Sample records for anatomy plant

  1. Plant Structure Ontology. Unified Vocabulary of Anatomy and Morphology of a Flowering Plant (United States)

    Formal description of plant phenotypes and standardized annotation of gene expression and protein localization data require uniform terminology that would accurately describe plant anatomy and morphology. This will facilitate cross-species comparative studies and quantitative comparison of phenotype...

  2. The plant structure ontology, a unified vocabulary of anatomy and morphology of a flowering plant. (United States)

    Ilic, Katica; Kellogg, Elizabeth A; Jaiswal, Pankaj; Zapata, Felipe; Stevens, Peter F; Vincent, Leszek P; Avraham, Shulamit; Reiser, Leonore; Pujar, Anuradha; Sachs, Martin M; Whitman, Noah T; McCouch, Susan R; Schaeffer, Mary L; Ware, Doreen H; Stein, Lincoln D; Rhee, Seung Y


    Formal description of plant phenotypes and standardized annotation of gene expression and protein localization data require uniform terminology that accurately describes plant anatomy and morphology. This facilitates cross species comparative studies and quantitative comparison of phenotypes and expression patterns. A major drawback is variable terminology that is used to describe plant anatomy and morphology in publications and genomic databases for different species. The same terms are sometimes applied to different plant structures in different taxonomic groups. Conversely, similar structures are named by their species-specific terms. To address this problem, we created the Plant Structure Ontology (PSO), the first generic ontological representation of anatomy and morphology of a flowering plant. The PSO is intended for a broad plant research community, including bench scientists, curators in genomic databases, and bioinformaticians. The initial releases of the PSO integrated existing ontologies for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), maize (Zea mays), and rice (Oryza sativa); more recent versions of the ontology encompass terms relevant to Fabaceae, Solanaceae, additional cereal crops, and poplar (Populus spp.). Databases such as The Arabidopsis Information Resource, Nottingham Arabidopsis Stock Centre, Gramene, MaizeGDB, and SOL Genomics Network are using the PSO to describe expression patterns of genes and phenotypes of mutants and natural variants and are regularly contributing new annotations to the Plant Ontology database. The PSO is also used in specialized public databases, such as BRENDA, GENEVESTIGATOR, NASCArrays, and others. Over 10,000 gene annotations and phenotype descriptions from participating databases can be queried and retrieved using the Plant Ontology browser. The PSO, as well as contributed gene associations, can be obtained at

  3. Sinus Anatomy (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  4. Nasal Anatomy (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  5. Effect of plant growth regulators on leaf anatomy of the has mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana. (United States)

    Janosević, D; Uzelac, B; Budimir, S


    In this study, the effect of plant growth regulators on leaf morphogenesis of the recessive T-DNA insertion mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana was analyzed. The morpho-anatomical analysis revealed that leaves of the has mutant are small and narrow, with lobed blades and disrupted tissue organization. When has plants were grown on the medium supplied with plant growth regulators: benzylaminopurine (BAP) or ethylene precursor, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC), the leaf anatomy was partially restored to the wild type, although plants still exhibited morphological abnormalities.

  6. Climate change alters leaf anatomy, but has no effects on volatile emissions from Arctic plants. (United States)

    Schollert, Michelle; Kivimäenpää, Minna; Valolahti, Hanna M; Rinnan, Riikka


    Biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions are expected to change substantially because of the rapid advancement of climate change in the Arctic. BVOC emission changes can feed back both positively and negatively on climate warming. We investigated the effects of elevated temperature and shading on BVOC emissions from arctic plant species Empetrum hermaphroditum, Cassiope tetragona, Betula nana and Salix arctica. Measurements were performed in situ in long-term field experiments in subarctic and high Arctic using a dynamic enclosure system and collection of BVOCs into adsorbent cartridges analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In order to assess whether the treatments had resulted in anatomical adaptations, we additionally examined leaf anatomy using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Against expectations based on the known temperature and light-dependency of BVOC emissions, the emissions were barely affected by the treatments. In contrast, leaf anatomy of the studied plants was significantly altered in response to the treatments, and these responses appear to differ from species found at lower latitudes. We suggest that leaf anatomical acclimation may partially explain the lacking treatment effects on BVOC emissions at plant shoot-level. However, more studies are needed to unravel why BVOC emission responses in arctic plants differ from temperate species.

  7. Leaf anatomy characterization of Coffea arabica plants at different seasonal periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Benetti Queiroz-Voltan


    Full Text Available Drought is among the hindering factors for coffee plant growth and yield. This study aimed to analyze the anatomy of leaves grown during the rainy and dry seasons in nine Coffea arabica L. plants, previously described as tolerant or sensitive to water deicit, in order to identify structural features of drought tolerance. We measured the size and density of stomata and epidermal cells, the thickness of epidermis and mesophyll, the diameter of petiole and midrib, the thickness of phloem and xylem in the midrib and petiole, and the diameter and frequency of elements of xylem vessels. Differences observed between the leaf structure of coffee plants evaluated and the leaf growth conditions (rainy and dry seasons indicated that there is a favorable anatomical plasticity regarding drought conditions. Thicker palisade parenchyma and total limbo, larger radii of phloem and xylem in the petiole and midrib were considered as favorable structural features to cope with water scarcity and they could be used as criteria to select drought-resistant cultivars. The following coffee plants were considered as more adapted to drought: Geisha, Semperlorens, BA 10, IAC H 8105-7, IAC H 8421-2, and the cultivar Catuaí Vermelho IAC 81.

  8. The plant ontology as a tool for comparative plant anatomy and genomic analyses (United States)

    Plant science is now a major player in the fields of genomics, gene expression analysis, phenomics and metabolomics. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have led to a windfall of data, with new species being added rapidly to the list of species whose genomes have been decoded. The Plant Ontol...

  9. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry (United States)


    Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae) have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i) to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii) to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii) to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed. PMID:15841282

  10. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

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    Érica Weinstein Teixeira


    Full Text Available Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

  11. Anatomia foliar de plantas micropropagadas de abacaxi Leaf anatomy of micropropagated pineapple plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Brandão Santa Cruz Barboza


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi indicar caracteres anatômicos em folhas de plantas micropropagadas de abacaxizeiro, visando ao aperfeiçoamento do protocolo de aclimatação. Utilizaram-se plântulas micropropagadas in vitro e aclimatadas por seis e dez meses, apresentando, em média, 3,1, 50,2 e 65 g, respectivamente. A densidade estomática foi determinada na face abaxial da epiderme, nas regiões basal, mediana e apical da folha, usando o delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial de 2x3 (dois ambientes de cultivo e três regiões da folha, em seis repetições. A espessura da hipoderme, parênquimas aqüífero e clorofilado foi determinada na região mediana da folha, usando-se o delineamento inteiramente casualizado com três tratamentos em quatro repetições. A estrutura básica da folha do abacaxizeiro não se modificou, entretanto, ocorreram diferenças na freqüência estomática, no espessamento da cutícula e paredes da epiderme, formato e sinuosidade das paredes das células do tecido aqüífero e presença de células papilosas nos diferentes ambientes de cultivo, indicando plasticidade fenotípica.The objective of this work was to study leaf anatomy of pineapple plants in order to improve acclimatization protocols. In vitro plantlets weighting an average of 3.1 g and greenhouse plantlets derived from in vitro stock material, after six and ten months of culture, weighting an average of 50.2 and 65 g, respectively, were used. Stomatal density was determined on the abaxial epidermis, at the basal, median, and apical portions of the leaf, using a completely randomized design under 2x3 factorial (two culture environments and three leaf regions with six replicates. Thickness of the hypodermis, aquiferous and photosynthetic parenchyma were determined at the median portion of the leaf using a totally randomized design with three treatments and four replicates. The basic structure of the pineapple leaf under in vitro

  12. Vulva Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  13. Larynx Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  14. Hand Anatomy (United States)

    ... Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is a term used to ... of the parts together. Learn more about the anatomy of the upper extremity using the links in ...

  15. Pharynx Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  16. Keeping the golden mean: plant stiffness and anatomy as proximal factors driving endophytic oviposition site selection in a dragonfly. (United States)

    Matushkina, Natalia; Lambret, Philippe; Gorb, Stanislav


    Oviposition site selection is a crucial component of habitat selection in dragonflies. The presence of appropriate oviposition plants at breeding waters is considered to be one of the key habitat determinants for species laying eggs endophytically. Thus, Lestes macrostigma, a species which is regarded as threatened in Europe because of its highly disjunct distribution, typically prefers to lay eggs in the sea club rush Bolboschoenus maritimus. However, little is known about how the anatomical and mechanical properties of plant tissues determine the choice of L. macrostigma females. We examined green shoots of six plant species used by L. macrostigma for oviposition, either in the field (actual oviposition plants) or under experimental conditions (potential oviposition plants), to analyse anatomical and mechanical properties of shoots in a framework of known preferences regarding plant substrates for oviposition. As expected, the anatomy of shoots differed between representatives of two plant families, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, most essentially in the distribution of supporting bundles and the presence of large aeriferous cavities that may affect egg placing within a shoot. The force necessary to puncture the tested plant samples ranged from 360 to 3298 mN, and their local stiffness ranged from 777 to 3363N/m. We show that the shoots of B. maritimus, the plant most preferred by L. macrostigma, have intermediate characteristics regarding both the stiffness and specific anatomical characteristics. The bending stiffness of the ovipositor in L. macrostigma was estimated as 1414N/m, one of the highest values recorded for zygopteran dragonflies so far. The ecological and behavioural implications of plant choice mechanisms in L. macrostigma are discussed in the context of the disjunct distribution of this species.

  17. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden.......Artiklen "Robottens Anatomi - mellem kunst og videnskab". Handler om brugen af robotter i kunstens og videnskabens verden....

  18. Tooth anatomy (United States)

    ... page: // Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  19. Paraganglioma Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  20. Eye Anatomy (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  1. Function and anatomy of plant siRNA pools derived from hairpin transgenes

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    Lee Kevin AW


    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference results in specific gene silencing by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Synthetic siRNAs provide a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression but high cost suggests that novel siRNA production methods are desirable. Strong evolutionary conservation of siRNA structure suggested that siRNAs will retain cross-species function and that transgenic plants expressing heterologous siRNAs might serve as useful siRNA bioreactors. Here we report a detailed evaluation of the above proposition and present evidence regarding structural features of siRNAs extracted from plants. Results Testing the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells proved to be very challenging and required partial siRNA purification and design of a highly sensitive assay. Using the above assay we found that plant-derived siRNAs are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Plant-derived siRNAs are almost exclusively double-stranded and most likely comprise a mixture of bona fide siRNAs and aberrant partially complementary duplexes. We also provide indirect evidence that plant-derived siRNAs may contain a hitherto undetected physiological modification, distinct from 3' terminal 2-O-methylation. Conclusion siRNAs produced from plant hairpin transgenes and extracted from plants are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Thus our findings establish that a previous claim that transgenic plants offer a cost-effective, scalable and sustainable source of siRNAs is unwarranted. Our results also indicate that the presence of aberrant siRNA duplexes and possibly a plant-specific siRNA modification, compromises the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells.

  2. Arsenic accumulation in Brassicaceae seedlings and its effects on growth and plant anatomy. (United States)

    de Freitas-Silva, Larisse; de Araújo, Talita Oliveira; da Silva, Luzimar Campos; de Oliveira, Juraci Alves; de Araujo, João Marcos


    We wished to evaluate the effects of arsenic on the morphology and anatomy of Brassica oleracea, Raphanus sativus, Brassica juncea, Brassica oleracea var. capitata and Brassica oleracea var. italica. Seeds were subjected to concentrations 0µM, 250µM, 350µM and 450µM arsenic in the form of sodium arsenate (Na2HAsO4·7H2O) during 12 days. All species accumulated more arsenic in the roots than in the shoots, except for B. oleracea var. capitata. There was no difference of translocation factor between species and treatments. Growth decrease was observed in roots of B. oleracea and R. sativus, and in shoots of R. sativus and B. oleracea var. italica. All species presented anatomical alterations in the roots, such as: cell hypertrophy, protoplast retraction, cellular plasmolysis, and necrotic regions. B. juncea presented collapse and hypertrophy of cells from the leaf blade tissues. Quantitative anatomical analyses performed on the root and leaves of B. oleracea and B. juncea revealed that arsenic interfered on the root vascular cylinder diameter and on height of epidermal cells of the adaxial leaf surface of both species. We concluded that arsenic was absorbed from the culture medium and induced alterations both on root and shoot growth of the seedlings. Retention of arsenic within the root was responsible for major damage in this organ.

  3. Anatomy atlases. (United States)

    Rosse, C


    Anatomy atlases are unlike other knowledge sources in the health sciences in that they communicate knowledge through annotated images without the support of narrative text. An analysis of the knowledge component represented by images and the history of anatomy atlases suggest some distinctions that should be made between atlas and textbook illustrations. Textbook and atlas should synergistically promote the generation of a mental model of anatomy. The objective of such a model is to support anatomical reasoning and thereby replace memorization of anatomical facts. Criteria are suggested for selecting anatomy texts and atlases that complement one another, and the advantages and disadvantages of hard copy and computer-based anatomy atlases are considered.

  4. Integer anatomy

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    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)


    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  5. Facial anatomy. (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman


    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery.

  6. Robottens Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antabi, Mimo

    Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv.......Rapport der beskriver de samlede erfaringer fra arbejdet med produktionen af teaterforestillingen Robottens Anatomi. Indehoder bl.a. interviews med medvirkende, bidrag fra instruktør, synopsis, beskrivelse af scenografi mv....

  7. Anatomy of the Brain (United States)

    ... Menu Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ... form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of Tumors Risk Factors ...

  8. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  9. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus


    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  10. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna


    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  11. Thymus Gland Anatomy (United States)

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  12. Normal Pancreas Anatomy (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 761x736 ... View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows the ...

  13. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  14. ANATI QUANTI: software de análises quantitativas para estudos em anatomia vegetal ANATI QUANTI: quantitative analysis software for plant anatomy studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.V. Aguiar


    Full Text Available Em diversos estudos interdisciplinares em que a Anatomia Vegetal é utilizada, análises quantitativas complementares são necessárias. Geralmente, a avaliação micromorfométrica é feita manualmente e/ou utilizando programas computacionais de análise de imagens não específicos. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver um programa específico para Anatomia Vegetal quantitativa e testar sua eficiência e aceitação por usuários. A solução foi elaborada na linguagem Java, visando maior mobilidade em relação ao sistema operacional a ser usado. O software desenvolvido foi denominado ANATI QUANTI e testado pelos alunos, pesquisadores e professores do Laboratório de Anatomia Vegetal da Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV. Todos os entrevistados receberam fotos para efetuarem medições no ANATI QUANTI e comparar com os resultados obtidos utilizando o software disponível. Os voluntários, através de questionários previamente formulados, destacaram as principais vantagens e desvantagens do programa desenvolvido em relação ao software disponível. Além de ser mais específico, simples e ágil do que o software disponível, o ANATI QUANTI é confiável, atendendo à expectativa dos entrevistados. Entretanto, há necessidade de acrescentar recursos adicionais, como a inserção de novas escalas, o que aumentaria a gama de usuários. O ANATI QUANTI já está em uso nas pesquisas desenvolvidas por usuários na UFV. Por ser um software livre e de código aberto, será disponibilizado na internet gratuitamente.Complementary quantitative analyses are necessary for several interdisciplinary studies using Plant Anatomy. Generally, micromorphometric evaluation is performed manually and/or using non-specific software for image analyses. This work aimed to develop specific quantitative analysis software for Plant Anatomy and test its efficiency and acceptance by users. The solution was elaborated in the JAVA language, which has a greater

  15. Engaging plant anatomy and local knowledge on the buriti palm (Mauritia flexuosa L.f.: Arecaceae): the microscopic world meets the golden grass artisan's perspective (United States)

    Viana, Rebeca V. R.; Scatena, Vera L.; Eichemberg, Mayra T.; Sano, Paulo T.


    Considering that both Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems share a common ground—observations of the natural world—the dialogue between them should not only be possible, but fruitful. Local communities whose livelihoods depend on traditional uses of the local biodiversity not only develop knowledge about nature, making several uses of such knowledge, but, with that process, several inquiries about nature can be raised. Here we present our experience with the engagement of Western Science with golden grass artisan's knowledge about the buriti palm (M. flexuosa). We applied 25 semi-directive interviews, combined with field diary and participative observation, in two quilombola communities from Jalapão region (Central-Brazil). One of the inquiries that emerged from the artisan's perspectives was about the differences between male and female buriti palms' fiber. We then engaged both local and scientific perspectives regarding this issue using plant anatomy as a dialogue instrument. Here we describe this experience and resort to Paulo Freire's ideas on dialogue to argue that, to integrate Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems in a collaborative and contextualized perspective, the research should be faced as a mutual learning practice.

  16. Anatomy and histochemistry of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata: a native medicinal plant of the Brazilian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia B. de Oliveira


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to carry out an anatomical and histochemical analysis of the vegetative organs of Cissus verticillata (L. Nicolson & C.E. Jarvis, Vitaceae, to contribute for the attest the taxonomic identity of the medicinal plant. Samples from root, stem, leaf and tendril were cleared, dissociated and processed according to the usual methodology for observation under light and scanning electron microscopes. Histochemical tests were performed in order to identify polysaccharides, phenolic and lipid compounds. The C. verticillata root is typically protostelic, and the stem is eustelic with collateral bundles. The tendril presents structural organization similar to the stem, suggesting a common origin for both. The petiole has an epidermis with ornamented cuticle; the cortex is composed of collenchyma and parenchyma, and the vascular tissues are arranged in collateral bundles. The leaf blade is amphistomatic with non-glandular and glandular trichomes, and the mesophyll is dorsiventral. The identification of the idioblasts as secretion site of the phenolic compounds, mucilage and terpenoids as being responsible for the potential activity of the plant is of fundamental importance for future bioprospecting research on this species.

  17. Anatomy of the Eye (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  18. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency


    Rosolem,Ciro Antonio; Leite, Vagner Maximino [UNESP


    Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0...

  19. AnatomiQuiz

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brent, Mikkel Bo; Kristoffersen, Thomas


    AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl.......AnatomiQuiz er en quiz-app udviklet til bevægeapparatets anatomi. Den består af mere end 2300 spørgsmål og over 1000 anatomiske billeder. Alle spørgsmål tager udgangspunkt i lærebogen Bevægeapparatets anatomi af Finn Bojsen-Møller m.fl....

  20. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics. (United States)

    Sherman, Seth L; Plackis, Andreas C; Nuelle, Clayton W


    Patellofemoral disorders are common. There is a broad spectrum of disease, ranging from patellofemoral pain and instability to focal cartilage disease and arthritis. Regardless of the specific condition, abnormal anatomy and biomechanics are often the root cause of patellofemoral dysfunction. A thorough understanding of normal patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics is critical for the treating physician. Recognizing and addressing abnormal anatomy will optimize patellofemoral biomechanics and may ultimately translate into clinical success.

  1. Anatomy of the lymphatics. (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panagiotis N


    The lymphatic system is perhaps the most complicated system of Homo sapiens. An introduction to the anatomy, embryology, and anomalies of the lymphatics is presented. The overall anatomy and drainage of the lymphatic vessels in outlined. The topographic anatomy, relations, and variations of the principle vessels of the lymphatic system (the right lymphatic duct, the thoracic duct, and the cisterna chyli) are presented in detail.

  2. Anatomy Comic Strips (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk


    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  3. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven


    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  4. Skull Base Anatomy. (United States)

    Patel, Chirag R; Fernandez-Miranda, Juan C; Wang, Wei-Hsin; Wang, Eric W


    The anatomy of the skull base is complex with multiple neurovascular structures in a small space. Understanding all of the intricate relationships begins with understanding the anatomy of the sphenoid bone. The cavernous sinus contains the carotid artery and some of its branches; cranial nerves III, IV, VI, and V1; and transmits venous blood from multiple sources. The anterior skull base extends to the frontal sinus and is important to understand for sinus surgery and sinonasal malignancies. The clivus protects the brainstem and posterior cranial fossa. A thorough appreciation of the anatomy of these various areas allows for endoscopic endonasal approaches to the skull base.

  5. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee


    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  6. Anatomy of the Heart (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Anatomy of the Heart Your heart is located under your ribcage in the center of your chest between your right and left lungs. Its muscular walls beat, or contract, pumping blood ...

  7. Teaching Plant Reproduction. (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin N., Ed.; Hardy, Garry R., Ed.


    Recommends using Amaryllis hippeastrum to teach young children about plant reproduction. Provides tips for growing these plants, discusses the fast growing rate of the plant, and explains the anatomy. (YDS)

  8. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.


    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  9. Learning anatomy enhances spatial ability.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Klaassen, T.P.; Donders, A.R.T.; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Bolhuis, S.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.


    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of me

  10. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.


    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  11. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.


    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  12. Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berghuijs, H.N.C.


    Keywords: CO2 diffusion, C3 photosynthesis, mesophyll conductance, mesophyll resistance, re-assimilation, photorespiration, respiration, tomato Herman Nicolaas Cornelis Berghuijs (2016). Leaf anatomy and photosynthesis; unravelling the CO2 diffusion pathway in C3 leaves. PhD thesis. Wageningen Unive

  13. Anatomia foliar de plantas de alfavaca-cravo cultivadas sob malhas coloridas Leaf anatomy of alfavaca-cravo plants cultivated under colored nets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joeferson Reis Martins


    Full Text Available No presente trabalho, foi avaliado o efeito do controle espectral da luz sobre características anatômicas de folhas em Ocimum gratissimum L. As plantas foram cultivadas por quatro meses sob malhas de 50% de sombreamento nas cores preta, vermelha e azul e a pleno sol. Plantas submetidas a pleno sol apresentaram maior espessura foliar, maior densidade estomática e maior densidade de tricomas tectores e glandulares na face adaxial. As plantas cultivadas sob malhas coloridas não exibiram diferenças quanto à espessura e à área foliar. As plantas mantidas sob malha vermelha tiveram a menor densidade estomática na face adaxial, já as plantas mantidas sob malhas azul e vermelha exibiram maior área foliar total. As plantas mantidas sob malha vermelha apresentaram a menor densidade estomática e as menores densidades de tricomas tectores e glandulares na face adaxial. Tais resultados mostram que tanto a intensidade como a qualidade espectral da luz pode ser modulada durante o cultivo de Ocimum gratissimum L. a fim de serem obtidas características anatômicas desejáveis.In the present research, the effect of spectral control of light was evaluated on anatomical characteristics of Ocimum gratissimum L. leaves. The plants were cultivated during four months under black, red and blue nets with 50% of shade, and full sunlight. Plants grown under full sunlight showed higher leaf thickness, higher stomatal density and higher density of no-glandular and glandular trichomes on the adaxial epidermis. Plants cultivated under colored nets did not show differences in leaf thickness or leaf area. Plants maintained under red net had the lowest stomatal density in adaxial epidermis, as the plants cultivated under blue and red nets exhibited the largest leaf area. The plants maintained under red net showed the smallest stomatal density and the smallest non-glandular and glandular trichomes density in the adaxial epidermis. Such results show that the spectral

  14. Authenticity in Anatomy Art. (United States)

    Adkins, Jessica


    The aim of this paper is to observe the evolution and evaluate the 'realness' and authenticity in Anatomy Art, an art form I define as one which incorporates accurate anatomical representations of the human body with artistic expression. I examine the art of 17th century wax anatomical models, the preservations of Frederik Ruysch, and Gunther von Hagens' Body Worlds plastinates, giving consideration to authenticity of both body and art. I give extra consideration to the works of Body Worlds since the exhibit creator believes he has created anatomical specimens with more educational value and bodily authenticity than ever before. Ultimately, I argue that von Hagens fails to offer Anatomy Art 'real human bodies,' and that the lack of bodily authenticity of his plastinates results in his creations being less pedagogic than he claims.

  15. [Anatomy: the bodily order]. (United States)

    Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce


    In this essay I try to show the source of the knowledge that determines a certain view that the healthcare team, particularly the nursing team, has developed on the body, especially the sick body. I understand that this knowledge determines ways of caring for the hospitalized bodies. Based on texts by Foucault I analyze the subject of Anatomy. I present a brief history of its construction as a field of knowledge since Versalius until today, when we find plastinated and digitized bodies. I highlight the cadaver as the student's first contact with a human body and observe that the illustrations contained in Anatomy books privilege male and white bodies. I characterize the body as a radically historical invention and observe that we are culturally trained to perceive it, in an organized way, from given viewpoints and by using certain lenses.

  16. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik


    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  17. [Anatomy of the skull]. (United States)

    Pásztor, Emil


    The anatomy of the human body based on a special teleological system is one of the greatest miracles of the world. The skull's primary function is the defence of the brain, so every alteration or disease of the brain results in some alteration of the skull. This analogy is to be identified even in the human embryo. Proportions of the 22 bones constituting the skull and of sizes of sutures are not only the result of the phylogeny, but those of the ontogeny as well. E.g. the age of the skeletons in archaeological findings could be identified according to these facts. Present paper outlines the ontogeny and development of the tissues of the skull, of the structure of the bone-tissue, of the changes of the size of the skull and of its parts during the different periods of human life, reflecting to the aesthetics of the skull as well. "Only the human scull can give me an impression of beauty. In spite of all genetical colseness, a skull of a chimpanzee cannot impress me aesthetically"--author confesses. In the second part of the treatise those authors are listed, who contributed to the perfection of our knowledge regarding the skull. First of all the great founder of modern anatomy, Andreas Vesalius, then Pierre Paul Broca, Jacob Benignus Winslow are mentioned here. The most important Hungarian contributors were as follow: Sámuel Rácz, Pál Bugát or--the former assistant of Broca--Aurél Török. A widely used tool for measurement of the size of the skull, the craniometer was invented by the latter. The members of the family Lenhossék have had also important results in this field of research, while descriptive anatomy of the skull was completed by microsopical anatomy thanks the activity of Géza Mihálkovits.

  18. Hepatic surgical anatomy. (United States)

    Skandalakis, John E; Skandalakis, Lee J; Skandalakis, Panajiotis N; Mirilas, Petros


    The liver, the largest organ in the body, has been misunderstood at nearly all levels of organization, and there is a tendency to ignore details that do not fit the preconception. A complete presentation of the surgical anatomy of the liver includes the study of hepatic surfaces, margins, and fissures; the various classifications of lobes and segments; and the vasculature and lymphatics. A brief overview of the intrahepatic biliary tract is also presented.

  19. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities; Orbita - Anatomie, Entwicklung und Fehlbildungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Golinski, M. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany); Schroeder, A.C. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Augenheilkunde, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [German] Die Entwicklung der Strukturen der menschlichen Orbita ist sehr komplex. Ihre Kenntnis erleichtert jedoch das Verstaendnis von Anatomie und Fehlbildungen. In dieser Uebersicht wird zunaechst auf die embryonale Entwicklung eingegangen, bevor die ''normale'' radiologische Anatomie bei verschiedenen Untersuchungstechniken und die haeufigsten Fehlbildungen thematisiert werden. (orig.)

  20. Anatomia foliar de soja infectada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais Leaf anatomy of soybean infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Mussury


    Full Text Available Folhas de Glycine max (L. Merril,infectadas pelo fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais foram avaliadas, visando determinar in vivo as modificações anatômicas nas diferentes estruturas/tecidos foliares, além de reconhecer prováveis mecanismos de defesa. Folhas de soja cultivar 181 provenientes do quinto nó foram inoculadas com fungo e tratadas com diferentes extratos vegetais, água e álcool 70%. Para comparação foram analisadas a anatomia das folhas sadia e infectada e realizadas medidas nas estruturas/tecidos foliares. Na folha infectada, observou-se destruição da epiderme e parênquima lacunoso, visível proliferação de tricomas e cutícula espessada, principalmente na face abaxial. Observou-se a presença de compostos fenólicos nas células da epiderme quando rompida, em função do crescimento micelial. Nas folhas infectadas e tratadas com os extratos vegetais de Azadirachta indica, Maytenus ilicifolia e Allium sativum, as estruturas/tecidos vegetais apresentaram aumento de espessura por alongamento celular.Glycine max (L. Merril leaves, infected by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts, were evaluated with the aim of determining in vivo the anatomical modifications in different leaf structures and of identifying probable defense mechanisms. Leaves from the 181 soybean cultivar originated from the fifth node were inoculated with the fungus and treated with different plant extracts, water and alcohol at 70%. For comparison, the anatomy of the healthy and infected leaves was analyzed and the leaf structures were measured. In the infected leaf, there was destruction of the epidermis and lacunar parenchyma, apparent trichome proliferation and denser cuticle, especially on the abaxial surface. There were also phenolic compounds in ruptured epidermis cells, due to mycelium growth. In the infected leaves treated with Azadirachta indica, Maytenus

  1. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.


    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharadkumar Pralhad Sawant,


    Full Text Available Introduction: Anatomy is the base of medical science in India and is taught practically to all disciplines of undergraduate health sciences in the first year. It is an acknowledged fact that a basic knowledge of Anatomy is a prerequisite to learn any other branch of medicine. All medical professionals must have a basic knowledge of Anatomy so as to ensure safe medical practice. Traditionally Anatomy teaching consists of didactic lectures as well as dissections or prosections as per the requirement of the course. Lecture is defined as an oral discourse on a given subject before an audience for purpose of instruction and leaning. In the traditional method lectures were taken via chalk & board, but nowadays power point presentations are increasingly being used. To make Anatomy learning both pleasant and motivating, new methods of teaching gross anatomy are being assessed as medical colleges endeavour to find time in their curricula for new content without fore-going fundamental anatomical knowledge. This paper examines the other teaching methodologies for teaching gross anatomy. Conclusion: Proper utilization of newer technologies along with the traditional teaching methods will certainly lead to enhanced understanding of gross anatomy and will ultimately improve students’ performance.

  3. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy. (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  4. The quail anatomy portal. (United States)

    Ruparelia, Avnika A; Simkin, Johanna E; Salgado, David; Newgreen, Donald F; Martins, Gabriel G; Bryson-Richardson, Robert J


    The Japanese quail is a widely used model organism for the study of embryonic development; however, anatomical resources are lacking. The Quail Anatomy Portal (QAP) provides 22 detailed three-dimensional (3D) models of quail embryos during development from embryonic day (E)1 to E15 generated using optical projection tomography. The 3D models provided can be virtually sectioned to investigate anatomy. Furthermore, using the 3D nature of the models, we have generated a tool to assist in the staging of quail samples. Volume renderings of each stage are provided and can be rotated to allow visualization from multiple angles allowing easy comparison of features both between stages in the database and between images or samples in the laboratory. The use of JavaScript, PHP and HTML ensure the database is accessible to users across different operating systems, including mobile devices, facilitating its use in the laboratory.The QAP provides a unique resource for researchers using the quail model. The ability to virtually section anatomical models throughout development provides the opportunity for researchers to virtually dissect the quail and also provides a valuable tool for the education of students and researchers new to the field. DATABASE URL: (For review username: demo, password: quail123).

  5. Anatomy of trisomy 18. (United States)

    Roberts, Wallisa; Zurada, Anna; Zurada-ZieliŃSka, Agnieszka; Gielecki, Jerzy; Loukas, Marios


    Trisomy 18 is the second most common aneuploidy after trisomy 21. Due to its multi-systemic defects, it has a poor prognosis with a 50% chance of survival beyond one week and a trisomy 18. As a result, a review of the anatomy associated with this defect is imperative. While any of the systems can be affected by trisomy 18, the following areas are the most likely to be affected: craniofacial, musculoskeletal system, cardiac system, abdominal, and nervous system. More specifically, the following features are considered characteristic of trisomy 18: low-set ears, rocker bottom feet, clenched fists, and ventricular septal defect. Of particular interest is the associated cardiac defect, as surgical repairs of these defects have shown an improved survivability. In this article, the anatomical defects associated with each system are reviewed. Clin. Anat. 29:628-632, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. The Anatomy of Galaxies (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  7. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie


    The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students...... behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...

  8. The anatomy of teaching and the teaching of anatomy. (United States)

    Peck, David; Skandalakis, John E


    Professional education is one of the greatest problems currently confronting the healing professions. The incorporation of basic science departments into colleges of medicine has affected curriculum design, research, admissions criteria, and licensure. Those who are not practicing members of a particular health care profession wield undue influence in medical schools. Ideally, gross anatomy teachers should be health care professionals who use anatomy in their practices. Reorganization of medical education will heal the rift between research and clinical medicine.

  9. [Dental anatomy of dogs]. (United States)

    Sarkisian, E G


    The aim of the research was to investigate dog teeth anatomy as animal model for study of etiopathogenesis of caries disease and physiological tooth wear in human. After examining the dog's dental system, following conclusions were drawn: the dog has 42 permanent teeth, which are distributed over the dental arches not equally, and so the upper dentition consists of 20, and the lower of 22 teeth. The largest are considered upper fourth premolar and lower first molars, which are called discordant teeth. Between discordant teeth and fangs a dog has an open bite, which is limited to the top and bottom conical crown premolar teeth. Thus, in the closed position of the jaws, behind this occlusion is limited by discordant teeth, just in contact are smaller in size two molars. Only large dog's molars in a valid comparison can be likened to human molars, which allows us to use them in an analog comparison between them with further study of the morphological features ensure durability short-crown teeth and their predisposition to caries.

  10. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks. (United States)

    Azer, Samy A


    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy.

  11. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy. (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D


    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  12. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades. (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian


    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  13. [History of anatomy in Lyon]. (United States)

    Bouchet, A


    1. We know very little concerning the teaching of anatomy during the Middle Ages. Only two authors, who both came to live in Lyon, Lanfranc and Guy de Chauliac, wrote on the subject. On the other hand, the important development of printing in Lyon from the sixteenth century onwards, made it possible to spread the translations of classic works and most of the books on Anatomy of the Renaissance. 2. However, Lyonese Anatomy developed very slowly because hospital training was more often badly organized. The only true supporter of Anatomy has been Marc Antoine Petit, chief surgeon of the Hôtel-Dieu before the French Revolution. 3. Apart from the parallel but only transient teaching of the Royal College of Surgery, one will have to wait for the creation of an official teaching first assumed by "schools" (secondary school and preparatory school) and finally by the Faculty of Medicine created in 1877. The names of Testut and of Latarjet contributed to the reknown of the Faculty of Medicine by their anatomical studies of great value for several generations of students. 4. Recently the Faculty of Medicine has been divided into four "universities". The new buildings are larger. The "gift of corpses" has brought a remedy to the shortage of the last twenty years. Anatomical research can be pursued thanks to micro-anatomy and bio-mechanics while conventional teaching is completed by dissection.

  14. Anal anatomy and normal histology. (United States)

    Pandey, Priti


    The focus of this article is the anatomy and histology of the anal canal, and its clinical relevance to anal cancers. The article also highlights the recent histological and anatomical changes to the traditional terminology of the anal canal. The terminology has been adopted by the American Joint Committee on Cancer, separating the anal region into the anal canal, the perianal region and the skin. This paper describes the gross anatomy of the anal canal, along with its associated blood supply, venous and lymphatic drainage, and nerve supply. The new terminology referred to in this article may assist clinicians and health care providers to identify lesions more precisely through naked eye observation and without the need for instrumentation. Knowledge of the regional anatomy of the anus will also assist in management decisions.

  15. Sifat Anatomi dan Fisis Kelapa Hibrida


    Hutabarat, Marihot Hamonangan


    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi sifat anatomis dan fisis batang kelapa hibrida. Ciri anatomi diamati langsung pada sampel dan menggunakan mikroskop untuk pengamatan dimensi seratnya, dan pengujian sifat fisis menggunakan British Standard. Sifat anatomis dan fisis batang kelapa hibrida bervariasi menurut ketinggian dan kedalaman. Struktur anatomis batang kelapa hibrida didominasi oleh vascular bundle dan parenkim. Serat kayu dapat ditemukan didalam vascular bundle dengan rata-r...

  16. Anatomy Adventure: A Board Game for Enhancing Understanding of Anatomy (United States)

    Anyanwu, Emeka G.


    Certain negative factors such as fear, loss of concentration and interest in the course, lack of confidence, and undue stress have been associated with the study of anatomy. These are factors most often provoked by the unusually large curriculum, nature of the course, and the psychosocial impact of dissection. As a palliative measure, Anatomy…

  17. The Anatomy of Anatomy: A Review for Its Modernization (United States)

    Sugand, Kapil; Abrahams, Peter; Khurana, Ashish


    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation or specialty. Until recently, dissection and didactic lectures were its sole pedagogy. Teaching methodology has been revolutionized with more reliance on models, imaging, simulation, and the Internet to further consolidate and enhance the learning experience.…

  18. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  19. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry


    Martins,Fabiano M.; Lima,Jamile F.; Ana Angélica S. Mascarenhas; Thayane P. Macedo


    Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr.) Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cu...

  20. Effect of Injecting Hydrogen Peroxide into Heavy Clay Loam Soil on Plant Water Status, NET CO2 Assimilation, Biomass, and Vascular Anatomy of Avocado Trees Efecto de la Inyección de Peróxido de Hidrógeno en Suelo Franco Arcilloso Pesado, sobre el Estado Hídrico, Asimilación Neta de CO2, Biomasa y Anatomía Vascular de Paltos



    In Chile, avocado (Persea americana Mill.) orchards are often located in poorly drained, low-oxygen soils, situation which limits fruit production and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of injecting soil with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) as a source of molecular oxygen, on plant water status, net CO2 assimilation, biomass and anatomy of avocado trees set in clay loam soil with water content maintained at field capacity. Three-year-old ‘Hass’ avocado trees were planted...

  1. Anatomy of the thymus gland. (United States)

    Safieddine, Najib; Keshavjee, Shaf


    In the case of the thymus gland, the most common indications for resection are myasthenia gravis or thymoma. The consistency and appearance of the thymus gland make it difficult at times to discern from mediastinal fatty tissues. Having a clear understanding of the anatomy and the relationship of the gland to adjacent structures is important.

  2. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi


    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  3. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.


    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  4. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, Johan H


    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  5. Wood anatomy of the Combretaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliet, van G.J.C.M.


    The wood anatomy of all genera of the Combretaceae (Meiostemon excepted) is described in detail on the basis of 120 samples representing 90 species from 19 genera. Additional data from the literature are added. The structural variation of the vestured pits is described and classified. There are two

  6. The future of gross anatomy teaching. (United States)

    Malamed, S; Seiden, D


    A survey of U.S. departments of anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry shows that 39% of the respondent anatomy departments reported declines in the numbers of graduate students taking the human gross anatomy course. Similarly, 42% of the departments reported decreases in the numbers of graduate students teaching human gross anatomy. These decreases were greater in anatomy than in physiology and in biochemistry. The percentages of departments reporting increases in students taking or teaching their courses was 6% for human gross anatomy and 0% to 19% for physiology and biochemistry courses. To reverse this trend the establishment of specific programs for the training of gross anatomy teachers is advocated. These new teachers will be available as the need for them is increasingly recognized in the future.

  7. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon


    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  8. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy. (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor


    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  9. Anatomy of a Bird (United States)


    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, an international team of astronomers [1] has discovered a stunning rare case of a triple merger of galaxies. This system, which astronomers have dubbed 'The Bird' - albeit it also bears resemblance with a cosmic Tinker Bell - is composed of two massive spiral galaxies and a third irregular galaxy. ESO PR Photo 55a/07 ESO PR Photo 55a/07 The Tinker Bell Triplet The galaxy ESO 593-IG 008, or IRAS 19115-2124, was previously merely known as an interacting pair of galaxies at a distance of 650 million light-years. But surprises were revealed by observations made with the NACO instrument attached to ESO's VLT, which peered through the all-pervasive dust clouds, using adaptive optics to resolve the finest details [2]. Underneath the chaotic appearance of the optical Hubble images - retrieved from the Hubble Space Telescope archive - the NACO images show two unmistakable galaxies, one a barred spiral while the other is more irregular. The surprise lay in the clear identification of a third, clearly separate component, an irregular, yet fairly massive galaxy that seems to be forming stars at a frantic rate. "Examples of mergers of three galaxies of roughly similar sizes are rare," says Petri Väisänen, lead author of the paper reporting the results. "Only the near-infrared VLT observations made it possible to identify the triple merger nature of the system in this case." Because of the resemblance of the system to a bird, the object was dubbed as such, with the 'head' being the third component, and the 'heart' and 'body' making the two major galaxy nuclei in-between of tidal tails, the 'wings'. The latter extend more than 100,000 light-years, or the size of our own Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 55b/07 ESO PR Photo 55b/07 Anatomy of a Bird Subsequent optical spectroscopy with the new Southern African Large Telescope, and archive mid-infrared data from the NASA Spitzer space observatory, confirmed the separate nature of the 'head', but also added

  10. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  11. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina


    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  12. [Functional dental anatomy and amalgam]. (United States)

    Tavernier, B; Colon, P


    Very often, the functional dental anatomy are reflected during the rehabilitation of posterior quadrants. However, the placement, the shaping in correct relation of the different dental components are indispensable conditions to respect, in order to achieve an adequate integration of the restoration within the neuro-muscular system. A clinical protocol is proposed in order to reconcile the anatomical and biological prerequisite and the setting time of modern alloys.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  14. Hip: Anatomy and US technique



    Ultrasound (US) has always had a relatively limited role in the evaluation of the hip due to the deep location of this joint. However, many hip diseases are well detectable at US, but before approaching such a study it is necessary to be thoroughly familiar with the normal anatomy and related US images. The study technique is particularly important as optimization of various parameters is required, such as probe frequency, focalization, positioning of the probe, etc. Also the patient’s positi...

  15. [Surgical anatomy of the nose]. (United States)

    Nguyen, P S; Bardot, J; Duron, J B; Jallut, Y; Aiach, G


    Thorough knowledge of the anatomy of the nose is an essential prerequisite for preoperative analysis and the understanding of surgical techniques. Like a tent supported by its frame, the nose is an osteo-chondral structure covered by a peri-chondroperiosteal envelope, muscle and cutaneous covering tissues. For didactic reasons, we have chosen to treat this chapter in the form of comments from eight key configurations that the surgeon should acquire before performing rhinoplasty.

  16. Anatomy and physiology of cisternostomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iype Cherian; Giovanni Grasso; Antonio Bernardo; Sunil Munakomi


    Cisternostomy is defined as opening the basal cisterns to atmospheric pressure.This technique helps to reduce the intracranial pressure in severe head trauma as well as other conditions when the so-called sudden "brain swelling" troubles the surgeon.We elaborated the surgical anatomy of this procedure as well as the proposed physiology of how cisternostomy works.This novel technique may change the current trends in neurosurgery.

  17. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Niaei Fard, S.; Malcolm Matamoros, P.; Meeteren, van U.


    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed the

  18. Medical discourse in pathological anatomy. (United States)

    Moskalenko, R; Tatsenko, N; Romanyuk, A; Perelomova, O; Moskalenko, Yu


    The paper is devoted to the peculiarities of medical discourse in pathological anatomy as coherent speech and as a linguistic correlate of medical practice taking into account the analysis of its strategies and tactics. The purpose of the paper is to provide a multifaceted analysis of the speech strategies and tactics of pathological anatomy discourse and ways of their implementation. The main strategies of medical discourse in pathological anatomy are an anticipating strategy, a diagnosing strategy and an explaining one. The supporting strategies are pragmatic, conversational and a rhetorical one. The pragmatic strategy is implemented through contact establishing tactics, the conversational one - with the help of control tactics, the rhetorical one - with the help of attention correction tactics. The above mentioned tactics and strategies are used in the distinguishing of major, closely interrelated strategies: "the contact strategy" (to establish contact with a patient's relatives - phatic replicas of greeting and addressing) and "the strategy of explanation" (used in the practice of a pathologist for a detailed explanation of the reasons of a patient's death). The ethic aspect of speech conduct of a doctor-pathologist is analyzed.

  19. Coffee leaf and stem anatomy under boron deficiency Anatomia de ramos e folhas de cafeeiro sob feficiência de boro


    Ciro Antonio Rosolem; Vagner Maximino Leite


    Boron deficiency in coffee is widely spread in Brazilian plantations, but responses to B fertilizer have been erratic, depending on the year, form and time of application and B source. A better understanding of the effects of B on plant physiology and anatomy is important to establish a rational fertilization program since B translocation within the plant may be affected by plant anatomy. In this experiment, coffee plantlets of two varieties were grown in nutrient solutions with B levels of 0...

  20. Anatomy and embryology of the biliary tract. (United States)

    Keplinger, Kara M; Bloomston, Mark


    Working knowledge of extrahepatic biliary anatomy is of paramount importance to the general surgeon. The embryologic development of the extrahepatic biliary tract is discussed in this article as is the highly variable anatomy of the biliary tract and its associated vasculature. The salient conditions related to the embryology and anatomy of the extrahepatic biliary tract, including biliary atresia, choledochal cysts, gallbladder agenesis, sphincter of Oddi dysfunction, and ducts of Luschka, are addressed.

  1. [New findings of clinical anatomy in pelvis]. (United States)

    Muraoka, Kuniyasu; Takenaka, Atsushi


    Surgical anatomy involves clarifying the mutual relationships of each structure in the operative field. Knowledge of new surgical anatomy has arisen via new methods or approaches. Associated with the development and spread of laparoscopic surgery in recent years, adaptation to changes in surgical techniques using knowledge of classical pelvic anatomy has been difficult. Better knowledge of the delicate structures surrounding the prostate is essential in order to provide both cancer control and functional preservation with regard to radical prostatectomy. In this report, we review the progress in knowledge of pelvic anatomy, particularly regarding the endopelvic fascia, prostatic fascia and Denonvilliers' fascia.

  2. Soliton dynamics in computational anatomy. (United States)

    Holm, Darryl D; Ratnanather, J Tilak; Trouvé, Alain; Younes, Laurent


    Computational anatomy (CA) has introduced the idea of anatomical structures being transformed by geodesic deformations on groups of diffeomorphisms. Among these geometric structures, landmarks and image outlines in CA are shown to be singular solutions of a partial differential equation that is called the geodesic EPDiff equation. A recently discovered momentum map for singular solutions of EPDiff yields their canonical Hamiltonian formulation, which in turn provides a complete parameterization of the landmarks by their canonical positions and momenta. The momentum map provides an isomorphism between landmarks (and outlines) for images and singular soliton solutions of the EPDiff equation. This isomorphism suggests a new dynamical paradigm for CA, as well as new data representation.

  3. Gross anatomy of network security (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.


    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesh. G. Kamath


    Full Text Available Background: A research study was conducted in sixteen anatomy museums across India. Aim: The aim of the study is to have an integrated approach while designing a museum. Objective: The objective is to stress on the need to have a holistic approach while designing a museum so that that the museum is well planned and organised and has a huge sectional diversity that spans all aspects related to anatomy. Materials and Methods: All the museums were studied using a planned proforma that emphasised on special features of the museum with special emphasis on sectional variety. Observations: The various techniques of specimen preparation, preservation, mounting and display were observed and photographed. The sectional variety was noted. Moreover the various methods of maintaining specimen related information in pictorial and computerised catalogues was observed. Results and Conclusion: A design of a contemporary anatomy museum can now be conceived that incorporates all aspects of anatomy from history, evolution, embryology, cross-sectional anatomy, comparative anatomy, teratology, genetics and clinical anatomy to sections with modern techniques like plastination. Such a museum will certainly have a more holistic approach to anatomy and will be more educative and scientific.

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? ... On" In Your Community December 13, 2016 Avoiding a Yo-yo Financing Scam December 13, 2016 Media ...

  6. Anatomy Education Faces Challenges in Pakistan (United States)

    Memon, Ismail K.


    Anatomy education in Pakistan is facing many of the same challenges as in other parts of the world. Roughly, a decade ago, all medical and dental colleges in Pakistan emphasized anatomy as a core basic discipline within a traditional medical science curriculum. Now institutions are adopting problem based learning (PBL) teaching philosophies, and…

  7. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael


    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  8. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.


    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  9. Shark Attack! Sinking Your Teeth into Anatomy. (United States)

    House, Herbert


    Presents a real life shark attack story and studies arm reattachment surgery to teach human anatomy. Discusses how knowledge of anatomy can be put to use in the real world and how the arm functions. Includes teaching notes and suggestions for classroom management. (YDS)

  10. Wood anatomy of the Neotropical Melastomataceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter Ben J.H.; Koek-Noorman, Jifke


    The wood anatomy of 47 genera of the neotropical Melastomataceae is described in detail. The wood anatomy of the neotropical part of this pantropical family supports the subdivision into two groups: the subfamily Memecyloideae (the genus Mouriri) and the subfamily Melastomatoideae (all other genera)

  11. Frank Netter's Legacy: Interprofessional Anatomy Instruction (United States)

    Niekrash, Christine E.; Copes, Lynn E.; Gonzalez, Richard A.


    Several medical schools have recently described new innovations in interprofessional interactions in gross anatomy courses. The Frank H. Netter MD School of Medicine at Quinnipiac University in Hamden, CT has developed and implemented two contrasting interprofessional experiences in first-year medical student gross anatomy dissection laboratories:…

  12. Information Anatomy of Stochastic Equilibria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Marzen


    Full Text Available A stochastic nonlinear dynamical system generates information, as measured by its entropy rate. Some—the ephemeral information—is dissipated and some—the bound information—is actively stored and so affects future behavior. We derive analytic expressions for the ephemeral and bound information in the limit of infinitesimal time discretization for two classical systems that exhibit dynamical equilibria: first-order Langevin equations (i where the drift is the gradient of an analytic potential function and the diffusion matrix is invertible and (ii with a linear drift term (Ornstein–Uhlenbeck, but a noninvertible diffusion matrix. In both cases, the bound information is sensitive to the drift and diffusion, while the ephemeral information is sensitive only to the diffusion matrix and not to the drift. Notably, this information anatomy changes discontinuously as any of the diffusion coefficients vanishes, indicating that it is very sensitive to the noise structure. We then calculate the information anatomy of the stochastic cusp catastrophe and of particles diffusing in a heat bath in the overdamped limit, both examples of stochastic gradient descent on a potential landscape. Finally, we use our methods to calculate and compare approximations for the time-local predictive information for adaptive agents.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga


    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  14. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer


    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and

  15. Exercises in anatomy: cardiac isomerism. (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L


    It is well recognized that the patients with the most complex cardiac malformations are those with so-called visceral heterotaxy. At present, it remains a fact that most investigators segregate these patients on the basis of their splenic anatomy, describing syndromes of so-called asplenia and polysplenia. It has also been known for quite some time, nonetheless, that the morphology of the tracheobronchial tree is usually isomeric in the setting of heterotaxy. And it has been shown that the isomerism found in terms of bronchial arrangement correlates in a better fashion with the cardiac anatomy than does the presence of multiple spleens, or the absence of any splenic tissue. In this exercise in anatomy, we use hearts from the Idriss archive of Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to demonstrate the isomeric features found in the hearts obtained from patients known to have had heterotaxy. We first demonstrate the normal arrangements, showing how it is the extent of the pectinate muscles in the atrial appendages relative to the atrioventricular junctions that distinguishes between morphologically right and left atrial chambers. We also show the asymmetry of the normal bronchial tree, and the relationships of the first bronchial branches to the pulmonary arteries supplying the lower lobes of the lungs. We then demonstrate that diagnosis of multiple spleens requires the finding of splenic tissue on either side of the dorsal mesogastrium. Turning to hearts obtained from patients with heterotaxy, we illustrate isomeric right and left atrial appendages. We emphasize that it is only the appendages that are universally isomeric, but point out that other features support the notion of cardiac isomerism. We then show that description also requires a full account of veno-atrial connections, since these can seemingly be mirror-imaged when the arrangement within the heart is one of isomerism of the atrial appendages. We show how failure to recognize the presence of such isomeric

  16. Quantitative Wood Anatomy-Practical Guidelines. (United States)

    von Arx, Georg; Crivellaro, Alan; Prendin, Angela L; Čufar, Katarina; Carrer, Marco


    Quantitative wood anatomy analyzes the variability of xylem anatomical features in trees, shrubs, and herbaceous species to address research questions related to plant functioning, growth, and environment. Among the more frequently considered anatomical features are lumen dimensions and wall thickness of conducting cells, fibers, and several ray properties. The structural properties of each xylem anatomical feature are mostly fixed once they are formed, and define to a large extent its functionality, including transport and storage of water, nutrients, sugars, and hormones, and providing mechanical support. The anatomical features can often be localized within an annual growth ring, which allows to establish intra-annual past and present structure-function relationships and its sensitivity to environmental variability. However, there are many methodological challenges to handle when aiming at producing (large) data sets of xylem anatomical data. Here we describe the different steps from wood sample collection to xylem anatomical data, provide guidance and identify pitfalls, and present different image-analysis tools for the quantification of anatomical features, in particular conducting cells. We show that each data production step from sample collection in the field, microslide preparation in the lab, image capturing through an optical microscope and image analysis with specific tools can readily introduce measurement errors between 5 and 30% and more, whereby the magnitude usually increases the smaller the anatomical features. Such measurement errors-if not avoided or corrected-may make it impossible to extract meaningful xylem anatomical data in light of the rather small range of variability in many anatomical features as observed, for example, within time series of individual plants. Following a rigid protocol and quality control as proposed in this paper is thus mandatory to use quantitative data of xylem anatomical features as a powerful source for many

  17. Surgical anatomy of the larynx. (United States)

    Friedrich, G; Lichtenegger, R


    Modern functionally oriented surgery of the larynx increasingly requires exact knowledge of the anatomy and landmarks of the endolaryngeal structures in relation to the laryngeal skeleton. Review of the literature reveals several opposing statements and controversial anatomical definitions regarding several clinically critical points. In order to obtain basic anatomical data morphological measurements were performed on a total of 50 laryngeal specimens. Measurements were taken on whole organs and on cuts in the horizontal and in the frontal plane, as well. The data were evaluated statistically, which resulted in the determination of average configurations and dimensions of cartilages and soft tissues of the larynx. In particular, the projection of the deeper structures on the surface and the distances and angles between the different structures were taken into consideration. In order to make these data clinically applicable a scale model has been developed that will allow a direct correlation and application for individual surgery.

  18. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system]. (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y


    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  19. Clinical aspects of rodent dental anatomy. (United States)

    Crossley, D A


    The order Rodentia is vast, encompassing a large number of species with significant anatomical variations developed during natural adaptation to differing habitats. Many veterinarians have little knowledge of the anatomy of species other than the commoner domestic large herbivores and small carnivores. Clinicians require a basic knowledge of the relevant anatomy of species they are likely to be asked to treat. This article provides sufficient working knowledge of the oral and dental anatomy of those rodents commonly kept as pets to enable veterinarians to interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating suspected dental disease.

  20. Water stress-induced changes in morphology and anatomy of flag leaf of spring wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Zagdańska


    Full Text Available Flag leaves of wheat (drought hardened and non-hardened were examined by light microscopy to determine whether the differences in leaf anatomy could be related to the known differences in dehydration tolerance. Plants exposure to water stress during tissue differentiation of flag leaves resulted in an irreversible reduction of leaf area and thickness, increased frequencies of stomata and higher number of bulliform cells with simultaneous decrease in number of intermediate veins and an increase in the share of the cell walls in total cell volume. The smaller leaf thickness was due to a diminished number of mesophyll layers and a decreased size of mesophyll cells. Such altered leaf anatomy indicated development of leaf xerophily. It was found that the irreversible changes in anatomy of wheat flag leaves play a decisive role in acquiring drought tolerance during wheat acclimation to drought.

  1. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li


    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  2. Normal anatomy of the skull base. (United States)

    Lustrin, E S; Robertson, R L; Tilak, S


    CT and MR imaging increasingly are being used for the evaluation of the skull base. New innovative techniques have revolutionized radiologic understanding of normal skull base anatomy. Thus, normal anatomic relationships with radiographic correlation are vital for accurate pathologic assessment.

  3. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  4. Obturator hernia. Embryology, anatomy, and surgical applications. (United States)

    Skandalakis, L J; Androulakis, J; Colborn, G L; Skandalakis, J E


    Obturator hernia is a rare clinical entity. In most cases, it produces small bowel obstruction with high morbidity and mortality. The embryology, anatomy, clinical picture, diagnosis, and surgery are presented in detail.

  5. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  6. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy. (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey


    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice.

  7. Curricular Guidelines for Teaching Dental Anatomy. (United States)

    Okeson, Jeffrey; Buckman, James


    Guidelines developed by the Section on Dental Anatomy and Occlusion of the American Association of Dental Schools for use by individual educational institutions as curriculum development aids are provided. (MLW)

  8. Relevant surgical anatomy of the chest wall


    Rajesh, Pala Babu; Naidu, Babu V.


    The chest wall, like other regional anatomy, is a remarkable fusion of form and function. Principal functions are the protection of internal viscera and an expandable cylinder facilitating variable gas flow into the lungs. Knowledge of the anatomy of the whole cylinder (ribs, sternum, vertebra, diaphragm, intercostal spaces, and extrathoracic muscles) is therefore not only important in the local environment of a specific chest wall resection but also in its relation to overall function. An un...

  9. [Cervical vertebral column--anatomy, fractures, treatment]. (United States)

    Kłosiński, Michał; Sienkiewicz-Zawilińska, Justyna; Lipski, Marcin; Zawiliński, Jarosław; Matyja, Andrzej; Walocha, Jerzy


    The paper deals with anatomy of human cervical spine. It shows close relation between knowledge on the normal structure and methods of treatment of different kinds of spine injuries. It describes detailed anatomy and mechanical features of cervical vertebral column, including the structure of distinct vertebrae, their joints and arrangement of muscles. It reviews also historical methods of treatment of fractures in this region considering current methods.

  10. Comparative wood anatomy of Rhodothamnus species


    SERDAR, Bedri


    In this study, the comparative wood anatomy of the European [Rhodothamnus chamaecistus (L.) Reichb.] and Anatolian (Rhodothamnus sessilifolius P.H.Davis) species of Rhodothamnus were studied. The wood anatomy of the taxa shows evidence of adaptation to growing in alpine habitats. The woods of the species exhibit primitive wood anatomical characteristics and share similar qualitative anatomical features. However, some of the quantitative anatomical characteristics of the taxa show significant ...

  11. [Leaf micrografic anatomy of the Neotropical palm Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae)]. (United States)

    Chaimsohn, Francisco Paulo; Montiel, Mayra; Villalobos, Enrique; Mora Urpi, Jorge


    The economic importance of the palm Bactris gasipaes is growing in the Neotropoical region. We collected leaflets from plants under a chemical fertilization regime and a population of 5000 plants per hectare, in Costa Rica. The variety, Diamantes 10, has an ascendency fom the upper Amazon basin. We used Harries hematoxiline, eocine and standard light microscopy techniques. The presence of raphids and buliform cells was confirmed for the abaxial surface of the leaflets and for the hypodermic tissue on both sides. The absence of the Krantz anatomy was confirmed in consistence with former observations about the C3 photosynthesis in other species of Palmaceae. The average stomatal density on the abaxial surface was 96.87 +/- 16.31 and 14.20 +/- 4.05 in the adaxial surface.

  12. Auditory pathways: anatomy and physiology. (United States)

    Pickles, James O


    This chapter outlines the anatomy and physiology of the auditory pathways. After a brief analysis of the external, middle ears, and cochlea, the responses of auditory nerve fibers are described. The central nervous system is analyzed in more detail. A scheme is provided to help understand the complex and multiple auditory pathways running through the brainstem. The multiple pathways are based on the need to preserve accurate timing while extracting complex spectral patterns in the auditory input. The auditory nerve fibers branch to give two pathways, a ventral sound-localizing stream, and a dorsal mainly pattern recognition stream, which innervate the different divisions of the cochlear nucleus. The outputs of the two streams, with their two types of analysis, are progressively combined in the inferior colliculus and onwards, to produce the representation of what can be called the "auditory objects" in the external world. The progressive extraction of critical features in the auditory stimulus in the different levels of the central auditory system, from cochlear nucleus to auditory cortex, is described. In addition, the auditory centrifugal system, running from cortex in multiple stages to the organ of Corti of the cochlea, is described.

  13. Endoscopic anatomy of sellar region. (United States)

    Perondi, Gerson Evandro; Isolan, Gustavo Rassier; de Aguiar, Paulo Henrique Pires; Stefani, Marco Antônio; Falcetta, E Frederico


    The transsphenoidal approach is the preferred access used in surgical treatment of most sellar region pathologies. The use of endoscopy is advantageous, and it is considered a good alternative to the traditional microsurgical technique. The purpose of this study is to recognize and describe anatomical variations of the sphenoid sinus and the sellar region, mainly describing the anatomy of the posterior wall of the sphenoid sinus and analyzing intercarotid distances in 3 regions. Thirty sphenoid blocks treated with formaldehyde were injected and dissected. Using endoscopy, anatomical variations were studied and the intercarotid distances were measured at the tuberculum sellae, sellar floor and clivus. The types of sphenoid sinus found were: conchal in 1 (4.76 %), pré-sellar in 2 (9.52 %) and sellar in 19 (85.7 %) specimens. The mean distance found from the sphenoid sinus ostium to the sella turcica was 19 mm (±6.5) mm. The mean intercarotid distances found at the tuberculum sellae, sellar floor and clivus were respectively 13.32, 18.00 and 18.90 mm. Endoscopy, with its magnification and lighting provide a panoramic view of deep fields. The anatomical variations described in this study support the need for a careful evaluation of preoperative images in each case.

  14. The Open Anatomy Browser: A Collaborative Web-Based Viewer for Interoperable Anatomy Atlases (United States)

    Halle, Michael; Demeusy, Valentin; Kikinis, Ron


    The Open Anatomy Browser (OABrowser) is an open source, web-based, zero-installation anatomy atlas viewer based on current web browser technologies and evolving anatomy atlas interoperability standards. OABrowser displays three-dimensional anatomical models, image cross-sections of labeled structures and source radiological imaging, and a text-based hierarchy of structures. The viewer includes novel collaborative tools: users can save bookmarks of atlas views for later access and exchange those bookmarks with other users, and dynamic shared views allow groups of users can participate in a collaborative interactive atlas viewing session. We have published several anatomy atlases (an MRI-derived brain atlas and atlases of other parts of the anatomy) to demonstrate OABrowser’s functionality. The atlas source data, processing tools, and the source for OABrowser are freely available through GitHub and are distributed under a liberal open source license.

  15. Anatomy of the ward round. (United States)

    O'Hare, James A


    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient's narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient's right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  16. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A


    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  17. Revisiting the Anatomy of the Living Heart. (United States)

    Mori, Shumpei; Spicer, Diane E; Anderson, Robert H


    An understanding of the complexity of cardiac anatomy is required by all who seek, in the setting of cardiac disease, to interpret the images confronting them. Although the mysteries of cardiac structure have been extensively addressed, significant gaps continue to exist between the descriptions provided by morphologists and by those working in the clinical setting. In part, this reflects the limitations in providing 3D visualization of such a complicated organ. Current 3D imaging technology now permits visualization of the cardiac components using datasets obtained in the living individual. These advances, furthermore, demonstrate the anatomy in the setting of the heart as imaged within the thorax. It has been failure to describe the heart as it lies within the thorax that remains a major deficiency of many morphologists relying on the dissecting room to provide the gold standard. Describing the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion, a basic rule of clinical anatomy, creates the necessary bridges between anatomists and clinicians. The rapid progression of cardiac interventional techniques, furthermore, emphasizes the need to revisit cardiac anatomy using a multidisciplinary approach. In this review, therefore, we illustrate the advantages of an attitudinally correct approach to cardiac anatomy. We then focus on the morphology of the arterial roots, revealing the accuracy that can now be achieved by clinicians using datasets obtained during life.

  18. Effect of crude oil contamination on the chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk. (United States)

    Baruah, Plabita; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Baruah, Partha Pratim; Deka, Suresh


    Chlorophyll plays a pivotal role in the plant physiology and its productivity. Cultivation of plants in crude oil contaminated soil has a great impact on the synthesis of chlorophyll pigment. Morpho-anatomy of the experimental plant also shows structural deformation in higher concentrations. Keeping this in mind, a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the effect of crude oil on chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius plant. Fifteen-day-old seedling of the plant was planted in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ppm). A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. Results were recorded after 6 months of plantation. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on chlorophyll content of the leaves of the experimental plant. It also showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content of leaves grown in different concentrations of crude oil were found to be lower than those of the control plant. Further, results also demonstrated that chlorophyll content was lowest in the treatment that received maximum dose of crude oil. It also showed that chlorophyll content was decreased with increased concentration of crude oil. Results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Results also revealed that the shoot biomass is higher than root biomass. Morphology and anatomy of the experimental plant also show structural deformation in higher concentrations. Accumulation of crude oil on the cuticle of the transverse section of the leaves and shoot forms a thick dark layer. Estimation of the level of pollution in an environment due to oil spill is possible by the in-depth study of the harmful effects of oil on the morphology and anatomy and chlorophyll content of the plants grown in that particular environment.

  19. Ontology-enriched Visualization of Human Anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pouchard, LC


    The project focuses on the problem of presenting a human anatomical 3D model associated with other types of human systemic information ranging from physiological to anatomical information while navigating the 3D model. We propose a solution that integrates a visual 3D interface and navigation features with the display of structured information contained in an ontology of anatomy where the structures of the human body are formally and semantically linked. The displayed and annotated anatomy serves as a visual entry point into a patient's anatomy, medical indicators and other information. The ontology of medical information provides labeling to the highlighted anatomical parts in the 3D display. Because of the logical organization and links between anatomical objects found in the ontology and associated 3D model, the analysis of a structure by a physician is greatly enhanced. Navigation within the 3D visualization and between this visualization and objects representing anatomical concepts within the model is also featured.

  20. A review of facial nerve anatomy. (United States)

    Myckatyn, Terence M; Mackinnon, Susan E


    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is not limited to its extratemporal anatomy, however, as many clinical deficits originate within its intratemporal and intracranial components. Similarly, the facial nerve cannot be considered an exclusively motor nerve given its contributions to taste, auricular sensation, sympathetic input to the middle meningeal artery, and parasympathetic innervation to the lacrimal, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The constellation of deficits resulting from facial nerve injury is correlated with its complex anatomy to help establish the level of injury, predict recovery, and guide surgical management.

  1. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints. (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe


    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints.

  2. Pentingnya Pengetahuan Anatomi untuk 3D Artist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Sugito Kurniawan


    Full Text Available No matter how far the current technological advances, anatomical knowledge will still be needed as a basis for making a good character design. Understanding anatomy will help us in the placement of the articulation of muscles and joints, thus more realistic modeling of 3d characters will be achieved in the form and movement. As a 3d character artist, anatomy should be able to inform in every aspect of our work. Each 3D/CG (Computer Graphics-artist needs to know how to use software applications, but what differentiates a 3d artist with a computer operator is an artistic vision and understanding of the basic shape of the human body. Artistic vision could not easily be taught, but a CG-artist may study it on their own from which so many reference sources may help understand and deepen their knowledge of anatomy.

  3. Contemporary art and the ethics of anatomy. (United States)

    Barilan, Y Michael


    The ethics of anatomy bears on the ways in which we present and behold human bodies and human remains, as well as on the duties we have with regard to the persons whose bodies or body parts are presented. Anatomy is also a mode of thought and of social organization. Following Merleau-Ponty's assertion that the human body belongs both to the particular and to the metaphysical, I contend that art's ways of rendering of the particular in human anatomy often bring into relief metaphysical and ethical insights relevant to clinical medicine. This paper discusses the art of Gideon Gechtman, Mary Ellen Mark, Shari Zolla, and Christine Borland. It considers the relationship of these artists to earlier artistic traditions and the implications of their work for contemporary medicine and the biopsychosocial paradigm. Andrew Wyeth, the Visible Male Project, the Isenheim Altarpiece by GrA(1/4)newald, and an anonymous Dutch Baroque portrait are also discussed.

  4. [Gross anatomy dissection and the legal control]. (United States)

    Yamashina, Shohei; Shibata, Yosaburo


    In Japan, dissection of human body is generally prohibited by the Penal Code, i.e. the criminal law. However, the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act allows for the dissection of the body in very limited situations, that include gross anatomy dissection and pathological and forensic autopsy in medical and dental schools. Growing numbers of co-medical schools have been founded more recently in Japan, and not a small number of co-medical schools try to adopt human body dissection in the course of anatomy education. The present short communication reminds us of the ways of thinking of the Postmortem Examination and Corpse Preservation Act and the Act on Body Donation for Medical and Dental Education in order that anatomy education in medical as well as co-medical schools takes place under the regulation by these two laws.

  5. Anatomy of a Busted Comet (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version (Figure 1) NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope captured the picture on the left of comet Holmes in March 2008, five months after the comet suddenly erupted and brightened a millionfold overnight. The contrast of the picture has been enhanced on the right to show the anatomy of the comet. Every six years, comet 17P/Holmes speeds away from Jupiter and heads inward toward the sun, traveling the same route typically without incident. However, twice in the last 116 years, in November 1892 and October 2007, comet Holmes mysteriously exploded as it approached the asteroid belt. Astronomers still do not know the cause of these eruptions. Spitzer's infrared picture at left hand side of figure 1, reveals fine dust particles that make up the outer shell, or coma, of the comet. The nucleus of the comet is within the bright whitish spot in the center, while the yellow area shows solid particles that were blown from the comet in the explosion. The comet is headed away from the sun, which lies beyond the right-hand side of figure 1. The contrast-enhanced picture on the right shows the comet's outer shell, and strange filaments, or streamers, of dust. The streamers and shell are a yet another mystery surrounding comet Holmes. Scientists had initially suspected that the streamers were small dust particles ejected from fragments of the nucleus, or from hyerpactive jets on the nucleus, during the October 2007 explosion. If so, both the streamers and the shell should have shifted their orientation as the comet followed its orbit around the sun. Radiation pressure from the sun should have swept the material back and away from it. But pictures of comet Holmes taken by Spitzer over time show the streamers and shell in the same configuration, and not pointing away from the sun. The observations have left astronomers stumped. The horizontal line seen in the contrast-enhanced picture is a trail of debris that travels along with the

  6. Beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison Marie Gardiner-Shires


    Full Text Available Context: The traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga, while systematic, is often ineffective. Methods: A unique approach to teaching anatomy for a Yoga Teacher Training seminar is presented, founded on the principles of Thomas Myers′ Anatomy Trains. Lab activities are detailed and Bloom′s Taxonomy is applied to ensure students are engaged in higher level thinking and application. Conclusion: Going beyond the traditional approach to teaching anatomy for yoga can be extremely rewarding for students and teachers alike.

  7. Relevant surgical anatomy of the chest wall. (United States)

    Naidu, Babu V; Rajesh, Pala B


    The chest wall, like other regional anatomy, is a remarkable fusion of form and function. Principal functions are the protection of internal viscera and an expandable cylinder facilitating variable gas flow into the lungs. Knowledge of the anatomy of the whole cylinder (ribs, sternum, vertebra, diaphragm, intercostal spaces, and extrathoracic muscles) is therefore not only important in the local environment of a specific chest wall resection but also in its relation to overall function. An understanding of chest wall kinematics might help define the loss of function after resection and the effects of various chest wall substitutes. Therefore, this article is not an exhaustive anatomic description but a focused summary and discussion.

  8. Role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. (United States)

    Harris-Glocker, Miranda; McLaren, Janet F


    Infertility is defined as a couple's failure to achieve pregnancy after one year of regular, unprotected intercourse. The etiology of infertility can be due to female factors, male factors, combined male and female factors, or have an unknown etiology. This review focuses on the role of female pelvic anatomy in infertility. Normal anatomy and the physiology of reproduction will be discussed, as well as the anatomic and pathophysiologic processes that cause infertility including ovulatory disorders, endometriosis, pelvic adhesions, tubal blockage, mullerian anomalies, and abnormalities affecting the uterine cavity such as leiomyomata and endometrial polyps.

  9. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges. (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga


    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  10. Anatomy and biomechanics of the craniovertebral junction. (United States)

    Lopez, Alejandro J; Scheer, Justin K; Leibl, Kayla E; Smith, Zachary A; Dlouhy, Brian J; Dahdaleh, Nader S


    The craniovertebral junction (CVJ) has unique anatomical structures that separate it from the subaxial cervical spine. In addition to housing vital neural and vascular structures, the majority of cranial flexion, extension, and axial rotation is accomplished at the CVJ. A complex combination of osseous and ligamentous supports allow for stability despite a large degree of motion. An understanding of anatomy and biomechanics is essential to effectively evaluate and address the various pathological processes that may affect this region. Therefore, the authors present an up-to-date narrative review of CVJ anatomy, normal and pathological biomechanics, and fixation techniques.

  11. Management of Elbow Trauma: Anatomy and Exposures. (United States)

    Barco, Raul; Antuña, Samuel A


    The elbow is a complex joint from the anatomic and biomechanical point of view. A thorough understanding of elbow anatomy greatly aids the surgeon in dealing with elbow trauma. The close vicinity of neurovascular structures should always be kept in mind when selecting a surgical approach. Any approach to the elbow needs to be safe and versatile. Knowledge of the attachment and orientation of elbow ligaments reduces the risk of inadvertent intraoperative injury and/or postoperative instability. Surgeons dealing with elbow trauma should have a good working understanding of elbow anatomy and the available approaches to effectively and efficiently conduct the surgical procedure to maximize outcomes and minimize complications.

  12. Functional Anatomy of the Outflow Facilities. (United States)

    Pizzirani, Stefano; Gong, Haiyan


    In order to understand the pathophysiology, select optimal therapeutic options for patients and provide clients with honest expectations for cases of canine glaucoma, clinicians should be familiar with a rational understanding of the functional anatomy of the ocular structures involved in this group of diseases. The topographical extension and the structural and humoral complexity of the regions involved with the production and the outflow of aqueous humor undergo numerous changes with aging and disease. Therefore, the anatomy relative to the fluid dynamics of aqueous has become a pivotal yet flexible concept to interpret the different phenotypes of glaucoma.

  13. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan


    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  14. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon


    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  15. Properties of Publications on Anatomy in Medical Education Literature (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland


    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this…

  16. Teaching dental anatomy with light-activated resins. (United States)

    Chalkley, Y; Denehy, G E; Schulein, T M


    A method has been described in which light-activated resins are incorporated into the dental anatomy laboratory. This procedure is a valuable addition to the anatomy course because students (1) work with a restorative material appropriate for anterior teeth, (2) learn the unique properties of the light-activated resins, and (3) apply the principles of dental anatomy to a clinically relevant task.

  17. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.; Bolhuis, S.; Kuppeveld, S. van; Kooloos, J.G.M.; Laan, R.F.J.M.


    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and se

  18. Teaching Anatomy and Physiology Using Computer-Based, Stereoscopic Images (United States)

    Perry, Jamie; Kuehn, David; Langlois, Rick


    Learning real three-dimensional (3D) anatomy for the first time can be challenging. Two-dimensional drawings and plastic models tend to over-simplify the complexity of anatomy. The approach described uses stereoscopy to create 3D images of the process of cadaver dissection and to demonstrate the underlying anatomy related to the speech mechanisms.…

  19. 牛膝菊属两种外来入侵植物叶片的形态解剖结构比较研究%The comparison on leaf morphology and anatomy of two invasive plant of Galinsoga

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    昌恩梓; 齐淑艳; 孔令群; 李晓春; 申柳


    and G. quadriradiata. The characters of leaf epidermis are fairly similar in the shades of surface cells, the types and position of stomata apparatus between G. parviflora and G. quadriradiata. The leaf epidermal cells are irregular in shape with the undulate anticlinal walls. The stomata of 2 species of Galinsoga,occur on both sides of the leaf but are more numerous on the lower surface, the difference was very significant (P<0. 01). The guard cells in the genus Galinsoga are crescent-shaped and the type of stomata apparatus is anomocytic. The upper epidermis and the lower epidermis consist of one layer cell. The thickness of upper epidermis is more than the other side of it, the difference was significant (P<0. 05). The mesophyll of these two species were differentiated into spongy parenchyma and palisade parenchyma. There is a vascular bundle in the midrib. G. parviflora and G. quadriradiata belongs to C3 plant.

  20. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.


    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  1. Children's Fantasy Literature: Toward an Anatomy. (United States)

    Gooderham, David


    States that finding a critical language in which to speak about children's fantasy texts is not as straightforward as might first appear. Discusses ideas held by T. Todorov and J.R.R. Tolkien. Argues that fantasy is a metaphorical mode, and details an anatomy of children's fantasy. Concludes that children's fantasy can be described as a body of…

  2. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.


    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  3. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey


    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  4. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  5. [The importance of bronchoscopic anatomy for anesthesiologists]. (United States)

    Hoşten, Tülay; Topçu, Salih


    One-lung ventilation (OLV) is a sine qua non of thoracic surgery and requires knowledge and talent. Close familiarity with equipments used for OLV as well as bronchoscopy and respiratory tract anatomy is important for successful OLV. We aim to outline the bronchoscopic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and OLV equipment for anesthetists and thoracic surgeons in this review. The recorded preoperative and intraoperative bronchoscopic applications of the patients hospitalized in our Thoracic Surgery clinic for diagnosis and treatment have been evaluated from an anesthetist's perspective. Anatomic landmarks were identified in the bronchoscopic evaluation. Optimal and misplacement images of double-lumen tubes (DLT) and bronchial blockers (BB) used for OLV in our clinic were obtained via fiber optic bronchoscopy. While left lung isolation can be made more safely due to the anatomy of the left main bronchus, placement of both DLTs and BBs to the right main bronchus requires greater care. Success in OLV procedures would increase with anesthetists being well informed about the fiber optic bronchoscopic anatomy of the tracheobronchial tree and in close cooperation with the surgical team.

  6. Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer. (United States)

    Radius, R L; de Bruin, J


    Anatomy of the retinal nerve fiber layer in rabbit eyes is studied by light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. It is demonstrated that retinal striations noted ophthalmoscopically in these eyes represent individual fiber bundles, Axon bundles are compartmentalized within tissue tunnels comprised of elongated processes of glial cell origin.

  7. Junior doctors' knowledge of applied clinical anatomy. (United States)

    Gupta, Yuri; Morgan, Mia; Singh, Annika; Ellis, Harold


    This study examines the level of knowledge of applied clinical anatomy among junior doctors. A multiple-choice questionnaire was designed, which covered 15 areas of anatomical knowledge essential to clinical practice, for example, important surface landmarks and interpretation of radiographs. The questionnaire was completed by 128 individuals. They comprised anatomy demonstrators, preregistration house officers (PRHOs), senior house officers (SHOs) and specialist registrars (SpRs) across the range of medical and surgical specialities. Answers were scored and analyzed by group, allowing comparison not only between newly qualified PRHOs and more senior doctors, but also with anatomy demonstrators who had undergone more traditional anatomical training. The results reveal a wide variation of knowledge among junior doctors, with PRHOs scoring an average of 72.1%, SHOs 77.1%, SpRs 82.4%, and demonstrators 82.9%. This progression in knowledge up the clinical hierarchy may reflect clinical experience building upon the foundations laid in medical school, although with demonstrators topping the league table, it seems that intensive academic training is the most beneficial. With junior doctors' training in the UK currently in flux, these results highlight the need for training in clinical anatomy to hold an important place in the development of tomorrow's clinicians.

  8. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.


    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  9. Chapter 1: Sinonasal anatomy and function. (United States)

    Dalgorf, Dustin M; Harvey, Richard J


    An understanding of paranasal sinus anatomy based on important fixed landmarks rather than variable anatomy is critical to ensure safe and complete surgery. The concept of the paranasal surgical box defines the anatomic limits of dissection. The boundaries of the surgical box include the middle turbinate medially, orbital wall laterally, and skull base superiorly. The "vertical component" of the surgical box defines the boundaries of the frontal recess and includes the middle turbinate and intersinus septum medially, medial orbital wall and orbital roof laterally, nasofrontal beak anteriorly, and skull base and posterior table of frontal sinus posteriorly. The paranasal sinuses are divided into anterior, posterior, and sphenoidal functional cavities based on their distinct drainage pathways into the nose. The ultimate goal of surgery is to create a functional sinus cavity. Application of the paranasal surgical box and its vertical component enables the surgeon to view the limits of dissection with a single position of the endoscope. This will ensure complete dissection of the functional sinonasal compartments and effectively avoid leaving behind disconnected cells from the surgical cavity, mucocele formation, mucous recirculation, overcome obstructive phenomenon and enable maximal delivery of topical therapy in the post-operative setting. This article reviews the structure and function of the nasal cartilages and turbinates. It also describes the concept of the paranasal surgical box, key anatomical landmarks and limits of dissection. Normal anatomy and common variants of normal anatomy are discussed.

  10. Professional Storytelling in Clinical Dental Anatomy Teaching (United States)

    Kieser, Jules; Livingstone, Vicki; Meldrum, Alison


    The aim of the present work was to see if storytelling in a clinical dental anatomy course would increase student satisfaction. We enhanced teaching by spontaneous storytelling in problem-based learning, in half of the third-year dentistry class. At the end of the course, we administered an anonymous questionnaire to the students in the class,…

  11. Broca's Area: Nomenclature, Anatomy, Typology and Asymmetry (United States)

    Keller, Simon S.; Crow, Timothy; Foundas, Anne; Amunts, Katrin; Roberts, Neil


    In this review, we (i) describe the nomenclature of Broca's area and show how the circumscribed definition of Broca's area is disassociated from Broca's aphasia, (ii) describe in detail how the gross anatomy of Broca's area varies between people, and how the definitions vary between studies, (iii) attempt to reconcile the findings of structural…

  12. Anatomy Live : Performance and the Operating Theatre

    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    In de bundel Anatomy Live gaan verschillende wetenschappers in op de relatie tussen de geschiedenis van het anatomische lichaam en het theater. In de openbare ontledingen in het historische anatomische theater van de vroege renaissance werd de basis gelegd voor wat in de daaropvolgende eeuwen het we

  13. Comparative leaf anatomy of the Asiatic Myristicaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, J.; Baas, P.


    The leaf anatomy of c. 60 species of the four Asiatic genera of the Myristicaceae (Gymnacranthera, Horsfieldia, Knema and Myristica) is described in detail. Myristicaceae have characteristic, uniseriate hairs, the cells of which have arms. The number of arms per cell and the relative length of the a

  14. What shapes the anatomy of inventors?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skytt-Larsen, Christine Benna


    which they themselves believe have formed their inventive capacities. The main findings of the article are that the sociocultural milieus of early childhood, especially the educational backgrounds or skills of parents and grandparents, play an important role in shaping the anatomy of inventors. Further...

  15. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region. (United States)

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh


    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes.

  16. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review. (United States)

    Gavaghan, M


    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  17. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.


    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures co

  18. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray


    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  19. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women. (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania


    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy.

  20. Wood and leaf anatomy of Opiliaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Rijckevorsel, v. P.


    The wood and leaf anatomy of representatives of the 9 genera of the Opiliaceae are described in detail. It is possible to separate the genera on the base of both wood- and leaf anatomical characters. Herein the presence of cystoliths of varying shape and size is important. Some comments on the taxon

  1. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin


    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  2. Does seed size and surface anatomy play role in combating phytotoxicity of nanoparticles? (United States)

    Jain, Navin; Bhargava, Arpit; Pareek, Vikram; Sayeed Akhtar, Mohd; Panwar, Jitendra


    Rapid utilization of nano-based products will inevitably release nanoparticles into the environment with unidentified consequences. Plants, being an integral part of ecosystem play a vital role in the incorporation of nanoparticles in food chain and thus, need to be critically assessed. The present study assesses the comparative phytotoxicity of nanoparticle, bulk and ionic forms of zinc at different concentrations on selected plant species with varying seed size and surface anatomy. ZnO nanoparticles were chosen in view of their wide spread use in cosmetics and health care products, which allow their direct release in the environment. The impact on germination rate, shoot & root length and vigour index were evaluated. A concentration dependent inhibition of seed germination as well as seedling length was observed in all the tested plants. Due to the presence of thick cuticle on testa and root, pearl millet (xerophytic plant) was found to be relatively less sensitive to ZnO nanoparticles as compared to wheat and tomato (mesophytic plants) with normal cuticle layer. No correlation was observed between nanoparticles toxicity and seed size. The results indicated that variations in surface anatomy of seeds play a crucial role in determining the phytotoxicity of nanoparticles. The present findings significantly contribute to assess potential consequences of nanoparticle release in environment particularly with major emphasis on plant systems. It is the first report which suggests that variations observed in phytotoxicity of nanoparticles is mainly due to the predominant differences in size and surface anatomy of tested plant seeds and root architecture. Effect of various concentrations of nano ZnO, bulk ZnO and zinc sulphate on the growth of pearl millet (A), tomato (B) and wheat (C) seedlings.

  3. Comparative Analysis of the Anatomy of Two Populations of Red-Root Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin


    Full Text Available The anatomy of stems and leaves of two populations of the weed species Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root amaranth (pop. AMARE1 having green stems covered in sparse hairs and pop. AMARE2 with green but notably dense stem hairs was analysed in order better to understand the uptake and translocation of herbicides that could be indicative of the species’ evolving resistance to herbicides. Samples of the two populations (AMARE1 and AMARE2 were collected from arable land of the Institute of Maize Research at Zemun Polje in 2006. Sampling was performed at the stage of full vegetative growth of plants.Permanent microscoping preparations were made to measure and analyze elements of the anatomy of stems (stem epidermis, cortex, collenchyma, central cylinder and diameter and leaves (leaf epidermis upper surface and underside, mesophyll, leaf thickness and bundle sheath thickness.Both analysed populations of A. retroflexus, morphologically characterized by different density of stem hairiness, were found to have a typical structure of herbaceous dicots. The stem had three distinctive zones: epidermis, cortex and central cylinder. Amaranth leaves have dorsoventral structure, i.e. their upper surface and underside can be differentiated. The results indicated high and very high significance of differences found in stem anatomy between the two analysed populations, while leaf anatomy was not found to display significant differences other than in mesophyll thickness.

  4. The history of anatomy in Persia. (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane


    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  5. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy. (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray


    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology.

  6. Otitis: anatomy every practitioner should know. (United States)

    Griffin, Craig


    Chronic otitis externa is a difficult, frustrating problem. Four etiologic components must be considered: primary and secondary causes and perpetuating and predisposing factors.1 Usually, these cases are complex and involve more than one component. Perpetuating factors are changes in the anatomy and physiology of the ear that occur in response to inflammation in the ear canal and the perpetuating factors already present. They are self-perpetuating, are not disease specific, and include failure of self-cleaning mechanisms and proliferative changes that create folds and stenosis of the lumen of the ear canal. Elimination of perpetuating factors often requires aggressive cleaning of the ear and long-term therapy. It is important to avoid damaging key structures while aggressively cleaning the ear. Therefore, to adequately diagnose and manage perpetuating factors, veterinarians must recognize normal ear anatomy and physiology.

  7. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy. (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy


    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome.

  8. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers. (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H


    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups.

  9. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy. (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko


    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary.

  10. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Yoder

    Full Text Available Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts, 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental

  11. A gross anatomy ontology for hymenoptera. (United States)

    Yoder, Matthew J; Mikó, István; Seltmann, Katja C; Bertone, Matthew A; Deans, Andrew R


    Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information--millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes--remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology

  12. Dental anatomy portrayed with microscopic volume investigations. (United States)

    Baumann, M A; Schwebel, T; Kriete, A


    The clinical treatment of the root canal of teeth--called endodontics--assumes a precise idea of the spatial arrangement of the anatomy of teeth and their inner structure. By using computer-assisted data acquisition from filmed sequences of histologic serial sections and a special kind of magnetic resonance microscope--the Stray Field Imaging (STRAFI)--volume investigations were carried out using special functions of a newly developed 3D software. Possible applications and future perspectives are discussed.

  13. A Review of Facial Nerve Anatomy



    An intimate knowledge of facial nerve anatomy is critical to avoid its inadvertent injury during rhytidectomy, parotidectomy, maxillofacial fracture reduction, and almost any surgery of the head and neck. Injury to the frontal and marginal mandibular branches of the facial nerve in particular can lead to obvious clinical deficits, and areas where these nerves are particularly susceptible to injury have been designated danger zones by previous authors. Assessment of facial nerve function is no...

  14. Floral anatomy and systematics of Bretschneidera (Bretschneideraceae)



    External morphology and anatomy of the flower and pollen of Bretschneidera sinensis Hemsl. are described to clarify the position of the family Bretschneideraceae relative to the Sapindales and the glucosinolate-producing families. Anatomical and micromorphological characters are investigated and sections are used to understand the structure of the flower. Observation of buds and sections reveal that the flower is obliquely monosymmetric, with the symmetry line running from one petal to a sepa...

  15. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution. (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian


    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors.

  16. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae


    Zhang, Shu-Yin


    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification, 12 groups are recognised and compared with Hutchinson’s tribes. Groups I-V accommodate a mixture of representatives from Spiraeoideae and Rosoideae genera (or tribes); Groups VI-VII comprise the M...

  17. Microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai S


    Full Text Available Background: The microsurgical anatomy of the middle cerebral artery (MCA is of particular interest to the cerebrovascular surgeon. The purpose of this study was to define the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA and its various branches in the Indian population. Methods: Ten MCAs were studied from five cadaveric brain specimens. The authors studied the outer diameter, length, branches, perforators and site of these on the main trunk (M1, the division of the main trunk, the secondary trunks and their various cortical branches using the operating microscope under 5-20x magnification. Results: The outer diameter of the MCA main trunk ranges from 2.5 to 4 mm with a mean of 3.35 mm. The superolateral branches consisted of polar temporal artery and anterior temporal artery that had a common origin and sometimes the uncal artery or the accessory uncal artery. Perforators or lenticulostriate arteries were seen in the inferomedial surface all along the length of M1. Eight bifurcations and two trifurcations were noted. Cortical branches and their origin are discussed. Conclusion: Although the microsurgical anatomy of the MCA in Indian population correlated with the findings in the western literature, some structural and statistical variations were noted.

  18. Anatomy-aware measurement of segmentation accuracy (United States)

    Tizhoosh, H. R.; Othman, A. A.


    Quantifying the accuracy of segmentation and manual delineation of organs, tissue types and tumors in medical images is a necessary measurement that suffers from multiple problems. One major shortcoming of all accuracy measures is that they neglect the anatomical significance or relevance of different zones within a given segment. Hence, existing accuracy metrics measure the overlap of a given segment with a ground-truth without any anatomical discrimination inside the segment. For instance, if we understand the rectal wall or urethral sphincter as anatomical zones, then current accuracy measures ignore their significance when they are applied to assess the quality of the prostate gland segments. In this paper, we propose an anatomy-aware measurement scheme for segmentation accuracy of medical images. The idea is to create a "master gold" based on a consensus shape containing not just the outline of the segment but also the outlines of the internal zones if existent or relevant. To apply this new approach to accuracy measurement, we introduce the anatomy-aware extensions of both Dice coefficient and Jaccard index and investigate their effect using 500 synthetic prostate ultrasound images with 20 different segments for each image. We show that through anatomy-sensitive calculation of segmentation accuracy, namely by considering relevant anatomical zones, not only the measurement of individual users can change but also the ranking of users' segmentation skills may require reordering.

  19. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education. (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R


    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P structures (2.97 ±0.86 versus 4.03 ±0.59), demonstrating the success of the ACUS curriculum in students with limited prior experience. Views on the value of US to anatomy education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Matching arthropod anatomy ontologies to the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology: results from a manual alignment. (United States)

    Bertone, Matthew A; Mikó, István; Yoder, Matthew J; Seltmann, Katja C; Balhoff, James P; Deans, Andrew R


    Matching is an important step for increasing interoperability between heterogeneous ontologies. Here, we present alignments we produced as domain experts, using a manual mapping process, between the Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology and other existing arthropod anatomy ontologies (representing spiders, ticks, mosquitoes and Drosophila melanogaster). The resulting alignments contain from 43 to 368 mappings (correspondences), all derived from domain-expert input. Despite the many pairwise correspondences, only 11 correspondences were found in common between all ontologies, suggesting either major intrinsic differences between each ontology or gaps in representing each group's anatomy. Furthermore, we compare our findings with putative correspondences from Bioportal (derived from LOOM software) and summarize the results in a total evidence alignment. We briefly discuss characteristics of the ontologies and issues with the matching process.

  1. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences. (United States)

    Olson, Michael J


    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences.

  2. Lecture Classes in Human Anatomy: The Students’ Perceptions


    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar


    Introduction: The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Bin; LUO Zhi-yong; PU Yu-feng; HONG Hong; ZUO Zhi-xiong


    Mastering anatomic structures of acupoints is of active significance for avoiding blindly needling and preventing accidents of acupuncture and moxibustion. This multimedia animation system of acupoint anatomy adopts Flash software as developing tool and can dynamically display anatomic layers of needle insertion, with objectivity, convenient operation and English-Chinese control, higher reliability, easy to study and master anatomic knowledge of acupoint anatomy, increase teaching efficiency, and richen teaching ways. This system can be used as a teaching tool of acupuncture and moxibustion, a software of studying anatomy of acupoints and an adjuvant tool of medical workers in studying anatomy.

  4. Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings. (United States)

    Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; García-González, Ignacio; Eilmann, Britta; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Gärtner, Holger; Eckstein, Dieter


    Variability in xylem anatomy is of interest to plant scientists because of the role water transport plays in plant performance and survival. Insights into plant adjustments to changing environmental conditions have mainly been obtained through structural and functional comparative studies between taxa or within taxa on contrasting sites or along environmental gradients. Yet, a gap exists regarding the study of hydraulic adjustments in response to environmental changes over the lifetimes of plants. In trees, dated tree-ring series are often exploited to reconstruct dynamics in ecological conditions, and recent work in which wood-anatomical variables have been used in dendrochronology has produced promising results. Environmental signals identified in water-conducting cells carry novel information reflecting changes in regional conditions and are mostly related to short, sub-annual intervals. Although the idea of investigating environmental signals through wood anatomical time series goes back to the 1960s, it is only recently that low-cost computerized image-analysis systems have enabled increased scientific output in this field. We believe that the study of tree-ring anatomy is emerging as a promising approach in tree biology and climate change research, particularly if complemented by physiological and ecological studies. This contribution presents the rationale, the potential, and the methodological challenges of this innovative approach.

  5. "Digit Anatomy": A New Technique for Learning Anatomy Using Motor Memory (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su


    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice…

  6. The Virtual Anatomy Laboratory: Usability Testing to Improve an Online Learning Resource for Anatomy Education (United States)

    Doubleday, Eldridge G.; O'Loughlin, Valerie D.; Doubleday, Alison F.


    An increasing number of instructors are seeking to provide students with online anatomy resources. Many researchers have attempted to identify associations between resource use and student learning but few studies discuss the importance of usability testing in resource design and modification. Usability testing provides information about ease of…

  7. Stereoscopic Anatomy: Evaluation of a New Teaching System in Human Gross Anatomy (United States)

    Prentice, Ernest D.; And Others


    A stereoscopic slide-based autoinstructional program has been developed as a substitute for dissection in teaching gross anatomy. Evaluation data suggest that this program, while having minor limitations in terms of anatomical orientation, does provide a viable alternative to dissection. (Editor/LBH)

  8. A reappraisal of adult thoracic surface anatomy. (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; Hale, Samuel J M; Buckenham, Tim; Wilson, Ben; Stringer, Mark D


    Accurate surface anatomy is essential for safe clinical practice. Numerous inconsistencies in clinically important surface markings exist between and within anatomical reference texts. The aim of this study was to investigate key thoracic surface anatomical landmarks in vivo using computed tomographic (CT) imaging. High-resolution thoracic CT scans from 153 supine adults (mean age 63, range 19-89 years; 53% female) taken at end tidal inspiration were analyzed by dual consensus reporting to determine the surface anatomy of the sternal angle, central veins, heart, lungs, and diaphragm. Patients with kyphosis/scoliosis, distorting space-occupying lesions, or visceromegaly were excluded. The position of the cardiac apex, formation of the brachiocephalic veins, and vertebral levels of the sternal angle, xiphisternal joint, and aortic hiatus were consistent with commonly accepted surface markings although there was a wide range of normal variation. In contrast, common surface markings were markedly inaccurate for the following: the position of the tracheal bifurcation, aortic arch, and azygos vein termination (below the plane of the sternal angle at T5-T6 vertebral level in most individuals); the superior vena cava/right atrial junction (most often behind the fourth costal cartilage); the lower border of the lung (adjacent to T12 vertebra posteriorly); and the level at which the inferior vena cava and esophagus traverse the diaphragm (T11 in most). Surface anatomy must be reappraised using modern imaging in vivo if it is to be evidence based and fit for purpose. The effects of gender, age, posture, respiration, build, and ethnicity also deserve greater emphasis.

  9. Lumbar vertebral pedicles: radiologic anatomy and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, N.P.; Kumar, R.; Kinkhabwala, M.; Wengrover, S.I.


    With the advancement of high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scanning the spine has added new knowledge to the various conditions affecting the pedicles. We wish to review the entire spectrum of pedicular lesions: the embryology, normal anatomy, normal variants, pitfalls, congenital anomalies, and pathological conditions are discussed. Different imaging modalities involving CT, isotope bone scanning, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) are used to complement plain films of the lumbar spine. This subject review is an excellent source for future reference to lumbar pedicular lesions. 27 references.

  10. A brief history of topographical anatomy. (United States)

    Standring, Susan


    This brief history of topographical anatomy begins with Egyptian medical papyri and the works known collectively as the Greco-Arabian canon, the time line then moves on to the excitement of discovery that characterised the Renaissance, the increasing regulatory and legislative frameworks introduced in the 18th and 19th centuries, and ends with a consideration of the impact of technology that epitomises the period from the late 19th century to the present day. This paper is based on a lecture I gave at the Winter Meeting of the Anatomical Society in Cambridge in December 2015, when I was awarded the Anatomical Society Medal.

  11. Thomas Batholin, teologisk anatomi i 1600-tallet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mønster-Kjær, Inge


    It is commonly accepted that the reformation heavily influenced scientific thinking in Europs. But in many historical accounts this effect is presented as a fundamental break in the beginning of the 16th century with previous ideas and methods. In the view scientists turned their back...... as a theologian. For him anatomy was merely a tool, and so it had been for for scientists all over Europe from its gradual evovlement as a field from Antiquity to the Renaissance. It had been a tool to illustrate the greatness and perfection of God's creation in artistic ways, a tool to prove sactity, a tool...

  12. The flexible adult flatfoot: anatomy and pathomechanics. (United States)

    Walters, Jeremy L; Mendicino, Samuel S


    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is generally associated with a collapsing medial longitudinal arch and progressive loss of strength of the tibialis posterior tendon. It is most commonly associated with posterior tibial tendon dysfunction that can have an arthritic or traumatic cause. With an increasing population of obese patients, the often misdiagnosed and overlooked posterior tibial tendon dysfunction will only continue to present more often in the foot and ankle specialist's office. This article focuses on the anatomy, classification, and pathomechanics of the flexible adult flatfoot.

  13. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century. (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco


    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  14. Øvelse i sammenlignende anatomi og evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindow, Bent Erik Kramer


    I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid.......I denne øvelse skal der arbejdes med sammenlignende anatomi. Formålet er at undersøge anatomiske ændringer og evolution over tid....

  15. User Acceptance of a Haptic Interface for Learning Anatomy (United States)

    Yeom, Soonja; Choi-Lundberg, Derek; Fluck, Andrew; Sale, Arthur


    Visualizing the structure and relationships in three dimensions (3D) of organs is a challenge for students of anatomy. To provide an alternative way of learning anatomy engaging multiple senses, we are developing a force-feedback (haptic) interface for manipulation of 3D virtual organs, using design research methodology, with iterations of system…

  16. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood


    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  17. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation (United States)

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.


    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  18. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.


    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  19. Surface anatomy and surface landmarks for thoracic surgery: Part II. (United States)

    Smith, Shona E; Darling, Gail E


    Surface anatomy is an integral part of a thoracic surgeon's armamentarium to assist with the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of thoracic pathology. As reviewed in this article, the surface landmarks of the lungs, heart, great vessels, and mediastinum are critical for appropriate patient care and should be learned in conjunction with classic anatomy.

  20. 3D stereophotogrammetry for the assessment of tracheostoma anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Dirven; F.J.M. Hilgers; J.M. Plooij; T.J.J. Maal; S.J. Bergé; G.J. Verkerke; H.A.M. Marres


    Conclusion. 3D stereophotogrammetry is a useful tool for quantitative assessment of tracheostoma anatomy, and thus in future could possibly play a role in solving current problems with peristomal and intratracheal fixation of stoma appliances. Objectives. Differences in tracheostoma anatomy between

  1. The 2007 Anatomy Ceremony: A Service of Gratitude




    Yale University medical and PA students, classes of 2010 and 2008 respectively, express their gratitude in a compilation of reflections on learning human anatomy. In coordination with the Section of Anatomy and Experimental Surgery at the School of Medicine, the Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine encourages you to hear the stories of the body as narrated by the student.

  2. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne


    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  3. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael


    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  4. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.


    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  5. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne


    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  6. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences (United States)

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan


    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  7. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.


    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea, Mala

  8. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa


    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  9. The Gross Anatomy Course: An Analysis of Its Importance (United States)

    Bockers, Anja; Jerg-Bretzke, Lucia; Lamp, Christoph; Brinkmann, Anke; Traue, Harald C.; Bockers, Tobias M.


    The gross anatomy dissection course is a cost-intensive piece of undergraduate medical education that students and professionals alike describe as very important within the overall medical curriculum. We sought to understand more explicitly students' valuation of gross anatomy as an "important" course and so developed a quantitative…

  10. Gross Anatomy of Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758) Mouth and Pharynx. (United States)

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R


    The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0.23% of body weight, which corresponds to ruminants of feeders intermediate to grazers and browsers. Parotid glands represented 0.08% of the body weight, characteristic that also categorize the pampas deer as belonging to the intermediate feeding group. The dental formula was the same of the domestic ruminants. The upper incisors and canines were absent, and instead of them, there was a dental pad (Pulvinus dentalis). The upper canine teeth were present only in the deciduous dentition. The existence of a brachydont dentition turns Ozotoceros very vulnerable to continuous use as there is no compensatory teeth growth. The particular anatomy of the mouth and lips of this animal was adapted to a very selective feeding, taking highly nutritious sprouts beyond plant category. In conclusion and in addition to previous studies of anatomy of the digestive organs in this species, pampas deer may be categorized as belonging to the intermediate type of feeding.

  11. Fruit biomechanics based on anatomy: a review (United States)

    Li, Zhiguo; Yang, Hongling; Li, Pingping; Liu, Jizhan; Wang, Jizhang; Xu, Yunfeng


    Fruit biomechanics is needed for quality determination, multiscale modelling and engineering design of fruit processes and equipments. However, these determined fruit biomechanics data often have obvious differences for the same fruit or tissue. In order to investigate it, the fruit biomechanics based on anatomy was reviewed in this paper. First, the anatomical characteristics of fruit biomaterials were described at the macroscopic `tissue' level and microscopic `cellular' level. Subsequently, the factors affecting fruit biomechanics based on anatomy and the relationships between fruit biomechanics, texture and mechanical damage were summarised according to the published literature. Fruit biomechanics is mainly affected by size, number and arrangement of cells, quantity and volume of intracellular spaces, structure, thickness, chemical composition and permeability of cell walls, and pectin degradation level and turgor pressure within cells based on microanatomy. Four test methods and partial determined results of fruit biomechanics were listed and reviewed. The determined mechanical properties data of fruit are only approximate values by using the existing four test methods, owing to the fruit biomaterials being non-homogeneous and living. Lastly, further aspects for research on fruit biomechanics were proposed for the future.

  12. Anatomy and biomechanics of quadratus lumborum. (United States)

    Phillips, S; Mercer, S; Bogduk, N


    Various actions on the lumbar spine have been attributed to quadratus lumborum, but they have not been substantiated by quantitative data. The present study was undertaken to determine the magnitude of forces and moments that quadratus lumborum could exert on the lumbar spine. The fascicular anatomy of quadratus lumborum was studied in six embalmed cadavers. For each fascicle, the sites of attachment, orientation, and physiological cross-sectional area were determined. The fascicular anatomy varied considerably, between sides and between specimens, with respect to the number of fascicles, their prevalence, and their sizes. Approximately half of the fascicles act on the twelfth rib, and the rest act on the lumbar spine. The more consistently present fascicles were incorporated, as force-equivalents, into a model of quadratus lumborum in order to determine its possible actions. The magnitudes of the compression forces exerted by quadratus lumborum on the lumbar spine, the extensor moment, and the lateral bending moment, were each no greater than 10 per cent of those exerted by erector spinae and multifidus. These data indicate that quadratus lumborum has no more than a modest action on the lumbar spine, in quantitative terms. Its actual role in spinal biomechanics has still to be determined.

  13. Integrating partonomic hierarchies in anatomy ontologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Yiya


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anatomy ontologies play an increasingly important role in developing integrated bioinformatics applications. One of the primary relationships between anatomical tissues represented in such ontologies is part-of. As there are a number of ways to divide up the anatomical structure of an organism, each may be represented by more than one valid partonomic (part-of hierarchy. This raises the issue of how to represent and integrate multiple such hierarchies. Results In this paper we describe a solution that is based on our work on an anatomy ontology for mouse embryo development, which is part of the Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project (EMAP. The paper describes the basic conceptual aspects of our approach and discusses strengths and limitations of the proposed solution. A prototype was implemented in Prolog for evaluation purposes. Conclusion With the proposed name set approach, rather than having to standardise hierarchies, it is sufficient to agree on a suitable set of basic tissue terms and their meaning in order to facilitate the integration of multiple partonomic hierarchies.

  14. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy. (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto


    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  15. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education. (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir


    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper.

  16. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology in the female. (United States)

    Wingate, S


    Important differences in male and female cardiovascular anatomy and physiology may account for many of the gender differences seen in various cardiac disease states. Predominant influences on female disease manifestations include (1) women's smaller body size, hence smaller hearts and smaller coronary vessels and (2) women's fluctuating levels of estrogen throughout their lifespan. Understanding these critical anatomic and physiologic differences allows the clinician to better predict and plan care for women. For example, knowing that women generally have a smaller body surface area than men allows one to better understand why men have higher creatine kinase (CK) values than do women--an important distinction when interpreting these values in the acute care setting. The fact that women's hearts and coronary vessels are generally smaller than men's also helps one understand why women have a higher in-hospital mortality than men post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (see article by Allen in this issue for more detailed information on revascularization). These are only a few examples of the many opportunities that acute care nurses have to integrate their knowledge of anatomy and physiology into proactive planning for their female cardiac patients.

  17. Animating functional anatomy for the web. (United States)

    Guttmann, G D


    The instructor sometimes has a complex task in explaining the concepts of functional anatomy and embryology to health professional students. However, animations can easily illustrate functional anatomy, clinical procedures, or the developing embryo. Web animation increases the accessibility of this information and makes it much more useful for independent student learning. A modified version of the animation can also be used for patient education. This article defines animation, provides a brief history of animation, discusses the principles of animation, illustrates and evaluates some of the video-editing or movie-making computer software programs, and shows examples of two of the author's animations. These two animations are the inferior alveolar nerve block from the mandibular nerve anesthetics unit and normal temporomandibular joint (TMJ) function from the muscles of the mastication and the TMJ function unit. The software discussed are the industry leaders and have made the job of producing computer-based animations much easier. The programs are Adobe Premiere, Adobe After Effects, Apple QuickTime and Macromedia Flash .

  18. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano M. Martins


    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  19. Are sun- and shade-type anatomy required for the acclimation of Neoregelia cruenta?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Sun and shade plants are often discriminated by a number of sun- and shade-type anatomies. Nonetheless, we propose that among tank-bromeliads, changes in rosette architecture satisfy the requirements for coping with contrasting light levels. The tank-bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta naturally colonises sub-habitats ranging from full exposure to direct sunlight, to shaded environments in sand ridge plains. We quantified anatomical and morphological traits of leaves and rosettes of N. cruenta grown under sun and shade conditions. Cells with undulated lateral walls within the water parenchyma are for the first time described for the family. Under high light, leaf blades were wider, shorter, and yellowish. The rosette diameter of sun plants was less than half that of shade plants. Sun leaves overlapped with neighbouring leaves for most of their length, forming a cylindrical rosette where water accumulates. Shade leaves only overlapped in the centre of the rosette. Most anatomical traits were similar under both growth conditions. Stomata were absent from the base of sun leaves, which is probably explained by limited gas exchange at the base of the tight sun-type rosette. Data suggest that the ability of N. cruenta to acclimate to sun and shade is better explained by changes in rosette architecture than by leaf anatomy.

  20. In vitro growth and leaf anatomy of Cattleya walkeriana (Gardner, 1839 grown in natural ventilation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva


    Full Text Available Natural ventilation system facilitates gaseous exchanges in in vitro plants promoting changes in the leaf tissue, which can be evaluated through the leaf anatomy, and it allows a cultivation closer to the photoautrophic micropropagation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on in vitro growth and on the leaf anatomy of Cattleya walkeriana grown in natural and conventional ventilation system with different concentrations of sucrose (0; 15; 30 and 45 L-1 combined with different cultivation systems (conventional micropropagation and natural ventilation system. The culture medium was composed of MS salts, solidified with 7 g L-1 of agar and pH adjusted to 5.8. Forty milliliters of culture medium were distributed in 250 mL flasks, autoclaved at 120 ºC for 20 minutes. The greater plant growth, as well as the greater thickness of the mesophyll was observed with the use of 20 g L-1 sucrose in natural ventilation system. Plants grown in natural ventilation system showed a thicker leaf mesophyll, which is directly related to photoautotrophic crops. The natural ventilation system induced more elliptical stomata and probably more functional formats.

  1. Are sun- and shade-type anatomy required for the acclimation of Neoregelia cruenta?



    Sun and shade plants are often discriminated by a number of sun- and shade-type anatomies. Nonetheless, we propose that among tank-bromeliads, changes in rosette architecture satisfy the requirements for coping with contrasting light levels. The tank-bromeliad Neoregelia cruenta naturally colonises sub-habitats ranging from full exposure to direct sunlight, to shaded environments in sand ridge plains. We quantified anatomical and morphological traits of leaves and rosettes of N. cruenta grown...

  2. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pai Balaji


    Full Text Available Context: The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation is very complex and variable. Surgical approaches to this area are considered risky due to the presence of the various important blood vessels and neural structures. Aims: To document the microsurgical anatomy of the posterior circulation along with variations in the Indian population. Materials and Methods: The authors studied 25 cadaveric brain specimens. Microsurgical dissection was carried out from the vertebral arteries to the basilar artery and its branches, the basilar artery bifurcation, posterior cerebral artery and its various branches. Measurements of the outer diameters of the vertebral artery, basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery and their lengths were taken. Results: The mean diameter of the vertebral artery was 3.4 mm on the left and 2.9 mm on the right. The diameter of the basilar artery varied from 3-7 mm (mean of 4.3 mm. The length varied from 24-35 mm (mean of 24.9 mm. The basilar artery gave off paramedian and circumferential perforating arteries. The origin of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA varied from 0-21 mm (mean 10.0 mm from the vertebrobasilar junction. The diameter of the AICA varied from being hypoplastic i.e., < 0.5 mm to 2 mm (mean 1.0 mm. The superior cerebellar artery (SCA arises very close to the basilar bifurcation, in our series (1-3 mm from the basilar artery bifurcation. The diameter of the SCA varied from 0.5-2.5 mm on both sides. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA is divided into four segments. The PCA gave rise to perforators (thalamoperforators, thalamogeniculate arteries, circumflex arteries and peduncular arteries, medial posterior choroidal artery, lateral posterior choroidal artery and cortical branches. In 39 specimens the P1 segment was found to be larger than the posterior communicating artery, in six specimens it was found to be equal to the diameter of the posterior communicating artery and in five specimens it

  3. The root of dental anatomy: a case for naming Eustachius the "father of dental anatomy". (United States)

    Bennett, Gregory W


    When one considers the names of those whose affect on dentistry reached far beyond their lifetimes, one may think of Fauchard, Wells, Morton and Black. One name that deserves to be called among the pantheon of the greats is Bartholomaeus Eustachius. Eustachius was not the first to study the anatomy of the teeth and jaws, having been preceded by Da Vinci; however, he was the first to publish a treatise devoted entirely to this subject, Libellus de Dentibus, in 1563. As Sir William Osler, the father of modern medicine, stated: "In Science, the credit goes to the man who convinces the world, not to whom the idea first occurs." The purpose of this paper is to show that Eustachius deserves to be named the father of dental anatomy.

  4. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review. (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A


    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Occurrence and evolutionary inferences about Kranz anatomy in Cyperaceae (Poales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cyperaceae is an angiosperm family with the greatest diversity of species with Kranz anatomy. Four different types of Kranz anatomy (chlorocyperoid, eleocharoid, fimbristyloid and rhynchosporoid have been described for this angiosperm family, and the occurrence and structural characteristics of these types are important to trace evolutionary hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to examine the available data on Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy, emphasizing taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat and anatomy, to infer the potential origin of the Kranz anatomy in this family. The results showed that the four types of Kranz anatomy (associated with C4 photosynthesis in Cyperaceae emerged numerous times in unrelated phylogenetic groups. However, the convergence of these anatomical types, except rhynchosporoid, was observed in certain groups. Thus, the diverse origin of these species might result from different environmental pressures that promote photorespiration. Greater variation in occurrence of Kranz anatomy and anatomical types was observed inEleocharis, whose emergence of the C4 pathway was recent compared with other genera in the family, and the species of this genus are located in aquatic environments.

  6. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy. (United States)

    Cake, Martin A


    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  7. What impact does anatomy education have on clinical practice? (United States)

    Smith, Claire France; Mathias, Haydn Socrates


    There is continuing debate regarding doctors' knowledge of anatomy as an appropriate preparation for professional practice. This exploratory case study examined alumni's experiences of learning anatomy. The aim was to inform curriculum development and to gain a better understanding of how anatomy knowledge is applied in practice. A total of 140 medical student alumni from the University of Southampton participated in this study (49% males, 51% females). Participants completed a Likert scale questionnaire with free comment sections. Descriptive results found that: using cadaveric material was an effective way of learning anatomy; assessment was a major motivator; and around half of students forgot a lot of anatomy but that knowledge came back easily. Statistical analysis revealed associations between certain positive and negative factors in learning. Links were also seen with current job role, revealing that those who responded to positive factors were involved in careers which involved a great deal of anatomy and vice versa. To facilitate learning, anatomy should be taught throughout the curriculum and use human cadavers. Relating knowledge to practice requires transformation of knowledge and is best facilitated by the learning being situated in clinical contexts.

  8. Undergraduate perspectives on the teaching and learning of anatomy. (United States)

    Mitchell, Rob; Batty, Lachlan


    The volume of time dedicated to anatomy teaching has steadily decreased in the context of increasingly dense undergraduate curricula. We examine the complex topic of anatomical education from the undergraduate perspective, with a focus on student perceptions, their origins and their potential solutions. A limited dataset suggests students perceive their tuition in anatomy may be suboptimal. Multiple factors (including the intensity of pre-clinical studies, academic criticism of modern courses, surgical culture and misinformation) may account for the unrest. It is difficult to objectively measure the impact of modified anatomy curriculum on clinical performance and patient safety. While there is a case (on the basis of student perception at least) for reinvigorating elements of undergraduate anatomy education, the modern medical educational framework is here to stay, and students and clinicians must learn to adapt. Anatomy must be linked with contemporary approaches to medical education and it should be integrated, continuous and guided. It is critical that clinicians engage in the teaching of anatomy in the clinical environment and they must be adequately resourced to do so. Graduates must emerge with a core understanding of anatomy, but not an encyclopaedic knowledge of the human form. Undergraduate programme should simply strive to equip their graduates with a foundation for lifelong learning and a platform for safe practice as interns.

  9. Anatomy integration blueprint: A fourth-year musculoskeletal anatomy elective model. (United States)

    Lazarus, Michelle D; Kauffman, Gordon L; Kothari, Milind J; Mosher, Timothy J; Silvis, Matthew L; Wawrzyniak, John R; Anderson, Daniel T; Black, Kevin P


    Current undergraduate medical school curricular trends focus on both vertical integration of clinical knowledge into the traditionally basic science-dedicated curricula and increasing basic science education in the clinical years. This latter type of integration is more difficult and less reported on than the former. Here, we present an outline of a course wherein the primary learning and teaching objective is to integrate basic science anatomy knowledge with clinical education. The course was developed through collaboration by a multi-specialist course development team (composed of both basic scientists and physicians) and was founded in current adult learning theories. The course was designed to be widely applicable to multiple future specialties, using current published reports regarding the topics and clinical care areas relying heavily on anatomical knowledge regardless of specialist focus. To this end, the course focuses on the role of anatomy in the diagnosis and treatment of frequently encountered musculoskeletal conditions. Our iterative implementation and action research approach to this course development has yielded a curricular template for anatomy integration into clinical years. Key components for successful implementation of these types of courses, including content topic sequence, the faculty development team, learning approaches, and hidden curricula, were developed. We also report preliminary feedback from course stakeholders and lessons learned through the process. The purpose of this report is to enhance the current literature regarding basic science integration in the clinical years of medical school.

  10. [Anatomy of the pelvic lymphatic system]. (United States)

    Wolfram-Gabel, R


    The lymphatic system of the pelvis collects the lymph of the genital and urinary organs and of the digestive tract. It is formed by lymphatic nodes and vessels situated inside the conjunctive tissue, near the organs (visceral lymphatic nodes) but especially along the external, internal and common iliac vessels (iliac lymphatic nodes). These nodes receive afferent vessels issued from the different pelvic organs. From the iliac lymphnodes arise efferent vessels running towards lymphatic collectors, situated above them, and which end in the lymphatic lombar duct. The lymphatic pathways represent the preferential way of scattering of cancerous cells. Therefore, the knowledge of the anatomy, of the situation and of the draining of the nodes is of the utmost importance in the evaluation of a cancer of a pelvic organ.

  11. Anatomy and efficiency of urban multimodal mobility

    CERN Document Server

    Gallotti, Riccardo


    The growth of transportation networks and their increasing interconnections, although positive, has the downside effect of an increasing complexity which make them difficult to use, to assess, and limits their efficiency. On average in the UK, 23% of travel time is lost in connections for trips with more than one mode, and the lack of synchronization decreases very slowly with population size. This lack of synchronization between modes induces differences between the theoretical quickest trip and the `time-respecting' path, which takes into account waiting times at interconnection nodes. We analyse here the statistics of these paths on the multilayer, temporal network of the entire, multimodal british public transportation system. We propose a statistical decomposition -- the `anatomy' -- of trips in urban areas, in terms of riding, waiting and walking times, and which shows how the temporal structure of trips varies with distance and allows us to compare different cities. Weaknesses in systems can be either ...

  12. Anatomy of the Ophthalmic Artery: Embryological Consideration (United States)

    TOMA, Naoki


    There are considerable variations in the anatomy of the human ophthalmic artery (OphA), such as anomalous origins of the OphA and anastomoses between the OphA and the adjacent arteries. These anatomical variations seem to attribute to complex embryology of the OphA. In human embryos and fetuses, primitive dorsal and ventral ophthalmic arteries (PDOphA and PVOphA) form the ocular branches, and the supraorbital division of the stapedial artery forms the orbital branches of the OphA, and then numerous anastomoses between the internal carotid artery (ICA) and the external carotid artery (ECA) systems emerge in connection with the OphA. These developmental processes can produce anatomical variations of the OphA, and we should notice these variations for neurosurgical and neurointerventional procedures. PMID:27298261

  13. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Salata


    Full Text Available From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears.

  14. Acromioclavicular joint injuries: anatomy, diagnosis, and treatment. (United States)

    Willimon, S Clifton; Gaskill, Trevor R; Millett, Peter J


    Acromioclavicular (AC) joint injuries are common in athletic populations and account for 40% to 50% of shoulder injuries in many contact sports, including lacrosse, hockey, rugby and football. The AC joint is stabilized by static and dynamic restraints, including the coracoclavicular (CC) ligaments. Knowledge of these supporting structures is important when identifying injury and directing treatment. Management of AC injuries should be guided by severity of injury, duration of injury and symptoms, and individual patient factors. These help determine how best to guide management, and whether patients should be treated surgically or nonsurgically. Treatment options for AC injuries continue to expand, and include arthroscopic-assisted anatomic reconstruction of the CC ligaments. The purpose of this article is to review the anatomy, diagnostic methods, and treatment options for AC joint injuries. In addition, the authors' preferred reconstruction technique and outcomes are presented.

  15. Anatomy and biomechanics of the elbow joint. (United States)

    Martin, Silvia; Sanchez, Eugenia


    Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging provides clinically useful information in assessing the elbow joint. Superior depiction of muscles, ligaments and tendons as well as the ability to directly visualize nerves, bone marrow and hyaline cartilage, are advantages of MR imaging relative to conventional imaging techniques. As the elbow is located superficially, clinical examination is easier for the orthopedic surgeon and only a few cases need a diagnosis for the radiologist, for this reason the elbow joint is little known for the radiologist. To better understand the injuries that occur in the elbow during the sport activities, we need a better understanding of the biomechanics of the joint. And for understanding the biomechanics, it is necessary to know the exact anatomy of the elbow joint and to be able to identify each anatomic structure in the different imaging planes and pulse sequences. This is especially important in MR as the imaging tool that shows a highest soft tissue resolution among other imaging techniques.

  16. Modeling of Craniofacial Anatomy, Variation, and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Signe Strann

    The topic of this thesis is automatic analysis of craniofacial images with respect to changes due to growth and surgery, inter-subject variation and intracranial volume estimation. The methods proposed contribute to the knowledge about specific craniofacial anomalies, as well as provide a tool...... for detailed analyses for clinical and research purposes. Most of the applications in this thesis rely on non-rigid image registration by the means of warping one image into the coordinate system of another image. This warping results in a deformation field that describes the anatomical correspondence between...... the two images. To elaborate further: a computational atlas of the average anatomy was constructed. Using non-rigid registration, image data from a subject is automatically transformed into the coordinate space of the atlas. In this process, all knowledge built into the atlas is transferred to the subject...

  17. The functional anatomy of the cricothyroid joint. (United States)

    Windisch, Gunther; Hammer, Georg Philipp; Prodinger, Peter Michael; Friedrich, Gerhard; Anderhuber, Friedrich


    Postoperative long-term treatment problems of male-to-female transsexuals can be caused by the underestimated mobility of the cricothyroid joint. One hundred cadaveric larynges were analysed to reveal the morphological and functional anatomy of the CTJ focusing on possible horizontal and vertical gliding movements. Furthermore, the distance of the cricothyroid space for rotational movements was measured. The articular surface of the cricothyroid joint showed three different possibilities: a well-defined facet (Type 1 61%), no definable facet (Type 2 22%) or a flat surface with or without a tiny protuberance (Type 3 17%). Side different statements and intraindividual differences between male and female specimens were included. These different types affect horizontal and vertical gliding movements, besides rotational movements. The mobility between Type 1 and the others was highly significant (P < 0.001). Regarding different motions in the cricothyroid joint, rotational movements caused significant elongation of the vocal folds, which should be taken into consideration for phonosurgical methods.

  18. MR imaging of normal hip anatomy. (United States)

    Chang, Connie Y; Huang, Ambrose J


    Understanding normal anatomy of the hip is important for diagnosing its pathology. MR arthrography is more sensitive for the detection of intra-articular pathology than noncontrast MR imaging. Important elements of the osseous structures on MR imaging include the alignment and the marrow. Acetabular ossicles may be present. Normal variations involving the cartilage include the supra-acetabular fossa and the stellate lesion. Important muscles of the hip are the sartorius, rectus femoris, iliopsoas, gluteus minimus and medius, adductors, and hamstrings. The iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments represent thickenings of the joint capsule that reinforce and stabilize the hip joint. Normal variations in the labrum include labral sulcus and absent labrum. The largest nerves in the hip and thigh are the sciatic nerve, the femoral nerve, and the obturator nerve.

  19. Anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism. (United States)

    Perry, Jamie L


    Understanding the normal anatomy and physiology of the velopharyngeal mechanism is the first step in providing appropriate diagnosis and treatment for children born with cleft lip and palate. The velopharyngeal mechanism consists of a muscular valve that extends from the posterior surface of the hard palate (roof of mouth) to the posterior pharyngeal wall and includes the velum (soft palate), lateral pharyngeal walls (sides of the throat), and the posterior pharyngeal wall (back wall of the throat). The function of the velopharyngeal mechanism is to create a tight seal between the velum and pharyngeal walls to separate the oral and nasal cavities for various purposes, including speech. Velopharyngeal closure is accomplished through the contraction of several velopharyngeal muscles including the levator veli palatini, musculus uvulae, superior pharyngeal constrictor, palatopharyngeus, palatoglossus, and salpingopharyngeus. The tensor veli palatini is thought to be responsible for eustachian tube function.

  20. Anatomi Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam di Sekolah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marliana Marliana


    Full Text Available Anatomy of curriculum is described as the components that must be present in every curriculum that can be used for the learning process. They are objectives of the curriculum, materials of teaching, contents of the curriculum, strategies or methods, media and evaluation and improvement of teaching. These components are interconnected to one another. Each component has a content which is very important for the continuity of the curriculum. One of the most important parts of the curriculum is procces of learning as an empowering or enable the students. Thus, the need for active and participatory interaction between students and academic material or with a certain situation so that matter can be transformed into the learning experience of students.

  1. Aleph : anatomie d'une experience

    CERN Multimedia

    Lynn Silverman


    "Aleph, anatomie d'une expérience" est un documentaire ethnologique sur les techniciens et les chercheurs de la physique des particules du Centre européen de recherche nucléaire, le CERN, près de Genève. Le film, dont le tournage s'est échelonné sur quatre années, de 1987 à 1991, retrace les différentes étapes de la mise en œuvre, sur le nouvel accélérateur (le LEP) du projet Aleph ; la construction des différents constituants du détecteur dans les centres de recherche de l'Europe entière, leur arrivée au CERN, l'assemblage… jusqu'à l'annonce des premiers résultats, obtenus en 1990.

  2. Anatomy and physiology of the esophagus. (United States)

    Gavaghan, M


    Modern diagnosis and treatment of esophageal disease is a result of progress in assessing the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus, as well as refinements in anesthetic and surgical techniques. Esophageal carcinoma spreads rapidly and metastasizes easily. The tendency for early spread and the absence of symptoms result in late diagnosis that reduces treatment options and cure rates. Lifestyle (i.e., use of alcohol and tobacco), nutritional deficiencies, ingestion of nitrosamines, and mutagen-inducing fungi are blamed for cancer of the esophagus. Other pathologic conditions (e.g., achalasia, Barrett's epithelium, gastric reflux, hiatal hernia) are potential contributors to the development of carcinoma. Nurses are in key positions to identify the existence of factors contributing to premalignant or malignant lesions and to educate patients and make the appropriate referrals.

  3. Anatomy of news consumption on Facebook (United States)

    Schmidt, Ana Lucía; Del Vicario, Michela; Quattrociocchi, Walter


    The advent of social media and microblogging platforms has radically changed the way we consume information and form opinions. In this paper, we explore the anatomy of the information space on Facebook by characterizing on a global scale the news consumption patterns of 376 million users over a time span of 6 y (January 2010 to December 2015). We find that users tend to focus on a limited set of pages, producing a sharp community structure among news outlets. We also find that the preferences of users and news providers differ. By tracking how Facebook pages “like” each other and examining their geolocation, we find that news providers are more geographically confined than users. We devise a simple model of selective exposure that reproduces the observed connectivity patterns. PMID:28265082

  4. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel M. Frank


    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  5. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review. (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart


    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  6. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der


    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially th

  7. Study on Variant Anatomy of Sciatic Nerve (United States)

    V, Sangeetha


    Introduction: Sciatic Nerve (SN) is the nerve of the posterior compartment of thigh formed in the pelvis from the ventral rami of the L4 to S3 spinal nerves. It leaves the pelvis via the greater sciatic foramen below piriformis and divides into Common Peroneal Nerve (CPN) and Tibial Nerve (TN) at the level of the upper angle of the popliteal fossa. Higher division of the sciatic nerve is the most common variation where the TN and CPN may leave the pelvis through different routes. Such variation may lead to compression of the nerve and lead to Non-discogenic sciatica. Materials and Methods: Fifty lower limbs were used for the study from Department of Anatomy, J.J.M.M.C Davangere, Karnataka, India. Observation and Results: In our study on 25 cadavers (50 lower limbs), we have observed 4 (8 %) lower limbs high division of sciatic nerve was noted. High division of sciatic nerve in the back of thigh was noted in one specimen (2%), while high division within the pelvis was noted in 3 specimens (6%), while in 46 (92%) it occurred outside the pelvis. Conclusion: Knowledge regarding such variation and differences in the course of SN is important for the surgeons to plan for various surgical interventions pertaining to the gluteal region. The variant anatomy of SN may cause piriformis syndrome and failure of SN block. Hence present study is undertaken to know the level of division, exit, course, relationship to piriformis and variations in the branching pattern of SN. PMID:25302181

  8. Pelvic Organ Prolapse: New Concepts in Pelvic Floor Anatomy. (United States)

    Maldonado, Pedro A; Wai, Clifford Y


    As the field of reconstructive pelvic surgery continues to evolve, with descriptions of new procedures to repair pelvic organ prolapse, it remains imperative to maintain a functional understanding of pelvic floor anatomy and support. The goal of this review was to provide a focused, conceptual approach to differentiating anatomic defects contributing to prolapse in the various compartments of the vagina. Rather than provide exhaustive descriptions of pelvic floor anatomy, basic pelvic floor anatomy is reviewed, new and historical concepts of pelvic floor support are discussed, and relevance to the surgical management of specific anatomic defects is addressed.

  9. Stomatal malfunctioning under low VPD conditions: induced by alterations in stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy or in the ABA signaling? (United States)

    Aliniaeifard, Sasan; Malcolm Matamoros, Priscila; van Meeteren, Uulke


    Exposing plants to low VPD reduces leaf capacity to maintain adequate water status thereafter. To find the impact of VPD on functioning of stomata, stomatal morphology and leaf anatomy, fava bean plants were grown at low (L, 0.23 kPa) or moderate (M, 1.17 kPa) VPDs and some plants that developed their leaves at moderate VPD were then transferred for 4 days to low VPD (M→L). Part of the M→L-plants were sprayed with ABA (abscisic acid) during exposure to L. L-plants showed bigger stomata, larger pore area, thinner leaves and less spongy cells compared with M-plants. Stomatal morphology (except aperture) and leaf anatomy of the M→L-plants were almost similar to the M-plants, while their transpiration rate and stomatal conductance were identical to that of L-plants. The stomatal response to ABA was lost in L-plants, but also after 1-day exposure of M-plants to low VPD. The level of foliar ABA sharply decreased within 1-day exposure to L, while the level of ABA-GE (ABA-glucose ester) was not affected. Spraying ABA during the exposure to L prevented loss of stomatal closing response thereafter. The effect of low VPD was largely depending on exposure time: the stomatal responsiveness to ABA was lost after 1-day exposure to low VPD, while the responsiveness to desiccation was gradually lost during 4-day exposure to low VPD. Leaf anatomical and stomatal morphological alterations due to low VPD were not the main cause of loss of stomatal closure response to closing stimuli.

  10. Tomographical anatomy of the pelvis, pelvic floor, and related structures. (United States)

    Fröhlich, B; Hötzinger, H; Fritsch, H


    The sectional anatomy of the pelvic floor was studied in plastinated sections of adult pelves by computed tomography and by magnetic resonance imaging. In sectional anatomy, the levator ani is composed of three portions that can be clearly distinguished by their planes of cleavage and by the course of their fiber bundles. No muscular connections are found between the levator ani portions and the pelvic organs. The fascia of the levator ani in always interposed between the muscle and the pelvic organs. The sectional anatomy of the sphincter ani externus reveals a subdivision into a subcutaneous and a deep portion. Although the puborectalis portion of the levator ani and the deep portion of the sphincter ani externus are more or less continuous, in sectional anatomy they can be distinguished due to their different origins and attachments.

  11. The wood anatomy of Vanguerieae, Cinchoneae, Condamineae, and Rondeletieae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke; Hogeweg, Pauline


    This paper deals with the Vanguerieae, Cinchoneae, Condamineae and Rondeletieae, and concludes a study on the anatomy of the secondary xylem of the Cinchonoideae + Ixoroideae. The taxonomically homogeneous Vanguerieae show only little variation. Taxonomically the Cinchoneae, Condamineae, and Rondele

  12. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications. (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk


    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage ( Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.


    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  14. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael

    Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal an...... digital models of animal soft and hard tissue anatomy in quality similar or superior to time consuming dissection, and we propose MRI and CT as valuable tools in future studies of animal anatomy in research and education.......Several traditional handbooks and web-based databases exist with descriptions of animal anatomy, providing dissection photographies or hand drawn images in explanatory figures. In recent years sophisticated databases have been developed providing unique 2D and 3D visualisations of the internal...

  15. Cell walls and the developmental anatomy of the Brachypodium distachyon stem internode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A Matos

    Full Text Available While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, Brachypodium distachyon, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using B. distachyon by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of B. distachyon appears to be highly similar to domesticated grasses. While the arrangement of bundles within the stem is highly variable across grasses, B. distachyon appears to be a suitable model for the rind of large C4 grass crops. A better understanding of growth and various anatomical and cell wall features of B. distachyon will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes.

  16. The Ventricular System of the Brain: Anatomy and Normal Variations. (United States)

    Stratchko, Lindsay; Filatova, Irina; Agarwal, Amit; Kanekar, Sangam


    The cerebral ventricular system is intimately associated with the forebrain and brainstem. The ventricular system functions to produce and circulate cerebrospinal fluid, which plays an important role in mechanical protection and regulation of homeostasis in the central nervous system. This article discusses anatomy and neuroimaging of the ventricular system and highlights normal anatomical variations that may be mistaken for pathology. Applied surgical anatomy is reviewed with emphasis on operative approach and potential risk to adjacent central nervous system structures.

  17. Anatomy of the triceps surae: a pictorial essay. (United States)

    Dalmau-Pastor, Miquel; Fargues-Polo, Betlem; Casanova-Martínez, Daniel; Vega, Jordi; Golanó, Pau


    Gastrocnemius contracture has recently gained relevance owing to its suggested relationship with foot disorders such as metatarsalgia, plantar fasciopathy, hallux valgus, and others. Consequently this has induced a renewed interest in surgical lengthening techniques, including proximal gastrocnemius release, to resolve gastrocnemius contracture in patients with foot disorders. This article describes and discusses the general anatomy of the triceps surae and the surgical anatomy of the gastrocnemius.

  18. Building a cell and anatomy ontology of Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Lee, Raymond Y N; Sternberg, Paul W


    We are endowed with a rich knowledge about Caenorhabditis elegans. Its stereotyped anatomy and development has stimulated research and resulted in the accumulation of cell-based information concerning gene expression, and the role of specific cells in developmental signalling and behavioural circuits. To make the information more accessible to sophisticated queries and automated retrieval systems, WormBase has begun to construct a C. elegans cell and anatomy ontology. Here we present our strategies and progress.

  19. Design principles for developing an efficient clinical anatomy course. (United States)

    Rizzolo, Lawrence J; Stewart, William B; O'Brien, Michael; Haims, Andrew; Rando, William; Abrahams, James; Dunne, Shane; Wang, Silas; Aden, Marcus


    The exponential growth of medical knowledge presents a challenge for the medical school curriculum. Because anatomy is traditionally a long course, it is an attractive target to reduce course hours, yet designing courses that produce students with less understanding of human anatomy is not a viable option. Faced with the challenge of teaching more anatomy with less time, we set out to understand how students employ instructional media to learn anatomy inside and outside of the classroom. We developed a series of pilot programs to explore how students learn anatomy and, in particular, how they combine instructional technology with more traditional classroom and laboratory-based learning. We then integrated what we learned with principles of effective instruction to design a course that makes the most efficient use of students' in-class and out-of-class learning. Overall, we concluded that our new anatomy course needed to focus on transforming how medical students think, reason, and learn. We are currently testing the hypothesis that this novel approach will enhance the ability of students to recall and expand their base of anatomical knowledge throughout their medical school training and beyond.

  20. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation. (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W


    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known.

  1. Interprofessional approach for teaching functional knee joint anatomy. (United States)

    Meyer, Jakob J; Obmann, Markus M; Gießler, Marianne; Schuldis, Dominik; Brückner, Ann-Kathrin; Strohm, Peter C; Sandeck, Florian; Spittau, Björn


    Profound knowledge in functional and clinical anatomy is a prerequisite for efficient diagnosis in medical practice. However, anatomy teaching does not always consider functional and clinical aspects. Here we introduce a new interprofessional approach to effectively teach the anatomy of the knee joint. The presented teaching approach involves anatomists, orthopaedists and physical therapists to teach anatomy of the knee joint in small groups under functional and clinical aspects. The knee joint courses were implemented during early stages of the medical curriculum and medical students were grouped with students of physical therapy to sensitize students to the importance of interprofessional work. Evaluation results clearly demonstrate that medical students and physical therapy students appreciated this teaching approach. First evaluations of following curricular anatomy exams suggest a benefit of course participants in knee-related multiple choice questions. Together, the interprofessional approach presented here proves to be a suitable approach to teach functional and clinical anatomy of the knee joint and further trains interprofessional work between prospective physicians and physical therapists as a basis for successful healthcare management.

  2. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  3. Morpho-anatomy, physicochemical and phytochemical standardization with HPTLC fingerprinting of aerial parts of Rivea hypocrateriformis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saboo Shweta; Tapadiya Ganesh; Khadabadi Somshekhar


    Objectives: To study the morpho-anatomy of the aerial parts of Rivea hypocrateriformi (Convolvulaceae) to increase the knowledge and standardization parameters of these plants and its family. Methods: Morpho-anatomical studies of aerial parts of have been carried out by free hand. The different types of histochemical tests were performed for the identification of micro-chemical by using staining reagents. Preliminary phytochemical and quantitative estimation has been determined along with HPTLC fingerprinting. CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat V applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software was used for fingerprinting. Results: The morpho-anatomical structure of plant revealed the presence of thick wall collenchyma cell and parenchyma cells along with spharaphides and columnar palisade cells. Presense of numerous covering trichomes, parasitic stomata, oval shaped vascular bundles and calcium oxalate crystals were observed. In powder microscopy lignified xylem vessels, and covering trichomes were clearly seen. Physicochemical parameters, ash value, inorganic elements, moisture content and extractive value were determined to develop the stringent pharmacognostic standards. Qualitative standardization and HPTLC fingerprinting of phytochemical revealed the presense of various plant secondary metabolites. Conclusions:These findings will be useful in establishing pharmacognostic and phytochemical standards for identification, as well as assessment of purity and quality of this plant, which definitely gaining the relevance in plant drug research and establishment of plant monograph.

  4. Individual functional anatomy of verb generation. (United States)

    Herholz, K; Thiel, A; Wienhard, K; Pietrzyk, U; von Stockhausen, H M; Karbe, H; Kessler, J; Bruckbauer, T; Halber, M; Heiss, W D


    Examination of the individual functional anatomy of language is of particular interest in clinical neurology to explain the variability of aphasic symptoms after focal lesions and to avoid damage of language-related brain areas by surgery. For a silent verb generation task, we examined whether activation PET with 3D data acquisition, multiple replication of conditions, and coregistration with MRI provides results that are consistent and reproducible enough to be useful clinically. Visual analysis was performed on PET-MRI fusion images, including renderings of the brain surface. Quantitative analysis was based on volumes of interest. In seven right-handed normals, activation of the triangular part of the left inferior frontal cortex [Brodman area (BA) 45] was the most significant finding that was present in each subject. Two subjects showed minor anatomical variants of the ascending or horizontal ramus of the sylvian fissure that were associated with the least activation of BA 45. In the left hemisphere the other frontal gyri, the superior temporal and posterior part of the middle temporal gyrus, and the paracingulate gyrus were also significantly activated. There was significant bilateral cerebellar activation, but it was significantly more intense on the right than on the left side. The consistency and high interindividual reproducibility of these findings suggest that this technique may be useful for clinical assessment of language-related areas.

  5. Anatomy of neck configuration in fission decay

    CERN Document Server

    Patra, S K; Satpathy, L


    The anatomy of neck configuration in the fission decay of Uranium and Thorium isotopes is investigated in a microscopic study using Relativistic mean field theory. The study includes $^{236}U$ and $^{232}Th$ in the valley of stability and exotic neutron rich isotopes $^{250}U$, $^{256}U$, $^{260}U$, $^{240}Th$, $^{250}Th$, $^{256}Th$ likely to play important role in the r-process nucleosynthesis in stellar evolution. Following the static fission path, the neck configurations are generated and their composition in terms of the number of neutrons and protons are obtained showing the progressive rise in the neutron component with the increase of mass number. Strong correlation between the neutron multiplicity in the fission decay and the number of neutrons in the neck is seen. The maximum neutron-proton ratio is about 5 for $^{260}$U and $^{256}$Th suggestive of the break down of liquid-drop picture and inhibition of the fission decay in still heavier isotopes. Neck as precursor of a new mode of fission decay li...

  6. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae. (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita


    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  7. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  8. Ocular comparative anatomy of the family Rodentia. (United States)

    Rodriguez-Ramos Fernandez, Julia; Dubielzig, Richard R


    There is little information regarding ocular anatomy and histology in many of the rodent species. Histological analyses for morphologic features were performed in 31 globes from 18 rodent species submitted to and archived at the Comparative Ocular Pathology Laboratory of Wisconsin. The following measurements were taken: thickness of the cornea, corneal epithelium, corneal stroma, Descemet's membrane, and retina. H&E sections were evaluated for the following anatomical features: presence of pigmented epithelial cells in the peripheral cornea, presence and location of Schlemm's canal, presence of iridal sphincter and dilator and ciliary body muscles, presence of pars plicata and plana, presence of retinal vessels, presence of lamina cribrosa, and presence of tapetum lucidum. The springhaas was the only rodent in our collection that presented a well-developed tapetum lucidum fibrosum. The presence of retinal vessels was variable: vessels were observed in all of the members of the mouse-related clade, except the springhaas and the beaver, in all of the squirrel-related clade members, and in none of the Ctenohystrica. In the flying squirrels, blood vessels extended to the outer limiting membrane in the photoreceptor layer. Beavers, chinchillas, capybara, and guinea pigs lacked vessels within the retina; however, they had vessels within the optic nerve head. Ground squirrels have an optic nerve head, which is linear in the horizontal plane and an asymmetric retina. The tree-dwelling squirrels have a rounded but still elongated optic nerve, and the flying squirrel has a round optic nerve head like all the other rodents.

  9. [Surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum]. (United States)

    Biondi, Alberto; Rausei, Stefano; Cananzi, Ferdinando C M; Zoccali, Marco; D'Ugo, Stefano; Persiani, Roberto


    The mediastinum is located from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm between the left and right pleural cavities and contains vital structures of the circulatory, respiratory, digestive, and nervous system. Over the years, since there are no fascial or anatomic planes, anatomists and radiologists have suggested various schemes for subdividing the mediastinum and several anatomical and radiological classifications of the mediastinum are reported in the literature. The most popular of these scheme divides medistinum, for purposes of description, into two parts: an upper portion, above the upper level of the pericardium, which is named the superior mediastinum; and a lower portion, below the upper level of the pericardium. For clinical purposes, the mediastinum may be subdivided into three major areas, i.e. anterior, middle, and posterior compartments. The anterior mediastinum is defined as the region posterior to the sternum and anterior to the heart and brachiocephalic vessels. It extends from the thoracic inlet to the diaphragm and contains the thymus gland, fat, and lymph nodes. This article will review surgical anatomy of the anterior mediastinum and will focus on the surgical approch to anterior mediastinum and thymic diseases.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the ocular motor nerves. (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Liu, Hao; Liu, En-Zhong; Lin, You-Zhi; Zhao, Shi-Guang; Jing, Guo-Hua


    This study was designed to provide anatomic data to help surgeons avoid damage to the ocular motor nerves during intraorbital operations. The microsurgical anatomy of the ocular motor nerves was studied in 50 adult cadaveric heads (100 orbits). Dissections were performed with a microscope. The nerves were exposed and the neural and muscular relationships of each portion of the nerve were examined and measured. The superior division of the oculomotor nerve coursed between the optic nerve and the superior rectus muscle after it left the annular tendon, and its branches entered into the superior rectus muscle and levator muscle. A mean of five fibers (range 3-7) innervated the superior rectus muscle, and a mean of one fiber (range 1-2) followed a medial direction (84%) or went straight through the superior rectus muscle (16%). The inferior division of the oculomotor nerve branched into the medial rectus, inferior rectus and inferior oblique muscles. The trochlear nerve ended on the orbital side of the posterior one-third of the superior oblique muscle in 76 specimens. The abducens nerve ended on the posterior one-third of the lateral rectus muscle in 86 specimens. If the belly of the lateral rectus muscle was divided into three superior-inferior parts, the nerve commonly entered into the middle one-third in 74 specimens. Based on the observed data, microanatomical relationships of the orbital contents were revised.

  11. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians. (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane


    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences.

  12. Microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns. (United States)

    Matsuno, H; Rhoton, A L; Peace, D


    The microsurgical anatomy of the posterior fossa cisterns was examined in 15 cadavers using 3X to 40X magnification. Liliequist's membrane was found to split into two arachnoidal sheets as it spreads upward from the dorsum sellae: an upper sheet, called the diencephalic membrane, which attaches to the diencephalon at the posterior edge of the mamillary bodies, and a lower sheet, called the mesencephalic membrane, which attaches along the junction of the midbrain and pons. Several other arachnoidal membranes that separate the cisterns were identified. These include the anterior pontine membrane, which separates the prepontine and cerebellopontine cisterns; the lateral pontomesencephalic membrane, which separates the ambient and cerebellopontine cisterns; the medial pontomedullary membrane, which separates the premedullary and prepontine cisterns; and the lateral pontomedullary membrane, which separates the cerebellopontine and cerebellomedullary cisterns. The three cisterns in which the arachnoid trabeculae and membranes are the most dense and present the greatest obstacle at operation are the interpeduncular and quadrigeminal cisterns and the cisterna magna. Numerous arachnoid membranes were found to intersect the oculomotor nerves. The neural and vascular structures in each cistern are reviewed.

  13. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics (United States)

    Ratajska, A.; Gula, G.; Flaht-Zabost, A.; Czarnowska, E.; Ciszek, B.; Jankowska-Steifer, E.; Niderla-Bielinska, J.; Radomska-Lesniewska, D.


    The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting) vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells. PMID:24592145

  14. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska


    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  15. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember


    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  16. Comparative anatomy and histology of xenarthran osteoderms. (United States)

    Hill, Robert V


    Reconstruction of soft tissues in fossil vertebrates is an enduring challenge for paleontologists. Because inferences must be based on evidence from hard tissues (typically bones or teeth), even the most complete fossils provide only limited information about certain organ systems. Osteoderms ("dermal armor") are integumentary bones with high fossilization potential that hold information about the anatomy of the skin in many extant and fossil amniotes. Their importance for functional morphology and phylogenetic research has recently been recognized, but studies have focused largely upon reptiles, in which osteoderms are most common. Among mammals, osteoderms occur only in members of the clade Xenarthra, which includes armadillos and their extinct relatives: glyptodonts, pampatheres, and, more distantly, ground sloths. Here, I present new information on the comparative morphology and histology of osteoderms and their associated soft tissues in 11 extant and fossil xenarthrans. Extinct mylodontid sloths possessed simple, isolated ossicles, the presence of which is likely plesiomorphic for Xenarthra. More highly derived osteoderms of glyptodonts, pampatheres, and armadillos feature complex articulations and surface ornamentation. Osteoderms of modern armadillos are physically associated with a variety of soft tissues, including nerve, muscle, gland, and connective tissue. In some cases, similar osteological features may be caused by two or more different tissue types, rendering soft-tissue inferences for fossil osteoderms equivocal. Certain osteological structures, however, are consistently associated with specific soft-tissue complexes and therefore represent a relatively robust foundation upon which to base soft-tissue reconstructions of extinct xenarthrans.

  17. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center (United States)

    Wang, John


    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  18. The functional anatomy of suggested limb paralysis. (United States)

    Deeley, Quinton; Oakley, David A; Toone, Brian; Bell, Vaughan; Walsh, Eamonn; Marquand, Andre F; Giampietro, Vincent; Brammer, Michael J; Williams, Steven C R; Mehta, Mitul A; Halligan, Peter W


    Suggestions of limb paralysis in highly hypnotically suggestible subjects have been employed to successfully model conversion disorders, revealing similar patterns of brain activation associated with attempted movement of the affected limb. However, previous studies differ with regard to the executive regions involved during involuntary inhibition of the affected limb. This difference may have arisen as previous studies did not control for differences in hypnosis depth between conditions and/or include subjective measures to explore the experience of suggested paralysis. In the current study we employed functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the functional anatomy of left and right upper limb movements in eight healthy subjects selected for high hypnotic suggestibility during (i) hypnosis (NORMAL) and (ii) attempted movement following additional left upper limb paralysis suggestions (PARALYSIS). Contrast of left upper limb motor function during NORMAL relative to PARALYSIS conditions revealed greater activation of contralateral M1/S1 and ipsilateral cerebellum, consistent with the engagement of these regions in the completion of movements. By contrast, two significant observations were noted in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions. In conjunction with reports of attempts to move the paralysed limb, greater supplementary motor area (SMA) activation was observed, a finding consistent with the role of SMA in motor intention and planning. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, BA 24) was also significantly more active in PARALYSIS relative to NORMAL conditions - suggesting that ACC (BA 24) may be implicated in involuntary, as well as voluntary inhibition of prepotent motor responses.

  19. Morphology and functional anatomy of the growing thorax; Morphologie und funktionelle Anatomie des wachsenden Thorax

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weninger, W.J.; Meng, S.; Geyer, S.H.; Weninger, S.U.G. [Integrative Morphology Group, Unversitaet Wien (Austria); Institut fuer Anatomie, Universitaet Wien (Austria)


    Morphogenesis of most thoracic organs and structures is not finished with birth but perpetuates in postnatal life. The postnatal growth is partly associated with enormous changes in structure, morphology, and function. Our study presents an overview of morphological, topological and functional peculiarities of thoracic anatomy during infancy, childhood and adolescence. It focuses on the development of the mammary gland, osseous structures of the chest wall, thymus, heart, and lungs. Most of the presented data are based on post-mortem studies. Measurements and numerical data are mainly included for illustration of growth-associated changes. (orig.) [German] Die Morphogenese mancher thorakaler Strukturen und Organe ist zum Zeitpunkt der Geburt noch nicht vollstaendig abgeschlossen. Ihr postpartales Wachstum geht mit teils enormen strukturellen, morphologischen und funktionellen Veraenderungen einher. Die hier praesentierte Arbeit gibt einen Ueberblick ueber morphologische, topologische und funktionelle Besonderheiten der Anatomie des Thorax und seiner Organe im Neonatus, Saeugling, Kind und Jugendlichen. Der Schwerpunkt liegt auf der Beschreibung der Entwicklung der Brustdruese, des knoechernen Thorax, des Thymus, des Herzen und der Lunge. Die vorgestellten Daten stammen grossteils aus Post-mortem-Studien und dienen vorwiegend dazu, das Ausmass wachstumsassoziierter Veraenderungen und Relationen zu illustrieren. (orig.)

  20. Spinal angiography. Anatomy, technique and indications; Spinale Angiographie. Anatomie, Technik und Indikation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reith, W.; Simgen, A.; Yilmaz, U. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie, Homburg/Saar (Germany)


    Spinal angiography is a diagnostic modality requiring detailed knowledge of spinal vascular anatomy. The cervical spinal cord is supplied by the vertebral arteries while segmental arteries which are preserved from fetal anatomy, supply the thoracic and lumbar regions. As spinal angiography carries the risk of paraplegia the indications have to be considered very carefully. Nevertheless, spinal angiography should be performed if there is reason to suspect a spinal vascular malformation from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). (orig.) [German] Indikationsstellung, Technik und Durchfuehrung der spinalen Angiographie erfordern detaillierte Kenntnisse der Gefaessversorgung des Spinalkanals und des Rueckenmarks. Die Gefaessversorgung des Rueckenmarks erfolgt im Bereich des Halsmarks aus den beiden Aa. vertebrales. Eine zusaetzliche arterielle Versorgung der Wirbelsaeule einschliesslich des Rueckenmarks wird ueber segmentale Arterien hergestellt, die im Bereich der Thorakal- und Lumbalregion aus der Embryonalphase als segmentale, interkostale und Lumbalarterien erhalten geblieben sind. Da die spinale Angiographie die Gefahr der Querschnittslaehmung birgt, ist eine strenge Indikation notwendig. Eine ueber laengere Zeit bestehende unklare klinische Symptomatik kann auch durch eine spinale Gefaessmalformation hervorgerufen werden. Ist durch die MRT-Bildgebung der Verdacht auf eine spinale Gefaessfehlbildung gegeben, sollte eine Angiographie durchgefuehrt werden, da diese Fehlbildungen oft kurabel sind. (orig.)

  1. Anatomy of the Cervicomental Region: Insights From an Anatomy Laboratory and Roundtable Discussion. (United States)

    Kenkel, Jeffrey M; Jones, Derek H; Fagien, Steven; Glaser, Dee Anna; Monheit, Gary D; Stauffer, Karen; Sykes, Jonathan M


    In 2015, ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) was approved as a first-in-class injectable drug for reduction of submental fat. Use of a pharmacologic/injectable therapy within the submental region requires a thorough understanding of cervicomental anatomy to ensure proper injection technique and safe administration. To this end, an anatomy laboratory was conducted to review key external landmarks and important internal anatomic structures that characterize the lower face and anterior neck. External landmarks that define the boundaries of the cervicomental and submental regions were identified including the inferior mandibular border, the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the antegonial notch, the submental crease, the thyroid notch, and the hyoid bone. Relevant internal anatomic structures, including preplatysmal submental fat (the target tissue for ATX-101) and the platysma muscle as well as critical neurovascular and glandular tissues were revealed by dissection. Of particular interest was the marginal mandibular branch of the facial nerve because it typically courses along the inferior mandibular border near the proposed treatment area for ATX-101.

  2. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature. (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland


    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education.

  3. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

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    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail:; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)


    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  4. Muscular anatomy of the Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo W Buss

    Full Text Available The muscular anatomy of the athecate hydroid Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza is elucidated. The polyp-stolon junction is characterized by an opening, here called the chloe, in the otherwise continuous hydrorhizal perisarc. The chloe is elliptical when the polyp first arises, but takes on a more complex outline as multiple stolons anastomose to communicate with that polyp. Surrounding the polyp base are spots, here called anchors, which autofluoresce at the same wavelengths as perisarc and which, like perisarc, contain chitin as assessed by Calcofluor White, Congo Red and wheat germ agglutinin staining. Anchors remain after living tissues are digested using KOH. Collagen IV staining indicates that the mesoglea is pegged to the anchors and rhodamine phallodin staining detects cytoskeletal F-actin fibers of the basal epidermis surrounding the anchors. Longitudinal muscle fibers of the polyp broaden at the polyp base and are inserted into the mesoglea of the underlying stolon, but were neither observed to extend along the stolonal axis nor to attach to the anchors. Circular muscular fibers of the polyp extend into stolons as a dense collection of strands running along the proximal-distal axis of the stolon. These gastrodermal axial muscular fibers extend to the stolon tip. Epidermal cells at the stolon tip and the polyp bud display a regular apical latticework of F-actin staining. A similar meshwork of F-actin staining was found in the extreme basal epidermis of all stolons. Immunohistochemical staining for tubulin revealed nerves at stolon tips, but at no other hydrorhizal locations. These studies bear on the mechanisms by which the stolon tip and polyp bud pulsate, the manner in which the stolon lumen closes, and on the developmental origin of the basal epidermis of the hydrorhiza.

  5. A digital rat atlas of sectional anatomy (United States)

    Yu, Li; Liu, Qian; Bai, Xueling; Liao, Yinping; Luo, Qingming; Gong, Hui


    This paper describes a digital rat alias of sectional anatomy made by milling. Two healthy Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat weighing 160-180 g were used for the generation of this atlas. The rats were depilated completely, then euthanized by Co II. One was via vascular perfusion, the other was directly frozen at -85 °C over 24 hour. After that, the frozen specimens were transferred into iron molds for embedding. A 3% gelatin solution colored blue was used to fill the molds and then frozen at -85 °C for one or two days. The frozen specimen-blocks were subsequently sectioned on the cryosection-milling machine in a plane oriented approximately transverse to the long axis of the body. The surface of specimen-blocks were imaged by a scanner and digitalized into 4,600 x2,580 x 24 bit array through a computer. Finally 9,475 sectional images (arterial vessel were not perfused) and 1,646 sectional images (arterial vessel were perfused) were captured, which made the volume of the digital atlas up to 369.35 Gbyte. This digital rat atlas is aimed at the whole rat and the rat arterial vessels are also presented. We have reconstructed this atlas. The information from the two-dimensional (2-D) images of serial sections and three-dimensional (3-D) surface model all shows that the digital rat atlas we constructed is high quality. This work lays the foundation for a deeper study of digital rat.

  6. The Nursing students’ metaphors about education of anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çolak Tuncay


    Full Text Available “Metaphor” word is described as a figurative expression in Turkish. A person transmits more explicitly his/her thoughts that are about an event or a concept he/she experienced. The aim of this study was to reveal emotions and thoughts of 1st class students in nursing about Anatomy lesson. 62 people who are students at 1st class in Vocational School of Health Services in 2014-2015 academic year have attended to our study. In questionnaire anthropometric and demographic traits of them were asked. They were wanted to create a metaphor about anatomy by filling in the blanks in “Anatomy resembles …../ Anatomy is like …. ; because …..” At the end of the assesment it has been detected that 44 metaphors have been produced. In these metaphors the most produced are ocean, puzzle, etc. When we divide these metaphors into categories and investigate them, there is an accumulation in discovering/revealing category with 24 metaphors. We believe that the metaphors which the students will generate, determining how to be lectured theoretical and practical anatomy lessons in a way that students are able to comprehend, will guide them.

  7. Papilian’s anatomy - celebrating six decades – (United States)



    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers’ Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra. PMID:28246506

  8. Effect of Injecting Hydrogen Peroxide into Heavy Clay Loam Soil on Plant Water Status, NET CO2 Assimilation, Biomass, and Vascular Anatomy of Avocado Trees Efecto de la Inyección de Peróxido de Hidrógeno en Suelo Franco Arcilloso Pesado, sobre el Estado Hídrico, Asimilación Neta de CO2, Biomasa y Anatomía Vascular de Paltos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar M Gil M


    Full Text Available In Chile, avocado (Persea americana Mill. orchards are often located in poorly drained, low-oxygen soils, situation which limits fruit production and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of injecting soil with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a source of molecular oxygen, on plant water status, net CO2 assimilation, biomass and anatomy of avocado trees set in clay loam soil with water content maintained at field capacity. Three-year-old ‘Hass’ avocado trees were planted outdoors in containers filled with heavy loam clay soil with moisture content sustained at field capacity. Plants were divided into two treatments, (a H2O2 injected into the soil through subsurface drip irrigation and (b soil with no H2O2 added (control. Stem and root vascular anatomical characteristics were determined for plants in each treatment in addition to physical soil characteristics, net CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration (T, stomatal conductance (gs, stem water potential (SWP, shoot and root biomass, water use efficiency (plant biomass per water applied [WUEb]. Injecting H2O2 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of the aerial portions of the plant and WUEb, but had no significant effect on measured A, T, gs, or SWP. Xylem vessel diameter and xylem/phloem ratio tended to be greater for trees in soil injected with H2O2 than for controls. The increased biomass of the aerial portions of plants in treated soil indicates that injecting H2O2 into heavy loam clay soils may be a useful management tool in poorly aerated soil.En Chile, los huertos de palto (Persea americana Mill. se ubican comúnmente en suelos pobremente drenados con bajo contenido de oxígeno, lo que limita producción y calidad de fruta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la inyección de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2 al suelo como fuente de O2, sobre el estado hídrico, asimilación de CO2, biomasa y anatomía de paltos en suelo franco arcilloso con

  9. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.


    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial trabecular membranes and subarachnoid cisterns. (United States)

    Vinas, F C; Dujovny, M; Fandino, R; Chavez, V


    The understanding of the anatomy of the subarachnoid cisterns and trabecular membranes is of paramount importance in the surgical treatment of pathology of the posterior fossa. Aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and some tumors should be approached through the subarachnoid space. The subarachnoid cisterns provide natural pathways to approach neurovascular and cranial nerve structures. The microsurgical anatomy of the infratentorial subarachnoid cisterns was studied in twenty adult brains, using the 'immersion technique'. Air was injected into the subarachnoid cisterns and brains were dissected under the operative microscope. Six main compartmental trabecular membranes were identified in the infratentorial level. They divide the subarachnoid space into six cisterns. Cisternal divisions and the disposition of the trabecular membranes were closely related to the vascular divisional patterns of the principal arteries. Thorough knowledge of the microsurgical anatomy of the subarachnoid space will aid neurosurgeons during the surgical approach of many vascular and tumoral lesions located in the posterior fossa.

  11. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay [Tuerkiye Yueksek ihtisas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)


    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  12. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity. (United States)

    Notowitz, L B


    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  13. Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask Your Hearing Professional (United States)

    ... Issue Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Anatomy of the Human Ear/ Questions to Ask your ... Focus on Communication" Articles Living with Hearing Loss / Anatomy of the Human Ear/Questions to Ask your ...

  14. [Leaf anatomy study in Solanaceae of Venezuela. V. leaf anatomy of eleven species of Cestrum L] . (United States)

    Jáuregul, D; Rodriguez, N; Benítez, C E


    Leaf anatomy of the following eleven species: C. buxifolium Kunth, C. humboldtii Francey, C. lindenii Dunal, C. mariquitense Kunth, C. megalophyllum Dunal, C. olivaceum Francey, C. pariense Steyerm., C petiolare Kunth, C. scandans Vahl, C. strigilatum Ruiz et Pavón and C. tomentosum L.f. is described. Transverse sectioning, bruise and clearing according to the classical methods for optical microscopy were made. The species studied show dissimilitude in relation to a) fohar blade: thickness and sinuosity of epidermal cell walls; type, density and presence of trichornes, leaf type according the position of the stomata, thickness of both palisade and spongy parenchy-ma, number of spongy parenchyma layers, occurrence or not of paranchymatous sheath and sclerifled cells in mesophyll, tmbeculae or projection walls b) Midvein: degree of development and arrangement of the parenchyma and collenchyma, c) Petiole: size and form in transverse section, presence of ornamented cuticle, peridermis and degree of development of the sclerenctiyma next to vascular bundles.

  15. Progress in laparoscopic anatomy research: A review of the Chinese literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    The development of laparoscopic surgery has generated the new field of study, laparoscopic anatomy. This article reviews the reported literature on laparoscopic anatomy and explores how it has evolved along with advances in abdominal surgery. In addition, the principal concerns in current laparoscopic anatomy research are discussed, including: (1) types of special adjacent anatomical structures; and (2) special surgical planes and anatomical landmarks. Understanding of systematic laparoscopic anatomy can pr...

  16. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex Wing Hung [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Wong, Clara Wing Yee [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)


    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  17. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers. (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe


    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips.

  18. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system. (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A


    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  19. Micro-CT study of the anatomy of the Leafhopper Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) (United States)

    A Digital Anatomy Library, DAL, was produced to the anatomy of the glassy-winged sharpshooter adult, Homalodisca vitripennis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), vector of bacteria which cause Pierce’s disease of grapevines. The insect anatomy was elucidated using a high resolution Bruker Skyscan 1172 micro t...

  20. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt


    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  1. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.


    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  2. Changes in Anatomy Instruction and USMLE Performance: Empirical Evidence on the Absence of a Relationship (United States)

    Cuddy, Monica M.; Swanson, David B.; Drake, Richard L.; Pawlina, Wojciech


    Anatomy instruction has evolved over the past two decades as many medical schools have undergone various types of curricular reform. To provide empirical evidence about whether or not curricular changes impact the acquisition and retention of anatomy knowledge, this study investigated the effect of variation in gross anatomy course hours,…

  3. The Use of Educational Comics in Learning Anatomy among Multiple Student Groups (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoon; Chung, Min Suk; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Beom Sun


    Understanding basic human anatomy can be beneficial for all students, regardless of when, or if, they will later undertake a formal course in the subject. For students who are preparing to undertake a formal anatomy course, educational comics on basic anatomy can serve as a concise and approachable review of the material. For other students, these…

  4. The Anatomy Competence Score--A New Marker for Anatomical Ability (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa


    The assessment of students' ability in gross anatomy is a complex process as it involves the measurement of multiple facets. In this work, the authors developed and introduced the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS), which incorporates the three domains of anatomy teaching and assessment namely: theoretical knowledge, practical 3D application of the…

  5. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course? (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville


    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  6. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.


    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  7. Leaf anatomy of the South African Danthonieae (Poaceae. XV. The genus Elytrophorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis


    Full Text Available The leaf anatomy of  Elytrophorus globularis Hack, and  E. spicatus (Willd. A. Camus is described and illustrated from freshly fixed material from SWA/Namibia and Botswana. It is shown that these two species are anatomically indistinguishable. It is suggested that they are conspecific. and that  E. spicatus possibly represents juvenile plants with immature inflorescences. The anatomical evidence strongly refutes a chloridoid relationship for Elytrophorus but appears to support arundinoid affinities for the genus. Striking anatomical and ecological similarities exist between  Elytrophorus and  Sacciolepis huillensis (Rendle Stapf. No significant leaf anatomical differences separate  Elytrophorus from S.  huillensis and some of the other C3 panicoid taxa and. consequently,  Elytro­phorus may represent a link between the Arundinoideae and the Panicoideae.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Otávio Carréra Silva Júnior et al


    Full Text Available Symphonia globulifera L.f. (Anani is an arboreal species, which occurs in the Amazon with antimalarial and antimicrobial properties, especially in the treatment of skin inflammations. It is also used as a general tonic and laxative for pregnant women and its sap/latex is used against rheumatism and tumors. The utilization of natural products from plant origin implies in pharmacobotanical quality control, which consist of the technical specifications of the species. Anatomical description of the leaves and petioles of Symphonia globulifera L. f. were performed. Epidermal cells on both sides of the leaves were observed; they are heterodimensional and polygonal. The stomata are anomocytic and were found only on the abaxial surface. The petiole is plan-convex coated with quadrangular cells and thick cutinization. The results are relevant to the anatomical characterization of the species since data on leaf anatomy of S. globulifera are scarce.

  9. The functionality of the anatomy in the physical education career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel D. Buffone


    Full Text Available Historically, the teaching of anatomy within the area of Physical Education has not focused its content on the practice of the course of studies; it has not been contextualized in its difficulties. This is an attempt to show that the subject that is offered to us could answer the needs of a dynamic Physical Education, and because of this, it is important to highlight the functional contribution which adapts in a more realistic sense to our teaching practice. The functional anatomy that is proposed goes beyond the static description of the different regions of the human body, having a wider and more dynamic vision of the body in motion. From this idea, we try to see the contents of the subject not as something rigid or invariable, but to use them to think and to create spaces of discussion on our practice and to wonder, how a descriptive anatomy reduced to only its descriptive contents may helps us. The anatomy, in this aspect, must begin from its own field and here lies our main concern as regards focusing on its functions, starting from the movement and not from the dead bodies where we observe the lack of dynamics

  10. Independent Learning Modules Enhance Student Performance and Understanding of Anatomy (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A.; Dom, Aaron M.; Buchanan, James T., Jr.; Williams, Alison R.; Efaw, Morgan L.; Richardson, Laura L.


    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in…

  11. Current concepts of anatomy and electrophysiology of the sinus node. (United States)

    Murphy, Cliona; Lazzara, Ralph


    The sinoatrial node, or sinus node, of humans is the principal pacemaker of the heart. Over the last century, studies have unraveled the complex molecular architecture of the sinus node and the expression of unique ion channels within its specialized myocytes. Aim of this review is to describe the embriology, the anatomy, the histology and the electrophisiology of the sinus node.

  12. Anterior cruciate ligament: 3-D fiber anatomy, fluorescence arthroscopy & healing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, D.T.


    One of the current emphases in optimizing anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions is closer mimicking the anatomy of the ACL. The aim of Chapter 2 and Chapter 3 is to develop and validate a methodology to quantify the 3-D collagen fiber orientation of ligaments, accurately and at a high res

  13. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, Tine


    A description of the xylem anatomy of the genera Archytaea, Ploiarium, Bonnetia, Neblinaria, Neotatea, Caraipa, Haploclathra, Mahurea, Marila, Kielmeyera, and Asteropeia is given. All these genera except Asteropeia, were included in the family of the Bonnetiaceae by Maguire (1972). He considered the

  14. Systematic wood anatomy and affinities of the Urticaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonsen, K.J.; Welle, ter B.J.H.


    The wood anatomy of all tribes of the Urticaceae, a family of herbs, shrublets, and sometimes shrubs, trees or lianas, has been studied and described in detail. Special attention is given to the interpretation of the characters in terms of taxonomy and phylogeny. A classification, in part deviating

  15. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke


    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  16. Diffusion of Innovations: Smartphones and Wireless Anatomy Learning Resources (United States)

    Trelease, Robert B.


    The author has previously reported on principles of diffusion of innovations, the processes by which new technologies become popularly adopted, specifically in relation to anatomy and education. In presentations on adopting handheld computers [personal digital assistants (PDAs)] and personal media players for health sciences education, particular…

  17. Cancer Genome Anatomy Project | Office of Cancer Genomics (United States)

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Cancer Genome Anatomy Project (CGAP) is an online resource designed to provide the research community access to biological tissue characterization data. Request a free copy of the CGAP Website Virtual Tour CD from

  18. Teaching Bovine Abdominal Anatomy: Use of a Haptic Simulator (United States)

    Kinnison, Tierney; Forrest, Neil David; Frean, Stephen Philip; Baillie, Sarah


    Traditional methods of teaching anatomy to undergraduate medical and veterinary students are being challenged and need to adapt to modern concerns and requirements. There is a move away from the use of cadavers to new technologies as a way of complementing the traditional approaches and addressing resource and ethical problems. Haptic (touch)…

  19. Anatomy and Physiology. Health Occupations Education. Teacher's Guide. (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Nine units on anatomy and physiology are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: organization and general plan of the body; skeletal and muscular systems; digestive system; circulatory system; respiratory system; nervous system and special senses; urinary system; reproductive system; and endocrine glands. Each instructional…

  20. Documenting correct assessment of biliary anatomy during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buddingh, K. T.; Morks, A. N.; Hoedemaker, H. O. ten Cate; Blaauw, C. B.; van Dam, G. M.; Ploeg, R. J.; Hofker, H. S.; Nieuwenhuijs, V. B.


    Background Correct assessment of biliary anatomy can be documented by photographs showing the "critical view of safety" (CVS) but also by intraoperative cholangiography (IOC). Methods Photographs of the CVS and IOC images for 63 patients were presented to three expert observers in a random and blind

  1. A virtual reality 3D jigsaw for teaching anatomy. (United States)

    Ruthenbeck, G S; Carati, C J; Gibbins, I L; Reynolds, K J


    Virtual Reality has some advantages over traditional teaching and learning media. Here we describe a VR Jigsaw which uses a novel interface to facilitate learning the anatomy of the skull. A small trial was performed which indicates that the software succeeds at engaging students and suggests that their comprehension of complex 3D structures was improved.

  2. Reading to Understand Anatomy: A Literature Circle Approach (United States)

    Calmer, Joseph; Straits, William


    As a science teacher, I regularly use outside reading assignments (e.g., news articles) to help develop my students' understanding of topics addressed in my anatomy class. However, I have found that in simply reading texts, students often fail to (1) understand the context of the science discussed, (2) make the connections between ideas…

  3. Anatomy and Selected Biomechanical Aspects of the Shoulder. (United States)

    Keene, James S.

    This paper focuses on the anatomy and functions of the shoulder that are relevant to the evaluation and treatment of athletic injuries. A discussion is presented on the four basic components of the shoulder mechanism: (1) super structure--bony components; (2) moving parts--joints involved; (3) motor power--musculature; and (4) communications…

  4. Strategic improvements for gross anatomy web-based teaching. (United States)

    Marker, David R; Juluru, Krishna; Long, Chris; Magid, Donna


    Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year's digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points) and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points). Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  5. Attitudes of Healthcare Students on Gross Anatomy Laboratory Sessions (United States)

    Kawashiro, Yukiko; Anahara, Reiko; Kohno, Toshihiko; Mori, Chisato; Matsuno, Yoshiharu


    At Chiba University, gross anatomy laboratory sessions ("laboratories") are required for physical therapy students. Though most physical therapy schools require their students to participate in laboratories so that they will better understand the structure of the human body, few data exist on the value of these laboratories specifically…

  6. Body Painting as a Tool in Clinical Anatomy Teaching (United States)

    McMenamin, Paul G.


    The teaching of human anatomy has had to respond to significant changes in medical curricula, and it behooves anatomists to devise alternative strategies to effectively facilitate learning of the discipline by medical students in an integrated, applied, relevant, and contextual framework. In many medical schools, the lack of cadaver dissection as…

  7. Anatomy education in Namibia: balancing facility design and curriculum development. (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian


    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed toward simplification of work flow and ease of use by faculty, staff, and students. From the onset, the integration of state of the art technology was pursued to facilitate teaching and promote a student-centered pedagogical approach to dissections. The program, as realized, is comprised of three 16-week semesters with seven hours of contact time per week, namely three hours of lectures and four hours of dissection laboratory and microscopy time. Set outcomes were established, each revolving around clinical cases with integrated medical imaging. The design of the facility itself was not constrained by a legacy structure, allowing the School of Medicine, in collaboration with architects and contractors, to design the building from scratch. A design was implemented that allows for the sequential processing of cadaveric material in a unidirectional flow from reception, to preparation, embalming, storage, dissection, and maceration. Importantly, the odor of formaldehyde typically associated with anatomy facilities was eliminated outside of the dissection areas and minimized within via a high-performance ventilation system. By holistically incorporating an integrated curriculum, facility design, and teaching at an early stage, the authors believe they have created a system that might serve as a model for new anatomy programs.

  8. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference? (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F


    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies.

  9. Clinical aspects of lagomorph dental anatomy: the rabbit (oryctolagus cuniculus). (United States)

    Crossley, D A


    The lagomorphs most commonly encountered as pets are rabbits. There are many breeds of domestic rabbit, varying from dwarf varieties with an adult weight of under one kilogram to giants weighing 10 kg. This article provides a working knowledge of the dental anatomy and physiology of rabbits so that veterinarians can interpret clinical and radiographic findings when investigating rabbits with suspected dental disease.

  10. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.


    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  11. Oral Anatomy Laboratory Examinations in a Physical Therapy Program (United States)

    Fabrizio, Philip A.


    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days.…

  12. How Useful Is YouTube in Learning Heart Anatomy? (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan


    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative…

  13. Effect of anatomy on spectroscopic detection of cervical dysplasia (United States)

    Mirkovic, Jelena; Lau, Condon; McGee, Sasha; Yu, Chung-Chieh; Nazemi, Jonathan; Galindo, Luis; Feng, Victoria; Darragh, Teresa; de Las Morenas, Antonio; Crum, Christopher; Stier, Elizabeth; Feld, Michael; Badizadegan, Kamran


    It has long been speculated that underlying variations in tissue anatomy affect in vivo spectroscopic measurements. We investigate the effects of cervical anatomy on reflectance and fluorescence spectroscopy to guide the development of a diagnostic algorithm for identifying high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs) free of the confounding effects of anatomy. We use spectroscopy in both contact probe and imaging modes to study patients undergoing either colposcopy or treatment for HSIL. Physical models of light propagation in tissue are used to extract parameters related to tissue morphology and biochemistry. Our results show that the transformation zone, the area in which the vast majority of HSILs are found, is spectroscopically distinct from the adjacent squamous mucosa, and that these anatomical differences can directly influence spectroscopic diagnostic parameters. Specifically, we demonstrate that performance of diagnostic algorithms for identifying HSILs is artificially enhanced when clinically normal squamous sites are included in the statistical analysis of the spectroscopic data. We conclude that underlying differences in tissue anatomy can have a confounding effect on diagnostic spectroscopic parameters and that the common practice of including clinically normal squamous sites in cervical spectroscopy results in artificially improved performance in distinguishing HSILs from clinically suspicious non-HSILs.

  14. Exploring the Use of a Facebook Page in Anatomy Education (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood


    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional…

  15. Teaching the Anatomy of a Scientific Journal Article (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Clayman, Karen; Busch, Allison K.; Tanner, Kimberly D.


    To promote inquiry-based learning, the authors integrate the anatomy of a scientific journal article into their secondary science curriculum. In this article, they present three classroom activities used to teach students about the function and format of scientific journal articles. The first focuses on journal article figures, the second on…

  16. Dissection Videos Do Not Improve Anatomy Examination Scores (United States)

    Mahmud, Waqas; Hyder, Omar; Butt, Jamaal; Aftab, Arsalan


    In this quasi-experimental study, we describe the effect of showing dissection videos on first-year medical students' performance in terms of test scores during a gross anatomy course. We also surveyed students' perception regarding the showing of dissection videos. Two hundred eighty-seven first-year medical students at Rawalpindi Medical College…

  17. Outcomes of a Rotational Dissection System in Gross Anatomy (United States)

    Marshak, David W.; Oakes, Joanne; Hsieh, Pei-Hsuan; Chuang, Alice Z.; Cleary, Leonard J.


    At the University of Texas Houston Medical School, a rotational dissection system was introduced to improve coordination between the Gross Anatomy and the Introduction to Clinical Medicine (ICM) courses. Six students were assigned to each cadaver and divided into two teams. For each laboratory, one team was assigned to dissect and the other to…

  18. Strategic Improvements for Gross Anatomy Web-Based Teaching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R. Marker


    Full Text Available Current generations of graduate students have been immersed in technology from their early school years and have high expectations regarding digital resources. To better meet the expectations of Gross Anatomy students at our institution, electronic radiology teaching files for first-year coursework were organized into a web site. The web site was custom designed to provide material that directly correlated to the Gross Anatomy dissection and lectures. Quick links provided sets of images grouped by anatomic location. Additionally, Lab and Study Companions provided specific material for the students to review prior to and after lectures and gross dissections. Student opinions of this education resource were compared to student opinions of the prior year’s digital teaching files. The new content was ranked as more user friendly (3.1 points versus 2.3 points and more useful for learning anatomy (3.3 points versus 2.6 points. Many students reported that using the web portal was critical in helping them to better understand relationships of anatomical structures. These findings suggest that a well-organized web portal can provide a user-friendly, valuable educational resource for medical students who are studying Gross Anatomy.

  19. Development of a Synergistic Case-Based Micro anatomy Curriculum (United States)

    McBride, Jennifer M.; Prayson, Richard A.


    This paper discusses the development of an interactive approach to teaching and assessing a micro anatomy curriculum in an innovative medical school program. As an alternative to lectures and labs, students are engaged in interactive seminars focused on discussion of clinical and research-based cases matched with normal histology and pathology…

  20. Assessment outcomes: computerized instruction in a human gross anatomy course. (United States)

    Bukowski, Elaine L


    New and traditional educational media were used to study alternative methods of instruction in a human gross anatomy course. Three consecutive entry-level physical therapy (PT) classes (55 students total) participated in this study. No other anatomy course was available to these students during this time. During the first year, all entering PT students (n = 18) completed a traditional cadaver anatomy course. This traditional group attended weekly lectures and dissection laboratories for 15 weeks. During the second year, the next entering class of PT students (n = 17) completed a self-study, computerized noncadaver anatomy course. This self-study group attended an introductory session to receive course objectives and instruction in using the computer package chosen for the study. After the introductory session, this group worked independently for the remainder of their 15-week course. During the third year, the entering class of PT students (n = 20) attended weekly lectures and completed a self-study, computerized non-cadaver laboratory course. This lecture and self-study group attended an introductory session to review course objectives and receive instruction in using the computer package. For the remainder of their 15-week course, this group attended a weekly lecture and worked independently on the computer for the laboratory portion of their course. All groups kept time logs, recording class and study time for each day of the course. The time logs were collected on the last day of each course. Each group's performance in anatomy-based system courses was followed through the remainder of the PT curricula, including clinical rotations, and through the completion of the state board licensure examination. Data were analyzed using a multivariate analysis of variance and a Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance. There was no significant difference in anatomy course class means, class study times, performance throughout the remainder of the PT curricula, and performance

  1. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan


    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  2. Plastination in Anatomy Learning: An Experience at Cambridge University. (United States)

    Latorre, Rafael; Bainbridge, David; Tavernor, Angie; López Albors, Octavio


    Due to lack of objective data, the benefits of using plastination in combination with wet dissection in teaching gross anatomy are unknown. The aim of this study was to obtain objective evidence from students regarding the effectiveness of combining plastinated specimens (PS) with an established gross anatomy education program at Cambridge University that uses wet cadaver dissection and small-group tutorials. For a complete academic year, a total of 135 PS were used alongside wet cadaver dissections. The PS were also available for small-group tutorials. An anonymous closed questionnaire, using a 5-point numerical-estimation Likert scale, was used to gather information relating to the effectiveness of the PS. The level of student satisfaction with the combined use of wet dissections and PS was high, although higher (p<.05) for second-year students (98.4%) than for first-year students (95.5%). Students felt the specimens allowed them to see details that were often more difficult to identify in their dissections, for instance nerves. Voluntary use of PS was higher (p<.01) for second-year students (96.9%), who had previously experienced anatomy teaching with cadaver dissection alone, than for first-year students (77.7%). Overall, 97.7% of all students thought that the PS helped them understand and learn anatomy. All students surveyed (100%) recommended the use of PS in the future. Students considered the use of PS in the dissection room combined with wet cadaver dissection to be beneficial when learning anatomy, particularly when combined with their use during small-group tutorials.

  3. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta


    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  4. The Role of Ultrasound in Graduate Anatomy Education: Current State of Integration in the United States and Faculty Perceptions (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F.


    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and…

  5. [History of anatomy - academy history. On the development of scientific academies in the Third Reich exemplified by anatomy]. (United States)

    Steger, Florian; Schütz, Mathias


    Research on the history of National Socialism has for decades ignored the German academies of sciences as well as the subject of anatomy. This was due to the rather minor roles the societies played in the scientific policy of the Third Reich and role anatomy played in medicine during this period of time. Recent investigations in both subjects were able to show how worthwhile the dealing with seemingly minor aspects of National Socialist policies is: Those aspects can especially help to sharpen the historical judgment of scientific and political actions. On the basis of recent archival research this article tries to present and analyze the subject of anatomy and the academies of sciences regarding their reciprocal relationship between 1933 and 1945. Besides the Leopoldina, the Prussian and the Bavarian Academies of Sciences will be focused on: By the examples of the anatomists represented in these societies it can be shown how anatomy as well as the societies developed under National Socialism and which general tendencies, entanglements and differences are relevant for the matter. The insight in this relationship focuses on the one hand on the anatomists represented in the societies. On the other hand it deals with the presence of anatomical research in the society, their meetings and publications, and especially with ideology and crimes reflected in this research.

  6. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy? (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.


    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  7. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay


    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  8. Anatomy Education in a Changing Medical Curriculum in India: Medical Student Feedback on Duration and Emphasis of Gross Anatomy Teaching (United States)

    Holla, Sunil Jonathan; Ramachandran, Kalpana; Isaac, Bina; Koshy, Shajan


    Authors report here a survey of medical student feedback on the effectiveness of two different anatomy curricula at Christian Medical College, Vellore, India. Undergraduate medical students seeking the Bachelor in Medicine and Bachelor in Surgery (M.B.B.S.) degrees were divided into two groups by the duration of their respective anatomy…

  9. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy? (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha


    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  10. Importance of Adequate Gross Anatomy Education: The Impact of a Structured Pelvic Anatomy Course during Gynecology Fellowship (United States)

    Heisler, Christine Aminda


    Medical education underwent standardization at the turn of the 20th century and remained fairly consistent until recently. Incorporation of a patient-centered or case-based curriculum is believed to reinforce basic science concepts. One negative aspect is a reduction in hours spent with cadaveric dissection in the gross anatomy laboratory. For…

  11. The history and the art of anatomy: a source of inspiration even nowadays. (United States)

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis


    Ever since man started to study systematically medicine for the first time he recognized the value of the knowledge of Anatomy in order to safely cut and treat the human body. However, over the centuries it has been proved that Anatomy is more than just a scientific field of medicine. The fact that Anatomy requires the use of human cadavers as an object to study brought to the surface many moral issues, which adumbrated its turbulent past. Additionally, Anatomy and its inextricable element, illustration, has many times been a source of inspiration for both the anatomists and the artists. This paper aims on the one hand to provide a condensed overview of the history of Anatomy and on the other hand to investigate the way Anatomy penetrates Art and, conversely, Art penetrates Anatomy.

  12. Leaf anatomy of four species grown under continuous CO/sub 2/ enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, J.F.; Harvey, C.N.


    The effects of continuous, atmospheric CO/sub 2/ enrichment on leaf anatomy and morphology were examined for corn, soybean, loblolly pine, and sweet gum. Plants were exposed to constantly monitored CO/sub 2/ levels of 340, 520, 718, and 910 ppM throughout the growing season in the field. Samples obtained from fully expanded leaves were subjected to routine anatomical procedures, sectioned transversely at 10, and measured for total thickness and thicknesses of epidermal, palisade, and spongy mesophyll layers. Epidermal peels and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe possible changes in leaf surfaces. Significant increases were measured in leaf thickness for the three C/sub 3/, species under enriched CO/sub 2/ conditions, but not for corn, a C/sub 4/ plant. The influence of CO/sub 2/ treatment on changes in stomatal indices was not significant, and there were no clear patterns in variation of stomatal frequency among treatments. Chloroplasts in leaf tissues of plants from CO/sub 2/-enriched treatments appeared denser and were more deeply stained by the crystal violet. 19 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  13. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom (United States)

    Boyd, Amy E.


    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  14. Leaf hydraulic conductance varies with vein anatomy across Arabidopsis thaliana wild-type and leaf vein mutants. (United States)

    Caringella, Marissa A; Bongers, Franca J; Sack, Lawren


    Leaf venation is diverse across plant species and has practical applications from paleobotany to modern agriculture. However, the impact of vein traits on plant performance has not yet been tested in a model system such as Arabidopsis thaliana. Previous studies analysed cotyledons of A. thaliana vein mutants and identified visible differences in their vein systems from the wild type (WT). We measured leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf ), vein traits, and xylem and mesophyll anatomy for A. thaliana WT (Col-0) and four vein mutants (dot3-111 and dot3-134, and cvp1-3 and cvp2-1). Mutant true leaves did not possess the qualitative venation anomalies previously shown in the cotyledons, but varied quantitatively in vein traits and leaf anatomy across genotypes. The WT had significantly higher mean Kleaf . Across all genotypes, there was a strong correlation of Kleaf with traits related to hydraulic conductance across the bundle sheath, as influenced by the number and radial diameter of bundle sheath cells and vein length per area. These findings support the hypothesis that vein traits influence Kleaf , indicating the usefulness of this mutant system for testing theory that was primarily established comparatively across species, and supports a strong role for the bundle sheath in influencing Kleaf .

  15. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee


    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  16. Moving the mountain: analysis of the effort required to transform comparative anatomy into computable anatomy. (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila; Dececchi, T Alexander; Ibrahim, Nizar; Lapp, Hilmar; Mabee, Paula


    The diverse phenotypes of living organisms have been described for centuries, and though they may be digitized, they are not readily available in a computable form. Using over 100 morphological studies, the Phenoscape project has demonstrated that by annotating characters with community ontology terms, links between novel species anatomy and the genes that may underlie them can be made. But given the enormity of the legacy literature, how can this largely unexploited wealth of descriptive data be rendered amenable to large-scale computation? To identify the bottlenecks, we quantified the time involved in the major aspects of phenotype curation as we annotated characters from the vertebrate phylogenetic systematics literature. This involves attaching fully computable logical expressions consisting of ontology terms to the descriptions in character-by-taxon matrices. The workflow consists of: (i) data preparation, (ii) phenotype annotation, (iii) ontology development and (iv) curation team discussions and software development feedback. Our results showed that the completion of this work required two person-years by a team of two post-docs, a lead data curator, and students. Manual data preparation required close to 13% of the effort. This part in particular could be reduced substantially with better community data practices, such as depositing fully populated matrices in public repositories. Phenotype annotation required ∼40% of the effort. We are working to make this more efficient with Natural Language Processing tools. Ontology development (40%), however, remains a highly manual task requiring domain (anatomical) expertise and use of specialized software. The large overhead required for data preparation and ontology development contributed to a low annotation rate of approximately two characters per hour, compared with 14 characters per hour when activity was restricted to character annotation. Unlocking the potential of the vast stores of morphological

  17. Limited acclimation in leaf anatomy to experimental drought in tropical rainforest trees. (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Mencuccini, Maurizio


    Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll. We also test whether differences in leaf anatomy are consistent with observed differential drought-induced mortality responses among taxa, and look for relationships between leaf anatomy, and leaf water relations and gas exchange parameters. Our data show that trees do not produce leaves that are more xeromorphic in response to 12 years of soil moisture deficit. However, the drought treatment did result in increases in the thickness of the adaxial epidermis (TFE: 20.5 ± 1.5 µm, control: 16.7 ± 1.0 µm) and the internal cavity volume (TFE: 2.43 ± 0.50 mm(3) cm(-2), control: 1.77 ± 0.30 mm(3) cm(-2)). No consistent differences were detected between drought-resistant and drought-sensitive taxa, although interactions occurred between drought-sensitivity status and drought treatment for the palisade mesophyll thickness (P = 0.034) and the cavity volume of the leaves (P = 0.025). The limited response to water deficit probably reflects a tight co-ordination between leaf morphology, water relations and photosynthetic properties. This suggests that there is little plasticity in these aspects of plant anatomy in these taxa, and that phenotypic plasticity in leaf traits may not facilitate the acclimation of Amazonian trees to the predicted future reductions in

  18. Clinical implications of the surgical anatomy of the sural nerve. (United States)

    Coert, J H; Dellon, A L


    The exact anatomy of the sural nerve remains important for many clinical situations. To better understand this anatomy, 25 embalmed and 10 fresh cadaver pairs were studied. The origin of the common sural nerve in relation to the fibular head and its medial and lateral sural components were investigated. The lateral sural nerve was absent in 4 percent of the embalmed cadavers. The lateral and medial sural nerves united in the popliteal fossa in 12 percent and in the lower third of the leg in 84 percent of the cadavers. A site was identified where the lateral sural and lateral cutaneous nerve of the calf pierced the deep fascia. This site was centered about the fibular head and may be viewed as a potential site of nerve compression. There is application of these findings to nerve grafting, neuroma prevention and treatment, and sural nerve biopsy.

  19. Burton's Anatomy and the Intellectual Traditions of Melancholy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angus Gowland


    Full Text Available This article discusses the ways in which Robert Burton’s Anatomy of Melancholy (1621 inherited and transformed the various European traditions of thinking about melancholy. It divides these traditions into four categories—medical, natural-philosophical, moral-philosophical, and theological—and surveys their conceptual contents from antiquity to the late Renaissance. Whilst the Anatomy summarises these traditions, it also modified them in notable ways, fusing medical and moral theory, but also extending the reach of medicine into the religious domain. Paradoxically, however, Burton’s medicalisation of the moral and theological traditions of melancholy gave them a conceptual coherence which they had previously lacked, and contributed to their persistence beyond the seventeenth century.

  20. Anatomy of the optic nerve head and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. (United States)

    Radius, R L


    The mechanism of axon damage in eyes with glaucomatous optic neuropathy remains undefined. Interestingly, it has been observed that, although the entire nerve cross-section may be involved by the nerve damage, in many instances, the superior and inferior axon bundles are preferentially affected by the pressure insult. Thus, recent studies by many investigators have stressed a re-examination of the optic nerve head anatomy, including the nerve head microcirculation, the glial and connective tissue elements within the nerve head, and the morphology of the axons themselves. Any correlation between regional differences in this anatomy and the preferential involvement by specific axon bundles within the nerve head by the pressure insult may suggest some further insight into the mechanisms underlying the pressure-induced axon loss in glaucomatous eyes.

  1. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging. (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J


    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs.

  2. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal). (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B


    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  3. Anatomy of thyroid and parathyroid glands and neurovascular relations. (United States)

    Mohebati, A; Shaha, A R


    Historically, thyroid surgery has been fraught with complications. Injury to the recurrent laryngeal nerve, superior laryngeal nerve, or the parathyroid glands may result in profound life-long consequences for the patient. To minimize the morbidity of the operation, a surgeon must have an in-depth understanding of the anatomy of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and be able to apply this information to perform a safe and effective operation. This article will review the pertinent anatomy and embryology of the thyroid and parathyroid glands and the critical structures that lie in their proximity. This information should aid the surgeon in appropriate identification and preservation of the function of these structures and to avoid the pitfalls of the operation.

  4. Pediatric cervical spine: normal anatomy, variants, and trauma. (United States)

    Lustrin, Elizabeth Susan; Karakas, Sabiha Pinar; Ortiz, A Orlando; Cinnamon, Jay; Castillo, Mauricio; Vaheesan, Kirubahara; Brown, James H; Diamond, Alan S; Black, Karen; Singh, Sudha


    Emergency radiologic evaluation of the pediatric cervical spine can be challenging because of the confusing appearance of synchondroses, normal anatomic variants, and injuries that are unique to children. Cervical spine injuries in children are usually seen in the upper cervical region owing to the unique biomechanics and anatomy of the pediatric cervical spine. Knowledge of the normal embryologic development and anatomy of the cervical spine is important to avoid mistaking synchondroses for fractures in the setting of trauma. Familiarity with anatomic variants is also important for correct image interpretation. These variants include pseudosubluxation, absence of cervical lordosis, wedging of the C3 vertebra, widening of the predental space, prevertebral soft-tissue widening, intervertebral widening, and "pseudo-Jefferson fracture." In addition, familiarity with mechanisms of injury and appropriate imaging modalities will aid in the correct interpretation of radiologic images of the pediatric cervical spine.

  5. [Clinical anatomy of the horse: teeth and dentition]. (United States)

    Staszyk, C


    The routine inspection of the equine oral cavity allows a numerical assessment of the teeth and provides information about positional changes within the dentition. By use of appropriate dental equipment, the occlusal surfaces of all teeth can be inspected and diagnosed. However, neither the teeth nor their occlusal surfaces are constant structures. Instead, equine teeth and, in particular, their occlusal surfaces are subjected to continuous morphological and positional changes due to the effects of aging and the equine-specific high amount of occlusal wear. Therefore, it is mandatory to define anatomical criteria, which allow us to distinguish between anatomical variations and pathological conditions. Moreover, an unambiguous nomenclature with regard to the equine-specific dental anatomy is essential. This article provides a tutorial overview of the equine dental anatomy as well as recent findings in the field of equine dentistry. Special attention is paid to dynamic changes within both individual teeth and dentition.

  6. Cerebellar anatomy as applied to cerebellar microsurgical resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To define the anatomy of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles, demonstrating the surgical application of anatomic landmarks in cerebellar resections. METHODS: Twenty cerebellar hemispheres were studied. RESULTS: The majority of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles had demonstrated constant relationship to other cerebellar structures, which provided landmarks for surgical approaching. The lateral border is separated from the midline by 19.5 mm in both hemispheres. The posterior border of the cortex is separated 23.3 mm from the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus; the lateral one is separated 26 mm from the lateral border of the nucleus; and the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus is separated 25.4 mm from the posterolateral angle formed by the junction of lateral and posterior borders of cerebellar hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical anatomy has provided important landmarks that could be applied to cerebellar surgical resections.

  7. [Anatomy of six species of Dryopteris ferns (Dryopteridaceae) from Mexico]. (United States)

    Hernández, Victoria; Terrazas, Teresa; Angeles, Guillermo


    Rhizome and foliar anatomy of the Mexican Dryopteris Adans. species were studied and compared with other Dryopteridaceae and other fern families to identify anatomical features with diagnostic value. The anatomy of rhizome, stipe, and blade is similar in species of the Dryopteris patula complex. The cells with un-lignified, thickened wall, with cap or U-shape around the meristeles belong to the collenchyma, in contrast with other fern families. Dryopteris wallichiana (Spreng.) Hyl. is anatomically distinguished from the other studied species by having more layers of sclerenchyma and meristeles on the stipe, and by the lack of sclereid nests on the rhizome. Dryopteris rossii C. Chr. and D. maxonii Underw. & C. Chr. are characterized by the presence of crystals on the periphery of rhizome nests. D. maxonni and D. wallichiana lack blade glands.

  8. Bariatric surgery: A review of normal postoperative anatomy and complications

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    Quigley, S., E-mail: [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Colledge, J. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, S. [Bariatric Surgery Unit, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Patel, K. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)


    The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.

  9. [Anatomy in National Socialism: stages of an ethical transgression]. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, Sabine


    Systematic research on the history of anatomy in National Socialism (NS) has only started in recent years. It has shown that anatomists used the bodies of NS victims for anatomical teaching and research purposes. In this they became complicit with the NS regime. There was a high percentage of Nazi party members among the anatomists, but at the same time there were anatomists whose careers were disrupted for so-called "racial" and political reasons. Decisive aspects of this history are first, the fact that traditional sources of anatomical body procurement included increasing numbers of NS victims and second, the gradual change of the traditional anatomical paradigm of working with the dead to a new paradigm of working with the "future dead" in human experimentation. This history has importance for the development of new ethical guidelines in anatomy.

  10. ECOLOGICAL WOOD ANATOMY OF Blepharocalyx salicifolius (H. B. K. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Denardi


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is the comparison of the wood anatomy of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (H. B. K. Berg (Myrtaceae from two provenances in the State of Rio Grande do Sul. There were collected 6 samples of wood; three from “Serra do Sudeste” and the others from “Campos de Cima da Serra”. The wood anatomical features did not express relevant differences between provenances, with the exception of pith flecks. With respect to the quantitative features, on the other hand, there were found important differences in the structure of vessels, axial parenchyma, rays and fibres. For the “Serra do Sudeste” samples, there were found xeric evidences in the wood: a larger number of small vessels, besides shorter vessel members and fibres, in comparison with those from the “Campos de Cima da Serra” region. The differences in the wood anatomy may be interpreted as adaptative responses to environmental conditions.

  11. Cryosectional observations of functional anatomy of the temporomandibular joint. (United States)

    Westesson, P L; Kurita, K; Eriksson, L; Katzberg, R W


    The anatomy and function of the temporomandibular joint are complex, and our understanding about how the retrocondylar tissues change when the condyle translates anteriorly has been incomplete. We therefore examined the sectional anatomy of 24 fresh human temporomandibular joints at different gradations of jaw opening, protrusion, and laterotrusion. We found that the tissues of the posterior disk attachment expanded in volume and occupied the space behind the condyle when the mouth was opened, protruded, or laterotruded to the contralateral side. Volumetric expansion of the tissue seemed to be due mainly to distension of the venous structures in the retrodiskal area. In the lateral region of the joint, tissue from the superior aspect of the parotid gland also seemed to contribute to the filling of the space posterior to the condyle. Thus, the retrodiskal tissue appears to have a substantial capacity to expand and fill the mandibular fossa when the condyle translates anteriorly. The possibility of a dynamic vascular physiology is suggested.

  12. Zur Legitimation der Verwendung menschlicher Leichen in der heutigen Anatomie


    Winkelmann, Andreas


    Anatomists use human bodies for research, teaching and advanced medical training. Despite a long tradition and the more recent legal regulation of 'body donation', this practise is nevertheless burdened with legal and ethical uncertainties. Therefore, modern-day anatomy still needs a well-founded legitimation of cadaver use. The educational research presented here demonstrates that, on methodological grounds, it remains difficult to produce a 'final' judgement on the effectiveness of anato...

  13. Study on Quantitative Character for Anatomy in Tomato Seedling Stem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Fuheng; WEI Liyan; YU Longfeng; QI Donglai; ZHANG Da


    The results of quantitative characters for anatomy in stems of three varieties tomatoes seedlings showed that the cell population between vascular bundle and epidermis, the cellular layers among vascular bundles and the cell population in an unit area(mm2) of no vascular bundle areas were similar and there had small difference among three varieties. On the foundation of these studies, the developmental mechanism of tomato seedling stem was discussed.

  14. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

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    Benny eLiberg


    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  15. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference? (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen


    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions.

  16. Anatomy of the pleura: reflection lines and recesses. (United States)

    Bertin, François; Deslauriers, Jean


    Knowledge of the anatomy of the lines of pleural reflection, triangular ligaments, and pleural recesses is important to thoracic surgeons because their anatomic areas are used daily for radiographic interpretation as well as for the performance of procedures such as chest tube insertion, thoracentesis, and pericardiocentesis. Their knowledge is also important for thoracic surgeons doing surgical procedures such as parietal pleurectomies, extrapleural mobilization and resection of the lungs, and pleuroneumonectomies for destroyed lungs or malignant pleural neoplasms.

  17. Da Vinci's codex and the anatomy of healthcare. (United States)

    Stephens-Borg, Keith


    We usually display a laid-back approach to medical jargon throughout our theatre work. The word 'perioperative' is built from the Greek word 'peri' (around) and the Latin 'operari' (to work). Latin and Greek became the prefixed language of choice for Leonardo da Vinci, and his research was pivotal in determining the way in which surgical procedures are documented. Ancient manuscripts aided the unfolding of the secrets of anatomy, and Leonardo revealed that art was the key in expressive detailed explanation.

  18. Exploring the use of a Facebook page in anatomy education. (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood


    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional classroom. Observations were made on students' perceptions and effectiveness of using the Page, potential benefits and challenges of such use, and which Insights metrics best reflect user's engagement. The Human Anatomy Education Page was launched on Facebook and incorporated into anatomy resources for 157 medical students during two academic years. Students' use of Facebook and their perceptions of the Page were surveyed. Facebook's "Insights" tool was also used to evaluate Page performance during a period of 600 days. The majority of in-class students had a Facebook account which they adopted in education. Most students perceived Human Anatomy Education Page as effective in contributing to learning and favored "self-assessment" posts. The majority of students agreed that Facebook could be a suitable learning environment. The "Insights" tool revealed globally distributed fans with considerable Page interactions. The use of a faculty-administered Facebook Page provided a venue to enhance classroom teaching without intruding into students' social life. A wider educational use of Facebook should be adopted not only because students are embracing its use, but for its inherent potentials in boosting learning. The "Insights" metrics analyzed in this study might be helpful when establishing and evaluating the performance of education-oriented Facebook Pages.

  19. Anatomy, modelling and prediction of aeroservoelastic rotorcraft-pilot-coupling.


    Gennaretti, M.; Collela, M.M.; Serafini, J.; Dang Vu, B.; Masarati, P.; Quaranta, G; Muscarello, V.; Jump, M.; M. Jones; Lu, L.(Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Wuppertal, Germany); Ionita, A.; Fuiorea, I.; Mihaila-Andres, M.; Stefan, R


    Research activity and results obtained within the European project ARISTOTEL (2010-2013) are presented. It deals with anatomy, modelling and prediction of Rotorcraft Pilot Coupling (RPC) phenomena, which are a really broad and wide category of events, ranging from discomfort to catastrophic crash. The main topics concerning piloted helicopter simulation that are of interest for designers are examined. These include comprehensive rotorcraft modelling suited for Pilot Assisted Oscillations (PAO...

  20. The visible human and digital anatomy learning initiative. (United States)

    Dev, Parvati; Senger, Steven


    A collaborative initiative is starting within the Internet2 Health Science community to explore the development of a framework for providing access to digital anatomical teaching resources over Internet2. This is a cross-cutting initiative with broad applicability and will require the involvement of a diverse collection of communities. It will seize an opportunity created by a convergence of needs and technical capabilities to identify the technologies and standards needed to support a sophisticated collection of tools for teaching anatomy.

  1. Multidisciplinary approach in the teaching of dental sculpture and anatomy


    Buchaim, Rogério Leone; Andreo, Jesus Carlos; Rodrigues,Antonio de Castro; Gonçalves, Jéssica Barbosa de Oliveira; Daré, Letícia Rossi; Rosa Junior, Geraldo Marco; Buchaim, Daniela Vieira; Oliveira,José Américo de


    The purpose of the Dental Sculpture and Anatomy discipline is to introduce undergraduate students to the study of the anatomic and morphological characteristics of permanent and primary human dentition, through classes, books and cognitive and psychomotor activities. This discipline supports the teaching of specific knowledge necessary for a more extensive education, involving interdisciplinarity as a means of knowledge exchange among several areas of dentistry, to achieve comprehensive profe...

  2. Brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in Asperger's syndrome. (United States)

    McAlonan, Grainne M; Daly, Eileen; Kumari, Veena; Critchley, Hugo D; van Amelsvoort, Therese; Suckling, John; Simmons, Andrew; Sigmundsson, Thordur; Greenwood, Kathyrn; Russell, Ailsa; Schmitz, Nicole; Happe, Francesca; Howlin, Patricia; Murphy, Declan G M


    Asperger's syndrome (an autistic disorder) is characterized by stereotyped and obsessional behaviours, and pervasive abnormalities in socio-emotional and communicative behaviour. These symptoms lead to social exclusion and a significant healthcare burden; however, their neurobiological basis is poorly understood. There are few studies on brain anatomy of Asperger's syndrome, and no focal anatomical abnormality has been reliably reported from brain imaging studies of autism, although there is increasing evidence for differences in limbic circuits. These brain regions are important in sensorimotor gating, and impaired 'gating' may partly explain the failure of people with autistic disorders to inhibit repetitive thoughts and actions. Thus, we compared brain anatomy and sensorimotor gating in healthy people with Asperger's syndrome and controls. We included 21 adults with Asperger's syndrome and 24 controls. All had normal IQ and were aged 18-49 years. We studied brain anatomy using quantitative MRI, and sensorimotor gating using prepulse inhibition of startle in a subset of 12 individuals with Asperger's syndrome and 14 controls. We found significant age-related differences in volume of cerebral hemispheres and caudate nuclei (controls, but not people with Asperger's syndrome, had age-related reductions in volume). Also, people with Asperger's syndrome had significantly less grey matter in fronto-striatal and cerebellar regions than controls, and widespread differences in white matter. Moreover, sensorimotor gating was significantly impaired in Asperger's syndrome. People with Asperger's syndrome most likely have generalized alterations in brain development, but this is associated with significant differences from controls in the anatomy and function of specific brain regions implicated in behaviours characterizing the disorder. We hypothesize that Asperger's syndrome is associated with abnormalities in fronto-striatal pathways resulting in defective sensorimotor

  3. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy


    Rehkämper, Gerd


    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans , and physician competencies , because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be...

  4. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy. (United States)

    Rehkämper, Gerd


    The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  5. Bridges of the sella turcica - anatomy and topography. (United States)

    Skrzat, Janusz; Mroz, Izabela; Marchewka, Justyna


    This paper presents anatomy and topography of the inconstant osseous bridges that may occur in the sella turcica region. The interclinoid bridge and the caroticoclinoid bridge can be formed in consequence of abnormal ossification of the dural folds or disturbances in development of the sphenoid bone. Their presence may be of clinical importance because of potential influence on the neurovascular structures passing in the vicinity of the clinoid processes of the sphenoid bone.

  6. Morphology, Physiology, and Anatomy of Penny Fern (Drymoglossum phyloselloidesand Its Effect on Cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Yuliasmara


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the anatomy, physiology and morphology of penny fern (Drimoglosum phylloseloides and its effect on cocoa. Morphological observation of penny fern used microscope to observe the roots, stems, leaves and spores. Physiology of penny fern was observed based on number of stomata and stomatal conductance using stomata printing method, while the amount of chlorophyll based on spectrophotometric method and rate of transpiration used cobalt chloride paper. Penny fern anatomy on cross-sectional and longitudinal in roots, stems and leaves. Penny fern growth was observed based the length of tendrils once a week during rainy and dry season. While the effect of penny fern invasion was observed based on variable leaf area with gravimetric method, the cross-section of attacked cacao branch using microtom and microscope and chlorophyll content by chlorophyll meter. Results showed that penny fern is a epiphytic weed which was crassulaceae acid metabolism plants that have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide at night and carry out photosynthesis during the day with closed stomata. Penny ferns reproduce using spores. The growth rate of penny fern 2.18 cm/week during the dry season and while in rainy season 3.89 cm/week. Penny fern leaf contains 0.0212 mg/g chlorophyll. Penny fern stomata density was 18.33/mm 2 with a width of opening stomata at night 26.3 µm which caused a veryslow rate of transpiration of 0.69 mm 2 /seconds. The existence penny fern on cocoa decreased leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased crop productivity which was indicated by decreasing in number of flowers, number of small, medium fruit, and large pods. However it had no effect on the number of leaves on one side flush cocoa. Key words: Drimoglosum phylloseloides, weeds, decrease productivity, Theobroma cacao

  7. The role of radial oxygen loss and root anatomy on zinc uptake and tolerance in mangrove seedlings

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    Cheng, H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Y. [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Mariculture Ecology and Products Quality and Safety, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Tam, N.F.Y. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wang, X. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, S.Y.; Chen, G.Z. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Root anatomy, radial oxygen loss (ROL) and zinc (Zn) uptake and tolerance in mangrove plants were investigated using seedlings of Aegiceras corniculatum, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Rhizophora stylosa. The results revealed that B. gymnorrhiza, which possessed the 'tightest barrier' in ROL spatial patterns among the three species studied, took up the least Zn and showed the highest Zn tolerance. Furthermore, zinc significantly decreased the ROL of all three plants by inhibition of root permeability, which included an obvious thickening of outer cortex and significant increases of lignification in cell walls. The results of SEM X-ray microanalysis further confirmed that such an inducible, low permeability of roots was likely an adaptive strategy to metal stress by direct prevention of excessive Zn entering into the root. The present study proposes new evidence of structural adaptive strategy on metal tolerance by mangrove seedlings. - Mangrove seedlings with a 'tighter barrier' in ROL spatial pattern exhibit higher Zn tolerance.

  8. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review. (United States)

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G


    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  9. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages. (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye


    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  10. Misplaced central venous catheters: applied anatomy and practical management. (United States)

    Gibson, F; Bodenham, A


    Large numbers of central venous catheters (CVCs) are placed each year and misplacement occurs frequently. This review outlines the normal and abnormal anatomy of the central veins in relation to the placement of CVCs. An understanding of normal and variant anatomy enables identification of congenital and acquired abnormalities. Embryological variations such as a persistent left-sided superior vena cava are often diagnosed incidentally only after placement of a CVC, which is seen to take an abnormal course on X-ray. Acquired abnormalities such as stenosis or thrombosis of the central veins can be problematic and can present as a failure to pass a guidewire or catheter or complications after such attempts. Catheters can also be misplaced outside veins in a patient with otherwise normal anatomy with potentially disastrous consequences. We discuss the possible management options for these patients including the various imaging techniques used to verify correct or incorrect catheter placement and the limitations of each. If the course of a misplaced catheter can be correctly identified as not lying within a vulnerable structure then it can be safely removed. If the misplaced catheter is lying within or traversing large and incompressible arteries or veins, it should not be removed before consideration of what is likely to happen when it is removed. Advice and further imaging should be sought, typically in conjunction with interventional radiology or vascular surgery. With regard to misplaced CVCs, in the short term, a useful aide memoir is: 'if in doubt, don't take it out'.

  11. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population. (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S


    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration.

  12. Anatomy and Aesthetics of the Labia Minora: The Ideal Vulva? (United States)

    Clerico, C; Larry, A; Mojallal, A; Boucher, F


    Female genital cosmetic surgery is becoming more and more widespread both in the field of plastic and gynaecological surgery. The increased demand for vulvar surgery is spurred by the belief that the vulva is abnormal in appearance. What is normal in terms of labial anatomy? Labia minora enlargement or hypertrophy remains a clinical diagnosis which is poorly defined as it could be considered a variation of the normal anatomy. Enlarged labia minora can cause functional, aesthetic and psychosocial problems. In reality, given the wide variety of vulvar morphology among people, it is a very subjective issue to define the "normal" vulva. The spread of nudity in the general media plays a major role in creating an artificial image and standards with regard to the ideal form. Physicians should be aware that the patient's self-perception of the normal or ideal vulva is highly influenced by the arguably distorted image related to our socio-psychological environment, as presented to us by the general media and internet. As physicians, we have to educate our patients on the variation of vulvar anatomy and the potential risks of these surgeries. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these evidence-based medicine ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors .

  13. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  14. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system. (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M


    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  15. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students. (United States)

    Pickering, James D


    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning.

  16. Systematic anatomy of Erythroxylum P. Browne: practical and evolutionary implications for the cultivated cocas. (United States)

    Rury, P M


    Preliminary study of the pantropical Erythroxylaceae indicates that anatomical features can provide valuable insight into the generic, infra-generic and specific affinities of unidentified specimens. Combinations of qualitative and quantitative anatomical data are most reliable when considered in conjunction with relevant ecological and plant morphological data. Extreme caution is advised in such taxonomic applications due to the intergrading patterns of anatomical variation exhibited within the family. Careful consideration must be given to the potential influence on anatomy of factors such as plant age, habit, leaf morphology and environmental conditions. Although a few species of Erythroxylum are identifiable solely on the basis of unique wood anatomical features, the majority of species can be identified only through a combination of morphological and vegetative anatomical features. Closely related species and species of similar habitats are often very similar in their wood and leaf structure. Anatomical differences are more subtle among the cultivated cocas and their closest neotropical relatives than among most taxa of Erythroxylaceae. A typological concept of foliar venation patterns among the cultivated cocas permits the varietal identification of isolated coca leaves. Several neotropical relatives of the cultivated cocas represent potential adulterants in commercial samples of coca leaf as a result of their striking similarity to genuine coca in leaf form, venation and anatomy. Due to the broad and overlapping range of leaf structural variation exhibited among the cultivated cocas and their nearest relatives, identifications of isolated leaves or leaf fragments are ill-advised in the absence of relevant ecological data. Patterns of wood and leaf anatomical variation within the Erythroxylaceae are most readily explicable as the result of evolutionary diversification in plant habit, leaf size, form and relative duration. Significant correlations among wood


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whika Febria Dewatisari


    Full Text Available Sansevieria is an ornamental plant which has variation leaves on colour and form. It has unstabilizaton characteristic of genetic. This condition especially happens on species Sansevieria trifasciata. Sansevieria trifasciata which has been expressed to the colour and form of leaves. Variation in isozyme banding pattern knew morpholog variation in species S. trifasciata. The aim of this research looked at difference of anatomycal structure for organs, and any variation in their isozyme banding pattern of S. trifasciata Green tiger, Hahnii medio picta, Green arrow, Golden hahnii, serta Hahnii cream. The approach were used morphology and microscopic observation of surface leaf, stalk, and root organs; isozyme banding pattern used electrophoresis method. The genetic diversity knew from the analyze result of isozyme based on the matric of genetic distance which applied on the shape of dendogram with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis metode average linkage (between groups program SPSS 14. The results showed that genetic diversity of S. trifasciata Hahnii cream, Green arrow, Hahnii medio picta, Golden hahnii, and Green tiger have been found. Morphology observations, there was a unique character on S. trifasciata Hahnii medio picta,while the microscopic observation on leaves organ, all varieties have the same form, Green arrow has different on stalk cells compared with the others varieties. Root cells of Golden Hahnii and Hahnii cream have same cell. The dendogram resulting from peroxydase data of S. trifasciata was clustered in two groups while S. trifasciata Hahnii medio picta has own character in group. Accordingly the esterase data showing it divided two group, S. trifasciata Golden hahnii has own character.

  18. Regulation of leaf hydraulics: from molecular to whole plant levels



    The water status of plant leaves is dependent on both stomatal regulation and water supply from the vasculature to inner tissues. The present review addresses the multiple physiological and mechanistic facets of the latter process. Inner leaf tissues contribute to at least a third of the whole resistance to water flow within the plant. Physiological studies indicated that leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf) is highly dependent on the anatomy, development and age of the leaf and can vary rapidl...

  19. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

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    Taiza M. Silva


    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  20. Pertumbuhan dan struktur anatomi daun dua varietas ganyong (Canna edulis pada ketersediaan air berbeda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Dewi OR, Pitoyo A, Anggarwulan E. 2013. Pertumbuhan dan struktur anatomi daun dua varietas ganyong (Canna edulis pada ketersediaan air berbeda. Bioteknologi 11: 5-10. The aim of the research was to study the effect of different water availability on growth and anatomical structure of leaves of two varieties of canna (Canna edulis Kerr., which are verdos varieties (white varieties and morados varieties (red varieties. Information about physiological and anatomical character of canna is important in order to their cropping development. The research done in randomized design with 2 factors and 3 replicates. The first factor was canna’s varieties (white and red. The second factor was water availability in 5 different fields capacities (20%, 40%, 60%, 80% and 100%. The treatments were be done in 8 weeks, with variable measured, the character growth of plant height, fresh weight, dry weight and leaf anatomical structure indexes include stomata, tick of mesophyll and epidermis. The data were analyzed by analysis of varians, followed by DMRT in 5% confident level. The results showed that differences in crop varieties and the availability of water affect the growth and anatomical structure of cannas’ leaves. Optimum growth found in 80% water availability FC both white and red varieties. Fresh weight, dry weight, stomatal index showed a significant difference, while plant height, thick mesophyll and epidermal thickness showed no significant difference. White varieties more resistant to water stress than red varieties.

  1. Anatomy online: presentation of a detailed WWW atlas of human gross anatomy--reference for medical education. (United States)

    Jastrow, Holger; Vollrath, Lutz


    We present an online anatomy atlas based on the Visible Human Project (VHP) of the US National Library of Medicine. The objective is to provide original unlabeled as well as labeled sections of the human body of high quality and resolution on the Internet, for use in basic and continuing medical education. For a representative overview of the body, 370 axial sections were selected from the male and female data base of the VHP with special regard to regions of clinical interest. Each section is accompanied by its corresponding computer tomography (CT) image and, if available, magnetic resonance images (MRI) for quick and easy comparison of morphologic and radiologic structures. The sections can be studied unlabeled or labeled according to the current Terminologia Anatomica. A linked vocabulary with more than 850 terms explains the labeling. Animations of the sections as well as of CT and MR images allow for further visualization of the topographic relationships of anatomical structures. The responses to the project indicate that students and physicians regard the Internet Atlas of Human Gross Anatomy as a most useful aid for learning and reviewing anatomical details. The atlas is accessible on:

  2. Alternative uses of didactics scripts and anatomy models in the teaching-learning in practical human anatomy

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    Gleidially Nayara Bezerra Moraes


    Full Text Available The teaching and learning process is complex and difficult presented with respect to the human anatomy. Thus, the improvement of teaching resources applied to the teaching of this discipline, shows up as a satisfactory trend and encourages student participation as an active subject in the search for new informations, giving essential support teaching-learning process. The aim of the study was to verify the existence and utilization of teaching scripts and anatomical models in practicals classes of Human Anatomy. The study was a descriptive systematic review, developed with scientific production indexed in electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE, GOOGLE ACADEMICO and SciELO; as well as Brazilian proceedings. Among the 17 articles found, 9 showed the use of anatomical models, 7 showed other methods used, and only 1 on the use of didactic manual on classroom practice of this discipline. From the study, it can be observed that the use of teaching scripts for teaching in practical classes of Human Anatomy is an innovative method and the use of anatomical models alternative has shown positive results in the teaching-learning process. However, these methods, ever can replace the use of the corpse in the teaching of this discipline.

  3. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students


    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu


    Background: The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students.Methods: Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise.Results: Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped fa...



    Joan Bryant*1, Manjunatha Goud BK2, Anand Srinivasan3 and Vijayalakshmi SB3


    Human Anatomy and Physiology is an important core component for all allied healthcare professional education. At our university, we offer an integrated Human Anatomy and Physiology course (HAP) to the first year Pharmacy students. The main objective of this study was to ascertain and compare Pharmacy undergraduate students’ opinions and attitudes towards the integrated course of human anatomy and physiology. A pre-validated questionnaire was given to students of first year pharma...

  5. Human tooth pulp anatomy visualization by 3D magnetic resonance microscopy:



    Background Precise assessment of dental pulp anatomy is of an extreme importance for a successful endodontic treatment. As standard radiographs of teeth provide very limited information on dental pulp anatomy, more capable methods are highly appreciated. One of these is 3D magnetic resonance (MR) microscopy of which diagnostic capabilities in terms of a better dental pulp anatomy assessment were evaluated in the study. Materials and methods Twenty extracted human teeth were scanned on a 2.35 ...

  6. Out of the dissection room. An experience of outdoor practical sessions for animal anatomy education


    ParésCasanova, M.


    Practical exercises are an essential component of anatomy education, so anatomy sessions including dissection are essentialfor animal anatomy courses. In Spain there are not difficulties in obtaining farm animal corpses for educational purposes(although some sanitary laws restrict it in certain cases) neither in general ethical constraints. From 2009 we have been doingoutdoor animal dissection for 1st level students of the “Animal Health and Science” degree course of the University of Lleidai...

  7. [Anatomy of the vegetative organs of two species of Atriplex (Chenopodiaceae) from Venezuela]. (United States)

    Jáuregui, Damelis; Castro, Mercedes; Ruiz-Zapata, Thirza; Lapp, Marlene


    In Venezuela, Atriplex is represented by A. cristata and A. oestophora, the latter being endemic; they inhabit coastal areas with high temperatures, high solar radiation and sandy soils with high salt content. This work aimed to provide information to facilitate and clarify these species taxonomic delimitation, throughout the study of the anatomy of their vegetative organs; this may also clarify our understanding of their adaptability to soil and climatic conditions prevailing in areas they inhabit. The plant material was collected from at least three individuals of each species in Punta Taima Taima and Capatárida, Falcon. Segments of roots, located near the neck and towards the apex, apical, middle and basal internodes of stems, were taken; and of leaves, located in the middle portion of plants. This material was fixed in FAA (formaldehyde, acetic acid, 70% ethanol) until processing. Semipermanent and permanent microscope slides were prepared with transverse or longitudinal sections, made using a razor (free-hand) or a rotation microtome, in this latter case, after paraffin embedding; besides, additional plates were mounted with portions of leaf epidermis, obtained by the maceration technique. The sections were stained with aqueous toluidine blue (1%) or safranin-fast-green, and mounted in water-glycerin or in Canada balsam. In order to calculate the vulnerability index, the vessel diameter in the vascular rings of roots, as well as their density, were quantified. Our results revealed structural features in the different organs, that resulted of taxonomic value and allowed the distinction of the species: in the leaf, the presence of aquifer tissue, the number of vascular bundles and their organization in the midrib, and the collenchyma differentiation in this part of the leaf; in the roots, the xylem and phloem arrangement in the growth rings, the nature of conjunctive tissue, and the presence of included phloem in one species. In addition, the species showed

  8. The anatomy of E-Learning tools: Does software usability influence learning outcomes? (United States)

    Van Nuland, Sonya E; Rogers, Kem A


    Reductions in laboratory hours have increased the popularity of commercial anatomy e-learning tools. It is critical to understand how the functionality of such tools can influence the mental effort required during the learning process, also known as cognitive load. Using dual-task methodology, two anatomical e-learning tools were examined to determine the effect of their design on cognitive load during two joint learning exercises. A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy is a simplistic, two-dimensional tool that presents like a textbook, whereas Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy has a more complex three-dimensional usability that allows structures to be rotated. It was hypothesized that longer reaction times on an observation task would be associated with the more complex anatomical software (Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy), indicating a higher cognitive load imposed by the anatomy software, which would result in lower post-test scores. Undergraduate anatomy students from Western University, Canada (n = 70) were assessed using a baseline knowledge test, Stroop observation task response times (a measure of cognitive load), mental rotation test scores, and an anatomy post-test. Results showed that reaction times and post-test outcomes were similar for both tools, whereas mental rotation test scores were positively correlated with post-test values when students used Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy (P = 0.007), but not when they used A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy. This suggests that a simple e-learning tool, such as A.D.A.M. Interactive Anatomy, is as effective as more complicated tools, such as Netter's 3D Interactive Anatomy, and does not academically disadvantage those with poor spatial ability. Anat Sci Educ 9: 378-390. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  9. Computed tomography-enhanced anatomy course using enterprise visualization. (United States)

    May, Hila; Cohen, Haim; Medlej, Bahaa; Kornreich, Liora; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel


    Rapid changes in medical knowledge are forcing continuous adaptation of the basic science courses in medical schools. This article discusses a three-year experience developing a new Computed Tomography (CT)-based anatomy curriculum at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, including describing the motivations and reasoning for the new curriculum, the CT-based learning system itself, practical examples of visual dissections, and student assessments of the new curriculum. At the heart of this new curriculum is the emphasis on studying anatomy by navigating inside the bodies of various living individuals utilizing a CT viewer. To assess the students' experience with the new CT-based learning method, an anonymous questionnaire was administered at the end of the course for three consecutive academic years: 2008/2009, 2009/2010, 2010/2011. Based upon the results, modifications were made to the curriculum in the summers of 2009 and 2010. Results showed that: (1) during these three years the number of students extensively using the CT system quadrupled (from 11% to 46%); (2) students' satisfaction from radiologists involvement increased by 150%; and (3) student appreciation of the CT-based learning method significantly increased (from 13% to 68%). It was concluded that discouraging results (mainly negative feedback from students) during the first years and a priori opposition from the teaching staff should not weaken efforts to develop new teaching methods in the field of anatomy. Incorporating a new curriculum requires time and patience. Student and staff satisfaction, along with utilization of the new system, will increase with the improvement of impeding factors.

  10. Students as teachers in an anatomy dissection course. (United States)

    Salomäki, Tiina; Laakkonen, Juha; Ruohoniemi, Mirja


    One way to improve students' learning outcomes and well-being is to change teaching practices to allow students to become more active participants. We used an anatomy dissection course to test a cooperative group work method in which first-year veterinary students took turns leading their peer group and were each responsible for teaching the anatomy of a particular topographic region. The important blood vessels, lymphatic system, and nerves of each region of the body were covered. Students felt that exploration of the entire topographic region helped them to acquire a comprehensive understanding of the respiratory apparatus and the cardiovascular and nervous systems. Assigning individual tasks to each group member resulted in sharing the workload equally. Open-ended comments revealed that support from other group members was important for the students' learning experience, but the results also offered insight into a lack of constructive criticism. While teaching was considered challenging, and even a stress factor that hindered learning for some students, group work was generally held to be supportive of learning. The results suggest that more thorough instruction of students in their group work and in their individual tasks is required. Some students experienced difficulty in expressing their concerns openly and in seeking guidance from teachers, demonstrating the need for further investigation regarding students' self-regulation skills. Comments from the open-ended responses suggest that use of a cooperative learning method in anatomy dissection courses not only deepens student understanding of a subject but also offers first-year students an opportunity to practice the generic skills that will be needed in their future profession.

  11. Postburn Neck Lateral Contracture Anatomy and Treatment: A New Approach. (United States)

    Grishkevich, Viktor M; Grishkevich, Max


    Lateral contracture of the neck is a rare and insufficiently researched burn consequent. Contracture restricts head motion, can cause a secondary face deformity, presents severe cosmetic defects, and, therefore, requires surgical reconstruction. Literature does not sufficiently address the issue; therefore, anatomy not researched and treatment techniques not developed. The anatomy of postburn lateral cervical flexion contracture was studied in 21 operated patients. Using obtained data, new approaches were investigated, which were directed toward maximal efficacy of the local tissues use. Follow-up results were observed from 6 months to 9 years. Lateral cervical contractures were divided into two types based on their anatomy: edge and medial. Edge contractures were caused by burns and scars located on the posterior neck surface and were characterized by the presence of the fold in central lateral zone. In the fold, only one (posterior) sheet is scars that cause the contracture. Medial contractures were caused by scars located on the lateral cervical surface and were characterized by the presence of the fold in which both sheets were scars. In both types, contracture was caused by scar sheet surface deficiency in length, which has a trapezoid form (contracture cause). In all cases, there was surface surplus in the fold's sheets allowed contracture release with local tissue. The technique that allows the maximum local tissue use and ensures full contracture elimination is the trapeze-flap plasty. Two anatomic types of lateral cervical scar contractures were identified: edge and medial. An anatomically justified efficacy reconstructive technique for both types is trapeze-flap plasty.


    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Groenewald, Hermanus B; Koeppel, Katja N


    The red panda ( Ailurus fulgens ) is classified as an endangered species by the International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. The natural distribution of the red panda is in the Himalayas and southern China. Thoracic diseases such as dirofilariasis, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, tracheal obstruction, lung worm infestation, and pneumonia have been reported in the red panda. The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of captive red pandas as a species-specific reference for routine health examinations and clinical cases. Right lateral (RL) and dorsoventral (DV) inspiratory phase views of the thorax were obtained in 11 adult captive red pandas. Measurements were made and ratios calculated to establish reference ranges for the mean vertebral heart score on the RL (8.34 ± 0.25) and DV (8.78 ± 0.34) views and the mean ratios of the caudal vena cava diameter to the vertebral body length above tracheal bifurcation (0.67 ± 0.05) and tracheal diameter to the width of the third rib (2.75 ± 0.24). The majority of animals (10/11) had 14 thoracic vertebrae, except for one animal that had 15 thoracic vertebrae. Rudimentary clavicles were seen in 3/11 animals. The ovoid, oblique cardiac silhouette was more horizontally positioned and elongated in older animals. A redundant aortic arch was seen in the oldest animal. The trachea was seen with mineralized cartilage rings in all animals. The carina was clearly seen in the majority of animals (10/11). Variations exist in the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of different species. Knowledge of the normal radiographic thoracic anatomy of the red panda should prove useful for routine health examinations and in the diagnosis of thoracic diseases.

  13. Body-wide anatomy recognition in PET/CT images (United States)

    Wang, Huiqian; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Odhner, Dewey; Tong, Yubing; Zhao, Liming; Torigian, Drew A.


    With the rapid growth of positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT)-based medical applications, body-wide anatomy recognition on whole-body PET/CT images becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem and seldom studied due to unclear anatomy reference frame and low spatial resolution of PET images as well as low contrast and spatial resolution of the associated low-dose CT images. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [15] whose applicability was demonstrated on diagnostic computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance (MR) images in different body regions on 35 objects. The aim of the present work is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to low-dose CT and PET images toward automated body-wide disease quantification. Our adaptation of the previous AAR methodology to PET/CT images in this paper focuses on 16 objects in three body regions - thorax, abdomen, and pelvis - and consists of the following steps: collecting whole-body PET/CT images from existing patient image databases, delineating all objects in these images, modifying the previous hierarchical models built from diagnostic CT images to account for differences in appearance in low-dose CT and PET images, automatically locating objects in these images following object hierarchy, and evaluating performance. Our preliminary evaluations indicate that the performance of the AAR approach on low-dose CT images achieves object localization accuracy within about 2 voxels, which is comparable to the accuracies achieved on diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT images. Object recognition on low-dose CT images from PET/CT examinations without requiring diagnostic contrast-enhanced CT seems feasible.

  14. Implementation of clinical references for undergraduates in anatomy. (United States)

    Kranz, André; Bechmann, Ingo; Feja, Christine; Kohlhaw, Kay-Rüdiger; Bürkigt, Thomas; Lippross, Lisa; Dietze, Nora; Löffler, Sabine


    This study evaluates the implementation of clinical references in undergraduate medical education. For this purpose, images of typical diagnostic, intraoperative and clinical findings were integrated into two different teaching formats and adapted to the learning objectives of the Institute of Anatomy in Leipzig. Paper based questionnaires were used to evaluate the status quo (without clinical images) and the optimal time of implementation, as well as the benefit for the students of human medicine. Three test groups were drawn from two preclinical semesters (2014 and 2015). The first group in 2014 represents the control group, which did not have any image-supported clinical references but only defined learning objectives regarding the five exams in special anatomy. Primary implementation took place in the dissection course (second semester) as automatically running Power Point presentations while secondary implementation was during one of the five clinical seminars within the fourth semester. All groups were asked to evaluate the pros and cons through a self-developed paper-based questionnaire. The analysis was performed employing Microsoft Excel and SPSS. It has been demonstrated that most of the students welcome and appreciate the implementation of appropriate images as a valuable support in understanding clinical references. On the contrary, the dissection course did not seem to be the right time for this implementation. In keeping with previous studies, the important role of anatomy in medical education was outlined. A close collaboration between preclinical and clinical physicians concerning educational matters was presented. Considering these approaches, high-quality and sustainable education can be provided. Better patient care and education of young academics should be the motivation.

  15. Flower morphology and anatomy of Bignoniaceae liana species


    Souza,Luiz Antonio de; Santos, Gracielli de Oliveira; Moscheta,Ismar Sebastião


    Lianas can be invasive in forests, interfering in the arboreal community’s regeneration. On the other hand, the phenological patterns of the lianas can contribute as alimentary supplement tothe fauna. The ecological importance and the investigation scarcity in fl oral anatomy of lianas motivated the morphological and anatomical study of Adenocalymma marginatum (Cham.) DC., Arrabidaea mutabilis Bureau & K. Schum., Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.) A. Gentry, and Tynanthus micranthus Corr. Méllo ex K...

  16. Anatomy, pathology, and MRI findings in the sports hernia. (United States)

    Shortt, Conor P; Zoga, Adam C; Kavanagh, Eoin C; Meyers, William C


    "Sports hernia" is a frequently used term on athletic injury reports and in the sportscasting media, but its true definition remains elusive in the medical literature. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a useful tool in the evaluation of clinical athletic pubalgia, yet specific pathologies associated with this commonly encountered syndrome are poorly described in the imaging literature. In this article we review the musculoskeletal anatomy of the pubic region as well as several reproducible patterns of pathology on MRI we have encountered in patients with a clinical diagnosis of sports hernia.

  17. Anatomy of the lamina cribrosa in human eyes. (United States)

    Radius, R L; Gonzales, M


    Light microscopy of specimens of human eyes cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa showed variation in structural anatomy, as demonstrated previously in certain primate eyes. Connective tissue and glial cell structural elements were greater in nasal-temporal as compared with inferior and superior quadrants of the disc. This regional variation suggests a hypothesis for the specificity of early patterns of optic nerve dysfunction characteristic of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. In glaucomatous eyes, nerve head regions with relatively less structural tissue elements may yield early to detrimental effects of persistent pressure elevation.

  18. Regional specificity in anatomy at the lamina cribrosa. (United States)

    Radius, R L


    Specimens cut in cross section at the level of the lamina cribrosa in normal primate eyes are examined by light microscopy. The density of structural elements, consisting of crosswise-oriented connective-tissue trabeculae, is examined in different regions of the nerve head. It is noted that nasal more than temporal more than superior or inferior regions of the lamina cross section contain increased connective-tissue elements. This regional variation in nerve head anatomy is contrasted with susceptibility patterns of nerve head tissue to pressure elevation in both experimental and clinical glaucoma.

  19. Atypical situations in root canals anatomy of human mandibular premolars


    Fabrício SCAINI; Fabio Leal BRAGA; Irdival Cristino FIGUEIREDO JÚNIOR; Rafael Brandão FERREIRA; Baratto Filho,Flares; de SOUSA NETO, Manoel Damião


    The knowledge of the teeth internal anatomy that will receive endodontic treatment is very important for the success of the treatment and prognosis of those teeth. In this study, the morphological variations that may occur in relation to the number of root canals present in the premolar mandibular teeth group were discussed, as well as the most efficient methods to diagnose the existence of these variations, in order to have a clearer diagnosis of the number of root canals to be treated.A cas...

  20. Hedgehogs and sugar gliders: respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease. (United States)

    Johnson, Dan H


    This article discusses the respiratory anatomy, physiology, and disease of African pygmy hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) and sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps), two species commonly seen in exotic animal practice. Where appropriate, information from closely related species is mentioned because cross-susceptibility is likely and because these additional species may also be encountered in practice. Other body systems and processes are discussed insofar as they relate to or affect respiratory function. Although some topics, such as special senses, hibernation, or vocalization, may seem out of place, in each case the information relates back to respiration in some important way.

  1. Unified communications forensics anatomy of common UC attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Nicholas Mr


    Unified Communications Forensics: Anatomy of Common UC Attacks is the first book to explain the issues and vulnerabilities and demonstrate the attacks, forensic artifacts, and countermeasures required to establish a secure (UC) environment. This book is written by leading UC experts Nicholas Grant and Joseph W. Shaw II and provides material never before found on the market, including: analysis of forensic artifacts in common UC attacks an in-depth look at established UC technologies and attack exploits hands-on understanding of UC attack vectors and associated countermeasures

  2. Imaging of the skull base anatomy; Schnittbildanatomie der Schaedelbasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wuest, Wolfgang; Uder, Michael; Lell, Michael [Erlangen-Nuernberg Univ., Universitaetsklinikum (Germany). Radiologisches Institut


    The skull base divides the extracranial from the intracranial compartment and contains a multiplicity of bony and soft tissue structures. For evaluating the skull base profound knowledge of the complex anatomy is mandatory. To limit the number of differential diagnosis it is important to be familiar with the contents of the different compartments. Due to the technical progress and the difficulty in assessing the skull base clinically imaging plays a significant role in diagnosis. For imaging both MRI and CT are used, which represent not competing but complementary methods.

  3. Introduction to sinus disease: I. Anatomy and physiology. (United States)

    Krouse, J H


    Chronic rhinosinusitis is the most common chronic illness in the United States. An understanding of the anatomy of the paranasal sinuses, their functioning in health and in disease, and the contributing factors that are critical to the pathogenesis of rhinosinusitis is essential for nurses caring for patients with this prevalent disease. This paper will provide the otorhinolaryngology (ORL) nurse with an overview of the scientific principles important in rhinosinusitis, as well as presenting a framework for the understanding of rhinosinusitis and its treatment. (This paper is the first in a series of two articles. The second part will review the diagnosis and treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis.)

  4. COMPARED ANATOMY OF SPECIES OF Calycophyllum DC. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Baldin

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The wood anatomy of three species and one variety of genus Calycophyllum DC. (C. candidissimum, C. multiflorum, C. spruceanum e C. spruceanum f. brasiliensis is presently described according to IAWA (1989. Most of the observed characteristics agree with the common pattern described to family Rubiaceae, and allows grouping them in the "Type II" wood structure: predominantly radial multiple pores; axial parenchyma absent; large rays (2-4 or more cells, with few layers of square and upright cells in the margins; septate fibers with simple pits. These characters, observed in all studied species, do not agree with the anatomical pattern referred to Ixoroideae subfamily.

  5. Optical Monte Carlo modeling of a true portwine stain anatomy (United States)

    Barton, Jennifer K.; Pfefer, T. Joshua; Welch, Ashley J.; Smithies, Derek J.; Nelson, Jerry; van Gemert, Martin J.


    A unique Monte Carlo program capable of accommodating an arbitrarily complex geometry was used to determine the energy deposition in a true port wine stain anatomy. Serial histologic sections taken from a biopsy of a dark red, laser therapy resistant stain were digitized and used to create the program input for simulation at wavelengths of 532 and 585 nm. At both wavelengths, the greatest energy deposition occurred in the superficial blood vessels, and subsequently decreased with depth as the laser beam was attenuated. However, more energy was deposited in the epidermis and superficial blood vessels at 532 nm than at 585 nm.

  6. Human Dissection in Medical Education: More than Just Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rehkämper, Gerd


    Full Text Available The dissection course is an essential component of the medical curriculum. Nonetheless, the time expenditure and intensity of supervising the students in this course has been diminishing since the 1970s. That endangers not only the transmission of fundamental knowledge of anatomy. It also concerns key concepts such as establishing values, the concept of humans, and physician competencies, because medical education must be seen not merely as fact-directed instruction but instead should be connected with a mission for professional acculturation.

  7. Trade-offs between xylem hydraulic properties, wood anatomy and yield in Populus. (United States)

    Hajek, Peter; Leuschner, Christoph; Hertel, Dietrich; Delzon, Sylvain; Schuldt, Bernhard


    Trees face the dilemma that achieving high plant productivity is accompanied by a risk of drought-induced hydraulic failure due to a trade-off in the trees' vascular system between hydraulic efficiency and safety. By investigating the xylem anatomy of branches and coarse roots, and measuring branch axial hydraulic conductivity and vulnerability to cavitation in 4-year-old field-grown aspen plants of five demes (Populus tremula L. and Populus tremuloides Michx.) differing in growth rate, we tested the hypotheses that (i) demes differ in wood anatomical and hydraulic properties, (ii) hydraulic efficiency and safety are related to xylem anatomical traits, and (iii) aboveground productivity and hydraulic efficiency are negatively correlated to cavitation resistance. Significant deme differences existed in seven of the nine investigated branch-related anatomical and hydraulic traits but only in one of the four coarse-root-related anatomical traits; this likely is a consequence of high intra-plant variation in root morphology and the occurrence of a few 'high-conductivity roots'. Growth rate was positively related to branch hydraulic efficiency (xylem-specific conductivity) but not to cavitation resistance; this indicates that no marked trade-off exists between cavitation resistance and growth. Both branch hydraulic safety and hydraulic efficiency significantly depended on vessel size and were related to the genetic distance between the demes, while the xylem pressure causing 88% loss of hydraulic conductivity (P88 value) was more closely related to hydraulic efficiency than the commonly used P50 value. Deme-specific variation in the pit membrane structure may explain why vessel size was not directly linked to growth rate. We conclude that branch hydraulic efficiency is an important growth-influencing trait in aspen, while the assumed trade-off between productivity and hydraulic safety is weak.

  8. Development of a Supported Self-Directed Learning Approach for Anatomy Education (United States)

    Findlater, Gordon S.; Kristmundsdottir, Fanney; Parson, Simon H.; Gillingwater, Thomas H.


    The ability to deliver sufficient core anatomical knowledge and understanding to medical students with limited time and resources remains a major challenge for anatomy educators. Here, we report the results of switching from a primarily didactic method of teaching to supported self-directed learning for students studying anatomy as part of…



    Hashem Sharifian


    Purpose: The aim of this study is to improvethe radiologic knowledge of skull base anatomy and pathologies. Content: Skull base is composed of multiple complex bones and soft tissues. So many pathologies as tumoral, infectious and traumatic can involve it. With a brief discussion of the anatomy, we review various pathologic conditions in this region.

  10. Building Virtual Models by Postprocessing Radiology Images: A Guide for Anatomy Faculty (United States)

    Tam, Matthew D. B. S.


    Radiology and radiologists are recognized as increasingly valuable resources for the teaching and learning of anatomy. State-of-the-art radiology department workstations with industry-standard software applications can provide exquisite demonstrations of anatomy, pathology, and more recently, physiology. Similar advances in personal computers and…

  11. Comparison of Gross Anatomy Test Scores Using Traditional Specimens vs. Quicktime Virtual Reality Animated Specimens (United States)

    Maza, Paul Sadiri


    In recent years, technological advances such as computers have been employed in teaching gross anatomy at all levels of education, even in professional schools such as medical and veterinary medical colleges. Benefits of computer based instructional tools for gross anatomy include the convenience of not having to physically view or dissect a…

  12. Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course: A Collaboration between Anatomists and Orthopedic Surgeons (United States)

    DeFriez, Curtis B.; Morton, David A.; Horwitz, Daniel S.; Eckel, Christine M.; Foreman, K. Bo; Albertine, Kurt H.


    A challenge for new residents and senior residents preparing for board examinations is refreshing their knowledge of basic science disciplines, such as human gross anatomy. The Department of Orthopaedics at the University of Utah School of Medicine has for many years held an annual Orthopedic Resident Anatomy Review Course during the summer months…

  13. Implantation of a left ventricular assist device in patients with a complex apical anatomy. (United States)

    Palmen, Meindert; Verwey, Harriette F; Haeck, Marlieke L A; Holman, Eduard R; Schalij, Martin J; Klautz, Robert J M


    Implantation of a left ventricular assist device can be challenging in patients with an altered apical anatomy after cardiac surgery or as the result of the presence of a calcified apical aneurysm. In this paper we present 2 cases with a challenging apical anatomy and introduce a new surgical technique facilitating left ventricular assist device implantation in these patients.

  14. Correlation Between Ultrasound Imaging, Cross-Sectional Anatomy, and Histology of the Brachial Plexus A Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Geffen, Geert J.; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Joergen; Scheffer, Gert J.; Chan, Vincent W.; Groen, Gerbrand J.


    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanato

  15. An Analysis of the Educational Value of Low-Fidelity Anatomy Models as External Representations (United States)

    Chan, Lap Ki; Cheng, Maurice M. W.


    Although high-fidelity digital models of human anatomy based on actual cross-sectional images of the human body have been developed, reports on the use of physical models in anatomy teaching continue to appear. This article aims to examine the common features shared by these physical models and analyze their educational value based on the…

  16. A Simple and Efficient Device for Demonstrating Cross-Sectional Anatomy of the Head (United States)

    Zamarioli, Ariane; Demaman, Aline Santos; Bim, Waldeci Roberto; Homem, Jefferson Mallman; Thomazini, Jose Antonio


    Described in this article is a novel device that facilitates study of the cross-sectional anatomy of the human head. In designing our device, we aimed to protect sections of the head from the destructive action of handling during anatomy laboratory while also ensuring excellent visualization of the anatomic structures. We used an electric saw to…

  17. Human Cadavers vs. Multimedia Simulation: A Study of Student Learning in Anatomy (United States)

    Saltarelli, Andrew J.; Roseth, Cary J.; Saltarelli, William A.


    Multimedia and simulation programs are increasingly being used for anatomy instruction, yet it remains unclear how learning with these technologies compares with learning with actual human cadavers. Using a multilevel, quasi-experimental-control design, this study compared the effects of "Anatomy and Physiology Revealed" (APR) multimedia…

  18. Learning of Musculoskeletal Ligament Stress Testing in a Gross Anatomy Laboratory (United States)

    Krause, David A.; Youdas, James W.; Hollman, John H.


    Human anatomy in physical therapy programs is a basic science course serving as a foundation for subsequent clinical courses. Integration of anatomy with a clinical emphasis throughout a curriculum provides opportunities for reinforcement of previously learned material. Considering the human cadaver laboratory as a fixed cost to our program, we…

  19. Determination of Clinically Relevant Content for a Musculoskeletal Anatomy Curriculum for Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Residents (United States)

    Lisk, Kristina; Flannery, John F.; Loh, Eldon Y.; Richardson, Denyse; Agur, Anne M. R.; Woods, Nicole N.


    To address the need for more clinical anatomy training in residency education, many postgraduate programs have implemented structured anatomy courses into their curriculum. Consensus often does not exist on specific content and level of detail of the content that should be included in such curricula. This article describes the use of the Delphi…

  20. Synlig læring og læringens anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fredens, Kjeld


    Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates.......Boganmeldelse af Synlig læring og læringens anatomi. Forfattere til bogen er John Hattie og Gregory Yates....

  1. Ultrasound and Cadaveric Prosections as Methods for Teaching Cardiac Anatomy: A Comparative Study (United States)

    Griksaitis, Michael J.; Sawdon, Marina A.; Finn, Gabrielle M.


    This study compared the efficacy of two cardiac anatomy teaching modalities, ultrasound imaging and cadaveric prosections, for learning cardiac gross anatomy. One hundred and eight first-year medical students participated. Two weeks prior to the teaching intervention, students completed a pretest to assess their prior knowledge and to ensure that…

  2. Design and Development of a New Facility for Teaching and Research in Clinical Anatomy (United States)

    Greene, John Richard T.


    This article discusses factors in the design, commissioning, project management, and intellectual property protection of developments within a new clinical anatomy facility in the United Kingdom. The project was aimed at creating cost-effective facilities that would address widespread concerns over anatomy teaching, and support other activities…

  3. Medical Student Preferences for Self-Directed Study Resources in Gross Anatomy (United States)

    Choi-Lundberg, Derek L.; Low, Tze Feng; Patman, Phillip; Turner, Paul; Sinha, Sankar N.


    Gross anatomy instruction in medical curricula involve a range of resources and activities including dissection, prosected specimens, anatomical models, radiological images, surface anatomy, textbooks, atlases, and computer-assisted learning (CAL). These resources and activities are underpinned by the expectation that students will actively engage…

  4. Student Performance on Practical Gross Anatomy Examinations Is Not Affected by Assessment Modality (United States)

    Meyer, Amanda J.; Innes, Stanley I.; Stomski, Norman J.; Armson, Anthony J.


    Anatomical education is becoming modernized, not only in its teaching and learning, but also in its assessment formats. Traditional "steeplechase" examinations are being replaced with online gross anatomy examinations. The aims of this study were to: (1) determine if online anatomy practical examinations are equivalent to traditional…

  5. Using Independent Research Projects to Foster Learning in the Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy Laboratory (United States)

    Ghedotti, Michael J.; Fielitz, Christopher; Leonard, Daniel J.


    This paper presents a teaching methodology involving an independent research project component for use in undergraduate Comparative Vertebrate Anatomy laboratory courses. The proposed project introduces cooperative, active learning in a research context to comparative vertebrate anatomy. This project involves pairs or groups of three students…

  6. Correlation between ultrasound imaging, cross-sectional anatomy, and histology of the brachial plexus: a review. (United States)

    van Geffen, Geert J; Moayeri, Nizar; Bruhn, Jörgen; Scheffer, Gert J; Chan, Vincent W; Groen, Gerbrand J


    The anatomy of the brachial plexus is complex. To facilitate the understanding of the ultrasound appearance of the brachial plexus, we present a review of important anatomic considerations. A detailed correlation of reconstructed, cross-sectional gross anatomy and histology with ultrasound sonoanatomy is provided.

  7. Gross Anatomy Videos: Student Satisfaction, Usage, and Effect on Student Performance in a Condensed Curriculum (United States)

    Topping, Daniel B.


    Anatomy educators are being tasked with delivering the same quantity and quality of material in the face of fewer classroom and laboratory hours. As a result they have turned to computer-aided instruction (CAI) to supplement and augment curriculum delivery. Research on the satisfaction and use of anatomy videos, a form of CAI, on examination…

  8. The Madagascar Hissing Cockroach: A New Model for Learning Insect Anatomy (United States)

    Heyborne, William H.; Fast, Maggie; Goodding, Daniel D.


    Teaching and learning animal anatomy has a long history in the biology classroom. As in many fields of biology, decades of experience teaching anatomy have led to the unofficial selection of model species. However, in some cases the model may not be the best choice for our students. Our struggle to find an appropriate model for teaching and…

  9. The LINDSAY Virtual Human Project: An immersive Approach to Anatomy and Physiology (United States)

    Tworek, Janet K.; Jamniczky, Heather A.; Jacob, Christian; Hallgrímsson, Benedikt; Wright, Bruce


    The increasing number of digital anatomy teaching software packages challenges anatomy educators on how to best integrate these tools for teaching and learning. Realistically, there exists a complex interplay of design, implementation, politics, and learning needs in the development and integration of software for education, each of which may be…

  10. Student Enrollment in a Supplement Course for Anatomy and Physiology Results in Improved Retention and Success (United States)

    Hopper, Mari


    Anatomy and Physiology I (A&P 1) has one of the highest failure and withdrawal rates on campus. To increase academic success, a course to supplement A&P 1 (Supplement) was developed and taught by anatomy and physiology faculty. Primary goals for the Supplement included (1) early identification of students at risk for failing or withdrawal;…

  11. Factors Influencing Students' Decisions to Participate in a Short "Dissection Experience" within a Systemic Anatomy Course (United States)

    Larkin, Theresa A.; McAndrew, Darryl J.


    Changes in medical education have affected both curriculum design and delivery. Many medical schools now use integrated curricula and a systemic approach, with reduced hours of anatomy teaching. While learning anatomy via dissection is invaluable in educational, professional, and personal development, it is time intensive and supports a regional…

  12. The virtual dissecting room : creating highly detailed anatomy models for educational purposes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zilverschoon, Marijn; Vincken, Koen L; Bleys, Ronald L A W


    INTRODUCTION: Virtual 3D models are powerful tools for teaching anatomy. At the present day, there are a lot of different digital anatomy models, most of these commercial applications are based on a 3D model of a human body reconstructed from images with a 1 millimeter intervals. The use of even sma

  13. Web-Based Interactive 3D Visualization as a Tool for Improved Anatomy Learning (United States)

    Petersson, Helge; Sinkvist, David; Wang, Chunliang; Smedby, Orjan


    Despite a long tradition, conventional anatomy education based on dissection is declining. This study tested a new virtual reality (VR) technique for anatomy learning based on virtual contrast injection. The aim was to assess whether students value this new three-dimensional (3D) visualization method as a learning tool and what value they gain…

  14. Perceptions of a Mobile Technology on Learning Strategies in the Anatomy Laboratory (United States)

    Mayfield, Chandler H.; Ohara, Peter T.; O'Sullivan, Patricia S.


    Mobile technologies offer new opportunities to improve dissection learning. This study examined the effect of using an iPad-based multimedia dissection manual during anatomy laboratory instruction on learner's perception of anatomy dissection activities and use of time. Three experimental dissection tables used iPads and three tables served as a…

  15. Butia capitata (Mart. Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr. Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation.

  16. Butia capitata (Mart.) Becc. lamina anatomy as a tool for taxonomic distinction from B. odorata (Barb. Rodr.) Noblick comb. nov (Arecaceae). (United States)

    Sant'anna-Santos, Bruno F; Carvalho Júnior, Wellington G O; Amaral, Vanessa B


    The distinction between Butia capitata and B. odorata is based only on a few morphological characteristics, therefore there is a need for additional studies for supporting the separation of the species. As lamina anatomy characteristics are relevant in circumscribing Arecaceae taxa, this work aimed to describe B. capitata lamina anatomy and compare it with B. odorata. Samples from the middle portion of the pinnae were collected and processed in accordance with standard plant anatomy techniques. The epidermis is uniseriate and composed of a thick cuticle and epicuticular waxes into like hooked filaments. The subsidiary cells that arch over the guard cells are located at the hypodermis. The mesophyll is isobilateral and compact. The vascular bundles are collateral with a sclerenchymatic sheath extension that reaches the hypodermis. The stegmata cells have spherical and druse-like silica bodies. The midrib faces the adaxial surface with a thick fibrous layer surrounding the vascular bundles adjacent to the chlorenchyma. The stratified expansion tissue is on the abaxial surface, within the boundary between the mesophyll and midrib. Raphides are only found in B. capitata. Small bundles of the midrib fully surround the fibrous cylinder only in B. odorata. These characteristics are diagnostic and useful for supporting the proposed separation.

  17. Ontology-driven education: Teaching anatomy with intelligent 3D games on the web (United States)

    Nilsen, Trond

    Human anatomy is a challenging and intimidating subject whose understanding is essential to good medical practice, taught primarily using a combination of lectures and the dissection of human cadavers. Lectures are cheap and scalable, but do a poor job of teaching spatial understanding, whereas dissection lets students experience the body's interior first-hand, but is expensive, cannot be repeated, and is often imperfect. Educational games and online learning activities have the potential to supplement these teaching methods in a cheap and relatively effective way, but they are difficult for educators to customize for particular curricula and lack the tutoring support that human instructors provide. I present an approach to the creation of learning activities for anatomy called ontology-driven education, in which the Foundational Model of Anatomy, an ontological representation of knowledge about anatomy, is leveraged to generate educational content, model student knowledge, and support learning activities and games in a configurable web-based educational framework for anatomy.

  18. FishNet: an online database of zebrafish anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Abigail J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last two decades, zebrafish have been established as a genetically versatile model system for investigating many different aspects of vertebrate developmental biology. With the credentials of zebrafish as a developmental model now well recognized, the emerging new opportunity is the wider application of zebrafish biology to aspects of human disease modelling. This rapidly increasing use of zebrafish as a model for human disease has necessarily generated interest in the anatomy of later developmental phases such as the larval, juvenile, and adult stages, during which many of the key aspects of organ morphogenesis and maturation take place. Anatomical resources and references that encompass these stages are non-existent in zebrafish and there is therefore an urgent need to understand how different organ systems and anatomical structures develop throughout the life of the fish. Results To overcome this deficit we have utilized the technique of optical projection tomography to produce three-dimensional (3D models of larval fish. In order to view and display these models we have created FishNet, an interactive reference of zebrafish anatomy spanning the range of zebrafish development from 24 h until adulthood. Conclusion FishNet contains more than 36 000 images of larval zebrafish, with more than 1 500 of these being annotated. The 3D models can be manipulated on screen or virtually sectioned. This resource represents the first complete embryo to adult atlas for any species in 3D.

  19. Anatomy of the Gynecomastia Tissue and Its Clinical Significance (United States)

    Blau, Mordecai; Hazani, Ron


    Background: Gynecomastia is a very common entity in men, and several authors estimate that approximately 50% to 70% of the male population has palpable breast tissue. Much has been published with regard to the etiology, diagnosis, and treatment of gynecomastia. However, the anatomy of the gynecomastia tissue remains elusive to most surgeons. Purpose: The purpose of this article was to define the shape and consistency of the glandular tissue based on the vast experience of the senior author (MB). Patients and Methods: Between the years 1980 and 2014, a total of 5124 patients have been treated for gynecomastia with surgical excision, liposuction, or a combination of both. A total of 3130 specimens were collected with 5% of the cases being unilateral. Results: The specimens appear to have a unifying shape of a head, body, and tail. The head is semicircular in shape and is located more medially toward the sternum. The majority of the glandular tissue consists of a body located immediately deep to the nipple areolar complex. The tail appears to taper off of the body more laterally and toward the insertion of the pectoralis major muscle onto the humerus. Conclusions: This large series of gynecomastia specimens demonstrates a unique and unifying finding of a head, body, and tail. Understanding the anatomy of the gynecomastia gland can serve as a guide to gynecomastia surgeons to facilitate a more thorough exploration and subsequently sufficient gland excision. PMID:27622122

  20. Anatomy and anatomists in Tuscany in the 17th century. (United States)

    Orlandini, Giovanni E; Paternostro, Ferdinando


    The 17th century was characterized by a real revolution in the field of scientific research due to the introduction of the experimental method, promoted by Galileo Galilei who was the most representative scientist of this period. Therefore, medical disciplines, particularly Anatomy, underwent innovative and deep changes shattering traditional culture and representing the background for the modern science. In this fermenting period, Tuscany played a significant role since numerous distinguished scientists were gathered by Medici Grand Dukes (especially Ferdinando the 2nd and Cosimo the 3rd) at Pisa University and at their court in Florence. Among them, it must be mentioned Giovanni Alfonso Borelli, creator of iathromechanics, Marcello Malpighi, founder of microscopic Anatomy, Francesco Redi, who denied the insect spontaneous generation, Nils Steensen who continued in Florence his anatomical studies on lymph nodes and salivary glands while setting also the bases of modern geology. Moreover, at the end of the 17th century, the anatomical wax modelling techniques arose and developed in Florence thanks to the work of Gaetano Zumbo (or Zummo), capable of creating some real masterpieces, still very well preserved and collected in the Museum of Natural Sciences "La Specola".

  1. Pain. Part 2a: Trigeminal Anatomy Related to Pain. (United States)

    Renton, Tara; Egbuniwe, Obi


    In order to understand the underlying principles of orofacial pain it is important to understand the corresponding anatomy and mechanisms. Paper 1 of this series explains the central nervous and peripheral nervous systems relating to pain. The trigeminal nerve is the 'great protector' of the most important region of our body. It is the largest sensory nerve of the body and over half of the sensory cortex is responsive to any stimulation within this system. This nerve is the main sensory system of the branchial arches and underpins the protection of the brain, sight, smell, airway, hearing and taste, underpinning our very existence. The brain reaction to pain within the trigeminal system has a significant and larger reaction to the threat of, and actual, pain compared with other sensory nerves. We are physiologically wired to run when threatened with pain in the trigeminal region and it is a 'miracle' that patients volunteer to sit in a dental chair and undergo dental treatment. Clinical Relevance: This paper aims to provide the dental and medical teams with a review of the trigeminal anatomy of pain and the principles of pain assessment.


    Gaivoronskiy, I V; Kotiv, B N; Alekseyev, V S; Nichiporuk, G I


    The research was performed on 15 non embalmed bodies and 32 abdominal complexes of adult individuals. The comparative study of variant anatomy of splenic ligaments and architectonics of arteries passing through them was carried out to substantiate the mobilization of splenopancreatic complex. Anatomical and angiographic restudied were carried out using preparation, morphometry, injection of gastric, pancreatic and splenic vascular bed with red lead suspension. It was established that the form and sizes of splenic ligaments and their interrelation with the branches of the splenic artery were variable. The minimal and maximal sizes of gastrolienal, phrenicosplenic and splenocolic ligaments differed 2-3 times. In most cases, spleen was fixed in abdominal cavity by many short ligaments. It was shown that architectonics and topography of main branches of spleen artery were determined by morphometric characteristics of the spleen proper and its ligaments. The knowledge of splenic ligament variant anatomy allows a new perspective to approach to substantiate different methods of the mobilization of spleno-pancreatic complex during surgical operations on organs of the upper part of the peritoneal cavity and organ-preserving surgery of the spleen.

  3. The postauricular fascia: classification, anatomy, and potential surgical applications. (United States)

    Shokrollahi, Kayvan; Taylor, James Paul; Le Roux, Cara M; Ashton, Mark W; Rozen, Warren M; Jones, Nicholas S; Payne, Anthony


    In recent times, there has been evolving interest in the fascial structure of the ear, especially in relation to otoplasty techniques. Although the fascial tissues used in these procedures are referred to as "postauricular/retroauricular fascia," the sparse anatomical studies that exist use this terminology to describe what is the adjacent thicker and more fibrous structure of the superficial temporal area continuous with the mastoid region, rather than the tissue actually used in these procedures which is adherent to the posterior surface of the ear. There are clear clinical differences in the properties of these two structures, and this study set out to identify the anatomical nature of these differences, looking in detail at the anatomy and vascularity of the fascia directly posterior and adherent to the ear itself, highlighting its unique properties, and how it interfaces with the rest of the fascia. We provide a nomenclature to differentiate the fascia adherent to the posterior of the ear (the intrinsic postauricular fascia) from the more fibrous tissues continuous with the scalp fascia (the extrinsic postauricular fascia). Clinical applications for the fascia are suggested based on the vascularity and anatomy described, and our clinical experience.

  4. Translating the Foundational Model of Anatomy into OWL. (United States)

    Noy, Natalya F; Rubin, Daniel L


    The Foundational Model of Anatomy (FMA) represents the result of manual and disciplined modeling of the structural organization of the human body. It is a tremendous resource in bioinformatics that facilitates sharing of information among applications that use anatomy knowledge. The FMA was developed in Protégé and the Protégé frames language is the canonical representation language for the FMA. We present a translation of the original Protégé frame representation of the FMA into OWL. Our effort is complementary to the earlier efforts to represent FMA in OWL and is focused on two main goals: (1) representing only the information that is explicitly present in the frames representation of the FMA or that can be directly inferred from the semantics of Protégé frames; (2) representing all the information that is present in the frames representation of the FMA, thus producing an OWL representation for the complete FMA. Our complete representation of the FMA in OWL consists of two components: an OWL DL component that contains the FMA constructs that are compatible with OWL DL; and an OWL Full component that imports the OWL DL component and adds the FMA constructs that OWL DL does not allow.

  5. How Does Leaf Anatomy Influence Water Transport outside the Xylem? (United States)

    Buckley, Thomas N; John, Grace P; Scoffoni, Christine; Sack, Lawren


    Leaves are arguably the most complex and important physicobiological systems in the ecosphere. Yet, water transport outside the leaf xylem remains poorly understood, despite its impacts on stomatal function and photosynthesis. We applied anatomical measurements from 14 diverse species to a novel model of water flow in an areole (the smallest region bounded by minor veins) to predict the impact of anatomical variation across species on outside-xylem hydraulic conductance (Kox). Several predictions verified previous correlational studies: (1) vein length per unit area is the strongest anatomical determinant of Kox, due to effects on hydraulic pathlength and bundle sheath (BS) surface area; (2) palisade mesophyll remains well hydrated in hypostomatous species, which may benefit photosynthesis, (3) BS extensions enhance Kox; and (4) the upper and lower epidermis are hydraulically sequestered from one another despite their proximity. Our findings also provided novel insights: (5) the BS contributes a minority of outside-xylem resistance; (6) vapor transport contributes up to two-thirds of Kox; (7) Kox is strongly enhanced by the proximity of veins to lower epidermis; and (8) Kox is strongly influenced by spongy mesophyll anatomy, decreasing with protoplast size and increasing with airspace fraction and cell wall thickness. Correlations between anatomy and Kox across species sometimes diverged from predicted causal effects, demonstrating the need for integrative models to resolve causation. For example, (9) Kox was enhanced far more in heterobaric species than predicted by their having BS extensions. Our approach provides detailed insights into the role of anatomical variation in leaf function.

  6. Ancient Greek Terminology in Hepatopancreatobiliary Anatomy and Surgery. (United States)

    Papoulas, Michail; Douvetzemis, Stergios


    Most of the terminology in medicine originates from Greek or Latin, revealing the impact of the ancient Greeks on modern medicine. However, the literature on the etymology of Greek words used routinely in medical practice is sparse. We provide a short guide to the etymology and meaning of Greek words currently used in the field of hepatopancreatobiliary (HPB) anatomy and surgery. Focusing on HPB medical literature, the etymology and origin of Greek words including suffixes and prefixes are shown and analyzed. For example, anatomy (anatomia) is a Greek word derived from the prefix ana- (on, upon) and the suffix -tomy from the verb temno meaning to cut. Surgery, however, is not a Greek word. The corresponding Greek word is chirourgiki derived from cheir (hand) and ergon (action, work) meaning the action made by hands. Understanding the root of Greek terminology leads to an accurate, precise and comprehensive scientific medical language, reflecting the need for a universal medical language as a standardized means of communication within the health care sector.

  7. Automatic anatomy recognition on CT images with pathology (United States)

    Huang, Lidong; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Tong, Yubing; Odhner, Dewey; Torigian, Drew A.


    Body-wide anatomy recognition on CT images with pathology becomes crucial for quantifying body-wide disease burden. This, however, is a challenging problem because various diseases result in various abnormalities of objects such as shape and intensity patterns. We previously developed an automatic anatomy recognition (AAR) system [1] whose applicability was demonstrated on near normal diagnostic CT images in different body regions on 35 organs. The aim of this paper is to investigate strategies for adapting the previous AAR system to diagnostic CT images of patients with various pathologies as a first step toward automated body-wide disease quantification. The AAR approach consists of three main steps - model building, object recognition, and object delineation. In this paper, within the broader AAR framework, we describe a new strategy for object recognition to handle abnormal images. In the model building stage an optimal threshold interval is learned from near-normal training images for each object. This threshold is optimally tuned to the pathological manifestation of the object in the test image. Recognition is performed following a hierarchical representation of the objects. Experimental results for the abdominal body region based on 50 near-normal images used for model building and 20 abnormal images used for object recognition show that object localization accuracy within 2 voxels for liver and spleen and 3 voxels for kidney can be achieved with the new strategy.

  8. Fossil jawless fish from China foreshadows early jawed vertebrate anatomy. (United States)

    Gai, Zhikun; Donoghue, Philip C J; Zhu, Min; Janvier, Philippe; Stampanoni, Marco


    Most living vertebrates are jawed vertebrates (gnathostomes), and the living jawless vertebrates (cyclostomes), hagfishes and lampreys, provide scarce information about the profound reorganization of the vertebrate skull during the evolutionary origin of jaws. The extinct bony jawless vertebrates, or 'ostracoderms', are regarded as precursors of jawed vertebrates and provide insight into this formative episode in vertebrate evolution. Here, using synchrotron radiation X-ray tomography, we describe the cranial anatomy of galeaspids, a 435-370-million-year-old 'ostracoderm' group from China and Vietnam. The paired nasal sacs of galeaspids are located anterolaterally in the braincase, and the hypophyseal duct opens anteriorly towards the oral cavity. These three structures (the paired nasal sacs and the hypophyseal duct) were thus already independent of each other, like in gnathostomes and unlike in cyclostomes and osteostracans (another 'ostracoderm' group), and therefore have the condition that current developmental models regard as prerequisites for the development of jaws. This indicates that the reorganization of vertebrate cranial anatomy was not driven deterministically by the evolutionary origin of jaws but occurred stepwise, ultimately allowing the rostral growth of ectomesenchyme that now characterizes gnathostome head development.

  9. Anatomy and histology of the transverse humeral ligament. (United States)

    Snow, Brian J; Narvy, Steven J; Omid, Reza; Atkinson, Roscoe D; Vangsness, C Thomas


    The classic literature describes the transverse humeral ligament (THL) as a distinct anatomic structure with a role in biceps tendon stability; however, recent literature suggests that it is not a distinct anatomic structure. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the gross and microscopic anatomy of the THL, including a specific investigation of the histology of this ligament. Thirty frozen, embalmed cadaveric specimens were dissected to determine the gross anatomy of the THL. Seven specimens were evaluated histologically for the presence of mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings. Two tissue layers were identified in the area described as the THL. In the deep layer, fibers of the subscapularis tendon were found to span the bicipital groove with contributions from the coracohumeral ligament and the supraspinatus tendon. Superficial to this layer was a fibrous fascial covering consisting of distinct bands of tissue. Neurohistology staining revealed the presence of free nerve endings but no mechanoreceptors. This study's findings demonstrate that the THL is a distinct structure continuous with the rotator cuff tendons and the coracohumeral ligament. The finding of free nerve endings in the THL suggests a potential role as a shoulder pain generator.

  10. Anatomy and histology of the lower urinary tract. (United States)

    Pradidarcheep, Wisuit; Wallner, Christian; Dabhoiwala, Noshir F; Lamers, Wouter H


    The function of the lower urinary tract is basically storage of urine in the bladder and the at-will periodic evacuation of the stored urine. Urinary incontinence is one of the most common lower urinary tract disorders in adults, but especially in the elderly female. The urethra, its sphincters, and the pelvic floor are key structures in the achievement of continence, but their basic anatomy is little known and, to some extent, still incompletely understood. Because questions with respect to continence arise from human morbidity, but are often investigated in rodent animal models, we present findings in human and rodent anatomy and histology. Differences between males and females in the role that the pelvic floor plays in the maintenance of continence are described. Furthermore, we briefly describe the embryologic origin of ureters, bladder, and urethra, because the developmental origin of structures such as the vesicoureteral junction, the bladder trigone, and the penile urethra are often invoked to explain (clinical) observations. As the human pelvic floor has acquired features in evolution that are typical for a species with bipedal movement, we also compare the pelvic floor of humans with that of rodents to better understand the rodent (or any other quadruped, for that matter) as an experimental model species. The general conclusion is that the "Bauplan" is well conserved, even though its common features are sometimes difficult to discern.

  11. Long head of biceps: from anatomy to treatment. (United States)

    Sarmento, M


    The long head of the biceps (LHB), tendinous structure of the proximal brachial biceps, has its well-known anatomy, which contrasts with its current functional characterization. Various forms of proximal anchor and intra-articular route, important for the correct interpretation of its contribution to the pathology of the shoulder as well as the treatment methodology, are described. Knowledge of its biomechanics results mainly from cadaveric studies that contradict each other. Already the few studies in vivo indicate a depressant and stabilizing action, anterior, for the humeral head. Its pathology is rarely isolated because it is almost always correlated with rotator cuff or labrum pathology. It can be divided into 3 major groups (inflammatory, instability and traumatic) and subdivided according to its location. The anterior shoulder pain is the initial symptom of pathology of LHB Its perfect characterization is dependent on the associated injuries. Clinical tests are multiple and only their combination allows better sensitivity and specificity for LHB pathology. The arthro-MRI and dynamic ultrasound are able to increase proper diagnostic of the pathology of LHB. Treatment ranges from conservative and surgical. The latter includes the repair, tenotomy and tenodesis of LHB which can be performed by open or arthroscopic methodology. The author intends to review existing literature on all aspects related to the long head of the biceps from anatomy to treatment, presenting the latest results.

  12. The Integrated Clinical Anatomy Program at Alfaisal University: an innovative model of teaching clinically applied functional anatomy in a hybrid curriculum. (United States)

    Yaqinuddin, Ahmed; Ikram, Muhammad Faisal; Zafar, Muhammad; Eldin, Nivin Sharaf; Mazhar, Muhammad Atif; Qazi, Sadia; Shaikh, Aftab Ahmed; Obeidat, Akef; Al-Kattan, Khaled; Ganguly, Paul


    Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of specialty. It is essential for physicians to be able to perform a variety of tasks, including performing invasive procedures, examining radiological images, performing a physical examination of a patient, etc. Medical students have to be prepared for such tasks, and we can assist this by changing the way that we educate students in medical schools. Thus, newer medical curricula need to be designed according to needs of future physicians. In this report, we describe a unique program called the Integrated Clinical Anatomy Program (ICAP). The ICAP was developed at the College of Medicine of Alfaisal University in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Here, we describe the unique features of this program, including the structure and facilities of the Anatomy Resource Center. The Anatomy Resource Center plays a pivotal role in engaging the students for faculty-directed structured laboratory sessions as well as peer-assisted uniform student-centered learning. The ICAP has shown great promise, as reflected by early results from a nationwide progress test. Students from all years of the Alfaisal University medical school scored significantly higher than the national average on the anatomy and physiology component of the nationwide progress test examination, with P values of 0.0179 and 0.0015, respectively. We believe that the ICAP can be used as a model for teaching clinically applied functional anatomy to medical students in a hybrid curriculum around the world.

  13. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of 3D Vascular Stereoscopic Models in Anatomy Instruction for First Year Medical Students (United States)

    Cui, Dongmei; Wilson, Timothy D.; Rockhold, Robin W.; Lehman, Michael N.; Lynch, James C.


    The head and neck region is one of the most complex areas featured in the medical gross anatomy curriculum. The effectiveness of using three-dimensional (3D) models to teach anatomy is a topic of much discussion in medical education research. However, the use of 3D stereoscopic models of the head and neck circulation in anatomy education has not…

  14. The Case Anatomical Knowledge Index (CAKI): A Novel Method Used to Assess Anatomy Content in Clinical Cases (United States)

    Banda, Sekelani S.


    There are concerns in the literature that the use of case-based teaching of anatomy could be compromising the depth and scope of anatomy learned by students in a problem-based learning curriculum. Poor selection of clinical cases that are used as vehicles for teaching/learning anatomy may be the root problem because some clinical cases do not…

  15. Loosely-guided, self-directed learning versus strictly-guided, station-based learning in gross anatomy laboratory sessions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooloos, J.G.M.; Waal Malefijt, M.C. de; Ruiter, D.J.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.T.M.


    Anatomy students studying dissected anatomical specimens were subjected to either a loosely-guided, self-directed learning environment or a strictly-guided, preformatted gross anatomy laboratory session. The current study's guiding questions were: (1) do strictly-guided gross anatomy laboratory sess

  16. Stem fasciation in cacti and succulent species--tissue anatomy, protein pattern and RAPD polymorphisms. (United States)

    El-Banna, A N; El-Nady, M F; Dewir, Y H; El-Mahrouk, M E


    Fasciated and normal stem segments of Opuntia microdasys, Opuntia cylindrica, Huernia primulina and Euphorbia lactea were collected from the same plant and compared for their anatomy, water relations and genetic variations. Anatomical differences in terms of thickness of cuticle, vascular bundle, xylem and phloem were analyzed in both normal and fasciated stems. The mucilage cells were higher in the fasciated form of Opuntia microdasys than that in the normal form. Water status in terms of total water content (TWC), water deficit and relative water content (RWC) was influenced by fasciation. Genetic variations were tested in normal and fasciated stems using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) fingerprints and SDS-PAGE of soluble protein extracts. SDS-PAGE protein and RAPD analysis confirmed that normal and fasciated tissues were genetically different. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) yielded different polymorphic banding patterns that were unique to each primer and distinguishable over all samples. The PCR results of normal and fasciated samples were significantly different in cases of primers P1, P2 and P3. These results indicate that occurrence of fasciation in Opuntia microdasys, Opuntia cylindrica, Huernia primulina and Euphorbia lactea is an epigenetic mutation of tissues.

  17. Struktur anatomi dan aktivitas antioksidan bulbus bawang dayak (Eleutherine americana Merr. dari daerah Kalimantan Selatan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evi Mintowati Kuntorini


    Full Text Available The aim of this research were to study the characterization of the microscopic anatomy and testing the antioxidant activity of bawang dayak bulb from several regions in South Kalimantan. Bawang dayak plant samples taken from four (4 regency in South Kalimantan. Bulb anatomical structure was observed by the paraffi n method and test preparations of antioxidant activity by DPPH method. IC50 values were calculated based on the formula of the regression equation.The bulb anatomical structures has a epidermis tissue of both surfaces, there is parenchymal tissue. Transport tissue were located in rows with collateral type, there are starch grains in parenchyma cells, and the presence of stiloid crystals between cells parenkim. Extract ethanol bawang dayak bulb from the four districts in South Kalimantan has antioxidant activity against DPPH radicals. The highest antioxidant activity showed on the sample from location1 Comets Village Banjarbaru Municipality (IC50 = 25.3339 μg/ml and the lowest showed on the sample from location 2 Sungai Paring Village Banjar District (IC50 = 86.9039 μg/ml. Antioxidant activity of bawang dayak extract 4.5 to 15 times weaker compared to BHT (BHT IC50 = 5.5707 μg/ml.

  18. Wood anatomy and wood density in shrubs: Responses to varying aridity along transcontinental transects. (United States)

    Martínez-Cabrera, Hugo I; Jones, Cynthia S; Espino, Susana; Schenk, H Jochen


    Wood density plays a key role in ecological strategies and life history variation in woody plants, but little is known about its anatomical basis in shrubs. We quantified the relationships between wood density, anatomy, and climate in 61 shrub species from eight field sites along latitudinal belts between 31° and 35° in North and South America. Measurements included cell dimensions, transverse areas of each xylem cell type and percentage contact between different cell types and vessels. Wood density was more significantly correlated with precipitation and aridity than with temperature. High wood density was achieved through reductions in cell size and increases in the proportion of wall relative to lumen. Wood density was independent of vessel traits, suggesting that this trait does not impose conduction limitations in shrubs. The proportion of fibers in direct contact with vessels decreased with and was independent of wood density, indicating that the number of fiber-vessel contacts does not explain the previously observed correlation between wood density and implosion resistance. Axial and radial parenchyma each had a significant but opposite association with wood density. Fiber size and wall thickness link wood density, life history, and ecological strategies by controlling the proportion of carbon invested per unit stem volume.

  19. The weak relationship between anatomy competence and clinical skills in junior medical students. (United States)

    Schoeman, Scarpa; Chandratilake, Madawa


    In modern curricula, the early integration of anatomy and clinical skills education at undergraduate level is seen as important. However, the direct relationship between medical students' competence in anatomy, and their clinical proficiency during early undergraduate years, has scarcely been studied. In this study, the marks for anatomy and clinical skills of three consecutive cohorts of medical students (n = 538 in total) during their first two years were correlated. The anatomy competence was measured using a new marker, the Anatomy Competence Score (ACS) which was calculated with equal contributions from theory knowledge and its practical and clinical application. Proficiency in clinical skills was determined by OSCE performance marks for stations which examined physical examination and practical procedural skills. The possible compounding effect of students' general academic ability was investigated by using the overall performance mark for each student based on their performance in all subjects over the first two years of the medical curriculum. We found that the correlation between anatomy and clinical skills marks was weak to moderate. However, this correlation was virtually nullified once the effect of academic ability was accounted for. Although these findings suggest that anatomy education does not compliment early clinical education, the lack of complexity of clinical problems used in clinical skills assessments (OSCEs) during the early stages may well be the primary contributing factor to this finding.

  20. Clinical and Radiological Classification of the Jawbone Anatomy in Endosseous Dental Implant Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gintaras Juodzbalys


    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of present article was to review the classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, to evaluate the diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone, as well as to suggest new classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment. Material and Methods: Literature was selected through a search of PubMed, Embase and Cochrane electronic databases. The keywords used for search were mandible; mandibular canal; alveolar nerve, inferior; anatomy, cross-sectional; dental implants; classification. The search was restricted to English language articles, published from 1972 to March 2013. Additionally, a manual search in the major anatomy and oral surgery books were performed. The publications there selected by including clinical and human anatomy studies.Results: In total 109 literature sources were obtained and reviewed. The classifications suggested for assessment of the jawbone anatomy, diagnostic possibilities of mandibular canal identification and risk of inferior alveolar nerve injury, aesthetic considerations in aesthetic zone were discussed. New classification system of the jawbone anatomy in endosseous dental implant treatment based on anatomical and radiologic findings and literature review results was suggested. Conclusions: The classification system proposed here based on anatomical and radiological jawbone quantity and quality evaluation is a helpful tool for planning of treatment strategy and collaboration among specialists. Further clinical studies should be conducted for new classification validation and reliability evaluation.