The paper further illustrates that while political opportunity structures explain certain aspects of this phenomenon, framing, civic education and community organising strategies were critical enablers for collective identity formation

  15. What constitutes a good hand offs in the emergency department: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, La Vonne; Zun, Leslie; Burke, Trena

    2013-01-01

    The aim is to determine, from the patient's perspective, what constitutes a good hand-off procedure in the emergency department (ED). The secondary purpose is to evaluate what impact a formalized hand-off had on patient knowledge, throughput and customer service This study used a randomized controlled clinical trial involving two unique hand-off approaches and a convenience sample. The study alternated between the current hand-off process that documented the process but not specific elements (referred to as the informal process) to one using the IPASS the BATON process (considered the formal process). Consenting patients completed a 12-question validated questionnaire on how the process was perceived by patients and about their understanding why they waited in the ED. Statistical analysis using SPSS calculated descriptive frequencies and t-tests. In total 107 patients were enrolled: 50 in the informal and 57 in the formal group. Most patients had positive answers to the customer survey. There were significant differences between formal and informal groups: recalling the oncoming and outgoing physician coming to the patient's bed (p = 0.000), with more formal group recalling that than informal group patients; the oncoming physician introducing him/herself (p = 0.01), with more from the formal group answering yes and the physician discussing tests and implications with formal group patients (p = 0.02). This study was done at an urban inner city ED, a fact that may have skewed its results. A comparison of suburban and rural EDs would make the results stronger. It also reflected a very high level of customer satisfaction within the ED. This lack of variance may have meant that the correlation between customer service and handoffs was missed or underrepresented. There was no codified observation of either those using the IPASS the BATON script or those using informal procedures, so no comparison of level and types of information given between the two groups was done

  16. Emergence and Adaptation of a Novel Highly Pathogenic H7N9 Influenza Virus in Birds and Humans from a 2013 Human-Infecting Low-Pathogenic Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wenbao; Jia, Weixin; Liu, Di; Li, Jing; Bi, Yuhai; Xie, Shumin; Li, Bo; Hu, Tao; Du, Yingying; Xing, Li; Zhang, Jiahao; Zhang, Fuchun; Wei, Xiaoman; Eden, John-Sebastian; Li, Huanan; Tian, Huaiyu; Li, Wei; Su, Guanming; Lao, Guangjie; Xu, Chenggang; Xu, Bing; Liu, Wenjun; Zhang, Guihong; Ren, Tao; Holmes, Edward C; Cui, Jie; Shi, Weifeng; Gao, George F; Liao, Ming

    2018-01-15

    Since its emergence in 2013, the H7N9 low-pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) has been circulating in domestic poultry in China, causing five waves of human infections. A novel H7N9 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) variant possessing multiple basic amino acids at the cleavage site of the hemagglutinin (HA) protein was first reported in two cases of human infection in January 2017. More seriously, those novel H7N9 HPAIV variants have been transmitted and caused outbreaks on poultry farms in eight provinces in China. Herein, we demonstrate the presence of three different amino acid motifs at the cleavage sites of these HPAIV variants which were isolated from chickens and humans and likely evolved from the preexisting LPAIVs. Animal experiments showed that these novel H7N9 HPAIV variants are both highly pathogenic in chickens and lethal to mice. Notably, human-origin viruses were more pathogenic in mice than avian viruses, and the mutations in the PB2 gene associated with adaptation to mammals (E627K, A588V, and D701N) were identified by next-generation sequencing (NGS) and Sanger sequencing of the isolates from infected mice. No polymorphisms in the key amino acid substitutions of PB2 and HA in isolates from infected chicken lungs were detected by NGS. In sum, these results highlight the high degree of pathogenicity and the valid transmissibility of this new H7N9 variant in chickens and the quick adaptation of this new H7N9 variant to mammals, so the risk should be evaluated and more attention should be paid to this variant. IMPORTANCE Due to the recent increased numbers of zoonotic infections in poultry and persistent human infections in China, influenza A(H7N9) virus has remained a public health threat. Most of the influenza A(H7N9) viruses reported previously have been of low pathogenicity. Now, these novel H7N9 HPAIV variants have caused human infections in three provinces and outbreaks on poultry farms in eight provinces in China. We analyzed

  17. Sundials: Ancestors of Our Clocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 1. Sundials: Ancestors of Our Clocks. P D Anoop. General Article Volume 16 Issue 1 January 2011 pp 29-37. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/016/01/0029-0037. Keywords. Sundial ...

  18. The emergence of alternative 3' and 5' splice site exons from constitutive exons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eli Koren

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Alternative 3' and 5' splice site (ss events constitute a significant part of all alternative splicing events. These events were also found to be related to several aberrant splicing diseases. However, only few of the characteristics that distinguish these events from alternative cassette exons are known currently. In this study, we compared the characteristics of constitutive exons, alternative cassette exons, and alternative 3'ss and 5'ss exons. The results revealed that alternative 3'ss and 5'ss exons are an intermediate state between constitutive and alternative cassette exons, where the constitutive side resembles constitutive exons, and the alternative side resembles alternative cassette exons. The results also show that alternative 3'ss and 5'ss exons exhibit low levels of symmetry (frame-preserving, similar to constitutive exons, whereas the sequence between the two alternative splice sites shows high symmetry levels, similar to alternative cassette exons. In addition, flanking intronic conservation analysis revealed that exons whose alternative splice sites are at least nine nucleotides apart show a high conservation level, indicating intronic participation in the regulation of their splicing, whereas exons whose alternative splice sites are fewer than nine nucleotides apart show a low conservation level. Further examination of these exons, spanning seven vertebrate species, suggests an evolutionary model in which the alternative state is a derivative of an ancestral constitutive exon, where a mutation inside the exon or along the flanking intron resulted in the creation of a new splice site that competes with the original one, leading to alternative splice site selection. This model was validated experimentally on four exons, showing that they indeed originated from constitutive exons that acquired a new competing splice site during evolution.

  19. Proposed Ancestors of Phage Nucleic Acid Packaging Motors (and Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Serwer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available I present a hypothesis that begins with the proposal that abiotic ancestors of phage RNA and DNA packaging systems (and cells include mobile shells with an internal, molecule-transporting cavity. The foundations of this hypothesis include the conjecture that current nucleic acid packaging systems have imprints from abiotic ancestors. The abiotic shells (1 initially imbibe and later also bind and transport organic molecules, thereby providing a means for producing molecular interactions that are links in the chain of events that produces ancestors to the first molecules that are both information carrying and enzymatically active, and (2 are subsequently scaffolds on which proteins assemble to form ancestors common to both shells of viral capsids and cell membranes. Emergence of cells occurs via aggregation and merger of shells and internal contents. The hypothesis continues by using proposed imprints of abiotic and biotic ancestors to deduce an ancestral thermal ratchet-based DNA packaging motor that subsequently evolves to integrate a DNA packaging ATPase that provides a power stroke.

  20. gious role of ancestors in Nyakyusa belief

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    filial piety to a superabundance order by ritualizing it. The chiefs' groves and other ritual centres formed points of contact with the ancestors through the sacrifices offered. Ancestors are continually involved in the affairs of the living as the myths have indicated. They manifest their interest characteristically in unforseeable.

  1. Algal ancestor of land plants was preadapted for symbiosis

    OpenAIRE

    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Radhakrishnan, Guru V.; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Cheema, Jitender; Malbreil, Mathilde; Volkening, Jeremy D.; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Melkonian, Michael; Pokorny, Lisa; Rothfels, Carl J.; Sederoff, Heike Winter; Stevenson, Dennis W.; Surek, Barbara; Zhang, Yong

    2015-01-01

    Colonization of land by plants was a critical event for the emergence of extant ecosystems. The innovations that allowed the algal ancestor of land plants to succeed in such a transition remain unknown. Beneficial interaction with symbiotic fungi has been proposed as one of these innovations. Here we show that the genes required for this interaction appeared in a stepwise manner: Some evolved before the colonization of land by plants and others first appeared in land plants. We thus propose t...

  2. The state of emergency in the Weimar Republic: legal disputes over Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wilde, M.

    2010-01-01

    The article analyzes the debate on 'constitutional dictatorship' that took place at the first annual conference of the Association of German Constitutional Lawyers in Jena in 1924. In their keynote lectures, Carl Schmitt and Erwin Jacobi argued that Article 48 of the Weimar Constitution authorized

  3. Viral ancestors of antiviral systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, Luis P

    2011-10-01

    All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the 'Big Bang' theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  4. Viral Ancestors of Antiviral Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis P. Villarreal

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available All life must survive their corresponding viruses. Thus antiviral systems are essential in all living organisms. Remnants of virus derived information are also found in all life forms but have historically been considered mostly as junk DNA. However, such virus derived information can strongly affect host susceptibility to viruses. In this review, I evaluate the role viruses have had in the origin and evolution of host antiviral systems. From Archaea through bacteria and from simple to complex eukaryotes I trace the viral components that became essential elements of antiviral immunity. I conclude with a reexamination of the ‘Big Bang’ theory for the emergence of the adaptive immune system in vertebrates by horizontal transfer and note how viruses could have and did provide crucial and coordinated features.

  5. Apparatus Named after Our Academic Ancestors, III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    My academic ancestors in physics have called on me once more to tell you about the apparatus that they devised, and that many of you have used in your demonstrations and labs. This article is about apparatus named after François Arago, Heinrich Helmholtz, Leon Foucault, and James Watt.

  6. --- Ancestor Non-worship in Mampruli

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    see, e.g., Mendonsa 1976, and, most recently, McCall 1995) - with whom I largely agree as far as my ... This derives the origin of religion (in the evolutionistic model which was the paradigm of choice at the time) from ..... beginning to be recognised - McCall says that in considering ancestors "we must discard the boundaries ...

  7. The Five Ancestors--Book 1: Tiger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Jeff

    2004-01-01

    Losing a job is an awfully low point--until it turns into the opportunity to pursue writing full time, and a book like "The Five Ancestors: Tiger" results. Jeff Stone looks back to his own experience as a young reader and taps that experience to help frame his own writing. An intriguing snapshot of his new book follows.

  8. Ancestor worship – is it Biblical?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    p1243322

    ancestors. This synergy is also based on the underlying beliefs about death and the afterlife. In all three cases, death is not considered to be a barrier between ...... death, “And do not fear those who kill the body but cannot kill the soul; rather fear him who can destroy both soul and body in hell” (Mt 10:28; Lk 12:4-5;. RSV).

  9. Fast Lowest Common Ancestor Computations in Dags

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Eckhardt; Andreas Muehling; Johannes Nowak

    2017-01-01

    This work studies lowest common ancestor problems in directed acyclic graphs. We present fast algorithms for solving the All-Pairs Representative and All-Pairs All LCA problems with expected running time of O(n^2 log n) and O(n^3 loglog n) respectively. The speed-ups over recently developed methods are achieved by applying transitive reduction on the input dags. The algorithms are experimentally evaluated against previous approaches demonstrating a significant improvement. On the purely theor...

  10. Still under the ancestors' shadow? Ancestor worship and family formation in contemporary China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anning Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ancestor worship in China used to be an indispensable component of marriage and family life because it fostered an orientation toward perpetuating the family line. However, whether or not ancestor worship still matters in contemporary China is an open question. Objective: This article presents a comprehensive study of the association between ancestor worship practices and 1 the timing of transition to first marriage, 2 the pattern of childbearing, and 3 the orientation toward son preference. Methods: Drawing on the adult sample from the Chinese Family Panel Studies 2010, several multivariate models (Cox proportional hazard model, probit regression model, negative binomial regression models, and ordered probit model were fitted, corresponding to different types of outcome. Results: All else being equal, involvement in ancestor worship practices is correlated with 1 an early transition to marriage, 2 a larger number of children, 3 a higher probability of having at least one son, and 4 a larger number of sons. Conclusions: The relevance of the kinship tradition to family formation persists in contemporary China and has not faded away. Contribution: By highlighting the demographic implications of ancestor worship, this study illustrates the ongoing connection between culture and demography.

  11. Constitutional jurisprudence

    OpenAIRE

    Katju, Markandey

    2011-01-01

    Justice Markandey Katja (Judge, Supreme Court of India) explains and illustrates the concept of 'constitutional jurisprudence' - as a kind of philosphy of constitutional law, seeking to explain in general terms ideas such as: What is a constitution? What is its purpose? What is its position in the legal system of the country?

  12. Ancestor worship – is it Biblical? | Sup Bae | HTS Teologiese ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The article looks at these issues from a Biblical perspective, offers Biblical guidelines in assessing ancestor worship and its cosmology and interprets ancestor worship theologically. The conclusion is that ancestor worship is incompatible with Christian faith. HTS Theological Studies/Teologiese Studies Vol. 64 (3) 2008: pp.

  13. Dreaming Ancestors Among African American: A Challenge to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study examines the ancestral dream, an element of ancestor veneration that has persisted, in African religious life since the arrival of their enslaved ancestors in this country. Although changes have occurred in ancestor veneration, this study demonstrates its continued importance in maintaining harmonious family ...

  14. Information-Theoretic Inference of Common Ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bastian Steudel

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available A directed acyclic graph (DAG partially represents the conditional independence structure among observations of a system if the local Markov condition holds, that is if every variable is independent of its non-descendants given its parents. In general, there is a whole class of DAGs that represents a given set of conditional independence relations. We are interested in properties of this class that can be derived from observations of a subsystem only. To this end, we prove an information-theoretic inequality that allows for the inference of common ancestors of observed parts in any DAG representing some unknown larger system. More explicitly, we show that a large amount of dependence in terms of mutual information among the observations implies the existence of a common ancestor that distributes this information. Within the causal interpretation of DAGs, our result can be seen as a quantitative extension of Reichenbach’s principle of common cause to more than two variables. Our conclusions are valid also for non-probabilistic observations, such as binary strings, since we state the proof for an axiomatized notion of “mutual information” that includes the stochastic as well as the algorithmic version.

  15. Authoritarian Constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Tushnet, Mark V.

    2015-01-01

    Legal scholars and political theorists interested in constitutionalism as a normative concept tend to dichotomize the subject. There is liberal constitutionalism of the sort familiar in the modern West, with core commitments to human rights and self-governance implemented by means of varying institutional devices, and there is authoritarianism, rejecting human rights entirely and governed by unconstrained power-holders. This Article explores the possibility of forms of constitutionalism other...

  16. Palaeogenomics in cereals: modeling of ancestors for modern species improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salse, Jérôme; Feuillet, Catherine

    2011-03-01

    During the last decade, technological improvements led to the development of large sets of plant genomic resources permitting the emergence of high-resolution comparative genomic studies. Synteny-based identification of seven shared duplications in cereals led to the modeling of a common ancestral genome structure of 33.6 Mb structured in five protochromosomes containing 9138 protogenes and provided new insights into the evolution of cereal genomes from their extinct ancestors. Recent palaeogenomic data indicate that whole genome duplications were a driving force in the evolutionary success of cereals over the last 50 to 70 millions years. Finally, detailed synteny and duplication relationships led to an improved representation of cereal genomes in concentric circles, thus providing a new reference tool for improved gene annotation and cross-genome markers development. Copyright © 2011 Académie des sciences. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. CONSTITUTION AND CONSTITUTIONALISM CONTEMPORARY ISSUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In a democratic society, the judicial legitimacy of the state and its power, of its institutions, but also the social and political grounds are generated and determined by the Constitution, defined as expressively as possible as being: “The fundamental political and judicial settlement of a people” (I. Deleanu. The supremacy of the Constitution has as main effect the conformity of the entire system of law with the constitutional norms. Guaranteeing the compliance with this principle, essential for the state of law, is first of all an attribution of the Constitutional Court, but also an obligation of the legislative power to receive, through the adopted normative acts, in content and in form, the constitutional norms. Altering the fundamental law of a state represents a political and judicial act extremely complex with major meanings and implications for the socio-political and national systems, but also for each individual. This is why such measure should be very well justified, to answer certain socio-political and legal needs well shaped and mainly to match the principles and rules specific to a democratic constitutional and state system, by insuring its stability and functionality. These are a few aspects of the Romanian contemporary constitutionalism that this study shall critically analyse in order to differentiate between the constitutional ideal and reality.

  18. Global environmental constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bosselmann, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article supports the perspective that environmental constitutionalism is a global and foundational subject. Considering the novelty and thin base of this only emerging field of inquiry, it aims for making some suggestions for formulating the purpose and scope of environmental constitutionalism in a global range. Moreover, considering that the very nature of environmental rights is more fundamental than classic human rights, the mindset and methodology applied to the studies of constituti...

  19. Constitutive Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Piccolo, Chiara; Heitzig, Martina

    2011-01-01

    This chapter presents various types of constitutive models and their applications. There are 3 aspects dealt with in this chapter, namely: creation and solution of property models, the application of parameter estimation and finally application examples of constitutive models. A systematic...... procedure is introduced for the analysis and solution of property models. Models that capture and represent the temperature dependent behaviour of physical properties are introduced, as well as equation of state models (EOS) such as the SRK EOS. Modelling of liquid phase activity coefficients are also...

  20. Near-optimal labeling schemes for nearest common ancestors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Halvorsen, Esben Bistrup; Larsen, Kasper Green

    2014-01-01

    and Korman (STOC'10) established that labels in ancestor labeling schemes have size log n + Θ(log log n), our new lower bound separates ancestor and NCA labeling schemes. Our upper bound improves the 10 log n upper bound by Alstrup, Gavoille, Kaplan and Rauhe (TOCS'04), and our theoretical result even...

  1. Health and Ancestors: The Case of South Africa and Beyond

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    ready to get married, different ritual ceremonies are performed throughout the process of ilobola up until .... marriage involving the African people will not receive the blessings or approval of the ancestors if it .... directly communicate with the ancestors so that they may look after the boy for the whole duration of the ukwaluko ...

  2. In pursuit of our ancestors' hand laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargalló, Amèlia; Mosquera, Marina; Lozano, Sergi

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this paper is to apply a previously published method (Bargalló and Mosquera, 2014) to the archaeological record, allowing us to identify the hand laterality of our ancestors and determine when and how this feature, which is exhibited most strongly in humans, appeared in our evolutionary history. The method focuses on identifying handedness by looking at the technical features of the flakes produced by a single knapper, and discovering how many flakes are required to ascertain their hand preference. This method can potentially be applied to the majority of archaeological sites, since flakes are the most abundant stone tools, and stone tools are the most widespread and widely-preserved remains from prehistory. For our study, we selected two Spanish sites: Gran Dolina-TD10.1 (Atapuerca) and Abric Romaní (Barcelona), which were occupied by pre-Neanderthal and Neanderthal populations, respectively. Our analyses indicate that a minimum number of eight flakes produced by the same knapper is required to ascertain their hand preference. Even though this figure is relatively low, it is quite difficult to obtain from many archaeological sites. In addition, there is no single technical feature that provides information about handedness, instead there is a combination of eight technical features, localised on the striking platforms and ventral surfaces. The raw material is not relevant where good quality rocks are used, in this case quartzite and flint, since most of them retain the technical features required for the analysis. Expertise is not an issue either, since the technical features analysed here only correlate with handedness (Bargalló and Mosquera, 2014). Our results allow us to tentatively identify one right-handed knapper among the pre-Neanderthals of level TD10.1 at Gran Dolina (Atapuerca), while four of the five Neanderthals analysed from Abric Romaní were right-handed. The hand preference of the fifth knapper from that location (AR5) remains unclear

  3. Communicative Constitution of Organizations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schoeneborn, Dennis; Vasquez, Consuelo

    2017-01-01

    The notion of the communicative constitution of organizations (CCO) is at the center of a growing theoretical development within organizational communication studies. CCO scholarship is based on the idea that organization emerges in and is sustained and transformed by communication. This entry...

  4. The Ancestor Project: Aboriginal Computer Education through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weston, Marla; Biin, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    The goal of the ANCESTOR program is to use digital storytelling as a means of promoting an interest in technology careers for Aboriginal learners, as well as increasing cultural literacy. A curriculum was developed and first tested with Aboriginal students at the LÁU,WELNEW Tribal School near Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Based on feedback…

  5. Christian Theological Literature on Ancestor Veneration in Africa: An ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study posits that ancestral veneration devoid of deception should be acceptable to Christians and non-Christians alike, as a form of ecumenical piety that is indifferent to any sectarian confession as such. Ancestral veneration is a veneration of the values the ancestors/ancestresses promoted in their earthly lives.

  6. Ancestor worship in Korea and Africa: Social function or religious phenomenon?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choon Sup Bae

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Ancestor worship is a dilemma for Christian communities� in Korea and Africa, who have difficulty adapting Western theology to their Third World cultures. Allan Culpepper calls� ancestor worship a cultural phenomenon, not a hindrance to the Gospel message, which this article refutes. Ancestor worship is religious rather� than social in function. Common features of ancestor worship in Africa and Korea are 1 conventional� superstition (shamanism in Korea, animism in Africa, 2 belief in immortality, and� 3 ancestor veneration/filial piety. Theological assessment reveals the incompatibility of ancestor worship with Christianity. 1� Fear of ancestors is replaced by liberation� in Christ. 2 The dead exist in a mode completely different to earthly existence and have no power in the world. 3 Ancestors cannot fulfil the intermediary role reserved for the Holy Spirit. Ancestor worship should� be viewed as idol worship. Contextualisation of kerygma becomes distorted when religious pluralism is tolerated.

  7. State Constitutional Law: Teaching and Scholarship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    State constitutional law is an emerging area for legal education, partly because of state supreme court decisions relying on state rather than federal constitutional law. Studying state constitutional law highlights similarities and diversity of legal and governmental systems. Interest in establishment of curricula and materials in state law is…

  8. Environmental Adaptation from the Origin of Life to the Last Universal Common Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Marjorie D; Fournier, Gregory P

    2018-03-01

    Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA. Cellularity provides motility and permits Darwinian evolution by connecting genetic material and its products, and thus establishing heredity and lineage. Considering the importance of compartmentalization and motility, we propose that the early emergence of cellularity is required for environmental dispersal and diversification during these transitions. Early diversification and the emergence of ecology before LUCA could be an important pre-adaptation for life's persistence on a changing planet.

  9. Environmental Adaptation from the Origin of Life to the Last Universal Common Ancestor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantine, Marjorie D.; Fournier, Gregory P.

    2018-03-01

    Extensive fundamental molecular and biological evolution took place between the prebiotic origins of life and the state of the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA). Considering the evolutionary innovations between these two endpoints from the perspective of environmental adaptation, we explore the hypothesis that LUCA was temporally, spatially, and environmentally distinct from life's earliest origins in an RNA world. Using this lens, we interpret several molecular biological features as indicating an environmental transition between a cold, radiation-shielded origin of life and a mesophilic, surface-dwelling LUCA. Cellularity provides motility and permits Darwinian evolution by connecting genetic material and its products, and thus establishing heredity and lineage. Considering the importance of compartmentalization and motility, we propose that the early emergence of cellularity is required for environmental dispersal and diversification during these transitions. Early diversification and the emergence of ecology before LUCA could be an important pre-adaptation for life's persistence on a changing planet.

  10. Constitutional changes and the dilemmas of constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    Bačić, Arsen

    2009-01-01

    The need to develop constitutional mechanisms whose aim is to resolve fundamental relations in society demands the widest possible inclusion of all of society’s active participants in the discussion on the need to adopt or revise the Constitution. The opening of every new round of constitutional changes is of great importance because it always unlocks certain new and important questions. The answers to those questions should be offered by state authority (policy) and civil society including s...

  11. The merits of global constitutionalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Peters

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Global constitutionalism is an agenda that identifies and advocates for the application of constitutionalist principles in the international legal sphere. Global constitutionalization is the gradual emergence of constitutionalist features in international law. Critics of global constitutionalism doubt the empirical reality of constitutionalization, call into question the analytic value of constitutionalism as an academic approach, and fear that the discourse is normatively dangerous because it is anti-pluralist, artificially creates a false legitimacy, and promises an unrealistic end of politics. This article addresses these objections. I argue that global constitutionalization is likely to compensate for globalization induced constitutionalist deficits on the national level, that a constitutionalist reading of international law can serve as a hermeneutic device, and that the constitutionalist vocabulary uncovers legitimacy deficits of international law and suggests remedies. Global constitutionalism, therefore, has a responsibilizing and much-needed critical potential.

  12. utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    a distinct set of commonalities, principles, standards and values that have gained currency in constitutional dialogue all over the world. Perhaps the best proof of this ripeness of constitutionalism is to be found in the signs that new, postmodern thinking about the state, the law and the sustainability of the established tenets of.

  13. Looking for the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minna Koskela

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Genomic sequences across diverse species seem to align towards a common ancestry, eventually implying that eons ago some universal antecedent organism would have lived on the face of Earth. However, when evolution is understood not only as a biological process but as a general thermodynamic process, it becomes apparent that the quest for the last universal common ancestor is unattainable. Ambiguities in alignments are unavoidable because the driving forces and paths of evolution cannot be separated from each other. Thus tracking down life’s origin is by its nature a non-computable task. The thermodynamic tenet clarifies that evolution is a path-dependent process of least-time consumption of free energy. The natural process is without a demarcation line between animate and inanimate.

  14. Before the dawn recovering the lost history of our ancestors

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, Nicholas

    2007-01-01

    Nicholas Wade’s articles are a major reason why the science section has become the most popular, nationwide, in the New York Times. In his groundbreaking Before the Dawn, Wade reveals humanity’s origins as never before—a journey made possible only recently by genetic science, whose incredible findings have answered such questions as: What was the first human language like? How large were the first societies, and how warlike were they? When did our ancestors first leave Africa, and by what route did they leave? By eloquently solving these and numerous other mysteries, Wade offers nothing less than a uniquely complete retelling of a story that began 500 centuries ago.

  15. Ontogeny of the maxilla in Neanderthals and their ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Bromage, Timothy G; O'Higgins, Paul; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Stringer, Chris; Godinho, Ricardo Miguel; Warshaw, Johanna; Martínez, Ignacio; Gracia-Tellez, Ana; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Carbonell, Eudald

    2015-12-07

    Neanderthals had large and projecting (prognathic) faces similar to those of their putative ancestors from Sima de los Huesos (SH) and different from the retracted modern human face. When such differences arose during development and the morphogenetic modifications involved are unknown. We show that maxillary growth remodelling (bone formation and resorption) of the Devil's Tower (Gibraltar 2) and La Quina 18 Neanderthals and four SH hominins, all sub-adults, show extensive bone deposition, whereas in modern humans extensive osteoclastic bone resorption is found in the same regions. This morphogenetic difference is evident by ∼5 years of age. Modern human faces are distinct from those of the Neanderthal and SH fossils in part because their postnatal growth processes differ markedly. The growth remodelling identified in these fossil hominins is shared with Australopithecus and early Homo but not with modern humans suggesting that the modern human face is developmentally derived.

  16. Distinguishing Limitation on Constitutional Rights from Their ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Suspension of and limitation on fundamental rights and freedoms are justified violations of constitutional rights. Temporary suspension of some fundamental rights and freedoms can be made on the ground of a state of emergency. Since most constitutional rights are not absolute, they can be limited on basis of national ...

  17. UNDERSTANDING INFORMAL CONSTITUTIONAL CHANGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M. Griffin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Amid much recent American work on the problem of informal constitutional change, this article stakes out a distinctive position. I argue that theories of constitutional change in the US must address the question of the relationship between the “small c” and “big C” Constitution and treat seriously the possibility of conflict between them. I stress the unavoidable role the text of the Constitution and structural doctrines of federalism and separation of powers play in this relationship and thus in constitutional change, both formal and informal. I therefore counsel against theories that rely solely on a practice-based approach or analogies between “small c” constitutional developments and British or Commonwealth traditions of the “unwritten” constitution and constitutional “conventions.” The alternative I advocate is to approach constitutional change from a historicist perspective that focuses attention on state building and the creation of new institutional capacities. This approach will allow us to make progress by highlighting that there can be multiple constitutional orders in a given historical era, thus accounting for the conflictual nature of contemporary constitutional development in the US.

  18. Utilizing constitutional values in constitutional comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Venter

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available We are living in an era in which constitutional law has become a comparative science. A cogent, generally accepted methodology for constitutional comparison, however does not exist. There can, it is therefore submitted, be no such thing as a universal, monolithic science or discipline of comparative law, be it in the field of private or of public law. On the other hand, juridical comparison done unscientifically will not yield the fruits of useful knowledge.The law in general is replete with unspecific notions such as justice, reasonableness, public interest, boni mores, and many others. It should therefore not be disturbing to find that values are often foundational to the operation and application of constitutional law. The values underpinning different constitutional systems may be useful as a tertium comparationis in a comparative exercise. This however requires a penetrating consideration of the foundations of the systems being compared.In this contribution "a small comparative exercise" is undertaken by way of demonstration of the method. The South African constitutional provisions relating to equality and affirmative action are set against the background of the relevant norms and practices in the United States of America and Canada. This produces some useful insights:• in the USA equality increasingly underpins a strict proscription of discrimination, thus shrinking the scope for justifiable affirmative action programmes;• the South African law relating to discrimination and upliftment of the disadvantaged was clearly influenced by, and is therefore better understood against the background of, the equivalent arrangements in Canada, which was in its turn possibly conceived against the backdrop of early developments in this regard in the USA;• the Canadian doctrine and law of the constitution deals with affirmative action as an exception to the prohibition of discrimination and does not favour private affirmative action programmes

  19. Right Product, Wrong Packaging: Not 'Constitution', but 'Constitutional Charter'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Law

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to locate the principal cause of Europe’s prevailing ratification crisis in the inappropriate title arrived at in the European Convention, Treaty Establishing a Constitution for Europe. This over-ambitious styling led the media to characterise the text as simply an ‘EU Constitution’. Yet, the text was not a Constitution as we traditionally understand the term, i.e. the founding document of a State: scholars are agreed that the EU is not, and will not become upon ratification, a State.In terms of substance, whilst the text certainly strengthened some emerging constitutional aspects, it was not a major departure from the status quo like the Single European Act and Treaty on European Union had been; and it remained technically a treaty like all its predecessors. Arguably, therefore, it did not require referenda to ratify. However, confusion over the scale and importance of what was proposed, stemming from ambiguity in the title, pushed politicians down this unfortunate path.The article identifies a high level of consensus among commentators as to the true nature of the text: most are happy designating it a treaty (noun with constitutional (adjective aspects. The early proposed title Constitutional Treaty for Europe was arguably, therefore, the correct one; but it is now too late to choose this option, as the terms Constitution and Constitutional Treaty have already been muddled in debate. A more distinctive change is required. One idea could be to follow the principle employed elsewhere in the text of codifying the generally accepted but presently unwritten legal concepts of the European Court of Justice, as was done for example for ‘primacy’ and ‘direct effect’. The Court has characterised the EU treaties as a ‘constitutional charter’ for over twenty years now, and on this basis a modified title could read Treaty Establishing a Constitutional Charter for Europe. Importantly, the term ‘charter’ is recognised

  20. Algal ancestor of land plants was preadapted for symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaux, Pierre-Marc; Radhakrishnan, Guru V; Jayaraman, Dhileepkumar; Cheema, Jitender; Malbreil, Mathilde; Volkening, Jeremy D; Sekimoto, Hiroyuki; Nishiyama, Tomoaki; Melkonian, Michael; Pokorny, Lisa; Rothfels, Carl J; Sederoff, Heike Winter; Stevenson, Dennis W; Surek, Barbara; Zhang, Yong; Sussman, Michael R; Dunand, Christophe; Morris, Richard J; Roux, Christophe; Wong, Gane Ka-Shu; Oldroyd, Giles E D; Ané, Jean-Michel

    2015-10-27

    Colonization of land by plants was a major transition on Earth, but the developmental and genetic innovations required for this transition remain unknown. Physiological studies and the fossil record strongly suggest that the ability of the first land plants to form symbiotic associations with beneficial fungi was one of these critical innovations. In angiosperms, genes required for the perception and transduction of diffusible fungal signals for root colonization and for nutrient exchange have been characterized. However, the origin of these genes and their potential correlation with land colonization remain elusive. A comprehensive phylogenetic analysis of 259 transcriptomes and 10 green algal and basal land plant genomes, coupled with the characterization of the evolutionary path leading to the appearance of a key regulator, a calcium- and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase, showed that the symbiotic signaling pathway predated the first land plants. In contrast, downstream genes required for root colonization and their specific expression pattern probably appeared subsequent to the colonization of land. We conclude that the most recent common ancestor of extant land plants and green algae was preadapted for symbiotic associations. Subsequent improvement of this precursor stage in early land plants through rounds of gene duplication led to the acquisition of additional pathways and the ability to form a fully functional arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis.

  1. Major fungal lineages are derived from lichen symbiotic ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutzoni, F; Pagel, M; Reeb, V

    2001-06-21

    About one-fifth of all known extant fungal species form obligate symbiotic associations with green algae, cyanobacteria or with both photobionts. These symbioses, known as lichens, are one way for fungi to meet their requirement for carbohydrates. Lichens are widely believed to have arisen independently on several occasions, accounting for the high diversity and mixed occurrence of lichenized and non-lichenized (42 and 58%, respectively) fungal species within the Ascomycota. Depending on the taxonomic classification chosen, 15-18 orders of the Ascomycota include lichen-forming taxa, and 8-11 of these orders (representing about 60% of the Ascomycota species) contain both lichenized and non-lichenized species. Here we report a phylogenetic comparative analysis of the Ascomycota, a phylum that includes greater than 98% of known lichenized fungal species. Using a Bayesian phylogenetic tree sampling methodology combined with a statistical model of trait evolution, we take into account uncertainty about the phylogenetic tree and ancestral state reconstructions. Our results show that lichens evolved earlier than believed, and that gains of lichenization have been infrequent during Ascomycota evolution, but have been followed by multiple independent losses of the lichen symbiosis. As a consequence, major Ascomycota lineages of exclusively non-lichen-forming species are derived from lichen-forming ancestors. These species include taxa with important benefits and detriments to humans, such as Penicillium and Aspergillus.

  2. The Cult of Ancestors: A Focal Point for Prayers in African Traditional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Religion Dept

    Christian religion. The Cult of Ancestors in African Communities. For a better understanding of the cult of ancestors in African communities, a brief insight into the concept of death and burial rites is deemed necessary. Death, although a dreaded event, is perceived as the beginning of a person's deeper relationship with.

  3. Interpreting the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, William J., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses constitutional interpretations relating to capital punishment and protection of human dignity. Points out the document's effectiveness in creating a new society by adapting its principles to current problems and needs. Considers two views of the Constitution that lead to controversy over the legitimacy of judicial decisions. (PS)

  4. The Constitution by Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenhut, Stephanie; Jones, Megan

    2010-01-01

    On their visit to the National Archives Experience in Washington, D.C., students in Jenni Ashley and Gay Brock's U.S. history classes at the Potomac School in McLean, Virginia, participated in a pilot program called "The Constitution by Cell." Armed with their cell phones, a basic understanding of the Constitution, and a willingness to…

  5. Population genetics of foxtail millet and its wild ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yongfang

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foxtail millet (Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv., one of the most ancient domesticated crops, is becoming a model system for studying biofuel crops and comparative genomics in the grasses. However, knowledge on the level of genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD is very limited in this crop and its wild ancestor, green foxtail (Setaria viridis (L. P. Beauv.. Such information would help us to understand the domestication process of cultivated species and will allow further research in these species, including association mapping and identification of agricultural significant genes involved in domestication. Results In this study, we surveyed DNA sequence for nine loci across 50 accessions of cultivated foxtail millet and 34 of its wild progenitor. We found a low level of genetic diversity in wild green foxtail (θ = 0.0059, θ means Watterson's estimator of θ. Despite of a 55% loss of its wild diversity, foxtail millet still harbored a considerable level of diversity (θ = 0.0027 when compared to rice and sorghum (θ = 0.0024 and 0.0034, respectively. The level of LD in the domesticated foxtail millet extends to 1 kb, while it decayed rapidly to a negligible level within 150 bp in wild green foxtail. Using coalescent simulation, we estimated the bottleneck severity at k = 0.6095 when ρ/θ = 1. These results indicated that the domestication bottleneck of foxtail millet was more severe than that of maize but slightly less pronounced than that of rice. Conclusions The results in this study establish a general framework for the domestication history of foxtail millet. The low level of genetic diversity and the increased level of LD in foxtail millet are mainly caused by a population bottleneck, although gene flow from foxtail millet to green foxtail is another factor that may have shaped the pattern of genetic diversity of these two related gene pools. The knowledge provided in this study will benefit future population

  6. Newcastle disease virus in Madagascar: identification of an original genotype possibly deriving from a died out ancestor of genotype IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maminiaina, Olivier F; Gil, Patricia; Briand, François-Xavier; Albina, Emmanuel; Keita, Djénéba; Andriamanivo, Harentsoaniaina Rasamoelina; Chevalier, Véronique; Lancelot, Renaud; Martinez, Dominique; Rakotondravao, R; Rajaonarison, Jean-Joseph; Koko, M; Andriantsimahavandy, Abel A; Jestin, Véronique; Servan de Almeida, Renata

    2010-11-15

    In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND) has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed.

  7. Newcastle disease virus in Madagascar: identification of an original genotype possibly deriving from a died out ancestor of genotype IV.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier F Maminiaina

    Full Text Available In Madagascar, Newcastle disease (ND has become enzootic after the first documented epizootics in 1946, with recurrent annual outbreaks causing mortality up to 40%. Four ND viruses recently isolated in Madagascar were genotypically and pathotypically characterised. By phylogenetic inference based on the F and HN genes, and also full-genome sequence analyses, the NDV Malagasy isolates form a cluster distant enough to constitute a new genotype hereby proposed as genotype XI. This new genotype is presumably deriving from an ancestor close to genotype IV introduced in the island probably more than 50 years ago. Our data show also that all the previously described neutralising epitopes are conserved between Malagasy and vaccine strains. However, the potential implication in vaccination failures of specific amino acid substitutions predominantly found on surface-exposed epitopes of F and HN proteins is discussed.

  8. CONSTITUTIONAL FOUNDATIONS OF JURISDICTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Jamal Batista

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available At the current stage of our State of Law there is no way to separate the study of the civil procedural law from the Federal Constitution, especially the jurisdiction, because it is in the Constitution that there are the legitimizing foundations of the jurisdiction institute. In this article, we carry on about the constitutional foundations of jurisdiction, such as: the principle of natural justice, principle of access to justice, principle of impartiality, principle of publicity, principle of motivation and principle of submission to res judicata. The conclusion is, after all, that jurisdiction, as one of the bulwarks of the citizen, finds in the “Citizen Constitution” of 1988 its foundations and decisive bases.

  9. Spatial and temporal arrival patterns of Madagascar's vertebrate fauna explained by distance, ocean currents, and ancestor type

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samonds, Karen E.; Godfrey, Laurie R.; Ali, Jason R.; Goodman, Steven M.; Vences, Miguel; Sutherland, Michael R.; Irwin, Mitchell T.; Krause, David W.

    2012-01-01

    How, when, and from where Madagascar's vertebrates arrived on the island is poorly known, and a comprehensive explanation for the distribution of its organisms has yet to emerge. We begin to break that impasse by analyzing vertebrate arrival patterns implied by currently existing taxa. For each of 81 clades, we compiled arrival date, source, and ancestor type (obligate freshwater, terrestrial, facultative swimmer, or volant). We analyzed changes in arrival rates, with and without adjusting for clade extinction. Probability of successful transoceanic dispersal is negatively correlated with distance traveled and influenced by ocean currents and ancestor type. Obligate rafters show a decrease in probability of successful transoceanic dispersal from the Paleocene onward, reaching the lowest levels after the mid-Miocene. This finding is consistent with a paleoceanographic model [Ali JR, Huber M (2010) Nature 463:653–656] that predicts Early Cenozoic surface currents periodically conducive to rafting or swimming from Africa, followed by a reconfiguration to present-day flow 15–20 million years ago that significantly diminished the ability for transoceanic dispersal to Madagascar from the adjacent mainland. PMID:22431643

  10. Mitochondria, the Cell Cycle, and the Origin of Sex via a Syncytial Eukaryote Common Ancestor

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Sriram G.; Martin, William F.

    2016-01-01

    Theories for the origin of sex traditionally start with an asexual mitosing cell and add recombination, thereby deriving meiosis from mitosis. Though sex was clearly present in the eukaryote common ancestor, the order of events linking the origin of sex and the origin of mitosis is unknown. Here, we present an evolutionary inference for the origin of sex starting with a bacterial ancestor of mitochondria in the cytosol of its archaeal host. We posit that symbiotic association led to the origi...

  11. Emergent Behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, H.A.P.; Everdij, M.H.C.; Bouarfa, S.; Cook, A; Rivas, D

    2016-01-01

    In complexity science a property or behaviour of a system is called emergent if it is not a property or behaviour of the constituting elements of the system, though results from the interactions between its constituting elements. In the socio-technical air transportation system these interactions

  12. The Constitution of Partnering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gottlieb, Stefan Christoffer

    The constitution of partnering. Afhandlingen behandler konstitueringen af ledelseskonceptet partnering og dets anvendelse i dansk byggeri. Partnering er et udbredt koncept i byggeriet som betoner samarbejde, tillid og gensidighed mellem de deltagende parter, og konceptet har de senere år har været...

  13. Sexuality and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelon, Rhonda

    1987-01-01

    Argues for abortion rights and protection of intimate decisions and relationships. Describes the role and position of women in eighteenth century American society as a means of exposing the fallacy of the anti-abortion movement's insistence on adherence to constitutional text. Discusses the recent attempts to overturn the Roe v. Wade ruling. (PS)

  14. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  15. What constitutes information integrity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Flowerday

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This research focused on what constitutes information integrity as this is a problem facing companies today. Moreover, information integrity is a pillar of information security and is required in order to have a sound security management programme. However, it is acknowledged that 100% information integrity is not currently achievable due to various limitations and therefore the auditing concept of reasonable assurance is adopted. This is in line with the concept that 100% information security is not achievable and the notion that adequate security is the goal, using appropriate countermeasures. The main contribution of this article is to illustrate the importance of and provide a macro view of what constitutes information integrity. The findings are in harmony with Samuel Johnson's words (1751: 'Integrity without knowledge is weak and useless, and knowledge without integrity is dangerous and dreadful.'

  16. The constitutional view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Horácio Sá Pereira

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1808-1711.2016v20n2p165   This brief paper is devoted to criticizing the widespread reading of Kant’s first Critique, according to which reference to subject-independent objects is “constituted” by higherorder cognitive abilities (concepts. Let us call this the “constitutional view”. In this paper, I argue that the constitutional reading confuses the un-Kantian problem of how we come to represent objects (which I call the intentionality thesis, with the quite different problem of how we cognize (erkennen (which I call the “cognition thesis” that we do represent objects, that is, things that exist independently of the subject.

  17. The Bicentennial and State Constitutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, Henry

    1988-01-01

    Illustrates how the Bicentennial of the U.S. Constitution provides an opportunity to teach about the broader concept of constitutionalism through study of the state constitutions. Presents an argument for teaching about state constitutions, their role in the federal system, and the values they convey. (LS)

  18. The constitutive sofa cushion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanghøj, Sara

    2009-01-01

    body, space and artefact, thereby revealing the materialization process. Based on results of the analysis, ANT (Actor-Network- Theory) is used in order to discuss how The Danish Folk High School's conception of simplicity as an aesthetic and gendered ideal in the formal education of female handcraft...... personal values materialize through a hand-made everyday artefact, and how can the artefact constitute action and self-perception? The empirical research and analysis concerns how a former textile crafts teacher's subjective values and professional identity materialize through a hand-woven sofa cushion...

  19. Graves, Ancestors and Cement in Land disputes in Acholi and Ikland, Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meinert, Lotte; Willerslev, Rane; Seebach, Sophie Hooge

    2017-01-01

    graves are made concrete and increasingly cemented indices of belonging in wrangles over land. Belonging is often justified through the presence of ancestor graves on land. The cementing of graves turns them into more concrete and durable proofs of ownership, and the reburial of relatives to disputed......The paper explores the roles of graves, ancestors and concrete pillars in disputes over land across different land-systems, -conflicts, and territory making in northern Uganda by comparing extended cases between Acholi in Gulu district and Ik in Kaabong district . In the post-conflict Acholi region...

  20. The "alternative" choice of constitutive exons throughout evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galit Lev-Maor

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Alternative cassette exons are known to originate from two processes-exonization of intronic sequences and exon shuffling. Herein, we suggest an additional mechanism by which constitutively spliced exons become alternative cassette exons during evolution. We compiled a dataset of orthologous exons from human and mouse that are constitutively spliced in one species but alternatively spliced in the other. Examination of these exons suggests that the common ancestors were constitutively spliced. We show that relaxation of the 5' splice site during evolution is one of the molecular mechanisms by which exons shift from constitutive to alternative splicing. This shift is associated with the fixation of exonic splicing regulatory sequences (ESRs that are essential for exon definition and control the inclusion level only after the transition to alternative splicing. The effect of each ESR on splicing and the combinatorial effects between two ESRs are conserved from fish to human. Our results uncover an evolutionary pathway that increases transcriptome diversity by shifting exons from constitutive to alternative splicing.

  1. Constitution, 5 May 1989.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains provisions of Cambodia's Constitution of May 5, 1989. Article 7 gives men and women equal rights in marriage and the family, calls for monogamous marriages, and affords social protection to mothers and children. Article 8 guides parent-child relationships. The 14th article defines state property, and the 15th gives citizens full rights to own, use, and inherit land. The use of agricultural and forested land can only be changed with permission. Article 22 assigns educational responsibilities to the state, including free elementary education and a gradual expansion of higher education. Adult literacy classes are also promoted. Article 26 guarantees free medical consultations, and article 27 gives women a 90-day paid maternity leave. Breast-feeding women are also given special privileges. Article 33 guarantees the right to pay equity and to social security benefits. Article 36 grants the freedom to travel, the inviolability of homes, and privacy in correspondence of all types.

  2. Constitution, 5 October 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    This document contains major provisions of the constitution adopted by Brazil on 5 October 1988. This constitution seeks to promote the welfare of all citizens without discrimination. The equality of all citizens is guaranteed, and the equal rights of women are specifically mentioned. Property rights are also guaranteed and defined. Female inmates are granted the right to remain with their children while breast feeding. Workers are guaranteed a minimum wage, a family allowance for dependents, maternity/paternity leave, specific incentives to protect the labor market for women, retirement benefits, free day care for preschool-age children, pay equity, and equal rights between tenured and sporadically employed workers. Agrarian reform provisions are given, including the authority to expropriate land. Social and economic policies to promote health are called for, and public health services are to be decentralized, to be integrated, and to foster community participation. Pension plan and social assistance provisions are outlined as are duties of the state in regard to education. The amount of money to be dedicated to education is set out, and a national educational plan is called for to achieve such goals as the eradication of illiteracy, the universalization of school attendance, the improvement of instruction, and the provision of vocational training. Specific measures are set out to protect and preserve the environment. Family policy deals with issues of marriage, the definition of a family, divorce, the right to family planning services, and the deterrence of domestic violence. Social protection provisions cover mothers and children, handicapped persons, and protection of minors. Finally, the customs and rights of Indians are protected, with special provisions given to protect land tenure and to protect the rights of Indians in water resource development and prospecting and mining activities.

  3. The backbone of the post-synaptic density originated in a unicellular ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Michaël

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Comparative genomics of the early diverging metazoan lineages and of their unicellular sister-groups opens new window to reconstructing the genetic changes which preceded or accompanied the evolution of multicellular body plans. A recent analysis found that the genome of the nerve-less sponges encodes the homologues of most vertebrate post-synaptic proteins. In vertebrate excitatory synapses, these proteins assemble to form the post-synaptic density, a complex molecular platform linking membrane receptors, components of their signalling pathways, and the cytoskeleton. Newly available genomes from Monosiga brevicollis (a member of Choanoflagellata, the closest unicellular relatives of animals and Trichoplax adhaerens (a member of Placozoa: besides sponges, the only nerve-less metazoans offer an opportunity to refine our understanding of post-synaptic protein evolution. Results Searches for orthologous proteins and reconstruction of gene gains/losses based on the taxon phylogeny indicate that post-synaptic proteins originated in two main steps. The backbone scaffold proteins (Shank, Homer, DLG and some of their partners were acquired in a unicellular ancestor of choanoflagellates and metazoans. A substantial additional set appeared in an exclusive ancestor of the Metazoa. The placozoan genome contains most post-synaptic genes but lacks some of them. Notably, the master-scaffold protein Shank might have been lost secondarily in the placozoan lineage. Conclusions The time of origination of most post-synaptic proteins was not concomitant with the acquisition of synapses or neural-like cells. The backbone of the scaffold emerged in a unicellular context and was probably not involved in cell-cell communication. Based on the reconstructed protein composition and potential interactions, its ancestral function could have been to link calcium signalling and cytoskeleton regulation. The complex later became integrated into the evolving

  4. Constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    The Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) provides a common repository for constitutive models that can be used in computational solid mechanics codes. A number of models including both hypoelastic (rate) and hyperelastic (total strain) constitutive forms have been implemented in LAME. The structure and testing of LAME is described in Scherzinger and Hammerand ([3] and [4]). The purpose of the present report is to describe the material models which have already been implemented into LAME. The descriptions are designed to give useful information to both analysts and code developers. Thus far, 33 non-ITAR/non-CRADA protected material models have been incorporated. These include everything from the simple isotropic linear elastic models to a number of elastic-plastic models for metals to models for honeycomb, foams, potting epoxies and rubber. A complete description of each model is outside the scope of the current report. Rather, the aim here is to delineate the properties, state variables, functions, and methods for each model. However, a brief description of some of the constitutive details is provided for a number of the material models. Where appropriate, the SAND reports available for each model have been cited. Many models have state variable aliases for some or all of their state variables. These alias names can be used for outputting desired quantities. The state variable aliases available for results output have been listed in this report. However, not all models use these aliases. For those models, no state variable names are listed. Nevertheless, the number of state variables employed by each model is always given. Currently, there are four possible functions for a material model. This report lists which of these four methods are employed in each material model. As far as analysts are concerned, this information is included only for the awareness purposes. The analyst can take confidence in the fact that model has been properly implemented

  5. Evidence for a single loss of mineralized teeth in the common avian ancestor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meredith, Robert W.; Zhang, Guojie; Gilbert, M. Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    analyses representing lineages of nearly all extant bird orders and recovered shared, inactivating mutations within genes expressed in both the enamel and dentin of teeth of other vertebrate species, indicating that the common ancestor of modern birds lacked mineralized teeth.We estimate that tooth loss...

  6. Re-imagining family and gender roles in Aminatta Forna's Ancestor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the interplay between polygyny and gender by exploring the way in which family structure and gender roles are negotiated, imagined and exercised in fiction. Aminatta Forna's Ancestor Stones (2006) is read in order to explore how the institution of polygyny changes over time and how it influences ...

  7. Effect of reference population size and available ancestor genotypes on imputation of Mexican Holstein genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of reference population size and the availability of information from genotyped ancestors on the accuracy of imputation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were investigated for Mexican Holstein cattle. Three scenarios for reference population size were examined: (1) a local popula...

  8. VALUATION IN THE CONSTITUTIONAL ERA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Brimer

    16 ..... stem from the pre-constitutional era, and the constitutional framework and its legitimate reform efforts. A decision on what is just ...... Carroll L Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (Digital Scanning Scituate MA. 2007). Dagan 1999 Va L Rev.

  9. State provision of constitutional goods

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa , Romain

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This paper investigates the impact of constitutional rights on the level of public expenditure in a large sample of countries. To do so, we construct a panel of 73 countries from 1960 to 2011. We first investigate factors that drive constitutional changes regarding constitutional rights. To address potential endogeneity concerns in the choice of constitutional rules, we rely on an instrumental variable within estimation (country and time fixed effects) to estimate the ...

  10. Start Of The French Constitutionalism: Constitution Of 1791

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey V. Bochkarev

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present article author analyzes questions of French constitutionalism origin. Author notes that in France, over the past two centuries, a state of law, which is based on the principles of popular sovereignty has been formed; observance of human rights and freedoms by the state; parliamentary democracy; supremacy of constitution in relation to all other laws and regulations; separation of powers and institute of authorities responsibility as an organizational framework for the legal state; independence of the judiciary; compliance with commitments taken by the State during international relations. These principles were laid down in the constitutional history of the country. In the present article an attempt to explore the beginning of the French constitutionalism through the prism of the Constitution of 1791 was made. Author makes concludes that in the Constitution of 1791 the fundamental principles of constitutional law were laid, some of which are reflected in the Constitution of the Fifth Republic in France and continue to operate. Constitution of the Fifth Republic proclaimed commitment to "human rights and principles of national sovereignty as defined by the Declaration of 1789, confirmed and complemented by the Preamble to the Constitution of 1946, and despite many disputes, Constitutional Council reaffirmed inviolability of the equality before the law principle, which exists in the Declaration.

  11. The evolutionary history of protein fold families and proteomes confirms that the archaeal ancestor is more ancient than the ancestors of other superkingdoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung Mo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The entire evolutionary history of life can be studied using myriad sequences generated by genomic research. This includes the appearance of the first cells and of superkingdoms Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukarya. However, the use of molecular sequence information for deep phylogenetic analyses is limited by mutational saturation, differential evolutionary rates, lack of sequence site independence, and other biological and technical constraints. In contrast, protein structures are evolutionary modules that are highly conserved and diverse enough to enable deep historical exploration. Results Here we build phylogenies that describe the evolution of proteins and proteomes. These phylogenetic trees are derived from a genomic census of protein domains defined at the fold family (FF level of structural classification. Phylogenomic trees of FF structures were reconstructed from genomic abundance levels of 2,397 FFs in 420 proteomes of free-living organisms. These trees defined timelines of domain appearance, with time spanning from the origin of proteins to the present. Timelines are divided into five different evolutionary phases according to patterns of sharing of FFs among superkingdoms: (1 a primordial protein world, (2 reductive evolution and the rise of Archaea, (3 the rise of Bacteria from the common ancestor of Bacteria and Eukarya and early development of the three superkingdoms, (4 the rise of Eukarya and widespread organismal diversification, and (5 eukaryal diversification. The relative ancestry of the FFs shows that reductive evolution by domain loss is dominant in the first three phases and is responsible for both the diversification of life from a universal cellular ancestor and the appearance of superkingdoms. On the other hand, domain gains are predominant in the last two phases and are responsible for organismal diversification, especially in Bacteria and Eukarya. Conclusions The evolution of functions that are

  12. Ontoteleological Constitution of Entrepreneurship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Luiz Teixeira Boava

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship is a pluri-disciplinary phenomenon, object of research in several areas of knowledge. However, studies on this theme present approaches that start to consider entrepreneurship as a field of private knowledge in the phase of epistemological construction. In this context, the aim of this investigation is to contribute to the discussions on the theme, through studies on the ontoteleological constitution of entrepreneurship, in propaedeutic character, deflagrating new approaches. Thus, there is a presentation concerning the study of entrepreneurship, which may emphasize its ontical and ontological aspects. In addition, the reason why it is complex to define entrepreneurship is investigated. Subjects regarding the philosophy of entrepreneurship are introduced, seeking to present the bases for an ontoteleological approach to the phenomenon. Such an approach assumes that the finality of the entrepreneurial act relates to the main principles and transformations required into the organization. Finally, it is concluded that man is an entrepreneurial being, the meta-entrepreneur, and his entrepreneurial actions are not determined by external factors, but rather by the condition of his potentiality.

  13. Sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges (Porifera): an ancestor cell-cell adhesion event based on the carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilanova, Eduardo; Coutinho, Cristiano C; Mourão, Paulo A S

    2009-08-01

    Marine sponges (Porifera) are ancient and simple eumetazoans. They constitute key organisms in the evolution from unicellular to multicellular animals. We now demonstrated that pure sulfated polysaccharides from marine sponges are responsible for the species-specific cell-cell interaction in these invertebrates. This conclusion was based on the following observations: (1) each species of marine sponge has a single population of sulfated polysaccharide, which differ among the species in their sugar composition and sulfate content; (2) sulfated polysaccharides from sponge interact with each other in a species-specific way, as indicated by an affinity chromatography assay, and this interaction requires calcium; (3) homologous, but not heterologous, sulfated polysaccharide inhibits aggregation of dissociated sponge cells; (4) we also observed a parallel between synthesis of the sulfated polysaccharide and formation of large aggregates of sponge cells, known as primmorphs. Once aggregation reached a plateau, the demand for the de novo synthesis of sulfated polysaccharides ceased. Heparin can mimic the homologous sulfated polysaccharide on the in vitro interaction and also as an inhibitor of aggregation of the dissociated sponge cells. However, this observation is not relevant for the biology of the sponge since heparin is not found in the invertebrate. In conclusion, marine sponges display an ancestor event of cell-cell adhesion, based on the calcium-dependent carbohydrate-carbohydrate interaction.

  14. The proteomic complexity and rise of the primordial ancestor of diversified life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Kyung

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The last universal common ancestor represents the primordial cellular organism from which diversified life was derived. This urancestor accumulated genetic information before the rise of organismal lineages and is considered to be either a simple 'progenote' organism with a rudimentary translational apparatus or a more complex 'cenancestor' with almost all essential biological processes. Recent comparative genomic studies support the latter model and propose that the urancestor was similar to modern organisms in terms of gene content. However, most of these studies were based on molecular sequences, which are fast evolving and of limited value for deep evolutionary explorations. Results Here we engage in a phylogenomic study of protein domain structure in the proteomes of 420 free-living fully sequenced organisms. Domains were defined at the highly conserved fold superfamily (FSF level of structural classification and an iterative phylogenomic approach was used to reconstruct max_set and min_set FSF repertoires as upper and lower bounds of the urancestral proteome. While the functional make up of the urancestral sets was complex, they represent only 5-11% of the 1,420 FSFs of extant proteomes and their make up and reuse was at least 5 and 3 times smaller than proteomes of free-living organisms, repectively. Trees of proteomes reconstructed directly from FSFs or from molecular functions, which included the max_set and min_set as articial taxa, showed that urancestors were always placed at their base and rooted the tree of life in Archaea. Finally, a molecular clock of FSFs suggests the min_set reflects urancestral genetic make up more reliably and confirms diversified life emerged about 2.9 billion years ago during the start of planet oxygenation. Conclusions The minimum urancestral FSF set reveals the urancestor had advanced metabolic capabilities, was especially rich in nucleotide metabolism enzymes, had pathways for the

  15. The diffusion of constitutional rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goderis, B.V.G.; Versteeg, M.

    Constitutions are commonly regarded as uniquely national products, shaped by domestic ideals and politics. This paper develops and empirically investigates a novel hypothesis, which is that constitutions are also shaped by transnational influence, or “diffusion.” Constitutional rights can diffuse

  16. Constitution, 1989. [Selected provisions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    Chapter XII of the Hungarian Constitution, 1989, details the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Citizens. Everyone lawfully within the territory of Hungary has the right to liberty of movement and the freedom to choose his or her residence, except when restricted by law, including the right to leave his or her residence or county. The Republic of Hungary grants asylum to foreign citizens who were persecuted for racial, religious ethnic, linguistic, or political reasons. Men and women shall equally enjoy all civil, political, economic, social and political rights. Mothers are entitled to special care and protection before and after childbirth; women and juveniles are protected at work by special regulations. Every child has the right to special care an assistance from his or her family, the State, and society, for appropriate physical, spiritual, and moral development. Parents shall decide the kind of education their children receive. Hungary grants equal rights to all person within its territories, without regard to race, color, sex, language, religion, political, or other opinion, national, and social origin, property, birth and other status. Prejudicial discrimination shall be severely punished. Everyone has the right to work, to the free choice of employment and profession and to equal pay for equal work. Citizens have the right to social security, including social services necessary in old age, sickness, disability, widowhood, orphanhood an unemployment through no fault of their own. Hungary guarantees the right to culture for its citizens and realized this right by free and compulsory elementary education, by secondary and higher education which is accessible to all on the basis of capacity, and by the financial support of those receiving an education.

  17. Dilemmas on the European Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zvonko Posavec

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the author discusses the dilemmas associated with the role of the European Constitution in the further development of the Union. Analysing the implications of the rejection of the European Constitution by the referenda in France and the Netherlands, the author sets forth arguments why such decisions should be neither overrated nor underrated. Aiming to broaden the basis for understanding the European constitutional crisis, the author further discusses the categories of state, constitution and nation. Scrutiny into these categories, he argues, is a crucial prerequisite for understanding the sources of dilemmas regarding the European Constitution and for further development of the EU political system

  18. Constitutionalism without Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    There has been a lot of attention in recent years about improving the quality of legal systems in overseas jurisdictions. This is reflected in the growing proportion of rule of law components in development assistance and, especially, in post-conflict stabilisation missions. External actors...... endeavour to strengthen the role of international legal standards in the courts and, more broadly, the political life of societies emerging from violent conflict. Virtually all stabilisation missions contain today important rule of law components, a shift in emphasis that is mirrored in bilateral financial...... assistance. The international engagement in Afghanistan since December 2001 has been no exception, having placed a heavy emphasis on introducing international legal norms into the Afghan legal and political system....

  19. Constitutional judges (guarantee of the Constitution and responsibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Ansuátegui Roig

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to propose a reflection on the position and the importance that the constitutional judge has in the legal systems of contemporary constitutionalism. The figure of the judge responsible of protecting the Constitution is a key institution, without which we cannot understand the laws of constitutional democracies, their current lines of development, and the guarantee of rights and freedoms that constitute the normative core of these systems. Moreover, the reflection on the exercise of the powers of the judge, its scope and its justification is an important part of contemporary legal discussion, still relevant, albeit not exclusively - in the field of legal philosophy. The object of attention of my reflection is the judge who has the power of judicial review, in a scheme of defense of the Constitution, regardless the specific ways of this defense.

  20. Is Ancestor veneration the most universal of all world religions? A critique of modernist cosmological bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Reuter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Research by anthropologists engaged with the Comparative Austronesia Project (Australian National University has amassed an enormous data set for ethnological comparison between the religions of Austronesian-speaking societies, a language group to which nearly all Indonesian societies also belong. Comparative analysis reveals that ancestor veneration is a key-shared feature among “Austronesian” religious cosmologies; a feature that also resonates strongly with the ancestor-focused religions characteristic of East Asia. Characteristically, the religions of Austronesian-speaking societies focus on the core idea of a sacred time and place of ancestral origin and the continuous flow of life that is issuing forth from this source. Present-day individuals connect with the place and time of origin though ritual acts of retracing a historical path of migration to its source. What can this seemingly exotic notion of a flow of life reveal about the human condition writ large? Is it merely a curiosity of the ethnographic record of this region, a traditional religious insight forgotten even by many of the people whose traditional religion this is, but who have come under the influence of so-called world religions? Or is there something of great importance to be learnt from the Austronesian approach to life? Such questions have remained unasked until now, I argue, because a systematic cosmological bias within western thought has largely prevented us from taking Ancestor Religion and other forms of “traditional knowledge” seriously as an alternative truth claim. While I have discussed elsewhere the significance of Ancestor Religion in reference to my own research in highland Bali, I will attempt in this paper to remove this bias by its roots. I do so by contrasting two modes of thought: the “incremental dualism” of precedence characteristic of Austronesian cultures and their Ancestor Religions, and the “transcendental dualism” of mind and

  1. The Spanish Constitution, the Constitutional Court and the Catalan Referendum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    This chapter deals with a core topic in constitutional law, that of the conflict between constitutions and will of the demos. Aristotle in Book IV of the Politics had already anticipated the possible conflict between these two forms of Politeia (constitutions), when defining the types of democracy...... and politeia that Aristotle defined now clashes between two powerful symbolic and romantic phenomena. In the Spanish-Catalan binomial scenario, there are some elements that need to be analysed to obtain a complete picture of the constitutional possibilities to of accommodating a Catalan self...

  2. Essential Medicines in National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toebes, Brigit; Hogerzeil, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A constitutional guarantee of access to essential medicines has been identified as an important indicator of government commitment to the progressive realization of the right to the highest attainable standard of health. The objective of this study was to evaluate provisions on access to essential medicines in national constitutions, to identify comprehensive examples of constitutional text on medicines that can be used as a model for other countries, and to evaluate the evolution of constitutional medicines-related rights since 2008. Relevant articles were selected from an inventory of constitutional texts from WHO member states. References to states’ legal obligations under international human rights law were evaluated. Twenty-two constitutions worldwide now oblige governments to protect and/or to fulfill accessibility of, availability of, and/or quality of medicines. Since 2008, state responsibilities to fulfill access to essential medicines have expanded in five constitutions, been maintained in four constitutions, and have regressed in one constitution. Government commitments to essential medicines are an important foundation of health system equity and are included increasingly in state constitutions. PMID:27781006

  3. Emergent emotion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connell, Elaine Finbarr

    2016-01-01

    I argue that emotion is an ontologically emergent and sui generis. I argue that emotion meets both of two individually necessary and jointly sufficient conditions for ontological emergence. These are, (i) that emotion necessarily has constituent parts to which it cannot be reduced, and (ii) that emotion has a causal effect on its constituent parts (i.e. emotion demonstrates downward causation).\\ud \\ud I argue that emotion is partly cognitive, partly constituted by feelings and partly perceptu...

  4. AHP 35: Review: RE-CONSTRUCTED ANCESTORS AND THE LAHU MINORITY IN SOUTHWEST CHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Shanshan

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Written in Chinese, Re-Constructed Ancestors: The Mobilization of Ethnic Groups in [China's] Southwest Frontier and the Construction of Lahu History, consists of an Introduction, Conclusion, and five chapters. Following a critical review of the literature, in the Introduction, Ma presents his groundbreaking analytical framework and methodologies concerning the ethno-history of southwest China, and the history of the Lahu in particular. ...

  5. RNase MRP and the RNA processing cascade in the eukaryotic ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodhams, Michael D; Stadler, Peter F; Penny, David; Collins, Lesley J

    2007-02-08

    Within eukaryotes there is a complex cascade of RNA-based macromolecules that process other RNA molecules, especially mRNA, tRNA and rRNA. An example is RNase MRP processing ribosomal RNA (rRNA) in ribosome biogenesis. One hypothesis is that this complexity was present early in eukaryotic evolution; an alternative is that an initial simpler network later gained complexity by gene duplication in lineages that led to animals, fungi and plants. Recently there has been a rapid increase in support for the complexity-early theory because the vast majority of these RNA-processing reactions are found throughout eukaryotes, and thus were likely to be present in the last common ancestor of living eukaryotes, herein called the Eukaryotic Ancestor. We present an overview of the RNA processing cascade in the Eukaryotic Ancestor and investigate in particular, RNase MRP which was previously thought to have evolved later in eukaryotes due to its apparent limited distribution in fungi and animals and plants. Recent publications, as well as our own genomic searches, find previously unknown RNase MRP RNAs, indicating that RNase MRP has a wide distribution in eukaryotes. Combining secondary structure and promoter region analysis of RNAs for RNase MRP, along with analysis of the target substrate (rRNA), allows us to discuss this distribution in the light of eukaryotic evolution. We conclude that RNase MRP can now be placed in the RNA-processing cascade of the Eukaryotic Ancestor, highlighting the complexity of RNA-processing in early eukaryotes. Promoter analyses of MRP-RNA suggest that regulation of the critical processes of rRNA cleavage can vary, showing that even these key cellular processes (for which we expect high conservation) show some species-specific variability. We present our consensus MRP-RNA secondary structure as a useful model for further searches.

  6. Constitutional Issues--Watergate and the Constitution. Teaching with Documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    When U.S. President Richard Nixon resigned in 1974 in the wake of the Watergate scandal, it was only the second time that impeachment of a president had been considered. Although the U.S. Constitution has provisions for a person removed from office to be indicted, there are no guidelines in the Constitution about a President who has resigned. The…

  7. Constitutions compared : An introduction to comparative constitutional law

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heringa, Aalt Willem

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a user-friendly introduction to comparative constitutional law. For each area of constitutional law, a general introduction and a comparative overview is provided, which is then followed by more detailed country chapters on that specific area. The subjects covered are the origins

  8. Heterokont predator Develorapax marinus gen. et sp. nov. – a model of the ochrophyte ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir V. Aleoshin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heterotrophic lineages of Heterokonta (or stramenopiles, in contrast to a single monophyletic group of autotrophs, Ochrophyta, form several clades that independently branch off the heterokont stem lineage. The nearest neighbors of Ochrophyta in the phylogenetic tree appear to be almost exclusively bacterivorous, whereas the hypothesis of plastid acquisition by the ancestors of the ochrophyte lineage suggests an ability to engulf eukaryotic alga. In line with this hypothesis, the heteretrophic predator at the base of the ochrophyte lineage may be regarded as a model for the ochrophyte ancestor. Here we present a new genus and species of marine free-living heterotrophic heterokont Develorapax marinus, which falls into an isolated heterokont cluster, along with the marine flagellate Developayella elegans, and is able to engulf eukaryotic cells. Together with environmental sequences D. marinus and D. elegans form a class-level clade Developea nom. nov. represented by species adapted to different environmental conditions and with a wide geographical distribution. The position of Developea among Heterokonta in large-scale phylogenetic tree is discussed. We propose that members of the Developea clade represent a model for transition from bacterivory to a predatory feeding mode by selection for larger prey. Presumably, such transition in the grazing strategy is possible in the presence of bacterial biofilms, and has likely occured in the ochrophyte ancestor.

  9. A complex cell division machinery was present in the last common ancestor of eukaryotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Eme

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The midbody is a transient complex structure containing proteins involved in cytokinesis. Up to now, it has been described only in Metazoa. Other eukaryotes present a variety of structures implied in the last steps of cell division, such as the septum in fungi or the phragmoplast in plants. However, it is unclear whether these structures are homologous (derive from a common ancestral structure or analogous (have distinct evolutionary origins. Recently, the proteome of the hamster midbody has been characterized and 160 proteins identified. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using phylogenomic approaches, we show here that nearly all of these 160 proteins (95% are conserved across metazoan lineages. More surprisingly, we show that a large part of the mammalian midbody components (91 proteins were already present in the last common ancestor of all eukaryotes (LECA and were most likely involved in the construction of a complex multi-protein assemblage acting in cell division. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results indicate that the midbodies of non-mammalian metazoa are likely very similar to the mammalian one and that the ancestor of Metazoa possessed a nearly modern midbody. Moreover, our analyses support the hypothesis that the midbody and the structures involved in cytokinesis in other eukaryotes derive from a large and complex structure present in LECA, likely involved in cytokinesis. This is an additional argument in favour of the idea of a complex ancestor for all contemporary eukaryotes.

  10. Vacuum fluctuations in an ancestor vacuum: A possible dark energy candidate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aoki, Hajime; Iso, Satoshi; Lee, Da-Shin; Sekino, Yasuhiro; Yeh, Chen-Pin

    2018-02-01

    We consider an open universe created by bubble nucleation, and study possible effects of our "ancestor vacuum," a de Sitter space in which bubble nucleation occurred, on the present universe. We compute vacuum expectation values of the energy-momentum tensor for a minimally coupled scalar field, carefully taking into account the effect of the ancestor vacuum by the Euclidean prescription. We pay particular attention to the so-called supercurvature mode, a non-normalizable mode on a spatial slice of the open universe, which has been known to exist for sufficiently light fields. This mode decays in time most slowly, and may leave residual effects of the ancestor vacuum, potentially observable in the present universe. We point out that the vacuum energy of the quantum field can be regarded as dark energy if mass of the field is of order the present Hubble parameter or smaller. We obtain preliminary results for the dark energy equation of state w (z ) as a function of the redshift.

  11. La Constitution économique parmi les Constitutions européennes

    OpenAIRE

    Kaarlo Tuori

    2011-01-01

    In the European context, the place of the revolutionary notions of constitutive power, demos and constitutional moment is occupied by the evolutionary concept of constitutionalisation. Economic constitution is merely one aspect in multi-dimensional European constitution (alisation). My tentative proposal is to distinguish between the following dimensions of constitution : economic constitution ; juridical constitution ; political constitution ; social constitution ; and security constitution....

  12. National constitutional courts in the European Constitutional Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Komárek, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This article critically assesses the transformation of national constitutional courts’ place in the law and politics of the EU and its member states. This process eliminates the difference between constitutional and ordinary national courts, which is crucial for the institutional implementation...... the EU and its member states, understood together as the European Constitutional Democracy—the central notion developed in this article in order to support an argument that should speak to both EU lawyers and national constitutionalists....... of the discourse theory of law and democracy. It also disrupts the symbiotic relationship between national constitutional democracies established after World War II and European integration. The article argues that maintaining the special place of national constitutional courts is in the vital interest of both...

  13. Mitochondria, the Cell Cycle, and the Origin of Sex via a Syncytial Eukaryote Common Ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Sriram G; Martin, William F

    2016-07-02

    Theories for the origin of sex traditionally start with an asexual mitosing cell and add recombination, thereby deriving meiosis from mitosis. Though sex was clearly present in the eukaryote common ancestor, the order of events linking the origin of sex and the origin of mitosis is unknown. Here, we present an evolutionary inference for the origin of sex starting with a bacterial ancestor of mitochondria in the cytosol of its archaeal host. We posit that symbiotic association led to the origin of mitochondria and gene transfer to host's genome, generating a nucleus and a dedicated translational compartment, the eukaryotic cytosol, in which-by virtue of mitochondria-metabolic energy was not limiting. Spontaneous protein aggregation (monomer polymerization) and Adenosine Tri-phosphate (ATP)-dependent macromolecular movement in the cytosol thereby became selectable, giving rise to continuous microtubule-dependent chromosome separation (reduction division). We propose that eukaryotic chromosome division arose in a filamentous, syncytial, multinucleated ancestor, in which nuclei with insufficient chromosome numbers could complement each other through mRNA in the cytosol and generate new chromosome combinations through karyogamy. A syncytial (or coenocytic, a synonym) eukaryote ancestor, or Coeca, would account for the observation that the process of eukaryotic chromosome separation is more conserved than the process of eukaryotic cell division. The first progeny of such a syncytial ancestor were likely equivalent to meiospores, released into the environment by the host's vesicle secretion machinery. The natural ability of archaea (the host) to fuse and recombine brought forth reciprocal recombination among fusing (syngamy and karyogamy) progeny-sex-in an ancestrally meiotic cell cycle, from which the simpler haploid and diploid mitotic cell cycles arose. The origin of eukaryotes was the origin of vertical lineage inheritance, and sex was required to keep vertically

  14. The Constitution and American Radicalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobel, Jules

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the history of the following movements' attitudes towards the Constitution: (1) abolition; (2) feminism; (3) trade unions; (4) socialism and communism; and (5) civil rights and anti-war. Maintains that the tensions in these movements' towards the Constitution represent basic contradictions in the document itself. (PS)

  15. The Constitution and Its Critics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Main, Thomas J.

    2011-01-01

    In planning a freshman undergraduate curriculum with colleagues recently, the question arose as to what type of understanding educators wanted to impart to their students about the Constitution. The alleged defects of the Constitution that these books point to are wide-ranging and can be classified into various categories. Some problems--such as…

  16. Constitutive Effects of Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahler-Larsen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    that are demonstrably problematic. Based on a distinction between trivial and advanced measure fixation, an argument is made for constitutive effects that are based on less problematic assumptions. Through this conceptual move, the political dimension of performance indicators is appreciated. The conceptual dimensions...... of constitutive effects are carved out, empirical illustrations of their applicability are offered and implications discussed....

  17. Constitutive rules, language, and ontology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hindriks, Frank

    It is a commonplace within philosophy that the ontology of institutions can be captured in terms of constitutive rules. What exactly such rules are, however, is not well understood. They are usually contrasted to regulative rules: constitutive rules (such as the rules of chess) make institutional

  18. Formal Comment to Pettengill: The Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor Does Not (Usually Approximate the Date of Divergence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Achtman

    Full Text Available In 2013 Zhou et al. concluded that Salmonella enterica serovar Agona represents a genetically monomorphic lineage of recent ancestry, whose most recent common ancestor existed in 1932, or earlier. The Abstract stated 'Agona consists of three lineages with minimal mutational diversity: only 846 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs have accumulated in the non-repetitive, core genome since Agona evolved in 1932 and subsequently underwent a major population expansion in the 1960s.' These conclusions have now been criticized by Pettengill, who claims that the evolutionary models used to date Agona may not have been appropriate, the dating estimates were inaccurate, and the age of emergence of Agona should have been qualified by an upper limit reflecting the date of its divergence from an outgroup, serovar Soerenga. We dispute these claims. Firstly, Pettengill's analysis of Agona is not justifiable on technical grounds. Secondly, an upper limit for divergence from an outgroup would only be meaningful if the outgroup were closely related to Agona, but close relatives of Agona are yet to be identified. Thirdly, it is not possible to reliably date the time of divergence between Agona and Soerenga. We conclude that Pettengill's criticism is comparable to a tempest in a teapot.

  19. Formal Comment to Pettengill: The Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor Does Not (Usually) Approximate the Date of Divergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtman, Mark; Zhou, Zhemin; Didelot, Xavier

    2015-01-01

    In 2013 Zhou et al. concluded that Salmonella enterica serovar Agona represents a genetically monomorphic lineage of recent ancestry, whose most recent common ancestor existed in 1932, or earlier. The Abstract stated 'Agona consists of three lineages with minimal mutational diversity: only 846 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have accumulated in the non-repetitive, core genome since Agona evolved in 1932 and subsequently underwent a major population expansion in the 1960s.' These conclusions have now been criticized by Pettengill, who claims that the evolutionary models used to date Agona may not have been appropriate, the dating estimates were inaccurate, and the age of emergence of Agona should have been qualified by an upper limit reflecting the date of its divergence from an outgroup, serovar Soerenga. We dispute these claims. Firstly, Pettengill's analysis of Agona is not justifiable on technical grounds. Secondly, an upper limit for divergence from an outgroup would only be meaningful if the outgroup were closely related to Agona, but close relatives of Agona are yet to be identified. Thirdly, it is not possible to reliably date the time of divergence between Agona and Soerenga. We conclude that Pettengill's criticism is comparable to a tempest in a teapot.

  20. Legal theology in imposed constitutionalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2018-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the question of legitimacy, and how can we consider legitimate an imposed constitution and the subsequent constitutional principles, practices and values that go hand-in-hand with the legal and political acculturation. Constitutional texts around the world are good...... examples of transposition and complicity of theological and juridical thoughts. For the purpose of this paper, imposed constitutions are political and legal norms of a state enacted and enforced without the free and full agreement of the Demos. Legal theology implies the application of religious phenomena......, theories and concepts to achieve undisputed legal legitimacy. Imposed constitutions as rules imposed for salvation for those “Platonic Philosophes” who have seen the “light”, that known the episteme are paramount examples of legal and political theology. The paper has two main sections. The first one...

  1. SARS-Coronavirus ancestor's foot-prints in South-East Asian bat colonies and the refuge theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouilh, Meriadeg Ar; Puechmaille, Sébastien J; Gonzalez, Jean-Paul; Teeling, Emma; Kittayapong, Pattamaporn; Manuguerra, Jean-Claude

    2011-10-01

    phylogeny and the host/pathogen ecological interactions in the description and the understanding of pathogen emergence. The host's phylogeny, biogeography and behaviour, combined with already described roles of pathogen plasticity and anthropic changes are likely to be co-factors of disease emergence. Elucidating the common ancestor of Hipposideridae and Rhinolophidae is key to understanding the evolutionary history of actual betacoronaviruses and therefore to get an insight of the deep origin of SARS-CoV. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparing salt tolerance of beet cultivars and their halophytic ancestor: consequences of domestication and breeding programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Jelte; Cornelisse, Danny; Zhang, Yuancheng; Li, Hongxiu; Bruning, Bas; Katschnig, Diana; Broekman, Rob; Ji, Bin; van Bodegom, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Salt tolerance of higher plants is determined by a complex set of traits, the timing and rate of evolution of which are largely unknown. We compared the salt tolerance of cultivars of sugar beet and their ancestor, sea beet, in hydroponic studies and evaluated whether traditional domestication and more recent breeding have changed salt tolerance of the cultivars relative to their ancestor. Our comparison of salt tolerance of crop cultivars is based on values of the relative growth rate (RGR) of the entire plant at various salinity levels. We found considerable salt tolerance of the sea beet and slightly, but significantly, reduced salt tolerance of the sugar beet cultivars. This indicates that traditional domestication by selection for morphological traits such as leaf size, beet shape and size, enhanced productivity, sugar content and palatability slightly affected salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars. Salt tolerance among four sugar beet cultivars, three of which have been claimed to be salt tolerant, did not differ. We analysed the components of RGR to understand the mechanism of salt tolerance at the whole-plant level. The growth rate reduction at higher salinity was linked with reduced leaf area at the whole-plant level (leaf area ratio) and at the individual leaf level (specific leaf area). The leaf weight fraction was not affected by increased salinity. On the other hand, succulence and leaf thickness and the net assimilation per unit of leaf area (unit leaf rate) increased in response to salt treatment, thus partially counteracting reduced capture of light by lower leaf area. This compensatory mechanism may form part of the salt tolerance mechanism of sea beet and the four studied sugar beet cultivars. Together, our results indicate that domestication of the halophytic ancestor sea beet slightly reduced salt tolerance and that breeding for improved salt tolerance of sugar beet cultivars has not been effective. PMID:25492122

  3. The Constitution's Prescription for Freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peach, Lucinda

    1986-01-01

    Examines how the framers of the Constitution came to choose our system of government, how that system was designed to function, and how the separation of powers has served to maintain our democracy despite attempts to violate it. (JDH)

  4. Constitutive Modelling in Geomechanics Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Puzrin, Alexander M

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to bridge the gap between the traditional Geomechanics and Numerical Geotechnical Modelling with applications in science and practice. Geomechanics is rarely taught within the rigorous context of Continuum Mechanics and Thermodynamics, while when it comes to Numerical Modelling, commercially available finite elements or finite differences software utilize constitutive relationships within the rigorous framework. As a result, young scientists and engineers have to learn the challenging subject of constitutive modelling from a program manual and often end up with using unrealistic models which violate the Laws of Thermodynamics.  The book is introductory, by no means does it claim any completeness and state of the art in such a dynamically developing field as numerical and constitutive modelling of soils. The author gives basic understanding of conventional continuum mechanics approaches to constitutive modelling, which can serve as a foundation for exploring more advanced theories....

  5. A survey on constitutional justice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kheirollah Parvin

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea of supervising the conformity of statutory law with constitutional law, is due to necessities rooted in two essential principles: the supremacy of constitution and the hierarchy of the law. Constitution as the supreme law in the sense of status and legal value , is placed at the top of the legal pyramid of every political system and therefore requires a special organization and discipline that will act as the sanction of the principles and the main content incorporated in this legal instrument. this special organization and discipline known as Constitutional justice in legal Literature now and have studing in two main patterns. Firs pattern based on Supervision of courts on rules and other pattern is Apply by Emphasis on role of Political Institutions in Supervision on rules. This two patterns have common purpose but have different backgrounds and methods.

  6. Cleanup liability and the Constitution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, D.M.; Hagen, P.E.

    1992-01-01

    It was observed in the July 1992 issue of this Journal that a plain reading of the Constitution's prohibition on open-quotes ex post factoclose quotes suggests that some environmental statutes such as the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA or Superfund) and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) conflict with Constitutional principles. Like many Constitutional principles, however, the Supreme Court's interpretation of the Constitution's bar on ex post facto laws has a long history. The Court has consistently interpreted this clause as limited to criminal or penal statutes. This article discusses the history of the ex post facto clause, the retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA, the decision that retroactive application of CERCLA and RCRA does not violate the ex post facto clause, and laws, regulations, and guidance. 27 refs

  7. CONSTITUTIONALISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Mao Zedong's statement seems to hold true in the contemporary world as well. In democratic countries, it is the democratically elected officials who are allowed to govern or control the military, although technical affairs are left to the military personnel. Instead, if full autonomy or sovereignty is granted to the military leaders,.

  8. Constitutional Verbosity and Social Trust

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian; Voigt, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    A common argument in the trust literature is that high-trust cultures allow efficient commercial contracts to be shorter, covering fewer contingencies. We take this idea to the topic of social contracts. Specifically, we ask whether social trust affects the length and detail of constitutions. Cross......-country estimates suggest that national trust levels are indeed robustly and negatively associated with the length of countries’ constitutions....

  9. Global Survey of National Constitutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    Abstract General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states’ legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged. Of the 195 constitutions accessed, 27 enshrine sexual and/or reproductive health, and seven adopt restrictive approaches to this right. In the 27 constitutions, provisions most frequently enshrine respect of one’s sexual health and family planning decisions, the protection of sexual health, and the provision of reproductive health care and family planning services (fulfillment). Most of the 27 constitutions fail to adequately respect reproductive health rights; to protect reproductive health, family planning, and abortion services from third-party interference; and to fulfill all dimensions of sexual health and access to abortion. Three of the 27 constitutions enshrine a universal right to SRH, and additional constitutions protect specific vulnerable groups (such as women, children) and/or restrict the scope of rights holders to couples. Among the 27 constitutions, nine explicitly link the right to sexual and reproductive health to the rights to education, science, and/or to make autonomous decisions about sexuality and reproduction. Our results can serve as a baseline measure to track constitutional reforms in pursuit of the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights, and as building blocks for future lawmakers committed to realizing these rights through domestic legal reform. PMID:29302182

  10. New Constitutionalism for Biosiversity vs. Neoconstitutionalism of Risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Carducci

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2177-7055.2016v37n73p255 Based on an “eco-systemic” democracy that seeks to preserve biodiversity through the recognition of the co-evolutionary link between nature and culture, the Andean Constitutionalism emerges as the expression of a counter-hegemonic constitutionalism committed to the construction of a new institutional framework through the inclusion of new participatory and intercultural mechanisms. Departing from western constitutional paradigms, this groundbreaking constitutionalism revisits the “Gaia hypothesis” and legitimizes a real “social contract” among the people and nature, and instead of considering it as an “object” of ownership, exploitation, or conservation, it regards nature as a legal “subject” and primary source of society itself and the Constitution as its “legal grantor and protector”.

  11. Constitutional compatibility of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossnagel, A.

    1983-01-01

    The paper starts from the results of the Enquiry Commission on 'Future Nuclear Energy Policy' of the 8th Federal German Parliament outlining technically feasible energy futures in four 'pathways'. For the purpose of the project, which was to establish the comparative advantages and disadvantages of different energy systems, these four scenarios were reduced to two alternatives: cases K (= nuclear energy) and S (= solar energy). The question to Ge put is: Which changes within our legal system will be ushered in by certain technological developments and how do these changes relate to the legal condition intended so far. Proceeding in this manner will not lead to the result of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system being in conformity or in contradiction with the constitutional law, but will provide a catalogue of implications orientated to the aims of legal standards: a person deciding in favour of a nuclear energy system or a solar energy system supports this or that development of constitutional policy, and a person purishing this or that aim of legal policy should be consistent and decide in favour of this or that energy system. The investigation of constitutional compatibility leads to the question what effects different energy systems will have on the forms of political intercourse laid down in the constitutional law, which are orientated to models of a liberal constitutional tradition of citizens. (orig./HSCH) [de

  12. Environmental liability in constitutional law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa Gabrielle Braga e Silva

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This article is scope to undertake a study of the Brazilian constitutional treatment given to environmental liability institute. This institute enters the constitutional law of special and unique way in the Constitution of the Federative Republic of Brazil in 1988, stamped on Article 225, third paragraph. The Federal Constitution gives broad protection to the environment and inserts it into the list of social rights and assigns it still status of fundamental right. With regard to environmental liability, the Constitution welcomes the normative content of Article 14, first paragraph, of the Act establishing the National Environmental Policy, Law 6.938 / 81, and includes the environmental objective accountability. The study called State Environmental Law is the new and necessary law paradigm that conjunctiva presents proposal of economic, social, cultural and environmental rights and advocates the idea of a broad existential minimum, not merely physical or biological. Finally, the liability was highlighted in its objective application in their individual and collective achievements. The literature review was the methodology used, whose deductive method to corroborate the findings made by this study. It is concluded that environmental liability is an institute that is associated with the consolidation of a Social and Environmental rule of law and that this is a challenge that everyone, without distinction, is presented.

  13. Cell-Specific Expression of Homospermidine Synthase, the Entry Enzyme of the Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Pathway in Senecio vernalis, in Comparison with Its Ancestor, Deoxyhypusine Synthase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Stefanie; Anke, Sven; Kahmann, Uwe; Hänsch, Robert; Hartmann, Thomas; Ober, Dietrich

    2002-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are constitutive plant defense compounds with a sporadic taxonomic occurrence. The first committed step in PA biosynthesis is catalyzed by homospermidine synthase (HSS). Recent evidence confirmed that HSS evolved by gene duplication from deoxyhypusine synthase (DHS), an enzyme involved in the posttranslational activation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A. To better understand the evolutionary relationship between these two enzymes, which are involved in completely different biological processes, we studied their tissue-specific expression. RNA-blot analysis, reverse transcriptase-PCR, and immunolocalization techniques demonstrated that DHS is constitutively expressed in shoots and roots of Senecio vernalis (Asteraceae), whereas HSS expression is root specific and restricted to distinct groups of endodermis and neighboring cortex cells located opposite to the phloem. All efforts to detect DHS by immunolocalization failed, but studies with promoter-β-glucuronidase fusions confirmed a general expression pattern, at least in young seedlings of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). The expression pattern for HSS differs completely from its ancestor DHS due to the adaptation of HSS to the specific requirements of PA biosynthesis. PMID:12226485

  14. Constitutionalism and Development in Nigeria: The 1999 Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    The Nigeria nation has experienced many Constitutional changes since Sir. Frederick Lugard in 1914 to the .... Exclusive for the Federal Government and Concurrent for both Federal and Regional. Residual matters were also left for .... Mechanism for stability in the polity and change of government e. Adoption to economic ...

  15. Time and constitution of sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Gerardo Acosta

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a reflection over our time-consciousness under the Phenomenology of Edmund Husserl. The idea is make a release the key role of the sense constitution like the fundament and development of the ongoing intentionality, a shape that make the possibility to catch sight of the sense of every life situation like conscience experience that displays itself over the time, and open the world of the Phenomenon World, constituted in the flux and flow of our live experience. The immanent time in which the things served in a lived-present inevitably displays to its own immediate-past of retentions, then of commemorations, constituting and enabling, not just the sense of ever present, but the sense of our own past like memory and our future like expectative. This reflection is based and supporter over the text “Phenomenology Lesson of the Internal Time-Consiusness” (Husserl, 2002.

  16. Immigration, naturalization and the Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vecoli, R J

    1987-03-01

    This essay focuses upon major decisions made by the US government affecting aliens and the constitutional bases for them. These include: 1) the admission and exclusion of aliens, 2) the deportation of aliens, 3) the rights of aliens within the US, and 4) naturalization and denaturalization. The recourse to the extra-constitutional doctrine of sovereignty by the Supreme Court was the source of the plenary power of the Congress over immigration, thus denying the authority of the judiciary to extend the guarantees of due process of law and the equal protection of the law to aliens. The courts in the last 2 decades have assumed a more activist posture with respect to the rights of aliens, extending a greater degree of constitutional protection to the security of acquired citizenship and to the rights of due process and equal protection of foreigners, even to undocumented aliens.

  17. Constitutional Analysis of Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AJ van der Walt

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the Constitutional Court’s treatment of property interests in the face of state regulation to gain an understanding of the type of state interference that is justifiable in terms of section 25(1 of the Bill of Rights. This is done by examining the Constitutional Court’s dicta relating to the meaning of deprivation and how these inform the meaning of property in the constitutional context. The methodology that the Constitutional Court has formulated to assess if state interference complies with the provisions of section 25 is explained to show the type of state regulation that has been found legitimate. We then consider how this understanding of constitutional property and the state’s legitimate exercise of its inherent police power interact in the setting of intellectual property by contrasting the various policy objectives underlying the different statutory regimes governing intellectual property. This theoretical analysis is then applied to two contemporary examples of feasible state interference with existing intellectual property interests, namely the proposed plain packaging measures which severely restrict the use of tobacco trade marks, and a fair dealing exception allowing the use of copyright works for the purpose of parody. These examples serve to illustrate the context and manner in which intellectual property interests may come before the Court and the necessary differentiation with which these interests should be treated. The appropriate judicial assessment of the true impact that state action could have on vested property interests is explained and contrasted with the balancing exercise that is employed at the earlier stage of policy making. This discussion is concluded by highlighting some of the interpretational issues that will arise and how some constitutional values could be curtailed in the absence of legislative intervention.

  18. Constitutional law and international law at the turn of the century ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In contrast to the Constitution of the United States of America, the principle of the responsibility of the state for social justice has emerged in almost all new constitutions, including Russia, Poland, South Africa, ... The importance of constitutional rules establishing and legitimizing the political organs, must not be overlooked.

  19. Turkish and Japanese Mycobacterium tuberculosis sublineages share a remote common ancestor

    KAUST Repository

    Refregier, Guislaine

    2016-10-14

    Two geographically distant M. tuberculosis sublineages, Tur from Turkey and T3-Osaka from Japan, exhibit partially identical genotypic signatures (identical 12-loci MIRU-VNTR profiles, distinct spoligotyping patterns). We investigated T3-Osaka and Tur sublineages characteristics and potential genetic relatedness, first using MIRU-VNTR locus analysis on 21 and 25 samples of each sublineage respectively, and second comparing Whole Genome Sequences of 8 new samples to public data from 45 samples uncovering human tuberculosis diversity. We then tried to date their Most Recent Common Ancestor (MRCA) using three calibrations of SNP accumulation rate (long-term = 0.03 SNP/genome/year, derived from a tuberculosis ancestor of around 70,000 years old; intermediate = 0.2 SNP/genome/year derived from a Peruvian mummy; short-term = 0.5 SNP/genome/year). To disentangle between these scenarios, we confronted the corresponding divergence times with major human history events and knowledge on human genetic divergence. We identified relatively high intrasublineage diversity for both T3-Osaka and Tur. We definitively proved their monophyly; the corresponding super-sublineage (referred to as “T3-Osa-Tur”) shares a common ancestor with T3-Ethiopia and Ural sublineages but is only remotely related to other Euro-American sublineages such as X, LAM, Haarlem and S. The evolutionary scenario based on long-term evolution rate being valid until T3-Osa-Tur MRCA was not supported by Japanese fossil data. The evolutionary scenario relying on short-term evolution rate since T3-Osa-Tur MRCA was contradicted by human history and potential traces of past epidemics. T3-Osaka and Tur sublineages were found likely to have diverged between 800 y and 2000 years ago, potentially at the time of Mongol Empire. Altogether, this study definitively proves a strong genetic link between Turkish and Japanese tuberculosis. It provides a first hypothesis for calibrating TB Euro-American lineage molecular clock

  20. Emergence and Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bullwinkle, Tammy J; Ibba, Michael

    2013-01-01

    ancestor and as such they provide insights into the evolution and development of the extant genetic code. Although the aaRSs have long been viewed as a highly conserved group of enzymes, findings within the last couple of decades have started to demonstrate how diverse and versatile these enzymes really...... are. Beyond their central role in translation, aaRSs and their numerous homologs have evolved a wide array of alternative functions both inside and outside translation. Current understanding of the emergence of the aaRSs, and their subsequent evolution into a functionally diverse enzyme family...

  1. Towards a global climate constitution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weikard, H.P.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper my concern is the study of the incentives of individual countries to sign an international climate agreement that sets the terms of a climate constitution, that is, it establishes emission rights and rules for trading these rights to combat the climate problem effectively and

  2. The Constitutive Power of Twitter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albu, Oana Brindusa; Etter, Michael Andreas

    organizations. The analysis illustrates how specific Twitter interactions, i.e., hashtags, become hypertexts—a type of authoritative texts—which simultaneously constitute an organizational actor or act as a pastiche of it. The study contributes to extant research by illustrating how hypertextuality...

  3. Unconstitutional constitutional amendments in Ethiopia: the practice ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Such constitutional provisions serve to confine the power to amend the constitution within the prescribed legal requirements as well as help to control arbitrary changes to the constitution, which consequently promotes constitutionalism within the country. The FDRE Constitution has been amended twice within these twenty ...

  4. A proposal of the proteome before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Farias, Sávio Torres; Rêgo, Thais Gaudêncio; José, Marco V.

    2016-01-01

    The search for understanding the biological nature of the last universal common ancestor (LUCA) has been a theoretical challenge and has sparked intense debate in the scientific community. We reconstructed the ancestral sequences of tRNAs in order to test the hypothesis that these molecules originated the first genes. The results showed that the proteome before LUCA may have been composed of basal energy metabolism, namely, compounds with three carbons in the glycolytic pathway, which operated as a distribution centre of substrates for the development of metabolic pathways of nucleotides, lipids and amino acids. Thus, we present a proposal for metabolism in organisms before LUCA that was the initial core for the assembly of further metabolic pathways.

  5. Large number of ultraconserved elements were already present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor.

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Jianli

    2009-03-01

    Stephen (2008) identified 13,736 ultraconserved elements (UCEs) in placental mammals and investigated their evolution in opossum, chicken, frog, and fugu. They found that there was a massive expansion of UCEs during tetrapod evolution and the substitution rate in UCEs showed a significant decline in tetrapods compared with fugu, suggesting they were exapted in tetrapods. They considered it unlikely that these elements are ancient but evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes. In this study, we investigated the evolution of UCEs in a cartilaginous fish, the elephant shark and show that nearly half the UCEs were present in the jawed vertebrate ancestor. The substitution rate in UCEs is higher in fugu than in elephant shark, and approximately one-third of ancient UCEs have diverged beyond recognition in teleost fishes. These data indicate that UCEs have evolved at a higher rate in teleost fishes, which may have implications for their vast diversity and evolutionary success.

  6. The ancestors of diatoms evolved a unique mitochondrial dehydrogenase to oxidize photorespiratory glycolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Jessica; Srikanth, Nishtala V; Hüdig, Meike; Poschmann, Gereon; Lercher, Martin J; Maurino, Veronica G

    2017-05-01

    Like other oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, diatoms produce glycolate, a toxic intermediate, as a consequence of the oxygenase activity of Rubisco. Diatoms can remove glycolate through excretion and through oxidation as part of the photorespiratory pathway. The diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum encodes two proteins suggested to be involved in glycolate metabolism: PtGO1 and PtGO2. We found that these proteins differ substantially from the sequences of experimentally characterized proteins responsible for glycolate oxidation in other species, glycolate oxidase (GOX) and glycolate dehydrogenase. We show that PtGO1 and PtGO2 are the only sequences of P. tricornutum homologous to GOX. Our phylogenetic analyses indicate that the ancestors of diatoms acquired PtGO1 during the proposed first secondary endosymbiosis with a chlorophyte alga, which may have previously obtained this gene from proteobacteria. In contrast, PtGO2 is orthologous to an uncharacterized protein in Galdieria sulphuraria, consistent with its acquisition during the secondary endosymbiosis with a red alga that gave rise to the current plastid. The analysis of amino acid residues at conserved positions suggests that PtGO2, which localizes to peroxisomes, may use substrates other than glycolate, explaining the lack of GOX activity we observe in vitro. Instead, PtGO1, while only very distantly related to previously characterized GOX proteins, evolved glycolate-oxidizing activity, as demonstrated by in gel activity assays and mass spectrometry analysis. PtGO1 localizes to mitochondria, consistent with previous suggestions that photorespiration in diatoms proceeds in these organelles. We conclude that the ancestors of diatoms evolved a unique alternative to oxidize photorespiratory glycolate: a mitochondrial dehydrogenase homologous to GOX able to use electron acceptors other than O 2 .

  7. Does Homeland Security Constitute an Emerging Academic Discipline?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    disciplines that make it easy for them to find a job and receive good pay. 7. Entrepreneurs will enter and firms will expand in sectors that promise to be...industry-government triad and the societal influences that impact that ecosystem . As the components of the framework are evaluated on their own respective

  8. Valuation In The Constitutional Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elmien du Plessis

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution brought about a new compensation regime for expropriations. Compensation for expropriation must now be "just and equitable". Whereas before the Constitution came into force market value played a central role in compensation for expropriation, market value is now only one factor or aspect of compensation that the court needs to take into account. Yet we find that courts tend to focus on market value and to still employ the valuation methods used to calculate market value. This article argues that the methods used to calculate the market value, once thought to be objective, are not as objective as was believed. While it is impossible to give judges specific tools for the assessment of market value, this article provides guidelines on how the calculation of compensation should be approached.

  9. [Women, gender, and the Constitution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Although all the constitutions of Latin America directly or indirectly acknowledge the juridical equality of the sexes, these patriarchal societies continue to maintain institutional power in male hands and to neutralize legal actions favoring women. International instruments such as the Convention on Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women, approved by the UN in 1979, have given a firmer basis to policies and actions to improve the status of women. Obstacles to full equality of Latin American women are rooted in economic and sociopolitical factors, but lack of true political will also plays a significant role. A number of new laws in the past several years as well as the new Constitution have improved the legal position of Colombian women. The new Constitution recognizes fundamental rights that may be claimed directly before a judge, and social, economic, and collective rights requiring legislative development. Article 43 of the new Constitution states that women will not be subjected to any form of discrimination. Another norm states that women will enjoy special assistance and protection before and after childbirth, in recognition of the social functions of maternity. Article 43 also states that women who are heads of households will receive special assistance, but the corresponding regulations have not yet been promulgated. The mechanism of tutelage has become an important recourse that has been used in several cases in which fundamental rights of women have been violated or threatened because of their sex. The order of tutelage has been used in cases of adolescents expelled from school for pregnancy and of abused wives, as well as to force recognition of the social and economic contributions of housework.

  10. Constitutional collisions of criminal law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey M. Inshakov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify and resolve conflicts between the norms of constitutional and criminal law which regulate the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state. Methods formallogical systematic comparativelegal. Results the article analyzes the embodiment of the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law regarding the criminal responsibility of the President of the Russian Federation as one of the segments of the elite right other criminal and legal conflicts are considered associated with the creation of conditions for derogation from the principle of equality. Basing on this analysis the means of overcoming collisions between the norms of constitutional and criminal law are formulated. Scientific novelty in the article for the first time it has been shown that in the Russian criminal law there are exceptions to the principle of citizensrsquo equality under the law relating to the President of the Russian Federation the conflicts are identified between the norms of constitutional and criminal law regulating the issue of legal liability of senior officials of the state ways of overcoming conflicts are suggested. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching in the consideration of issues of senior state officialsrsquo criminal liability.

  11. Habermas on European Constitution and European Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éva Biró-Kaszás

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last two decades or so philosophers have been reflecting on a set of practical and political concerns in connection with the new political structural arrangements beyond the nation-state. In this article two essays by Jürgen Habermas shall be examined. An attempt shall be made to tackle Habermas’ philosophical concepts of personal and collective identity as well as the role that a constitution may play in building the post-national constellation. It has been shown that Habermas has normative answers. Firstly, according to him, the fragile balance between the legal order and the particular cultures and traditions of a community has to be protected by the constitutional state. For that reason the political culture has to be “decoupled” from the majority culture. Secondly, the democratically structured attempt to achieve shared meaning has to find the delicate balance between the context-transcending universal normative claims and the claims of particular individual and collective life. Thirdly, it is possible to expand legally mediated civil solidarity trans-nationally, across Europe – we may recognize this development as the emergence of European identity –, since the process of democratic will-formation of citizens may get loose from the structures provided by the state if both shared democratic political cultures as well as a European-wide public sphere exist. The European Constitution may have a catalytic function in materialization of these conditions. It has been shown that in his deliberations Habermas tried to find a reflective equilibrium between the normative and the empirical.

  12. Prospects of the Constitutional State of Indonesia: Ideas and Reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdan Zoelva

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indonesia since its inception has asserted itself as a constitutional state. It may be inferred through the clear regulation related to powers and functions of each state institution in the form of checks and balances system, the protection of human rights, the clarity of the principles of democratic mechanism, as well as the guarantee of an independent judiciary. Although the constitution has been set in such a way, efforts to achieve a constitutional state is not an easy road. Nowadays, it seems that the trip of the Indonesian as a constitutional state was still hobbled. A variety of legal issues that disturb the sense of justice continues to emerge one after another. The outcomes of the research indicate that over the last decade, Indonesia has made many changes to realize the ideal of a constitutional state. As it turns out in practice, however, legal development was still far short from the expectations. The success of building a constitutional state can not be measured by the ability to produce legislation and to create or revitalize legal institutions. Moreover, the success of a constitutional state must also be measured by the implementation and law enforcement which able to create justice for all people. Therefore, the main focus of various studies of law and legal policy, must be oriented in the judicial institutions and law enforcement.

  13. 75 FR 57835 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-22

    ... Part II The President Proclamation 8562--Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2010 By the President of the United States of America... journey. On Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, and during Constitution Week, we commemorate the legacy...

  14. Emerging images

    KAUST Repository

    Mitra, Niloy J.

    2009-01-01

    Emergence refers to the unique human ability to aggregate information from seemingly meaningless pieces, and to perceive a whole that is meaningful. This special skill of humans can constitute an effective scheme to tell humans and machines apart. This paper presents a synthesis technique to generate images of 3D objects that are detectable by humans, but difficult for an automatic algorithm to recognize. The technique allows generating an infinite number of images with emerging figures. Our algorithm is designed so that locally the synthesized images divulge little useful information or cues to assist any segmentation or recognition procedure. Therefore, as we demonstrate, computer vision algorithms are incapable of effectively processing such images. However, when a human observer is presented with an emergence image, synthesized using an object she is familiar with, the figure emerges when observed as a whole. We can control the difficulty level of perceiving the emergence effect through a limited set of parameters. A procedure that synthesizes emergence images can be an effective tool for exploring and understanding the factors affecting computer vision techniques. © 2009 ACM.

  15. 32 CFR 536.42 - Constitutional torts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... AGAINST THE UNITED STATES Investigation and Processing of Claims § 536.42 Constitutional torts. A claim for violation of the U.S. Constitution does not constitute a state tort and is not cognizable under... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Constitutional torts. 536.42 Section 536.42...

  16. A Communicatively Constituted Online Crisis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentini, Chiara; Romenti, Stefania; Kruckeberg, Dean

    2017-01-01

    into specific public crisis perceptions. Drawing from a communicative constitution perspective, the authors argue that if crises are perceptions or experiences of difficult situations that exceed a person’s current resources and coping mechanisms, and if perceptions and experiences in social media are typically......This chapter presents a theoretical proposition that could serve as foundation to explain how people become aware, develop an understanding, and create meanings about specific critical situations through social media conversations and how, eventually, these transform critical situations...... in social media....

  17. Essence and constitution in Zubiri

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfonso Gómez Fernández

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to expound Zubiri’s concept of essence and to begin a critical discussion and evaluation of his proposal. Before explaining what essence is, it is necessary to observe that, for our author, not all things have an essence: only «reality-things» but not «meaning-things» form part of the «essentiable domain». This distinction between «reality-things» and «meaning-things» supposes a new conception of nature. (Nature is not the opposite of the artificial, as the Greek term physis is.«Reality-things» form a constitutional and «closed» system of non-causal and non-«external» characteristics or traits. These «foundational characteristics» of constitution, then, are precisely the essence. The article discusses critically the assumptions of this doctrine (reality, ontological pluralism, foundation and its possible limits in the light of contemporary science. It can be a useful theory for the philosophy of language.

  18. The evolution of air resonance power efficiency in the violin and its ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nia, Hadi T; Jain, Ankita D; Liu, Yuming; Alam, Mohammad-Reza; Barnas, Roman; Makris, Nicholas C

    2015-03-08

    The fact that acoustic radiation from a violin at air-cavity resonance is monopolar and can be determined by pure volume change is used to help explain related aspects of violin design evolution. By determining the acoustic conductance of arbitrarily shaped sound holes, it is found that air flow at the perimeter rather than the broader sound-hole area dominates acoustic conductance, and coupling between compressible air within the violin and its elastic structure lowers the Helmholtz resonance frequency from that found for a corresponding rigid instrument by roughly a semitone. As a result of the former, it is found that as sound-hole geometry of the violin's ancestors slowly evolved over centuries from simple circles to complex f-holes, the ratio of inefficient, acoustically inactive to total sound-hole area was decimated, roughly doubling air-resonance power efficiency. F-hole length then slowly increased by roughly 30% across two centuries in the renowned workshops of Amati, Stradivari and Guarneri, favouring instruments with higher air-resonance power, through a corresponding power increase of roughly 60%. By evolution-rate analysis, these changes are found to be consistent with mutations arising within the range of accidental replication fluctuations from craftsmanship limitations with subsequent selection favouring instruments with higher air-resonance power.

  19. Wild mallards have more "goose-like" bills than their ancestors: a case of anthropogenic influence?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pär Söderquist

    Full Text Available Wild populations of the world's most common dabbling duck, the mallard (Anas platyrhynchos, run the risk of genetic introgression by farmed conspecifics released for hunting purposes. We tested whether bill morphology of free-living birds has changed since large-scale releases of farmed mallards started. Three groups of mallards from Sweden, Norway and Finland were compared: historical wild (before large-scale releases started, present-day wild, and present-day farmed. Higher density of bill lamellae was observed in historical wild mallards (only males. Farmed mallards had wider bills than present-day and historical wild ones. Present-day wild and farmed mallards also had higher and shorter bills than historical wild mallards. Present-day mallards thus tend to have more "goose-like" bills (wider, higher, and shorter than their ancestors. Our study suggests that surviving released mallards affect morphological traits in wild population by introgression. We discuss how such anthropogenic impact may lead to a maladapted and genetically compromised wild mallard population. Our study system has bearing on other taxa where large-scale releases of conspecifics with 'alien genes' may cause a cryptic invasive process that nevertheless has fitness consequences for individual birds.

  20. Aberrant Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor as a Signature of Natural Selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter-Zinck, Haley; Clark, Andrew G

    2015-10-01

    Natural selection inference methods often target one mode of selection of a particular age and strength. However, detecting multiple modes simultaneously, or with atypical representations, would be advantageous for understanding a population's evolutionary history. We have developed an anomaly detection algorithm using distributions of pairwise time to most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) to simultaneously detect multiple modes of natural selection in whole-genome sequences. As natural selection distorts local genealogies in distinct ways, the method uses pairwise TMRCA distributions, which approximate genealogies at a nonrecombining locus, to detect distortions without targeting a specific mode of selection. We evaluate the performance of our method, TSel, for both positive and balancing selection over different time-scales and selection strengths and compare TSel's performance with that of other methods. We then apply TSel to the Complete Genomics diversity panel, a set of human whole-genome sequences, and recover loci previously inferred to be under positive or balancing selection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose soil organic matter using oxidative mechanisms adapted from saprotrophic ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Firoz; Nicolás, César; Bentzer, Johan; Ellström, Magnus; Smits, Mark; Rineau, Francois; Canbäck, Björn; Floudas, Dimitrios; Carleer, Robert; Lackner, Gerald; Braesel, Jana; Hoffmeister, Dirk; Henrissat, Bernard; Ahrén, Dag; Johansson, Tomas; Hibbett, David S; Martin, Francis; Persson, Per; Tunlid, Anders

    2016-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi are thought to have a key role in mobilizing organic nitrogen that is trapped in soil organic matter (SOM). However, the extent to which ectomycorrhizal fungi decompose SOM and the mechanism by which they do so remain unclear, considering that they have lost many genes encoding lignocellulose-degrading enzymes that are present in their saprotrophic ancestors. Spectroscopic analyses and transcriptome profiling were used to examine the mechanisms by which five species of ectomycorrhizal fungi, representing at least four origins of symbiosis, decompose SOM extracted from forest soils. In the presence of glucose and when acquiring nitrogen, all species converted the organic matter in the SOM extract using oxidative mechanisms. The transcriptome expressed during oxidative decomposition has diverged over evolutionary time. Each species expressed a different set of transcripts encoding proteins associated with oxidation of lignocellulose by saprotrophic fungi. The decomposition 'toolbox' has diverged through differences in the regulation of orthologous genes, the formation of new genes by gene duplications, and the recruitment of genes from diverse but functionally similar enzyme families. The capacity to oxidize SOM appears to be common among ectomycorrhizal fungi. We propose that the ancestral decay mechanisms used primarily to obtain carbon have been adapted in symbiosis to scavenge nutrients instead. © 2015 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  2. Evolution of life history and behavior in Hominidae: towards phylogenetic reconstruction of the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duda, Pavel; Zrzavý, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The origin of the fundamental behavioral differences between humans and our closest living relatives is one of the central issues of evolutionary anthropology. The prominent, chimpanzee-based referential model of early hominin behavior has recently been challenged on the basis of broad multispecies comparisons and newly discovered fossil evidence. Here, we argue that while behavioral data on extant great apes are extremely relevant for reconstruction of ancestral behaviors, these behaviors should be reconstructed trait by trait using formal phylogenetic methods. Using the widely accepted hominoid phylogenetic tree, we perform a series of character optimization analyses using 65 selected life-history and behavioral characters for all extant hominid species. This analysis allows us to reconstruct the character states of the last common ancestors of Hominoidea, Hominidae, and the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor. Our analyses demonstrate that many fundamental behavioral and life-history attributes of hominids (including humans) are evidently ancient and likely inherited from the common ancestor of all hominids. However, numerous behaviors present in extant great apes represent their own terminal autapomorphies (both uniquely derived and homoplastic). Any evolutionary model that uses a single extant species to explain behavioral evolution of early hominins is therefore of limited use. In contrast, phylogenetic reconstruction of ancestral states is able to provide a detailed suite of behavioral, ecological and life-history characters for each hypothetical ancestor. The living great apes therefore play an important role for the confident identification of the traits found in the chimpanzee-human last common ancestor, some of which are likely to represent behaviors of the fossil hominins. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Unborn children as constitutional persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roden, Gregory J

    2010-01-01

    In Roe v. Wade, the state of Texas argued that "the fetus is a 'person' within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth Amendment." To which Justice Harry Blackmun responded, "If this suggestion of personhood is established, the appellant's case, of course, collapses, for the fetus' right to life would then be guaranteed specifically by the Amendment." However, Justice Blackmun then came to the conclusion "that the word 'person,' as used in the Fourteenth Amendment, does not include the unborn." In this article, it is argued that unborn children are indeed "persons" within the language and meaning of the Fourteenth and Fifth Amendments. As there is no constitutional text explicitly holding unborn children to be, or not to be, "persons," this argument will be based on the "historical understanding and practice, the structure of the Constitution, and thejurisprudence of [the Supreme] Court." Specifically, it is argued that the Constitution does not confer upon the federal government a specifically enumerated power to grant or deny "personhood" under the Fourteenth Amendment. Rather, the power to recognize or deny unborn children as the holders of rights and duties has been historically exercised by the states. The Roe opinion and other Supreme Court cases implicitly recognize this function of state sovereignty. The states did exercise this power and held unborn children to be persons under the property, tort, and criminal law of the several states at the time Roe was decided. As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in

  4. Constitution of the Communication Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz Braga

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article seeks to clarify key points to characterize the field of communication studies – its possible formation as a discipline of knowledge, the question of interdisciplinarity; perspectives related to the objects of study, emphasizing the angle of “social interaction” and the theme of “media”; the problem of sharing the study of communication phenomena with other humanities and social sciences, the question of the constitution of the field, in its internal diversity, and the relationship between the phenomenon and sociocultural contexts. Each of these aspects is addressed in two stages – as perceived in the first article appeared, in 2001, and notes included now, seeking to clarify further perceptions occurring in the period.

  5. CONSTITUTIONAL LANDMARKS OF POLITICAL PLURALISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERHARD NICULESCU

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order for democracy to result from freedom, the citizens’ participation in the creation and exercise of democratic power must be structured in a pluralist way. Art. 8(1 of the Romanian Constitution firstly imposes the organization of the company in parallel with the State’s organic structure as an indispensable requisite for the existence of democracy. In other words, there is no democracy without a civil society, distinct from the State. The organization of the civil society is necessary because the individual alone cannot determine a certain attitude of the political power: structuring gives weight to the action; the organization of citizens contributes to rendering their political participation more efficient. But the organization, structuring limits the freedom of people adhering to the structure.

  6. Evidence of a chimeric genome in the cyanobacterial ancestor of plastids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya Debashish

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Horizontal gene transfer (HGT is a vexing fact of life for microbial phylogeneticists. Given the substantial rates of HGT observed in modern-day bacterial chromosomes, it is envisaged that ancient prokaryotic genomes must have been similarly chimeric. But where can one find an ancient prokaryotic genome that has maintained its ancestral condition to address this issue? An excellent candidate is the cyanobacterial endosymbiont that was harnessed over a billion years ago by a heterotrophic protist, giving rise to the plastid. Genetic remnants of the endosymbiont are still preserved in plastids as a highly reduced chromosome encoding 54 – 264 genes. These data provide an ideal target to assess genome chimericism in an ancient cyanobacterial lineage. Results Here we demonstrate that the origin of the plastid-encoded gene cluster for menaquinone/phylloquinone biosynthesis in the extremophilic red algae Cyanidiales contradicts a cyanobacterial genealogy. These genes are relics of an ancestral cluster related to homologs in Chlorobi/Gammaproteobacteria that we hypothesize was established by HGT in the progenitor of plastids, thus providing a 'footprint' of genome chimericism in ancient cyanobacteria. In addition to menB, four components of the original gene cluster (menF, menD, menC, and menH are now encoded in the nuclear genome of the majority of non-Cyanidiales algae and plants as the unique tetra-gene fusion named PHYLLO. These genes are monophyletic in Plantae and chromalveolates, indicating that loci introduced by HGT into the ancestral cyanobacterium were moved over time into the host nucleus. Conclusion Our study provides unambiguous evidence for the existence of genome chimericism in ancient cyanobacteria. In addition we show genes that originated via HGT in the cyanobacterial ancestor of the plastid made their way to the host nucleus via endosymbiotic gene transfer (EGT.

  7. Analysis on constitution of American college republicans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minghua Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper, based on internet survey and comparative analysis, according to the firsthand materials, comprehensively and systematically probes the formation of the constitution form and structure, and analyzes its contents of Constitution of American College Republicans among 15 colleges respectively, which includes the illustration of constitution, membership, personnel, meeting, financial amendment, etc. Finally, this essay analyzes the characteristics of constitution of college republicans and its advantages.

  8. 118 CONSTITUTIONALISM AND GOOD GOVERNANCE IN NIGERIA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fr. Ikenga

    This paper attempts to analyse the constitutional development of Nigeria with a view to really determining at what point it can be said that Nigeria had a constitution. The various determinants of constitutionalism are to be x-rayed and juxtaposed with the activities of the government particularly the fourth and fifth republics.

  9. How Does the Constitution Secure Rights?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldwin, Robert A., Ed.; Schambra, William A., Ed.

    Third in a series designed to help prepare the nation for a thoughtful observance of the Constitutional bicentennial, this publication presents six essays addressing the issue of human rights and the Constitution. "How the Constitution Protects Our Rights: A Look at the Seminal Years" (Robert A. Rutland) focuses on James Madison's role…

  10. Teaching about Democratic Constitutionalism. ERIC Digest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    There are more than 100 democracies in the world today. All but three of them--Great Britain, Israel, and New Zealand --have written constitutions. This digest examines the importance of constitutions and constitutionalism and the teaching of these concepts through the use of comparisons. The primary objectives of civic education for democratic…

  11. Theoretical Issues of the Constitutional Regulation Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhussupova, Guldaray B.; Zhailyaubayev, Rassul T.; Ukin, Symbat K.; Shunayeva, Sylu M.; Nurmagambetov, Rachit G.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to define the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism." The definition of the concept of "constitutional regulation mechanism" will give jurists and legislators a theoretical framework for developing legal sciences, such as the constitutional law and the theory of state and law. The…

  12. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2009-01-01

    Sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Amendment Act. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia Implementation Act. Act to Amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for Election of Local Government Councils for Term of Four Years

  13. The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Raamat sisaldab ka: The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia amendment act ; The Constitution of the Republic of Estonia implementation act ; Act to amend the Constitution of the Republic of Estonia for election of local government councils for term of four years

  14. CONSTITUTIONAL COMPLAINT DAN CONSTITUTIONAL QUESTION DAN PERLINDUNGAN HAK-HAK KONSTITUSIONAL WARGA NEGARA

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdan Zoelva

    2012-01-01

    The 1945 Constitution gives limitative authority to the Constitutional Court only to review of laws against the constitution, adjudicate dispute over state institution whose authorities are mandate by constitution, adjudicate dispute on the result of general election, dissolution of political parties and obliged to decide upon DPR’s opinion in the case of the impeachment of the President. In practice, many of the constitutional issues can not be resolved by the Constitutional Court because it...

  15. Constitutional Complaint Dan Constitutional Question Dan Perlindungan Hak-hak Konstitusional Warga Negara

    OpenAIRE

    Zoelva, Hamdan

    2012-01-01

    The 1945 Constitution gives limitative authority to the Constitutional Court only to review of laws against the constitution, adjudicate dispute over state institution whose authorities are mandate by constitution, adjudicate dispute on the result of general election, dissolution of political parties and obliged to decide upon DPR's opinion in the case of the impeachment of the President. In practice, many of the constitutional issues can not be resolved by the Constitutional Court because it...

  16. An Evolutionary Network of Genes Present in the Eukaryote Common Ancestor Polls Genomes on Eukaryotic and Mitochondrial Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Schenk, Marc; Dagan, Tal; Martin, William F.

    2012-01-01

    To test the predictions of competing and mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes, we identified from a sample of 27 sequenced eukaryotic and 994 sequenced prokaryotic genomes 571 genes that were present in the eukaryote common ancestor and that have homologues among eubacterial and archaebacterial genomes. Maximum-likelihood trees identified the prokaryotic genomes that most frequently contained genes branching as the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear homologues. Among the a...

  17. Factors that influence the realization of the constitutional – legal protection

    OpenAIRE

    Safet Emruli

    2018-01-01

    The constitutional justice system represents the main actor of the establishment and the harmonious functioning of true democracy, because it implies the spirit of the constitution, where the rules of democracy, rule of law and the protection of the rights and freedoms of the citizens are envisaged, is respected and implemented in real life. The constitutional justice, in fact, represents the key segment that guarantees the vitality and efficiency of the judicial order. As such, it emerged as...

  18. Developing utility emergency preparedness exercises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sjoeblom, K.

    1986-01-01

    Utility emergency preparedness exercises constitute an important link in upgrading the response to nuclear power plant emergencies. Various emergency exercises are arranged annually at the Loviisa nuclear power plant. The on-site simulator is a practical tool in developing suitable accident scenarios and demonstrating them to the site emergency players and spectators. The exercises concentrate on emergency management and radiological activities. It is important to create a high degree of motivation. (author)

  19. Change of position of constitutional judiciary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional judiciary is the youngest branch of authority in the horizontal level of state power. Constitutional judiciary has, during its existence - during two centuries as an ordinary court and during one century as a special authority, changed its position, role and importance. Those characteristics of constitutional judiciary had an increasing way - the position became better, in political and law sense, its role has expanded and the importance has increased. Today, constitutional judiciary is an inevitable subject of constitutional regimes in huge number of states (between them are almost all federations but, in the same time, constitutional judiciary is an authority which is at least limited by the constitution. The constitution is "soft" to the constitutional judiciary because the judiciary interpreted the constitution in accordance to its political and law attitudes, hidden by the guise of protection. Different separation of power, a rise of executive power, requests for better protections of fundamental human rights, a changed role of state and executive power, altogether, have influenced to change of position of constitutional judiciary.

  20. 76 FR 58705 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-21

    ... Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011 Proclamation 8715--National Employer Support of the... Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2011 By the President of the United States of America... country stands for. Every year, thousands of candidates for citizenship commemorate Constitution Day and...

  1. Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments...Similarities and Differences throughout History. Resource Packet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pallasch, Brian Thomas

    This civic education resource packet is designed to provide teachers, community leaders, and other civic educators with an understanding of the differences between constitutional and non-constitutional governments. Six papers discussing the topic are included: "The Differences bewteen Constitutional and Non-Constitutional Governments" (John…

  2. State Constitutionalism: Completing the Interdisciplinary Study of Constitutional Law and Political Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Argues that a complete and accurate understanding of constitutional history and constitutional law requires the study of state constitutions. Maintains that state constitutions contain a coherent political theory that is, in important respects, at variance with the concept of federalism. (CFR)

  3. Constitutional Amendment and Political Constitutionalism: The Potential Mitigation of Critiques on Judicial Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Néia Lima

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The criticisms toward judicial review from Richard Bellamy and Jeremy Waldron’s political constitutionalism approach demonstrate that they do not exclude constitutional courts entirely, as they accept mechanisms of legislative responses, except constitutional amendments. This paper concludes that the high number of constitutional amendments in Brazil does not mitigate judicial review critiques. The extensive structure of the Brazilian Constitution imposes frequent changes, which do not modify its essence. Furthermore, the possibility of judicial review over constitutional amendments represents that constitutional court could overrule legislative response.

  4. Childrens' Rights in the South African Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JA Robinson

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Children were in many respects defenceless victims of discriminatory practices in ‘apartheid South Africa’. In fact, discrimination on the basis of gender, race and other inequalities were inscribed in the social fabric of the previous constitutional dispensation. The constitutional dispensation that came into effect on the 27th April 1994 was therefore designed to innovate social, political and legal structures that would be radically different from those of the country’s past history.In this contribution the impact of the Constitution upon the rights of children are considered. In order to fathom the impact. a general overview of constitutional principles and provisions necessary for the comprehension of the rights of children is provided. Thereafter the rights of children expressly mentioned in the Constitution will be addressed. Attention is also paid to the equal protection and non-discrimination provisions of the Constitution, albeit only indirectly.

  5. "Not our constitution". Assessing the United Nations' assistance to the recent Somali constitution-making process.

    OpenAIRE

    Jørgensen, Hilde

    2013-01-01

    The UN increasingly provides assistance to constitution-making in war-torn countries as an element of larger peacebuilding operations. The underlying assumption is that constitution-making, if conducted in the right way, may contribute positively to peace in several ways. First, constitution-making can contribute to reconciliation by providing a platform for people to come together and agree on a common future for their state. Second, constitution-making can provide legitimacy to constitution...

  6. The Jurisdiction of The Constitutional Court In Controlling The Constitutionality of Criminal Judgments: Kosovo Case

    OpenAIRE

    BRAHA, Florentina Shala; BYTYQI, Vilard; VUNIQI, Dardan; Berisha, Fadil

    2016-01-01

    This paper will deal with individual requests that are submitted at the Constitutional Court in order to assess the constitutionality of criminal judicial decisions. The right to submit issues for assessing the constitutionality of criminal court decisions is a constitutionally guaranteed right. Many individuals who are dissatisfied with the decisions of the judicial instances use their right to oppose such a decision even at the Constitutional Court.Not all the cases submitted to the Court a...

  7. Autonomous Province of Vojvodina between the Constitution and the decision of the Constitutional court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čiplić Svetozar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The author deals individual assessments Constitutional court of the Competent in Law, as well as its different interpretation of constitutional and legal provisions. The author is of the opinion that the Constitutional Court amended the constitution and the law guaranteed the position of the Autonomous Province of Vojvodina and that the 'conservative interpretation of' diminished the rights of citizens by the constitution itself by.

  8. Complexities of Constitutional Change in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Saunders, Cheryl; Yusingco, Michael Henry

    2018-01-01

    President Rodrigo Duterte assumed office in July 2016, His party, PDP-Laban, had campaigned under the slogan: “No to Drugs, Yes to Federalism”. Duterte thus is committed to shepherding the Philippines towards a federal form of government; an undertaking that would require an extensive overhaul of the country’s constitution. The future of constitutional change under Duterte in any event is uncertain for a series of constitutional and political reasons. Critically, some of the most pressing of ...

  9. Testing of constitutive models in LAME.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammerand, Daniel Carl; Scherzinger, William Mark

    2007-09-01

    Constitutive models for computational solid mechanics codes are in LAME--the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering. These models describe complex material behavior and are used in our finite deformation solid mechanics codes. To ensure the correct implementation of these models, regression tests have been created for constitutive models in LAME. A selection of these tests is documented here. Constitutive models are an important part of any solid mechanics code. If an analysis code is meant to provide accurate results, the constitutive models that describe the material behavior need to be implemented correctly. Ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is the goal of a testing procedure that is used with the Library of Advanced Materials for Engineering (LAME) (see [1] and [2]). A test suite for constitutive models can serve three purposes. First, the test problems provide the constitutive model developer a means to test the model implementation. This is an activity that is always done by any responsible constitutive model developer. Retaining the test problem in a repository where the problem can be run periodically is an excellent means of ensuring that the model continues to behave correctly. A second purpose of a test suite for constitutive models is that it gives application code developers confidence that the constitutive models work correctly. This is extremely important since any analyst that uses an application code for an engineering analysis will associate a constitutive model in LAME with the application code, not LAME. Therefore, ensuring the correct implementation of constitutive models is essential for application code teams. A third purpose of a constitutive model test suite is that it provides analysts with example problems that they can look at to understand the behavior of a specific model. Since the choice of a constitutive model, and the properties that are used in that model, have an enormous effect on the results of an

  10. An Evolutionary Network of Genes Present in the Eukaryote Common Ancestor Polls Genomes on Eukaryotic and Mitochondrial Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiergart, Thorsten; Landan, Giddy; Schenk, Marc; Dagan, Tal; Martin, William F.

    2012-01-01

    To test the predictions of competing and mutually exclusive hypotheses for the origin of eukaryotes, we identified from a sample of 27 sequenced eukaryotic and 994 sequenced prokaryotic genomes 571 genes that were present in the eukaryote common ancestor and that have homologues among eubacterial and archaebacterial genomes. Maximum-likelihood trees identified the prokaryotic genomes that most frequently contained genes branching as the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear homologues. Among the archaebacteria, euryarchaeote genomes most frequently harbored the sister to the eukaryotic nuclear gene, whereas among eubacteria, the α-proteobacteria were most frequently represented within the sister group. Only 3 genes out of 571 gave a 3-domain tree. Homologues from α-proteobacterial genomes that branched as the sister to nuclear genes were found more frequently in genomes of facultatively anaerobic members of the rhiozobiales and rhodospirilliales than in obligate intracellular ricketttsial parasites. Following α-proteobacteria, the most frequent eubacterial sister lineages were γ-proteobacteria, δ-proteobacteria, and firmicutes, which were also the prokaryote genomes least frequently found as monophyletic groups in our trees. Although all 22 higher prokaryotic taxa sampled (crenarchaeotes, γ-proteobacteria, spirochaetes, chlamydias, etc.) harbor genes that branch as the sister to homologues present in the eukaryotic common ancestor, that is not evidence of 22 different prokaryotic cells participating at eukaryote origins because prokaryotic “lineages” have laterally acquired genes for more than 1.5 billion years since eukaryote origins. The data underscore the archaebacterial (host) nature of the eukaryotic informational genes and the eubacterial (mitochondrial) nature of eukaryotic energy metabolism. The network linking genes of the eukaryote ancestor to contemporary homologues distributed across prokaryotic genomes elucidates eukaryote gene origins in a

  11. Maize Domestication and Anti-Herbivore Defences: Leaf-Specific Dynamics during Early Ontogeny of Maize and Its Wild Ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maag, Daniel; Erb, Matthias; Bernal, Julio S.; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Turlings, Ted C. J.; Glauser, Gaétan

    2015-01-01

    As a consequence of artificial selection for specific traits, crop plants underwent considerable genotypic and phenotypic changes during the process of domestication. These changes may have led to reduced resistance in the cultivated plant due to shifts in resource allocation from defensive traits to increased growth rates and yield. Modern maize (Zea mays ssp. mays) was domesticated from its ancestor Balsas teosinte (Z. mays ssp. parviglumis) approximately 9000 years ago. Although maize displays a high genetic overlap with its direct ancestor and other annual teosintes, several studies show that maize and its ancestors differ in their resistance phenotypes with teosintes being less susceptible to herbivore damage. However, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. Here we addressed the question to what extent maize domestication has affected two crucial chemical and one physical defence traits and whether differences in their expression may explain the differences in herbivore resistance levels. The ontogenetic trajectories of 1,4-benzoxazin-3-ones, maysin and leaf toughness were monitored for different leaf types across several maize cultivars and teosinte accessions during early vegetative growth stages. We found significant quantitative and qualitative differences in 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one accumulation in an initial pairwise comparison, but we did not find consistent differences between wild and cultivated genotypes during a more thorough examination employing several cultivars/accessions. Yet, 1,4-benzoxazin-3-one levels tended to decline more rapidly with plant age in the modern maize cultivars. Foliar maysin levels and leaf toughness increased with plant age in a leaf-specific manner, but were also unaffected by domestication. Based on our findings we suggest that defence traits other than the ones that were investigated are responsible for the observed differences in herbivore resistance between teosinte and maize. Furthermore, our results indicate

  12. Hermit to king, or hermit to all: multiple transitions to crab-like forms from hermit crab ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Ling Ming; Chan, Tin-Yam; Ahyong, Shane T; Chu, Ka Hou

    2011-10-01

    The Anomura presents the greatest degree of morphological disparity in the decapod Crustacea, with body forms ranging from the symmetrical and asymmetrical hermit crabs to squat lobsters and king crabs. The phylogeny of the anomurans has been fraught with controversy. Recent debate has focused primarily on the phenomenon of carcinization, the evolution of crab-like form from a non-crab-like ancestor, focused chiefly on derivation of king crabs from asymmetrical hermit crabs--the "hermit to king" hypothesis. We show by phylogenetic analysis of five nuclear protein-coding gene sequences that hermit crabs have a single origin, but surprisingly, that almost all other major clades and body forms within the Anomura, are derived from within the hermit crabs. The crab-like form and squat lobster form have each evolved at least twice from separate symmetrical hermit crab ancestors. In each case, a carcinization trend can be posited via a transition series from the initial symmetrical long-tailed hermit crab form, through the intermediate squat lobster or asymmetrical hermit crab form, to the final crab-like form. Adaptation to dextral shell habitation evolved at least twice, once in an exclusively deep-water clade and once in the common ancestor of all other asymmetrical hermit crabs (from which king crabs are derived). These remarkable cases of parallelism suggest considerable phenotypic flexibility within the hermit crab ground plan, with a general tendency toward carcinization. Rather than having a separate origin from other major clades, hermit crabs have given rise to most other major anomuran body types.

  13. Ancestors We Didn’t Even Know We Had”: Alice Walker, Asian Religion, and Ethnic Authenticity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Garton-Gundling

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates about the ethics of identity in a global age have dealt with how to prioritize conflicting local and global allegiances. Guided by these concerns, the fiction of Alice Walker develops a distinctive view of how local cultures and global movements can fruitfully interact. This vision depends on concepts from Asian religions, a major influence that critics of Walker have largely overlooked. Walker promotes Hindu and Buddhist meditation in a context of widespread African American skepticism toward Asian religions. According to widespread notions of cultural authenticity, Asian religions cannot nourish an African American connection to ethnic roots. In response to this challenge, Alice Walker’s fiction portrays Hindu and Buddhist mystics as African Americans’ ancestors, thus positioning these faiths as authentically black. By creatively enfolding Asian religions into her sense of African American heritage, Walker builds a spiritual cosmopolitanism that relies on claims of ancestral affiliation even when these claims are not literal. This strategy is Walker’s effort to create a new paradigm of cultural authenticity, one that allows individuals and groups to choose their ancestors. Walker’s approach seeks to incorporate disparate global influences while still valorizing the figure of the ancestor. This innovative approach places Walker at the forefront of a growing number of African American artists and intellectuals who promote Asian religions to American minorities. Walker’s work vividly dramatizes larger concerns in transnational American Studies: Eastern philosophy’s relevance to identity politics, the tensions between universal ideals and cultural specifics, and the ethics of cross-cultural appropriation.

  14. Models of gene gain and gene loss for probabilistic reconstruction of gene content in the last universal common ancestor of life

    OpenAIRE

    Kannan, Lavanya; Li, Hua; Rubinstein, Boris; Mushegian, Arcady

    2013-01-01

    Background The problem of probabilistic inference of gene content in the last common ancestor of several extant species with completely sequenced genomes is: for each gene that is conserved in all or some of the genomes, assign the probability that its ancestral gene was present in the genome of their last common ancestor. Results We have developed a family of models of gene gain and gene loss in evolution, and applied the maximum-likelihood approach that uses phylogenetic tree of prokaryotes...

  15. Development of Cultural Construction and Constitutional Revolution in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijan Rabiee

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this article is the development of the cultural construction and the emergence of the Constitutional Revolution in Iran. This study, by examining the cultural structure of the Qajar era of the Naser-al-Din Shah period wants to investigate the cause of the Constitutional Revolution. The findings of this research, which have been collected by historical-analytical method, indicate that the pattern of development in the Qajar era is consistent with the pattern of unbalanced development. In this sense, by starting educational, political and military reforms in the Qajar era specially Nasser-al-Din Shah, gradually the cultural structure apart from the traditional political structure. This development provided the basis for the emergence of new intellectuals and elites with new political ideas in the field of governance methods. However, the attenuation of political structure and the backwardness of political development from cultural development faced with some obstacles. Political system instead of creating a development along with gradual cultural development and consolidating its position through the persuasion of the community, in fact to maintain integrity in the social system was resorted to force and preferred force and compulsion to persuasion. The kind of reaction and opposition of the political power structure against the modern intellectual movement, which contained new political demands in the area of governance and freedom, led to the weakness and, finally, the collapse of the Qajar political system and the constitutional revolution.

  16. National Constitutional Avenues for Further EU Integration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Claes, M.; Imamovic, Š.; Reestman, J.H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates national constitutional limits to further EU integration and explores ways to overcome them. It includes an in-depth examination of the constitutional systems of 12 Member States (Croatia, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, the

  17. Constitutional provisions regarding juristic persons | Pienaar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interim Constitution of 1993 and the final Constitution of 1996 contain specific provisions applicable to juristic persons. Juristic persons are also entitled to the fundamental rights contained in the Bill of Rights to the extent that these rights are applicable to them. It must be kept in mind that juristic persons have peculiar ...

  18. Constitutional Government: The Soul of Modern Democracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansfield, Harvey C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the dilemma faced by constitutionalism today: limited, constitutional government requires that people and society be independent and distrustful of the state, but if the people are too independent and capable of ruling, they may wish to extend their powers and attempt to rule over others. (PS)

  19. Ancient wolf genome reveals an early divergence of domestic dog ancestors and admixture into high-latitude breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoglund, Pontus; Ersmark, Erik; Palkopoulou, Eleftheria; Dalén, Love

    2015-06-01

    The origin of domestic dogs is poorly understood [1-15], with suggested evidence of dog-like features in fossils that predate the Last Glacial Maximum [6, 9, 10, 14, 16] conflicting with genetic estimates of a more recent divergence between dogs and worldwide wolf populations [13, 15, 17-19]. Here, we present a draft genome sequence from a 35,000-year-old wolf from the Taimyr Peninsula in northern Siberia. We find that this individual belonged to a population that diverged from the common ancestor of present-day wolves and dogs very close in time to the appearance of the domestic dog lineage. We use the directly dated ancient wolf genome to recalibrate the molecular timescale of wolves and dogs and find that the mutation rate is substantially slower than assumed by most previous studies, suggesting that the ancestors of dogs were separated from present-day wolves before the Last Glacial Maximum. We also find evidence of introgression from the archaic Taimyr wolf lineage into present-day dog breeds from northeast Siberia and Greenland, contributing between 1.4% and 27.3% of their ancestry. This demonstrates that the ancestry of present-day dogs is derived from multiple regional wolf populations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Common paediatric cardiac emergencies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    majority of these children have tetralogy of Fallot, but other lesions such as pulmonary or tricuspid atresia can also present with spells. Proposed mechanisms include spasm of the right ventricular outflow tract, intravascular volume depletion and systemic vasodilation. A 'tet' spell constitutes an emergency, as there is a high ...

  1. CONSTITUTIONAL INTERPRETATION OF ROMANIA: POST MODERNITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. RATHNASWAMY

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Austria had in 1920 Constitutional Court followed by Italy in 1946, Germany in 1949, Romania in 1989, South Africa in 1991, and Ethiopia in 1995. Each Constitution has its provisions on the constitutional interpretation. Romania has its own provisions and it is considered here its legality and the best possible measures and recommendations for future. Judicial power is vested in judiciary to interpret constitution, laws, and actions of other organs of government. Judicial review is the function resulted upon judicial power. Political body joins through the appointment of its members in the judicial review and it limits the independence of judiciary. It also reduces the values of separation of powers. Challenges and opportunities of growth and development do influence the spirit of separation of powers and judicial independence. The principle of inherent judicial power in judiciary inducts upon the constitutional interpretation. Thus, the principles of constitutional interpretation are varying in Romania and other similar constitutional courts of Germany, Ethiopia, and Italy but not in South Africa.

  2. Closing in on the constitution of consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    The science of consciousness is a nascent and thriving field of research that is founded on identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness. However, I have argued that it is the neural constitution of consciousness that science seeks to understand and that there are no evident strategies for distinguishing the correlates and constitution of (phenomenal) consciousness. Here I review this correlation/constitution distinction problem and challenge the existing foundations of consciousness science. I present the main analyses from a longer paper in press on this issue, focusing on recording, inhibition, stimulation, and combined inhibition/stimulation strategies, including proposal of the Jenga analogy to illustrate why identifying the minimally sufficient neural correlates of consciousness should not be considered the ultimate target of consciousness science. Thereafter I suggest that while combined inhibition and stimulation strategies might identify some constitutive neural activities—indeed minimally sufficient constitutive neural activities—such strategies fail to identify the whole neural constitution of consciousness and thus the correlation/constitution distinction problem is not fully solved. Various clarifications, potential objections and related scientific and philosophical issues are also discussed and I conclude by proposing new foundational claims for consciousness science. PMID:25452738

  3. MINISTERIAL LIABILITY IN THE ROMANIAN CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLAE PAVEL

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available What seems relevant to us for highlighting in this study is the approach of the ministerial liability within the Romanian constitutional and legal system starting with the first document of constitutional value, namely the Developing Statute of the Paris Convention of 1858 until today, that is the Constitution of Romania, revised in 2003 and republished. Having in view that this is a generous study topic covering over 150 years of constitutional and legal evolution of ministerial liability in Romania, it is necessary to specify from the very beginning the need of a diachronic approach of this topic by identifying all Romanian Constitutions that have regulated the constitutional system during this period of time. Moreover, we have to specify that, during this period of time, Romania has experienced several forms of governance, namely monarchy, people’s republic, socialist republic and semi-presidential republic. With this approach, the proposed study opens a complex and complete yet not exhaustive vision in the current scope of the ministerial liability. It is also the reason why the study begins with preliminary considerations in which the terminology used in the content of the study is justified. Following a key-scheme, there are successively examined the two major parts of the study, namely the general theory regarding the concepts of ministerial responsibility and liability and the Romanian constitutional, legal and doctrinaire milestones of the ministerial liability.

  4. Competition And Antitrust Law In Ecuadorian Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Marín Sevilla

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work allows us to establish the Economic Constitution and the Competition Law (C.L in the Constitution. Additionally, the paper analyzes whether the rules outlined in the C. L. and in doctrine are consistent and appropriate with the Constitution of Ecuador. The Competition and Antitrust Laws has rules for investigating and punishing the cartels, the abuses of power market (dominant position, the rules for merger control, the behaviors of Abuse of economic dependence, and unfair competition behaviors. Always the Antitrust Authority will analyze these behaviors in terms of welfare of both: the consumer and the market.

  5. The constitutional control system in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Javier Moreno Ortiz

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The system of constitutional control in Colombia designed in the Legislative Act n.º 3 of 1910 is a milestone in a long and fruitful political and constitutional tradition owes much to his Hispanic roots and its American developments. Both the public action of unconstitutionality as the plea of unconstitutionality have clear precedents in the constitutionalism of Spain and the Colony were prepared by a Constituent Assembly acted with knowledge and faithfulness to that tradition and have been and are institutions of our capital social and democratic state of law.

  6. Constitutional dynamic chemistry: bridge from supramolecular chemistry to adaptive chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehn, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    Supramolecular chemistry aims at implementing highly complex chemical systems from molecular components held together by non-covalent intermolecular forces and effecting molecular recognition, catalysis and transport processes. A further step consists in the investigation of chemical systems undergoing self-organization, i.e. systems capable of spontaneously generating well-defined functional supramolecular architectures by self-assembly from their components, thus behaving as programmed chemical systems. Supramolecular chemistry is intrinsically a dynamic chemistry in view of the lability of the interactions connecting the molecular components of a supramolecular entity and the resulting ability of supramolecular species to exchange their constituents. The same holds for molecular chemistry when the molecular entity contains covalent bonds that may form and break reversibility, so as to allow a continuous change in constitution by reorganization and exchange of building blocks. These features define a Constitutional Dynamic Chemistry (CDC) on both the molecular and supramolecular levels.CDC introduces a paradigm shift with respect to constitutionally static chemistry. The latter relies on design for the generation of a target entity, whereas CDC takes advantage of dynamic diversity to allow variation and selection. The implementation of selection in chemistry introduces a fundamental change in outlook. Whereas self-organization by design strives to achieve full control over the output molecular or supramolecular entity by explicit programming, self-organization with selection operates on dynamic constitutional diversity in response to either internal or external factors to achieve adaptation.The merging of the features: -information and programmability, -dynamics and reversibility, -constitution and structural diversity, points to the emergence of adaptive and evolutive chemistry, towards a chemistry of complex matter.

  7. What Would Constitute Evidence for Life on Icy Moons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohorille, A.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2017-01-01

    For the first time since Viking, NASA is considering missions that would include life detection as a primary objective, making it critical to develop and evaluate a diverse set of strategies for seeking evidence of life. The central question is: what should be the target of our search that, if found, would constitute a near-certain evidence for life? Since life on icy moons might be quite different from terrestrial life, we should concentrate on features of biological systems that are considered universal and are unlikely to emerge through abiotic means.

  8. Dynamic constitutional frameworks for DNA biomimetic recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catana, Romina; Barboiu, Mihail; Moleavin, Ioana; Clima, Lilia; Rotaru, Alexandru; Ursu, Elena-Laura; Pinteala, Mariana

    2015-02-07

    Linear and cross-linked dynamic constitutional frameworks generated from reversibly interacting linear PEG/core constituents and cationic sites shed light on the dominant coiling versus linear DNA binding behaviours, closer to the histone DNA binding wrapping mechanism.

  9. Constitutive equation of concrete: Mesomechanical isotropic model

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kafka, Vratislav; Vokoun, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2005), s. 183-193 ISSN 1573-6105 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : plasticity * constitutive modeling * concrete * mesomechanics Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials

  10. Social rights constitutionalism: an antagonistic endorsement

    OpenAIRE

    Christodoulidis, Emilios

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses how we might understand solidarity as the organizing concept behind the institutionalization of social rights. I argue that writing solidarity into social rights constitutionalism carries productive tension into constitutional thinking because it disturbs the smooth passage from civil to political and finally to social rights. Marshall's influential argument that social rights are continuous to civil and political rights has become both the grounding assumption in consti...

  11. Constitutional rights and hypnotically elicited testimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A W; Thompson, J W

    1999-01-01

    Despite the former popularity of hypnosis as a way of "improving" eyewitness memory, many courts almost always regard the use of this testimony to be inadmissible, whereas others allow it only when strict procedural guidelines have been followed. Although the U.S. Supreme Court recognized a defendant's constitutional right to admit his own hypnotically elicited testimony, others have recognized a constitutional basis to exclude hypnotically elicited testimony in most other circumstances.

  12. On the constitutionality of dose limiting values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, V.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental right according to Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the German Constitution is relevant for the set-up and application of radiation protection law. Resulting from Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution it is a general obligation of the state to protect life (Federal Constitutional Court, judgment of 25th Feb., 1975, BVerfGE 39.1) and physical soundness. The subjective basic right of everybody to defend against official encroachments his personal integrity corresponds to the right of the individual within the framework of the official obligation for protection from the state (to ward off danger). The term of danger, as to the degree of its determination, corresponds to that of the encroachment. To speak of danger in a legal sense, the causal connection between a certain source of danger and certain damage must be ascertained and proved. Topical controversies as to the admissibility of activity discharges of low doses range in the field of risk reduction and thus in the field of the duty of the state to take precautionary steps against risks (Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 1 of the Constitution). The constitution, however, does not contain any basic right that every risk has to be avoided. On the other hand, the necessity of cautions valuation of radiation risks can be derived from the Constitution. The fixation of dose limits and their application in connection with general radiation protection principles (paragraph 28 E of the Radiation Protection Ordinance) do not contain any 'interference' with the basic right in the sense of Art. 2 par. 2 sentence 3 of the Constitution. Neither from aspects of the principle of the legal state nor from Art. 80 par. 1 of the Constitution can the use of the legal form of the Ordinance be doubted. (orig./HP) [de

  13. The Functions of Constitutional Identity Performed in the Context of Constitutionalization of the EU Order and Europeanization of the Legal Orders of EU Member States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belov Martin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of the functions performed by constitutional identity in constitutional discourses of both the EU and its Member States, in the context of emerging post-Westphalian and supranational constitutionalism. The analysis tries to demonstrate that constitutional identity may serve as one of the key normative ideologies, legitimation strategies and ordering schemes of EU constitutionalism. It reasserts through functional analysis the suitability of constitutional identity for organizing and explaining multiple constitutional orders in a non-hierarchical and inclusive way.

  14. "While we are questioning we are progressing"—A Reply to the Ancestors of Qualitative Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Götsch

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available REICHERTZ' reflections on the development of qualitative research during the Berlin Meeting on Qualitative Research Methods in 2009 (http://www.berliner-methodentreffen.de/ have led to the following central questions: Are we facing the end of critical social research? Is this possible end correlated with an uncritical mass of young scientists? In their reply to the ancestors of qualitative research the present authors advocate the abolition of a bipolar thinking about the issues and support a hybrid turn, standing the test through a fundamentally open-minded, reflexive, and deconstructive researcher`s attitude. Using the example of ethnography and gender studies we show that there are indeed opportunities for the future of critical social research: This approach would take place beyond the slaves of market-controlled contract research and ahead of the characters of the eternal hall of fame of social research. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0903306

  15. A molecular palaeobiological hypothesis for the origin of aplacophoran molluscs and their derivation from chiton-like ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinther, Jakob; Sperling, Erik A; Briggs, Derek E G; Peterson, Kevin J

    2012-04-07

    Aplacophorans have long been argued to be basal molluscs. We present a molecular phylogeny, including the aplacophorans Neomeniomorpha (Solenogastres) and Chaetodermomorpha (Caudofoveata), which recovered instead the clade Aculifera (Aplacophora + Polyplacophora). Our relaxed Bayesian molecular clock estimates an Early Ordovician appearance of the aculiferan crown group consistent with the presence of chiton-like molluscs with seven or eight dorsal shell plates by the Late Cambrian (approx. 501-490 Ma). Molecular, embryological and palaeontological data indicate that aplacophorans, as well as chitons, evolved from a paraphyletic assemblage of chiton-like ancestors. The recovery of cephalopods as a sister group to aculiferans suggests that the plesiomorphic condition in molluscs might be a morphology similar to that found in monoplacophorans.

  16. Chasing ghosts: allopolyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (Polygonaceae) from its only diploid congener and an unknown ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xin; Hu, Quanjun; Zhou, Pingping; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Qian; Abbott, Richard J; Liu, Jianquan

    2017-06-01

    Reconstructing the origin of a polyploid species is particularly challenging when an ancestor has become extinct. Under such circumstances, the extinct donor of a genome found in the polyploid may be treated as a 'ghost' species in that its prior existence is recognized through the presence of its genome in the polyploid. In this study, we aimed to determine the polyploid origin of Oxyria sinensis (2n = 40) for which only one congeneric species is known, that is diploid O. digyna (2n = 14). Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH), transcriptome, phylogenetic and demographic analyses, and ecological niche modelling were conducted for this purpose. GISH revealed that O. sinensis comprised 14 chromosomes from O. digyna and 26 chromosomes from an unknown ancestor. Transcriptome analysis indicated that following divergence from O. digyna, involving genome duplication around 12 million years ago (Ma), a second genome duplication occurred approximately 6 Ma to give rise to O. sinensis. Oxyria sinensis was shown to contain homologous gene sequences divergent from those present in O. digyna in addition to a set that clustered with those in O. digyna. Coalescent simulations indicated that O. sinensis expanded its distribution approximately 6-7 Ma, possibly following the second polyploidization event, whereas O. digyna expanded its range much later. It was also indicated that the distributions of both species contracted and re-expanded during the Pleistocene climatic oscillations. Ecological niche modelling similarly suggested that both species experienced changes in their distributional ranges in response to Quaternary climatic changes. The extinction of the unknown 'ghost' tetraploid species implicated in the origin of O. sinensis could have resulted from superior adaptation of O. sinensis to repeated climatic changes in the region where it now occurs. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Abdominal emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raissaki, M.

    2012-01-01

    Full text: There are numerous conditions that affect mainly or exclusively the pediatric population. These constitute true emergencies, related to patient's health. Delay in diagnosis and treatment of abdominal non-traumatic emergencies may result in rapid deterioration, peritonitis, sepsis, even death or in severe complications with subsequent morbidity. Abdominal emergencies in children mostly present with pain, tenderness, occasionally coupled by vomiting, fever, abdominal distension, and failure to pass meconium or stools. Diarrhea, blood per rectum, abnormal laboratory tests and lethargy may also be manifestations of acute abdominal conditions. Abdominal emergencies have a different aetiology, depending on age and whether the pain is acute or chronic. Symptoms have to be matched with age and gender. Newborns up to 1 months of age may have congenital diseases: atresia, low obstruction including Hirschsprung's disease, meconium ileus. Meconium plug is one of the commonest cause of low obstruction in newborns that may also develop necrotizing enterocolitis, incarcerated inguinal hernia and mid-gut volvulus. Past the immediate postnatal period, any duodenal obstruction should be considered midgut volvulus until proven otherwise and patients should undergo ultrasonography and/or properly performed upper GI contrast study that records the exact position of the deduno-jejunal junction. Infants 6 months-2 years carry the risk of intussusception, mid-gut volvulus, perforation, acute pyelonephritis. Preschool and school-aged children 2-12 years carry the risk of appendicitis, genito-urinary abnormalities including torsion, urachal abnormalities, haemolytic uremic syndrome and Henoch-Schonlein purpura. Children above 12 years suffer from the same conditions as in adults. Most conditions may affect any age despite age predilection. Abdominal solid organ ultrasonography (US) coupled with gastrointestinal ultrasonography is the principle imaging modality in radiosensitive

  18. Loading method of core constituting elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasai, Shigeo

    1976-01-01

    Purpose: To provide a remote-controlled replacing method for core constituting elements in a liquid-metal cooling fast breeder, wherein particularly, the core constituting elements are prevented from being loaded on the core position other than as designated. Constitution: The method comprises a first step which determines a position of a suitable neutron shielding body in order to measure a reference level of complete insertion of the core constituting elements, a second step which inserts a gripper for a fuel exchanger, a third step which decides stroke dimensions of the complete insertion, and a fourth step which discriminates the core constituting elements to begin handling of fuel rods. The method further comprises a fifth step which determines a loading position of fuel rod, and a sixth step which inserts and loads fuel rods into the core. The method still further comprises a seventh step which compares and judges the dimension of loading stroke and the dimension of complete inserting stroke so that when coincided, loading is completed, and when not coincided, loading is not completed and then the cycle of the fourth step is repeated. (Kawakami, Y.)

  19. A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa Reis, Martina; Wang, Yongqi; Bono Maurizio Sacchi Bassi, Adalberto

    2013-11-01

    A constitutive theory of reacting electrolyte mixtures is formulated. The intermolecular interactions among the constituents of the mixture are accounted for through additional freedom degrees to each constituent of the mixture. Balance equations for polar reacting continuum mixtures are accordingly formulated and a proper set of constitutive equations is derived with basis in the Müller-Liu formulation of the second law of thermodynamics. Moreover, the non-equilibrium and equilibrium responses of the reacting mixture are investigated in detail by emphasizing the inner and reactive structures of the medium. From the balance laws and constitutive relations, the effects of molecular structure of constituents upon the fluid flow are studied. It is also demonstrated that the local thermodynamic equilibrium state can be reached without imposing that the set of independent constitutive variables is time independent, neither spatially homogeneous nor null. The resulting constitutive relations presented throughout this work are of relevance to many practical applications, such as swelling of clays, developing of bio and polymeric membranes, and use of electrorheological fluids in industrial processes. The first author acknowledges financial support from National Counsel of Technological and Scientific Development (CNPq) and German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD).

  20. Health care law versus constitutional law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Mark A

    2013-04-01

    National Federation of Independent Business v. Sebelius, the Supreme Court's ruling on the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, is a landmark decision - both for constitutional law and for health care law and policy. Others will study its implications for constitutional limits on a range of federal powers beyond health care. This article considers to what extent the decision is also about health care law, properly conceived. Under one view, health care law is the subdiscipline that inquires how courts and government actors take account of the special features of medicine that make legal or policy issues especially problematic - rather than regarding health care delivery and finance more generically, like most any other economic or social enterprise. Viewed this way, the opinions from the Court's conservative justices are mainly about general constitutional law principles. In contrast, Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg's dissenting opinion for the four more liberal justices is just as much about health care law as it is about constitutional law. Her opinion gives detailed attention to the unique features of health care finance and delivery in order to inform her analysis of constitutional precedents and principles. Thus, the Court's multiple opinions give a vivid depiction of the compelling contrasts between communal versus individualistic conceptions of caring for those in need, and between health care and health insurance as ordinary commodities versus ones that merit special economic, social, and legal status.

  1. Nuclear energy and the constitutional state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saladin, P.

    1984-01-01

    This article puts the main emphasis on the problems of the constitutional principles of democracy, federalism, peaceful living together of peoples and constitutional state, i.e. problems caused by the development of nuclear energy. The fact that these problems are explained by way of the example of Switzerland, does not reduce the validity of the findings also for the German constitutional system, since the problems are identical and comparable. A long-term goal is a state theory which helps to define the aims and tasks of the state under technical, social, economic and cultural conditions of the end of the 20th and perhaps of the 21st century. Nuclear technology challenges the modern Western state and puts to the test the firmness of its legitimacy basis and the efficiency of its principles. It was conceived in a time which is separated from the present by technological revolutions. Safeguarding of humanity is aim and obligation of the modern constitutional state; the constitutional state stipulates the rules of conduct and, if the state remains true to its claim, it sets the procedures and the organization which give due priority order to the development of modern technology. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Healing and coping with life within challenges of spiritual insecurity: Juxtaposed consideration of Christ’s sinlessness and African ancestors in pastoral guidance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vhumani Magezi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Spiritual insecurity among African Christians is a huge challenge. The insecurity among other things arises from African people’s former traditional African ancestral world view of ancestral veneration. The ancestors promote or hinder African Christians’ reliance on Christ because they have presupposedly acquired the supernatural power that enables them to provide diagnoses and solutions to life challenges. The inherent problem in the ancestral world view, however, is that the ancestors are both respected and feared by their descendants because they can either bless or harm depending on the state of the relationship between the surviving human beings and the ancestors. The basis of the unpredictable influence of ancestors lies in the fact that they (ancestors are considered as human beings who carry their human qualities to the spiritual world. In light of this situation, one constructive approach that can be advanced to address the challenges of African Christians’ spiritual insecurity is a proper understanding of Christ as a sinless representative of humanity. This approach maintains that healing and coping with life within the challenge of African spirituality in the context of threatening life issues can be addressed by an appropriate understanding of Christ’s sinlessness. The article argues for the foundational status of Christ as a sinless representative of humanity as the controlling framework. In doing so, Christ’s sinlessness and the sinfulness of natural ancestors are juxtaposed to compare the two ontologies in order to draw some pastoral guidelines for African Christians. This approach pays close attention to the factors and mindset that sustain people who adhere to ancestral worship and assess them through a lens of Christology focusing on Christ’s sinlessness as an exemplary doctrine.

  3. Constitutional Fundamentals of Conscription and Some Aspects of the Ordinary Legal Regulation of Constitutionality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenstavičienė Kristina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Article 139 of the Constitution of the Republic of Lithuania is one of the constitutional fundamentals of state defense and stipulates the defense of the state as the right of citizens on the one hand and the duty on the other. This article of the Constitution gives the legislative power the right of discretion to detail by law the order of the implementation of citizens’ duty to perform military or alternative country defense service. Due to the reorganization of the armed forces into a professional and volunteer army, the issue of some ordinary regulation rules concerning the constitutionality of nationwide conscription, though at present suspended but not abolished, is becoming urgent. Though the Constitutional Court of the Republic of Lithuania presented their ruling on the constitutionality of the suspension of military conscription, it does not mean that all problems related to conscription have been settled. The aim of this article is to analyze the constitutional basis of nationwide conscription as well as the constitutionality of some ordinary regulation provisions related to nationwide conscription. Therefore, the issue to be analyzed is whether nationwide conscription, if it were to be implemented, complies with the constitutional principles of human equality and military justice1. Consequently, the question is posed how the constitutional objective of ensuring the defense of the state determines conscription. Because of the growing employment of the army abroad, yet the dwindling demand for conscripts, it should be explored whether the suspension of the nationwide conscription as a part of the defense reform is further feasible in order to guarantee the defense of the state. In answering the raised questions, the author will analyze the abundant and long-lasting constitutional doctrine of Germany which provides clarifications of the Basic Law, as the legal act of the establishing power, which can doubtless be of assistance in

  4. The Trials and Tribulations of Constitutionalism and the Constitution Making Process in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Mapuva, Jephias

    2015-01-01

    Constitutionalism in Zimbabwe has been characterised by controversy with citizens getting a raw deal. The colonial era was characterised by deprivation of basic rights and civil liberties. A plethora of constitutions were established to try and create a semblance of black representativity. The post-colonial era was informed by governance structures provided by the Lancaster House Constitutional document which was a surrender document that brought the protracted liberation struggle to an end. ...

  5. Emergency medical treatment and 'do not resuscitate' orders: When ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FORUM. 223 April 2013, Vol. 103, No. 4 SAMJ. The meaning of emergency medical treatment. The Constitution[1] and the National Health Act[2] provide that nobody shall be refused emergency medical treatment. The National. Health Act does not define emergency medical treatment, but the. Constitutional Court defines it ...

  6. Extended constitutive laws for lamellar phases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Deuk Yoo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Classically, stress and strain rate in linear viscoelastic materials are related by a constitutive relationship involving the viscoelastic modulus G(t. The same constitutive law, within Linear Response Theory, relates currents of conserved quantities and gradients of existing conjugate variables, and it involves the autocorrelation functions of the currents in equilibrium. We explore the consequences of the latter relationship in the case of a mesoscale model of a block copolymer, and derive the resulting relationship between viscous friction and order parameter diffusion that would result in a lamellar phase. We also explicitly consider in our derivation the fact that the dissipative part of the stress tensor must be consistent with the uniaxial symmetry of the phase. We then obtain a relationship between the stress and order parameter autocorrelation functions that can be interpreted as an extended constitutive law, one that offers a way to determine them from microscopic experiment or numerical simulation.

  7. A survey of unified constitutive theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, K. S.; Lindholm, U. S.; Bodner, S. R.; Walker, K. P.

    1985-01-01

    The state of the art of time temperature dependent elastic viscoplastic constitutive theories which are based on the unified approach werre assessed. This class of constitutive theories is characterized by the use of kinetic equations and internal variables with appropriate evolutionary equations for treating all aspects of inelastic deformation including plasticity, creep, and stress relaxation. More than 10 such unified theories which are shown to satisfy the uniqueness and stability criteria imposed by Drucker's postulate and Ponter's inequalities are identified. The theories are compared for the types of flow law, kinetic equation, evolutionary equation of the internal variables, and treatment of temperature dependence. The similarities and differences of these theories are outlined in terms of mathematical formulations and illustrated by comparisons of theoretical calculations with experimental results which include monotonic stress-strain curves, cyclic hysteresis loops, creep and stress relaxation rates, and thermomechanical loops. Numerical methods used for integrating these stiff time temperature dependent constitutive equations are reviewed.

  8. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict...

  9. Catholic Modernity and the Italian Constitution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomassen, Bjørn; Forlenza, Rosario

    2016-01-01

    project for the new Constitution had a considerable impact on modern Italian culture and politics and on the building of a modern mass democracy and welfare state. During the crucial historical juncture that followed the collapse of Fascism, Catholic politicians and intellectuals sought to interpret......This article analyzes the Catholic contribution to the Italian republican and democratic Constitution of 1948. The focus is on the specific way in which the Italian citizen became symbolically coded as a ‘person’ and not as an ‘individual’, inspired by Catholic social philosophy. The Catholic...

  10. Waste management in South Africa: Institutional and legal discords a call for Constitutional and related laws’ reform

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nhamo, G

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Great efforts have been made towards environmental and/ or waste management law reform and harmonisation in South Africa. However, much discord still remains. Such discord emerges from the Constitution and other environmental laws that fail...

  11. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  12. generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    QUICK CLAY. PANCRAS MUGISHAGWE BUJULU AND GUSTAV GRIMSTAD. ABSTRACT. An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been ... Clay Model, the Koiter Rule and two Mapping Rules. .... models, where a mobilization formulation is used, this is independent of q.

  13. The Anatomy of a Constitutional Tort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Jeffrey J.

    1988-01-01

    Given state law barriers to recovery for the negligence of public officials, redress is often sought in federal courts. Discusses the concept of "constitutional tort" and analyzes the various components and the elements that must be satisfied before recovery is allowed. (MLF)

  14. generalized constitutive model for stabilized quick clay

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experimentally-based two yield surface constitutive model for cemented quick clay has been developed at NTNU, Norway, to reproduce the mechanical behavior of the stabilized quick clay in the triaxial p'-q stress space. The model takes into account the actual mechanical properties of the stabilized material, such as ...

  15. Constitution 200: A Bicentennial Collection of Essays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepburn, Mary A., Ed.; And Others

    Constitutional essays which formed the basis of public assemblies throughout three states are compiled in this book. The first three essays consider the U.S. government principles of federalism, judicial review, and the separation of powers. Michael L. Benedict proposes that the question of ultimate sovereignty has been answered differently by…

  16. Ethnicity and constitutionalism in contemporary Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbink, G.J.

    1997-01-01

    According to the policy of the government of the Ethiopian Peoples' Revolutionary Democratic Front (EPRDF), ethnic identity is the ideological basis of Ethiopia's political organization and administration and as such has been enshrined in the Federal Constitution of December 1994. Yet the

  17. Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Between availability and entitlement: The Constitution, Grootboom and the right to food. Danie Brand. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians ...

  18. Optimizing culture medium for debittering constitutive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2010-08-02

    Aug 2, 2010 ... The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient requirements for extracellular constitutive naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to determine the impact of different carbon and nitrogen sources on naringinase production. Naringin exhibited ...

  19. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  20. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Carlsbad, NM (United States)

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well.

  1. A hypoplastic constitutive model for clays

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mašín, David

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 4 (2005), s. 311-336 ISSN 0363-9061 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : clay * constitutive model * hypoplasticity Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering Impact factor: 0.590, year: 2005

  2. Constitutive equations for two-phase flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1974-12-01

    The mathematical model of a system of fluids consists of several kinds of equations complemented by boundary and initial conditions. The first kind equations result from the application to the system, of the fundamental conservation laws (mass, momentum, energy). The second kind equations characterize the fluid itself, i.e. its intrinsic properties and in particular its mechanical and thermodynamical behavior. They are the mathematical model of the particular fluid under consideration, the laws they expressed are so called the constitutive equations of the fluid. In practice the constitutive equations cannot be fully stated without reference to the conservation laws. Two classes of model have been distinguished: mixture model and two-fluid models. In mixture models, the mixture is considered as a single fluid. Besides the usual friction factor and heat transfer correlations, a single constitutive law is necessary. In diffusion models, the mixture equation of state is replaced by the phasic equations of state and by three consitutive laws, for phase change mass transfer, drift velocity and thermal non-equilibrium respectively. In the two-fluid models, the two phases are considered separately; two phasic equations of state, two friction factor correlations, two heat transfer correlations and four constitutive laws are included [fr

  3. Optimizing culture medium for debittering constitutive enzyme ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to investigate nutrient requirements for extracellular constitutive naringinase production by Aspergillus oryzae JMU316. The one-factor-at-a-time method was used to determine the impact of different carbon and nitrogen sources on naringinase production. Naringin exhibited the highest ...

  4. Constitutive modelling of sandvik 1RK91

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Datta, K.; Hommes, M.; Post, J.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Beyer, J.; Onate, E; Owen, D.R.J

    2003-01-01

    A physically based constitutive equation is being developed for the maraging stainless steel Sandvik 1RK91. The steel is used to make precision parts. These parts are formed through multistage forming operations and heat treatments from cold rolled and annealed sheets. The specific alloy is designed

  5. POSITION AND STRATEGIC LEITMOTIVS IN CONSTITUTIONAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Technology

    novel rigorously interrogating issues of identity and difference. A resoluteness not to repeat the injustices of ... to mind in this regard are National Coalition for Gay and Lesbian Equality v Minister of Justice43 (the ... Lesbian and Gay Equality Project v Minister of Home Affairs,48 the Constitutional. Court judgment in which the ...

  6. globalisation, the development of constitutionalism and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Tanya du Plessis

    is important because labour law systems differ among countries. There may be ... international law and each country's courts will apply its own rules if the court is ..... evidence about the Mozambican constitution or the protection of human rights in that country. What is significant is that the court was prepared to assume.

  7. Great Constitutional Ideas: Justice, Equality, and Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starr, Isidore

    1987-01-01

    Examines the ideas of justice, equality, and property as they are represented in the Declaration of Independence, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Discusses how these ideas affect the way public schools operate and the lessons educators teach or don't teach about our society. Includes ideas for classroom activities. (JDH)

  8. Constitutive laws, tensorial invariance and chocolate cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rundle, John B.; Passman, S. L.

    1982-04-01

    Although constitutive modeling is a well-established branch of mathematics which has found wide industrial application, geophysicists often do not take full advantage of its known results. We present a synopsis of the theory of constitutive modeling, couched in terms of the ‘simple material’, which has been extensively studied and is complex enough to include most of the correct models proposed to describe the behavior of geological materials. Critical in the development of the theory are various invariance requirements, the principal ones being coordinate invariance, peer group invariance (isotropy), and frame-indifference. Each places distinet restrictions on constitutive equations. A noncomprehensive list of properly invariant and commonly used constitutive equations is given. To exemplify use of the equations, we consider two problems in detail: steady extension, which models the commonly performed constant strain rate triaxial test, and simple shearing. We note that each test is so restricted kinematically that only the most trivial aspects of material behavior are manifested in these tests, no matter how complex the material. Furthermore, the results of one test do not generally determine the results of the other.

  9. Crushed-salt constitutive model update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-01-01

    Modifications to the constitutive model used to describe the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--defined previously but used separately are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing the deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. New creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the shear consolidation tests and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic consolidation tests produced two sets of material parameter values for the model. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the model but demonstrates improvement over earlier work with the previous models. Key improvements are the ability to capture lateral strain reversal and better resolve parameter values. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the model to predict the test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  10. Does the Constitution Protect the Despised?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Richard L; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Presented is the history of the Scottsboro case, in which eight Black men were found guilty and sentenced to death for raping two White women in Alabama. At the heart of the Scottsboro trials was the issue of whether the U.S. Constitution established standards of justice in state criminal trials. (RM)

  11. income tax assignment under the ethiopian constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eliasn

    Constitution from an income tax point of view. And finally, the article ends with some concluding remarks. 1. Theories of Fiscal Federalism In Income Tax Assignment. Few countries pursue the course of decentralization on grounds of its perceived economic efficiency or equity. Political, social, cultural or historical forces are.

  12. Constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Essen, Marina; Bonefeld, Charlotte Menné; Siersma, Volkert

    2004-01-01

    divergent models for TCR down-regulation and degradation have been suggested. The aims of this study were to determine the rate constants for constitutive and ligand-induced TCR degradation and to determine whether the TCR subunits segregate or are processed as an intact unit during TCR down...

  13. Constitutional protection against discrimination of homosexuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaldijk, K

    A brief review of equality for homosexuals prior to 1983 is presented followed by the introduction and explanation of the relevant section of the revised edition of the Dutch Constitution (enacted in 1983). The possible impact of this section on the abolishment of discrimination based on sex and sexual orientation is discussed.

  14. Notes: Constitutionalism | Bazezew | Mizan Law Review

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mizan Law Review. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3, No 2 (2009) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Notes: Constitutionalism. M Bazezew. Abstract. (No abstract). Full Text: EMAIL FREE ...

  15. 1 HUMAN DIGNITY - OUR SUPREME CONSTITUTIONAL VALUE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    There can be little doubt that, as far as constitutional interpretation and statutory interpretation in general is concerned, South Africa is undergoing a transformation from a formal, positivistic vision of law to a substantive, natural law vision of law.4 And the single most significant factor in this transformation is the existence of ...

  16. Language question and the constitutional challenges of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    to the analogy of the Tower of Babel_ a linguistic confusion. This paper puts multilingualism in its proper perspective as a blessing, which must be accorded a full constitutional recognition, rather than a curse; an asset, rather than a liability. While making Nigeria a focal point of reference, especially the language component ...

  17. Constitutional Provisions And Administrative Disciplinary Powers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Medical and Dental Practitioners Disciplinary Tribunal is empowered to deal with all cases of professional discipline under the Medical and Dental Practitioners Act. This process of administrative adjudication is examined against the background of constitutional provision that affects the exercise of the powers of the ...

  18. The parameters of constitutional conflict after Melloni

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.

    2014-01-01

    The judgment of the Court of Justice of the EU in Melloni makes clear that primacy of EU law is not about citizens’ rights: even the core of their constitutional rights under national law has to be set aside in favour of the "primacy, unity and effectiveness" of EU law. Melloni extends the duty to

  19. The Constitution of a Transnational Policy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Erik; Frankel, Christian

    is dependent on an inter-organizational coordination between the EU and ESO. Applying the analytical concept of a `policy field' the analysis shows how the completion of the internal market fundamentally challenges institutionalized conceptions of the role of politics in constituting markets.Keywords: Internal...... market, policy field, technical standards, transnationalization, new approach harmonization, private product policy...

  20. LEGAL AND CONSTITUTIONAL EVALUATION OF THE NIGERIAN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sets such as stocks, bonds, real estate, or other financial in- struments funded by foreign exchange assets. These assets can include: balance of payments ...... national agency or programme with the funds meant for the three tiers of government which is dealt with in section 162(3) of the 1999 Constitution. It is important to ...

  1. Culture (and religion) in constitutional adjudication | Rautenbach ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The faculty of law of the Potchefstroom University for Christian Higher Education in corroboration with the Konrad-Adenauer-Stifttung embarked on a study on Politics, Socio-Economic Issues and Culture in Constitutional Adjudication. The aim of the project is twofold. The first aim is to analyse the influence of political, ...

  2. Rapping the 27 Amendments to the Constitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knaresborough, Adam

    2009-01-01

    Early in the year, the students of history and government at Mountain View High School in Stafford, Virginia, began to devise hand motions to help memorize the 27 amendments to the Constitution for government class. Three students in the school who are interested in hip hop music then suggested composing a rap song about the topic. Working with…

  3. Constitutive behavior of reconsolidating crushed salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callahan, G.D.; Mellegard, K.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1998-02-01

    The constitutive model used to describe deformation of crushed salt is presented in this paper. Two mechanisms--dislocation creep and grain boundary diffusional pressure solutioning--are combined to form the basis for the constitutive model governing deformation of crushed salt. The constitutive model is generalized to represent three-dimensional states of stress. Recently completed creep consolidation tests are combined with an existing database that includes hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt to determine material parameters for the constitutive model. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from shear consolidation tests and a combination of shear and hydrostatic tests produces two sets of material parameter values for the model. Changes in material parameter values from test group to test group indicate the empirical nature of the model but show significant improvement over earlier work. To demonstrate the predictive capability of the model, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on fitting statistics and ability of the model to predict test data, the model appears to capture the creep consolidation behavior of crushed salt quite well

  4. School Choice and State Constitutions' Religion Clauses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komer, Richard D.

    2009-01-01

    After the U.S. Supreme Court's decision in "Zelman v. Simmons-Harris," only state religion clauses represent a potential constitutional bar to the inclusion of religious options in properly designed school choice programs. The two most significant are compelled support clauses and Blaine Amendments. Both are frequently misinterpreted by state…

  5. religious freedom in South African constitutional jurisprudence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Irma Kroeze

    does not combine easily, and if we ignore the effect of language on understanding we will no ... the ways in which the South African Constitutional Court has dealt with the question of religious freedom as an .... recognises both the dependence of politics on social and economic conditions and the dependence of these ...

  6. The U.S. Constitution in Today's World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    A comparative study of constitutions and governments in world history is a key to deeper understanding of the U.S. Constitution. While many countries have constitutions, the United States is among a minority of nations in today's world that has a constitutional government. Many nations' constitutions truly guarantee few protections of individual…

  7. 77 FR 57981 - Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-18

    ... Day and Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0... Citizenship Day, Constitution Week, 2012 By the President of the United States of America A Proclamation Today... the candidates for citizenship who will commemorate this day by joining our American family. For more...

  8. Institute of constitutional revision in the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, comparative view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makbule Çeço

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In its very dynamic essence, a democratic society bears the need for continuous reformation and perfection, and that is why the application of reforms represents an inseparable feature for this type of society. The consolidation of the rule of law, the institutional independence, and the cause of justice itself comprise, inter alia, the need for constitutional revision. This study puts forward a theoretical-historical comparative view of the relevant and dynamic issue of the institute of constitutional revision in the framework of the Constitution of the Republic of Albania, as a complex process accompanied by limitations on constitutional revision. The historical evolution of constitutional drafting, modern constitutions, relevant issues, political and social circumstances as well as drafting and adoption procedures, dynamism of constitutions to cope with the course of time achieved by revisions for the purpose of their stability as well as consolidation of the role of constitutions as a factor that facilitates and precedes social development, comprise the pillar of this study addressed in a comparative point of view.

  9. The Franco-German constitutional divide: reflections on national and constitutional identity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reestman, J.H.

    2009-01-01

    German Constitutional Court decision of 30 June 2009 on the compatibility of the Lisbon Treaty with the German Constitution - ‘Identity’ key word of the Lissabon-Urteil - The national identity clause in the current Union Treaty - Nation: people and state; diachronic and synchronic identity -

  10. Parameters of constitutional development: The fiscal compact in between EU and member state constitutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Besselink, L.F.M.; Rossi, L.S.; Casolari, F.

    2014-01-01

    The answer to the questions whether the Lisbon Treaty is a quasi-constitutional framework to be revised, and whether the crisis is a matter for amending or just completing the Lisbon Treaty, depends on our understanding of what constitutional change is and entails. In this chapter, the boundaries of

  11. Emerging Market Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter; Hobdari, Bersant

    2017-01-01

    International knowledge flows and innovation are becoming ever more important to the competitiveness of multinational corporations. Emerging market multinationals (EMNCs) in specific are deploying increasingly activist measures to harness foreign sources of knowledge and innovation as a strategy...... to build up their firm-specific resources and capabilities. In the following, we argue that EMNCs' strategic asset-seeking investments constitute a particularly interesting class of investments, as it presents important challenges to international business theory, firm strategy and public policy. We argue...

  12. Integrating path dependency and path creation in a general understanding of path constitution

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Uli; Schubert, Cornelius

    2007-01-01

    Path dependency as it is described by Arthur and David portrays technological developments as historically embedded, emergent processes. In contrast, Garud and Karnøe's notion of path creation emphasises the role of strategic change and deliberate action for the development of new technologies. In this article, we integrate both concepts into a general understanding of path processes which accounts for emergent as well as deliberate modes of path constitution. In addition, we distinguish betw...

  13. No known hominin species matches the expected dental morphology of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Robles, Aida; Bermúdez de Castro, José María; Arsuaga, Juan-Luis; Carbonell, Eudald; Polly, P David

    2013-11-05

    A central problem in paleoanthropology is the identity of the last common ancestor of Neanderthals and modern humans ([N-MH]LCA). Recently developed analytical techniques now allow this problem to be addressed using a probabilistic morphological framework. This study provides a quantitative reconstruction of the expected dental morphology of the [N-MH]LCA and an assessment of whether known fossil species are compatible with this ancestral position. We show that no known fossil species is a suitable candidate for being the [N-MH]LCA and that all late Early and Middle Pleistocene taxa from Europe have Neanderthal dental affinities, pointing to the existence of a European clade originated around 1 Ma. These results are incongruent with younger molecular divergence estimates and suggest at least one of the following must be true: (i) European fossils and the [N-MH]LCA selectively retained primitive dental traits; (ii) molecular estimates of the divergence between Neanderthals and modern humans are underestimated; or (iii) phenotypic divergence and speciation between both species were decoupled such that phenotypic differentiation, at least in dental morphology, predated speciation.

  14. Identification, genealogical structure and population genetics of S-alleles in Malus sieversii, the wild ancestor of domesticated apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, X; Cai, Z; Liu, W; Ge, S; Tang, L

    2017-09-01

    The self-incompatibility (SI) gene that is specifically expressed in pistils encodes the SI-associated ribonuclease (S-RNase), functioning as the female-specificity determinant of a gametophytic SI system. Despite extensive surveys in Malus domestica, the S-alleles have not been fully investigated for Malus sieversii, the primary wild ancestor of the domesticated apple. Here we screened the M. sieversii S-alleles via PCR amplification and sequencing, and identified 14 distinct alleles in this species. By contrast, nearly 40 are present in its close wild relative, Malus sylvestris. We further sequenced 8 nuclear genes to provide a neutral reference, and investigated the evolution of S-alleles via genealogical and population genetic analyses. Both shared ancestral polymorphism and an excess of non-synonymous substitution were detected in the S-RNases of the tribe Maleae in Rosaceae, indicating the action of long-term balancing selection. Approximate Bayesian Computations based on the reference neutral loci revealed a severe bottleneck in four of the six studied M. sieversii populations, suggesting that the low number of S-alleles found in this species is mainly the result of diversity loss due to a drastic population contraction. Such a bottleneck may lead to ambiguous footprints of ongoing balancing selection detected at the S-locus. This study not only elucidates the constituents and number of S-alleles in M. sieversii but also illustrates the potential utility of S-allele number shifts in demographic inference for self-incompatible plant species.

  15. Evolution from a respiratory ancestor to fill syntrophic and fermentative niches: comparative fenomics of six Geobacteraceae species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lovley Derek R

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anaerobic degradation of organic matter in natural environments, and the biotechnical use of anaerobes in energy production and remediation of subsurface environments, both require the cooperative activity of a diversity of microorganisms in different metabolic niches. The Geobacteraceae family contains members with three important anaerobic metabolisms: fermentation, syntrophic degradation of fermentation intermediates, and anaerobic respiration. Results In order to learn more about the evolution of anaerobic microbial communities, the genome sequences of six Geobacteraceae species were analyzed. The results indicate that the last common Geobacteraceae ancestor contained sufficient genes for anaerobic respiration, completely oxidizing organic compounds with the reduction of external electron acceptors, features that are still retained in modern Geobacter and Desulfuromonas species. Evolution of specialization for fermentative growth arose twice, via distinct lateral gene transfer events, in Pelobacter carbinolicus and Pelobacter propionicus. Furthermore, P. carbinolicus gained hydrogenase genes and genes for ferredoxin reduction that appear to permit syntrophic growth via hydrogen production. The gain of new physiological capabilities in the Pelobacter species were accompanied by the loss of several key genes necessary for the complete oxidation of organic compounds and the genes for the c-type cytochromes required for extracellular electron transfer. Conclusion The results suggest that Pelobacter species evolved parallel strategies to enhance their ability to compete in environments in which electron acceptors for anaerobic respiration were limiting. More generally, these results demonstrate how relatively few gene changes can dramatically transform metabolic capabilities and expand the range of environments in which microorganisms can compete.

  16. B1 was the ancestor B chromosome variant in the western Mediterranean area in the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis plorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrero, J; López-León, M D; Ruíz-Estévez, M; Gómez, R; Petitpierre, E; Rufas, J S; Massa, B; Kamel Ben Halima, M; Camacho, J P M

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed the distribution of 2 repetitive DNAs, i.e. ribosomal DNA (rDNA) and a satellite DNA (satDNA), on the B chromosomes found in 17 natural populations of the grasshopper Eyprepocnemis ploransplorans sampled around the western Mediterranean region, including the Iberian Peninsula, Balearic Islands, Sicily, and Tunisia. Based on the amount of these repetitive DNAs, 4 types of B variants were found: B1, showing an equal or higher amount of rDNA than satDNA, and 3 other variants, B2, B24 and B5, bearing a higher amount of satDNA than rDNA. The variants B1 and B2 varied in size among populations: B1 was about half the size of the X chromosome in Balearic Islands, but two-thirds of the X in Iberian populations at Alicante, Murcia and Albacete provinces. Likewise, B2 was about one-third the size of the X chromosome in populations from the Granada province but half the size of the X in the populations collected at Málaga province. The widespread geographical distribution of the B1 variant makes it the best candidate for being the ancestor B chromosome in the whole western Mediterranean region. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Studies in Historical Replication in Psychology VII: The Relative Utility of ``Ancestor Analysis'' from Scientific and Educational Vantages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranney, Michael Andrew

    2008-05-01

    This article discusses, from various vantages, Ryan Tweney’s (this issue) pedagogical technique of employing historical replications of psychological experiments with graduate students in psychology. A prima facie perspective suggests great promise for this sort of academic “ancestor analysis,” particularly given the enthusiasm and skill represented in the activities that culminated in the replicators’ articles. It is suggested that such activities might be enhanced by requiring a contextualization that makes contact with more modern psychological research—particularly regarding expositions of the replications. From a scientific/cognitive methods perspective, the original experimenters’ inexplicit, ambiguous, descriptions provide both challenges and opportunities for students seeking to improve their understandings of their field. Three practical questions are posed herein regarding the general utility of this—or any—proposed instructional intervention. Ultimately, determining and integrating the diverse objectives that essential stakeholders have in graduate psychological training represent critical prerequisites in comprehensively assessing the relative advantages of such historical replications with respect to alternative experiences.

  18. CAN THE MUSLIM WORLD BORROW FROM INDONESIAN CONSTITUTIONAL REFORM? A Comparative Constitutional Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadirsyah Hosen

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper attempts to analytically examine the possibility of constitutional borrowing for the Muslim world regardless the differences in history, system, culture, language, and cha­racteristics. It discusses this issue by looking at the arguments put forth by the oppo­nents of comparative cons­titutional interpre­tation and their counter arguments. It will consider materials from Canada, USA, South Africa, Singapore, Malaysia, and Hungary, taking the position that constitutional borrowing can be justified. The paper argues that the 1999-2002 Indonesian constitutional reform should be taken into account by other Muslim countries in undertaking their constitutional reform. The substantive approach of the Shari‘ah that has been used in Indonesia has shown that Muslim world can reform its constitutions without the “assistance” of Western foreign policy. Indo­nesian constitutional reform has demonstrated that Islamic constitutionalism comes from within Islamic teaching and the Islamic community itself; it is a home grown product.

  19. Mechanism of constitution liquid film migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuo, Hongjun [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1999-06-01

    Liquid film migration (LFM) in liquid phase sintering classically involves a large metastable liquid volume adjacent to solid, and migration occurs at an isolated solid-liquid (S-L) interface. Constitutional liquid film migration (CLFM), discovered in alloy 718, has major characteristics similar to those of LFM, except that the metastable liquid is from the constitutional liquation of precipitates on the grain boundary. The similarity between LFM and CLFM has led to the theory that coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also responsible for CLFM. The coherency strain hypothesis was tested in this study by evaluating whether the Hillert model of LFM would also apply for CLFM. Experimental results of CLFM in alloy 718 showed that migration velocity followed the trend predicted by the Hillert model. This indicates that the coherency strain hypothesis of LFM also applies for CLFM and that the coherency lattice strain responsible for LFM is also the driving force for CLFM.

  20. Laboratory investigation of constitutive property scaling behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tidwell, V.C.

    1994-01-01

    Because many constitutive rock properties must be measured at one scale but applied at another, scaling behavior is an issue facing many applied disciplines, including the petroleum industry. A research program has been established to investigate and a quantify scaling behavior through systematic physical experimentation, with the aim of developing and testing models that describe scaling behavior in a quantitative manner. Scaling of constitutive rock properties is investigated through physical experimentation involving the collection of gas-permeability data measured over a range of discrete scales. The approach is to systematically isolate those factors that influence property scaling and investigate their relative contributions to overall scaling behavior. Two blocks of rock, each exhibiting differing heterogeneity structure. have recently been examined. The two samples were found to yield different scaling behavior, as exhibited by changes in the distribution functions and semi-variograms. Simple models have been fit to the measured scaling behavior that are of similar functional form but of different magnitude

  1. Constitutional problems in the handling of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Witt, S. de.

    1989-01-01

    Reprocessing and final storage involve two different systems of nuclear energy utilization: with or without the use of plutonium. There is a choice available between these two systems. The paper discusss the constitutional implications of this choice. The permission of the use of plutonium as nuclear fuel by the Atomic Energy Law is irreconcilable with the Basic Law, i.e. the Constitution. If the corresponding provisions of the Atomic Energy Law are repealed, then only the plutonium-related branch will be revoked and not the legal permission of nuclear energy as a whole. The fact is not ignored that the Atomic Energy law does not permit the construction and operation of a plant or the handling of plutonium if this were to violate a basic right. However, the plutonium-related branch of nculear energy utilization inevitably results in such basic right violations; hence the Atomic Energy law is unconstitutional in this respect. (orig./HSCH) [de

  2. Technical risks as a constitutional problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murswiek, D.

    1991-01-01

    Between the constitutional duty to protect, and the limits of protecting powers lies a domain where governmental bodies are empowered, but not obligated, to control and plan technical development and risks. Thus there is political responsibility for the way technical matters are handled, and a constitutional perspetive for accepting technical risks. As long as there has been general consent for technical progress, politicians were able to let the progress process take its course. Now they are asked to intervene. The transformation of living conditions through technical innovation has a greater significance for the individual and the State as a whole than most of the other matters of political decision-making. It would be irresponsible therefore to leave technical development to its own dynamics, and not continuously assess impacts of new technologies, weight up possible advantages and disadvantages, and change the course if necessary. (orig./HWCH) [de

  3. The Constitution of a Transnational Policy Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højbjerg, Erik; Frankel, Christian

    The EU internal market has predominantly been studied in terms of changes in delegation of authority and division of labor between EU institutions and member states. However, this EU internal focus ignores that already in 1987 the completion of the internal market was substantially left...... outside EU political and administrative control - in the constitution of the internal market. Second, the delegation raises important analytical questions concerning the identification of the institutional locus of European integration, when the realization of the political goals with the internal market...... is dependent on an inter-organizational coordination between the EU and ESO. Applying the analytical concept of a `policy field' the analysis shows how the completion of the internal market fundamentally challenges institutionalized conceptions of the role of politics in constituting markets.Keywords: Internal...

  4. A Federal Constitution for the European Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, Richard J.

    2003-01-01

    that the federal government loses legitimacy. It appears vital tohave trade policy at the European Union level; for euro countries, monetary policy is alreadyfederalized. It is not clear that common foreign and defense policies are needed; insisting oncommon foreign and defense policies may lead to conflicts...... within and across member statesthat severely weaken the Union, conceivably contributing to eventual collapse. Insisting onharmonization of commercial codes does not have the destructive potential of attemptingcompletely to harmonize defense and foreign policies; it may, however, lead to needlessconflict......A constitution is more likely to be accepted if it federalizes those issues that arewidely seen as needing complete harmonization. A constitution is more likely to endure if thefederal government does not have powers that are not vital to it but which may alienate somemember states to the point...

  5. Constitutive relations for multiphase flow modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobs, H.; Vaeth, L.; Thurnay, K. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH Technik und Umwelt (Germany). Inst. fuer Neutronenphysik und Reaktortechnik

    1998-01-01

    The constitutive relations that are used in the three-field fluid dynamics code IVA-KA for determining the drag in three-phase mixtures and the heat transferred by radiation are described together with some comparisons of calculational results with experiments. In these experiments (QUEOS), large quantities of solid particles are injected into water. Potential deficiencies of the present drag model are discussed. (author)

  6. National simple: Constitutionality Analysis of Exclusions Sectorial

    OpenAIRE

    Mendes, Guilherme Adolfo dos Santos

    2016-01-01

     The Constitution defines the favored legal treatment for small businesses without making any explicit exception, including and especially for tax obligations. Nevertheless, all the laws, which have introduced tax benefits guided by this higher provision, have discriminated small companies due to the economic sector of activity. Known as “National Simple” and introduced by the Complementary Law No. 123/06, the current legislation did not extend its benefits to small production units of a numb...

  7. Implicit constitutive relations for nonlinear magnetoelastic bodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, R; Rajagopal, K R

    2015-03-08

    Implicit constitutive relations that characterize the response of elastic bodies have greatly enhanced the arsenal available at the disposal of the analyst working in the field of elasticity. This class of models were recently extended to describe electroelastic bodies by the present authors. In this paper, we extend the development of implicit constitutive relations to describe the behaviour of elastic bodies that respond to magnetic stimuli. The models that are developed provide a rational way to describe phenomena that have hitherto not been adequately described by the classical models that are in place. After developing implicit constitutive relations for magnetoelastic bodies undergoing large deformations, we consider the linearization of the models within the context of small displacement gradients. We then use the linearized model to describe experimentally observed phenomena which the classical linearized magnetoelastic models are incapable of doing. We also solve several boundary value problems within the context of the models that are developed: extension and shear of a slab, and radial inflation and extension of a cylinder.

  8. A constitutive law for degrading bioresorbable polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samami, Hassan; Pan, Jingzhe

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a constitutive law that predicts the changes in elastic moduli, Poisson's ratio and ultimate tensile strength of bioresorbable polymers due to biodegradation. During biodegradation, long polymer chains are cleaved by hydrolysis reaction. For semi-crystalline polymers, the chain scissions also lead to crystallisation. Treating each scission as a cavity and each new crystal as a solid inclusion, a degrading semi-crystalline polymer can be modelled as a continuum solid containing randomly distributed cavities and crystal inclusions. The effective elastic properties of a degrading polymer are calculated using existing theories for such solid and the tensile strength of the degrading polymer is predicted using scaling relations that were developed for porous materials. The theoretical model for elastic properties and the scaling law for strength form a complete constitutive relation for the degrading polymers. It is shown that the constitutive law can capture the trend of the experimental data in the literature for a range of biodegradable polymers fairly well. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Political Reforms in a Global Context: Some Foreign Perspectives on Constitutional Thought in Late Imperial China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egas Moniz Bandeira

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some outside views on the emergence of Chinese constitutional thought. It shows that Chinese constitutionalism in the beginning of the 20th century did matter to the outside world and did attract a large interest on a global scale. Foreign views were quite diverse. While most observers welcomed the adoption of a constitution in principle, there were many words of caution that such a transition should not be rushed, notedly among diplomats and politicians. Foreign powers thus adopted a policy of not pressuring China to adopt a constitution. In particular, this paper redefines the role of the Japanese statesman Itô Hirobumi, who continually tried to give his advice to the Qing government up until his death in 1909.

  10. The Causes of Failure of the European Constitution From the Perspective of the Constitution-Making Process

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Podolnjak

    2006-01-01

    The basic argument of the article is that the main causes of failure of the European Constitution stem from an inadequate preparation and implementation of a complex procedure of constitution-making for a federation of countries on a continental scale. This process includes the issues of temporal aspects of constitutionmaking, the subject of constitution-making, the text of the constitution, the strategy of constitutional ratifi cation and the constitution-makers themselves. The principal cau...

  11. Distribution of constitutive heterochromatin in Triatoma melanocephala (Hemiptera, Triatominae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alevi, K C C; Rosa, J A; Azeredo-Oliveira, M T V

    2014-09-29

    In principle, Triatoma melanocephala was included in the Brasiliensis subcomplex on the basis of morphological parameters and geographical layout, since there were no other relevant data available in the literature. On the basis of karyotype, it has been proposed to exclude T. melanocephala, as well as of T. vitticeps and T. tibiamaculata, from the subcomplex, which shows fragmentation of the X sex chromosomes, thereby approaching the species of North America. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the pattern of constitutive heterochromatin of T. melanocephala to provide new data on the cytotaxonomy of this vector of Chagas disease and especially to try to relate this species to some group, complex or subcomplex of triatomine species, aiding in their classification. This species showed no constitutive heterochromatin in the autosomes or X sex chromosome, but only the Y sex chromosome. The number of chromosomes and heterochromatin pattern of T. melanocephala proved to be identical to that described for Panstrongylus lutzi. Thus, the present study demonstrated a tentative relationship between T. melanocephala and P. lutzi. However, we emphasize that other comparative studies should be conducted between these species, such as experimental crosses and molecular, enzymatic, morphological, and morphometric analyses to determine whether these species are actually evolutionarily related or if the number of chromosomes and the heterochromatin pattern emerged as homoplasies in T. melanocephala and P. lutzi.

  12. Emergency contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the uterus CHOICES FOR EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Two emergency contraceptive pills may be bought without a prescription. Plan ... to provide ongoing birth control. MORE ABOUT EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTIVE PILLS Women of any age can buy Plan ...

  13. Lung Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Lung Emergencies People with Marfan syndrome can be at increased risk of sudden lung ...

  14. Global Survey of National Constitutions: Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzarossa, Lucía Berro; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-12-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate whether and to what extent the right to sexual and reproductive health is respected, protected, and fulfilled; to what extent these provisions are inclusive and non-discriminatory; and to what degree the interlinkages between this and other human rights are acknowledged. Of the 195 constitutions accessed, 27 enshrine sexual and/or reproductive health, and seven adopt restrictive approaches to this right. In the 27 constitutions, provisions most frequently enshrine respect of one's sexual health and family planning decisions, the protection of sexual health, and the provision of reproductive health care and family planning services (fulfillment). Most of the 27 constitutions fail to adequately respect reproductive health rights; to protect reproductive health, family planning, and abortion services from third-party interference; and to fulfill all dimensions of sexual health and access to abortion. Three of the 27 constitutions enshrine a universal right to SRH, and additional constitutions protect specific vulnerable groups (such as women, children) and/or restrict the scope of rights holders to couples. Among the 27 constitutions, nine explicitly link the right to sexual and reproductive health to the rights to education, science, and/or to make autonomous decisions about sexuality and reproduction. Our results can serve as a baseline measure to track constitutional reforms in pursuit of the realization of sexual and reproductive health and rights, and as building blocks for future lawmakers committed to realizing these rights through domestic legal reform.

  15. Entrepreneurship, Emerging Technologies, Emerging Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thukral, Inderpreet S.; Von Ehr, James; Walsh, Steven Thomas; Groen, Arend J.; van der Sijde, Peter; Adham, Khairul Akmaliah

    2008-01-01

    Academics and practitioners alike have long understood the benefits, if not the risks, of both emerging markets and emerging technologies.Yet it is only recently that foresighted firms have embraced emerging technologies and emerging markets through entrepreneurial activity. Emerging technologies

  16. Horizontal transfer of a subtilisin gene from plants into an ancestor of the plant pathogenic fungal genus Colletotrichum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armijos Jaramillo, Vinicio Danilo; Vargas, Walter Alberto; Sukno, Serenella Ana; Thon, Michael R

    2013-01-01

    The genus Colletotrichum contains a large number of phytopathogenic fungi that produce enormous economic losses around the world. The effect of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) has not been studied yet in these organisms. Inter-Kingdom HGT into fungal genomes has been reported in the past but knowledge about the HGT between plants and fungi is particularly limited. We describe a gene in the genome of several species of the genus Colletotrichum with a strong resemblance to subtilisins typically found in plant genomes. Subtilisins are an important group of serine proteases, widely distributed in all of the kingdoms of life. Our hypothesis is that the gene was acquired by Colletotrichum spp. through (HGT) from plants to a Colletotrichum ancestor. We provide evidence to support this hypothesis in the form of phylogenetic analyses as well as a characterization of the similarity of the subtilisin at the primary, secondary and tertiary structural levels. The remarkable level of structural conservation of Colletotrichum plant-like subtilisin (CPLS) with plant subtilisins and the differences with the rest of Colletotrichum subtilisins suggests the possibility of molecular mimicry. Our phylogenetic analysis indicates that the HGT event would have occurred approximately 150-155 million years ago, after the divergence of the Colletotrichum lineage from other fungi. Gene expression analysis shows that the gene is modulated during the infection of maize by C. graminicola suggesting that it has a role in plant disease. Furthermore, the upregulation of the CPLS coincides with the downregulation of several plant genes encoding subtilisins. Based on the known roles of subtilisins in plant pathogenic fungi and the gene expression pattern that we observed, we postulate that the CPLSs have an important role in plant infection.

  17. RSL Class I Genes Controlled the Development of Epidermal Structures in the Common Ancestor of Land Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proust, Hélène; Honkanen, Suvi; Jones, Victor A S; Morieri, Giulia; Prescott, Helen; Kelly, Steve; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Dolan, Liam

    2016-01-11

    The colonization of the land by plants, sometime before 470 million years ago, was accompanied by the evolution tissue systems [1-3]. Specialized structures with diverse functions-from nutrient acquisition to reproduction-derived from single cells in the outermost layer (epidermis) were important sources of morphological innovation at this time [2, 4, 5]. In extant plants, these structures may be unicellular extensions, such as root hairs or rhizoids [6-9], or multicellular structures, such as asexual propagules or secretory hairs (papillae) [10-12]. Here, we show that a ROOTHAIR DEFECTIVE SIX-LIKE (RSL) class I basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor positively regulates the development of the unicellular and multicellular structures that develop from individual cells that expand out of the epidermal plane of the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha; mutants that lack MpRSL1 function do not develop rhizoids, slime papillae, mucilage papillae, or gemmae. Furthermore, we discovered that RSL class I genes are also required for the development of multicellular axillary hairs on the gametophyte of the moss Physcomitrella patens. Because class I RSL proteins also control the development of rhizoids in mosses and root hairs in angiosperms [13, 14], these data demonstrate that the function of RSL class I genes was to control the development of structures derived from single epidermal cells in the common ancestor of the land plants. Class I RSL genes therefore controlled the generation of adaptive morphological diversity as plants colonized the land from the water. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Establishment of a sticky, large, oval-shaped thrombocyte cell line from tree frog as an ancestor of mammalian megakaryocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Kenkichi

    2015-01-01

    Maintenance of blood vessels is important for homeostasis. Many types of cells and cytokines are involved in angiogenesis and blood vessel repair. In mammals, platelets, which are produced from megakaryocytes, play a major role in hemostasis. Other vertebrates have no platelets in their bloodstream. In these animals, thrombocytes aggregate to form a thrombus. Therefore, I established a frog hematopoietic cell line to elucidate the mechanism of hematopoiesis in this species. The frog-derived thrombocytic cell line was established from a long-term bone marrow culture of Hyla japonica and was designated as a frog-derived unique hematopoietic non-adherent (FUHEN) cell line. The FUHEN cells had unique characteristics in that they proliferated in suspension culture without adherence to the culture flask, and the shapes of the FUHEN cells changed drastically to become very large ovals with growth. These cells reached more than 40 µm in length and had multi-lobed nuclei. The FUHEN cells expressed CD41, a specific surface marker of thrombocytes. These results indicated that the FUHEN cells were thrombocytes. Deprivation of divalent ions quickly induced adherence of the cells to the petri dish. This characteristic may be important for hemostasis. Furthermore, some of the FUHEN cells survived at 16 °C for 1 month and re-established proliferation when the cells were moved to 28 °C. Taken together, this new thrombocytic frog cell line, as an ancestor of mammalian megakaryocytes, could provide useful material to study the functions of thrombocytes and the hemostasis mechanism of amphibians.

  19. The Constitutional Deficiencies of the German 'Rechtsgutslehre'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl-Friedrich Stuckenberg

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper questions the theoretical merits and constitutional validity of the “Rechtsgutslehre” (doctrine of the protection of legal goods, a widely held doctrine about the limits of legitimate criminalization in Germany and some other jurisdictions. The immediate cause for this reassessment is a recent decision of the German constitutional court which upheld the German incest prohibition and simultaneously rejected the traditional “Rechtsgutslehre” as constitutionally irrelevant, thereby stirring up considerable controversy among academic criminal lawyers. The paper tries to show why the court’s view is correct by pointing out the main deficiencies of the doctrine and what criteria a better theory must fulfil. Este artículo cuestiona los méritos teóricos y la validez constitucional de la "Rechtsgutslehre" (doctrina de la protección de los bienes jurídicos, una doctrina muy extendida acerca de los límites de la criminalización legítima en Alemania y algunas otras jurisdicciones. La causa inmediata de esta nueva valoración es una decisión reciente del Tribunal Constitucional alemán que ratificó la prohibición del incesto en Alemania y al mismo tiempo rechazó el tradicional "Rechtsgutslehre" por ser constitucionalmente irrelevante, lo que provocó una considerable controversia entre la comunidad académica de abogados criminalistas. El artículo trata de mostrar por qué la decisión de la corte es correcta, señalando las deficiencias principales de la doctrina y los criterios que una teoría más adecuada debe cumplir. DOWNLOAD THIS PAPER FROM SSRN: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2200870

  20. A constitutive law for dense granular flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jop, Pierre; Forterre, Yoël; Pouliquen, Olivier

    2006-06-08

    A continuum description of granular flows would be of considerable help in predicting natural geophysical hazards or in designing industrial processes. However, the constitutive equations for dry granular flows, which govern how the material moves under shear, are still a matter of debate. One difficulty is that grains can behave like a solid (in a sand pile), a liquid (when poured from a silo) or a gas (when strongly agitated). For the two extreme regimes, constitutive equations have been proposed based on kinetic theory for collisional rapid flows, and soil mechanics for slow plastic flows. However, the intermediate dense regime, where the granular material flows like a liquid, still lacks a unified view and has motivated many studies over the past decade. The main characteristics of granular liquids are: a yield criterion (a critical shear stress below which flow is not possible) and a complex dependence on shear rate when flowing. In this sense, granular matter shares similarities with classical visco-plastic fluids such as Bingham fluids. Here we propose a new constitutive relation for dense granular flows, inspired by this analogy and recent numerical and experimental work. We then test our three-dimensional (3D) model through experiments on granular flows on a pile between rough sidewalls, in which a complex 3D flow pattern develops. We show that, without any fitting parameter, the model gives quantitative predictions for the flow shape and velocity profiles. Our results support the idea that a simple visco-plastic approach can quantitatively capture granular flow properties, and could serve as a basic tool for modelling more complex flows in geophysical or industrial applications.

  1. Constitutionalism and good governance in Nigeria (1999-2014 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While the country, at present, has a written constitution which in reality, was derived from a military decree, there has been constant debate as to whether what the country has is really a constitution and whether the subsequent civilian regimes are constitutional governments. This paper attempts to analyse the constitutional ...

  2. An Integrated Theory of Constitutionalism in World Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    both been regarded a indicating a triumph as well as a failure of constitutionalism. This article circumvents this standoff by questioning the very foundation of constitutional theory in the public/private and the national/transnational distinctions. It is argued that the object of constitutions...... for compatibility between orders through constitutionalisation and the idea of constitutionalism as a way of approaching the future....

  3. Ubuntu versus the core values of the South African Constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    At the dawn of South Africa's new era of constitutionalism the Constitutional Court introduced “African law and legal thinking” and ubuntu to South African jurisprudence as part of the Constitution's source of democratic values. Whereas the Constitutional Court averred on the one hand that African law sustains firmly ...

  4. 1 CHILDREN'S RIGHTS IN THE SOUTH-AFRICAN CONSTITUTION ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    1994-04-27

    Apr 27, 1994 ... In order to fathom the impact of the Constitution upon the rights of children, a general overview of constitutional principles and provisions necessary for the comprehension of the rights of children in the Constitution will be given. .... terms of section 8(2) entitles a court to read constitutional rights into the.

  5. Numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 24, discusses numerically abnormal chromosome constitutions in humans. This involves abnormalities of human chromosome number, including polyploidy (when the number of sets of chromosomes increases) and aneuploidy (when the number of individual normal chromosomes changes). Chapter sections discuss the following chromosomal abnormalities: human triploids, imprinting and uniparental disomy, human tetraploids, hydatidiform moles, anomalies caused by chromosomal imbalance, 13 trisomy (D{sub 1} trisomy, Patau syndrome), 21 trisomy (Down syndrome), 18 trisomy syndrome (Edwards syndrome), other autosomal aneuploidy syndromes, and spontaneous abortions. The chapter concludes with remarks on the nonrandom participation of chromosomes in trisomy. 69 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of constitutive models for crushed salt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C. [RE/SPEC, Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hurtado, L.D.; Hansen, F.D.

    1996-05-01

    Three constitutive models are recommended as candidates for describing the deformation of crushed salt. These models are generalized to three-dimensional states of stress to include the effects of mean and deviatoric stress and modified to include effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) and southeastern New Mexico salt is used to determine material parameters for the models. To evaluate the capability of the models, parameter values obtained from fitting the complete database are used to predict the individual tests. Finite element calculations of a WIPP shaft with emplaced crushed salt demonstrate the model predictions.

  7. Validation of constitutive equations for steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valentin, T.; Magain, P.; Quik, M.; Labibes, K.; Albertini, C.

    1997-01-01

    High strain rate mechanical properties are a major concern for each steel manufacturer, especially with respect to thin sheet steel used in the automotive branch. We began to study this topic by starting a project with the following goals: acquiring reliable experimental data, understanding in depth the energy absorption in thin sheet steel and finding the right constitutive material equation. The first part of the project has been presented in. In this paper we present data computation and comparison with the existing material model theories to exploit the experimental data. (orig.)

  8. Ritual Slaughter in the Modern Constitutional State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afsah, Ebrahim

    In this proposed presentation I intend to give a historical overview of the political and constitutional debates in selected European countries – including Germany, France, Great Britain, Holland and Scandinavia – from the nineteenth century to the present day, paying special attention to the shi....... Similar in nature if not necessarily in intensity to questions of forced and/or underage marriage, male circumcision and female genital mutilation, the commitment of the secular state to animal welfare cannot summarily be rejected by demands for religious freedom....

  9. Civil and Constitutional Rights of Adjudicated Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landess, Jacqueline

    2016-01-01

    Mental health clinicians serving child and adolescent patients are frequently asked to evaluate youth who have been arrested for various offenses or who are otherwise involved with the juvenile justice system. To help orient clinicians and other stakeholders involved with such cases, this article describes the evolution of the juvenile justice system and summarizes the history and current status of the civil and constitutional rights of youth involved in the adjudicatory process. This article also points out key areas in which due process rights are still evolving, particularly in the case of status offenders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The EU and Constitutionalism in Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    surprising development in the region. This article analyses how strategic relations between the EU and Egypt are being challenged by constitutional changes in Egypt following the political development since early 2011. Initially the article describes European-Egyptian relations prior to the fall of President...... of the unrest in Egypt followed by an analysis of the European-Egyptian relationship over the last two years divided in three parts: Egypt and the ENP-UfM complex, the Muslim Brotherhood and the Egyptian political transformation process seen in a European perspective and finally the migration issue...

  11. What Constitutes 'Failure to Notify' National Measures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gáspár-Szilágyi, Szilárd

    2013-01-01

    “The inclusion of article 260(3) TFEU adopted as part of the Lisbon Treaty changed the landscape of infringement proceedings. The provision grants the Commission the power to propose monetary sanctions already during the initial Court litigation against a Member State that ‘failed to notify...... and is prone to lead to judicial uncertainty. It further increases the already heavily criticized Commission discretion. Furthermore, the lack of proper guidelines of what constitutes ‘failure to notify’ can lead to the arbitrary launching of non-communication proceedings as well as further complicate...

  12. Engineering and the constitution. Technik und Verfassung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, R.

    1988-01-01

    We can see at every turn how instruments once used for the good of mankind become blunt right before our very eyes. They still serve their purpose, but each further step brings about less additional benefit ('residual benefit'). This is a fundamental problem rather than a detail problem, as it is the self-concept, reliability and stability of our public order that is at risk. 'Constitution' in this sense is more than just the legal basis of the state; as used by the author it refers to the laws governing a society's life. (orig./HSCH).

  13. The Scottish Constitutional Tradition: A Very British Radicalism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bulmer W. Elliot

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses recent developments in Scottish nationalist constitutional thought during the period of 2002 to 2014, showing how the Scottish constitutional conversation has diverged from, but continues to be influenced by, the UK-wide constitutional conversation at Westminster. It presents Scottish nationalist constitutional thought as a ‘very British radicalism’, which is characterised by certain constitutional forms and ideas that are radical in a British context (such as popular sovereignty, proportional representation, a written constitution, and a commitment to covenantal socio-economic and environmental provisions while at the same time retaining a persistent ‘Britishness’ in terms of specific institutional proposals and ambivalence towards the principles of constitutional government. Finally, I will discuss possible designs of a future constitutional settlement in Scotland and the United Kingdom. Notably, I will explore how far the Scottish constitutional tradition might impact on the constitutional shape of the United Kingdom.

  14. Ide Mengakomodasi Constitutional Complain sebagai Kewenangan Baru Mahkamah Konstitusi Indonesia

    OpenAIRE

    Taruna, Bayu Lesmana

    2010-01-01

    Constitutional Courts presence in the Indonesian state administration system in, order to reform state affairs which menutut law enforcement in a fair and democratic about the constitution. In general, society or justitiabellen who feel their human rights have been violated by the law expect to benefit by the existence of the Constitutional Court. Further development of the Constitutional Court has managed to provide protection for the constitutional rights of citizens from any violation of l...

  15. The Eurozone Crisis: A Constitutional Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sting

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available “Every power comes through crisis” has long been a motif of European integration. The financial and sovereign debt crises, which have shaken the European Union (EU in recent years, are at first glance no different. Treaty reforms, intergovernmental treaties such as the Fiscal Compact and the Treaty Establishing a European Stability Mechanism (ESM Treaty have significantly altered the constitutional landscape of the EU and its Member States. The crisis has also inspired many European legal scholars to critically analyse the EU’s system of economic governance, as have other events throughout the history of the European Union, from the Empty Chair Crisis to the referenda in the aftermath of the Treaty of Maastricht and the failure of the Constitution for the European Union. What does seem to be different is the way in which scholars approach the issue of the Eurozone crisis. Instead of a purely legal perspective on economic governance, European legal scholars have realised that in order to understand and analyse the euro crisis, interdisciplinarity is the word of the moment.

  16. Nuclear energy as reflected in Constitutional Law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ossenbuehl, F.

    1981-01-01

    The author analyses the Federal Constitutional Court's decision on the Kalkar and Muehlheim-Kaerlich reactors with regard to its content relating to the Atomic Energy Law. He examines the Atomic Energy Law within the system in which power is shared: The legal provisio of the Atomic Energy Law, the application of undetermined legal terms, the involvement of extra-legislative bodies, the statements made on residual risks. He discusses the statutory obligation of the legislator to protect, and the protection of basic rights by means of participation in procedures, the effecting of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures, the translation into action of basic rights protection by means of participation in procedures and the interpretation of the elementary (simple) Atomic Law by the Federal Constitutional Court with regard to the interpreation and application of the Atomic Energy Law in conformity with the Basic Law. Finally, he gives his opinion on the practical consequences the decision will have, and on its binding effects for current and future licensing procedures. (HSCH) [de

  17. National simple: Constitutionality Analysis of Exclusions Sectorial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Adolfo dos Santos Mendes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Constitution defines the favored legal treatment for small businesses without making any explicit exception, including and especially for tax obligations. Nevertheless, all the laws, which have introduced tax benefits guided by this higher provision, have discriminated small companies due to the economic sector of activity. Known as “National Simple” and introduced by the Complementary Law No. 123/06, the current legislation did not extend its benefits to small production units of a number of industries, such as the automotive industry, the passenger transport industry, the energy industry and the industry of manufacture of weapons, beverages and tobacco products. By demonstrating the mistakes of the arguments in favor of such exclusions, the article holds up that none of these provisions meets constitutional standards. Furthermore, based on a critical analysis of the Positive Law, it is shown that the hidden desire behind the exclusions was to keep the economic sectors of high profitability under control of big corporations to the detriment of smaller initiatives.

  18. HOW STAR WARS ILLUMINATES CONSTITUTIONAL LAW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cass R. Sunstein

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human beings often see coherence and planned design when neither exists. This is so in movies, literature, history, economics, and psychoanalysis – and constitutional law. Contrary to the repeated claims of George Lucas, its principal author, the Star Wars series was hardly planned in advance; it involved a great deal of improvisation and surprise, even to Lucas himself. Serendipity and happenstance, sometimes in the forms of eruptions of new thinking, play a pervasive and overlooked role in the creative imagination, certainly in single authored works, and even more in multi-authored ones extending over time. Serendipity imposes serious demands on the search for coherence in art, literature, history, and law. That search leads many people (including Lucas to misdescribe the nature of their own creativity and authorship. The misdescription appears to respond to a serious human need for sense-making and pattern-finding, but it is a significant obstacle to understanding and critical reflection. Whether Jedi or Sith, many authors of constitutional law are a lot like the author of Star Wars, disguising the essential nature of their own creative processes.

  19. Constitutional moments in governing science and technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasanoff, Sheila

    2011-12-01

    Scholars in science and technology studies (STS) have recently been called upon to advise governments on the design of procedures for public engagement. Any such instrumental function should be carried out consistently with STS's interpretive and normative obligations as a social science discipline. This article illustrates how such threefold integration can be achieved by reviewing current US participatory politics against a 70-year backdrop of tacit constitutional developments in governing science and technology. Two broad cycles of constitutional adjustment are discerned: the first enlarging the scope of state action as well as public participation, with liberalized rules of access and sympathetic judicial review; the second cutting back on the role of the state, fostering the rise of an academic-industrial complex for technology transfer, and privatizing value debates through increasing delegation to professional ethicists. New rules for public engagement in the United Sates should take account of these historical developments and seek to counteract some of the anti-democratic tendencies observable in recent decades.

  20. Constitutive model for coupled inelasticity and damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, M.

    1995-01-01

    A constitutive model to describe a coupling between deformation and damage due to creep of polycrystalline metallic materials is developed from phenomenological and continuum mechanics points of view. The constitutive modeling is based on the irreversible thermodynamics for internal state variable theories, where the thermodynamic potentials, i.e., free energy and dissipation energy functions, are defined using hardening and damage variables. The material damage is assumed to be isotropic. We first derive a damage coupled kinematic-hardening model in the invariant form on the basis of the Malinin-Khadjinsky model. Then, an isotropic-hardening model which includes a coupling with damage is formulated by assuming a particular representation of the kinematic hardening variable. The evolution equation of the hardening variable is prescribed by the Bailey-Orowan format which includes the effect of damage. The damage rate is governed by the magnitude of the assumed strain hardening variable. These models can describe a transition from primary to tertiary creep stages, and it is applicable to variable loading conditions. In a particular case the expression for the creep rupture time has a similar form to the Kachanov-Rabotnov type, although it depends on the time and damage at the instant of a hardening saturation under the applied stress condition. (author)

  1. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul; Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon

    2010-01-01

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  2. Preliminary Test for Constitutive Models of CAP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Yeon Joon; Hong, Soon Joon; Hwang, Su Hyun; Lee, Keo Hyung; Kim, Min Ki; Lee, Byung Chul [FNC Tech., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Sang Jun; Choi, Hoon [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The development project for the domestic design code was launched to be used for the safety and performance analysis of pressurized light water reactors. As a part of this project, CAP (Containment Analysis Package) code has been developing for the containment safety and performance analysis side by side with SPACE. The CAP code treats three fields (vapor, continuous liquid and dispersed drop) for the assessment of containment specific phenomena, and is featured by assessment capabilities in multi-dimensional and lumped parameter thermal hydraulic cell. Thermal hydraulics solver was developed and has a significant progress now. Implementation of the well proven constitutive models and correlations are essential in other for a containment code to be used with the generalized or optimized purposes. Generally, constitutive equations are composed of interfacial and wall transport models and correlations. These equations are included in the source terms of the governing field equations. In order to develop the best model and correlation package of the CAP code, various models currently used in major containment analysis codes, such as GOTHIC, CONTAIN2.0 and CONTEMPT-LT are reviewed. Several models and correlations were incorporated for the preliminary test of CAP's performance and test results and future plans to improve the level of execution besides will be discussed in this paper

  3. Childhood Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... I Waiting So Long? Admission to the Hospital Heroes on Medicine's Front Line Observation Emergency Care Fact Sheet Health & Safety Tips Campaigns SUBSCRIBE Emergency 101 Share this! Home » Emergency 101 Childhood Emergencies Keeping children healthy and safe is every parent’s No. 1 ...

  4. Independent evolution of knuckle-walking in African apes shows that humans did not evolve from a knuckle-walking ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L; Schmitt, Daniel

    2009-08-25

    Despite decades of debate, it remains unclear whether human bipedalism evolved from a terrestrial knuckle-walking ancestor or from a more generalized, arboreal ape ancestor. Proponents of the knuckle-walking hypothesis focused on the wrist and hand to find morphological evidence of this behavior in the human fossil record. These studies, however, have not examined variation or development of purported knuckle-walking features in apes or other primates, data that are critical to resolution of this long-standing debate. Here we present novel data on the frequency and development of putative knuckle-walking features of the wrist in apes and monkeys. We use these data to test the hypothesis that all knuckle-walking apes share similar anatomical features and that these features can be used to reliably infer locomotor behavior in our extinct ancestors. Contrary to previous expectations, features long-assumed to indicate knuckle-walking behavior are not found in all African apes, show different developmental patterns across species, and are found in nonknuckle-walking primates as well. However, variation among African ape wrist morphology can be clearly explained if we accept the likely independent evolution of 2 fundamentally different biomechanical modes of knuckle-walking: an extended wrist posture in an arboreal environment (Pan) versus a neutral, columnar hand posture in a terrestrial environment (Gorilla). The presence of purported knuckle-walking features in the hominin wrist can thus be viewed as evidence of arboreality, not terrestriality, and provide evidence that human bipedalism evolved from a more arboreal ancestor occupying the ecological niche common to all living apes.

  5. Who Is Afraid of European Constitutionalism?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wind, Marlene

    According to Ronald Dworkin, majoritarian democracies like the Nordic ones are founded upon the notion that parliamentary majorities are elevated above the other branches of government and that such majorities should not be subject to judicial review. The emergence of a powerful supranational jud...

  6. Models of gene gain and gene loss for probabilistic reconstruction of gene content in the last universal common ancestor of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, Lavanya; Li, Hua; Rubinstein, Boris; Mushegian, Arcady

    2013-12-19

    The problem of probabilistic inference of gene content in the last common ancestor of several extant species with completely sequenced genomes is: for each gene that is conserved in all or some of the genomes, assign the probability that its ancestral gene was present in the genome of their last common ancestor. We have developed a family of models of gene gain and gene loss in evolution, and applied the maximum-likelihood approach that uses phylogenetic tree of prokaryotes and the record of orthologous relationships between their genes to infer the gene content of LUCA, the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all currently living cellular organisms. The crucial parameter, the ratio of gene losses and gene gains, was estimated from the data and was higher in models that take account of the number of in-paralogs in genomes than in models that treat gene presences and absences as a binary trait. While the numbers of genes that are placed confidently into LUCA are similar in the ML methods and in previously published methods that use various parsimony-based approaches, the identities of genes themselves are different. Most of the models of either kind treat the genes found in many existing genomes in a similar way, assigning to them high probabilities of being ancestral ("high ancestrality"). The ML models are more likely than others to assign high ancestrality to the genes that are relatively rare in the present-day genomes.

  7. Updated clusters of orthologous genes for Archaea: a complex ancestor of the Archaea and the byways of horizontal gene transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Yuri I

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Collections of Clusters of Orthologous Genes (COGs provide indispensable tools for comparative genomic analysis, evolutionary reconstruction and functional annotation of new genomes. Initially, COGs were made for all complete genomes of cellular life forms that were available at the time. However, with the accumulation of thousands of complete genomes, construction of a comprehensive COG set has become extremely computationally demanding and prone to error propagation, necessitating the switch to taxon-specific COG collections. Previously, we reported the collection of COGs for 41 genomes of Archaea (arCOGs. Here we present a major update of the arCOGs and describe evolutionary reconstructions to reveal general trends in the evolution of Archaea. Results The updated version of the arCOG database incorporates 91% of the pangenome of 120 archaea (251,032 protein-coding genes altogether into 10,335 arCOGs. Using this new set of arCOGs, we performed maximum likelihood reconstruction of the genome content of archaeal ancestral forms and gene gain and loss events in archaeal evolution. This reconstruction shows that the last Common Ancestor of the extant Archaea was an organism of greater complexity than most of the extant archaea, probably with over 2,500 protein-coding genes. The subsequent evolution of almost all archaeal lineages was apparently dominated by gene loss resulting in genome streamlining. Overall, in the evolution of Archaea as well as a representative set of bacteria that was similarly analyzed for comparison, gene losses are estimated to outnumber gene gains at least 4 to 1. Analysis of specific patterns of gene gain in Archaea shows that, although some groups, in particular Halobacteria, acquire substantially more genes than others, on the whole, gene exchange between major groups of Archaea appears to be largely random, with no major ‘highways’ of horizontal gene transfer. Conclusions The updated collection

  8. The Constitutional Court and the Imperative of its Reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Gilia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent debates on the upcoming review of the Constitution have determined us to pay close attention to the basic institution in a democratic state, that is the Constitutional Court. Being caught in the crossfire between power and opposition, the Constitutional Court had a hard time lately, facing severe attacks. The aim of our study is to analyze the evolution of the Constitutional Court within the inland constitutional system, particularly bringing up the flaws describing the Court’s activity. We have also analyzed the proposals put forth by several bodies or experts regarding the constitutional contentious court. At the end of our study, following an analysis of different constitutional types of constitutional review, used by a number of states in Europe, we introduced several resolutions that may improve the role, the course and, last but not least, the activity of the Romanian Constitutional Court.

  9. Establishing public health security in a postwar Iraq: constitutional obstacles and lessons for other federalizing states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Kumanan; Fidler, David P; McDougall, Christopher W; Lazar, Harvey

    2009-06-01

    The public health consequences of the conflict in Iraq will likely continue after the violence has subsided. Reestablishing public health security will require large investments in infrastructure and the creation of effective systems of governance. On the question of governance, the allocation of powers in the new constitution of Iraq is critical. Given the ease with which public health threats cross borders, the constitution needs to grant to the federal government the legal authority to manage such threats and simultaneously meet international requirements. Unfortunately, the draft constitution does not accomplish this objective. If politically possible, the constitution should be amended to provide the federal government with this authority. If not possible, the Iraqi federal government would have two options. It could attempt to use alternative constitutional powers, such as national security powers. This option would be contentious and the results uncertain. Alternatively, the federal government could attempt to establish collaborative relationships with regional governments. Residual sectarian tensions create potential problems for this option, however. Reflecting on the Iraqi situation, we conclude that other federalizing countries emerging from conflict should ensure that their constitutions provide the federal government with the necessary authority to manage threats to public health security effectively.

  10. Constituting objectivity: Transcendental perspectives on modern physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jonathan

    2012-05-01

    There is increasing interest in exploring Kantian approaches in the study of the history and philosophy of physics. The most well-known examples of this trend-Friedman's (2001), Ryckman's (2005) and DiSalle's (2006)-focus on Kantianism in the context of the development of the general theory of relativity. The edited collection Constituting Objectivity seeks to develop key Kantian insights-in the most part-in the context of later developments in physics: as well as discussing relativity the volume also provides Kantian interpretations of Bohr's development of quantum theory and continues to provide Kantian insight from later interpretations of quantum mechanics all the way through to considering noncommutative geometry and loop quantum gravity. The volume contains papers on a wide variety of subjects and offers an essential introduction to the breadth of Kantian trends in modern physics.

  11. 76 FR 75950 - Hazardous Materials: Emergency Restriction/Prohibition Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    .... PHMSA-2011-0303; Notice No. 11-14] Hazardous Materials: Emergency Restriction/Prohibition Order AGENCY.../Prohibition Order. SUMMARY: This notice publishes Emergency Restriction/Prohibition Order 2011-001 (DOT Docket... Emergency Restriction/ Prohibition Order 2011-001 is as follows: This notice constitutes an Emergency...

  12. The Causes of Failure of the European Constitution From the Perspective of the Constitution-Making Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Podolnjak

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The basic argument of the article is that the main causes of failure of the European Constitution stem from an inadequate preparation and implementation of a complex procedure of constitution-making for a federation of countries on a continental scale. This process includes the issues of temporal aspects of constitutionmaking, the subject of constitution-making, the text of the constitution, the strategy of constitutional ratifi cation and the constitution-makers themselves. The principal causes of failure of the European Constitution will be presented in the form of certain preliminary assumptions, which will then be examined in the light of certain comparative experiences of constitution-making in two federal systems – the American and the Swiss system. The primary mistakes of the European constitution-making are refl ected in the lack of an appropriate moment for making the constitution, in the vagueness of the document in terms of its constitutional or contractual quality, in the creation of a text of the Constitution which is completely incomprehensible to the average citizen, in the making of the Constitution without a vision or ambition, in the complete lack of any strategy of ratifi cation of the Constitution, in the insistence on the direct participation of the people in the adoption of the Constitution, which is legally and politically considered primarily an international treaty, and in badly managed media presentation and defence of the Constitution before the European public. The most important mistakes, crucial to the failure of the Constitution, are the ambivalent approach of the European constitutionmakers to the mode of ratifi cation of the Constitution, and their disregard of the constitution-making experience of other federal countries.

  13. Global Survey of National Constitutions : Mapping Constitutional Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berro Pizzarossa, Lucia; Perehudoff, Katrina

    2017-01-01

    General Comment No. 22, issued in 2016 by the Committee on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (CESCR), clarifies states' legal duties to respect, protect, and fulfill the right to sexual and reproductive health (SRH). Our study analyzes domestic constitutions around the world to investigate

  14. The Balancing Act between the Constitutional Right to Strike and the Constitutional Right to Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, H. J.

    2014-01-01

    While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context,…

  15. Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to a doctor to have an IUD inserted. Emergency contraceptive pills can be very effective if they are ... use. Some women feel nauseous after they take emergency contraceptive pills. This feeling should go away in about ...

  16. Emergency Checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Week National Prescription Drug Take-Back Day Emergency Checklist If someone may have been poisoned, call the ... visit to the emergency room. Below is a checklist to help you in the event of a ...

  17. Constitutive Theory Developed for Monolithic Ceramic Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Lesley A.

    1998-01-01

    With the increasing use of advanced ceramic materials in high-temperature structural applications such as advanced heat engine components, the need arises to accurately predict thermomechanical behavior that is inherently time-dependent and that is hereditary in the sense that the current behavior depends not only on current conditions but also on the material's thermomechanical history. Most current analytical life prediction methods for both subcritical crack growth and creep models use elastic stress fields to predict the time-dependent reliability response of components subjected to elevated service temperatures. Inelastic response at high temperatures has been well documented in the materials science literature for these material systems, but this issue has been ignored by the engineering design community. From a design engineer's perspective, it is imperative to emphasize that accurate predictions of time-dependent reliability demand accurate stress field information. Ceramic materials exhibit different time-dependent behavior in tension and compression. Thus, inelastic deformation models for ceramics must be constructed in a fashion that admits both sensitivity to hydrostatic stress and differing behavior in tension and compression. A number of constitutive theories for materials that exhibit sensitivity to the hydrostatic component of stress have been proposed that characterize deformation using time-independent classical plasticity as a foundation. However, none of these theories allow different behavior in tension and compression. In addition, these theories are somewhat lacking in that they are unable to capture the creep, relaxation, and rate-sensitive phenomena exhibited by ceramic materials at high temperatures. The objective of this effort at the NASA Lewis Research Center has been to formulate a macroscopic continuum theory that captures these time-dependent phenomena. Specifically, the effort has focused on inelastic deformation behavior associated

  18. Emergent Expertise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGivern, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The concept of emergence appears in various places within the literature on expertise and expert practice. Here, I examine some of these applications of emergence in the light of two prominent accounts of emergence from the philosophy of science and philosophy of mind. I evaluate these accounts with respect to several specific contexts in which…

  19. The constitutionality of mandatory seat belt use legislation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-12-01

    A number of trends indicate that mandatory seat belt use legislation is to be expected within the near future. The constitutionality of such self-protective legislation has been the subject of recent speculation. Constitutional challenges may be expe...

  20. The Theory of Global Governance, Constitutionalization and Comparative Constitutional Law

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blahož, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2013), s. 195-207 ISSN 1805-8396 Institutional support: RVO:68378122 Keywords : globalization of political culture * global constitutionalism * comparative constitutional law Subject RIV: AG - Legal Sciences

  1. Otological emergencies among the northern Nigerian children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Acute suppurative otitis media, acute otitis media and foreign body insertion into the ear still constitute the common otological emergencies in Northern Nigeria. These are all preventable emergencies through community health education, training of community health worker to recognize the symptom and signs ...

  2. Global Constitutionalism, Control of Conventionality and the Right to Strike in Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Aguilar Cavallo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available n the Inter-American context, the control of conventionality promoted by the Inter-American Court of Human Rights is linked to the process of construction of an ius commune in human rights. Human rights are identified as norm of constitutional character. The universality of human rights allows its consideration as an aspect of global constitutionalism. This paper aims at determining whether the control of conventionality can be considered an expression of global constitutionalism within the Inter-American region. We hold that the control of conventionality in the Inter-American system has propelled the application of a minimum standard of human rights and has stimulated the emergence of an ius commune in human rights.

  3. Keterbatasan Pengadilan untuk Melakukan Pengujian Konstitusional (Constitutional Review): Pengalaman Jepang

    OpenAIRE

    Isharyanto,

    2015-01-01

    The realm of political practice today , a mechanism for checking the legalnorms by the court to ensure the coherence of the legislation of the constitution becomes inevitable (judicial constitutional review ) . Learning the Japanese experience , that constitutionalism is the reconstruction of post-war Japan ystem ystem kenegaran of civil law -based rule by law be a constitutionalism which is based on the rule of law .

  4. Protection of the employee's constitutional rights and freedoms

    OpenAIRE

    Vanagėlienė, Renata

    2014-01-01

    PROTECTION OF THE EMPLOYEE'S CONSTITUTIONAL RIGHTS AND FREEDOMS SUMMARY The goal aimed at in the present thesis is on the basis of the Constitution, Labour Code and other legal acts regulating labour legislation, International agreements, Council Directives Resolutions of the Constitutional Code of the Republic of Lithuania to disclose the concept of constitutional rights and freedoms of an employee, to present a mechanism of their protection and to examine guarantees provided for in the Labo...

  5. Health care for Micronesians and constitutional rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shek, Dina; Yamada, Seiji

    2011-11-01

    Under the Compacts of Free Association (COFA), people from the Freely Associated States--the Republic of Palau (ROP), the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI), and the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)--have been migrating to the United States in increasing numbers. In 1996, Congress passed broad welfare reform (Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act) which limited certain federal benefits previously available to COFA migrants, including Medicaid benefits. Prior to July 2010, the State of Hawai'i had continued to include COFA migrants under its state-funded Medicaid program. In the face of budget constraints, the State removed these people from its Medicaid rolls. A challenge on the legal basis of the denial of equal protection of the laws, ie, the Fourteenth Amendment to the US Constitution, was successful in reinstating health care to the COFA migrants in December 2010. From the health worker's perspective, regardless of various social justice arguments that may have been marshaled in favor of delivering health care to the people, it was an appeal to the judicial system that succeeded. From the attorney's perspective, the legal victories are potentially limited to the four walls of the courtroom without community involvement and related social justice movements. Together, the authors propose that in order to better address the issue of health care access for Micronesian peoples, we must work together, as health and legal advocates, to define a more robust vision of both systems that includes reconciliation and community engagement.

  6. Financial Accounting Constitution or its Referential Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niculae Feleaga

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Using a simplified approach it may be stated that the financial accounting theoretical framework is structured on three levels. At the first level, reference is made to the accounting objectives. These objectives are fundamental for the theoretical framework. At the second level, we find the accounting information characteristics and explicit mentions about the headings of financial statements. The mentioned characteristics of accounting information represent the basic issues for ensuring its utility. The headings represent the main categories of elements disclosed in the financial statements, like assets and liabilities – these two elements’ definitions brought radical changes both in the accounting thinking and practices. Overall, the second level’s components represent the basis for building the practice directives as a matter of recognition (identification and measurement (evaluation. Inside the third level, the recognition and measurement directives are being detailed, which will be further used by the accounting specialist in order to identify and apply the accounting standards. These two directives enclose postulates, principles and restrictions. Such specifications prove to be useful whenever precise answers must be given to relative financial information issues. Usually, it is accepted that the theoretical framework, also called the accounting framework is the standard-setting, metaphorically speaking is actually the constitution of financial accounting, or in other words, its reference matrix.

  7. Constitutive Laws for Geomaterials Lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papamichos E.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An abundance of constitutive laws exists to approximate the behavior of geomaterials under various stresses, boundary conditions and loading paths, pore pressures, temperatures and so on. The construction of constitutive laws is driven by two competing trends: the tendency for a unifying law describing the material behavior under the most general conditions, and the need for laws that can be used efficiently in practice. The latter incorporates both the possibility of calibration from available specimens and the user-friendliness of the law. For engineering purposes, the second tendency dominates and the engineer scientist has to evaluate the problem and select the most appropriate model to describe the dominant phenomena on hand. A review of various constitutive laws for geomaterials is presented with an emphasis on their application. Various examples of engineering problems and geomaterials with emphasis on petroleum applications are used to demonstrate that the law must be as simple as possible but not simpler. Il existe un nombre important de lois constitutives permettant d'approcher le comportement des géomatériaux sous diverses contraintes, conditions aux limites et divers chemins de chargement, pressions de pore, températures, etc. L'élaboration de lois constitutives suit deux tendances concurrentes : la tendance à élaborer une loi unifiée décrivant le comportement du matériau sous les conditions les plus générales, et le besoin de lois justifié par une utilisation efficace dans la pratique. La dernière tendance inclut à la fois la possibilité d'une calibration par des essais sur des échantillons disponibles, et la convivialité de la loi. À des fins d'ingénierie, la seconde tendance domine, l'ingénieur doit évaluer le problème et sélectionner le modèle le plus approprié pour décrire le phénomène dominant observé. Dans cet article, un examen des diverses lois constitutives pour les géomatériaux, et en

  8. CHAPTER FOUR LİBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS:

    OpenAIRE

    FENDOĞLU, Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin

    2014-01-01

    CHAPTER FOUR LIBERTY AND TURKISH CONSTITUTIONS: Doç.Dr.Hasan Tahsin FENDOĞLU ABSTRACT: Turkish Constitution of 1982 is the first and only Turkish Constitution that has a main purpose on strengthening the political power not the liberty or democr...

  9. Avoiding Mazibuko : water security and constitutional rights in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 2009 judgment by the Constitutional Court of South Africa in Mazibuko v City of Johannesburg is seen by many as a watershed in the interpretation of the fundamental constitutional right of access to water. The Constitutional Court ruled that the right of access to sufficient water does not require that the state provide ...

  10. The Practice of Informal Changes to the Ethiopian Constitution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigussie Afesha

    A constitution outlines the major principles and the basic organization, structure, and process of a state.2 ... Publishing, p 96. 9 Ibid. 10 Bjørn Erik Rasch, (2008), Foundations of Constitutional Stability: Veto Points, Qualified ... changes in the life of the Constitution such as judicial interpretation, legislation, party practice and ...

  11. Human Rights under the Ethiopian Constitution: A Descriptive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article summarizes human rights under the Ethiopian Constitution (mainly surrounding Chapter 3 of Constitution and related constitutional provisions on human and democratic rights), and forwards some insights. It, inter alia, covers various aspects of the application and interpretation of human rights provisions, ...

  12. Reflections on the Establishment of Constitutional Government in Eastern Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varat, Jonathan D.

    Establishing constitutional government involves not simply the creation of a written document that purports to create the political structure of a nation and guarantee rights to its people, but "constitutionalism" in the sense of meaningful and effective adherence to constitutional norms of democratic organization and the protection of…

  13. Modernity, Rationality and Constitutional Law in Muslim-Majority Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    constitutions played in institutionalising a new sort of dominion in the newly established states. Against this background, the paper discusses the relationship between constitutionalism and Shari’a law, presenting this as a clash between two competing normative visions that are conceptually difficult...... and constitutionalism as a cultural imposition, and as a new form of colonization....

  14. Jonathan's Constitutional Conference in Nigeria: A reflection and a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The process of bringing forth a constitution is as crucial and important as the constitution itself. However, while this ideal has been institutionalized in many liberal democracies, it is yet to be fully embraced in many illiberal countries. In Nigeria, the focus of this discourse, the process of constitution-making is as old as the ...

  15. The Jefferson Meeting on the Constitution: The Constitution in the Community. A Guide to Organizing a Community Jefferson Meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferson Foundation, Washington, DC.

    Since its founding in 1983, The Jefferson Foundation has engaged increasing numbers of Americans in study and discussion of the U.S. Constitution. Through participation in Jefferson Meetings on the Constitution citizens will come to a fuller understanding of how the Constitution was made, why it designed the national government the way it did, and…

  16. Models of gene gain and gene loss for probabilistic reconstruction of gene content in the last universal common ancestor of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The problem of probabilistic inference of gene content in the last common ancestor of several extant species with completely sequenced genomes is: for each gene that is conserved in all or some of the genomes, assign the probability that its ancestral gene was present in the genome of their last common ancestor. Results We have developed a family of models of gene gain and gene loss in evolution, and applied the maximum-likelihood approach that uses phylogenetic tree of prokaryotes and the record of orthologous relationships between their genes to infer the gene content of LUCA, the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all currently living cellular organisms. The crucial parameter, the ratio of gene losses and gene gains, was estimated from the data and was higher in models that take account of the number of in-paralogs in genomes than in models that treat gene presences and absences as a binary trait. Conclusion While the numbers of genes that are placed confidently into LUCA are similar in the ML methods and in previously published methods that use various parsimony-based approaches, the identities of genes themselves are different. Most of the models of either kind treat the genes found in many existing genomes in a similar way, assigning to them high probabilities of being ancestral (“high ancestrality”). The ML models are more likely than others to assign high ancestrality to the genes that are relatively rare in the present-day genomes. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Martijn A Huynen, Toni Gabaldón and Fyodor Kondrashov. PMID:24354654

  17. Sovereignty, globalization and the constitution of meaning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Samir Benavides Vanegas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this essay I wish to show how law’s and the nation’s loss of sovereignty have meant the emergence of new sites of identity construction and how these new identities have become global due to the loss of centrality of the nation state as a place of meaning production. By analyzing the concept of sovereignty and its relation to the power of naming held by the State, and exercised through the law, I want to show how in a society of the spectacle that power is removed from the State and given to other places that can ensure passivity of viewers and thus the absence of resistance in the construction of meaning. This I will do by analyzing a Colombian soap opera and its handling of the concept of corruption to show legal meaning was overtaken by the one built in the media.

  18. The spirit of the constitution. The institutionalized unsociability in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savvas MAVRIDIS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available With this article attempts a comparison of the Greek Constitution of 1975, the constitutions of Germany, USA, Switzerland, Austria, France, UK and Italy on the issue of property relations and general interest, in order to highlight those notified differences relating to these communities and resulted in specific social situations. While the constitutions of the other countries, which are among the most representative democracies of the Western world, are characterized by an increased institutionalization of sociability, the Greek constitution on the issue of general interest takes an antisocial and, at best, neutral attitude. The convergence of the Greek constitution on this issue with the other constitutions is considered a prerequisite for overcoming the crisis and, more generally, for social development. This little effort hopes to contribute to a more social future formulation of the Greek constitution and a corresponding behaviour of Greek society.

  19. Stability of non-linear constitutive formulations for viscoelastic fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Siginer, Dennis A

    2014-01-01

    Stability of Non-linear Constitutive Formulations for Viscoelastic Fluids provides a complete and up-to-date view of the field of constitutive equations for flowing viscoelastic fluids, in particular on their non-linear behavior, the stability of these constitutive equations that is their predictive power, and the impact of these constitutive equations on the dynamics of viscoelastic fluid flow in tubes. This book gives an overall view of the theories and attendant methodologies developed independently of thermodynamic considerations as well as those set within a thermodynamic framework to derive non-linear rheological constitutive equations for viscoelastic fluids. Developments in formulating Maxwell-like constitutive differential equations as well as single integral constitutive formulations are discussed in the light of Hadamard and dissipative type of instabilities.

  20. Sequence Evolution and Expression of the Androgen Receptor and Other Pathway-Related Genes in a Unisexual Fish, the Amazon Molly, Poecilia formosa, and Its Bisexual Ancestors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangjun Zhu

    Full Text Available The all-female Amazon molly (Poecilia formosa originated from a single hybridization of two bisexual ancestors, Atlantic molly (Poecilia mexicana and sailfin molly (Poecilia latipinna. As a gynogenetic species, the Amazon molly needs to copulate with a heterospecific male, but the genetic information of the sperm-donor does not contribute to the next generation, as the sperm only acts as the trigger for the diploid eggs' embryogenesis. Here, we study the sequence evolution and gene expression of the duplicated genes coding for androgen receptors (ars and other pathway-related genes, i.e., the estrogen receptors (ers and cytochrome P450, family19, subfamily A, aromatase genes (cyp19as, in the Amazon molly, in comparison to its bisexual ancestors. Mollies possess-as most other teleost fish-two copies of the ar, er, and cyp19a genes, i.e., arα/arβ, erα/erβ1, and cyp19a1 (also referred as cyp19a1a/cyp19a2 (also referred to as cyp19a1b, respectively. Non-synonymous single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs among the ancestral bisexual species were generally predicted not to alter protein function. Some derived substitutions in the P. mexicana and one in P. formosa are predicted to impact protein function. We also describe the gene expression pattern of the ars and pathway-related genes in various tissues (i.e., brain, gill, and ovary and provide SNP markers for allele specific expression research. As a general tendency, the levels of gene expression were lowest in gill and highest in ovarian tissues, while expression levels in the brain were intermediate in most cases. Expression levels in P. formosa were conserved where expression did not differ between the two bisexual ancestors. In those cases where gene expression levels significantly differed between the bisexual species, P. formosa expression was always comparable to the higher expression level among the two ancestors. Interestingly, erβ1 was expressed neither in brain nor in gill in the

  1. Dental Emergencies

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, Marke

    1982-01-01

    Emergency dental problems can result from trauma, dental pathology, or from dental treatment itself. While the physician can treat many instances of dental trauma, the patient should see a dentist as soon as possible so that teeth can be saved. Emergency treatment of dental pathology usually involves relief of pain and/or swelling. Bleeding is the most frequent post-treatment emergency. The physician should be able to make the patient comfortable until definitive dental treatment can be avail...

  2. Predominant constitutive CFTR conductance in small airways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lytle Christian

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The pathological hallmarks of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are inflammation of the small airways (bronchiolitis and destruction of lung parenchyma (emphysema. These forms of disease arise from chronic prolonged infections, which are usually never present in the normal lung. Despite the fact that primary hygiene and defense of the airways presumably requires a well controlled fluid environment on the surface of the bronchiolar airway, very little is known of the fluid and electrolyte transport properties of airways of less than a few mm diameter. Methods We introduce a novel approach to examine some of these properties in a preparation of minimally traumatized porcine bronchioles of about 1 mm diameter by microperfusing the intact bronchiole. Results In bilateral isotonic NaCl Ringer solutions, the spontaneous transepithelial potential (TEP; lumen to bath of the bronchiole was small (mean ± sem: -3 ± 1 mV; n = 25, but when gluconate replaced luminal Cl-, the bionic Cl- diffusion potentials (-58 ± 3 mV; n = 25 were as large as -90 mV. TEP diffusion potentials from 2:1 NaCl dilution showed that epithelial Cl- permeability was at least 5 times greater than Na+ permeability. The anion selectivity sequence was similar to that of CFTR. The bionic TEP became more electronegative with stimulation by luminal forskolin (5 μM+IBMX (100 μM, ATP (100 μM, or adenosine (100 μM, but not by ionomycin. The TEP was partially inhibited by NPPB (100 μM, GlyH-101* (5–50 μM, and CFTRInh-172* (5 μM. RT-PCR gave identifying products for CFTR, α-, β-, and γ-ENaC and NKCC1. Antibodies to CFTR localized specifically to the epithelial cells lining the lumen of the small airways. Conclusion These results indicate that the small airway of the pig is characterized by a constitutively active Cl- conductance that is most likely due to CFTR.

  3. Reproductive emergencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutkowitz, L Ari

    2005-03-01

    The emergency clinician is frequently called on to manage problems relating to the female reproductive tract. Because owners sel-dom have the medical knowledge needed to differentiate normal from abnormal reproductive behaviors, they frequently look to the emergency veterinarian for guidance and information during and after parturition. For this reason, it is essential that the veterinarian have a good understanding of the normal reproductive cycle as well as the common emergencies that may occur. This article reviews the events surrounding normal parturition in the dog and cat and the reproductive emergencies seen most commonly in practice.

  4. Report between the President and Constitutional Court and its influence on the functioning of the Constitutional System in Kosovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florent Muçaj

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at clarifying the report between the President and the Constitutional Court. If we take as a starting point the constitutional mandate of these two institutions it follows that their final mission is the same, i.e., the protection and safeguarding of the constitutional system. This paper, thus, will clarify the key points in which this report is expressed. Further, this paper examines the theoretical aspects of the report between the President and the Constitutional Court, starting from the debate over this issue between Karl Schmitt and Hans Kelsen. An important part of the paper will examine the Constitution of Kosovo, i.e., the contents of the constitutional norm and its application. The analysis focuses on the role such report between the two institutions has on the functioning of the constitutional system. In analyzing the case of Kosovo, this paper examines Constitutional Court cases in which the report between the President and the Constitutional Court has been an issue of review. Such cases assist us in clarifying the main theme of this paper. Therefore, the reader will be able to understand the key elements of the report between the President as a representative of the unity of the people on the one hand and the Constitutional Court as a guarantor of constitutionality on the other hand.

  5. Constitutional Decree No. 19 promulgating the Constitution of the Oriental Republic of Uruguay, 15 August 1984.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-01-01

    This Decree amends Section 44 of the Constitution of Uruguay to read as follows: "44. The State shall legislate on all matters related to public health and hygiene, and shall assure the improvement of the physical, moral, and social well-being of all the inhabitants of the country. All inhabitants shall have a duty to care for their own health and to have themselves treated in the event of disease. The State shall make available, without charge, means of prevention and medical care to indigent persons or to persons lacking sufficient resources." full text

  6. Reconstructed ancestral Myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthases indicate that ancestors of the Thermococcales and Thermotoga species were more thermophilic than their descendants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas C Butzin

    Full Text Available The bacterial genomes of Thermotoga species show evidence of significant interdomain horizontal gene transfer from the Archaea. Members of this genus acquired many genes from the Thermococcales, which grow at higher temperatures than Thermotoga species. In order to study the functional history of an interdomain horizontally acquired gene we used ancestral sequence reconstruction to examine the thermal characteristics of reconstructed ancestral proteins of the Thermotoga lineage and its archaeal donors. Several ancestral sequence reconstruction methods were used to determine the possible sequences of the ancestral Thermotoga and Archaea myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (MIPS. These sequences were predicted to be more thermostable than the extant proteins using an established sequence composition method. We verified these computational predictions by measuring the activities and thermostabilities of purified proteins from the Thermotoga and the Thermococcales species, and eight ancestral reconstructed proteins. We found that the ancestral proteins from both the archaeal donor and the Thermotoga most recent common ancestor recipient were more thermostable than their descendants. We show that there is a correlation between the thermostability of MIPS protein and the optimal growth temperature (OGT of its host, which suggests that the OGT of the ancestors of these species of Archaea and the Thermotoga grew at higher OGTs than their descendants.

  7. Reconstructed ancestral Myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthases indicate that ancestors of the Thermococcales and Thermotoga species were more thermophilic than their descendants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butzin, Nicholas C; Lapierre, Pascal; Green, Anna G; Swithers, Kristen S; Gogarten, J Peter; Noll, Kenneth M

    2013-01-01

    The bacterial genomes of Thermotoga species show evidence of significant interdomain horizontal gene transfer from the Archaea. Members of this genus acquired many genes from the Thermococcales, which grow at higher temperatures than Thermotoga species. In order to study the functional history of an interdomain horizontally acquired gene we used ancestral sequence reconstruction to examine the thermal characteristics of reconstructed ancestral proteins of the Thermotoga lineage and its archaeal donors. Several ancestral sequence reconstruction methods were used to determine the possible sequences of the ancestral Thermotoga and Archaea myo-inositol-3-phosphate synthase (MIPS). These sequences were predicted to be more thermostable than the extant proteins using an established sequence composition method. We verified these computational predictions by measuring the activities and thermostabilities of purified proteins from the Thermotoga and the Thermococcales species, and eight ancestral reconstructed proteins. We found that the ancestral proteins from both the archaeal donor and the Thermotoga most recent common ancestor recipient were more thermostable than their descendants. We show that there is a correlation between the thermostability of MIPS protein and the optimal growth temperature (OGT) of its host, which suggests that the OGT of the ancestors of these species of Archaea and the Thermotoga grew at higher OGTs than their descendants.

  8. How old are chimpanzee communities? Time to the most recent common ancestor of the Y-chromosome in highly patrilocal societies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langergraber, Kevin E; Rowney, Carolyn; Schubert, Grit; Crockford, Cathy; Hobaiter, Catherine; Wittig, Roman; Wrangham, Richard W; Zuberbühler, Klaus; Vigilant, Linda

    2014-04-01

    Many human societies are patrilineal, with males passing on their name or descent group affiliation to their offspring. Y-chromosomes are also passed on from father to son, leading to the simple expectation that males sharing the same surname or descent group membership should have similar Y-chromosome haplotypes. Although several studies in patrilineal human societies have examined the correspondence between Y-chromosome variation and surname or descent group membership, similar studies in non-human animals are lacking. Chimpanzees represent an excellent species for examining the relationship between descent group membership and Y-chromosome variation because they live in strongly male philopatric communities that arise by a group-fissioning process. Here we take advantage of recent analytical advances in the calculation of the time to the most recent common male ancestor and a large sample size of 273 Y-chromosome short tandem repeat haplotypes to inform our understanding of the potential ages of eight communities of chimpanzees. We find that the times to the most recent common male ancestor of chimpanzee communities are several hundred to as much as over two thousand years. These genetic estimates of the great time depths of chimpanzee communities accord well with behavioral observations suggesting that community fissions are a very rare event and are similar to genetic estimates of the time depth of patrilineal human groups. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reconstructing a B-cell clonal lineage. I. Statistical inference of unobserved ancestors [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/z6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas B Kepler

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available One of the key phenomena in the adaptive immune response to infection and immunization is affinity maturation, during which antibody genes are mutated and selected, typically resulting in a substantial increase in binding affinity to the eliciting antigen. Advances in technology on several fronts have made it possible to clone large numbers of heavy-chain light-chain pairs from individual B cells and thereby identify whole sets of clonally related antibodies. These collections could provide the information necessary to reconstruct their own history - the sequence of changes introduced into the lineage during the development of the clone - and to study affinity maturation in detail. But the success of such a program depends entirely on accurately inferring the founding ancestor and the other unobserved intermediates. Given a set of clonally related immunoglobulin V-region genes, the method described here allows one to compute the posterior distribution over their possible ancestors, thereby giving a thorough accounting of the uncertainty inherent in the reconstruction. I demonstrate the application of this method on heavy-chain and light-chain clones, assess the reliability of the inference, and discuss the sources of uncertainty.

  10. Territory in the Constitutional Standards of Unitary States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina V. Markhgeym

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The article is based on the analysis of the constitutions of seven European countries (Albania, Hungary, Greece, Spain, Malta, Poland, Sweden. The research allows to reveal general and specific approaches to consolidation of norms on territories in a state and give the characteristic of the corresponding constitutional norms. Given the authors ' comprehensive approach to the definition of the territory of the state declared constitutional norms were assessed from the perspective of the fundamental principles and constituent elements of the territory. Considering the specifics of the constitutional types of state territories authors suggest typical and variative models and determine the constitutions of unitary states, distinguished by their originality in the declared group of legal relations. The original constitutional language areas associated with the introduction at the state level, these types of areas that are not typical for other countries.

  11. THE CONSTITUTIONAL PRINCIPLE OF EQUALITY - LEGAL SIGNIFICANCE AND SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius ANDREESCU

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The equality in human rights and obligations, the equality of citizens before the law are fundamental categories of the theories on social democracy but also conditions of the lawful state, without which constitutional democracy cannot be conceived. In Romanian Constitution, this principle is consecrated in the form of equality of the citizens before the law and public authorities. There are also particular aspects of this principle consecrated in the Constitution. The constitutional principle of equality requires that equal treatment be applied to equal situations. This social and legal reality implies numerous interferences between the principle of equality and other constitutional principles. In this study, by using theoretical and jurisprudential arguments, we intend to demonstrate that, in relation to contemporary social reality, equality, as a constitutional principle, is a particular aspect of the principle of proportionality. The latter one expresses in essence the ideas of: fairness, justice, reasonableness and fair appropriateness of state decisions to the facts and legitimate aims proposed.

  12. Constitutional Crowdsourcing to Reconcile Demos with Aristos and Nomos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abat Ninet, Antoni

    2017-01-01

    After the failed Icelandic experience of constitutional crowdsourcing (2009-2012), some of the country’s legal community, parliamentarians and policymakers affirmed that the constitutional draft proposed by the constitutional council of 25 citizens and approved unanimously on 27 July 2011....... This paper first remarks on how revolutionary and innovative the constitutional crowdsourcing experience was. From Solon, Ephialtes and Cleisthenes that laid out the foundation of democratic Athens, to modern constitutions that have been penned by few people men, regardless of the political system in which...... it is framed, been liberal democracies or authoritarian states. Derrida stated there is a sort of “semantic indeterminacy” at the core of democracy and that constitutional crowdsourcing is a way to intervene in this indeterminacy. The Icelandic example enlightened that there is a way to mediate between...

  13. The President of the Republic in the constitutional order of Serbia: Ten years of the Constitution of 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Aleksandar S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is undoubted that the President of the Republic of Serbia represents the most controversial issue debating in constitutional theory and practice. We can find completely opposite attitudes toward the constitutional status of the President of the Republic: on one hand, the prevailing opinion that the President of the Republic has an active role in the executive branch of the government, but on the other hand, the opinion that the President of the Republic is a figurehead and has only a moderating role. If we remain focused only on normative analysis, there is no doubt that we will be brought to a conclusion that the constitution-maker insisted on the moderating role of the President of the Republic making him an independent constitutional body providing the balance in the system of government. In the constitutional practice, in the previous ten years, we have been in a position to see two totally different 'stiles of presidency'. None of them is in accordance with the 'constitutional picture' of the institution. From 2007 to 2012 president Tadić was a central constitutional figure. He tended to concentrate all constitutional powers in his hands using the position of the leader of the strongest political party. With coming into power president Nikolic, who gave up the function of the president of the party, constitutional and political power moved almost completely to the president of the Government. The president of the Republic acts sometimes as he has less power than the Constitution gives him.

  14. Constitutional Justice Procedure in Lithuania: a Search for Optimal Model

    OpenAIRE

    Pūraitė-Andrikienė, Dovilė

    2017-01-01

    The dissertation systematically analyzes the preconditions for optimising the existing constitutional justice model, i.e. whether the current model meets the expectations of Lithuanian society and the legal community, corresponds to the capabilities of the legal system, and is in line with the tendencies of constitutional justice in European states, identifies the problematic aspects of the existing constitutional justice model and brings forward proposals regarding how the legal regulation c...

  15. Study Guide for the United States Constitution and Teacher's Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagemann, Frances L.

    Presented in this document are a student's study guide and an accompanying teacher's manual. The purpose of the study guide is to present information on (1) what the U.S. Constitution means, (2) how the U.S. government is organized, (3) why the Constitution is a living document, and (4) why the Constitution is a source of pride for U.S. citizens.…

  16. 32 CFR 732.16 - Emergency care requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... non-Federal facility: (1) Medical or surgical conditions which would constitute an emergency in the... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Emergency care requirements. 732.16 Section 732... MEDICAL AND DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.16 Emergency care requirements...

  17. THE CONSTITUTIONAL CONCEPTS OF THE REFORM TREATY (THE LISBON TREATY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilian Ciongaru

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lisbon Treaty also known as the Reform Treaty provides only an amendment of the treaties considered as fundamental, namely the Treaty on the European Union and the Treaty on the functioning of the European Union and is the result of the constitutional process triggered by the Laeken Declaration adopted by the European Council. The Lisbon Treaty is still built on the content of the European Constitution from which they eliminated the most controversial provisions, first of all the title of Constitution that might produce concern and panic among the European Union population through the symbolic power it contained, and for Romania this new treaty was the first it signed in quality of a Union member state. Even if does not bear the name of European Constitution, the Lisbon Treaty is a European Constitution for the following reasons: first it is a Constitution because it gathers together most of the fundamental elements of the Constitutional Treaty, even if it does not have the structure or the name thereof, and second the treaties after the Lisbon reform have become small constitutions from the operational viewpoint, they develop the functions of a constitution, limit power and organize the operation of the organization.

  18. Constitutive Behavior and Damage Characterization of High Temperature Polymer Composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Daniel, Isaac

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to characterize the constitutive behavior, physical aging, damage mechanisms and damage development in high temperature polymer matrix composites under various...

  19. Asymmetric Damage Segregation Constitutes an Emergent Population-Level Stress Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Søren; Nunns, Harry; Košmrlj, Andrej

    2016-01-01

    , we introduce a cell-lineage-based framework that quantifies the population-wide effects of ADS and then verify our results experimentally in E. coli under heat and antibiotic stress. Using an experimentally validated mathematical model, we find that the beneficial effect of ADS increases with stress....... In effect, low-damage subpopulations divide faster and amplify within the population acting like a positive feedback loop whose strength scales with stress. Analysis of protein aggregates shows that the degree of asymmetric inheritance is damage dependent in single cells. Together our results indicate that...

  20. Studying Emerge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Sarah Rachael; Selin, Cynthia; Rodegher, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The Emerge event, held in Tempe, AZ in March 2012, brought together a range of scientists, artists, futurists, engineers and students in order to experiment with innovative methods for thinking about the future. These methodological techniques were tested through nine workshops, each of which made...... use of a different format; Emerge as a whole, then, offered an opportunity to study a diverse set of future-oriented engagement practices. We conducted an event ethnography, in which a team of 11 researchers collaboratively developed accounts of the practices at play within Emerge and its workshops...

  1. Heat emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... directly) to the person's skin and use a fan to lower body temperature. Place cold compresses on ... RS, Gausche-Hill M, eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; ...

  2. Ear emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from an explosion, blow to the head, flying, scuba diving, falling while water skiing, or being slapped on ... Byyny RL, Shockley LW. Scuba diving and dysbarism. In: Marx JA, ... Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ...

  3. EMERGENCY TRIAGE

    OpenAIRE

    Renata Rajapakse

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes emergency triage. It presents the reasons for implementation of triage and its benefits. Focuses on the Manchester triage system, which is formally validated triage model in Slovenia.

  4. Dermatologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.P. Simón Díaz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatologic emergencies represent about 8–20% of the diseases seen in the Emergency Department of hospitals. It is often a challenge for primary care physicians to differentiate mundane skin ailments from more serious, life threatening conditions that require immediate intervention. In this review we included the following conditions: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrosis, pemphigus vulgaris, toxic shock syndrome, fasciitis necrotising, angioedema/urticaria, meningococcemia, Lyme disease and Rocky Mountain spotted fever.

  5. EMERGENCY CALLS

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    IN URGENT NEED OF A DOCTOR GENEVA EMERGENCY SERVICES GENEVA AND VAUD 144 FIRE BRIGADE 118 POLICE 117 CERN FIREMEN 767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 01-251-51-51 Patient not fit to be moved, call family doctor, or: GP AT HOME, open 24h/24h 748-49-50 Association Of Geneva Doctors Emergency Doctors at home 07h-23h 322 20 20 Patient fit to be moved: HOPITAL CANTONAL CENTRAL 24 Micheli-du-Crest 372-33-11 ou 382-33-11 EMERGENCIES 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 CHILDREN'S HOSPITAL 6 rue Willy-Donzé 372-33-11 MATERNITY 32 bvd.de la Cluse 382-68-16 ou 382-33-11 OPHTHALMOLOGY 22 Alcide Jentzer 382-33-11 ou 372-33-11 MEDICAL CENTRE CORNAVIN 1-3 rue du Jura 345 45 50 HOPITAL DE LA TOUR Meyrin EMERGENCIES 719-61-11 URGENCES PEDIATRIQUES 719-61-00 LA TOUR MEDICAL CENTRE 719-74-00 European Emergency Call 112 FRANCE EMERGENCY SERVICES 15 FIRE BRIGADE 18 POLICE 17 CERN FIREMEN AT HOME 00-41-22-767-44-44 ANTI-POISONS CENTRE Open 24h/24h 04-72-11-69-11 All doctors ...

  6. Anorectal emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohsiriwat, Varut

    2016-01-01

    Anorectal emergencies refer to anorectal disorders presenting with some alarming symptoms such as acute anal pain and bleeding which might require an immediate management. This article deals with the diagnosis and management of common anorectal emergencies such as acutely thrombosed external hemorrhoid, thrombosed or strangulated internal hemorrhoid, bleeding hemorrhoid, bleeding anorectal varices, anal fissure, irreducible or strangulated rectal prolapse, anorectal abscess, perineal necrotizing fasciitis (Fournier gangrene), retained anorectal foreign bodies and obstructing rectal cancer. Sexually transmitted diseases as anorectal non-surgical emergencies and some anorectal emergencies in neonates are also discussed. The last part of this review dedicates to the management of early complications following common anorectal procedures that may present as an emergency including acute urinary retention, bleeding, fecal impaction and anorectal sepsis. Although many of anorectal disorders presenting in an emergency setting are not life-threatening and may be successfully treated in an outpatient clinic, an accurate diagnosis and proper management remains a challenging problem for clinicians. A detailed history taking and a careful physical examination, including digital rectal examination and anoscopy, is essential for correct diagnosis and plan of treatment. In some cases, some imaging examinations, such as endoanal ultrasonography and computerized tomography scan of whole abdomen, are required. If in doubt, the attending physicians should not hesitate to consult an expert e.g., colorectal surgeon about the diagnosis, proper management and appropriate follow-up. PMID:27468181

  7. Evolution of DNA polymerases: an inactivated polymerase-exonuclease module in Pol epsilon and a chimeric origin of eukaryotic polymerases from two classes of archaeal ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirov, Tahir H; Makarova, Kira S; Rogozin, Igor B; Pavlov, Youri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-03-18

    Evolution of DNA polymerases, the key enzymes of DNA replication and repair, is central to any reconstruction of the history of cellular life. However, the details of the evolutionary relationships between DNA polymerases of archaea and eukaryotes remain unresolved. We performed a comparative analysis of archaeal, eukaryotic, and bacterial B-family DNA polymerases, which are the main replicative polymerases in archaea and eukaryotes, combined with an analysis of domain architectures. Surprisingly, we found that eukaryotic Polymerase epsilon consists of two tandem exonuclease-polymerase modules, the active N-terminal module and a C-terminal module in which both enzymatic domains are inactivated. The two modules are only distantly related to each other, an observation that suggests the possibility that Pol epsilon evolved as a result of insertion and subsequent inactivation of a distinct polymerase, possibly, of bacterial descent, upstream of the C-terminal Zn-fingers, rather than by tandem duplication. The presence of an inactivated exonuclease-polymerase module in Pol epsilon parallels a similar inactivation of both enzymatic domains in a distinct family of archaeal B-family polymerases. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that eukaryotic B-family polymerases, most likely, originate from two distantly related archaeal B-family polymerases, one form giving rise to Pol epsilon, and the other one to the common ancestor of Pol alpha, Pol delta, and Pol zeta. The C-terminal Zn-fingers that are present in all eukaryotic B-family polymerases, unexpectedly, are homologous to the Zn-finger of archaeal D-family DNA polymerases that are otherwise unrelated to the B family. The Zn-finger of Polepsilon shows a markedly greater similarity to the counterpart in archaeal PolD than the Zn-fingers of other eukaryotic B-family polymerases. Evolution of eukaryotic DNA polymerases seems to have involved previously unnoticed complex events. We hypothesize that the archaeal

  8. Democratisation in Africa: The Role of Self-Enforcing Constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Drawing on economic ideas about contracts and institutions, this paper outlines a conceptual framework for thinking about the role of constitutional rules in achieving political stability. It also elucidates a critical requirement for sustainable democratic systems, namely that constitutional rules must become self-sustaining to ...

  9. Unquenched thirst: the need for a constitutionally recognized right to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Sustainable Development Law and Policy (The) ... As demonstrated in South Africa, the codification of the right to water in its constitution has improved access to adequate water, sparked government concern and ... Is constitutional recognition of the right to water an adequate alternative to privatization of water?

  10. he Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    he Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures. LWH Ackermann ... legislature and the executive, their substantive independence can easily be undermined by fiscal starvation and their ability to function properly impeded by bureaucratic ...

  11. Constitutional obligations of a person and a citizen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Yu. Ogurtsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The constitution of the Russian Federation does not contain the list of obligations, but theoretically each legal right is supposed to correspond to a legal obligation. Such conformity is achieved by means of attaching obligations not only by Constitution, but by the branch legislation either.

  12. Legal Pluralism, Sharia Courts and Constitutional Issues in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... identity groups as long as they are in conformity with constitutional and human rights standards. Another option is to adopt a hands-off approach whereby the norms and practices of cultural and/or religious groups are permitted to operate and are not necessarily required to meet constitutional and human rights standards.

  13. The nuclear fuels tax is in conformity with constitutional law

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faehrmann, Ingo; Ringwald, Roman

    2012-01-01

    There are rulings by three courts of finance concerning the conformity of the nuclear fuels tax with German constitutional law. While the FG Hamburg and FG Munich were in some doubt, the FG Baden-Wuerttemberg was of the opinion that the nuclear fuels tax act is compatible with German constitutional law.

  14. New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by promoting the inclusion of right to health in the new constitution.

  15. New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    New Zimbabwe Constitution and the Right to Health Campaign 2010. In September 2008 the three main political parties in Zimbabwe signed a Global Political Agreement (GPA), undertaking to engage in the development of a new democratic constitution of over the next 24 months. This project will feed into that process by ...

  16. New constitutive vectors: useful genetic engineering tools for biocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Youqiang; Tao, Fei; Ma, Cuiqing; Xu, Ping

    2013-04-01

    Constitutive vectors are useful tools for genetic engineering. Two constitutive vectors with high levels of expression and broad host ranges were developed and used in a range of Pseudomonas hosts. The vectors showed superior characteristics compared to the inducible vectors as well as the potential to be used as improved genetic tools for biocatalysis.

  17. Constitution Building : a Handbook and Resource Website | IDRC ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Constitutions set the rules of the relationship between the state and its citizens. But if constitutions are to ... Branch (CIC-NCB). The Canadian International Council (CIC) aims to provide Canadians with a nonpartisan, nationwide institution for the advancement of research and dialogue on international affairs, and to support.

  18. Dialectical tensions in the values of the 1996 Constitution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In his paper The Dialectics in the Values of the 1996 Constitution Jan Swanepoel discusses various value statements in the 1996 Constitution of the Republic of South Africa and focuses the attention on indications of a lack of coherence as far as these value statements are concerned. He does this against the background ...

  19. Living Democracy: How Constitution High School Molds Better Citizens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasof, Marc

    2009-01-01

    Philadelphia's Constitution High School (CHS) is committed both to the theory of education for democracy, and to its practice, as reflected by a school constitution, student elections, town hall meetings, and active student participation in school government. As its name indicates, CHS is a theme-based high school that focuses on history,…

  20. The U.S. Constitution and Its Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yale Univ., New Haven, CT. Law School.

    The report presents a collection of articles on constitutional issues from a 1976 social studies conference. It is intended to be used by teachers in planning and implementing curriculum materials on development of the U.S. Constitution. The booklet is divided into eight articles. The first article discusses interpretive problems in the formation…

  1. Constitutionalism and Republicanism in the American Founding: 1776-1787.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Murray

    1986-01-01

    Illustrates the development of constitutionalism and republicanism from 1776 to 1787. Discusses the Declaration of Independence, arguments leading up to the Revolution, framing of the Constitution based on compromise, and opposing views of the ratification debate, all of which reveal disagreements over the precise meaning of republicanism. (TRS)

  2. The South African constitutional court's use of foreign precedent in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... Court or whether it is a characteristic of a court which is confident enough that its independence will remain intact in spite of its looking elsewhere for answers. KEYWORDS: transjudicialism; foreign precedent, comparative judicialism, stare decisis; foreign case law; comparative constitutionalism; Constitutional Court.

  3. Sub-National Constitutions in Ethiopia: Towards Entrenching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    4 Thus this paper offers an overview of state constitutions in Ethiopia with a view to highlighting their significance in the public life of Ethiopians. It also provides an analysis of how we can deepen and entrench constitutionalism in the states of ...

  4. Legal and Constitutional Evaluation of the Nigerian Sovereign ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The central aim of this paper is to examine the constitutionality of Nigeria's sovereign wealth fund (SWF) which was established in August 2012, pursuant to the Nigeria Sovereign Investment Authority (Establishment etc) Act 2011 (the NSIA Act). The paper reviews and discusses how questions on the constitutionality of a ...

  5. Contemporary Perspectives on the Constitution and Separation of Powers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Bar Association, Chicago, IL. Special Committee on Youth Education for Citizenship.

    A collection of essays designed to provide educators and other interested individuals with contemporary perspectives on the U.S. Constitution and separation of powers is presented. Separation of powers refers to one of the enduring principles of the U.S. constitutional system of government, in which governmental powers are subject to a division of…

  6. 42 CFR 23.28 - What events constitute default?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What events constitute default? 23.28 Section 23.28 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES PERSONNEL NATIONAL HEALTH... default? The following events will constitute defaults of the loan agreement: (a) Failure to make full...

  7. Constitutionalism and conflict in Ternate, North Maluku, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermkens, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    Allegedly the oldest in Indonesia, and to some even beyond, the constitution treasured in the Kedaton (traditional palace) of the Sultan of Ternate (North Maluku, Indonesia) constitutes a dividing line between North and South Ternate in terms of government, ethnicity, and, spirituality. Moreover, it

  8. the meaning of the provision of the 1996 constitution | Venter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the meaning of the provision of the 1996 constitution. ... The introduction of this notion in South African law and its meaning in general is described. ... The weaknesses of this theory are exposed and it is argued that the force external to the Constitution that guarantees its primacy, is its practical legitimacy, i.e. sufficient ...

  9. Constitutional Review and Referendums in Kenya | Kersting | Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Committee of Experts presented a harmonised draft which again was converted by government. It included US-style presidentialism with a number of checks and balances. The subsequent referendum in 2010 was successful. The Kenya constitutional process gives important insight for constitutional engineering as well ...

  10. The viability and constitutionality of the South African National ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The inclusion of the personal details of sex offenders in a register without their permission and sometimes without their knowledge amounts to a violation amongst other rights of the right to privacy stipulated in section 14 of the Constitution of the Republic of South Africa, 1996. In this article the constitutionality of the South ...

  11. Mootness and the approach to costs awards in constitutional litigation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heleba, Siyambonga

    with a costs order. Until such time as it is appealed against and overturned, as it stands this decision presents a grave concern to some constitutional law principles relating to mootness and the approach to costs in constitutional litigation between the State and private litigants. Particularly, the decision threatens the hitherto ...

  12. Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials Advances and New Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jian-Min; Zheng, Hong; Yao, Yangping

    2013-01-01

    The Second International Symposium on Constitutive Modeling of Geomaterials: Advances and New Applications (IS-Model 2012), is to be held in Beijing, China, during October 15-16, 2012. The symposium is organized by Tsinghua University, the International Association for Computer Methods and Advances in Geomechanics (IACMAG), the Committee of Numerical and Physical Modeling of Rock Mass, Chinese Society for Rock Mechanics and Engineering, and the Committee of Constitutive Relations and Strength Theory, China Institution of Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering, China Civil Engineering Society. This Symposium follows the first successful International Workshop on Constitutive Modeling held in Hong Kong, which was organized by Prof. JH Yin in 2007.   Constitutive modeling of geomaterials has been an active research area for a long period of time. Different approaches have been used in the development of various constitutive models. A number of models have been implemented in the numerical analyses of geote...

  13. Traditional Land Rights before the Indonesian Constitutional Court - Comment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Butt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In early 2013, the Indonesian Constitutional Court handed down its decision in the Traditional Forest Community case. In what has been heralded as a landmark decision, the Court upheld, as constitutional rights, the traditional rights of indigenous communities over forest resources upon which they had long depended. After introducing the Court and discussing aspects of its decision-making in constitutional review cases, this article demonstrates that the Traditional Forest Community case is in fact only the latest in a line of cases in which the Court has upheld traditional rights in the face of legislation that purport to allow the state to override them. In these cases, Court has provided important constitutional recognition to these traditional rights. However, its decisions do not appear to have cleared significant administrative stumbling blocks that remain in the way of communities seeking to enjoy the traditional rights to which they are now constitutionally entitled.

  14. Ancestor of the new archetypal biology: Goethe's dynamic typology as a model for contemporary evolutionary developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegner, Mark F

    2013-12-01

    As understood historically, typological thinking has no place in evolutionary biology since its conceptual framework is viewed as incompatible with population thinking. In this article, I propose that what I describe as dynamic typological thinking has been confused with, and has been overshadowed by, a static form of typological thinking. This conflation results from an inability to grasp dynamic typological thinking due to the overlooked requirement to engage our cognitive activity in an unfamiliar way. Thus, analytical thinking alone is unsuited to comprehend the nature of dynamic typological thinking. Over 200 years ago, J. W. von Goethe, in his Metamorphosis of Plants (1790) and other writings, introduced a dynamic form of typological thinking that has been traditionally misunderstood and misrepresented. I describe in detail Goethe's phenomenological methodology and its contemporary value in understanding morphological patterns in living organisms. Furthermore, contrary to the implications of static typological thinking, dynamic typological thinking is perfectly compatible with evolutionary dynamics and, if rightly understood, can contribute significantly to the still emerging field of evolutionary developmental biology (evo-devo). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. DBC1/CCAR2 and CCAR1 Are Largely Disordered Proteins that Have Evolved from One Common Ancestor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Brunquell

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deleted in breast cancer 1 (DBC1, CCAR2, KIAA1967 is a large, predominantly nuclear, multidomain protein that modulates gene expression by inhibiting several epigenetic modifiers, including the deacetylases SIRT1 and HDAC3, and the methyltransferase SUV39H1. DBC1 shares many highly conserved protein domains with its paralog cell cycle and apoptosis regulator 1 (CCAR1, CARP-1. In this study, we examined the full-length sequential and structural properties of DBC1 and CCAR1 from multiple species and correlated these properties with evolution. Our data shows that the conserved domains shared between DBC1 and CCAR1 have similar domain structures, as well as similar patterns of predicted disorder in less-conserved intrinsically disordered regions. Our analysis indicates similarities between DBC1, CCAR1, and the nematode protein lateral signaling target 3 (LST-3, suggesting that DBC1 and CCAR1 may have evolved from LST-3. Our data also suggests that DBC1 emerged later in evolution than CCAR1. DBC1 contains regions that show less conservation across species as compared to the same regions in CCAR1, suggesting a continuously evolving scenario for DBC1. Overall, this study provides insight into the structure and evolution of DBC1 and CCAR1, which may impact future studies on the biological functions of these proteins.

  16. Cicero and the Mixed Constitution (res publica mixta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitja Sadek

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The story of the mixed constitution is the story of the most stable and just constitution. In theory, this is a combination of at least two of the three elementary forms of government (monarchy, aristocracy and democracy, with some advantages that elementary forms may lack. It originated with the deliberation of Greek philosophers, who wanted to draw up a constitution safeguarding against the permanent variation of elementary constitutional forms and against coups d’état. For both Plato and Aristotle, the mixed constitution was, above all, the reflection of a search for balance between the two extreme forms of government, direct (Athenian democracy on the one hand and the exclusion of the people from governing on the other. The Greek theory was applied by the historian Polybius to the traditional tripartite constitution of the Roman republic. In his view, the consuls were monarchic elements, the senate an aristocratic element, and the comitia a democratic one. Cicero’s introduction of the idea of the mixed constitution in De re publica can only be understood in the light of the author’s personal situation and contemporary political circumstances. His political engagement at a time when the republic was gradually transforming into a monarchy aimed at restoring the important role of the nobility, represented by the senate. For Cicero, the mixed constitution was mainly an instrument for restoring the lost balance between the consuls, the senate, and the comitia, a last chance to save the decaying republic. The concluding part of the article addresses Alois Riklin’s recent discussion of the modern reception of the mixed constitution idea, which advances the controversial thesis that the paradigm of power division, the foundation of modern representative democracy, originates directly from the mixed constitution.

  17. tRNA-dependent cysteine biosynthetic pathway represents a strategy to increase cysteine contents by preventing it from thermal degradation: thermal adaptation of methanogenic archaea ancestor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Ge; Wang, Wei; Chen, Ling-Ling; Qian, Shao-Song; Zhang, Hong-Yu

    2009-10-01

    Although cysteine (Cys) is beneficial to stabilize protein structures, it is not prevalent in thermophiles. For instance, the Cys contents in most thermophilic archaea are only around 0.7%. However, methanogenic archaea, no matter thermophilic or not, contain relatively abundant Cys, which remains elusive for a long time. Recently, Klipcan et al. correlated this intriguing property of methanogenic archaea with their unique tRNA-dependent Cys biosynthetic pathway. But, the deep reasons underlying the correlation are ambiguous. Considering the facts that free Cys is thermally labile and the tRNA-dependent Cys biosynthesis avoids the use of free Cys, we speculate that the unique Cys biosynthetic pathway represents a strategy to increase Cys contents by preventing it from thermal degradation, which may be relevant to the thermal adaptation of methanogenic archaea ancestor.

  18. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    OpenAIRE

    Atsuko Koyama; Laura Hagopian; Judith Linden

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others...

  19. Hematologic emergencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Vallisa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the surprising progress made in other areas of hematology (advances in the understanding of leukemogenesis, improved transplant techniques has been conspicuously absent in the management of hematologic emergencies. And yet, every step toward greater knowledge, every new treatment option will be of little value unless we are able to manage the acute complications of hematologic diseases. These complications are better defined as hematologic emergencies, and they are characterized by a high rate of mortality. This review is based on a search of the literature that was initially confined to articles published in the journal Hematology from 2000 to 2009. The search was then extended to the Cochrane Library and to Pub Med in February 2010 with the following Keywords emergencies; urgencies; hematology. The same key words were employed in a search of the archives of Blood and the New England Journal of Medicine from 2000 to 2010. The results confirm that hematologic emergencies can be caused by hematologic malignancies as well as by non-neoplastic hematologic diseases. Within the former category; this review examines the causes; manifestations; treatment and prevention of disseminated intravascular coagulation; superior vena caval syndrome; spinal cord compression; tumor lysis syndrome; hyperleukocytosis; and hypercalcemia. We also review emergency situations associated with non-neoplatic haematological diseases; such as thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; drug-induced hemolytic anemia; and acute sickle-cell crisis.

  20. The Constitutional Debate: A One Man Show? Václav Klaus and the Constitutional Discourse in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rakušanová, Petra

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 8 (2007), s. 342-373 ISSN 1570-5854 Grant - others:VW Stiftung(DE) 218036 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70280505 Keywords : European Constitutional Treaty * European constitutional ratification * Czech Republic Subject RIV: AO - Sociology, Demography

  1. The brazilian constitution as third generation product: convergence and differences between the latin american constitutionalism and legal garantism theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Henrique Urquhart Cademartori

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article addresses the phenomenon of the latinamerican constitutionalism, its characteristics, critical issues and its challenges facing the European constitutional models, such as the legal garantism and neoconstitutionalism. That being said, this work compares the recent theoretical proposals within the Latin American constitutional theory with the European tradition. In this way, we delimit the aspects of main Latin American constitutionalism theory and contrast European constitutional theories, such as Ferrajoli’s legal garantism and representatives of neoconstitutionalism such as Dworkin, Alexy, Müller and Haberle. In this work, we seek to understand and explain the so-called "third generation constitutions”, in order to think properly of the Brazilian constitutionalism and the influence of the new legal institutions and procedural safeguards contained in our Constitution which give means to make possible fundamental and social rights. After that, we examine the affinities that Latin American constitutionalism has found in the legal garantism theory, which enables fundamental and social rights, and which has been largely accepted in countries similar to Brazil despite of its European origins.

  2. Constitutionalism in Education for Democracy: The Continuing Relevance of Arguments on Constitutional Government of the American Founding Era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper contends that the issues of constitutional government debated during the founding of the United States should be in the core curriculum of any school that seeks to educate students to become responsible citizens of a constitutional democracy. For purposes of teaching students, the issues debated by founding-era political thinkers can be…

  3. The Obligations on Government and Society in our Constitutional State to Respect and Support Independent Constitutional Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LWH Ackermann

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available Constitutional democracy recognises the ancient democratic principle that government of a country is based on and legitimated by the will and consent of the governed, which is determined by regular multi-party elections based on universal adult franchise. Constitutional democracy limits this principle by subjecting the democratically elected government and the will of the majority subject to a written constitution and the norms embodied in it. Such constitution is enshrined as the supreme law of the country in question. An almost universal feature of modern constitutionalism is a Bill of Rights that forms part of the Constitution and which is designed to protect and enforce individual rights principally, although not exclusively, against the state. Constitutionalism also embodies the principle of the separation of powers. A competent and independent judiciary, with the power to review all legislative and executive conduct that is inconsistent with the Constitution, is regarded, almost universally, as the prime and most effective check on the legislative and executive branches of government. Recently it has come to be realised that for the truly effective and meaningful operation of constitutionalism, other independent state institutions are necessary. The collective objective of these institutions is to ensure that the Constitution in fact produces what it proclaims: that constitutionalism becomes a way of life in all institutional structures. The South African Constitution has clearly designated the judiciary as the prime upholder and enforcer of the Constitution. The Constitution has, however, gone further and makes provision for a variety of independent state institutions whose purpose is to "strengthen constitutional democracy in the Republic". Apart from these state institutions the Constitution also makes provision for other independent bodies designed to play an important checking and balancing role. The regular effective functioning of

  4. Emergency neuroradiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarabino, T.; Hospital of Andria; Salvolini, U.; Jinkins, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    The book is directed at emergency radiologists and neuroradiologists. It aims at providing exhaustive information that will help the reader understand the clinical problems in the full range of neurological emergencies and to select the methodological and technical options that will ensure prompt and effective response and correct interpretation of the clinical findings. The various chapters address the most common neuroradiological emergencies, summarize their fundamental physiopathological features, describe the main semiological and differential diagnostic features, and provide operative suggestions for the selection of the appropriate techniques to be applied in a sequential order. The book addresses the application of state-of-the-art techniques and their implications for clinical practice (particularly the contributions of standard and functional MRI and of spiral and multislice CT). The illustrations provide not only training but also reference material for routine clinical work. (orig.)

  5. Emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-01-01

    The nuclear activities are exercised so as to prevent the accidents. They are subjected to a rule whom application is controlled by the Asn. The risk of grave accident is so limited to a very low level of probability. He cannot be however completely pushed aside. The expression ' radiological emergency situation ' indicates a situation which ensues from an incident or of an accident risking to lead to an emission of radioactive materials or a level of radioactivity susceptible to strike a blow at the public health. The term ' nuclear crisis ' is used for the events which can lead to a radiological emergency situation on a nuclear basic installation or during a transport of radioactive materials. The preparation and the management of emergency situations, that they are of natural, accidental or terrorist origin, became a major concern of our society. We propose you of to know more about it in this file. (N.C.)

  6. Emergency neuroradiology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarabino, T. [Scientific Inst. ' Casa Sollievo della Sofferenza' , San Giovanni Rotondo (Italy). Dept. of Neuroradiology]|[Hospital of Andria (Italy). Dept. of Radiology, ASL BA/1; Salvolini, U. [Ancona Univ. (Italy). Neuroradiology and Dept. of Radiology; Jinkins, J.R. (eds.) [New York State Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States). Dept. of Radiology, Downstate Medical Center

    2006-07-01

    The book is directed at emergency radiologists and neuroradiologists. It aims at providing exhaustive information that will help the reader understand the clinical problems in the full range of neurological emergencies and to select the methodological and technical options that will ensure prompt and effective response and correct interpretation of the clinical findings. The various chapters address the most common neuroradiological emergencies, summarize their fundamental physiopathological features, describe the main semiological and differential diagnostic features, and provide operative suggestions for the selection of the appropriate techniques to be applied in a sequential order. The book addresses the application of state-of-the-art techniques and their implications for clinical practice (particularly the contributions of standard and functional MRI and of spiral and multislice CT). The illustrations provide not only training but also reference material for routine clinical work. (orig.)

  7. EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Pantić

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Emergency contraception refers to any device or drug that is used as an emergency procedure to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sexual intercourse.The first method of emergency contraception was high dose of estrogen. Concern about side effects led to subsequent development of the so-called Yuzpe regimen which combined ethinil estradiol with levonorgestrel and levonorgestrel alone. Less convenient to use is the copper intauterine contraceptive device.It is known that in some women sexual steroids may inhibit or delay ovulation and may interfere with ovum and sperm transport and implantation. Copper intrauterine device causes a foreign-body effect on the endometrium and a direct toxic effect to sperm and blastocyst.The Yuzpe regimen reduces the risk of pregnancy after a single act of sexual intercourse by about 75% and the levonorgestrel alone by about 85%. The copper intrauterine device is an extremely effective method for selected patients.Nausea and vomiting are common among women using the Yuzpe regimen and considerably less common among women using levonorgestrel alone regimen.Emergency contraception is relatively safe with no contraindications except pregnancy. It is ineffective if a woman is pregnant. There is no need for a medical hystory or a phisical examination before providing emergency contraceptive pills. They are taken long before organogenesis starts, so they should not have a teratogenic effect.Counseling should include information about correct use of the method, possible side effects and her preferences for regular contraception.Unintended pregnancy is a great problem. Several safe, effective and inexpensive methods of emergency contraception are available including Yuzpe regimen, levonorges-trel-only regimen and copper intrauterine device.

  8. EMERGING MARKETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GHEORGHE CARALICEA-MĂRCULESCU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The emerging markets are winning the currency war, because at this very moment its the battle of global financial institutions , as to who is more vulnerable and more exposed to the debt crisis and have their hands in more risky assets. US and Euro with their intertwining the financial stuff of the nation, the banks and the corporations are in a deep mess. One goes down, takes the other ones too. Right now , they all are struggling and getting beaten up , while the emerging markets are quiet and not really expressing their stands on the current situation except are reacting by all only putting their own houses in order.

  9. Nuclear emergencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    This leaflet, which is in the form of a fold-up chart, has panels of text which summarize the emergencies that could arise and the countermeasures and emergency plans that have been prepared should nuclear accident occur or affect the United Kingdom. The levels of radiation doses at which various measures would be introduced are outlined. The detection and monitoring programmes that would operate is illustrated. The role of NRPB and the responsible government departments are set out together with an explanation of how the National Arrangements for Incidents involving Radioactivity would be coordinated. (UK)

  10. Possibilities for a constitutional embodiment of environment protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattenberger, D.

    1991-03-01

    The main topic is the question of adequacy and desirability of a constitutional rule for the protection of the environment with regard to the specific Austrian situation and the extensive discussion about this topic in German. As variants are discussed a human right of environment, objective categories of constitutional rules (constitutional aims of state's policy) and procedural or organisational rules. It begins with an explanation of the general responsibility of states in the field of environment protection and a determination of the term 'environment '. In respect of a human right first already guaranteed rights are examined for their relevance in the field of conservation with regard to the change in the understanding of human rights. Then arguments pro and against a specific right to environment are mentioned and appraised. With regard to the counter-arguments a subjective right should not be incorporated. A revision of the present concept of human rights would be necessary. Similar arguments are mentioned against the constitution of an objective norm in respect of some judicial decisions of the Austrian Constitutional Court. The problem of the protection of the environment will not be solved with a constitutional rule. It would raise new problems, which would damage the constitution as a fundamental order of human living together. (author)

  11. The balancing act between the constitutional right to strike and the constitutional right to education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H J (Jaco Deacon

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available While the South African Constitution enshrines both children's right to a basic education and teachers' right to strike, conflict between these two often occurs when the way in which teachers' unions conduct strike actions detracts from learners' education. This article identifies the parties affected by industrial action in the school context, and then proceeds to examine educators' right to strike as defined by the provisions of the Labour Relations Act. The unique implications of picketing in the education environment are then discussed, covering relevant questions such as where pickets may be held, the issue of picketing rules as well as unprotected pickets. Even though we are faced with a qualified right to strike as opposed to an unqualified right to education, the South African reality seems to be that striking teachers are handled with kid gloves. It is therefore concluded that the vast range of existing laws regulating protest action should be applied more effectively. One of the most important aspects should be the picketing rules, which should clearly determine whether picketing in fact contributes to resolution of the dispute, and how learners' interests and rights may best be actualised.

  12. A Mathematical Approach to Establishing Constitutive Models for Geomaterials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-hua Yang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical foundation of the traditional elastoplastic constitutive theory for geomaterials is presented from the mathematical point of view, that is, the expression of stress-strain relationship in principal stress/strain space being transformed to the expression in six-dimensional space. A new framework is then established according to the mathematical theory of vectors and tensors, which is applicable to establishing elastoplastic models both in strain space and in stress space. Traditional constitutive theories can be considered as its special cases. The framework also enables modification of traditional constitutive models.

  13. Constitutional and non-specific immunity to infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumyantsev, S N

    1998-04-01

    Most immunologists focus on elaborate non-specific and antigen-specific factors of reactive immunity produced by the vertebrate lymphoid system. Modern principles of immunogenic prophylaxis and therapy are based solely on the use of these agents. There is, however, a more effective system of specific resistance which is shared by all forms of life: hereditary constitutional immunity to infection and invasion. An explosive growth in knowledge of the constitutional immunogenic system has occurred during the past two decades. The author illustrates the nature and importance of constitutional immunity, using examples from genetics and molecular biology. Special attention is given to testing for genetic susceptibility to infection and genetic engineering of resistance.

  14. Emergency Preparedness

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    The trends of RPC work in the area of preparedness for nuclear and radiological accidents are listed. RPC in cooperation with Swedish Government developed the project on preparation for iodine prophylaxis in case of accident at Ignalina NPP and arranged seminar on emergency preparedness issues in 2001.

  15. Emerging Materiality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Olav Wedege; Breinbjerg, Morten; Pold, Søren

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine how materiality emerges from complex chains of mediation in creative software use. The primarily theoretical argument is inspired and illustrated by interviews with two composers of electronic music. The authors argue that computer mediated activity should not primarily...

  16. Emergence delirium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, Louise; Andersen, Lars Peter Holst; Gögenur, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    Emergence delirium (ED) is a well-known phenomenon in the postoperative period. However, the literature concerning this clinical problem is limited. This review evaluates the literature with respect to epidemiology and risk factors. Treatment strategies are discussed. The review concludes...

  17. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Atsuko; Hagopian, Laura; Linden, Judith

    2013-01-01

    Emergency post-coital contraception (EC) is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD) and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method), and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference. PMID:24453516

  18. Emerging Options for Emergency Contraception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuko Koyama

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Emergency post-coital contraception (EC is an effective method of preventing pregnancy when used appropriately. EC has been available since the 1970s, and its availability and use have become widespread. Options for EC are broad and include the copper intrauterine device (IUD and emergency contraceptive pills such as levonorgestrel, ulipristal acetate, combined oral contraceptive pills (Yuzpe method, and less commonly, mifepristone. Some options are available over-the-counter, while others require provider prescription or placement. There are no absolute contraindications to the use of emergency contraceptive pills, with the exception of ulipristal acetate and mifepristone. This article reviews the mechanisms of action, efficacy, safety, side effects, clinical considerations, and patient preferences with respect to EC usage. The decision of which regimen to use is influenced by local availability, cost, and patient preference.

  19. Competition is constitutional: Four fallacies in the argument that transmission access constitutes a taking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schotland, S.D. [Gottlieb, Steen & Hamilton, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-11-01

    New transmission regulations may cause a change in property value or property access, however, this alone does not constitute a regulatory taking. In an industry with a long history of regulation and some degree of shared transmission access, the utilities are going to be hard pressed to show that recent open access mandates are in violation of the Takings Clause of the Fifth Amendment. In a recent article, John Rowe and Paige Graening of the NEES Companies argued that transmission access is the twentieth century equivalent of {open_quotes}piracy{close_quotes} - forcing utilities to provide transmission access to third parties violates the Taking Clause of the Fifth Amendment. The authors stated that transmission access represents a permanent physical invasion of property - which is unconstitutional without {open_quotes}just compensation.{close_quotes} The same arguments have been raised by Michigan utilities in a pending court challenge to the retail wheeling experiment ordered by the Michigan Public Service Commission. Rowe and Graening complain that {open_quotes}under the Jolly Roger of open competition{close_quotes} regulators will limit utilities to {open_quotes}mere embedded costs,{close_quotes} thereby committing an act of {open_quotes}piracy.{close_quotes} Contrary to Rowe and Graening`s claim, the flag of competition is better represented by the Stars and Stripes, since orders to provide transmission access at the cost of service do not result in a regulatory taking. Four fallacies led NEES down the gangplank: (1) The authors argued that reductions in the value of an investment are necessarily takings. Regulatory impairment of property value is a fact of life. (2) Contrary to NEES, transmission access does not effect a permanent physical invasion of property. (3) NEES claimed that transmission access defeats reasonable investment expectations. (4) NEES relied on case law that affords utilities the opportunity to realize a profit.

  20. Constitutional Law: Right of Privacy--Possession of Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrer, David E.

    1976-01-01

    The Alaska Supreme Court in Ravin v. State accepted the defendant's contention that the prohibition of possession of marihuana infringed on his constitutional right to privacy. The significance of the case is discussed. (LBH)

  1. The Teddy Bear Clinic Constitutional Court case: Sexual conduct ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Teddy Bear Clinic Constitutional Court case: Sexual conduct between adolescent consenting children aged under 16 years decriminalised and a moratorium on the reporting duties of doctors and others.

  2. DyNAvectors: dynamic constitutional vectors for adaptive DNA transfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clima, Lilia; Peptanariu, Dragos; Pinteala, Mariana; Salic, Adrian; Barboiu, Mihail

    2015-12-25

    Dynamic constitutional frameworks, based on squalene, PEG and PEI components, reversibly connected to core centers, allow the efficient identification of adaptive vectors for good DNA transfection efficiency and are well tolerated by mammalian cells.

  3. The Politics-Administration Dichotomy: Toward a Constitutional Perspective.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Overeem, P.

    2012-01-01

    The politics-administration dichotomy is much mentioned and often criticized in the Public Administration literature. The Politics-Administration Dichotomy: Toward a Constitutional Perspective, Second Edition offers a book-length treatment of this classical notion. While public administration

  4. AASERT: Constitutive and Failure Behavior of Granular Materials

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhou, Min

    2000-01-01

    .... The objective of this research is to obtain material response data and constitutive characterization for these materials at strain rates of up to 105 S-1, to analyze the evolution of load-carrying...

  5. Mathematical modeling and the two-phase constitutive equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boure, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    The problems raised by the mathematical modeling of two-phase flows are summarized. The models include several kinds of equations, which cannot be discussed independently, such as the balance equations and the constitutive equations. A review of the various two-phase one-dimensional models proposed to date, and of the constitutive equations they imply, is made. These models are either mixture models or two-fluid models. Due to their potentialities, the two-fluid models are discussed in more detail. To avoid contradictions, the form of the constitutive equations involved in two-fluid models must be sufficiently general. A special form of the two-fluid models, which has particular advantages, is proposed. It involves three mixture balance equations, three balance equations for slip and thermal non-equilibriums, and the necessary constitutive equations [fr

  6. Study on the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hada, Kazuhiko; Mutoh, Yasushi

    1983-01-01

    A creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X was obtained from available experimental data. A sensitivity analysis of this creep constitutive equation was carried out. As the result, the following were revealed: (i) Variations in creep behavior with creep constitutive equation are not small. (ii) In a simpler stress change pattern, variations in creep behavior are similar to those in the corresponding fundamental creep characteristics (creep strain curve, stress relaxation curve, etc.). (iii) Cumulative creep damage estimated in accordance with ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code Case N-47 from a stress history predicted by ''the standard creep constitutive equation'' which predicts the average behavior of creep strain curve data is not thought to be on the safe side on account of uncertainties in creep damage caused by variations in creep strain curve. (author)

  7. Constitutional Model and Rationality in Judicial Decisions from Proportionality Technique

    OpenAIRE

    Feio, Thiago Alves

    2016-01-01

    In the current legal systems, the content of the Constitutions consists of values that serve to limit state action. The department in charge of the control of this system is, usually, the Judiciary. This choice leads to two major problems, the tension between democracy and constitutionalism and the subjectivity that control. One of the solutions to subjectivity is weighting of principles through the proportionality technique, which aims to give rational decisions. This technique doesn’t elimi...

  8. A simple hysteretic constitutive model for unsaturated flow

    OpenAIRE

    Soldi, Mariangeles; Guarracino, Luis; Jougnot, Damien

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present a constitutive model to describe unsaturated flow that considers the hysteresis phenomena. This constitutive model provides simple mathematical expressions for both saturation and hydraulic conductivity curves, and a relationship between permeability and porosity. The model is based on the assumption that the porous media can be represented by a bundle of capillary tubes with throats or "ink-bottles" and a fractal pore size distribution. Under these hypotheses, hyster...

  9. Association and exclusion: the paradox of liberal constitutionalism

    OpenAIRE

    H.N. Hirsch

    2011-01-01

    This paper argues that a central paradox of liberal constitutionalism can be found by closely examining the freedom of association.  Freedom of association includes the right not to associate; thus a regime of individual rights facilitates the creation of marginalized individuals and groups.  These groups then seek social recognition, which liberal constitutionalism cannot easily grant, unless the state itself becomes complicit in discriminatory action.  The existence and protection ...

  10. LEGAL SYSTEM IN BRAZILIAN CONSTITUTIONALISM: PERPLEXITIES REFERRING TO CIVIL LAW

    OpenAIRE

    Iribure Júnior, Hamilton da Cunha; Guimarães, Henrique Cassalho

    2017-01-01

    The contemporaneous constitutionalism outlines a new manner to conceive and interpret the legal system, considering the alignment of law with society and society with law in order to emancipate the individual in the factual level. This results in the repercussion of humanization purpose in the Constitution of Federative Republic of Brazil of 1988 in civil law, to the extent of approaching it under a new perspective. However, such relationship involves several aspects which cannot be neglected...

  11. A selection of constitutional perspectives on human kidney sales

    OpenAIRE

    Venter, Bonnie

    2013-01-01

    There are thousands of desperate people globally who need a kidney for transplantation. The number of people who require a kidney transplant continues to escalate faster than the number of kidneys available for a transplant. The specific focus of this article is to determine whether the payment of kidney donors could be regarded as constitutionally acceptable or not. To establish the constitutional acceptability of the reimbursement of kidney donors the following rights are analysed: the righ...

  12. Human Rights in Armed Conflicts and Constitutional Law

    OpenAIRE

    Antonios Maniatis

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to determine the impact of both International Humanitarian Law and anti-piracy International Law on Constitutional Law. International Law is endowed with a rich set of norms on the protection of private individuals in armed conflicts and copes with the diachronic crime of maritime piracy, which may be considered as a private war in the high seas. Constitutional Law has been traditionally geared at two generations of fundamental rights. The paper will aim at a...

  13. The classic: The chemical constitution of respiration ferment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warburg, Otto Heinrich

    2010-11-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Otto Heinrich Warburg, The Chemical Constitution of Respiration Ferment. An accompanying biographical sketch of Otto Heinrich Warburg, PhD, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1533-z . The Classic Article is from Warburg O. The chemical constitution of respiration ferment. Science. 1928;68:437-443. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.

  14. The Classic: The Chemical Constitution of Respiration Ferment

    OpenAIRE

    Warburg, Otto Heinrich

    2010-01-01

    This Classic Article is a reprint of the original work by Otto Heinrich Warburg, The Chemical Constitution of Respiration Ferment. An accompanying biographical sketch of Otto Heinrich Warburg, PhD, MD, is available at DOI 10.1007/s11999-010-1533-z. The Classic Article is from Warburg O. The chemical constitution of respiration ferment. Science. 1928;68:437–443. Reprinted with permission from AAAS.

  15. Relationships among Constitution, Stress, and Discomfort in the First Trimester

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsiao-Ling Wang

    2012-01-01

    trimester of pregnancy. We adopted a descriptive and correlational research design and collected data from 261 pregnant women during their first trimester in southern Taiwan using structured questionnaires. Results showed that (1 stress was significantly and positively correlated with Yang-Xu, Yin-Xu, and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions, respectively; (2 Yin-Xu and Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitutions had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort, while Yang-Xu had significant correlations with all symptoms of discomfort except for “running nose”; (3 Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi constitution and stress were two indicators for “fatigue”; Tan-Shi-Yu-Zhi was the indicator for “nausea”; Yang-Xu and Yin-Xu were indicators for “frequent urination.” Our findings also indicate that stress level affects constitutional changes and that stress and constitutional change affect the incidence of discomfort. This research can help healthcare professionals observe these discomforts and provide individualized care for pregnant women, to nurture pregnant women into neutral-type constitution, minimize their levels of discomfort, and promote the health of the fetus and the mother.

  16. Sasang Constitutional Medicine as a Holistic Tailored Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Yeol Kim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a unique traditional Korean therapeutic alternative form of medicine. Based on the Yin and Yang theory and on Confucianism, humans are classified into four constitutions. These differ in terms of (i sensitivity to certain groups of herbs and medicines, (ii equilibrium among internal organic functions, (iii physical features and (iv psychological characteristics. We propose that two main axes in the physiopathology of SCM (food intake/waste discharge and consuming/storing Qi and body fluids are equivalent to the process of internal–external exchange and catabolism/anabolism in modern physiology, respectively. We then used this hypothesis to discuss the physiological and pathological principles of SCM. Constitution-based medicine is based on the theory that some medicinal herbs and remedies are only appropriate for certain constitutions and can cause adverse effects in others. The constitutional approach of SCM share the same vision as tailored medicine; an individualized therapy that can minimize the risk of adverse reaction while increasing the efficacy and an individualized self-regulation that can help prevent specific susceptible chronic disease and live healthily. There is still a long way to this goal for both SCM and tailored medicine, but we may benefit from systems approaches such as systems biology. We suggest that constitutional perspective of SCM and our hypothesis of two main processes may provide a novel insight for further studies.

  17. A continuum mechanics constitutive framework for transverse isotropic soft tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Gonzalez, D.; Jérusalem, A.; Garzon-Hernandez, S.; Zaera, R.; Arias, A.

    2018-03-01

    In this work, a continuum constitutive framework for the mechanical modelling of soft tissues that incorporates strain rate and temperature dependencies as well as the transverse isotropy arising from fibres embedded into a soft matrix is developed. The constitutive formulation is based on a Helmholtz free energy function decoupled into the contribution of a viscous-hyperelastic matrix and the contribution of fibres introducing dispersion dependent transverse isotropy. The proposed framework considers finite deformation kinematics, is thermodynamically consistent and allows for the particularisation of the energy potentials and flow equations of each constitutive branch. In this regard, the approach developed herein provides the basis on which specific constitutive models can be potentially formulated for a wide variety of soft tissues. To illustrate this versatility, the constitutive framework is particularised here for animal and human white matter and skin, for which constitutive models are provided. In both cases, different energy functions are considered: Neo-Hookean, Gent and Ogden. Finally, the ability of the approach at capturing the experimental behaviour of the two soft tissues is confirmed.

  18. Dynamic compressive constitutive relation and shearing instability of metallic neodymium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huanran; Cai Canyuan; Chen Danian; Ma Dongfang; Hou Yanjun; Wu Shanxing

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Dynamic constitutive relation of Nd was determined in first compression of SHPB. → Deformation of Nd in multi-compression of SHPB were recorded by high-speed camera. → Constitutive relation of Nd was adjusted in modeling large deformation of Nd. → Results of SDDM investigation of recovered Nd specimens showed shearing fracture. → Shearing instability of Nd was estimated with constitutive relation. - Abstract: Based on static tests on MTS and dynamic tests on split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) during the first loading, this study determined the dynamic compressive constitutive relation of metallic Nd. Based on large deformations of metallic Nd specimens generated by the multi-compressive loadings during SHPB tests, and recorded by a high-speed camera, the results of numerical simulations for SHPB test processes were used to extend the determined constitutive relation from small strain to large strain. The shearing instability strain in dynamic compressive deformations of metallic Nd was estimated with the extended constitutive relation according to the criterion given by Batra and Wei, and was compared with the average strain of recovered specimens.

  19. An anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Calvin M.; Gordon, Ali P.; Ma, Young Wha; Neu, Richard W.

    2011-01-01

    When an anisotropic material is subject to creep conditions and a complex state of stress, an anisotropic creep damage behavior is observed. Previous research has focused on the anisotropic creep damage behavior of isotropic materials but few constitutive models have been developed for anisotropic creeping solids. This paper describes the development of a new anisotropic tertiary creep damage constitutive model for anisotropic materials. An advanced tensorial damage formulation is implemented which includes both material orientation relative to loading and the degree of creep damage anisotropy in the model. A variation of the Norton-power law for secondary creep is implemented which includes the Hill's anisotropic analogy. Experiments are conducted on the directionally-solidified bucket material DS GTD-111. The constitutive model is implemented in a user programmable feature (UPF) in ANSYS FEA software. The ability of the constitutive model to regress to the Kachanov-Rabotnov isotropic tertiary creep damage model is demonstrated through comparison with uniaxial experiments. A parametric study of both material orientation and stress rotation are conducted. Results indicate that creep deformation is modeled accurately; however an improved damage evolution law may be necessary. - Highlights: → The deformation of anisotropic creeping solid is directionally dependent. → Few constitutive models have been developed to deal with anisotropic behavior. → A transversely-isotropic nickel base superalloy, DS GTD-111, is studied. → A vector constitutive model based on the Kachanov-Rabotnov formulation is developed. → The new model accurately models deformation at various orientations.

  20. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception (EC) may significantly reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and practice of ...

  1. Knowledge, attitude and practice of emergency contraceptives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    Abstract. Background: Young and unmarried women constitute a high risk group for unplanned pregnancies and unsafe abortions. It has been estimated that widespread use of emergency contraception (EC) may significantly reduce abortion-related morbidity and mortality. Objective: To assess knowledge, attitude and ...

  2. The emergency plan of the ININ

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz C, M.A.

    1991-01-01

    The emergency plan of the ININ, it was elaborated in 1988 and revised by the National Commission of Nuclear Safety and Safeguards (CNSNS) in 1989. At the beginning of 1990 and with the support of the IAEA it was practiced the first revision to the text of this plan, for what the proposal revision is what constitutes the development of this report

  3. Emerging Multinationals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammeltoft, Peter

    ) and books (e.g. Goldstein 2007; Benito and Narula 2007). This paper takes stock of the mounting trend of outward FDI from emerging economies, with special focus on a group of five countries, which are becoming increasingly economically and politically influential, viz. the ‘BRICS' countries. An ‘S......' is appended here to the conventional acronym of ‘BRIC' (Brazil, Russia, India, China) to include the largest economy on the African continent, South Africa. The five BRICS countries produced some USD25 billion of outward FDI flows in 2004, corresponding to some 3 percent of world FDI flows and well over half...... (61 percent) of total developing country outflows. OFDI from the BRICS countries has grown rapidly over the last few years, while still remaining modest compared to many developed countries. Following a brief discussion of FDI and emerging economies in general the article proceeds to hypothesise...

  4. Evolution of DNA polymerases: an inactivated polymerase-exonuclease module in Pol ε and a chimeric origin of eukaryotic polymerases from two classes of archaeal ancestors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahirov, Tahir H; Makarova, Kira S; Rogozin, Igor B; Pavlov, Youri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2009-01-01

    Background Evolution of DNA polymerases, the key enzymes of DNA replication and repair, is central to any reconstruction of the history of cellular life. However, the details of the evolutionary relationships between DNA polymerases of archaea and eukaryotes remain unresolved. Results We performed a comparative analysis of archaeal, eukaryotic, and bacterial B-family DNA polymerases, which are the main replicative polymerases in archaea and eukaryotes, combined with an analysis of domain architectures. Surprisingly, we found that eukaryotic Polymerase ε consists of two tandem exonuclease-polymerase modules, the active N-terminal module and a C-terminal module in which both enzymatic domains are inactivated. The two modules are only distantly related to each other, an observation that suggests the possibility that Pol ε evolved as a result of insertion and subsequent inactivation of a distinct polymerase, possibly, of bacterial descent, upstream of the C-terminal Zn-fingers, rather than by tandem duplication. The presence of an inactivated exonuclease-polymerase module in Pol ε parallels a similar inactivation of both enzymatic domains in a distinct family of archaeal B-family polymerases. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that eukaryotic B-family polymerases, most likely, originate from two distantly related archaeal B-family polymerases, one form giving rise to Pol ε, and the other one to the common ancestor of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ζ. The C-terminal Zn-fingers that are present in all eukaryotic B-family polymerases, unexpectedly, are homologous to the Zn-finger of archaeal D-family DNA polymerases that are otherwise unrelated to the B family. The Zn-finger of Polε shows a markedly greater similarity to the counterpart in archaeal PolD than the Zn-fingers of other eukaryotic B-family polymerases. Conclusion Evolution of eukaryotic DNA polymerases seems to have involved previously unnoticed complex events. We hypothesize that the archaeal

  5. Evolution of DNA polymerases: an inactivated polymerase-exonuclease module in Pol ε and a chimeric origin of eukaryotic polymerases from two classes of archaeal ancestors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Youri I

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Evolution of DNA polymerases, the key enzymes of DNA replication and repair, is central to any reconstruction of the history of cellular life. However, the details of the evolutionary relationships between DNA polymerases of archaea and eukaryotes remain unresolved. Results We performed a comparative analysis of archaeal, eukaryotic, and bacterial B-family DNA polymerases, which are the main replicative polymerases in archaea and eukaryotes, combined with an analysis of domain architectures. Surprisingly, we found that eukaryotic Polymerase ε consists of two tandem exonuclease-polymerase modules, the active N-terminal module and a C-terminal module in which both enzymatic domains are inactivated. The two modules are only distantly related to each other, an observation that suggests the possibility that Pol ε evolved as a result of insertion and subsequent inactivation of a distinct polymerase, possibly, of bacterial descent, upstream of the C-terminal Zn-fingers, rather than by tandem duplication. The presence of an inactivated exonuclease-polymerase module in Pol ε parallels a similar inactivation of both enzymatic domains in a distinct family of archaeal B-family polymerases. The results of phylogenetic analysis indicate that eukaryotic B-family polymerases, most likely, originate from two distantly related archaeal B-family polymerases, one form giving rise to Pol ε, and the other one to the common ancestor of Pol α, Pol δ, and Pol ζ. The C-terminal Zn-fingers that are present in all eukaryotic B-family polymerases, unexpectedly, are homologous to the Zn-finger of archaeal D-family DNA polymerases that are otherwise unrelated to the B family. The Zn-finger of Polε shows a markedly greater similarity to the counterpart in archaeal PolD than the Zn-fingers of other eukaryotic B-family polymerases. Conclusion Evolution of eukaryotic DNA polymerases seems to have involved previously unnoticed complex events. We

  6. Emerging Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Schwaller, Pedro; Weiler, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we propose a novel search strategy for new physics at the LHC that utilizes calorimeter jets that (i) are composed dominantly of displaced tracks and (ii) have many different vertices within the jet cone. Such emerging jet signatures are smoking guns for models with a composite dark sector where a parton shower in the dark sector is followed by displaced decays of dark pions back to SM jets. No current LHC searches are sensitive to this type of phenomenology. We perform a detailed simulation for a benchmark signal with two regular and two emerging jets, and present and implement strategies to suppress QCD backgrounds by up to six orders of magnitude. At the 14 TeV LHC, this signature can be probed with mediator masses as large as 1.5 TeV for a range of dark pion lifetimes, and the reach is increased further at the high-luminosity LHC. The emerging jet search is also sensitive to a broad class of long-lived phenomena, and we show this for a supersymmetric model with R-parity violation. Possibilit...

  7. Emergency reactor cooling circuit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Hidefumi; Matsumoto, Tomoyuki; Kataoka, Yoshiyuki.

    1994-01-01

    Cooling water in a gravitationally dropping water reservoir is injected into a reactor pressure vessel passing through a pipeline upon occurrence of emergency. The pipeline is inclined downwardly having one end thereof being in communication with the pressure vessel. During normal operation, the cooling water in the upper portion of the inclined pipeline is heated by convection heat transfer from the communication portion with the pressure vessel. On the other hand, cooling water present at a position lower than the communication portion forms cooling water lumps. Accordingly, temperature stratification layers are formed in the inclined pipeline. Therefore, temperature rise of water in a vertical pipeline connected to the inclined pipeline is small. With such a constitution, the amount of heat lost from the pressure vessel by way of the water injection pipeline is reduced. Further, there is no worry that cooling water to be injected upon occurrence of emergency is boiled under reduced pressure in the injection pipeline to delay the depressurization of the pressure vessel. (I.N.)

  8. Nuclear phase-out a part of the German Constitution? On the political grammar of constitutional changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaerditz, Klaus Ferdinand

    2016-01-01

    The study examines whether and to what extent the simple legal effected nuclear phase-out could be safeguarded in the Basic Law, which regulatory methods would be available, the advantages and disadvantages of these and how their effects would be assessed. In addition to political and practical consequences, this also includes considerations of democracy and constitutional theory in an overall consideration, which ultimately touches the question of the regulatory function of constitutional changes. [de

  9. The Complete Chloroplast Genome of a Key Ancestor of Modern Roses, Rosa chinensis var. spontanea, and a Comparison with Congeneric Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hong-Ying; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Yan, Hui-Jun; Qiu, Xian-Qin; Wang, Qi-Gang; Li, Shu-Bin; Zhang, Shu-Dong

    2018-02-12

    Rosa chinensis var. spontanea , an endemic and endangered plant of China, is one of the key ancestors of modern roses and a source for famous traditional Chinese medicines against female diseases, such as irregular menses and dysmenorrhea. In this study, the complete chloroplast (cp) genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea was sequenced, analyzed, and compared to congeneric species. The cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea is a typical quadripartite circular molecule of 156,590 bp in length, including one large single copy (LSC) region of 85,910 bp and one small single copy (SSC) region of 18,762 bp, separated by two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 25,959 bp. The GC content of the whole genome is 37.2%, while that of LSC, SSC, and IR is 42.8%, 35.2% and 31.2%, respectively. The genome encodes 129 genes, including 84 protein-coding genes (PCGs), 37 transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, and eight ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes. Seventeen genes in the IR regions were found to be duplicated. Thirty-three forward and five inverted repeats were detected in the cp genome of R. chinensis var. spontanea. The genome is rich in SSRs. In total, 85 SSRs were detected. A genome comparison revealed that IR contraction might be the reason for the relatively smaller cp genome size of R. chinensis var. spontanea compared to other congeneric species. Sequence analysis revealed that the LSC and SSC regions were more divergent than the IR regions within the genus Rosa and that a higher divergence occurred in non-coding regions than in coding regions. A phylogenetic analysis showed that the sampled species of the genus Rosa formed a monophyletic clade and that R. chinensis var. s pontanea shared a more recent ancestor with R. lichiangensis of the section Synstylae than with R. odorata var. gigantea of the section Chinenses . This information will be useful for the conservation genetics of R. chinensis var. spontanea and for the phylogenetic study of the genus Rosa , and it might also facilitate the

  10. Rate constitutive theories for ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids: polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surana, K. S.; Nunez, D.; Reddy, J. N.; Romkes, A.

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents development of rate constitutive theories for compressible as well as in incompressible ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids, i.e., polymeric fluids in Eulerian description. The polymeric fluids in this paper are considered as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids in which the stress rate of a desired order, i.e., the convected time derivative of a desired order ` m' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor, and the heat vector are functions of density, temperature, temperature gradient, convected time derivatives of the chosen strain tensor up to any desired order ` n' and the convected time derivative of up to orders ` m-1' of the chosen deviatoric Cauchy stress tensor. The development of the constitutive theories is presented in contravariant and covariant bases, as well as using Jaumann rates. The polymeric fluids described by these constitutive theories will be referred to as ordered thermoviscoelastic fluids due to the fact that the constitutive theories are dependent on the orders ` m' and ` n' of the convected time derivatives of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and conjugate strain tensors. The highest orders of the convected time derivative of the deviatoric Cauchy stress and strain tensors define the orders of the polymeric fluid. The admissibility requirement necessitates that the constitutive theories for the stress tensor and heat vector satisfy conservation laws, hence, in addition to conservation of mass, balance of momenta, and conservation of energy, the second law of thermodynamics, i.e., Clausius-Duhem inequality must also be satisfied by the constitutive theories or be used in their derivations. If we decompose the total Cauchy stress tensor into equilibrium and deviatoric components, then Clausius-Duhem inequality and Helmholtz free-energy density can be used to determine the equilibrium stress in terms of thermodynamic pressure for compressible fluids and in terms of mechanical pressure for incompressible fluids, but the second

  11. Evaluation of potential crushed-salt constitutive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callahan, G.D.; Loken, M.C.; Sambeek, L.L. Van; Chen, R.; Pfeifle, T.W.; Nieland, J.D. [RE/SPEC Inc., Rapid City, SD (United States); Hansen, F.D. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Repository Isolation Systems Dept.

    1995-12-01

    Constitutive models describing the deformation of crushed salt are presented in this report. Ten constitutive models with potential to describe the phenomenological and micromechanical processes for crushed salt were selected from a literature search. Three of these ten constitutive models, termed Sjaardema-Krieg, Zeuch, and Spiers models, were adopted as candidate constitutive models. The candidate constitutive models were generalized in a consistent manner to three-dimensional states of stress and modified to include the effects of temperature, grain size, and moisture content. A database including hydrostatic consolidation and shear consolidation tests conducted on Waste Isolation Pilot Plant and southeastern New Mexico salt was used to determine material parameters for the candidate constitutive models. Nonlinear least-squares model fitting to data from the hydrostatic consolidation tests, the shear consolidation tests, and a combination of the shear and hydrostatic tests produces three sets of material parameter values for the candidate models. The change in material parameter values from test group to test group indicates the empirical nature of the models. To evaluate the predictive capability of the candidate models, each parameter value set was used to predict each of the tests in the database. Based on the fitting statistics and the ability of the models to predict the test data, the Spiers model appeared to perform slightly better than the other two candidate models. The work reported here is a first-of-its kind evaluation of constitutive models for reconsolidation of crushed salt. Questions remain to be answered. Deficiencies in models and databases are identified and recommendations for future work are made. 85 refs.

  12. The Constitutionality of a Biological Father's Recognition as a Parent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Louw

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite the increased recognition afforded to biological fathers as legal parents, the Children's Act 38 of 2005 still does not treat fathers on the same basis as mothers as far as the automatic allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned. This article investigates the constitutionality of the differential treatment of fathers in this respect, given South Africa's international obligations, especially in terms of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child, to ensure that both parents have common responsibilities for the upbringing of their child. After a brief consideration of the constitutionality of the mother's position as parent, the constitutionality of the father's position is investigated, firstly, with reference to Section 9 of the Constitution and the question of whether the differentiation between mothers and fathers as far as the allocation of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, amounts to unfair discrimination. The inquiry also considers whether the differentiation between committed fathers (that is, those who have shown the necessary commitment in terms of Sections 20 and 21 of the Children's Act to acquire parental responsibilities and rights and uncommitted fathers may amount to discrimination on an unspecified ground. Since the limitation of the father's rights to equality may be justifiable, the outcomes of both inquiries are shown to be inconclusive. Finally, the legal position of the father is considered in relation to the child's constitutional rights – the rights to parental care and the right of the child to the paramountcy of its interests embodied in Section 28 of the Constitution. While there appears to be some justification for the limitation of the child's right to committed paternal care, it is submitted that an equalisation of the legal position of mothers and fathers as far as the automatic acquisition of parental responsibilities and rights is concerned, is not

  13. Evaluation for rheological constitutive relations, using the indentation technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Lei

    1992-01-01

    A simple experimental method of determining the rheological constitutive relations is proposed. The method relies upon an analysis of the frictionless contact of a rigid spherical indenter and the rheological materials. The proposal addresses problems in two fields: rheological constitutive models and contact mechanics. It attempts to evaluate the rheological constitutive relations using an indentation technique. A systematic, optimization-based material parameter/function indentation model is proposed. The identification algorithm is based on a modified Marquardt-Levenberg method. A new integral constitutive equation for viscoelastic materials is derived. The derivation is carried out so that a damage function is included in the model in a relatively convenient form. Inclusion of damage effects makes this constitutive equation considerably more general than the widely accepted K-BKZ integral model. The single-step and double-step stress relaxation indentation experiments on asphalt materials were performed. The K-BKZ, Wagner, and nonlinear Volterra models were evaluated. It is demonstrated that the new integral constitutive model shows a very good agreement with the experimental data. The idea of damage function is introduced not only to have a better fit of data, but the damage (or irreversibility) is observed experimentally. Also, the creep indentation tests on composites were presented. A multiaxial theory of creep deformation for particle-strengthened metal matrix composites (Zhu-Weng Theory) was evaluated. The goal of the proposed research is to develop the indentation technique for use in basic mechanical studies. From the indentation test, material response is measured. The data are used in conjunction with the material parameter identification model to optimally back calculate the constitutive relations.

  14. [Study on the Distribution of Constitutions of Chinese Medicine in Patients with Osteonecrosis of Femoral Head].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tong; Xie, Li-min; Zhang, Zhen-nan; Ke, Xun; Liu, Yang

    2016-06-01

    To observe the distribution of constitution types of Chinese medicine (CM) in patients with osteonecrosis of femoral head (ONFH). Totally 130 ONFH patients were recruited. Constitution types of CM were identified in all patients. Distribution features of constitution types of CM in ONFH patients were observed. The differences of distribution in gender, age, single or bilateral hips, course of disease, staging, cause, and region were also analyzed. Seventy patients were of complicated constitutions, while 60 patients were of single constitution. Among the 60 single constitution cases, yang-deficiency constitution [18 (13.9%)], damp-heat constitution [10 (7.7%)], blood-stasis constitution [7 (5.4%)], and qi-deficiency constitution [7 (5.4%)] were mainly distributed. Of the complicated constitutions, yang-deficiency dominated constitution occupied the top ratio [30 (23.1%)], followed by blood-stasis dominated constitution [15 (11.5%)], damp-heat dominated constitution [9 (6.9%)]. By putting them together, yang-deficiency constitution occupied the top constitution of CM [48 (36.9%)], followed by blood-stasis constitution [ 22 (16.9%)] and damp-heat constitution [19 (14.6%)]. The aforesaid three constitutions accounted for 68.5% of the total. There were no statistical distribution differences in gender, age, single or bilateral hips, course of disease, staging, or cause. Yang-deficiency constitution, damp-heat constitution, and blood-stasis constitution were liable constitutions of CM in ONFH patients.

  15. CONSTITUTIONAL ORDER, NATIONAL DEFENSE AND CI IL MILITARY RELATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Navarro Meza

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the beginning of its independent life, the several constitutions of Chile have included concepts related ith defence, sovereignty and national security. At the same time, those constitutional texts have recognized the existence of the armed organizations of the State, under the generic name of Public Force and have addressed their relation ith the political authorities, both ith the Executive and Congress. his has not been a permanent process. n the contrary, it has suffered upheavals and bac steps, but the general path has been clear and progressive. For one thing, the norms related to the armed forces have been, in comparative terms, more thoroughly developed than those referring to defence, sovereignty and national security. hen, from the 1833 Constitution, the basic elements of the relations bet een the political authorities and the military have evolved so as to ensure a genuine civilian control over the military, in line ith contemporary theories of civilDmilitary relations. he ay in hich the 1980 Constitution addresses national security and defence and its provisions that recognize the existence of the armed forces, their missions and roles and that regulate the ay in hich they relate to the political authorities, are the result of a progressive development starting ith the Provisional Constitution of 1811 up to present times, and they are completely in line ith current theories about civilDmilitary relations in democracy.

  16. Bee Venom Pharmacopuncture Responses According to Sasang Constitution and Gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Chaeweon

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The current study was performed to compare the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin test reactions among groups with different sexes and Sasang constitutions. Methods: Between July 2012 and June 2013, all 76 patients who underwent bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests and Sasang constitution diagnoses at Oriental Medicine Hospital of Sangji University were included in this study. The skin test was performed on the patient’s forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of sweet bee venom (SBV on their first visit. If the patients showed a positive response, the test was discontinued. On the other hand, if the patient showed a negative response, the test was performed on the opposite forearm intracutaneously with 0.05 ml of bee venom pharmacopuncture 25% on the next day or the next visit. Three groups were made to compare the differences in the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests according to sexual difference and Sasang constitution: group A showed a positive response to SBV, group B showed a positive response to bee venom pharmacopuncture 25%, and group C showed a negative response on all bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests. Fisher’s exact test was performed to evaluate the differences statistically. Results: The results of the bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests showed no significant differences according to Sasang constitution (P = 0.300 or sexual difference (P = 0.163. Conclusion: No significant differences on the results of bee venom pharmacopuncture skin tests were observed according to two factors, Sasang constitution and the sexual difference.

  17. Perspective of the Human Body in Sasang Constitutional Medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhee Lee

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM, a medical tradition originating from Korea, is distinguished from the traditional Chinese medicine in its philosophical background, theoretical development and especially, the fundamental rationale that analyzes the structure and function of the human body within a quadrifocal scheme. In SCM, the structure of the body is comprehended within the Sasang quadrifocal scheme, and the function of the body is understood within the context of the energy-fluid metabolism and the water-food metabolism controlled by the four main organs (lung, spleen, liver and kidney. Also, the concept of Seong-Jeong is used to explain the structural and functional variations between different constitutional types that arise from the constitutional variations in organ system scheme, which are in turn caused by deviations in the constitutional Seong-Jeong. Therefore, understanding the SCM perspective of the human body is essential in order to fully appreciate the advantages of the constitutional typological system (which focuses on individual idiosyncrasies found in SCM.

  18. Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.P. Giles

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Gospel and constitutional imperatives: the right to life In the Republic of South Africa, Christians are called to live out gospel imperatives within the legal framework of the Constitution. Ethical issues about the right to life are considered from the perspectives of selected gospel and constitutional imperatives. Gospel imperatives impose themselves as a consequence of Christian discipleship. These are many and diverse, both explicit and implicit. Christian vocation, discipleship, witness and perseverance, are foundational and integral to the praxis of Christian daily living. These facets of Christian life are illustrated by the selected gospel imperatives, “Follow me” (Matt. 4:19 and synoptic parallels, “Love God, and your neighbour as yourself” (Matt. 22:34-40 and synoptic parallels, and “Take up your cross” (Matt. 10:38 and synoptic parallels. The central theoretical argument of this article is driven from a reformed ethical perspective. Gospel imperatives have priority over constitutional imperatives since gospel imperatives are of divine origin and constitutional imperatives of human origin. Acknowledgement of these priorities informs the Christian ethical perspective on the right to life and on abortion.

  19. Emergency surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stoneham, M; Murray, D; Foss, N

    2014-01-01

    undertaken on elderly patients with limited physiological reserve. National audits have reported variations in care quality, data that are increasingly being used to drive quality improvement through professional guidance. Given that the number of elderly patients presenting for emergency surgery is likely...... to rise as the population ages, this review summarises the evidence on which such guidance is based, and provides information about how anaesthetists might participate in audit and research aimed at improving local and national outcomes for these most vulnerable of patients....

  20. Emerging Therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerra, Amaliris; Musallam, Khaled M; Taher, Ali T; Rivella, Stefano

    2018-04-01

    At present, the only definitive cure for β-thalassemia is a bone marrow transplant (BMT); however, HLA-blood-matched donors are scarcely available. Current therapies undergoing clinical investigation with most potential for therapeutic benefit are the β-globin gene transfer of patient-specific hematopoietic stem cells followed by autologous BMT. Other emerging therapies deliver exogenous regulators of several key modulators of erythropoiesis or iron homeostasis. This review focuses on current approaches for the treatment of hemoglobinopathies caused by disruptions of β-globin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The plant Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) existed in the ancestor of seed plants and has a complex duplication history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berke, Lidija; Snel, Berend

    2015-03-13

    Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) is an essential protein complex for plant development. It catalyzes ubiquitination of histone H2A that is an important part of the transcription repression machinery. Absence of PRC1 subunits in Arabidopsis thaliana plants causes severe developmental defects. Many aspects of the plant PRC1 are elusive, including its origin and phylogenetic distribution. We established the evolutionary history of the plant PRC1 subunits (LHP1, Ring1a-b, Bmi1a-c, EMF1, and VRN1), enabled by sensitive phylogenetic methods and newly sequenced plant genomes from previously unsampled taxonomic groups. We showed that all PRC1 core subunits exist in gymnosperms, earlier than previously thought, and that VRN1 is a recent addition, found exclusively in eudicots. The retention of individual subunits in chlorophytes, mosses, lycophytes and monilophytes indicates that they can moonlight as part of other complexes or processes. Moreover, we showed that most PRC1 subunits underwent a complex, duplication-rich history that differs significantly between Brassicaceae and other eudicots. PRC1 existed in the last common ancestor of seed plants where it likely played an important regulatory role, aiding their radiation. The presence of LHP1, Ring1 and Bmi1 in mosses, lycophytes and monilophytes also suggests the presence of a primitive yet functional PRC1.

  2. Presence of three mycorrhizal genes in the common ancestor of land plants suggests a key role of mycorrhizas in the colonization of land by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bin; Yeun, Li Huey; Xue, Jia-Yu; Liu, Yang; Ané, Jean-Michel; Qiu, Yin-Long

    2010-04-01

    *The colonization of land by plants fundamentally altered environmental conditions on earth. Plant-mycorrhizal fungus symbiosis likely played a key role in this process by assisting plants to absorb water and nutrients from soil. *Here, in a diverse set of land plants, we investigated the evolutionary histories and functional conservation of three genes required for mycorrhiza formation in legumes and rice (Oryza sativa), DMI1, DMI3 and IPD3. *The genes were isolated from nearly all major plant lineages. Phylogenetic analyses showed that they had been vertically inherited since the origin of land plants. Further, cross-species mutant rescue experiments demonstrated that DMI3 genes from liverworts and hornworts could rescue Medicago truncatula dmi3 mutants for mycorrhiza formation. Yeast two-hybrid assays also showed that bryophyte DMI3 proteins could bind to downstream-acting M. trunculata IPD3 protein. Finally, molecular evolutionary analyses revealed that these genes were under purifying selection for maintenance of their ancestral functions in all mycorrhizal plant lineages. *These results indicate that the mycorrhizal genes were present in the common ancestor of land plants, and that their functions were largely conserved during land plant evolution. The evidence presented here strongly suggests that plant-mycorrhizal fungus symbiosis was one of the key processes that contributed to the origin of land flora.

  3. Stable transformation and reverse genetic analysis of Penium margaritaceum: a platform for studies of charophyte green algae, the immediate ancestors of land plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Iben; Fei, Zhangjun; Andreas, Amanda; Willats, William G T; Domozych, David S; Rose, Jocelyn K C

    2014-02-01

    The charophyte green algae (CGA, Streptophyta, Viridiplantae) occupy a key phylogenetic position as the immediate ancestors of land plants but, paradoxically, are less well-studied than the other major plant lineages. This is particularly true in the context of functional genomic studies, where the lack of an efficient protocol for their stable genetic transformation has been a major obstacle. Observations of extant CGA species suggest the existence of some of the evolutionary adaptations that had to occur for land colonization; however, to date, there has been no robust experimental platform to address this genetically. We present a protocol for high-throughput Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Penium margaritaceum, a unicellular CGA species. The versatility of Penium as a model for studying various aspects of plant cell biology and development was illustrated through non-invasive visualization of protein localization and dynamics in living cells. In addition, the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) for reverse genetic studies was demonstrated by targeting genes associated with cell wall modification (pectin methylesterase) and biosynthesis (cellulose synthase). This provided evidence supporting current models of cell wall assembly and inter-polymer interactions that were based on studies of land plants, but in this case using direct observation in vivo. This new functional genomics platform has broad potential applications, including studies of plant organismal biology and the evolutionary innovations required for transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats. © 2013 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Combined Genetic and Genealogic Studies Uncover a Large BAP1 Cancer Syndrome Kindred Tracing Back Nine Generations to a Common Ancestor from the 1700s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Michele; Flores, Erin G; Emi, Mitsuru; Johnson, Todd A; Tsunoda, Tatsuhiko; Behner, Dusty; Hoffman, Harriet; Hesdorffer, Mary; Nasu, Masaki; Napolitano, Andrea; Powers, Amy; Minaai, Michael; Baumann, Francine; Bryant-Greenwood, Peter; Lauk, Olivia; Kirschner, Michaela B; Weder, Walter; Opitz, Isabelle; Pass, Harvey I; Gaudino, Giovanni; Pastorino, Sandra; Yang, Haining

    2015-12-01

    We recently discovered an inherited cancer syndrome caused by BRCA1-Associated Protein 1 (BAP1) germline mutations, with high incidence of mesothelioma, uveal melanoma and other cancers and very high penetrance by age 55. To identify families with the BAP1 cancer syndrome, we screened patients with family histories of multiple mesotheliomas and melanomas and/or multiple cancers. We identified four families that shared an identical BAP1 mutation: they lived across the US and did not appear to be related. By combining family histories, molecular genetics, and genealogical approaches, we uncovered a BAP1 cancer syndrome kindred of ~80,000 descendants with a core of 106 individuals, whose members descend from a couple born in Germany in the early 1700s who immigrated to North America. Their descendants spread throughout the country with mutation carriers affected by multiple malignancies. Our data show that, once a proband is identified, extended analyses of these kindreds, using genomic and genealogical studies to identify the most recent common ancestor, allow investigators to uncover additional branches of the family that may carry BAP1 mutations. Using this knowledge, we have identified new branches of this family carrying BAP1 mutations. We have also implemented early-detection strategies that help identify cancers at early-stage, when they can be cured (melanomas) or are more susceptible to therapy (MM and other malignancies).

  5. The co-constitution of the self and the world: action and proprioceptive coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gapenne, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    This article proposes a theoretical reflection on the conditions for the constitution of a distinction between the self and the world by a cognitive system. The main hypothesis is the following: proprioception, as a sensory system that is habitually dedicated essentially to experience of the body, is conceived here as a coupling which is necessary for the dual and concomitant constitution of a bodily self and of a distal perceptual field. After recalling the singular characteristics of proprioceptive coupling, three lines of thought are developed. The first, which is notably inspired by research on sensory substitution, aims at emphasizing the indispensable role of action in the context of such perceptual learning. In a second part, this hypothesis is tested against opposing arguments. In particular, we shall discuss, in the context of what Braitenberg called a synthetic psychology, the emergence of oriented behaviors in simple robots that can be regulated by sensory regulations which are strictly external, since these robots do not have any form of “proprioception.” In the same vein, this part also provides the opportunity to discuss the argument concerning a bijective relation between action and proprioception; it has been argued by others that because of this strict bijection it is not possible for proprioception to be the basis for the constitution of an exteriority. The third part, which is more prospective, suggests that it is important to take the measure of the phylogenetic history of this exteriority, starting from unicellular organisms. Taking into account the literature which attests the existence of proprioception even amongst the most elementary living organisms, this leads us to propose that the coupling of proprioception to action is very primitive, and that the role we propose for it in the co-constitution of an exteriority and self is probably already at work in the simplest living organisms. PMID:24971073

  6. The co-constitution of the self and the world: action and proprioceptive coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier eGapenne

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes a theoretical reflection on the conditions for the constitution of a distinction between the self and the world by a cognitive system. The main hypothesis is the following: proprioception, as a sensory system that is habitually dedicated essentially to experience of the body, is conceived here as a coupling which is necessary for the dual and concomitant constitution of a bodily self and of a distal perceptual field. After recalling the singular characteristics of proprioceptive coupling, three lines of thought are developed. The first, which is notably inspired by research on sensory substitution, aims at emphasizing the indispensable role of action in the context of such perceptual learning. In a second part, this hypothesis is put to the test of opposing arguments. In particular, we shall discuss, in the context of what Braitenberg called a synthetic psychology, the emergence of oriented behaviors in simple robots that can be regulated by sensory regulations which are strictly external, since these robots do not have any form of proprioception. In the same vein, this part also provides the opportunity to discuss the argument concerning a bijective relation between action and proprioception; it has been argued by others that because of this strict bijection it is not possible for proprioception to be the basis for the constitution of an exteriority. The third part, which is more prospective, suggests that it is important to take the measure of the phylogenetic history of this exteriority, starting from unicellular organisms. Taking into account the literature which attests the existence of proprioception even amongst the most elementary living organisms, this leads us to propose that the coupling of proprioception to action is very primitive, and that the role we propose for it in the co-constitution of an exteriority and self is probably already at work in the simplest living organisms.

  7. Sasang Constitutional Medicine and Traditional Chinese Medicine: A Comparative Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghee Yoo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sasang constitutional medicine (SCM is a holistic typological constitution medicine which balances psychological, social, and physical aspects of an individual to achieve wellness and increase longevity. SCM has the qualities of preventative medicine, as it emphasizes daily health management based on constitutionally differentiated regimens and self-cultivation of the mind and body. This review's goal is to establish a fundamental understanding of SCM and to provide a foundation for further study. It compares the similarities and differences of philosophical origins, perspectives on the mind (heart, typological systems, pathology, and therapeutics between SCM and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM. TCM is based on the Taoist view of the universe and humanity. The health and longevity of an individual depends on a harmonious relationship with the universe. On the other hand, SCM is based on the Confucian view of the universe and humanity. SCM focuses on the influence of human affairs on the psyche, physiology, and pathology.

  8. Probabilistic estimation of the constitutive parameters of polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siviour C.R.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mulliken-Boyce constitutive model predicts the dynamic response of crystalline polymers as a function of strain rate and temperature. This paper describes the Mulliken-Boyce model-based estimation of the constitutive parameters in a Bayesian probabilistic framework. Experimental data from dynamic mechanical analysis and dynamic compression of PVC samples over a wide range of strain rates are analyzed. Both experimental uncertainty and natural variations in the material properties are simultaneously considered as independent and joint distributions; the posterior probability distributions are shown and compared with prior estimates of the material constitutive parameters. Additionally, particular statistical distributions are shown to be effective at capturing the rate and temperature dependence of internal phase transitions in DMA data.

  9. Lodging of a constitutional complaint. Reason: 'Permitted risk philosophy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The complainants lodged a constitutional complaint 'against the Federal German Bundestag, for remaining inactive in matters of the licensing and operation of nuclear installations', and filed a petition for a temporary order. The Federal Constitutional Court dismissed the petition and inflicted a fee of 500 DM to be paid by each complainant. From the headnotes: The petition is inadmissible. It is left open whether the underlying constitutional complaint is inadmissible, or unjustified. The petition is dismissed because the complainants can seek relief by resorting to the general courts of law. They can appeal to the administrative courts in matters covered by section 7 Atomic Energy Act, and may there state their opposition against the 'permissible risk philosophy'. (orig./HSCH) [de

  10. Globalisation of the National Judiciary and the Dutch Constitution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine Mak

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the changing practices of the Dutch highest courts, the Hoge Raad and the Afdeling bestuursrechtspraak van de Raad van State, under the influence of globalisation, and the constitutional implications of this development. The increasing intertwinement of legal systems and the increasing possibilities for judges to interact with courts in foreign jurisdictions have stimulated the consideration of foreign legislation and case law in judicial decision-making in individual cases. An empirical study clarifies how the Dutch judges perceive the usefulness of legal comparisons in this context and how foreign law is used in deliberations and judgments. The constitutional implications of the changing practices of the courts are analysed in light of three aspects of the constitutional normative framework for judicial decision-making: the democratic justification of judicial decisions; legal tradition and the nature of cases; and the effectiveness and efficiency of judicial decision-making.

  11. Constitutive representation of damage development and healing in WIPP salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, K.S.; Bodner, S.R.; Fossum, A.F.; Munson, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in characterizing and modeling the constitutive behavior of rock salt with particular reference to long-term creep and creep failure. The interest is motivated by the projected use of excavated rooms in salt rock formations as repositories for nuclear waste. It is presumed that closure of those rooms by creep ultimately would encapsulate the waste material, resulting in its effective isolation. A continuum mechanics approach for treating damage healing is formulated as part of a constitutive model for describing coupled creep, fracture, and healing in rock salt. Formulation of the healing term is, described and the constitutive model is evaluated against experimental data of rock salt from the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) site. The results indicate that healing anistropy in WIPP salt can be modeled with an appropriate power-conjugate equivalent stress, kinetic equation, and evolution equation for damage healing

  12. New constitutionalism and the social reproduction of caring institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Stephen; Bakker, Isabella

    2006-01-01

    This essay analyzes neo-liberal economic agreements and legal and political frameworks or what has been called the "new constitutionalism," a governance framework that empowers market forces to reshape economic and social development worldwide. The article highlights some consequences of new constitutionalism for caring institutions specifically, and for what feminists call social reproduction more generally: the biological reproduction of the species; the reproduction of labor power; and the reproduction of social institutions and processes associated with the creation and maintenance of communities. New constitutional governance frameworks fundamentally reshape conditions under which the care of human beings takes place. Caring institutions once governed by enabling professions geared to universal care are now determined increasingly by market values and private forces, and driven directly by the profit motive. This is one of the reasons why neo-liberalism is increasingly contested in both the North and the global South.

  13. Constitutive mixed mode model for cracks in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, J.S.; Poulsen, P.N.; Olesen, J.F.

    2013-01-01

    The scope of the paper is to set up a constitutive mixed mode model for cracks in concrete. The model is formulated at macro level and includes the most important micro scale effects. An associated plasticity model inspired by the modified Cam clay model is established. The hardening parameters...... are based on the standard Mode I tensile softening response and the response for Mode I crushing. The roughness of the crack is included through a topographic description of the crack surface. The constitutive behavior is based on the integration of local contributions. The local mixed mode ratio...... is determined from the topographic information and the constitutive model is thereby purely mechanically based. Using the actual topographic description the model is validated against experimental results for mixed mode crack openings....

  14. Exploring patients' rights: what does the NHS Constitution tell us?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Jean V

    On 8 March 2012, the NHS published the latest version of its Constitution. In this article, the author explores the background of the debate regarding patients' rights and entitlements in the NHS. The author also discusses the provisions of the NHS Constitution, noting that it is largely a statement of existing principles, rather than a bold statement of rights. The paper suggests that, in some instances, its discussion of rights may suggest that patients have broader rights than may in fact be the case. The Constitution is currently under review, and the author recommends that the way forward for a society where the provision of care is likely to be more complex would be the introduction of a Patients' Rights Act.

  15. The cooperative identity in the cuban constitution. Currents challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orestes Rodríguez Musa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The work contribute with some valuations about the conception of the cooperative in the Cuban constitutionalism, with the purpose that the constitution can guide -like it corresponds- the legal implementation of the figure toward an integral perspective. To accomplish this goal, this article offers a characterization of the institution that illustrates about its identity. Then it analyzed the juridical dimension of the cooperative, pondering the different doctrinal postures that have tried to define its nature. Lastly, it argue that the current laws of the Cuban Constitution, influenced by a reduced conception of the institution, suffers some limitations that block the good use of the figure in a socioeconomic context in which it is called to transcend.

  16. Study on the creep constitutive equation of Hastelloy X, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Kazuhiko; Mutoh, Yasushi

    1983-01-01

    In order to carry out the structural design of high temperature pipings, intermediate heat exchangers and isolating valves for a multipurpose high temperature gas-cooled reactor, in which coolant temperature reaches 1000 deg C, the creep characteristics of Hastelloy X used as the heat resistant material must be clarified. In addition to usual creep rupture life and the time to reach a specified creep strain, the dependence of creep strain curves on time, temperature and stress must be determined and expressed with equations. Therefore, using the creep data of Hastelloy X given in the literatures, the creep constitutive equation was made. Since the creep strain curves under the same test condition were different according to heats, the sensitivity analysis of the creep constitutive equation was performed. The form of the creep constitutive equation was determined to be Garofalo type. The result of the sensitivity analysis is reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Development of Creep Constitutive Equation for Low-Alloy Steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang J.; Lim, Joon; Hwang, Il S.; Kim, Hee D.; Pilch, Martin M.; Chu, Tze Y.

    2003-01-01

    High-temperature creep tests were performed with an SA533B1 low-alloy steel under both constant load and constant stress conditions. Using the measured minimum creep strain rates as a function of stress and temperature, least-square fittings were made into a Bailey-Norton-type power law equation. Based on the constant stress test results, a constitutive equation was developed for steady-state creep. The constitutive equation was then implemented in elastic-viscoplastic analysis of the lower head of a pressurized water reactor's reactor pressure vessel using a commercial FEM code named ABAQUS 5.8. The FEM model was validated using measured data from the lower head failure experiment conducted at the Sandia National Laboratories. The FEM model using the creep constitutive equation was shown to be capable of accurately predicting the lower head deformation behavior. Additional work, however, is needed to rationalize apparent inconsistency between the constant load data and constant stress data

  18. Recommendations for Emergency Management Planning for School Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin.

    Numerous events, such as hurricanes, floods, and tornadoes, constitute a natural disaster for public schools. Human-caused disasters include hazardous-material emergencies, civil riots, fires, and nuclear accidents. This document contains emergency-management planning guidelines, developed by the Texas Education Agency, to help local school…

  19. Sundials: Ancestors of Our Clocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    movement of the Sun, would have been tempted to use it as a time keeper. Later, for ... The shadow of the gnomon on the dial surface tells the time. Most often the gnomon will be fixed and it will be arranged parallel to the Earth's axis of rotation. If the instrument is ..... But, as the speed of communication and travel increased ...

  20. Sundials: Ancestors of Our Clocks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    By 1500 BC, with the newly-gained knowledge and understand- ing in mathematics and astronomy, the Greeks, the Egyptians and the Babylonians constructed sundials of greater accuracy. A crucial step in the development of sundials was made by the. Arabs, who obtained the astronomical and mathematical knowl-.