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Sample records for anatomy plant

  1. Profile of biology prospective teachers’ representation on plant anatomy learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermayanti; Susanti, R.; Anwar, Y.

    2018-04-01

    This study aims to obtaining students’ representation ability in understanding the structure and function of plant tissues in plant anatomy course. Thirty students of The Biology Education Department of Sriwijaya University were involved in this study. Data on representation ability were collected using test and observation. The instruments had been validated by expert judgment. Test scores were used to represent students’ ability in 4 categories: 2D-image, 3D-image, spatial, and verbal representations. The results show that students’ representation ability is still low: 2D-image (40.0), 3D-image (25.0), spatial (20.0), and verbal representation (45.0). Based on the results of this study, it is suggested that instructional strategies be developed for plant anatomy course.

  2. Leaf surface anatomy in some woody plants from northeastern Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, R.; Rodriguez, H.G.; Balboa, P.C.R.; Kumari, A

    2016-01-01

    Studies on leaf surface anatomy of woody plants and its significance are rare. The present study was undertaken in the Forest Science Faculty Experimental Research Station, UANL, Mexico, with objectives to determine the variability in leaf surface anatomy in the woody plants of the Tamaulipan thornscrub and its utility in taxonomy and possible adaptation to the prevailing semiarid conditions. The results show the presence of large variability in several leaf anatomical traits viz., waxy leaf surface, type of stomata, its size, and distribution. The species have been classified on the basis of various traits which can be used in species delimitation and adaptation to the semiarid condition such as waxy leaf surface, absence sparse stomata on the leaf surface, sunken stomata. The species identified as better adapters to semi-arid environments on the basis of the presence and absence of stomata on both adaxial and abaxial surface viz., Eysenhardtia texana, Parkinsonia texana, Gymnosperma glutinosum, Celtis laevigata, Condalia hookeri and Karwinskia humboldtiana. (author)

  3. Anatomy of a nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navarro, Q.O.

    1983-01-01

    This paper presents the Q model which attempts to classify arguments for use in the discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear power. The basic principles of nuclear energy production, operation of a nuclear power plant and a comparison with other electric power sources are presented and discussed. (ELC)

  4. Students’ Cognitive Abilities in Plant Anatomy Practical Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setiono, S.; Rustaman, N. Y.; Rahmat, A.; Anggraeni, S.

    2017-09-01

    Cognitive abilities is fundamental for the students, as it is closely related to higher thinking skills such as the ability to think critically, creatively, and problem solving. This descriptive study aims to investigate the cognitive abilities of biology prospective teachers in the course of Plant Anatomy Practicum based on the cognitive process dimension and dimensions of knowledge the using the framework of Revision of Bloom taxonomy. A number of biology prospective teachers was involved in this study (n=42). The instrument used to collect data for students’ cognitive process mastery in the form of multiple choice with 5 options. Research finding shows that the average student’s cognitive ability is 68.10. The acquisition of knowledge mastery of cognitive ability is still under the criterion of mastery in the course of the Plant Anatomy Practicum (75). Validity and reliability of the instrument (0,71) and (0,81). It is necessary to design lecture programs both in the class and laboratory to develop student’ cognitive abilities.

  5. Connecting qualitative observation and quantitative measurement for enhancing quantitative literacy in plant anatomy course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuraeni, E.; Rahmat, A.

    2018-05-01

    Forming of cognitive schemes of plant anatomy concepts is performed by processing of qualitative and quantitative data obtained from microscopic observations. To enhancing student’s quantitative literacy, strategy of plant anatomy course was modified by adding the task to analyze quantitative data produced by quantitative measurement of plant anatomy guided by material course. Participant in this study was 24 biology students and 35 biology education students. Quantitative Literacy test, complex thinking in plant anatomy test and questioner used to evaluate the course. Quantitative literacy capability data was collected by quantitative literacy test with the rubric from the Association of American Colleges and Universities, Complex thinking in plant anatomy by test according to Marzano and questioner. Quantitative literacy data are categorized according to modified Rhodes and Finley categories. The results showed that quantitative literacy of biology education students is better than biology students.

  6. An extension of the plant ontology project supporting wood anatomy and development research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federic Lens; Laurel Cooper; Maria Alejandra Gandolfo; Andrew Groover; Pankaj Jaiswal; Barbara Lachenbruch; Rachel Spicer; Margaret E. Staton; Dennis W. Stevenson; Ramona L. Walls; Jill. Wegrzyn

    2012-01-01

    A wealth of information on plant anatomy and morphology is available in the current and historical literature, and molecular biologists are producing massive amounts of transcriptome and genome data that can be used to gain better insights into the development, evolution, ecology, and physiological function of plant anatomical attributes. Integrating anatomical and...

  7. Nasal Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Nasal Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  8. Sinus Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Caregivers Contact ARS HOME ANATOMY Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ... Size + - Home > ANATOMY > Sinus Anatomy Nasal Anatomy Sinus Anatomy Nasal Physiology Nasal Endoscopy Skull Base Anatomy Virtual Anatomy Disclosure ...

  9. Wood anatomy and plant hydraulics in a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    William R.L. Anderegg; Frederick C. Meinzer

    2015-01-01

    Due to their hydraulic system that allows them to transport water from the soil to leaves, woody plants have become incredibly successful in terrestrial ecosystems since their evolution ~400 million years ago (Hartmann 2011). This vascular system lets trees conduct water from the soil up to more than 100 m (Koch et al. 2004), allowing trees to compete for light and...

  10. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of spectral light quality on different anatomical features of banana tree plantlets grown under coloured shade nets. Banana plants of five genotypes obtained from micropropagation, were grown under white, blue, red and black nets, with shade of 50%, in a completely randomized ...

  11. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Chapter 1 Structure and Development of the Plant Body- An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Internal Organization of the Plant Body...

  12. Response morphology and anatomy of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plant on waterlogging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurhidayati, Tutik; Wardhani, Selfrina Puri; Purnobasuki, Hery; Hariyanto, Sucipto; Jadid, Nurul; Nurcahyani, Desy Dwi

    2017-11-01

    This study has conducted research on morphological and anatomical responses of some varieties of tobacco plants to waterlogging stress. Parameters measured were morphology, anatomy, and plants sensitivity index. Results were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by the Tukey test. The results show that waterlogging stress can reduce the growth of tobacco plants, including a decrease in plant height with the lowest value of 15.6 cm, root length reduction to the lowest value of 4.6 cm and plant dry weight reduction to the lowest value of 0.26 gr. But waterlogging stress can increase the number of adventitious roots with the highest value of 18.33. In addition, waterlogging stress can lead to the formation of aerenchyma tissue. The sensitivity index showed that plant varieties that are resistant to waterlogging stress are the varieties Kemloko 3 (index value of 0.03), varieties of Paiton 2 (index value of 0.18), and the varieties Kemloko 2 (index value of 0.42).

  13. Panicum milioides, a Graminease plant having Kranz leaf anatomy without C/sub 4/-photosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanai, R; Kashiwagi, M [Saitama Univ., Urawa (Japan). Faculty of Science and Engineering

    1975-08-01

    Light and electron microscopic observations of the leaf tissue of Panicum milioides showed that bundle sheath cell contained a substanital number of chloroplasts and other organelles. The radial arrangement of chlorenchymatous bundle sheath cells, designated as Kranz leaf anatomy, has been considered to be specific to C/sub 4/ plants. However, photosynthetic /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ fixation and /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ pulse-and-chase experiments revealed that the reductive pentosephosphate pathway was the main route operating in leaves of p. milioides. The interveinal distance of the leaves was intermediate between C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ Gramineae species. These results indicate that P. milioides is a natural plant species having characteristics intermediate between C/sub 3/ and C/sub 4/ types.

  14. Esau's Plant anatomy: meristems, cells, and tissues of the plant body : their structure, function, and development

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Evert, Ray Franklin; Esau, Katherine; Eichhorn, Susan E

    2006-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Body of a Vascular Plant Is Composed of Three Tissue Systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Structurally Stem, Leaf, and Root Differ Primarily...

  15. The plant ontology as a tool for comparative plant anatomy and genomic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant science is now a major player in the fields of genomics, gene expression analysis, phenomics and metabolomics. Recent advances in sequencing technologies have led to a windfall of data, with new species being added rapidly to the list of species whose genomes have been decoded. The Plant Ontol...

  16. Plant Origin of Green Propolis: Bee Behavior, Plant Anatomy and Chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Érica Weinstein Teixeira

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Propolis, a honeybee product, has gained popularity as a food and alternative medicine. Its constituents have been shown to exert pharmacological effects, such as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and anticancer. Shoot apices of Baccharis dracunculifolia (alecrim plant, Asteraceae have been pointed out as sources of resin for green propolis. The present work aimed (i to observe the collecting behavior of bees, (ii to test the efficacy of histological analysis in studies of propolis botanical origin and (iii to compare the chemistries of alecrim apices, resin masses and green propolis. Bee behavior was observed, and resin and propolis were microscopically analyzed by inclusion in methacrylate. Ethanol extracts of shoot apices, resin and propolis were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy. Bees cut small fragments from alecrim apices, manipulate and place the resulting mass in the corbiculae. Fragments were detected in propolis and identified as alecrim vestiges by detection of alecrim structures. Prenylated and non-prenylated phenylpropanoids, terpenoids and compounds from other classes were identified. Compounds so far unreported for propolis were identified, including anthracene derivatives. Some compounds were found in propolis and resin mass, but not in shoot apices. Differences were detected between male and female apices and, among apices, resin and propolis. Alecrim apices are resin sources for green propolis. Chemical composition of alecrim apices seems to vary independently of season and phenology. Probably, green propolis composition is more complex and unpredictable than previously assumed.

  17. Larynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Larynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Larynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the larynx; drawing shows the ...

  18. Vulva Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Vulva Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x634 ... View Download Large: 3000x2640 View Download Title: Vulva Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the vulva; drawing shows the ...

  19. Pharynx Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pharynx Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... View Download Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Pharynx Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pharynx; drawing shows the ...

  20. Keeping the golden mean: plant stiffness and anatomy as proximal factors driving endophytic oviposition site selection in a dragonfly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matushkina, Natalia; Lambret, Philippe; Gorb, Stanislav

    2016-12-01

    Oviposition site selection is a crucial component of habitat selection in dragonflies. The presence of appropriate oviposition plants at breeding waters is considered to be one of the key habitat determinants for species laying eggs endophytically. Thus, Lestes macrostigma, a species which is regarded as threatened in Europe because of its highly disjunct distribution, typically prefers to lay eggs in the sea club rush Bolboschoenus maritimus. However, little is known about how the anatomical and mechanical properties of plant tissues determine the choice of L. macrostigma females. We examined green shoots of six plant species used by L. macrostigma for oviposition, either in the field (actual oviposition plants) or under experimental conditions (potential oviposition plants), to analyse anatomical and mechanical properties of shoots in a framework of known preferences regarding plant substrates for oviposition. As expected, the anatomy of shoots differed between representatives of two plant families, Cyperaceae and Juncaceae, most essentially in the distribution of supporting bundles and the presence of large aeriferous cavities that may affect egg placing within a shoot. The force necessary to puncture the tested plant samples ranged from 360 to 3298 mN, and their local stiffness ranged from 777 to 3363N/m. We show that the shoots of B. maritimus, the plant most preferred by L. macrostigma, have intermediate characteristics regarding both the stiffness and specific anatomical characteristics. The bending stiffness of the ovipositor in L. macrostigma was estimated as 1414N/m, one of the highest values recorded for zygopteran dragonflies so far. The ecological and behavioural implications of plant choice mechanisms in L. macrostigma are discussed in the context of the disjunct distribution of this species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Stereology, an unbiased methodological approach to study plant anatomy and cytology: Past, present and future

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubínová, Lucie; Radochová, Barbora; Lhotáková, Z.; Kubínová, Z.; Albrechtová, J.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2017), s. 187-205 ISSN 1580-3139 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015062 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : chloroplast * confocal microscopy * leaf anatomy * mesophyll * stereological methods * systematic uniform random sampling Subject RIV: FS - Medical Facilities ; Equipment OBOR OECD: Medical laboratory technology (including laboratory samples analysis Impact factor: 1.135, year: 2016

  2. Inter-relações entre a anatomia vegetal e a produção vegetal Interrelations between plant anatomy and plant production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenir Maristela Silva

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available É realizada uma revisão de literatura que procura aproximar a anatomia vegetal do contexto da produção vegetal. O principal objetivo é o de contribuir para que o professor de Botânica possa proporcionar aos alunos dos cursos de Agronomia compreensão da diversidade da organização estrutural do vegetal.A literature revision is accomplished to approach the plant anatomy within the context of the plant production. The main objective is to contribute so that the Botany teacher will be able to make it provide for the students of the Agronomy courses to understand the diversity of behaviors in the structural organization of the plant.

  3. Compared anatomy of Dioscorea alata L. clone Caraqueño plants cultivated in three in vitro growth environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misterbino Borges García

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro conservation of Dioscorea alata L. clone Caraqueño is fundamental to guarantee the propagation and distribution of healthy plantation material to the farmers and the establishment of one in vitro bank of this clone of great agronomic and commercial value in the Oriental Region of Cuba. With the purpose of evaluating the anatomical modifications that take place in yam plants under three in vitro culture conditions: conserved plants by slow growth, regenerated plants and in plants multiplication phase in MS 75% medium, was carried out an analysis of the foliar and caulinar anatomy from transversal cuts of the foliar sheet and of the stem, and longitudinal and transversal cuts of microtubers formed during the conservation process. Smaller thickness of the mesophyll and of the epidermis in the leaves of the conserved plants were showed and the conductive sheaves area of the stem were also smaller, due to the stress process during the in vitro conservation. However during the recovery of the conserved material through the regeneration and the in vitro multiplication were reestablished to their normal state these parameters. It was also evidenced that the microtubers formed in the in vitro conservation, have reserve parenchyma with abundant starch granules, thin cortical parenchyma and conductive sheaves little developed were determined. All this characteristics indicated the presence of meristematic activity.

  4. Development of plant anatomy teaching material based on palynological studies of pollen impacted by the haze of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desti

    2018-05-01

    The research about palynological study of pollen impacted by the haze of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis from Riau Province and its development as a teaching material for plant anatomy has been conducted in Biology Laboratory of Islamic University of Riau. The objective of this research is to find out of the pollen morphology of H. rosa-sinensis and the result of this study developed for teaching materials for plant anatomy subject. The method is descriptive. The analysis data used descriptive qualitative. The result showed that pollen has several characteristics which can be observed which is impacted by the haze. Pollen was observed is single pollen type, spheroidal sarcoid, polyphenoporate aperture type and exterior ornament. From result of research can be concluded that there is difference of pollen analysis between plant observed. Implication of research results in learning in the form of teaching materials for Plant Anatomy subject. Based on the validation results, it is known that the teaching materials that have been prepared can be used in the learning with percentage level achievement of 90.91% for teaching materials. The subject matter of Plant Anatomy which has been prepared based on the research result can be used in the learning process

  5. Hypergravity of 10 g Changes Plant Growth, Anatomy, Chloroplast Size, and Photosynthesis in the Moss Physcomitrella patens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takemura, Kaori; Watanabe, Rina; Kameishi, Ryuji; Sakaguchi, Naoya; Kamachi, Hiroyuki; Kume, Atsushi; Karahara, Ichirou; Hanba, Yuko T.; Fujita, Tomomichi

    2017-12-01

    The photosynthetic and anatomical responses of bryophytes to changes in gravity will provide crucial information for estimating how these plant traits evolved to adapt to changes in gravity in land plant history. We performed long-term hypergravity experiments at 10 g for 4 and 8 weeks using the moss Physcomitrella patens with two centrifuges equipped with lighting systems that enable long-term plant growth under hypergravity with irradiance. The aims of this study are (1) to quantify changes in the anatomy and morphology of P. patens, and (2) to analyze the post-effects of hypergravity on photosynthesis by P. patens in relation to these changes. We measured photosynthesis by P. patens for a population of gametophores (e.g., canopy) in Petri dishes and plant culture boxes. Gametophore numbers increased by 9% for a canopy of P. patens, with 24-27% increases in chloroplast sizes (diameter and thickness) in leaf cells. In a canopy of P. patens, the area-based photosynthesis rate ( A canopy) was increased by 57% at 10 g. The increase observed in A canopy was associated with greater plant numbers and chloroplast sizes, both of which involved enhanced CO2 diffusion from the atmosphere to chloroplasts in the canopies of P. patens. These results suggest that changes in gravity are important environmental stimuli to induce changes in plant growth and photosynthesis by P. patens, in which an alteration in chloroplast size is one of the key traits. We are now planning an ISS experiment to investigate the responses of P. patens to microgravity.

  6. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  7. Paraganglioma Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Paraganglioma Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 648x576 ... View Download Large: 2700x2400 View Download Title: Paraganglioma Anatomy Description: Paraganglioma of the head and neck; drawing ...

  8. Function and anatomy of plant siRNA pools derived from hairpin transgenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Kevin AW

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background RNA interference results in specific gene silencing by small-interfering RNAs (siRNAs. Synthetic siRNAs provide a powerful tool for manipulating gene expression but high cost suggests that novel siRNA production methods are desirable. Strong evolutionary conservation of siRNA structure suggested that siRNAs will retain cross-species function and that transgenic plants expressing heterologous siRNAs might serve as useful siRNA bioreactors. Here we report a detailed evaluation of the above proposition and present evidence regarding structural features of siRNAs extracted from plants. Results Testing the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells proved to be very challenging and required partial siRNA purification and design of a highly sensitive assay. Using the above assay we found that plant-derived siRNAs are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Plant-derived siRNAs are almost exclusively double-stranded and most likely comprise a mixture of bona fide siRNAs and aberrant partially complementary duplexes. We also provide indirect evidence that plant-derived siRNAs may contain a hitherto undetected physiological modification, distinct from 3' terminal 2-O-methylation. Conclusion siRNAs produced from plant hairpin transgenes and extracted from plants are ineffective for gene silencing in mammalian cells. Thus our findings establish that a previous claim that transgenic plants offer a cost-effective, scalable and sustainable source of siRNAs is unwarranted. Our results also indicate that the presence of aberrant siRNA duplexes and possibly a plant-specific siRNA modification, compromises the gene silencing capacity of plant-derived siRNAs in mammalian cells.

  9. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  10. Anatomy of event and human performance management in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the occurrence mechanism of events in nuclear power plants, and explains the four factors of human errors and the relations among them, then probes into the occurrence mechanism and characteristics of human errors in nuclear power plants. Moreover, the article clarifies that the principle of human performance training in nuclear power plants is all-member training, and that the implementation approach is to develop different human performance tools for different staff categories as workers, knowledge workers and supervisors, which are categorized based on characteristics of work of different staff. (author)

  11. Integer anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doolittle, R. [ONR, Arlington, VA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    The title integer anatomy is intended to convey the idea of a systematic method for displaying the prime decomposition of the integers. Just as the biological study of anatomy does not teach us all things about behavior of species neither would we expect to learn everything about the number theory from a study of its anatomy. But, some number-theoretic theorems are illustrated by inspection of integer anatomy, which tend to validate the underlying structure and the form as developed and displayed in this treatise. The first statement to be made in this development is: the way structure of the natural numbers is displayed depends upon the allowed operations.

  12. Floral Nectary Anatomy and Ultrastructure in Mycoheterotrophic Plant, Epipogium aphyllum Sw. (Orchidaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Święczkowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epipogium aphyllum is a European-Asian obligatory mycoheterotrophic orchid containing no chlorophyll. Flowers are not resupinate with a sack-shape spur and cordate lip, which is divided into two parts: the basal (hypochile and distal one (epichile. The floral analysis provides strong evidence to conclude that nectar is secreted on the upper surface of pink-coloured papillate ridges and epidermal (adaxial cells at different place in spur, especially at the apex. The exudation on papillae has been observed through the entire anthesis and it has been stained on polysaccharides, proteins, and lipids. The dense cytoplasm of papillae contains profuse endoplasmic reticulum, plentiful vesicles (bigger ones with tannin-like materials, numerous mitochondria, sometimes dictyosomes, starch grains, and plastids with tubular structures. The large electron-dense bodies in cell walls are structurally the same as tannin-like materials from vesicles that are in contact with plasmalemma. The rupture of thin layer of swelled cuticle is caused by pressure of gathered substances exuded due to granulocrine secretion. The idioblasts with raphides occur mainly in tepals tissue. The dynamic changes of the nectar exudation, released through endocrine secretion, have been noticeable during the anthesis: both on the lip and inside the spur. The nectar secretion is not dependent on the colour form of E. aphyllum blooming shoots. The floral biology and ultrastructure differ from mycoheterotrophic plants known up to date.

  13. Facial anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marur, Tania; Tuna, Yakup; Demirci, Selman

    2014-01-01

    Dermatologic problems of the face affect both function and aesthetics, which are based on complex anatomical features. Treating dermatologic problems while preserving the aesthetics and functions of the face requires knowledge of normal anatomy. When performing successfully invasive procedures of the face, it is essential to understand its underlying topographic anatomy. This chapter presents the anatomy of the facial musculature and neurovascular structures in a systematic way with some clinically important aspects. We describe the attachments of the mimetic and masticatory muscles and emphasize their functions and nerve supply. We highlight clinically relevant facial topographic anatomy by explaining the course and location of the sensory and motor nerves of the face and facial vasculature with their relations. Additionally, this chapter reviews the recent nomenclature of the branching pattern of the facial artery. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Transforming Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Anndee

    2017-01-01

    Abstract: Transforming Anatomy Studying historic books allows people to witness the transformation of the world right before their very eyes. The Bruxellensis Icones Anatomicae[1] by Andreas Vesalius is a vital piece of evidence in the movement from a more rudimentary understanding of the human body into the more complex and accurate development of modern anatomy. Vesalius’ research worked to both refute and confirm findings of his predecessor, the great historical Greek philosopher, Galen...

  15. Can liming change root anatomy, biomass allocation and trace element distribution among plant parts of Salix × smithiana in trace element-polluted soils?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vondráčková, Stanislava; Tlustoš, Pavel; Száková, Jiřina

    2017-08-01

    Willows (Salix spp.) are considered to be effective for the phytoremediation of trace elements from contaminated soils, but their efficiency is limited in heavily polluted soils because of poor growth. Liming can be a desirable measure to decrease the plant availability of elements, resulting in improved plant development. Notably, large root area and maximum soil penetration are basic parameters that improve the efficiency of phytoremediation. The impact of soil chemical properties on willow root anatomy and the distribution of trace elements below-ground have rarely been studied. The effect of liming on root parameters, biomass allocation and trace element distribution in non-harvestable (coarse roots, fine roots, stumps) and harvestable plant parts (twigs and leaves) of Salix × smithiana was assessed at the end of a 4-year pot experiment with two trace element-polluted soils that differed in terms of soil pH. Stump biomass predominated in weakly acidic soil. In neutral soil, the majority of biomass was located in fine roots and stumps; the difference from other plant parts was minor. Trace elements were the most concentrated in fine roots. Translocation to above-ground biomass increased as follows: Pb roots roots). Lime application decreased the concentrations of mobile Cd and Zn and related levels in plants, improved biomass production and root parameters and increased the removal of all trace elements in weakly acidic soil. None or minimum differences in the monitored parameters were recorded for dolomite treatments in both soils. The dose and source of liming had crucial effects on root anatomy. Growing willows in limed trace element-polluted soils is a suitable measure for combination of two remediation strategies, i.e. phytoextraction of Cd and Zn and assisted phytostabilization of As and Pb.

  16. Regulatory Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes the term “safety logics” to understand attempts within the European Union (EU) to harmonize member state legislation to ensure a safe and stable supply of human biological material for transplants and transfusions. With safety logics, I refer to assemblages of discourses, le...... they arise. In short, I expose the regulatory anatomy of the policy landscape....

  17. Stedets Anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lasse Juel

    Titlen på denne ph.d.-afhandling, Stedets Anatomi – en teoretisk undersøgelse af stedets og rumlighedens betydning for leg, computerspil og læring, skitserer ikke kun afhandlingens teoretiske dimensionering, men også dens analytiske bliks tematik i forbindelse med undersøgelsen af fænomenerne leg...

  18. The Anatomy of Learning Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelmsson, Niklas; Dahlgren, Lars Owe; Hult, Hakan; Scheja, Max; Lonka, Kirsti; Josephson, Anna

    2010-01-01

    The experience of clinical teachers as well as research results about senior medical students' understanding of basic science concepts has much been debated. To gain a better understanding about how this knowledge-transformation is managed by medical students, this work aims at investigating their ways of setting about learning anatomy.…

  19. Stem characteristics of two forage maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars varying in whole plant digestibility. III. Intra-stem variability in anatomy, chemical composition and in vitro rumen fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boon, E.J.M.C.; Struik, P.C.; Tamminga, S.; Engels, F.M.; Cone, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    The internodes of forage maize (Zea mays L.) stems were studied at anthesis for variation in anatomy and chemical composition in relation to digestibility. The study was carried out with a short (Vitaro) and a tall (Volens) cultivar differing in whole-plant digestibility, both of which were grown in

  20. Thymus Gland Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x576 ... Large: 3000x2400 View Download Title: Thymus Gland, Adult, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the thymus gland; drawing shows ...

  1. Normal Female Reproductive Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... historical Searches are case-insensitive Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: 720x756 ... Large: 3000x3150 View Download Title: Reproductive System, Female, Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the female reproductive system; drawing ...

  2. Normal Pancreas Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hyphen, e.g. -historical Searches are case-insensitive Pancreas Anatomy Add to My Pictures View /Download : Small: ... 1586x1534 View Download Large: 3172x3068 View Download Title: Pancreas Anatomy Description: Anatomy of the pancreas; drawing shows ...

  3. Germination of dimorphic seeds of the desert annual halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae), a C4 plant without Kranz anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Dong, Ming

    2008-11-01

    Suaeda aralocaspica is a C4 summer annual halophyte without Kranz anatomy that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia. It produces two distinct types of seeds that differ in colour, shape and size. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the dormancy and germination characteristics of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica and to develop a conceptual model of their dynamics. Temperatures simulating those in the natural habitat of S. aralocaspica were used to test for primary dormancy and germination behaviour of fresh brown and black seeds. The effects of cold stratification, gibberellic acid, seed coat scarification, seed coat removal and dry storage on dormancy breaking were tested in black seeds. Germination percentage and recovery responses of brown seeds, non-treated black seeds and 8-week cold-stratified black seeds to salt stress were tested. Brown seeds were non-dormant, whereas black seeds had non-deep Type 2 physiological dormancy (PD). Germination percentage and rate of germination of brown seeds and of variously pretreated black seeds were significantly higher than those of non-pretreated black seeds. Exposure of seeds to various salinities had significant effects on germination, germination recovery and induction into secondary dormancy. A conceptual model is presented that ties these results together and puts them into an ecological context. The two seed morphs of S. aralocaspica exhibit distinct differences in dormancy and germination characteristics. Suaeda aralocaspica is the first cold desert halophyte for which non-deep Type 2 PD has been documented.

  4. The anatomy of the 'feeling of security' towards nuclear power generation plants. A survey of the image of 'security' (anshin)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yukimi; Morikawa, Shin'ichi; Hafsi, Med; Ohashi, Tomoki

    2003-01-01

    To better understand how people feel secure towards nuclear power generation plants, three surveys were conducted using three different methods. In the first study, a 'word association questionnaire' was used to determine what do people associate with the word 'security', or anshin. The results revealed that the respondents tended to associate with this work principally a number of situations in which they feel protected, calm and stable. In the second study, which was conducted using rating scales, it was found that the respondents were likely to perceive security based on subjectively formed opinions, and on the result of their interaction with others. The rating scale method was also used in the third study whose purpose was to examine the influence of the respondent's pre-formed image on their feeling of security. The findings of this study showed that the feeling of confidence, and images of peace and security tended to strongly influence the respondent's feeling of security. It was therefore concluded that the respondent's feeling of security towards power generation plants is largely determined by his/her perception that the staffs working in the plant are really always committed to their task of ensuring safety in the plant. (author)

  5. Engaging plant anatomy and local knowledge on the buriti palm ( Mauritia flexuosa L.f.: Arecaceae): the microscopic world meets the golden grass artisan's perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Rebeca V. R.; Scatena, Vera L.; Eichemberg, Mayra T.; Sano, Paulo T.

    2018-03-01

    Considering that both Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems share a common ground—observations of the natural world—the dialogue between them should not only be possible, but fruitful. Local communities whose livelihoods depend on traditional uses of the local biodiversity not only develop knowledge about nature, making several uses of such knowledge, but, with that process, several inquiries about nature can be raised. Here we present our experience with the engagement of Western Science with golden grass artisan's knowledge about the buriti palm ( M. flexuosa). We applied 25 semi-directive interviews, combined with field diary and participative observation, in two quilombola communities from Jalapão region (Central-Brazil). One of the inquiries that emerged from the artisan's perspectives was about the differences between male and female buriti palms' fiber. We then engaged both local and scientific perspectives regarding this issue using plant anatomy as a dialogue instrument. Here we describe this experience and resort to Paulo Freire's ideas on dialogue to argue that, to integrate Western Science and Local Knowledge Systems in a collaborative and contextualized perspective, the research should be faced as a mutual learning practice.

  6. Anatomy Journal of Africa

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... Anatomy Journal of Africa is the Official Journal for the Association of Anatomical Societies of Africa. ... Applied anatomy - Clinical anatomy - Morphology, - Embryology ...

  7. Teaching Anatomy: need or taste?

    OpenAIRE

    Farrokhi, Ahmad; Nejad, Masoume Soleymani

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Anatomy is one of the core sections of Basic Medical Sciences. Given the central role of anatomy, the development of medical knowledge and reach new horizons in science is not possible without relying on anatomy. Since in the anatomy science, students are familiar with the basic terms of medical language, the anatomy's hard to know and have a negative attitude towards this course. With these conditions, anatomy professors have an important role in providing incentives...

  8. Anatomy Comic Strips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Seo; Kim, Dae Hyun; Chung, Min Suk

    2011-01-01

    Comics are powerful visual messages that convey immediate visceral meaning in ways that conventional texts often cannot. This article's authors created comic strips to teach anatomy more interestingly and effectively. Four-frame comic strips were conceptualized from a set of anatomy-related humorous stories gathered from the authors' collective…

  9. Delaware Anatomy: With Linguistic, Social, and Medical Aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jay

    1977-01-01

    Presents the comprehensive partonomy of anatomy in Unami Lenape or Delaware as provided by a modern Unami specialist. The primary referent is the human body, but some comparative terms referring to animals and plants are also provided. (CHK)

  10. Anatomy of Sarcocaulon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Verhoeven

    1983-11-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of the leaf blade, petiole, stem and root of the genus Sarcocaulon (DC. Sweet is discussed. On the basis of the leaf anatomy, the four sections recognized by Moffett (1979 can be identified: section Denticulati (dorsiventral leaves, section Multifidi (isobilateral leaves and adaxial and abaxial palisade continuous at midvein, section Crenati (isobilateral leaves, short curved trichomes and glandular hairs, section Sarcocaulon (isobilateral leaves and glandular hairs only. The anatomy of the stem is typically that of a herbaceous dicotyledon with a thick periderm. The root structure shows that the function of the root is not food storage.

  11. Applied peritoneal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, R.R.; Planche, K.

    2013-01-01

    The peritoneal cavity is a complex anatomical structure with multiple attachments and connections. These are better understood with reference to the embryological development of this region. Armed with this knowledge, the diagnosis and assessment of a wide range of common intra-abdominal diseases becomes straightforward. This article will review and simplify the terminology, complex embryological development, and anatomy of the peritoneum, peritoneal attachments, and the reflections forming the peritoneal boundaries. Normal anatomy will be described using schematic diagrams with corresponding computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images, including CT peritoneograms. The relevance of intra- and extra-peritoneal anatomy to common pathological processes will be demonstrated

  12. Comparison of a Gross Anatomy Laboratory to Online Anatomy Software for Teaching Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if…

  13. Anatomy of Memory

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the anatomy and function of the brain system for memory in humans and animal models are reviewed from the Veterans Affairs Medical Center, San Diego and the Department of Psychiatry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA.

  14. [Laurentius on anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawai, Tadashi; Sakai, Tatsuo

    2005-03-01

    Andreas Laurentius wrote Opera anatomica (1593) and Historia anatomica (1600). These books were composed of two types of chapters; 'historia' and 'quaestio'. His description is not original, but take from other anatomists. 'Historia' describes the structure, action and usefulness of the body parts clarified after dissection. 'Quaestio' treats those questions which could not be solved only by dissection. Laurentius cited many previous contradicting interpretations to these questions and choose a best interpretation for the individual questions. In most cases, Laurentius preferred Galen's view. Historia anatomica retained almost all the 'historia' and 'quaestio' from Opera anatomica, and added some new 'historia' and 'quaestio', especially in regard to the components of the body, such as ligaments, membranes, vessels, nerves and glands. Other new 'historia' and 'quaestio' in Historia anatomica concerned several topics on anatomy in general to comprehensively analyze the history of anatomy, methods of anatomy, and usefulness of anatomy. Historia anatomica reviewed what was anatomy by describing in 'historia' what was known and in 'quaestio' what was unresolved. Till now Laurentius's anatomical works have attracted little attention because his description contained few original findings and depended on previous books. However, the important fact that Historia anatomica was very popular in the 17th century tells us that people needed non-original and handbook style of this textbook. Historia anatomica is important for further research on the propagation of anatomical knowledge from professional anatomists to non-professionals in the 17th century.

  15. Variation in root wood anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cutler, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    Variability in the anatomy of root wood of selected specimens particularly Fraxinus excelsior L. and Acer pseudoplatanus L. in the Kew reference microscope slide collection is discussed in relation to generalised statements in the literature on root wood anatomy.

  16. Synopsis of radiologic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meschan, I.

    1987-01-01

    The book is a compact version of earlier publications that appeared in 1975 as a one- and a two-volume issue under the title 'Atlas of Radiologic Anatomy'. A chapter on computed tomography has been added as this novel technique requires a new approach to radiologic anatomy. The radiologist will find all the information on the anatomic conditions he needs for analysing radiographs and CT pictures. More than 600 radiographs and CT pictures are given that illustrate typical and rare findings. The book also is useful as a source of reference for making good radiographs and evaluating the quality of radiographs or CT pictures. With 1413 figs., 18 tabs [de

  17. Henry Gray's Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-04-01

    Little is generally known of Henry Gray, the author of Gray's Anatomy, and even less of his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter, who played a vital role in the dissections and illustrations leading to the production of the first volume in 1859. This essay attempts to sketch briefly the salient, know aspects of these two men and their divergent careers. It traces succinctly the subsequent fate of the unique anatomy book that has influenced and instructed almost every student of medicine. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Anatomy of the clitoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Helen E; Sanjeevan, Kalavampara V; Hutson, John M

    2005-10-01

    We present a comprehensive account of clitoral anatomy, including its component structures, neurovascular supply, relationship to adjacent structures (the urethra, vagina and vestibular glands, and connective tissue supports), histology and immunohistochemistry. We related recent anatomical findings to the historical literature to determine when data on accurate anatomy became available. An extensive review of the current and historical literature was done. The studies reviewed included dissection and microdissection, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), 3-dimensional sectional anatomy reconstruction, histology and immunohistochemical studies. The clitoris is a multiplanar structure with a broad attachment to the pubic arch and via extensive supporting tissue to the mons pubis and labia. Centrally it is attached to the urethra and vagina. Its components include the erectile bodies (paired bulbs and paired corpora, which are continuous with the crura) and the glans clitoris. The glans is a midline, densely neural, non-erectile structure that is the only external manifestation of the clitoris. All other components are composed of erectile tissue with the composition of the bulbar erectile tissue differing from that of the corpora. The clitoral and perineal neurovascular bundles are large, paired terminations of the pudendal neurovascular bundles. The clitoral neurovascular bundles ascend along the ischiopubic rami to meet each other and pass along the superior surface of the clitoral body supplying the clitoris. The neural trunks pass largely intact into the glans. These nerves are at least 2 mm in diameter even in infancy. The cavernous or autonomic neural anatomy is microscopic and difficult to define consistently. MRI complements dissection studies and clarifies the anatomy. Clitoral pharmacology and histology appears to parallel those of penile tissue, although the clinical impact is vastly different. Typical textbook descriptions of the clitoris lack detail and

  19. Learning Anatomy Enhances Spatial Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc A. T. M.; Klaassen, Tim P. F. M.; Donders, A. R. T.; Kooloos, Jan G. M.; Bolhuis, Sanneke M.; Laan, Roland F. J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial ability is an important factor in learning anatomy. Students with high scores on a mental rotation test (MRT) systematically score higher on anatomy examinations. This study aims to investigate if learning anatomy also oppositely improves the MRT-score. Five hundred first year students of medicine ("n" = 242, intervention) and…

  20. Anatomy for Biomedical Engineers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Stephen W.; Robb, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    There is a perceived need for anatomy instruction for graduate students enrolled in a biomedical engineering program. This appeared especially important for students interested in and using medical images. These students typically did not have a strong background in biology. The authors arranged for students to dissect regions of the body that…

  1. The Anatomy Puzzle Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Willis H.; Carter, Robert, III

    This document features review questions, crossword puzzles, and word search puzzles on human anatomy. Topics include: (1) Anatomical Terminology; (2) The Skeletal System and Joints; (3) The Muscular System; (4) The Nervous System; (5) The Eye and Ear; (6) The Circulatory System and Blood; (7) The Respiratory System; (8) The Urinary System; (9) The…

  2. Illustrated Speech Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, William M.

    Written for students in the fields of speech correction and audiology, the text deals with the following: structures involved in respiration; the skeleton and the processes of inhalation and exhalation; phonation and pitch, the larynx, and esophageal speech; muscles involved in articulation; muscles involved in resonance; and the anatomy of the…

  3. The anatomy workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagen-Ansert, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    This is an atlas of human anatomy presented in the form of line drawings, many of which correspond to imaging planes used in ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR). The book is organized into 17 sections, each covering a specific structure or organ system. Large, uncluttered drawings are labeled for identification of structures of interest. Many illustrations include captions consisting of comments explaining major divisions within organs, specific anatomic relationships and landmarks, and pertinent vascular anatomy. Most organs are first depicted in isolation or in relation to important adjacent organs or blood vessels and are rendered as if viewed from anterior, posterior, inferior, or superior perspectives. The organs are demonstrated again in serial transverse, saggital, and coronal sections, each accompanied by a drawing of a body in anatomic position denoting the plane of the section

  4. Breast development and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandya, Sonali; Moore, Richard G

    2011-03-01

    In this article, the development of the female breast, as well as the functional anatomy, blood supply, innervation and lymphatic drainage are described. A thorough understanding of the breast anatomy is an important adjunct to a meticulous clinical breast examination. Breast examination is a complex skill involving key maneuvers, including careful inspection and palpation. Clinical breast examination can provide an opportunity for the clinician to educate patients about their breast and about breast cancer, its symptoms, risk factors, early detection, and normal breast composition, and specifically variability. Clinical breast examination can help to detect some cancers not found by mammography, and clinicians should not override their examination findings if imaging is not supportive of the physical findings.

  5. Anatomy of the cerebellopontine angle; Anatomie des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grunwald, I.Q.; Papanagiotou, P.; Politi, M.; Reith, W. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Klinik fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Neuroradiologie; Nabhan, A. [Universitaetsklinikum des Saarlandes, Homburg/Saar (Germany). Neurochirurgische Klinik

    2006-03-15

    The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is an anatomically complex region of the brain. In this article we describe the anatomy of the CPA cisterns, of the internal auditory canal, the topography of the cerebellum and brainstem, and the neurovascular structures of this area. (orig.) [German] Der Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel ist eine umschriebene anatomische Region. Im diesem Artikel werden die Subarachnoidalraeume im Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkel, die Anatomie der Felsenbeinflaeche, Anatomie und Topographie des Kleinhirns und des Hirnstamms, die arteriellen Beziehungen und venoese Drainage des Kleinhirnbrueckenwinkels besprochen. (orig.)

  6. Human ocular anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kels, Barry D; Grzybowski, Andrzej; Grant-Kels, Jane M

    2015-01-01

    We review the normal anatomy of the human globe, eyelids, and lacrimal system. This contribution explores both the form and function of numerous anatomic features of the human ocular system, which are vital to a comprehensive understanding of the pathophysiology of many oculocutaneous diseases. The review concludes with a reference glossary of selective ophthalmologic terms that are relevant to a thorough understanding of many oculocutaneous disease processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparison of a gross anatomy laboratory to online anatomy software for teaching anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiowetz, Virgil; Yu, Chih-Huang; Quake-Rapp, Cindee

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction between occupational therapy students who used a gross anatomy laboratory versus online anatomy software (AnatomyTV) as tools to learn anatomy at a large public university and a satellite campus in the mid-western United States. The goal was to determine if equivalent learning outcomes could be achieved regardless of learning tool used. In addition, it was important to determine why students chose the gross anatomy laboratory over online AnatomyTV. A two group, post-test only design was used with data gathered at the end of the course. Primary outcomes were students' grades, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction. In addition, a survey was used to collect descriptive data. One cadaver prosection was available for every four students in the gross anatomy laboratory. AnatomyTV was available online through the university library. At the conclusion of the course, the gross anatomy laboratory group had significantly higher grade percentage, self-perceived learning, and satisfaction than the AnatomyTV group. However, the practical significance of the difference is debatable. The significantly greater time spent in gross anatomy laboratory during the laboratory portion of the course may have affected the study outcomes. In addition, some students may find the difference in (B+) versus (A-) grade as not practically significant. Further research needs to be conducted to identify what specific anatomy teaching resources are most effective beyond prosection for students without access to a gross anatomy laboratory. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Análise de crescimento e anatomia foliar da planta medicinal Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae cultivada em diferentes substratos Growth analysis and leaf anatomy of the medicinal plant Ageratum conyzoides L. (Asteraceae grown on different substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A Millani

    2010-06-01

    and root length, shoot (stem and leaves and root dry matter, number of leaves and leaf area were evaluated, in addition to leaf anatomical parameters, such as trichome density. Stem and root length increased over the experiment under any substrate (except root length of plants grown on red earth soil. However, stem length was always higher in plants grown on cerrado soil, whereas root length was significantly higher only at 90 days of cultivation on this same soil. Root and stem dry biomass were also higher in plants grown on cerrado soil at 70 and 90 days, respectively. Leaf dry matter was higher in plants grown on cerrado soil from 70 days of experiment. This increase was due to the larger number of produced leaves and the higher leaf area of those plants. In general, leaf anatomy does not differ; however, the number of glandular trichomes was larger in plants grown on cerrado soil. Such results indicated that this species had a better development when grown on sandier soils.

  9. Who Is Repeating Anatomy? Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra F.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy courses frequently serve as prerequisites or requirements for health sciences programs. Due to the challenging nature of anatomy, each semester there are students remediating the course (enrolled in the course for a second time), attempting to earn a grade competitive for admissions into a program of study. In this retrospective study,…

  10. Anatomia foliar de soja infectada por Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais Leaf anatomy of soybean infected with Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Mussury

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Folhas de Glycine max (L. Merril,infectadas pelo fungo Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow e tratadas com extratos vegetais foram avaliadas, visando determinar in vivo as modificações anatômicas nas diferentes estruturas/tecidos foliares, além de reconhecer prováveis mecanismos de defesa. Folhas de soja cultivar 181 provenientes do quinto nó foram inoculadas com fungo e tratadas com diferentes extratos vegetais, água e álcool 70%. Para comparação foram analisadas a anatomia das folhas sadia e infectada e realizadas medidas nas estruturas/tecidos foliares. Na folha infectada, observou-se destruição da epiderme e parênquima lacunoso, visível proliferação de tricomas e cutícula espessada, principalmente na face abaxial. Observou-se a presença de compostos fenólicos nas células da epiderme quando rompida, em função do crescimento micelial. Nas folhas infectadas e tratadas com os extratos vegetais de Azadirachta indica, Maytenus ilicifolia e Allium sativum, as estruturas/tecidos vegetais apresentaram aumento de espessura por alongamento celular.Glycine max (L. Merril leaves, infected by the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi H. Sydow & Sydow and treated with plant extracts, were evaluated with the aim of determining in vivo the anatomical modifications in different leaf structures and of identifying probable defense mechanisms. Leaves from the 181 soybean cultivar originated from the fifth node were inoculated with the fungus and treated with different plant extracts, water and alcohol at 70%. For comparison, the anatomy of the healthy and infected leaves was analyzed and the leaf structures were measured. In the infected leaf, there was destruction of the epidermis and lacunar parenchyma, apparent trichome proliferation and denser cuticle, especially on the abaxial surface. There were also phenolic compounds in ruptured epidermis cells, due to mycelium growth. In the infected leaves treated with Azadirachta indica, Maytenus

  11. Normal cranial CT anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gado, M.H.; Rao, K.C.V.G.

    1987-01-01

    The human brain consists of well-known anatomical components. Some parts of these components have been shown to be concerned with certain functions. A complete cranial CT examination consists of a series of several slices obtained in a sequence usually from the base to the vertex of the cranial vault, in the axial mode. The ultimate goal of this chapter is to pinpoint those slices that depict a given anatomical structure or several structures that deal with a given function. To achieve this goal, the discussion of CT cranial anatomy is presented in three sections

  12. Orbita - Anatomy, development and deformities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartmann, K.M.; Reith, W.; Golinski, M.; Schroeder, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The development of the structures of the human orbita is very complex, but understanding the development makes it easier to understand normal anatomy and dysplasia. The following article first discusses the embryonic development of the eye structures and then presents the ''normal'' radiological anatomy using different investigation techniques and the most common deformities. (orig.) [de

  13. Health Instruction Packages: Cardiac Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Gwen; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in these five learning modules to instruct nurses, students, and other health care professionals in cardiac anatomy and functions and in fundamental electrocardiographic techniques. The first module, "Cardiac Anatomy and Physiology: A Review" by Gwen Phillips, teaches the learner to draw…

  14. Blended learning in anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Gert Værge; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    behind DBR is that new knowledge is generated through processes that simultaneously develop, test and improve a design, in this case, an educational design (1) The main principles used in the project is blended learning and flipped learning (2). …"I definitely learn best in practice, but the theory...... in working with the assignments in the classroom."... External assesor, observer and interviewer Based on the different evaluations, the conclusion are that the blended learning approach combined with the ‘flipped classroom’ is a very good way to learn and apply the anatomy, both for the students......The aim of the project was to bridge the gap between theory and practice by working more collaboratively, both peer-to-peer and between student and lecturer. Furthermore the aim was to create active learning environments. The methodology of the project is Design-Based Research (DBR). The idea...

  15. The peritoneum - anatomy and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribarova, V.

    2017-01-01

    The peritoneum is a large and complex serous membrane The peritoneal spaces and the natural flow of peritoneal fluid determine the route of spread of the disease processes within the abdominal cavity. The goal of this article is to review the normal peritoneal anatomy and the role of the imaging in the diagnostic of the disease processes. Among the imaging methods, the computed tomography at greater extent allows the accurate examination of the complex anatomy of the peritoneal cavity and to assess the extent of the pathological processes affecting it. Key words: Peritoneal Anatomy. Imaging. CT [bg

  16. Acclimatization and leaf anatomy of micropropagated fig plantlets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrystiane Fráguas Chirinéa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The survival of micropropagated plants during and after acclimatization is a limiting process to plant establishment. There is little information on how the anatomy of vegetative organs of Ficus carica can be affected by culture conditions and acclimatization. The present research aimed to study the effects of time on culture medium and substrates during the acclimatization of fig tree plantlets produced in vitro, characterizing some leaf anatomy aspects of plantlets cultured in vitro and of fig trees produced in field. Plantlets previously multiplied in vitro were separated and transferred into Wood Plant Medium (WPM where they were kept for 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. Different substrates were tested and studies on leaf anatomy were performed in order to compare among plantlets grown in vitro, plantlets under 20, 40 and 60 days of acclimatization, and field grown plants. Keeping plantlets for 30 days in WPM allowed better development in Plantmax during acclimatization. Field grown plants presented higher number of stomata, greater epicuticular wax thickness and greater leaf tissue production compared to in vitro ones. The leaf tissues of in vitro plantlets show little differentiation and have great stomata number compared with acclimatized plants, which reduce the number of stomata during the acclimatization process.

  17. Penile embryology and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiee, Jenny H; Baskin, Laurence S

    2010-06-29

    Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7th and 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  18. Penile Embryology and Anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny H. Yiee

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of penile embryology and anatomy is essential to any pediatric urologist in order to fully understand and treat congenital anomalies. Sex differentiation of the external genitalia occurs between the 7thand 17th weeks of gestation. The Y chromosome initiates male differentiation through the SRY gene, which triggers testicular development. Under the influence of androgens produced by the testes, external genitalia then develop into the penis and scrotum. Dorsal nerves supply penile skin sensation and lie within Buck's fascia. These nerves are notably absent at the 12 o'clock position. Perineal nerves supply skin sensation to the ventral shaft skin and frenulum. Cavernosal nerves lie within the corpora cavernosa and are responsible for sexual function. Paired cavernosal, dorsal, and bulbourethral arteries have extensive anastomotic connections. During erection, the cavernosal artery causes engorgement of the cavernosa, while the deep dorsal artery leads to glans enlargement. The majority of venous drainage occurs through a single, deep dorsal vein into which multiple emissary veins from the corpora and circumflex veins from the spongiosum drain. The corpora cavernosa and spongiosum are all made of spongy erectile tissue. Buck's fascia circumferentially envelops all three structures, splitting into two leaves ventrally at the spongiosum. The male urethra is composed of six parts: bladder neck, prostatic, membranous, bulbous, penile, and fossa navicularis. The urethra receives its blood supply from both proximal and distal directions.

  19. The place of surface anatomy in the medical literature and undergraduate anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this review were to examine the place of surface anatomy in the medical literature, particularly the methods and approaches used in teaching surface and living anatomy and assess commonly used anatomy textbooks in regard to their surface anatomy contents. PubMed and MEDLINE databases were searched using the following keywords "surface anatomy," "living anatomy," "teaching surface anatomy," "bony landmarks," "peer examination" and "dermatomes". The percentage of pages covering surface anatomy in each textbook was calculated as well as the number of images covering surface anatomy. Clarity, quality and adequacy of surface anatomy contents was also examined. The search identified 22 research papers addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy, 31 papers that can help in the improvement of surface anatomy curriculum, and 12 anatomy textbooks. These teaching methods included: body painting, peer volunteer surface anatomy, use of a living anatomy model, real time ultrasound, virtual (visible) human dissector (VHD), full body digital x-ray of cadavers (Lodox(®) Statscan(®) images) combined with palpating landmarks on peers and the cadaver, as well as the use of collaborative, contextual and self-directed learning. Nineteen of these studies were published in the period from 2006 to 2013. The 31 papers covered evidence-based and clinically-applied surface anatomy. The percentage of surface anatomy in textbooks' contents ranged from 0 to 6.2 with an average of 3.4%. The number of medical illustrations on surface anatomy varied from 0 to 135. In conclusion, although there has been a progressive increase in publications addressing methods used in teaching surface anatomy over the last six to seven years, most anatomy textbooks do not provide students with adequate information about surface anatomy. Only three textbooks provided a solid explanation and foundation of understanding surface anatomy. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. An anatomy precourse enhances student learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNulty, Margaret A; Stevens-Sparks, Cathryn; Taboada, Joseph; Daniel, Annie; Lazarus, Michelle D

    2016-07-08

    Veterinary anatomy is often a source of trepidation for many students. Currently professional veterinary programs, similar to medical curricula, within the United States have no admission requirements for anatomy as a prerequisite course. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the impact of a week-long precourse in veterinary anatomy on both objective student performance and subjective student perceptions of the precourse educational methods. Incoming first year veterinary students in the Louisiana State University School of Veterinary Medicine professional curriculum were asked to participate in a free precourse before the start of the semester, covering the musculoskeletal structures of the canine thoracic limb. Students learned the material either via dissection only, instructor-led demonstrations only, or a combination of both techniques. Outcome measures included student performance on examinations throughout the first anatomy course of the professional curriculum as compared with those who did not participate in the precourse. This study found that those who participated in the precourse did significantly better on examinations within the professional anatomy course compared with those who did not participate. Notably, this significant improvement was also identified on the examination where both groups were exposed to the material for the first time together, indicating that exposure to a small portion of veterinary anatomy can impact learning of anatomical structures beyond the immediate scope of the material previously learned. Subjective data evaluation indicated that the precourse was well received and students preferred guided learning via demonstrations in addition to dissection as opposed to either method alone. Anat Sci Educ 9: 344-356. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Papilian's anatomy - celebrating six decades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitraşcu, Dinu Iuliu; Crivii, Carmen Bianca; Opincariu, Iulian

    2017-01-01

    Victor Papilian was born an artist, during high school he studied music in order to become a violinist in two professional orchestras in Bucharest. Later on he enrolled in the school of medicine, being immediately attracted by anatomy. After graduating, with a briliant dissertation, he became a member of the faculty and continued to teach in his preferred field. His masters, Gh. Marinescu and Victor Babes, proposed him for the position of professor at the newly established Faculty of Medicine of Cluj. Here he reorganized the department radically, created an anatomy museum and edited the first dissection handbook and the first Romanian anatomy (descriptive and topographic) treatise, both books received with great appreciation. He received the Romanian Academy Prize. His knowledge and skills gained him a well deserved reputation and he created a prestigious school of anatomy. He published over 250 scientific papers in national and international journals, ranging from morphology to functional, pathological and anthropological topics. He founded the Society of Anthropology, with its own newsletter; he was elected as a member of the French Society of Anatomy. In parallel he had a rich artistic and cultural activity as writer and playwright: he was president of the Transylvanian Writers' Society, editor of a literary review, director of the Cluj theater and opera, leader of a book club and founder of a symphony orchestra.

  2. Coronary artery anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malago, Roberto; Pezzato, Andrea; Barbiani, Camilla; Alfonsi, Ugolino; Nicoli, Lisa; Caliari, Giuliana; Pozzi Mucelli, Roberto [Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University of Verona, Department of Radiology, Verona (Italy)

    2011-12-15

    Variants and congenital anomalies of the coronary arteries are usually asymptomatic, but may present with severe chest pain or cardiac arrest. The introduction of multidetector CT coronary angiography (MDCT-CA) allows the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. Improved performance with isotropic spatial resolution and higher temporal resolution provides a valid alternative to conventional coronary angiography (CCA) in many patients. MDCT-CA is now considered the ideal tool for three-dimensional visualization of the complex and tortuous anatomy of the coronary arteries. With multiplanar and volume-rendered reconstructions, MDCT-CA may even outperform CCA in determining the relative position of vessels, thus providing a better view of the coronary vascular anatomy. The purpose of this review is to describe the normal anatomy of the coronary arteries and their main variants based on MDCT-CA with appropriate reconstructions. (orig.)

  3. [Imaging anatomy of cranial nerves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermier, M; Leal, P R L; Salaris, S F; Froment, J-C; Sindou, M

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge of the anatomy of the cranial nerves is mandatory for optimal radiological exploration and interpretation of the images in normal and pathological conditions. CT is the method of choice for the study of the skull base and its foramina. MRI explores the cranial nerves and their vascular relationships precisely. Because of their small size, it is essential to obtain images with high spatial resolution. The MRI sequences optimize contrast between nerves and surrounding structures (cerebrospinal fluid, fat, bone structures and vessels). This chapter discusses the radiological anatomy of the cranial nerves.

  4. Pocket atlas of radiographic anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, T.B.; Reif, E.; Stark, P.

    1993-01-01

    The 'Pocket Atlas of Radiographic Anatomy' presents 170 radiographs of the various body regions of adults, showing only the normal radiographic anatomy. Each radiograph is supplemented on the opposite page by a drawing of the particular body region. There is no commenting text, but the drawings are provided with captions in English. The atlas is a useful guide for interpreting radiographs. The pictures are arranged in chapters entitled as follows: Skeletal Imaging (skull, spine, upper extremity), lower extremity; Miscellaneous Plain Films (chest, mammogram, trachea, lung tomograms); Contrast Examinations (gastrointestinal tract, intravenous contrast examinations, arthrography, angiography); Special Examinations (myelograms, lymphangiograms, bronchograms, sialograms). (UWA). 348 figs [de

  5. External and internal anatomy of mandibular molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, L F; Sousa Neto, M D; Fidel, S R; da Costa, W F; Pécora, J D

    1996-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 628 extracted, mandibular first and second molars was studied. The external anatomy was studied by measuring each tooth and by observing the direction of the root curvatures from the facial surface. The internal anatomy of the pulp cavity was studied by a method of making the teeth translucent.

  6. 3D virtual table in anatomy education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Mads Ronald; Simonsen, Eivind Ortind

    The ‘Anatomage’ is a 3D virtual human anatomy table, with touchscreen functionality, where it is possible to upload CT-scans and digital. Learning the human anatomy terminology requires time, a very good memory, anatomy atlas, books and lectures. Learning the 3 dimensional structure, connections...

  7. Anatomy of the trigeminal nerve

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijden, T.M.G.J.; Langenbach, G.E.J.; Baart, J.A.; Brand, H.S.

    2017-01-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the fifth cranial nerve (n. V), which plays an important role in the innervation of the head and neck area, together with other cranial and spinal nerves. Knowledge of the nerve’s anatomy is very important for the correct application of local anaesthetics.

  8. CONTRIBUTIONS OF SUSHRUTA TO ANATOMY

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2005-08-08

    Aug 8, 2005 ... Learning anatomy through the dissected ... practice. Sushruta was the first person who had established the ... graduate had to obtain the permission of the ... importance to neuroembryology in the Sarira- .... Faculty of the History of Medicine and Pharmacy, and held at the Royal College of Physicians.

  9. Soul Anatomy: A virtual cadaver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaz Bambi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the traditional science of medicine and medical education, teaching human anatomy in the class has always been done using human cadavers. Not only does this violate human sanctity, but according to our research, it is not adequate to provide students with the alleged educational value that it is supposed to deliver. It is very cumbersome to organise all the aspects of cadaver care. Cadavers are also very limited when it comes to controlling their structures and any benefit is almost completely altered the first time the cadaver is used (dissected, and ironically, it is very weak at delivering actual real-life scenarios of a human body to students. Virtual anatomy has been a promising solution that many are counting on. But even today, we have not found a complete solution that combines all the benefits of using human cadavers and those introduced by its technical counterparts. "Soul Anatomy" aims to do just that. It brings the best of all worlds, from a natural intuitive control system, life-like feel of organs, precise accuracy in moving and controlling bodily structures, to the smallest details of being able to show medical information overlays from various medical databases connected to the internet; thus making use of technology in teaching human anatomy by providing a modern learning experience.

  10. DAGAL: Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapen, Johan H.

    2017-03-01

    The current IAU Symposium is closely connected to the EU-funded network DAGAL (Detailed Anatomy of Galaxies), with the final annual network meeting of DAGAL being at the core of this international symposium. In this short paper, we give an overview of DAGAL, its training activities, and some of the scientific advances that have been made under its umbrella.

  11. Stem anatomy variation in cottonwood

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.N. Foulger; J. Hacskaylo

    1968-01-01

    Investigations of mineral nutrient-tree growth relationships have dealt mainly with associations involving foliage composition, root formation, or volume production of wood. Few studies have been concerned with changes in wood anatomy associated with element deficiency. In 1949 Davis reported that calcium deficiency was accompanied by a reduction of primary tissue and...

  12. The Evolutionary Basis of Naturally Diverse Rice Leaves Anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolly Chatterjee

    Full Text Available Rice contains genetically and ecologically diverse wild and cultivated species that show a wide variation in plant and leaf architecture. A systematic characterization of leaf anatomy is essential in understanding the dynamics behind such diversity. Therefore, leaf anatomies of 24 Oryza species spanning 11 genetically diverse rice genomes were studied in both lateral and longitudinal directions and possible evolutionary trends were examined. A significant inter-species variation in mesophyll cells, bundle sheath cells, and vein structure was observed, suggesting precise genetic control over these major rice leaf anatomical traits. Cellular dimensions, measured along three growth axes, were further combined proportionately to construct three-dimensional (3D leaf anatomy models to compare the relative size and orientation of the major cell types present in a fully expanded leaf. A reconstruction of the ancestral leaf state revealed that the following are the major characteristics of recently evolved rice species: fewer veins, larger and laterally elongated mesophyll cells, with an increase in total mesophyll area and in bundle sheath cell number. A huge diversity in leaf anatomy within wild and domesticated rice species has been portrayed in this study, on an evolutionary context, predicting a two-pronged evolutionary pathway leading to the 'sativa leaf type' that we see today in domesticated species.

  13. Anatomy of Teaching Anatomy: Do Prosected Cross Sections Improve Students Understanding of Spatial and Radiological Anatomy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. B. Samarakoon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Cadaveric dissections and prosections have traditionally been part of undergraduate medical teaching. Materials and Methods. Hundred and fifty-nine first-year students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Colombo, were invited to participate in the above study. Students were randomly allocated to two age and gender matched groups. Both groups were exposed to identical series of lectures regarding anatomy of the abdomen and conventional cadaveric prosections of the abdomen. The test group (n=77, 48.4% was also exposed to cadaveric cross-sectional slices of the abdomen to which the control group (n=82, 51.6% was blinded. At the end of the teaching session both groups were assessed by using their performance in a timed multiple choice question paper as well as ability to identify structures in abdominal CT films. Results. Scores for spatial and radiological anatomy were significantly higher among the test group when compared with the control group (P<0.05, CI 95%. Majority of the students in both control and test groups agreed that cadaveric cross section may be useful for them to understand spatial and radiological anatomy. Conclusion. Introduction of cadaveric cross-sectional prosections may help students to understand spatial and radiological anatomy better.

  14. Classic versus millennial medical lab anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benninger, Brion; Matsler, Nik; Delamarter, Taylor

    2014-10-01

    This study investigated the integration, implementation, and use of cadaver dissection, hospital radiology modalities, surgical tools, and AV technology during a 12-week contemporary anatomy course suggesting a millennial laboratory. The teaching of anatomy has undergone the greatest fluctuation of any of the basic sciences during the past 100 years in order to make room for the meteoric rise in molecular sciences. Classically, anatomy consisted of a 2-year methodical, horizontal, anatomy course; anatomy has now morphed into a 12-week accelerated course in a vertical curriculum, at most institutions. Surface and radiological anatomy is the language for all clinicians regardless of specialty. The objective of this study was to investigate whether integration of full-body dissection anatomy and modern hospital technology, during the anatomy laboratory, could be accomplished in a 12-week anatomy course. Literature search was conducted on anatomy text, journals, and websites regarding contemporary hospital technology integrating multiple image mediums of 37 embalmed cadavers, surgical suite tools and technology, and audio/visual technology. Surgical and radiology professionals were contracted to teach during the anatomy laboratory. Literature search revealed no contemporary studies integrating full-body dissection with hospital technology and behavior. About 37 cadavers were successfully imaged with roentograms, CT, and MRI scans. Students were in favor of the dynamic laboratory consisting of multiple activity sessions occurring simultaneously. Objectively, examination scores proved to be a positive outcome and, subjectively, feedback from students was overwhelmingly positive. Despite the surging molecular based sciences consuming much of the curricula, full-body dissection anatomy is irreplaceable regarding both surface and architectural, radiological anatomy. Radiology should not be a small adjunct to understand full-body dissection, but rather, full-body dissection

  15. Dancers' Perceived and Actual Knowledge of Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Dana H; Lynch, Meaghan; Cushman, Daniel; Hu, Jason; Garner, Jocelyn

    2017-06-15

    Dancers are highly susceptible to musculoskeletal injuries and frequently require interaction with medical professionals. While many dancers have a finely tuned awareness of their bodies, their knowledge of the fundamentals of human anatomy is not uniform. There is a paucity of literature on the benefits of human anatomy education in dancers, though it seems intuitive that there should be a relationship. The purpose of this study was to assess dancers' perceived and actual knowledge of basic musculoskeletal anatomy and its relationship to function. Adult dancers at the undergraduate, pre-professional, and professional levels were surveyed through an anonymous online questionnaire. Questions included demographic information, dance techniques studied, anatomy training, and injury history. Subjects rated their perceived knowledge of anatomy and were tested with 15 multiple-choice questions on basic musculoskeletal anatomy. Four hundred seventy-five surveys were completed. Ordinal regression showed a correlation of perceived to actual knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001). Factors that correlated with increases in both perceived and actual knowledge of anatomy included having taken an anatomy course of any type (p < 0.001) and increased age (p ≤ 0.001). Years of dance training and professional dancer status both significantly correlated with increased knowledge of anatomy (p < 0.001) but not perceived knowledge. Chi-square analysis showed that dancers with training in either modern or jazz dance had a significantly higher perceived, but not actual, knowledge when compared to those without training in those styles of dance (p < 0.001 and p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, dancers generally scored well on questions pertaining to basic musculoskeletal anatomy, and their perception correlated with their actual knowledge of anatomy. Factors that contribute to dancers' knowledge of anatomy include age, years of experience, professional dancer status, and anatomy training.

  16. Clinically related anatomy for physicists

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, A.E.; Boyer, A.L.

    1987-01-01

    With the advent of CT and MR imaging, delineation of malignancies and the shaping of radiation treatment fields have become much more precise. Treatment planning in more than one transverse plane is more widely practiced as the use of sophisticated computers grow. These developments emphasize the need for the physicist to have a basic knowledge of human anatomy. This course is designed to familiarize the clinical physicist with the gross anatomy and topographic landmarks used by the physician in planning three-dimensional radiation treatment volumes. The significance of the various anatomic structures and their related lymphatics in the spread of disease is discussed. Emphasis is placed on disease entities that pose particular problems due to overlying or nearby healthy structures at risk

  17. Ecological anatomy of ferns fronds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina M. Derzhavina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Structural types of frond anatomy are distinguished on the basis of investigation of 30 species of homosporous ferns and with regard for literature: hydromorphic, hygromorphic, mesomorphic, subxeromorphic, and subsucculent (cryptic succulent. Following frond traits are of highest adaptive value: their area and thickness, type of mesophyll, dry weight of an area unit – specific superficial density, cellular volume, and number of cells per unit of frond area.

  18. Magkänslans anatomi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlström, Kristoffer

    Varför dog 1500 personer i onödan i biltrafiken efter den 11 september 2001? Vad har FBI-agenter gemensamt med barn till alkoholister? Och vad fick författaren George Orwell att börja utöva svart magi? Magkänslans anatomi är en fascinerande kartläggning av de psykologiska mekanismer som ligger...

  19. Roentgenologic anatomy of dog arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehak, J.; Hlava, A.; Bavor, J.

    1984-01-01

    In catheter methods in dogs the knowledge of the roentgenologic anatomy of blood vessels is very important. Because of lacking in such roentgenologic anatomic schemes 5 arterial schemes in relation to the skeleton were elaborated. The system of arteries was divided into five regions: chest, head and neck in submentooccipital and lateral projection, abdomen and pelvis. The schemes comprise 75 of the main arteries of the dog. (author)

  20. VISUALIZATION OF REGISTERED SUBSURFACE ANATOMY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for visualization of subsurface anatomy includes obtaining a first image from a first camera and a second image from a second camera or a second channel of the first camera, where the first and second images contain shared anatomical structures. The second camera and the secon....... A visual interface displays the registered visualization of the first and second images. The system and method are particularly useful for imaging during minimally invasive surgery, such as robotic surgery....

  1. Anatomy of the infant head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosma, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    This text is mainly an atlas of illustration representing the dissection of the head and upper neck of the infant. It was prepared by the author over a 20-year period. The commentary compares the anatomy of the near-term infant with that of a younger fetus, child, and adult. As the author indicates, the dearth of anatomic information about postnatal anatomic changes represents a considerable handicap to those imaging infants. In part 1 of the book, anatomy is related to physiologic performance involving the pharynx, larynx, and mouth. Sequential topics involve the regional anatomy of the head (excluding the brain), the skeleton of the cranium, the nose, orbit, mouth, larynx, pharynx, and ear. To facilitate use of this text as a reference, the illustrations and text on individual organs are considered separately (i.e., the nose, the orbit, the eye, the mouth, the larynx, the pharynx, and the ear). Each part concerned with a separate organ includes materials from the regional illustrations contained in part 2 and from the skeleton, which is treated in part 3. Also included in a summary of the embryologic and fetal development of the organ

  2. Anatomy of Cyberterrorism: Is America Vulnerable?

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ashley, Bradley

    2003-01-01

    ... it means. It also presents a model to understand the anatomy of cyberterrorism, describing some real-world cyber events, assesses cyberterrorist capabilities, and finally makes specific recommendations...

  3. Remediation Trends in an Undergraduate Anatomy Course and Assessment of an Anatomy Supplemental Study Skills Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutte, Audra Faye

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy A215: Basic Human Anatomy (Anat A215) is an undergraduate human anatomy course at Indiana University Bloomington (IUB) that serves as a requirement for many degree programs at IUB. The difficulty of the course, coupled with pressure to achieve grades for admittance into specific programs, has resulted in high remediation rates. In an…

  4. Venous chest anatomy: clinical implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chasen, M.H.; Charnsangavej, C.

    1998-01-01

    This article provides a practical approach to the clinical implications and importance of understanding the collateral venous anatomy of the thorax. Routine radiography, conventional venography, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging studies provide correlative anatomic models for the demonstration of how interconnecting collateral vascular networks within the thorax maintain venous stability at all times. Five major systems comprise the collateral venous network of the thorax ( Fig. 1 ). These include the paravertebral, azygos-hemiazygos, internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and anterior jugular venous systems (AJVS). The five systems are presented in the following sequence: (a) a brief introduction to the importance of catheter position and malposition in understanding access to the thoracic venous system, (b) the anatomy of the azygos-hemiazygos systems and their relationship with the paravertebral plexus, (c) the importance of the AJVS, (d) 'loop' concepts interconnecting the internal mammary and azygos-hemiazygos systems by means of the lateral thoracic and intercostal veins, and (e) the interconnecting venous networks on the thoracic side of the thoracoabdominal junction. Certain aspects of the venous anatomy of the thorax will not be discussed in this chapter and include (a) the intra-abdominal anastomoses between the superior and inferior vena cavae (IVC) via the internal mammary, lateral thoracic, and azygos-hemiazygos systems (beyond the scope of this article), (b) potential collateral vessels involving vertebral, parascapular, thyroidal, thymic, and other smaller veins that might anastomose with the major systems, and (c) anatomic variants and pitfalls that may mimic pathologic conditions (space limitations). (Copyright (c) 1998 Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. All rights reserved.)

  5. Anatomy of the Corrugator Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Lee, Jung Hun; Lim, Hee Joong

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this article is to systematically review the anatomy and action of the corrugator muscle. PubMed and Scopus were searched using the terms "corrugator" AND "anatomy." Among the 60 full texts from the 145 relevant abstracts, 34 articles without sufficient content were excluded and 4 articles drawn from the reference lists were added. Among the 30 articles analyzed (721 hemifaces), 28% classified by oblique head and transverse head, and 72% did not. Corrugator originated mostly from the medial supraorbital rim (45%), followed by the medial frontal bone (31%), the medial infraorbital rim (17%), and the upper nasal process (7%). Corrugator extended through the frontalis and orbicularis oculi (41%), only the frontalis (41%), or only the orbicularis oculi (18%). Corrugator ran superolaterally (59%), or laterally (41%). Corrugators inserted mostly to the middle of the eyebrow (57%), or the medial half of the eyebrow (36%), but also to the glabella region (7%). The length of the corrugator ranged 38 to 53 mm. The transverse head (23.38 mm) was longer than the oblique head (19.75 mm). Corrugator was thicker at the medial canthus than at the midpupillary line. Corrugator was innervated by the temporal branch of the facial nerve (66%), the zygomatic branch (17%), or the angular nerve (zygomatic branch and buccal branch, 17%). Supraorbital nerve (60%) or supratrochlear nerve (40%) penetrated the corrugator. The action was depressing, pulling the eyebrow medially (91%), or with medial eyebrow elevation and lateral eyebrow depression (9%). Surgeons must keep this anatomy in mind during surgical procedures.

  6. SnapAnatomy, a computer-based interactive tool for independent learning of human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, George W; Rajendran, Kanagasuntheram

    2008-06-01

    Computer-aided instruction materials are becoming increasing popular in medical education and particularly in the teaching of human anatomy. This paper describes SnapAnatomy, a new interactive program that the authors designed for independent learning of anatomy. SnapAnatomy is primarily tailored for the beginner student to encourage the learning of anatomy by developing a three-dimensional visualization of human structure that is essential to applications in clinical practice and the understanding of function. The program allows the student to take apart and to accurately put together body components in an interactive, self-paced and variable manner to achieve the learning outcome.

  7. Gross anatomy of network security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    Information security involves many branches of effort, including information assurance, host level security, physical security, and network security. Computer network security methods and implementations are given a top-down description to permit a medically focused audience to anchor this information to their daily practice. The depth of detail of network functionality and security measures, like that of the study of human anatomy, can be highly involved. Presented at the level of major gross anatomical systems, this paper will focus on network backbone implementation and perimeter defenses, then diagnostic tools, and finally the user practices (the human element). Physical security measures, though significant, have been defined as beyond the scope of this presentation.

  8. ZBrush Digital Sculpting Human Anatomy

    CERN Document Server

    Spencer, Scott

    2010-01-01

    Taking into account that many of today?s digital artists?particularly 3D character animators?lack foundational artistic instruction, this book teaches anatomy in a coherent and succinct style. A clear writing style explains how to sculpt an accurate human figure, starting with the skeleton and working out to muscle, fat, and skin. Insightful explanations enable you to quickly and easily create and design characters that can be used in film, game, or print, and allows you to gain a strong understanding of the foundational artistic concepts.

  9. Frontal anatomy and reaction time in Autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Declan

    2007-01-01

    Widespread frontal lobe abnormalities, encompassing anatomy and function, are known to be implicated in Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD). The correlation between neurobiology and behaviour, however, is poorly understood in ASD. The aim of this study was to investigate frontal lobe anatomy and

  10. Porcine Tricuspid Valve Anatomy and Human Compatibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waziri, Farhad; Lyager Nielsen, Sten; Hasenkam, J. Michael

    2016-01-01

    before clinical use. The study aim was to evaluate and compare the tricuspid valve anatomy of porcine and human hearts. METHODS: The anatomy of the tricuspid valve and the surrounding structures that affect the valve during a cardiac cycle were examined in detail in 100 fresh and 19 formalin...

  11. An introduction to human brain anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forstmann, B.U.; Keuken, M.C.; Alkemade, A.; Forstmann, B.U.; Wagenmakers, E.-J.

    2015-01-01

    This tutorial chapter provides an overview of the human brain anatomy. Knowledge of brain anatomy is fundamental to our understanding of cognitive processes in health and disease; moreover, anatomical constraints are vital for neurocomputational models and can be important for psychological

  12. Design Projects in Human Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polizzotto, Kristin; Ortiz, Mary T.

    2008-01-01

    Very often, some type of writing assignment is required in college entry-level Human Anatomy and Physiology courses. This assignment can be anything from an essay to a research paper on the literature, focusing on a faculty-approved topic of interest to the student. As educators who teach Human Anatomy and Physiology at an urban community college,…

  13. Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Experimental and Clinical Anatomy accepts for publication manuscripts of high standard containing reports of original scientific research in the morphology, mechanical functioning and development of man and animals. The scope the journal embraces articles of human and comparative anatomy, embryology ...

  14. Human fetal anatomy: MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinreb, J C; Lowe, T; Cohen, J M; Kutler, M

    1985-12-01

    Twenty-four pregnant women carrying 26 fetuses (two sets of twins) were imaged with magnetic resonance (MR) imaging at 0.35 T following sonographic evaluation. Each study was retrospectively evaluated to determine which of 33 normal fetal structures were visible on the images and which imaging parameters were most useful for depicting fetal anatomy. Fetal motion degraded fetal images in all but two cases, both with oligohydramnios and in the third trimester of gestation. Nevertheless, many fetal structures were identifiable, particularly in the third trimester. Visualization of fetal anatomy improved with intravenous maternal sedation in five cases. Relatively T1-weighted images occasionally offered the advantage of less image degradation owing to fetal motion and improved contrast between different fetal structures. More T2 weighting was believed to be advantageous in one case for outlining the fetal head and in one case for delineation of the brain. In many cases, structures were similarly identifiable (though with different signal intensities) regardless of the parameters selected. The authors conclude that MR imaging of many fetal structures is currently unsatisfactory and is probably of limited value, particularly in the first and second trimesters. However, the relative frequency and detail with which the fetal head and liver can be depicted indicate that these may be areas for further investigation, and the potential utility of imaging fetal fat warrants further investigation.

  15. Anatomy of the Spinal Meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakka, Laurent; Gabrillargues, Jean; Coll, Guillaume

    2016-06-01

    The spinal meninges have received less attention than the cranial meninges in the literature, although several points remain debatable and poorly understood, like their phylogenesis, their development, and their interactions with the spinal cord. Their constancy among the chordates shows their crucial importance in central nervous system homeostasis and suggests a role far beyond mechanical protection of the neuraxis. This work provides an extensive study of the spinal meninges, from an overview of their phylogenesis and embryology to a descriptive and topographic anatomy with clinical implications. It examines their involvement in spinal cord development, functioning, and repair. This work is a review of the literature using PubMed as a search engine on Medline. The stages followed by the meninges along the phylogenesis could not be easily compared with their development in vertebrates for methodological aspects and convergence processes throughout evolution. The distinction between arachnoid and pia mater appeared controversial. Several points of descriptive anatomy remain debatable: the functional organization of the arterial network, and the venous and lymphatic drainages, considered differently by classical anatomic and neuroradiological approaches. Spinal meninges are involved in neurodevelopment and neurorepair producing neural stem cells and morphogens, in cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and neuraxis functioning by the synthesis of active molecules, and the elimination of waste products of central nervous system metabolism. The spinal meninges should be considered as dynamic functional formations evolving over a lifetime, with ultrastructural features and functional interactions with the neuraxis remaining not fully understood.

  16. KELAINAN BANGUN ANATOMIS KUKU KUDA KOLEKSI LABORATORIUM ANATOMI FKH IPB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kemaz A Dewangga

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to observe the anatomical structure of horse hooves collected from the Laboratory of Anatomy FKH IPB. Twenty five hoof specimens, consisting of ten fore hooves and fifteen hind hooves were used as research materials. The external morphology such as color, angle, structure and condition of the hoof wall were described. The observation on external morphology showed that the hooves have two basic colors, black and white. Generally, all of the hoof specimens showed abnormalities in such aspect as angle, structure and condition of the wall. The structures of fore hoof and hind hoof from this study are classified into 8 categories, they are: flat foot, flared foot, knol hoef, fever rings, sand crack, club foot, contracted foot and bull nosed foot.

  17. Effects of oil exploration on the anatomy and antimicrobial activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria flares much natural gas associated with oil exploration like many other countries of the world. A major problem of gas flaring is the release of large amounts of methane, which has the potential to affect medicinal plants. The effects of gas flaring on the anatomy and antimicrobial activities of Annona muricata, used by ...

  18. Anatomia comparada das folhas e raízes de Cymbidium Hort. (Orchidaceae cultivadas ex vitro e in vitro Comparative leaf and root anatomy of ex vitro and in vitro cultured Cymbidium Hort. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Lischka Sampaio Mayer

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de cultivo in vitro, as plantas são mantidas em ambiente com alta umidade relativa do ar, baixa luminosidade e trocas gasosas restritas, o que resulta em taxa de transpiração reduzida. Portanto, quando essas mudas são expostas ao meio ex vitro, sofrem estresse que pode causar a morte. O objetivo desse trabalho foi comparar a estrutura anatômica das mudas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' cultivadas ex vitro (planta matriz e aclimatizada e in vitro e verificar se a estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro influencia no processo de aclimatização. As plantas ex vitro foram mantidas em casa-de-vegetação, em vasos individuais com o substrato fibra de coco em pó combinada com fibra de coco, e as plantas in vitro foram mantidas em meio de cultura MS. Para a análise anatômica qualitativa foram coletadas amostras de folhas e raízes de plantas ex vitro e in vitro. As plantas aclimatizadas apresentaram estrutura morfoanatômica semelhante à da planta matriz. A estrutura anatômica das plantas in vitro não influenciou a sobrevivência das mudas durante a aclimatização devido à plasticidade fenotipica desse cultivar. As plantas de Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' possuem grande capacidade de aclimatização ao ambiente, sendo provavelmente este um dos fatores responsáveis pela sobrevivência de 100% das mudas.During in vitro culture plants are kept in an atmosphere with high relative humidity, low light intensity and reduced gas exchange, resulting in low transpiration rates. Therefore, when these plants are exposed to ex vitro conditions, they suffer stress, which can induce mortality. The purpose of this study was to compare the anatomical structure of Cymbidium 'Joy Polis' plants from ex vitro (mother plant and acclimatized plants and in vitro cultures and to verify if the anatomical structure of in vitro cultured plants affects acclimatization. The ex vitro plants were kept in a greenhouse in pots containing a mixture of coconut-fiber powder and

  19. LEARNING ANATOMY WITH AUGMENTED REALITY

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Cita; Dyhrberg O'Neill, Lotte; Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard

    An Augmented Reality (AR) app for Hololens glasses was developed to help students learn the anatomy of the human body mediastinum. In this research project, we wanted to evaluate whether AR: strengthened the students’ self-efficacy and motivation, helped students to improve learning, and provided...... a questionnaire regarding their self-efficacy and motivation, presence in the virtual room, experiences with Hololens teaching, and how they used the quizzes. In addition, students answered a test with the same 20 questions used in the app and three additional transfer questions new to students. Finally, students......’ scores on the mediastinum questions in the exam 2 month later were collected to examine the long-term memory of content. Internal consistency was estimated for all measures. Correlations between measures were examined with a correlation matrix, and group differences were examined with one-way analysis...

  20. An atlas of radiological anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.

    1986-01-01

    This book contains a wealth of radiologic images of normal human anatomy; plain radiographs, contrast-enhanced radiographs, and computed tomography (CT) scans. There are 18 pages of magnetic resonance (MR) images, most on the brain and spinal cord, so that there are only two pages on MR imaging of the heart and two pages on abdominal and pelvic MR imaging. Twelve pages of ultrasound (US) images are included. This book has the radiologic image paired with an explanatory drawing; the image is on the left with a paragraph or two of text, and the drawing is on the right with legends. This book includes images of the brain and spinal cord obtained with arteriography, venography, myelography, encephalography, CT, and MR imaging

  1. Anterior ethmoid anatomy facilitates dacryocystorhinostomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaylock, W K; Moore, C A; Linberg, J V

    1990-12-01

    The ethmoid air cell labyrinth lies adjacent to the medial orbital wall, extending even beyond the sutures of the ethmoid bone. Its anatomic relationship to the lacrimal sac fossa is important in lacrimal surgery. We evaluated computed tomographic scans of 190 orbits with normal ethmoid anatomy to define the anatomic relationship of anterior ethmoid air cells to the lacrimal sac fossa. In 93% of the orbits, the cells extended anterior to the posterior lacrimal crest, with 40% entering the frontal process of the maxilla. This anatomic relationship may be used to facilitate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. During a 10-year period (310 cases), one of us routinely entered the anterior ethmoid air cells to initiate the osteotomy during dacryocystorhinostomy. This technique has helped to avoid lacerations of the nasal mucosa.

  2. Arctic Vegetation under Climate Change – Biogenic Volatile Organic Compound Emissions and Leaf Anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schollert, Michelle

    common arctic plant species, illustrating the great importance of vegetation composition for determining ecosystem BVOC emissions. Additionally, this thesis assesses the BVOC emission responses in common arctic plant species to effects of climate change: warming, shading and snow addition. Against...... treatment effects on BVOC emissions. Furthermore, the anatomy of arctic plants seems to respond differently to warming than species at lower latitudes. The results in this thesis demonstrate the complexity of the effects of climate change on BVOC emissions and leaf anatomy of arctic plant species...... emissions from the arctic region are assumed to be low, but data from the region is lacking. BVOC emissions are furthermore expected to change drastically due to the rapidly proceeding climate change in the Arctic, which can provide a feedback to climate warming of unknown direction and magnitude. BVOC...

  3. Anatomy of the Platysma Muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Kim, Ji Yeon; Lim, Jae Hyun

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the anatomy the platysma systematically.The term "platysma AND anatomy" was used to search PubMed and Scopus, producing 394 and 214 papers, respectively. After excluding 95 duplicate titles, 513 abstracts and 98 full papers were reviewed. Among these 98 papers, 83 were excluded and 5 were added. Ultimately, 20 papers were analyzed.The most common aging-related change of the platysma was shortening (70.7%), followed by thinning (25.2%). The platysma most commonly originated from the upper portion of thorax anterior to clavicle (67.7%), followed by the subcutaneous tissue of the subclavicular and acromial regions (22.6%) and pectoralis (9.7%). The platysma ascended upward and medially (68.5%) or ascended from the clavicle to the face (31.5%). The platysma most commonly inserted on the cheek skin (57.5%), followed by the cutaneous muscles around the mouth (18.6%), the mandibulocutaneous ligament or zygoma (18.6%), and the parotid fascia or periosteum of the mandible (5.3%). The platysma was most commonly innervated by the cervical branch of the facial nerve (38.2%) or the cervical branch and mandibular branch of the facial nerve (60.5%), followed by the cervical plexus (0.6%), the cervical motor nucleus (0.6%), and the glossopharyngeal nerve (0.1%). The most common action of the platysma was drawing the lips inferiorly (83.3%) or posteriorly (12.9%). Four papers classified the platysma into subtypes; however, these classification strategies used arbitrary standards.Further studies will be necessary to establish the thickness of the platysma and to characterize age-related changes of the platysma.

  4. High precision anatomy for MEG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-02-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were <1.5mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. High precision anatomy for MEG☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troebinger, Luzia; López, José David; Lutti, Antoine; Bradbury, David; Bestmann, Sven; Barnes, Gareth

    2014-01-01

    Precise MEG estimates of neuronal current flow are undermined by uncertain knowledge of the head location with respect to the MEG sensors. This is either due to head movements within the scanning session or systematic errors in co-registration to anatomy. Here we show how such errors can be minimized using subject-specific head-casts produced using 3D printing technology. The casts fit the scalp of the subject internally and the inside of the MEG dewar externally, reducing within session and between session head movements. Systematic errors in matching to MRI coordinate system are also reduced through the use of MRI-visible fiducial markers placed on the same cast. Bootstrap estimates of absolute co-registration error were of the order of 1 mm. Estimates of relative co-registration error were < 1.5 mm between sessions. We corroborated these scalp based estimates by looking at the MEG data recorded over a 6 month period. We found that the between session sensor variability of the subject's evoked response was of the order of the within session noise, showing no appreciable noise due to between-session movement. Simulations suggest that the between-session sensor level amplitude SNR improved by a factor of 5 over conventional strategies. We show that at this level of coregistration accuracy there is strong evidence for anatomical models based on the individual rather than canonical anatomy; but that this advantage disappears for errors of greater than 5 mm. This work paves the way for source reconstruction methods which can exploit very high SNR signals and accurate anatomical models; and also significantly increases the sensitivity of longitudinal studies with MEG. PMID:23911673

  6. Anatomy and function of the hypothenar muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquella, John A; Levine, Pam

    2012-02-01

    The hypothenar eminence is the thick soft tissue mass located on the ulnar side of the palm. Understanding its location and contents is important for understanding certain aspects of hand function. Variation in motor nerve distribution of the hypothenar muscles makes surgery of the ulnar side of the palm more challenging. To avoid injury to nerve branches, knowledge of these differences is imperative. This article discusses the muscular anatomy and function, vascular anatomy, and nerve anatomy and innervation of the hypothenar muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Normal CT anatomy of the calcaneus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Mun Gyu; Kang, Heung Sik

    1986-01-01

    Normal sectional anatomy of the calcaneus with multiplanar CT examination was studied in 5 volunteers as the background for interpretation of various abnormalities. Major 3 sectional anatomy including plantar, coronal, sagittal and additional tuberosity planes are described. With CT examination of the calcaneus, 1. More detailed anatomy of 3 facets of subtalar joint (anterior, middle, and posterior facet) can be well visualized. 2. Its clinical applications in the tarsal trauma, tarsal coalition, subtalar infection, degenerative arthritis, club foot, pes planus and tarsal tumor could provide much more information's, which not obtained by conventional radiographic studies.

  8. FUNCTIONAL ANATOMY OF THE FEEDING APPARATUS OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in body size and jaw force are thought to reduce competition for food between ...... through the water and prey is taken by surprise or actively pursued (Van ..... differences in limb and axial anatomy probably exist among the four South African.

  9. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product that claims to treat or cure cancer? According to the Federal Trade Commission, consumers should ...

  10. Understanding Colds: Anatomy of the Nose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Complications Special Features References Common Cold Understanding Colds Anatomy of the Nose The nose contains shelf-like ... white). Soft tissue, such as the eye, is gray. The maxillary sinus of adults has a volume ...

  11. Cochlear anatomy: CT and MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez, Manuel; Bruno, Claudio; Martin, Eduardo; Canale, Nancy; De Luca, Laura; Spina, Juan C. h

    2002-01-01

    The authors present a brief overview of the normal cochlear anatomy with CT and MR images in order to allow a more complete identification of the pathological findings in patients with perceptive hipoacusia. (author)

  12. Ecological anatomy of some hydrophytes in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... tissues and counter stained in Aniline Blue to increase contrast. Sections were viewed with microscope equipped with the ocular eye-piece at 100 x magnification. .... the relationship between anatomy, ecology and evolution.

  13. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... a Cancer Treatment Scam Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam January 19, 2012 Curious about a product ... and should not stop or delay their conventional treatment. Category: Scam Watch Health Download File Related Videos ...

  14. Bone Conduction: Anatomy, Physiology, and Communication

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henry, Paula; Letowski, Tomasz R

    2007-01-01

    .... This report combines results of an extensive literature review of the anatomy and physiology of human hearing, theories behind the mechanisms of bone conduction transmission, devices for use in bone...

  15. Anatomy Ontology Matching Using Markov Logic Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunhua Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of model species is described in ontologies, which are used to standardize the annotations of experimental data, such as gene expression patterns. To compare such data between species, we need to establish relationships between ontologies describing different species. Ontology matching is a kind of solutions to find semantic correspondences between entities of different ontologies. Markov logic networks which unify probabilistic graphical model and first-order logic provide an excellent framework for ontology matching. We combine several different matching strategies through first-order logic formulas according to the structure of anatomy ontologies. Experiments on the adult mouse anatomy and the human anatomy have demonstrated the effectiveness of proposed approach in terms of the quality of result alignment.

  16. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  17. Anatomy of leaf and stem of Erythrina velutina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia M. B. da Silva

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Erythrina velutina Willd., Fabaceae, known as "mulungu", is a tree of tropical regions, as northeastern Brazil. Its bark is used in folk medicine as tranquilizer, sedative and insomnia. This study aimed to characterize the stem and leaf anatomy and to provide subsidies to quality control of the plant drug due to its wide use in folk medicine as well as its differentiation from other species with the same popular name. Samples were collected at Cuité, in Paraíba State, Brazil, fixed in FAA50, semipermanent slides were made, following usual procedures in plant anatomy. The stem shows a cylindrical contour, covered by a uniseriate epidermis covered by a thickened cuticle. It shows claviform glandular and branched trichomes with uniseriate stalk. Secretory cavities are into the phloem. The leaf epidermis has branched and glandular trichomes and anisocytic and paracytic stomata, on both sides, with predominance of branched trichomes and stomata on abaxial surface. Secretory cavities in stem and leaf, types of trichomes and stomata, its location and distribution constitute diagnostic characters for this specie. The structural characterization of the stem and leaf allows its distinction from other ones of this genus, ensuring safety for commercial pharmacological uses, allowing certification of the authenticity of raw material.

  18. KARAKTERISTIK MORFO-ANATOMI STRUKTUR VEGETATIF SPESIES RHIZOPORA APICULATA (RHIZOPORACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atok Masofyan Hadi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rhizhopora apiculata is the plants mangrove of the tribe Rhizoporaceae. Detailed study of related species in Indonesia is still lacking. The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the character of morphological and anatomical structure of vegetative species. The method used is the method of observation and exploration of the facts as a marker plant systematics. The results showed that the morphological characteristics of stem leaves roots in accordance with existing literature. Data anatomical vegetative structure is new data that is used to strengthen its position in Rhizoporaceae. Rhizhopora apiculata merupakan tumbuhan mangrove dari suku Rhizoporaceae. Kajian secara mendetail terkait spesies di Indonesia masih sangat kurang. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mendeskripsikan dan menganalisis karakter morfologis dan anatomis struktur vegetatif spesies. Metode penelitian yang digunakan ialah metode pengamatan dan eksplorasi fakta sebagai penanda sistematika tumbuhan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik morfologi daun batang akar sesuai dengan literatur yang telah ada. Data anatomi struktur vegetatif merupakan data baru yang digunakan untuk memperkuat kedudukannya dalam Rhizoporaceae.

  19. Radiological anatomy of the groin region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, J.C. van den; Valois, J.C. de; Go, P.M.N.Y.H.; Rosenbusch, G.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to give an overview of the anatomy of the inguinal region, and to discuss the value of various imaging modalities in the diagnosis of groin hernias. After description of the gross anatomy of the groin, attention is focused on the anatomic features of conventional herniography, US, CT, and MRI. Advantages, disadvantages, and accuracy of each technique is discussed briefly. (orig.)

  20. External and internal anatomy of third molars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerisoli, D M; de Souza, R A; de Sousa Neto, M D; Silva, R G; Pécora, J D

    1998-01-01

    The external and internal anatomy of 269 third molars (155 maxillary and 114 mandibular) were studied. The teeth were measured, classified according to their root number and shape and the internal anatomy was observed by the use of diaphanization. A great anatomical variability was found, with the presence of up to 5 roots in maxillary third molars and 3 roots in mandibular third molars. The number of root canals followed the same pattern.

  1. Renal anatomy as applied to uroradiologic interventions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, C.C.; Castaneda-Zuniga, W.; Miller, R.P.; Amplatz, K.

    1987-01-01

    Through the experience at the University of Minnesota with over 650 stone removals and over 1,000 percutaneous nephrostomies and ureteral manipulations, the authors developed an approach to the urinary system that has minimized their complication rate and maximized their successes. The exhibit demonstrates the salient anatomic relationships of the kidney with respect to urologic interventions. The kidney's position within the body, lobar anatomy, arterial anatomy, relationship to the ribs and pleura, and relationship to adjacent organs are shown

  2. Normal distal pulmonary vein anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiesława Klimek-Piotrowska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. It is well known that the pulmonary veins (PVs, especially their myocardial sleeves play a critical role in the initiation and maintenance of atrial fibrillation. Understanding the PV anatomy is crucial for the safety and efficacy of all procedures performed on PVs. The aim of this study was to present normal distal PV anatomy and to create a juxtaposition of all PV ostium variants.Methods. A total of 130 randomly selected autopsied adult human hearts (Caucasian were examined. The number of PVs ostia was evaluated and their diameter was measured. The ostium-to-last-tributary distance and macroscopic presence of myocardial sleeves were also evaluated.Results. Five hundred forty-one PV ostia were identified. Four classical PV ostia patterns (two left and two right PVs were observed in 70.8% of all cases. The most common variant was the classical pattern with additional middle right PV (19.2%, followed by the common ostium for the left superior and the inferior PVs (4.44%. Mean diameters of PV ostia (for the classical pattern were: left superior = 13.8 ± 2.9 mm; left inferior = 13.3 ± 3.4 mm; right superior = 14.3 ± 2.9 mm; right inferior = 13.7 ± 3.3 mm. When present, the additional middle right PV ostium had the smallest PV ostium diameter in the heart (8.2 ± 4.1 mm. The mean ostium-to-last-tributary (closest to the atrium distances were: left superior = 15.1 ± 4.6 mm; left inferior = 13.5 ± 4.0 mm; right superior = 11.8 ± 4.0 mm; right inferior = 11.0 ± 3.7 mm. There were no statistically significant differences between sexes in ostia diameters and ostium-to-last-tributary distances.Conclusion. Only 71% of the cases have four standard pulmonary veins. The middle right pulmonary vein is present in almost 20% of patients. Presented data can provide useful information for the clinicians during interventional procedures or radiologic examinations of PVs.

  3. [Leaf micrografic anatomy of the Neotropical palm Bactris gasipaes (Arecaceae)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaimsohn, Francisco Paulo; Montiel, Mayra; Villalobos, Enrique; Mora Urpi, Jorge

    2008-06-01

    The economic importance of the palm Bactris gasipaes is growing in the Neotropoical region. We collected leaflets from plants under a chemical fertilization regime and a population of 5000 plants per hectare, in Costa Rica. The variety, Diamantes 10, has an ascendency fom the upper Amazon basin. We used Harries hematoxiline, eocine and standard light microscopy techniques. The presence of raphids and buliform cells was confirmed for the abaxial surface of the leaflets and for the hypodermic tissue on both sides. The absence of the Krantz anatomy was confirmed in consistence with former observations about the C3 photosynthesis in other species of Palmaceae. The average stomatal density on the abaxial surface was 96.87 +/- 16.31 stomata.mm(-2) and 14.20 +/- 4.05 in the adaxial surface.

  4. What Do the Public Know about Anatomy? Anatomy Education to the Public and the Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adam M.; Diggle, Peter; Wessels, Quenton

    2018-01-01

    Public knowledge of the anatomical "self" is lacking and evidence points towards a growing need for anatomy education to the wider public. The public were offered the opportunity to learn human anatomy and complete an anatomical knowledge survey afterwards. Sixty-three participants volunteered to attempt to place 20 anatomical structures…

  5. Anatomy of the ward round.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Hare, James A

    2008-07-01

    The ward round has been a central activity of hospital life for hundreds of years. It is hardly mentioned in textbooks. The ward round is a parade through the hospital of professionals where most decision making concerning patient care is made. However the traditional format may be intimidating for patients and inadequate for communication. The round provides an opportunity for the multi-disciplinary team to listen to the patient\\'s narrative and jointly interpret his concerns. From this unfolds diagnosis, management plans, prognosis formation and the opportunity to explore social, psychological, rehabilitation and placement issues. Physical examination of the patient at the bedside still remains important. It has been a tradition to discuss the patient at the bedside but sensitive matters especially of uncertainty may better be discussed elsewhere. The senior doctor as round leader must seek the input of nursing whose observations may be under-appreciated due to traditional professional hierarchy. Reductions in the working hours of junior doctors and shortened length of stay have reduced continuity of patient care. This increases the importance of senior staff in ensuring continuity of care and the need for the joint round as the focus of optimal decision making. The traditional round incorporates teaching but patient\\'s right to privacy and their preferences must be respected. The quality and form of the clinical note is underreported but the electronic record is slow to being accepted. The traditional multi-disciplinary round is disappearing in some centres. This may be regrettable. The anatomy and optimal functioning of the ward round deserves scientific scrutiny and experimentation.

  6. Constructive, collaborative, contextual, and self-directed learning in surface anatomy education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergman-de Bres, E.M.; Sieben, J.M.; Smailbegovic, I.; Bruin, A. de; Scherpbier, A.J.J.A.; Vleuten, C.P.M. van der

    2013-01-01

    Anatomy education often consists of a combination of lectures and laboratory sessions, the latter frequently including surface anatomy. Studying surface anatomy enables students to elaborate on their knowledge of the cadaver's static anatomy by enabling the visualization of structures, especially

  7. Effect of crude oil contamination on the chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius (Rottb.) Hassk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baruah, Plabita; Saikia, Rashmi Rekha; Baruah, Partha Pratim; Deka, Suresh

    2014-11-01

    Chlorophyll plays a pivotal role in the plant physiology and its productivity. Cultivation of plants in crude oil contaminated soil has a great impact on the synthesis of chlorophyll pigment. Morpho-anatomy of the experimental plant also shows structural deformation in higher concentrations. Keeping this in mind, a laboratory investigation has been carried out to study the effect of crude oil on chlorophyll content and morpho-anatomy of Cyperus brevifolius plant. Fifteen-day-old seedling of the plant was planted in different concentrations of the crude oil mixed soil (i.e., 10,000, 20,000, 30,000, 40,000, and 50,000 ppm). A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. Results were recorded after 6 months of plantation. Investigation revealed that there is a great impact of crude oil contamination on chlorophyll content of the leaves of the experimental plant. It also showed that chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, and total chlorophyll content of leaves grown in different concentrations of crude oil were found to be lower than those of the control plant. Further, results also demonstrated that chlorophyll content was lowest in the treatment that received maximum dose of crude oil. It also showed that chlorophyll content was decreased with increased concentration of crude oil. Results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with the increase of crude oil concentration. Results also revealed that the shoot biomass is higher than root biomass. Morphology and anatomy of the experimental plant also show structural deformation in higher concentrations. Accumulation of crude oil on the cuticle of the transverse section of the leaves and shoot forms a thick dark layer. Estimation of the level of pollution in an environment due to oil spill is possible by the in-depth study of the harmful effects of oil on the morphology and anatomy and chlorophyll content of the plants grown in that particular environment.

  8. Detailed sectional anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rauschning, W.

    1985-01-01

    Morphologic studies on the human spine constitute a special challenge because of the spine's complex topographic anatomy and the intimate relationship between the supporting skeleton and the contiguous soft tissues (muscles, discs, joint capsules) as well as the neurovascular contents of the spinal canal and intervertebral foramina. The improving resolution and multiplanar image reformatting capabilities of modern CT scanners call for accurate anatomic reference material. Such anatomic images should be available without distortion, in natural colors, and in considerable detail. The images should present the anatomy in the correct axial, sagittal, and coronal planes and should also be sufficiently closely spaced so as to follow the thin cuts of modern CT scanners. This chapter details one of several recent attempts to correlate gross anatomy with the images depicted by high-resolution CT. The methods of specimen preparation, sectioning, and photographing have been documented elsewhere

  9. Anatomy and histology of the sacroiliac joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egund, Niels; Jurik, Anne Grethe

    2014-07-01

    The anatomy of joints provides an important basis for understanding the nature and imaging of pathologic lesions and their imaging appearance. This applies especially to the sacroiliac (SI) joints, which play a major role in the diagnosis of spondyloarthritis. They are composed of two different joint portions, a cartilage-covered portion ventrally and a ligamentous portion dorsally, and thus rather complex anatomically. Knowledge of anatomy and the corresponding normal imaging findings are important in the imaging diagnosis of sacroiliitis, especially by MR imaging. A certain distinction between the two joint portions by MR imaging is only obtainable by axial slice orientation. Together with a perpendicular coronal slice orientation, it provides adequate anatomical information and thereby a possibility for detecting the anatomical site of disease-specific characteristics and normal variants simulating disease. This overview describes current knowledge about the normal macroscopic and microscopic anatomy of the SI joints. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  10. Retention of anatomy knowledge by student radiographers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, A. Susanne; Durward, Brian R.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Anatomy has long been regarded as an integral part of the core curriculum. However, anecdotal evidence suggests that long-term retention of anatomy knowledge may be deficient. This study aims to evidence whether student radiographers demonstrate the same level of knowledge of anatomy after a period of time has elapsed and to correlate to approaches to learning and studying. Methodology: A repeated measures design was utilised to measure retention of anatomy knowledge for both MCQs and short-response answers to a Practical Radiographic Anatomy Examination; alpha value p < 0.05. Fifty-one students from levels 2 and 3 were retested after a time lapse of 10 and 22 months respectively. The students were not aware that their knowledge was being retested. Approaches to learning and studying were measured using the ASSIST inventory. Results: Statistical analysis found no difference in performance on MCQ assessment, in either the combined sample or levels 2 and 3 separately, from baseline to retention occasions; average retention rate being 99%. However, a statistical difference in performance on PRAE assessment was found, with level 2 experiencing a larger reduction in scores; retention rate of 67% compared to level 3 at 77%. The students perceived themselves to be principally strategic in their approach to learning and studying but no strong relationships were found when correlated to test scores. Conclusion: The student radiographers in this study demonstrated varied anatomy retention rates dependent on assessment method employed and time interval that had elapsed. It is recommended that diverse teaching and assessment strategies are adopted to encourage a deeper approach to learning and studying.

  11. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching

    OpenAIRE

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R.; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissec...

  12. Cross-sectional anatomy for computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, M.L.

    1988-01-01

    This self-study guide recognizes that evaluation and interpretation of CT-images demands a firm understanding of both cross-sectional anatomy and the principles of computed tomography. The objectives of this book are: to discuss the basic principles of CT, to stress the importance of cross-sectional anatomy to CT through study of selected cardinal transverse sections of head, neck, and trunk, to explain orientation and interpretation of CT-images with the aid of corresponding cross-sectional preparations

  13. Anatomy, normal variants, and basic biomechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on the anatomy and basic functions of the foot and ankle important to physicians involved in imaging procedures, clinical medicine, and surgery. New radiographic techniques especially magnetic resonance imaging, provide more diagnostic information owing to improved tissue contrast and the ability to obtain multiple image planes (axial, sagittal, coronal, oblique). Therefore, a thorough knowledge of skeletal and soft tissue anatomy is even more essential. Normal variants must also be understood in order to distinguish normal from pathologic changes in the foot and ankle. A basic understanding of biomechanics is also essential for selecting the proper diagnostic techniques

  14. Anatomy and imaging of the normal meninges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Neel; Kirmi, Olga

    2009-12-01

    The meninges are an important connective tissue envelope investing the brain. Their function is to provide a protective coating to the brain and also participate in the formation of blood-brain barrier. Understanding their anatomy is fundamental to understanding the location and spread of pathologies in relation to the layers. It also provides an insight into the characteristics of such pathologies when imaging them. This review aims to describe the anatomy of the meninges, and to demonstrate the imaging findings of specific features.

  15. Ocular anatomy in medieval arabic medicine. A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laios, Konstantinos; Moschos, Marilita M; George, Androutsos

    2016-01-01

    In medieval Arabic medicine Ophthalmology had a central role. Ocular anatomy was described in many ophthalmological treatises of the physicians of the time. These physicians followed the doctrines of Galen according ocular anatomy, nevertheless their contribution to the history of ocular anatomy was the presentation of ocular anatomical sketches in their manuscripts for the fist time in medical history.

  16. Learning of Cross-Sectional Anatomy Using Clay Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Kim, Ji-Young; Choe, Yeon Hyeon

    2009-01-01

    We incorporated clay modeling into gross anatomy and neuro-anatomy courses to help students understand cross-sectional anatomy. By making clay models, cutting them and comparing cut surfaces to CT and MR images, students learned how cross-sectional two-dimensional images were created from three-dimensional structure of human organs. Most students…

  17. Magnetic resonance imaging anatomy of the anal canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, P.; Bates, N.

    2004-01-01

    The anatomy of the anal canal is complex but well demonstrated by MRI. Understanding the anatomy is a prerequisite for determining the true site and the extent of pathology, especially for surgical workup. In this article, the MRI anatomy of the anal canal has been displayed using highlighted MRI images and line diagrams. Copyright (2004) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  18. Guidelines for Standard Photography in Gross and Clinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barut, Cagatay; Ertilav, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Photography has a widespread usage in medicine and anatomy. In this review, authors focused on the usage of photography in gross and clinical anatomy. Photography in gross and clinical anatomy is not only essential for accurate documentation of morphological findings but also important in sharing knowledge and experience. Photographs of cadavers…

  19. Medical Students' Perception of Problem Areas in Anatomy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The ranges of problems were extensive; neuro-anatomy in gross anatomy, slide review in histology, and cardiovascular embryology were amongst the most highlighted areas of concern. Most students attributed the problems in gross anatomy to difficulty with accessing the area during dissection and inability to grasp the ...

  20. WOOD ANATOMY OF SEVEN SPECIES KNOWN AS “PAU-PARA-TUDO” IN BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claúdia Luizon Dias Leme

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Different medicinal plant species can be sold under the same common name. Considering the importance of the correct identification, this study aims to separate, using wood anatomy, seven species popularly known as pau-para-tudo. The results show that Drimys brasiliensis is separated from the others by the presence of tracheids. Capsicodendron dinisii hhas scalariform perforation plates and oil cells associated with the axial parenchyma. Axial parenchyma paratracheal vasicentric and in marginal bands beyond the rays’ width, can separate Osteophoeum platyspermum from Simaba cedron. Handroanthus serratifolius has the unique presence of the axial unilateral paratracheal parenchyma and storied cell elements (parenchyma, fibers and vessel elements. Rauvolfia sellowii and Leptolobium dasycarpum can be separated by the number of square/upright marginal ray cells, greater in Rauvolfia sellowii. Thus, this work shows that wood anatomy is a valuable tool for species separation, helps with the identification and consequently is important for the quality control of plant product.

  1. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon; while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns

  2. Computer assisted surgical anatomy mapping : applications in surgical anatomy research, tailor-made surgery and presonalized teaching

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.L.A. Kerver (Anton)

    2017-01-01

    markdownabstractThis thesis presents a novel anatomy mapping tool named Computer Assisted Surgical Anatomy Mapping (CASAM). It allows researchers to map complex anatomy of multiple specimens and compare their location and course. Renditions such as safe zones or danger zones can be visualized,

  3. Two-Year Community: Human Anatomy Software Use in Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian L.; Baker, Jason D.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of human anatomy software in face-to-face and online anatomy laboratory classes. Cognitive, affective, and psychomotor perceived learning was measured for students using Pearson Education's Practice Anatomy Laboratory 2.0 software. This study determined that student-perceived learning was significantly…

  4. Systematic wood anatomy of the Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Shu-Yin

    1992-01-01

    The wood anatomy of the Rosaceae is surveyed and analysed, based on the study of 280 species (c. 500 specimens) belonging to 62 genera from different parts of the world. Eighteen wood anatomical characters have been used for a phenetic and phylogenetic classification. In the phenetic classification,

  5. [Computer technologies in teaching pathological anatomy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponomarev, A B; Fedorov, D N

    2015-01-01

    The paper gives experience with personal computers used at the Academician A.L. Strukov Department of Pathological Anatomy for more than 20 years. It shows the objective necessity of introducing computer technologies at all stages of acquiring skills in anatomical pathology, including lectures, students' free work, test check, etc.

  6. Cardiac anatomy and physiology: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1998-04-01

    This article reviews the normal anatomy and physiology of the heart. Understanding the normal anatomic and physiologic relationships described in this article will help perioperative nurses care for patients who are undergoing cardiac procedures. Such knowledge also assists nurses in educating patients about cardiac procedures and about activities that can prevent, reverse, or improve cardiac illness.

  7. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  8. Modelling vocal anatomy's significant effect on speech

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of larynx position on the articulatory abilities of a humanlike vocal tract. Previous work has investigated models that were built to resemble the anatomy of existing species or fossil ancestors. This has led to conflicting conclusions about the relation between

  9. Anatomy, Medical Education, and Human Ancestral Variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strkalj, Goran; Spocter, Muhammad A.; Wilkinson, A. Tracey

    2011-01-01

    It is argued in this article that the human body both in health and disease cannot be fully understood without adequately accounting for the different levels of human variation. The article focuses on variation due to ancestry, arguing that the inclusion of information pertaining to ancestry in human anatomy teaching materials and courses should…

  10. Thoracic radiographic anatomy in goats | Makungu | Tanzania ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to describe the normal radiographic anatomy of the thorax of small East African goats as a reference for clinical use. Radiography of the thorax was performed under general anaesthesia in 10 healthy small East African goats. Right lateral (RL), left lateral (LL), dorsoventral (DV) and ventrodorsal ...

  11. Testing to Enhance Retention in Human Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Jessica M.; Thompson, Andrew J.; Marshak, David W.

    2011-01-01

    Recent work in cognitive psychology has shown that repeatedly testing one's knowledge is a powerful learning aid and provides substantial benefits for retention of the material. To apply this in a human anatomy course for medical students, 39 fill-in-the-blank quizzes of about 50 questions each, one for each region of the body, and four about the…

  12. Wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, J.; Hogeweg, P.; Maanen, van W.H.M.; Welle, ter B.J.H.

    1979-01-01

    The present paper deals with the wood anatomy of the Blakeeae (Melastomataceae). Generic descriptions of the secondary xylem of Blakea, Topobea, and Huilaea are given and compared with data on 16 genera of the Miconieae. Numerical pattern detection was undertaken. The results confirm our preliminary

  13. Anatomy of a Cancer Treatment Scam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Competition Matters Tech@FTC Comment Policy Contests IoT Home Inspector Challenge Robocalls: Humanity Strikes Back DetectaRobo Zapping ... File Documents in Adjudicative Proceedings You are here Home » News & Events » Audio/Video » Anatomy of a Cancer ...

  14. Anatomy and Physiology. Revised Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Danene; And Others

    This curriculum guide contains 14 units of instruction for a course in anatomy and physiology for surgical technology students. The units cover the following topics: (1) organization of the body; (2) cells, tissues, and membranes; (3) integumentary system; (4) skeletal system; (5) muscular system; (6) nervous system; (7) special sense organs; (8)…

  15. The functional anatomy of the ureterovesical junction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomson, A. S.; Dabhoiwala, N. F.; Verbeek, F. J.; Lamers, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    To obtain a new insight into the anti-reflux mechanism of the ureterovesical junction by studying the topographical anatomy of the juxta- and intravesical ureter and its relationship to the surrounding bladder musculature. Fresh pig bladders were fixed, frozen and serially sectioned. Enzyme

  16. Anatomy and Physiology of the Small Bowel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volk, Neil; Lacy, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Comprehension of small intestine physiology and function provides a framework for the understanding of several important disease pathways of the gastrointestinal system. This article reviews the development, anatomy and histology of the small bowel in addition to physiology and digestion of key nutrients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Neuromodulators: available agents, physiology, and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nettar, Kartik; Maas, Corey

    2011-12-01

    Neuromodulators have risen to the forefront of aesthetic medicine. By reversibly relaxing target muscles, neuromodulators exhibit their effect by softening hyperfunctional lines. An understanding of their physiology, relevant facial anatomy, and current agents is imperative for a successful aesthetic practice. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  18. Anatomy and physiology of genital organs - women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziottin, Alessandra; Gambini, Dania

    2015-01-01

    "Anatomy is destiny": Sigmund Freud viewed human anatomy as a necessary, although not a sufficient, condition for understanding the complexity of human sexual function with a solid biologic basis. The aim of the chapter is to describe women's genital anatomy and physiology, focusing on women's sexual function with a clinically oriented vision. Key points include: embryology, stressing that the "female" is the anatomic "default" program, differentiated into "male" only in the presence of androgens at physiologic levels for the gestational age; sex determination and sex differentiation, describing the interplay between anatomic and endocrine factors; the "clitoral-urethral-vaginal" complex, the most recent anatomy reading of the corpora cavernosa pattern in women; the controversial G spot; the role of the pelvic floor muscles in modulating vaginal receptivity and intercourse feelings, with hyperactivity leading to introital dyspareunia and contributing to provoked vestibulodynia and recurrent postcoital cystitis, whilst lesions during delivery reduce vaginal sensations, genital arousability, and orgasm; innervation, vessels, bones, ligaments; and the physiology of women's sexual response. Attention to physiologic aging focuses on "low-grade inflammation," genital and systemic, with its impact on women sexual function, especially after the menopause, if the woman does not or cannot use hormone replacement therapy. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Fostering Improved Anatomy and Physiology Instructor Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-01-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology…

  20. Surgical anatomy of the nail apparatus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haneke, E.

    2006-01-01

    Nail surgery is an integral part of dermatologic surgery. An in-depth knowledge of the anatomy, biology, physiology, and gross pathology of the entire nail unit is essential. In particular, knowledge of nail histopathology is necessary to perform diagnostic nail biopsies and other nail procedures

  1. Comparative Analysis of the Anatomy of Two Populations of Red-Root Amaranth (Amaranthus retroflexus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The anatomy of stems and leaves of two populations of the weed species Amaranthus retroflexus L. (red-root amaranth (pop. AMARE1 having green stems covered in sparse hairs and pop. AMARE2 with green but notably dense stem hairs was analysed in order better to understand the uptake and translocation of herbicides that could be indicative of the species’ evolving resistance to herbicides. Samples of the two populations (AMARE1 and AMARE2 were collected from arable land of the Institute of Maize Research at Zemun Polje in 2006. Sampling was performed at the stage of full vegetative growth of plants.Permanent microscoping preparations were made to measure and analyze elements of the anatomy of stems (stem epidermis, cortex, collenchyma, central cylinder and diameter and leaves (leaf epidermis upper surface and underside, mesophyll, leaf thickness and bundle sheath thickness.Both analysed populations of A. retroflexus, morphologically characterized by different density of stem hairiness, were found to have a typical structure of herbaceous dicots. The stem had three distinctive zones: epidermis, cortex and central cylinder. Amaranth leaves have dorsoventral structure, i.e. their upper surface and underside can be differentiated. The results indicated high and very high significance of differences found in stem anatomy between the two analysed populations, while leaf anatomy was not found to display significant differences other than in mesophyll thickness.

  2. DIDACTIC MODEL AS AN EDUCATIONAL TOOL APPLIED IN TEACHING OF CELL ANATOMY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artemisa Amorim da Silva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The didactic models have a prominent role in the chemical and physical education. However, the use of this tool is still little explored in science teaching. In this article, we present a didactic proposal based on the use of representational didactic models to complement the teaching of cellular anatomy. The methodology was tested and evaluated by students of the seventh grade of elementary school in a public school in Tefe, Amazonas. Structured questionnaires were used to assess the perception of knowledge about cellular anatomy, difficulties in understanding the concepts and the importance of using didactic models for learning. The percentage of correct answers in the pre-test ranged from 15% to 54%, while the post-test, this rate was much higher, between 77% to 100%. The percentage of inadequate responses in the pretest demonstrates that traditional teaching activities are not efficient for the promotion of long-term knowledge. In contrast, high levels of correct answers in the post-test suggest that the incorporation of leisure activity - able to arouse curiosity, interest and active participation of students - complements effectively the teaching of anatomy Mobile. With this activity we observed that the educational model is a feasible strategy for effective understanding of the cytological aspects of plant and animal cells. Keywords: Alternative methods; Elementary School; cell anatomy.

  3. "Digit anatomy": a new technique for learning anatomy using motor memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Chang-Seok; Won, Hyung-Sun; Kim, Kyong-Jee; Jang, Dong-Su

    2011-01-01

    Gestural motions of the hands and fingers are powerful tools for expressing meanings and concepts, and the nervous system has the capacity to retain multiple long-term motor memories, especially including movements of the hands. We developed many sets of successive movements of both hands, referred to as "digit anatomy," and made students practice the movements which express (1) the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches, (2) the celiac trunk, superior mesenteric artery and their branches, and formation of the portal vein, (3) the heart and the coronary arteries, and (4) the brachial, lumbar, and sacral plexuses. A feedback survey showed that digit anatomy was helpful for the students not only in memorizing anatomical structures but also in understanding their functions. Out of 40 students, 34 of them who learned anatomy with the help of digit anatomy were "very satisfied" or "generally satisfied" with this new teaching method. Digit anatomy that was used to express the aortic arch, subclavian, and thoracoacromial arteries and their branches was more helpful than those representing other structures. Although the movements of digit anatomy are expected to be remembered longer than the exact meaning of each movement, invoking the motor memory of the movement may help to make relearning of the same information easier and faster in the future. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  4. Leaf anatomy of genotypes of banana plant grown under coloured ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-06-04

    Jun 4, 2014 ... is oriented toward hypodermis of abaxial face (Sumardi .... Means followed by the same lowercase letter in the column and uppercase letter in the row for each variable do ..... F.A.O. Statistical database: Food and agricultural.

  5. The history of anatomy in Persia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2007-04-01

    The study of human anatomy can be found throughout the rich history of Persia. For thousands of years, morphological descriptions derived from this part of the world have contributed to and have helped form our current anatomical knowledge base. In this article we review the major influential Persian periods and the individuals who have contributed to the development of anatomy. We have divided the history of Persia into five eras: (1) the period of the Elamites, Medes, early Persians and Babylonians (10th millennium to 6th century BC); (2) following the establishment of the Persian Empire (6th century BC) to the 7th century AD; (3) after the Islamic conquest of Persia to the ascendency of Baghdad (7th to 13th century AD); (4) from the Mongol invasion of Persia to the foundations of modern anatomy (13th to 18th century AD); and (5) modern Persia/Iran (18th century AD to present). Evidence indicates that human dissection was commonplace in the first era, which led to a disciplined practice of surgery in the centuries leading to the foundation of the Persian Empire. By the emergence of Zoroastrianism in the Persian Empire, the microcosm theory was widely used to understand internal anatomy in relation to the external universe. The world's first cosmopolitan university and hospital were built in Gondishapur, south-western Persia, in the third century AD. Greek and Syriac knowledge influenced the second era. With the gradual ruin of Gondishapur and the foundation of Baghdad following the Islamic conquest of Persia (637-651 AD), a great movement took place, which led to the flourishing of the so-called Middle Age or Islamic Golden Age. Of the influential anatomists of this period, Mesue (777-857 AD), Tabbari (838-870 AD), Rhazes (865-925 AD), Joveini (?-983 AD), Ali ibn Abbas (930-994 AD), Avicenna (980-1037 AD) and Jorjani (1042-1137 AD) all hailed from Persia. There is evidence in the Persian literature as to the direct involvement of these scholars in human

  6. Overview of radiological anatomy and topography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohamed Ali Abdul Khader

    2004-01-01

    This chapter introduces the reader to the examination of the most common radiographs of the body that will be encountered by the x-ray operator. The discussion of the radiograph begins with a review of the anatomy and functions of the region. This is followed by a description of the normal anatomy that is imaged in the radiographs. The subjects discussed are follows - Skeleton; Axial Skeleton, Skull: functions, radiographic appearance. Vertebral Column, Thoracic Cage (Sternum and Ribs), The Chest Radiograph, Appendicular Skeleton, Shoulder Girdle and Upper Arm. Radiological Appearance of the Elbow, Radiological Appearance of the Wrist and Hand, Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs, Innominate (hip bones) Radiological Appearance of the Pelvis, Lower Extremities, Joints, Classification, Radiological Appearance of the Knee, Radiological Appearance of the Ankle and Foot, Systems and Cavities of the Body, Cranial Cavity, Thoracic Cavity, Abdominal Cavity, Pelvic Cavity

  7. Understanding chest radiographic anatomy with MDCT reformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sussmann, A.R. [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Ko, J.P., E-mail: jane.ko@nyumc.or [Department of Radiology, Thoracic Imaging, NYU Langone Medical Center, New York, NY (United States)

    2010-02-15

    Chest radiograph interpretation requires an understanding of the mediastinal reflections and anatomical structures. Computed tomography (CT) improves the learning of three-dimensional (3D) anatomy, and more recently multidetector CT (MDCT) technology has enabled the creation of high-quality reformations in varying projections. Multiplanar reformations (MPRs) of varying thickness in the coronal and sagittal projections can be created for direct correlation with findings on frontal and lateral chest radiographs, respectively. MPRs enable simultaneous visualization of the craniocaudal extent of thoracic structures while providing the anatomic detail that has been previously illustrated using cadaveric specimens. Emphasis will be placed on improving knowledge of mediastinal anatomy and reflections including edges, lines, and stripes that are visible on chest radiographs.

  8. Fetal anatomy revealed with fast MR sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, D; Hatabu, H; Gaa, J; Atkinson, M W; Edelman, R R

    1996-10-01

    Although all the imaging studies in this pictorial essay were done for maternal rather than fetal indications, fetal anatomy was well visualized. However, when scans are undertaken for fetal indications, fetal motion in between scout views and imaging sequences may make specific image planes difficult to obtain. Of the different techniques described in this review, we preferred the HASTE technique and use it almost exclusively for scanning pregnant patients. The T2-weighting is ideal for delineating fetal organs. Also, the HASTE technique allows images to be obtained in 430 msec, limiting artifacts arising from maternal and fetal motion. MR imaging should play a more important role in evaluating equivocal sonographic cases as fast scanning techniques are more widely used. Obstetric MR imaging no longer will be limited by fetal motion artifacts. When complex anatomy requires definition in a complicated pregnant patient, MR imaging should be considered as a useful adjunct to sonography.

  9. Pocket atlas of MRI body anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berquist, T.H.; Ehman, R.L.; May, G.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book is a guide to the anatomy of extracranial organs as seen in magnetic resonance images. This collection of 96 magnetic resonance images, accompanied by explanatory line drawings, covers all the major organs of the body- shoulder and humerus; elbow and forearm; hand and wrist; chest; abdomen; pelvis; thigh; knee; calf; and ankle. The images are displayed in the axial, coronal, and sagittal planes, enabling radiologists to quickly review coronal and sagittal anatomy as it applies to routine MRI practice. Special emphasis is placed on the extremities, where spatial resolution, coronal and sagittal planes, and soft tissue contrast provide important anatomic detail. Each MRI image is carefully labeled - using numbers with legends at the top of the page - to highlight key anatomic features. Where applicable, special parameters and positioning are noted below the images. Accompanying each image is a line drawing demonstrating the level and plane of the image.

  10. Patellofemoral anatomy and biomechanics: current concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ZAFFAGNINI, STEFANO; DEJOUR, DAVID; GRASSI, ALBERTO; BONANZINGA, TOMMASO; MUCCIOLI, GIULIO MARIA MARCHEGGIANI; COLLE, FRANCESCA; RAGGI, FEDERICO; BENZI, ANDREA; MARCACCI, MAURILIO

    2013-01-01

    The patellofemoral joint, due to its particular bone anatomy and the numerous capsuloligamentous structures and muscles that act dynamically on the patella, is considered one of the most complex joints in the human body from the biomechanical point of view. The medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) has been demonstrated to contribute 60% of the force that opposes lateral displacement of the patella, and MPFL injury results in an approximately 50% reduction in the force needed to dislocate the patella laterally with the knee extended. For this reason, recent years have seen a growing interest in the study of this important anatomical structure, whose aponeurotic nature has thus been demonstrated. The MPFL acts as a restraint during motion, playing an active role under conditions of laterally applied stress, but an only marginal role during natural knee flexion. However, it remains extremely difficult to clearly define the anatomy of the MPFL and its relationships with other anatomical structures. PMID:25606512

  11. Interoperability between phenotype and anatomy ontologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehndorf, Robert; Oellrich, Anika; Rebholz-Schuhmann, Dietrich

    2010-12-15

    Phenotypic information is important for the analysis of the molecular mechanisms underlying disease. A formal ontological representation of phenotypic information can help to identify, interpret and infer phenotypic traits based on experimental findings. The methods that are currently used to represent data and information about phenotypes fail to make the semantics of the phenotypic trait explicit and do not interoperate with ontologies of anatomy and other domains. Therefore, valuable resources for the analysis of phenotype studies remain unconnected and inaccessible to automated analysis and reasoning. We provide a framework to formalize phenotypic descriptions and make their semantics explicit. Based on this formalization, we provide the means to integrate phenotypic descriptions with ontologies of other domains, in particular anatomy and physiology. We demonstrate how our framework leads to the capability to represent disease phenotypes, perform powerful queries that were not possible before and infer additional knowledge. http://bioonto.de/pmwiki.php/Main/PheneOntology.

  12. Alterations in physiology and anatomy during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Eng Kien; Tan, Eng Loy

    2013-12-01

    Pregnant women undergo profound anatomical and physiological changes so that they can cope with the increased physical and metabolic demands of their pregnancies. The cardiovascular, respiratory, haematological, renal, gastrointestinal and endocrine systems all undergo important physiological alterations and adaptations needed to allow development of the fetus and to allow the mother and fetus to survive the demands of childbirth. Such alterations in anatomy and physiology may cause difficulties in interpreting signs, symptoms, and biochemical investigations, making the clinical assessment of a pregnant woman inevitably confusing but challenging. Understanding these changes is important for every practicing obstetrician, as the pathological deviations from the normal physiological alterations may not be clear-cut until an adverse outcome has resulted. Only with a sound knowledge of the physiology and anatomy changes can the care of an obstetric parturient be safely optimized for a better maternal and fetal outcome. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Complementing anatomy education using three-dimensional anatomy mobile software applications on tablet computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, T L; Burnett, B; Tunstall, R G; Abrahams, P H

    2014-04-01

    Anatomy has traditionally been a cornerstone of medical education, which has been taught via dissection and didactic lectures. The rising prevalence of mobile tablet technology means medical software applications ("apps") play an increasingly important role in medical education. The applications highlighted in this article will aid anatomical educators to identify which are the most useful in clinical, academic, and educational environments. These have been systematically identified by downloading all applications with keywords related to anatomy and then carrying out qualitative assessment. Novel anatomy applications from developers such as Visible Body, 3D4Medical, and Pocket Anatomy allow students to visualize and manipulate complex anatomical structures using detailed 3D models. They often contain additional content including clinical correlations and a range of media from instructional videos to interactive quiz functions. The strength of tablet technology lies in its ability to consolidate and present anatomical information to the user in the most appropriate manner for their learning style. The only question mark remains over the level of detail and accuracy of these applications. Innovative medical educators who embrace tablet technology will find that anatomy applications serve as a useful learning tool when used in conjunction with existing teaching setups. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anatomy education environment measurement inventory: A valid tool to measure the anatomy learning environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadie, Siti Nurma Hanim; Hassan, Asma'; Ismail, Zul Izhar Mohd; Asari, Mohd Asnizam; Khan, Aaijaz Ahmed; Kasim, Fazlina; Yusof, Nurul Aiman Mohd; Manan Sulong, Husnaida Abdul; Tg Muda, Tg Fatimah Murniwati; Arifin, Wan Nor; Yusoff, Muhamad Saiful Bahri

    2017-09-01

    Students' perceptions of the education environment influence their learning. Ever since the major medical curriculum reform, anatomy education has undergone several changes in terms of its curriculum, teaching modalities, learning resources, and assessment methods. By measuring students' perceptions concerning anatomy education environment, valuable information can be obtained to facilitate improvements in teaching and learning. Hence, it is important to use a valid inventory that specifically measures attributes of the anatomy education environment. In this study, a new 11-factor, 132-items Anatomy Education Environment Measurement Inventory (AEEMI) was developed using Delphi technique and was validated in a Malaysian public medical school. The inventory was found to have satisfactory content evidence (scale-level content validity index [total] = 0.646); good response process evidence (scale-level face validity index [total] = 0.867); and acceptable to high internal consistency, with the Raykov composite reliability estimates of the six factors are in the range of 0.604-0.876. The best fit model of the AEEMI is achieved with six domains and 25 items (X 2  = 415.67, P education environment in Malaysia. A concerted collaboration should be initiated toward developing a valid universal tool that, using the methods outlined in this study, measures the anatomy education environment across different institutions and countries. Anat Sci Educ 10: 423-432. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  15. Clinical anatomy of the subserous layer: An amalgamation of gross and clinical anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yabuki, Yoshihiko

    2016-05-01

    The 1998 edition of Terminologia Anatomica introduced some currently used clinical anatomical terms for the pelvic connective tissue or subserous layer. These innovations persuaded the present author to consider a format in which the clinical anatomical terms could be reconciled with those of gross anatomy and incorporated into a single anatomical glossary without contradiction or ambiguity. Specific studies on the subserous layer were undertaken on 79 Japanese women who had undergone surgery for uterine cervical cancer, and on 26 female cadavers that were dissected, 17 being formalin-fixed and 9 fresh. The results were as follows: (a) the subserous layer could be segmentalized by surgical dissection in the perpendicular, horizontal and sagittal planes; (b) the segmentalized subserous layer corresponded to 12 cubes, or ligaments, of minimal dimension that enabled the pelvic organs to be extirpated; (c) each ligament had a three-dimensional (3D) structure comprising craniocaudal, mediolateral, and dorsoventral directions vis-á-vis the pelvic axis; (d) these 3D-structured ligaments were encoded morphologically in order of decreasing length; and (e) using these codes, all the surgical procedures for 19th century to present-day radical hysterectomy could be expressed symbolically. The establishment of clinical anatomical terms, represented symbolically through coding as demonstrated in this article, could provide common ground for amalgamating clinical anatomy with gross anatomy. Consequently, terms in clinical anatomy and gross anatomy could be reconciled and compiled into a single anatomical glossary. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. The Journal of Anatomy: origin and evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    2016-07-01

    The Journal of Anatomy was launched 150 years ago as the Journal of Anatomy and Physiology, in an age when anatomy and physiology were not regarded as separate disciplines. European science in general was advancing rapidly at the time (it was 7 years after publication of Darwin's Origin of Species), and the recent demise of the Natural History Review meant that there was no English language publication covering these subjects. The founding editors were George Murray Humphry of Cambridge and William Turner of Edinburgh, together with Alfred Newton of Cambridge and Edward Perceval Wright of Dublin (the last two served only for a year). The pivotal event leading to the Journal's foundation was the 1866 meeting of the British Association, at which Humphry delivered the 'Address in Physiology' (printed in the first issue). Turner, who was also present at the 1866 British Association meeting, remained as a member of the editorial team for 50 years and was a major contributor of Journal articles. The title was changed to Journal of Anatomy in October 1916, when it was taken under the wing, in terms of both management and ownership, by the Anatomical Society. This article reviews the early years of the Journal's publication in more detail than later years because of the historical interest of this less familiar material. The subject matter, which has remained surprisingly consistent over the years, is illustrated by examples from some notable contributions. The evolution of illustration techniques is surveyed from 1866 to the present day; the final section provides brief summaries of all of the chief editors. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  17. Congenital Heart Defects and Coronary Anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Mawson, John B.

    2002-01-01

    Coronary artery anomalies are a well recognized feature of many cardiac malformations and have been catalogued in a number of reviews. This overview concentrates on 1) the interplay between congenital heart defects and coronary morphogenesis, examining how some of the embryology fits with the experiments of nature encountered in clinical practice; and 2) the influence of coronary anatomy on patient management. This overview uses, as examples, pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum, ...

  18. Clinical anatomy of the periocular region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shams, Pari N; Ortiz-Pérez, Santiago; Joshi, Naresh

    2013-08-01

    The aims of this article are twofold: (1) to provide the facial plastic surgeon with a comprehensive and up-to-date overview of periocular anatomy including the brow, midface, and temporal region and (2) to highlight important anatomical relationships that must be appreciated in order to achieve the best possible functional and aesthetic surgical outcomes. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  19. The functional anatomy of forearm rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Lees, Vivien C.

    2009-01-01

    The elbow, forearm and wrist act as a unified structure to provide a stable, strong and highly mobile strut for positioning the hand in space and for conducting load-bearing tasks. An understanding of the relevant anatomy and biomechanics is important for the surgeon assessing and treating disorders of forearm function. This paper is concerned with illuminating the principles and concepts governing forearm rotation and load-bearing functions.

  20. Exercises in anatomy: the normal heart.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    In the first of our exercises in anatomy, created for the Multimedia Manual of the European Association of Cardiothoracic Surgery, we emphasized that thorough knowledge of intracardiac anatomy was an essential part of the training for all budding cardiac surgeons, explaining how we had used the archive of congenitally malformed hearts maintained at Lurie Children's Hospital in Chicago to prepare a series of videoclips, demonstrating the salient features of tetralogy of Fallot. In this series of videoclips, we extend our analysis of the normal heart, since for our initial exercise we had concentrated exclusively on the structure of the right ventricular outflow tract. We begin our overview of normal anatomy by emphasizing the need, in the current era, to describe the heart in attitudinally appropriate fashion. Increasingly, clinicians are demonstrating the features of the heart as it is located within the body. It is no longer satisfactory, therefore, to describe these components in a 'Valentine' fashion, as continues to be the case in most textbooks of normal or cardiac anatomy. We then emphasize the importance of the so-called morphological method, which states that structures within the heart should be defined on the basis of their own intrinsic morphology, and not according to other parts, which are themselves variable. We continue by using this concept to show how it is the appendages that serve to distinguish between the atrial chambers, while the apical trabecular components provide the features to distinguish the ventricles. We then return to the cardiac chambers, emphasizing features of surgical significance, in particular the locations of the cardiac conduction tissues. We proceed by examining the cardiac valves, and conclude by providing a detailed analysis of the septal structures. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Association for Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. All rights reserved.

  1. The anatomy of Japan's postwar economic development.

    OpenAIRE

    Tsao, Hsiung Yuan

    1997-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This thesis examines the anatomy of postwar Japanese economic development. It is illustrated by the reform and reconstruction era (1945-52) and those factors which caused the Japanese economy to grow during the 1953-73 period. Furthermore, on the basis of Japanese economic successes, the role of the Japanese in world affairs again became important. However, due to the world experiencing economic inflation and an oil shock after 1974, t...

  2. Radiological anatomy for FRCR. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Philip; Alvi, Abdul Rahman

    2011-01-01

    The new FRCR part 1 Anatomy examination comprises 20 cases/images, with five questions about each. The cases are labelled 01 to 20 and the five questions are labelled (a) to (e). The authors have set out to emulate this format by gathering 200 cases which, from their experience, are representative of the cases on which candidates will be tested. The book consists of 10 tests with 20 cases each, and 5 stem questions each. The answers, along with an explanation and tips, accompany each test at the end of the chapter. This will help candidates to identify the level of anatomical knowledge expected by the Royal College of Radiologists. The aim of this book is not to replace the already available literature in radiological anatomy, but to complement it as a revision guide. Whereas radiological anatomy atlases and textbooks provide images with labels for every possible identifiable structure in an investigation, the cases in this book have only 5 labels, simulating the exam. (orig.)

  3. A radiographic study of pediatric ulnar anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravino, Mattia; Oni, Julius K; Sala, Debra A; Chu, Alice

    2014-01-01

    The adult ulna has a unique bony architecture that has been described in the literature, but, to the best of our knowledge, the ulnar anatomy in children has not been described. We examined 75 anteroposterior (AP) and 64 lateral radiographs (29 were bilateral) of 50, 0.5- to 11-year-old, healthy children's forearms. On AP radiographs, the total ulnar length, the ulnar proximal angle, the ulnar distal angle, and the distance between each angle from the tip of the triceps insertion; and, on lateral radiographs, the ulnar length and bow deviation were measured. The correlation between age and radiographic measurements, differences based on sex, differences compared with adults' measurements, and interobserver/intraobserver reliability were assessed. Age had a very strong/strong positive correlation with length/distance measurements on both AP and lateral radiographs. Only AP ulnar distal angle was significantly different between sexes (females > males). Compared with the adult ulnar studies, the AP proximal angle in children is significantly smaller and the location of this angle is significantly more distal. Interobserver and intraobserver reliability were very good for length/distance measurements on AP and lateral radiographs. The knowledge of pediatric ulnar anatomy could be helpful in the treatment of forearm deformities due to multiple hereditary exostosis and osteogenesis imperfecta, and in the treatment of ulnar fractures, particularly in Monteggia variants, where restoration of the correct forearm anatomy is essential to obtain good clinical and functional results. Study of diagnostic test, Level II.

  4. Tinjauan Anatomi Layout Halaman Republika Epaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suprayitno Suprayitno

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Communities are increasingly familiar with Internet technology became one of the reasons for the rapid growth of digital newspaper in Indonesia. The ability of the media presents news in brief, fast, accessible and inexpensive form the basis of high growth of consumer interest in digital newspaper / electronic. Technological developments, triggering changes to the newspaper that had shaped the physical print later developed in digital form. In principle, newspaper print and digital newspapers contain messages or the same news, namely providing information to readers about the actual and weighted, as well as other light information that is entertainment. Review the anatomy of the digital newspaper layout is a study to trace and explore what and how the anatomy of a newspaper page layout, at least to provide information and understanding of the anatomy of the layouts in outline. Process layout in the digital version is no different from print media, which distinguishes its output only. In the process to any design layout of a medium, a designer is still expected to possess and master the basic principles such as layout hierarchy, emphasis, balance, and unity. 

  5. Morphology and anatomy of the seedling and the tirodendro of Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. (Clusiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valquíria Aparecida Mendes de Jesus

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Calophyllum brasiliense Cambess. is a tree species that is presented as an alternative to replace endangered species of hardwood. The morphology and anatomy of the seedling of this species is the object of the present study. Seedlings at different stages of development were obtained in greenhouse and analyzed fresh and fixed in FAA (Formalin-Acetic-Alcohol 50. The anatomical analysis was done by the freehand and microtome sections, according to standard techniques in plant anatomy. The seedling and/or tirodendro is cryptocotylar and hypogeal, has cataphylls, and presents eophylls and metaphylls simple with venation pinnate craspedodromous simple. The root is polyarch, the hypocotyl is very short, the cotyledons have an oily and starchy reserve, the epicotyl has stem structure, and eophylls and metaphylls are dorsiventral. The seedling may be classified in the Horsfieldia type/subtype.

  6. Kant on anatomy and the status of the life sciences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    This paper contributes to recent interest in Kant's engagement with the life sciences by focusing on one corner of those sciences that has received comparatively little attention: physical and comparative anatomy. By attending to remarks spread across Kant's writings, we gain some insight into Kant's understanding of the disciplinary limitations but also the methodological sophistication of the study of anatomy and physiology. Insofar as Kant highlights anatomy as a paradigmatic science guided by the principle of teleology in the Critique of the Power of Judgment, a more careful study of Kant's discussions of anatomy promises to illuminate some of the obscurities of that text and of his understanding of the life sciences more generally. In the end, it is argued, Kant's ambivalence with regard to anatomy gives way to a pessimistic conclusion about the possibility that anatomy, natural history, and, by extension, the life sciences more generally might one day become true natural sciences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual ...

  8. MR imaging of brain surface structures: Surface anatomy scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katada, K.; Koga, S.; Asahina, M.; Kanno, T.; Asahina, K.

    1987-01-01

    Preoperative evaluation of brain surface anatomy, including cortical sulci and veins, relative to cerebral and cerebellar lesions is an important subject for surgeons. Until now, no imaging modality existed that allowed direct visualization of brain surface anatomy. A new MR imaging technique (surface anatomy scanning) was developed to visualize brain surface structures. The technique uses a spin-echo pulse sequence with long repetition and echo times, thick sections and a surface coil. Cortical sulci, fissures, veins, and intracranial lesions were clearly identified with this technique. Initial clinical results indicate that surface anatomy scanning is useful for lesion localization and for detailed evaluation of cortical and subcortical lesions

  9. Relevance of human anatomy in daily clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arráez-Aybar, Luis-Alfonso; Sánchez-Montesinos, Indalecio; Mirapeix, Rosa-M; Mompeo-Corredera, Blanca; Sañudo-Tejero, Jose-Ramón

    2010-12-20

    the aim of this study has been to evaluate the relevance of gross human anatomy in daily clinical practice and to compare it to that of other basic sciences (biochemistry, bioethics, cytohistology, microbiology, pharmacology, physiology, psychology). a total of 1250 questionnaires were distributed among 38 different medical speciality professionals. Answers were analyzed taking into account speciality (medical, surgery and others), professional status (training physician or staff member) and professional experience. the response rate was 42.9% (n=536). Gross human anatomy was considered the most relevant basic discipline for surgical specialists, while pharmacology and physiology were most relevant for medical specialists. Knowledge of anatomy was also considered fundamental for understanding neurological or musculoskeletal disorders. In undergraduate programmes, the most important focuses in teaching anatomy were radiological, topographical and functional anatomy followed by systematic anatomy. In daily medical practice anatomy was considered basic for physical examination, symptom interpretation and interpretation of radiological images. When professional status or professional experience was considered, small variations were shown and there were no significant differences related to gender or community. our results underline the relevance of basic sciences (gross anatomy, physiology, and pharmacology) in daily professional activity. Evidence-based studies such as ours, lend greater credibility and objectivity to the role of gross anatomy in the undergraduate training of health professionals and should help to establish a more appropriate curriculum for future professionals. 2010 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Teaching medical anatomy: what is the role of imaging today?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grignon, Bruno; Oldrini, Guillaume; Walter, Frédéric

    2016-03-01

    Medical anatomy instruction has been an important issue of debate for many years and imaging anatomy has become an increasingly important component in the field, the role of which has not yet been clearly defined. The aim of the paper was to assess the current deployment of medical imaging in the teaching of anatomy by means of a review of the literature. A systematic search was performed using the electronic database PubMed, ScienceDirect and various publisher databases, with combinations of the relevant MeSH terms. A manual research was added. In most academic curricula, imaging anatomy has been integrated as a part of anatomical education, taught using a very wide variety of strategies. Considerable variation in the time allocation, content and delivery of medical imaging in teaching human anatomy was identified. Given this considerable variation, an objective assessment remains quite difficult. In most publications, students' perceptions regarding anatomical courses including imaging anatomy were investigated by means of questionnaires and, regardless of the method of teaching, it was globally concluded that imaging anatomy enhanced the quality and efficiency of instruction in human anatomy. More objective evaluation based on an increase in students' performance on course examinations or on specific tests performed before and after teaching sessions showed positive results in numerous cases, while mixed results were also indicated by other studies. A relative standardization could be useful in improving the teaching of imaging anatomy, to facilitate its assessment and reinforce its effectiveness.

  11. Atlas of fetal sectional anatomy with ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacson, G.; Mintz, M.C.; Crelin, E.S.

    1986-01-01

    Here is an atlas of sectional anatomy for the fetus featuring correlated anatomy and imaging, transverse coronal and sagittal views, a guide to development of the brain, cardiac anatomy in standard plans of study and, over 280 illustrations

  12. Evaluation of an innovative hands-on anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum to supplement graduate gross anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F; Kessler, Ross; Stowell, Jeffrey R

    2017-07-01

    Ultrasound (US) can enhance anatomy education, yet is incorporated into few non-medical anatomy programs. This study is the first to evaluate the impact of US training in gross anatomy for non-medical students in the United States. All 32 master's students enrolled in gross anatomy with the anatomy-centered ultrasound (ACUS) curriculum were recruited. Mean Likert ratings on pre- and post-course surveys (100% response rates) were compared to evaluate the effectiveness of the ACUS curriculum in developing US confidence, and gauge its impact on views of US. Post-course, students reported significantly higher (P education and to students' future careers remained positive after the course. End-of-semester quiz performance (91% response rate) provided data on educational outcomes. The average score was 79%, with a 90% average on questions about distinguishing tissues/artifacts, demonstrating positive learning outcomes and retention. The anatomy-centered ultrasound curriculum significantly increased confidence with and knowledge of US among non-medical anatomy students with limited prior training. Non-medical students greatly value the contributions that US makes to anatomy education and to their future careers. It is feasible to enhance anatomy education outside of medical training by incorporating US. Anat Sci Educ 10: 348-362. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Studying global change through investigation of the plastic responses of xylem anatomy in tree rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonti, Patrick; von Arx, Georg; García-González, Ignacio; Eilmann, Britta; Sass-Klaassen, Ute; Gärtner, Holger; Eckstein, Dieter

    2010-01-01

    Variability in xylem anatomy is of interest to plant scientists because of the role water transport plays in plant performance and survival. Insights into plant adjustments to changing environmental conditions have mainly been obtained through structural and functional comparative studies between taxa or within taxa on contrasting sites or along environmental gradients. Yet, a gap exists regarding the study of hydraulic adjustments in response to environmental changes over the lifetimes of plants. In trees, dated tree-ring series are often exploited to reconstruct dynamics in ecological conditions, and recent work in which wood-anatomical variables have been used in dendrochronology has produced promising results. Environmental signals identified in water-conducting cells carry novel information reflecting changes in regional conditions and are mostly related to short, sub-annual intervals. Although the idea of investigating environmental signals through wood anatomical time series goes back to the 1960s, it is only recently that low-cost computerized image-analysis systems have enabled increased scientific output in this field. We believe that the study of tree-ring anatomy is emerging as a promising approach in tree biology and climate change research, particularly if complemented by physiological and ecological studies. This contribution presents the rationale, the potential, and the methodological challenges of this innovative approach.

  14. "Anatomy lesson of Frederik Ruysch" of 1670: a tribute to Ruysch's contributions to lymphatic anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, Frank F. A.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    Frederick Ruysch was one of the most prominent Dutch physicians of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. For more than 65 years, he was the Praelector Anatomiae (Lecturer of Anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons. During his career, he conducted many dissections at the guild's theatre to

  15. A reappraisal of pediatric thoracic surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Nicholas J; Morreau, Jonty; Sugunesegran, Ramanen; Taghavi, Kiarash; Mirjalili, S Ali

    2017-09-01

    Accurate knowledge of surface anatomy is fundamental to safe clinical practice. A paucity of evidence in the literature regarding thoracic surface anatomy in children was identified. The associations between surface landmarks and internal structures were meticulously analyzed by reviewing high quality computed tomography (CT) images of 77 children aged from four days to 12 years. The results confirmed that the sternal angle is an accurate surface landmark for the azygos-superior vena cava junction in a plane through to the level of upper T4 from birth to age four, and to lower T4 in older children. The concavity of the aortic arch was slightly below this plane and the tracheal and pulmonary artery bifurcations were even lower. The cardiac apex was typically at the 5 th intercostal space (ICS) from birth to age four, at the 4 th ICS and 5 th rib in 4-12 year olds, and close to the midclavicular line at all ages. The lower border of the diaphragm was at the level of the 6 th or 7 th rib at the midclavicular line, the 7 th ICS and 8 th rib at the midaxillary line, and the 11 th thoracic vertebra posteriorly. The domes of the diaphragm were generally flatter and lower in children, typically only one rib level higher than its anterior level at the midclavicular line. Diaphragm apertures were most commonly around the level of T9, T10, and T11 for the IVC, esophagus and aorta, respectively. This is the first study to provide an evidence-base for thoracic surface anatomy in children. Clin. Anat. 30:788-794, 2017. © 2017Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. A reappraisal of adult abdominal surface anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirjalili, S Ali; McFadden, Sara L; Buckenham, Tim; Stringer, Mark D

    2012-10-01

    Descriptions of clinically important surface landmarks often vary between and within contemporary anatomical texts. The aim of this study was to investigate the surface anatomy of major abdominal vessels, kidneys, spleen, gastroesophageal junction, and duodenojejunal flexure in living adults using computed tomography (CT). After excluding patients with distorting space-occupying lesions, scoliosis, abnormal lordosis, and obvious visceromegaly, 108 abdominal CT scans of supine adults (mean age 60 years, range 18-97 years; 64 female) at end tidal inspiration were available for analysis by dual consensus reporting. Intra-observer agreement was assessed by repeat blind assessment of a random sample of scans. The vertebral level of the aortic bifurcation and almost all of its major branches, and the origin of the inferior vena cava were consistent with current descriptions. Important differences from contemporary descriptions of surface anatomy were as follows: the renal arteries were most commonly at the L1 vertebral level (left 55%, right 43%); the midpoint of the renal hila was most frequently at L2 (left 68%, right 40%); the 11th rib was a posterior relation of the left kidney in only 28% of scans; and the spleen was most frequently located between the 10th and 12th ribs (48%) with its long axis in line with the 11th rib (55%). Although the majority of vascular surface landmarks are consistent with standard descriptions, the surface anatomy of the kidneys, renal arteries, and spleen needs to be revised in accordance with observations using modern imaging techniques in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A. [University of Michigan, Department of Radiology, Ann Arbor, MI (United States); Miller, Bruce [University of Michigan, Department of Orthopaedics, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2011-03-15

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  18. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands. (orig.) [de

  19. An imaging atlas of human anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weir, J.; Abrahams, P.H.

    1993-01-01

    The atlas presents pictures obtained by the various imaging techniques, showing the normal anatomy of the various body regions in healthy adults. The pictures are the major information given, accompanying texts are reduced to captions giving the Latin names of important anatomic details or a brief introduction each to the fundamental characteristics of the imaging methods used, as e.g. angiography, computerized tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasonography. The atlas is a key source of reference and a guide in interpreting radiographs. The material is arranged in chapters according to the body regions of interest: Head, neck, brain; spine and spinal cord; upper extremities; thorax; abdomen; pelvis; lower extremities. (UWA) [de

  20. Interactive videodisk atlas of knee anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEnery, K.W.; Woods, J.W.; Glenn, W.F.; Rauschning, W.

    1987-01-01

    An interactive, computer-assisted atlas of knee anatomy has been developed. MR and CT images from normal volunteers and cryomicrotomed anatomic images were recorded on a laser viodeodisk. Computer software allows movement through the knee and correlation of radiographic images in the coronal, axial, and sagittal planes. Computer graphics are superimposed on the videodisk images. A high-resolution color graphics, touch-screen monitor is included in the computer system. Learning modules allow for rapid identification of specific structure by touching their location on the screen. Computer-created testing modules are available that provide for self-assessment

  1. The subscapularis: anatomy, injury, and imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morag, Yoav; Jamadar, David A.; Dong, Qian; Jacobson, Jon A.; Miller, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    The subscapularis is the largest and most powerful of the rotator cuff muscles and fulfills an important role in glenohumeral movement and stability. The spectrum and implications of subscapularis muscle or tendon injury differ from injury to other rotator cuff components because of its unique structure and function. Diagnosing subscapularis injury is clinically difficult and assessment of subscapularis integrity may be limited during arthroscopy or open surgery. Diagnostic imaging plays an important part in diagnosing and evaluating the extent of subscapularis injury. The radiologist should be aware of the anatomy of the subscapularis, the variations in muscle or tendon injury, and the potential implications for treatment and prognosis. (orig.)

  2. Computer tomographic anatomy of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koenig, R.

    1984-01-01

    The structures in the neck which can be recognised by computer tomography, and their course, is described. The cartilagenous larynx and trachea, the oesophagus, thyroid, sternocleidomastoid muscle, common carotid arteries and internal jugular veins can be recognised regularly. In addition, one can identify smaller muscles, vessels and nerves, such as the sterno-hyoid, omo-hyoid, anterior and medial scalenus muscles, the superior and inferior thyroid arteries and the suprascapular, internal thoracic and vertebral arteries, the thyro-cervical trunk and the vagus and phrenic nerves. An accurate knowledge of the anatomy is essential for the recognition of enlarged parathyroid glands.

  3. Improved understanding of human anatomy through self-guided radiological anatomy modules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Andrew W; Smith, Sandy G; Ross, Callum F; Straus, Christopher M

    2012-07-01

    To quantifiably measure the impact of self-instructed radiological anatomy modules on anatomy comprehension, demonstrated by radiology, gross, and written exams. Study guides for independent use that emphasized structural relationships were created for use with two online radiology atlases. A guide was created for each module of the first year medical anatomy course and incorporated as an optional course component. A total of 93 of 96 eligible students participated. All exams were normalized to control for variances in exam difficulty and body region tested. An independent t-test was used to compare overall exam scores with respect to guide completion or incompletion. To account for aptitude differences between students, a paired t-test of each student's exam scores with and without completion of the associated guide was performed, thus allowing students to serve as their own controls. Twenty-one students completed no study guides; 22 completed all six guides; and 50 students completed between one and five guides. Aggregate comparisons of all students' exam scores showed significantly improved mean performance when guides were used (radiology, 57.8% [percentile] vs. 45.1%, P < .001; gross, 56.9% vs. 46.5%, P = .001; written, 57.8% vs. 50.2%, P = .011). Paired comparisons among students who completed between one and five guides demonstrated significantly higher mean practical exam scores when guides were used (radiology, 49.3% [percentile] vs. 36.0%, P = .001; gross, 51.5% vs. 40.4%, P = .005), but not higher written scores. Radiological anatomy study guides significantly improved anatomy comprehension on radiology, gross, and written exams. Copyright © 2012 AUR. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Medical Student Perceptions of Radiology Use in Anatomy Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Kevin P.; Crush, Lee; O'Malley, Eoin; Daly, Fergus E.; Twomey, Maria; O'Tuathaigh, Colm M. P.; Maher, Michael M.; Cryan, John F.; O'Connor, Owen J.

    2015-01-01

    The use of radiology in the teaching of anatomy to medical students is gaining in popularity; however, there is wide variation in how and when radiology is introduced into the curriculum. The authors sought to investigate students' perceptions regarding methods used to depict and teach anatomy and effects of integrated radiology instruction on…

  5. Teaching Anatomy in the XXI Century: New Aspects and Pitfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Papa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy has historically been a cornerstone in medical education regardless of nation, racial background, or medical school system. By learning gross anatomy, medical students get a first “impression” about the structure of the human body which is the basis for understanding pathologic and clinical problems. Although the importance of teaching anatomy to both undergraduate and postgraduate students remains undisputed, there is currently a relevant debate concerning methods of anatomy teaching. In the past century, dissection and lectures were its sole pedagogy worldwide. Recently, the time allocated for anatomy teaching was dramatically reduced to such an extent that some suggest that it has fallen below an adequate standard. Traditional anatomy education based on topographical structural anatomy taught in lectures and gross dissection classes has been replaced by a multiple range of study modules, including problem-based learning, plastic models or computer-assisted learning, and curricula integration. “Does the anatomical theatre still have a place in medical education?” And “what is the problem with anatomic specimens?” We endeavor to answer both of these questions and to contribute to the debate on the current situation in undergraduate and graduate anatomy education.

  6. The Anatomy Lecture Then and Now: A Foucauldian Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Norm; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2014-01-01

    Although there are many points of continuity, there are also a number of changes in the pedagogical form of the anatomy lecture over the longue durée, over centuries of epistemic change, rather than over years or decades. The article begins with an analysis of the physical and technical arrangements of the early modern anatomy lecture, showing how…

  7. The anatomy lessons of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJpma, F.F.A.

    2014-01-01

    Mandatory lessons in anatomy, taught by the praelector anatomiae (lecturer in anatomy) of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, were an important part of the surgical training starting in the 16th century. We describe how surgeons were trained approximately 350 years ago at the Surgeons’ Guild. The role

  8. Medical Students' Perspective on Current and Future Training in Anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Triepels, C.P.R.; Koppes, D.M.; Kuijk, S.M.J. Van; Popeijus, H.E.; Lamers, W.H.; Gorp, T. Van; Futterer, J.J.; Kruitwagen, R.; Notten, K.J.B.

    2018-01-01

    Gaining sufficient knowledge of anatomy is an important part of medical education. Factors that influence how well students learn anatomical structures include available sources, learning time and study assistance. This study explores the attitude of medical students with regard to studying anatomy

  9. Anatomy in Occupational Therapy Program Curriculum: Practitioners' Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine Anne

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy education is undergoing significant transformation. It is unknown whether changes are in accordance with occupational therapy (OT) practice needs. The purpose of this pilot study was to survey OT clinicians to determine their perspectives on the value of anatomy in OT curricula, and anatomical knowledge required for practice. In addition…

  10. YouTube: An Emerging Tool in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2012-01-01

    The use of online social networks in medical education can remodel and enhance anatomy teaching and learning; one such network is the video-sharing site YouTube. Limited research in the literature exists on the use of YouTube as a platform for anatomy education. The aim of this study is to assess student's perceptions and patterns of usage of this…

  11. Anatomy Education for the YouTube Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S.; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W.

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively…

  12. Human Anatomy: Let the Students Tell Us How to Teach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R.; Bates, Anthony S.; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M.

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and…

  13. The art of human anatomy: Renaissance to 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hee, Robrecht; Wells, F C; Ballestriero, Roberta; Richardson, Ruth; Mazzarello, Paolo; Cani, Valentina; Catani, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This session examines the relationship between the art and science of anatomy from the time of Vesalius to the present with particular emphasis on the role of the medical artist and the changing nature of anatomical illustration over the last five centuries. Pivotal changes in the art of anatomy will be examined including the evolution of media and brain imaging from Golgi to Geschwind.

  14. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luursema, J.M.; Vorstenbosch, M.A.; Kooloos, J.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different

  15. The mouse-human anatomy ontology mapping project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayamizu, Terry F; de Coronado, Sherri; Fragoso, Gilberto; Sioutos, Nicholas; Kadin, James A; Ringwald, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The overall objective of the Mouse-Human Anatomy Project (MHAP) was to facilitate the mapping and harmonization of anatomical terms used for mouse and human models by Mouse Genome Informatics (MGI) and the National Cancer Institute (NCI). The anatomy resources designated for this study were the Adult Mouse Anatomy (MA) ontology and the set of anatomy concepts contained in the NCI Thesaurus (NCIt). Several methods and software tools were identified and evaluated, then used to conduct an in-depth comparative analysis of the anatomy ontologies. Matches between mouse and human anatomy terms were determined and validated, resulting in a highly curated set of mappings between the two ontologies that has been used by other resources. These mappings will enable linking of data from mouse and human. As the anatomy ontologies have been expanded and refined, the mappings have been updated accordingly. Insights are presented into the overall process of comparing and mapping between ontologies, which may prove useful for further comparative analyses and ontology mapping efforts, especially those involving anatomy ontologies. Finally, issues concerning further development of the ontologies, updates to the mapping files, and possible additional applications and significance were considered. DATABASE URL: http://obofoundry.org/cgi-bin/detail.cgi?id=ma2ncit.

  16. Comparative leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum (Celastraceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, W.T.; Baas, P.

    1973-01-01

    The leaf anatomy of Kokoona and Lophopetalum is described in detail. Separation of the two genera as effectuated by Hou (1963) is supported by differences in vascular anatomy of the distal end of the petiole, which is invariably more complex in Lophopetalum than in Kokoona. Other differential

  17. Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welle, ter B.J.H.; Loureiro, A.A.; Lisboa, P.L.B.; Koek-Noorman, J.

    1983-01-01

    Systematic wood anatomy of the tribe Guettardeae (Rubiaceae). The wood anatomy of nearly all genera of the Guettardeae (Rubiaceae, Guettardoideae) has been examined, and in this respect the tribe is heterogeneous. Suggestions are made for a delimitation of the tribe. Guettarda, Bobea, Antirhea,

  18. Anatomy Education in Namibia: Balancing Facility Design and Curriculum Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessels, Quenton; Vorster, Willie; Jacobson, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The anatomy curriculum at Namibia's first, and currently only, medical school is clinically oriented, outcome-based, and includes all of the components of modern anatomical sciences i.e., histology, embryology, neuroanatomy, gross, and clinical anatomy. The design of the facilities and the equipment incorporated into these facilities were directed…

  19. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to study the anatomy of ...

  20. Student Perceptions to Teaching Undergraduate Anatomy in Health Sciences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderton, Ryan S.; Chiu, Li Shan; Aulfrey, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy and physiology teaching has undergone significant changes to keep up with advances in technology and to cater for a wide array of student specific learning approaches. This paper examines perceptions towards a variety of teaching instruments, techniques, and innovations used in the delivery and teaching of anatomy and physiology for health…

  1. Anatomy of the female reproductive system of Rusa deer ( Rusa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study aims to present baseline data on the reproductive anatomy of a poorly known tropical deer species, Rusa deer (Rusa timorensis). The anatomy of female reproductive system is described using seven uniparous hinds, aged between four and eight years. The various reproductive structures were studied via ...

  2. Student Perspectives of Imaging Anatomy in Undergraduate Medical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Jorge Americo Dinis; Barbosa, Joselina Maria Pinto; Ferreira, Maria Amelia Duarte

    2013-01-01

    Radiological imaging is gaining relevance in the acquisition of competencies in clinical anatomy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the perceptions of medical students on teaching/learning of imaging anatomy as an integrated part of anatomical education. A questionnaire was designed to evaluate the perceptions of second-year students…

  3. The normal anatomy of the pulmonary hili on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stark, P.

    1982-01-01

    The diagnosis of abnormalities in the hili by computed tomography may be difficult. A thorough knowledge of normal cross-sectional anatomy is necessary. The hilar anatomy on cross sections is described in detail and illustrated by appropriate cuts. (orig.) [de

  4. Japanese Neurosurgeons and Microsurgical Anatomy: A Historical Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    MATSUSHIMA, Toshio; KAWASHIMA, Masatou; MATSUSHIMA, Ken; WANIBUCHI, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Research in microneurosurgical anatomy has contributed to great advances in neurosurgery in the last 40 years. Many Japanese neurosurgeons have traveled abroad to study microsurgical anatomy and played major roles in advancing and spreading the knowledge of anatomy, overcoming their disadvantage that the cadaver study has been strictly limited inside Japan. In Japan, they initiated an educational system for surgical anatomy that has contributed to the development and standardization of Japanese neurosurgery. For example, the Japanese Society for Microsurgical Anatomy started an annual educational meeting in the middle of 1980s and published its proceedings in Japanese every year for approximately 20 years. These are some of the achievements that bring worldwide credit to Japanese neurosurgeons. Not only should Japanese neurosurgeons improve their educational system but they should also contribute to the international education in this field, particularly in Asia. PMID:25797782

  5. Fostering improved anatomy and physiology instructor pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattheis, Allison; Jensen, Murray

    2014-12-01

    Despite widespread calls for reform in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics education, effecting lasting change in instructor practice is challenging to achieve. This article describes the results of a 2-yr research study that involved efforts to develop the pedagogical expertise of a group of anatomy and physiology instructors at the college level. Data were collected through a series of individual interviews that included the use of the Teacher Beliefs Inventory questionnaire (23) along with observations onsite in participants' college classrooms and at process-oriented guided inquiry learning (POGIL) curriculum writing workshops. Findings indicated attitudinal shifts on the part of participants from teacher-centered to more student-centered pedagogy and supported the benefits of long-term professional development for instructors. Here, we documented the successful progress of these professors as they participated in a curriculum development process that emphasized student-centered teaching with the goal of promoting broader change efforts in introductory anatomy and physiology. Copyright © 2014 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Personalized augmented reality for anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Meng; Fallavollita, Pascal; Seelbach, Ina; Von Der Heide, Anna Maria; Euler, Ekkehard; Waschke, Jens; Navab, Nassir

    2016-05-01

    Anatomy education is a challenging but vital element in forming future medical professionals. In this work, a personalized and interactive augmented reality system is developed to facilitate education. This system behaves as a "magic mirror" which allows personalized in-situ visualization of anatomy on the user's body. Real-time volume visualization of a CT dataset creates the illusion that the user can look inside their body. The system comprises a RGB-D sensor as a real-time tracking device to detect the user moving in front of a display. In addition, the magic mirror system shows text information, medical images, and 3D models of organs that the user can interact with. Through the participation of 7 clinicians and 72 students, two user studies were designed to respectively assess the precision and acceptability of the magic mirror system for education. The results of the first study demonstrated that the average precision of the augmented reality overlay on the user body was 0.96 cm, while the results of the second study indicate 86.1% approval for the educational value of the magic mirror, and 91.7% approval for the augmented reality capability of displaying organs in three dimensions. The usefulness of this unique type of personalized augmented reality technology has been demonstrated in this paper. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cardiovascular anatomy and physiology in the female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wingate, S

    1997-12-01

    Important differences in male and female cardiovascular anatomy and physiology may account for many of the gender differences seen in various cardiac disease states. Predominant influences on female disease manifestations include (1) women's smaller body size, hence smaller hearts and smaller coronary vessels and (2) women's fluctuating levels of estrogen throughout their lifespan. Understanding these critical anatomic and physiologic differences allows the clinician to better predict and plan care for women. For example, knowing that women generally have a smaller body surface area than men allows one to better understand why men have higher creatine kinase (CK) values than do women--an important distinction when interpreting these values in the acute care setting. The fact that women's hearts and coronary vessels are generally smaller than men's also helps one understand why women have a higher in-hospital mortality than men post-coronary artery bypass graft surgery (see article by Allen in this issue for more detailed information on revascularization). These are only a few examples of the many opportunities that acute care nurses have to integrate their knowledge of anatomy and physiology into proactive planning for their female cardiac patients.

  8. Anatomy and function: PET-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajander, Sami; Saraste, Antti; Ukkonen, Heikki; Knuuti, Juhani

    2010-05-01

    CT coronary angiography and perfusion PET form an attractive combination to study coronary artery lesions and their consequences in patients with coronary artery disease. Whereas CT provides non-invasive assessment of coronary lumen and wall, PET perfusion is a reliable method for the evaluation of myocardial flow. CT, although very capable of ruling out significant coronary artery disease, is less than satisfactory in assessing the actual significance of the detected lesions. PET imaging, despite its excellent sensitivity, fails to describe the exact anatomy of the epicardial vessels. By fusing image data from these two modalities, lesions can be accurately correlated with their physiological or anatomical counterparts. Hybrid PET-CT devices, now in wide clinical use, allow such fusion in a one-stop-shop study. Although still seeking its place in clinical scenarios, growing evidence suggests that hybrid PET-CT imaging of coronary anatomy and myocardial perfusion can accurately - and non-invasively - assess the existence and degree of coronary artery disease.

  9. Virtual Reality Educational Tool for Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izard, Santiago González; Juanes Méndez, Juan A; Palomera, Pablo Ruisoto

    2017-05-01

    Virtual Reality is becoming widespread in our society within very different areas, from industry to entertainment. It has many advantages in education as well, since it allows visualizing almost any object or going anywhere in a unique way. We will be focusing on medical education, and more specifically anatomy, where its use is especially interesting because it allows studying any structure of the human body by placing the user inside each one. By allowing virtual immersion in a body structure such as the interior of the cranium, stereoscopic vision goggles make these innovative teaching technologies a powerful tool for training in all areas of health sciences. The aim of this study is to illustrate the teaching potential of applying Virtual Reality in the field of human anatomy, where it can be used as a tool for education in medicine. A Virtual Reality Software was developed as an educational tool. This technological procedure is based entirely on software which will run in stereoscopic goggles to give users the sensation of being in a virtual environment, clearly showing the different bones and foramina which make up the cranium, and accompanied by audio explanations. Throughout the results the structure of the cranium is described in detailed from both inside and out. Importance of an exhaustive morphological knowledge of cranial fossae is further discussed. Application for the design of microsurgery is also commented.

  10. Microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Wonil; Yoshioka, Fumitaka; Funaki, Takeshi; Rhoton, Albert L

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study is to demonstrate and review the detailed microsurgical anatomy of the abducens nerve and surrounding structures along its entire course and to provide its topographic measurements. Ten cadaveric heads were examined using ×3 to ×40 magnification after the arteries and veins were injected with colored silicone. Both sides of each cadaveric head were dissected using different skull base approaches to demonstrate the entire course of the abducens nerve from the pontomedullary sulcus to the lateral rectus muscle. The anatomy of the petroclival area and the cavernous sinus through which the abducens nerve passes are complex due to the high density of critically important neural and vascular structures. The abducens nerve has angulations and fixation points along its course that put the nerve at risk in many clinical situations. From a surgical viewpoint, the petrous tubercle of the petrous apex is an intraoperative landmark to avoid damage to the abducens nerve. The abducens nerve is quite different from the other nerves. No other cranial nerve has a long intradural path with angulations and fixations such as the abducens nerve in petroclival venous confluence. A precise knowledge of the relationship between the abducens nerve and surrounding structures has allowed neurosurgeon to approach the clivus, petroclival area, cavernous sinus, and superior orbital fissure without surgical complications. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Perceptions of cadaveric dissection in anatomy teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naz, Saima; Nazir, Ghazala; Iram, Samia; Mohammad, Malik; Umair; Qari, Iftikhar Hussain; Mohammad, Shaheen

    2011-01-01

    Anatomy professors world over are lamenting about medical students' lack of interest in dissections and its diminishing utilisation in medical studies. The objective of our study was to find out the reasons why some of the Pakistani medical students were avoiding dissections. We conducted this study in 5 medical colleges of Pakistan from Dec 2010-Oct 2011. Questionnaires were prepared and administered to more than 500 Pakistani medical students, at least 6 months after their first cadaver dissecting session. Mostly 1st and 2nd year medical students participated in this study. Around 43% students have actually performed dissections in some form, whereas around 57% had never touched the cadaver. Further evaluation of these results revealed that out of 57% of students, 45% avoided dissection due to bad smell of formaldehyde, 37% due to moral/ethical grounds, 22% due to low motivation and respect of human body, 19.4% due to anxiety, 18.6% due to religious reason, 16% due to fear, asthma and emotional reaction, 9.4% due to toxic chemical, 8.6% due to laziness and 7% due to nightmares. In spite of availability of required number of cadavers in all 5 medical colleges and a clear realisation amongst the students that dissecting cadaver is an effective way of learning anatomy; majority of students were not very keen and had therefore not performed dissection even once.

  12. Historical development of modern anatomy education in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Tatsuo

    2010-03-01

    Medical schools at the beginning of Meiji era were diverse, both in regard to their founders and their methods of education, frequently employing foreign teachers of various nationalities. In 1871, German teachers were appointed to organize medical education at the medical school of the University of Tokyo. The anatomical education at the school was conducted by German teachers, i.e. Miller (1871-1873), Dönitz (1873-1877), Gierke (1877-1880) and Disse (1880-1885), followed by Koganei, who returned from the study in Germany. At the first meeting of Japanese Association ofAnatomists in 1893 [Meiji 26], the Japanese anatomy teachers met together and most of them were graduates of the University of Tokyo or fellows of its anatomy department. Before 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books were mainly translated from English books, and foreign teachers of various nationalities were employed in many medical schools in Japan. After 1877 [Meiji 10], the anatomy books based on the lectures by German teachers at the University of Tokyo were published. The anatomy books after 1887 [Meiji 20] were written based on German books, and the German anatomical terms were utilized. After 1905 [Meiji 38], the original Japanese anatomy books appeared, employing international anatomical terms. In the Meiji 10s the anatomy teachers and anatomy textbooks spread from the University of Tokyo to the medical schools in Japan as the number of medical schools increased temporally. In the Meiji 20s the five national and three public medical schools in addition to the University of Tokyo provided substantial anatomy education including dissection course. Even in the early Meiji 20s these medical schools supplied only half of the newly licensed doctors, and the others were supplied through the national examination after preparatory education at private medical schools without opportunity of substantial anatomy education including dissection course.

  13. Designing Anatomy Program in Modern Medical Curriculum: Matter of Balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grković, Ivica; Marinović Guić, Maja; Košta, Vana; Poljičanin, Ana; Čarić, Ana; Vilović, Katarina

    2009-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the structure of the anatomy program in the first year medical curriculum of University of Split School of Medicine by comparing it with the recommendations by the Educational Affairs Committee of the American Association of Clinical Anatomists (AACA) and the Terminologia Anatomica (TA); we also quantitatively evaluated the organization of teaching material in contemporary topographical anatomy textbooks and matched them with the AACA recommendations, TA, and the curriculum of the anatomy course taught at Medical School in Split, Croatia. Methods TA, official recommendations of the AACA, 6 contemporary anatomy textbooks, and the structure of the anatomy course were analyzed for the proportion of the terms or text devoted to standard topographical regions of the body. The findings were correlated using Spearman ρ test. Results The curriculum outline correlated both with the AACA recommendations (Spearman ρ = 0.83, P = 0.015) and TA (Spearman ρ = 0.73, P = 0.046). Textbooks contained 8 distinct sections, 7 allocated to topographic anatomy regions and 1 to general anatomy concepts and principles. The structure of all textbooks correlated significantly with the course curriculum. However, 4 out of 6 textbooks did not correlate with TA and only a single textbook showed significant correlation with the AACA recommendations. Conclusion Anatomy textbooks vary in the amount of text dedicated to different parts of topographical anatomy and are not quite concordant with curriculum recommendations and standard anatomical terminology. Planning the structure of an anatomy course should not be based on a single book or recommendation but on evidence. PMID:19260144

  14. Learning Anatomy through Thiel- vs. Formalin-Embalmed Cadavers: Student Perceptions of Embalming Methods and Effect on Functional Anatomy Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M. A.; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-01-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience…

  15. Anatomy learning styles and strategies among Jordanian and Malaysian medical students: the impact of culture on learning anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustafa, Ayman G; Allouh, Mohammed Z; Mustafa, Intisar G; Hoja, Ibrahim M

    2013-07-01

    The study aims to investigate anatomy learning styles and strategies of Jordanian and Malaysian medical students at the Jordan University of Science and Technology. The study is a cross-sectional questionnaire-based study. Students' responses for the questionnaire were numerically coded, and the results were analyzed to reveal statistically significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students. The results showed that Jordanian medical students were less interested in using cadavers in learning anatomy than Malaysian medical students. However, similar to their Malaysian counterparts, they prefer to employ other tools to learn anatomy like plastinated models and Internet-based resources. In addition to the aforementioned tools, Malaysian students were more interested in using cross-sectional images and making their own revision cards. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students were more interested in learning anatomy through clinical cases, and by system rather than by region. Moreover, it was revealed that Jordanian medical students learn anatomy more efficiently when they formulate a general view of a particular topic. Both Jordanian and Malaysian medical students also relied on reciting definitions and memorizing facts to learn anatomy. The study also reported significant differences between Jordanian and Malaysian students' perspectives on learning anatomy. The findings of the study suggest that Jordanian and Malaysian medical students posses different cultures of learning. Jordanian anatomy instructors need to consider these different learning cultures when they prepare their instructional methods and teaching materials to fulfill the educational needs of their culturally diverse students.

  16. Aerial organ anatomy of Smilax syphilitica (Smilacaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Smilax L. in Brazil is represented by 32 taxa and it is a taxonomically difficult genus because the plants are dioecious and show wide phenotypic variation. The analysis and use of leaf anatomy characters is recognized as a frequently successful taxonomic method to distinguish between individual taxon, when floral material is absent or minute differences in flowers and foliage exist such as in Smilax. The aim of this study was to characterize the anatomical features of the aerial organs in Smilax syphilitica collected from the Atlantic Rainforest, in Santa Teresa-ES and the Smilax aff. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest, in Manaus, Brazil. For this, a total of three samples of Smilax were collected per site. Sample leaves and stems were fixed with FAA 50, embedded in historesin, sectioned on a rotary microtome, stained and mounted in synthetic resin. Additionally, histochemical tests were performed and cuticle ornamentation was analyzed with standard scanning electron microscopy. S. syphilitica and S. aff. syphilitica differed in cuticle ornamentation, epidermal cell arrangement and wall thickness, stomata type and orientation, calcium oxalate crystal type, and position of stem thorns. Leaf blades of S. syphilitica from the Amazon Rainforest have a network of rounded ridges on both sides, while in S. aff. syphilitica, these ridges are parallel and the spaces between them are filled with numerous membranous platelets. Viewed from the front, the epidermal cells of S. syphilitica have sinuous walls (even more pronounced in samples from the Amazon; while in S. aff. syphilitica, these cells are also sinuous but elongated in the cross-section of the blade and arranged in parallel. Stomata of S. syphilitica are paracytic, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, are both paracytic and anisocytic, and their polar axes are directed towards the mid-vein. Calcium oxalate crystals in S. syphilitica are prisms, whereas in S. aff. syphilitica, crystal sand. Thorns

  17. Patient specific anatomy: the new area of anatomy based on computer science illustrated on liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Luc; Mutter, Didier; Pessaux, Patrick; Marescaux, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Over the past century, medical imaging has brought a new revolution: internal anatomy of a patient could be seen without any invasive technique. This revolution has highlighted the two main limits of current anatomy: the anatomical description is physician dependent, and the average anatomy is more and more frequently insufficient to describe anatomical variations. These drawbacks can sometimes be so important that they create mistakes but they can be overcome through the use of 3D patient-specific surgical anatomy. In this article, we propose to illustrate such improvement of standard anatomy on liver. We first propose a general scheme allowing to easily compare the four main liver anatomical descriptions by Takasaki, Goldsmith and Woodburne, Bismuth and Couinaud. From this general scheme we propose four rules to apply in order to correct these initial anatomical definitions. Application of these rules allows to correct usual vascular topological mistakes of standard anatomy. We finally validate such correction on a database of 20 clinical cases compared to the 111 clinical cases of a Couinaud article. Out of the 20 images of the database, we note a revealing difference in 14 cases (70%) on at least one important branch of the portal network. Only six cases (30%) do not present a revealing difference between both labellings. We also show that the right portal fissure location on our 20 cases defined between segment V and VI of our anatomical definition is well correlated with the real position described by Couinaud on 111 cases, knowing that the theoretical position was only found in 46 cases out of 111, i.e., 41.44% of cases with the non-corrected Couinaud definition. We have proposed a new anatomical segmentation of the liver based on four main rules to apply in order to correct topological errors of the four main standard segmentations. Our validation clearly illustrates that this new definition corrects the large amount of mistakes created by the current

  18. Stem and leaf anatomy of Plectranthus neochilus Schltr., Lamiaceae

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    Márcia do Rocio Duarte

    Full Text Available Plectranthus neochilus Schltr. is an aromatic herb named " boldo" or " boldo-gambá" and employed for treating hepatic insufficiency and dyspepsia in folk medicine. This paper has investigated its stem and leaf anatomy, in order to contribute for the medicinal plant identification. The botanical material was prepared according to standard microtechniques. The stem has quadrangular transection and, in secondary growth at the level analyzed, shows uniseriate epidermis and numerous trichomes. The glandular ones are capitate and peltate. The former has short unicellular or long multicellular stalk and uni- or bicellular head. The latter presents short stalk and eight-celled ovoid head. The non-glandular trichomes are multicellular, uniseriate and coated with granular cuticle. It is observed angular collenchyma, cambia forming phloem outward and xylem inward, and perivascular fiber caps next to the phloem. The blade has uniseriate epidermis coated with striate cuticle, diacytic stomata on both surfaces, numerous trichomes similar to the stem ones, and homogeneous mesophyll. The midrib shows one or two collateral bundles and the petiole has many of them distributed as an open arc.

  19. Secretory structures of Ipomoea asarifolia: anatomy and histochemistry

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    Fabiano M. Martins

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Ipomoea asarifolia (Desr. Roem. & Schult., Convolvulaceae, is a weed that infests agricultural areas and is toxic to cattle. In spite of its toxicity, the leaves of this plant are used in traditional remedies in the state of Bahia, Brazil. The present work describes the leaf anatomy of I. asarifolia and characterizes the exudates of its secretory structures. The leaves have a unistratified epidermis composed of ordinary cells with straight to slightly sinuous anticlinal walls and thin cuticles. Paracytic stomata are found on both surfaces of the leaves at the same level as the ordinary epidermal cells. Trichomes producing polysaccharide secretions occur on the petiole and leaf blade and are considered colleters. The mesophyll is dorsiventral and the vascular bundle of the central vein is bicollateral. Two opposed nectaries occur on the petiole near the leaf blade. Each nectary is composed of a small canal with internal ramifications and numerous secretory trichomes. The laticiferous glands are articulated, not anastomosed, and are composed of large diameter cells with thin cell walls. The secretions of the laticiferous glands are lipidic.

  20. Alteration of Leaf Anatomy of Handeuleum (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff due to Gamma Irradiation

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    Arrin Rosmala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of the plant handeuleum (Graptophyllum pictum L. Griff have long been used for traditional medicine in several regions in Indonesia. This study was aimed to determine the effect of gamma irradiation rate on the anatomy and phytochemical content of the leaf. The rates of gamma rays used were 0, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, and 105 Gy. Our results showed that gamma ray irradiation rate of 30 Gy produced leaves that contain anthocyanins and carotenoids, with the highest number of stomata and stomatal density compared with control plants. Stomatal index was found highest in the leaves with 45 Gy of gamma irradiation. High-rate gamma ray irradiation produced rigid, thick, and frangible leaves. A high rate of gamma irradiation, i.e. 75, 90, and 105 Gy, produces bigger palisade, sponges, and upper epidermis than the control plants, respectively. Our results showed an association between increasing rate of irradiation with alterations in the structure of leaf anatomy and phytochemical content of handeuleum.

  1. In vitro growth and leaf anatomy of Cattleya walkeriana (Gardner, 1839 grown in natural ventilation system

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    Adriano Bortolotti da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Natural ventilation system facilitates gaseous exchanges in in vitro plants promoting changes in the leaf tissue, which can be evaluated through the leaf anatomy, and it allows a cultivation closer to the photoautrophic micropropagation. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects on in vitro growth and on the leaf anatomy of Cattleya walkeriana grown in natural and conventional ventilation system with different concentrations of sucrose (0; 15; 30 and 45 L-1 combined with different cultivation systems (conventional micropropagation and natural ventilation system. The culture medium was composed of MS salts, solidified with 7 g L-1 of agar and pH adjusted to 5.8. Forty milliliters of culture medium were distributed in 250 mL flasks, autoclaved at 120 ºC for 20 minutes. The greater plant growth, as well as the greater thickness of the mesophyll was observed with the use of 20 g L-1 sucrose in natural ventilation system. Plants grown in natural ventilation system showed a thicker leaf mesophyll, which is directly related to photoautotrophic crops. The natural ventilation system induced more elliptical stomata and probably more functional formats.

  2. ECOLOGIC FEATURES OF WOOD ANATOMY OF Casearia sylvestris SW (SALICACEAE IN THREE BRAZILIAN ECOSYSTEMS

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    Graciene da Silva Mota

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Casearia sylvestris SW (Salicaceae is a highly adaptive perennial species that is found throughout Latin America and widely spread in Brazil. This work analyzed the ecological features of wood anatomy of C. sylvestris occurring in three ecosystem types: Cerrado, Gallery Forest (Northern of Minas Gerais and Mata Atlântica (Southern of Minas Gerais. Qualitative features were similar among plants in the three ecosystems, differing only in the distribution of pith flecks and neighboring tyloses that were more frequent in Cerrado and Gallery Forest. The quantitative results showed significant differences for several parameters, as well as variation between individuals of vegetation types of Northern and Southern of Minas Gerais. The correlation matrix of variables including quantitative anatomical characteristics, soil characteristics, height and diameter of the plants showed that plants were grouped by ecosystem type. Casearia sylvestris might adopt different survival strategies regarding safety and efficiency of water transport by wood anatomy ecological adaptation. The adaptive anatomical features to drought were mostly an decrease of vessel frequency and an increase of ray width and frequency.

  3. Volumetric visualization of anatomy for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelizzari, Charles A.; Grzeszczuk, Robert; Chen, George T. Y.; Heimann, Ruth; Haraf, Daniel J.; Vijayakumar, Srinivasan; Ryan, Martin J.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: Delineation of volumes of interest for three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning is usually performed by contouring on two-dimensional sections. We explore the usage of segmentation-free volumetric rendering of the three-dimensional image data set for tumor and normal tissue visualization. Methods and Materials: Standard treatment planning computed tomography (CT) studies, with typically 5 to 10 mm slice thickness, and spiral CT studies with 3 mm slice thickness were used. The data were visualized using locally developed volume-rendering software. Similar to the method of Drebin et al., CT voxels are automatically assigned an opacity and other visual properties (e.g., color) based on a probabilistic classification into tissue types. Using volumetric compositing, a projection into the opacity-weighted volume is produced. Depth cueing, perspective, and gradient-based shading are incorporated to achieve realistic images. Unlike surface-rendered displays, no hand segmentation is required to produce detailed renditions of skin, muscle, or bony anatomy. By suitable manipulation of the opacity map, tissue classes can be made transparent, revealing muscle, vessels, or bone, for example. Manually supervised tissue masking allows irrelevant tissues overlying tumors or other structures of interest to be removed. Results: Very high-quality renditions are produced in from 5 s to 1 min on midrange computer workstations. In the pelvis, an anteroposterior (AP) volume rendered view from a typical planning CT scan clearly shows the skin and bony anatomy. A muscle opacity map permits clear visualization of the superficial thigh muscles, femoral veins, and arteries. Lymph nodes are seen in the femoral triangle. When overlying muscle and bone are cut away, the prostate, seminal vessels, bladder, and rectum are seen in 3D perspective. Similar results are obtained for thorax and for head and neck scans. Conclusion: Volumetric visualization of anatomy is useful in treatment

  4. Leaf anatomy of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. cv. IAC-12 after herbicides application to control weeds in Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Daniel Valadão Silva

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro-morphological changes precede the appearance of visible damage after herbicide application and are essential in providing data for the safe recommendation in chemical management of weeds. Therefore, the aim of this research was to verify the anatomical changes of leaf tissue caused by application of herbicides in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz. cv. IAC-12. A greenhouse experiment was conducted with post-emergence herbicides treatments as follows: nicossulfuron (60 g a.i ha-1, fluazifop (250 g a.i ha-1, fomesafem (250 g a.i ha-1, metribuzin (480 g a.i ha-1, oxyfluorfen (720 g a.i ha-1 and the mixture fluazifop + fomesafen (200 + 250 g a.i ha-1, and an untreated control, respectively. The results obtained have allowed to affirm the cassava plants (cultivar IAC-12, exhibited changes in leaf anatomy in response to herbicide application even on cassava leaves without no visual toxicity symptoms. The products caused alterations both in tissue thickness as in tissue proportion in the leaf blade. For the fluazifop, a eudicotyledonous selective herbicide, changes were observed in tissue thickness and proportion of leaf blade, even without any visual toxicity detected. Cassava plants (IAC-12, showed structural changes in leaf anatomy in response to application of herbicides. The leaf anatomy of cassava cv. IAC-12, can be used to indicate the herbicide effect on cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz.cv. IAC-12 plants.

  5. Imaging of jaw with dental CT software program: Normal Anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Myong Gon; Seo, Kwang Hee; Jung, Hak Young; Sung, Nak Kwan; Chung, Duk Soo; Kim, Ok Dong; Lee, Young Hwan

    1994-01-01

    Dental CT software program can provide reformatted cross-sectional and panoramic images that cannot be obtained with conventional axial and direct coronal CT scan. The purpose of this study is to describe the method of the technique and to identify the precise anatomy of jaw. We evaluated 13 mandibles and 7 maxillae of 15 subjects without bony disease who were being considered for endosseous dental implants. Reformatted images obtained by the use of bone algorithm performed on GE HiSpeed Advantage CT scanner were retrospectively reviewed for detailed anatomy of jaw. Anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(mandibular foramen, inferior alveolar canal, mental foramen, canal for incisive artery, nutrient canal, lingual foramen and mylohyoid groove), muscular insertion(mylohyoid line, superior and inferior genial tubercle and digastric fossa) and other anatomy(submandibular fossa, sublingual fossa, contour of alveolar process, oblique line, retromolar fossa, temporal crest and retromolar triangle) were well delineated in mandible. In maxilla, anatomy related to neurovascular bundle(greater palatine foramen and groove, nasopalatine canal and incisive foramen) and other anatomy(alveolar process, maxillary sinus and nasal fossa) were also well delineated. Reformatted images using dental CT software program provided excellent delineation of the jaw anatomy. Therefore, dental CT software program can play an important role in the preoperative assessment of mandible and maxilla for dental implants and other surgical conditions

  6. Deep dissection: motivating students beyond rote learning in veterinary anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cake, Martin A

    2006-01-01

    The profusion of descriptive, factual information in veterinary anatomy inevitably creates pressure on students to employ surface learning approaches and "rote learning." This phenomenon may contribute to negative perceptions of the relevance of anatomy as a discipline. Thus, encouraging deep learning outcomes will not only lead to greater satisfaction for both instructors and learners but may have the added effect of raising the profile of and respect for the discipline. Consideration of the literature reveals the broad scope of interventions required to motivate students to go beyond rote learning. While many of these are common to all disciplines (e.g., promoting active learning, making higher-order goals explicit, reducing content in favor of concepts, aligning assessment with outcomes), other factors are peculiar to anatomy, such as the benefits of incorporating clinical tidbits, "living anatomy," the anatomy museum, and dissection classes into a "learning context" that fosters deep approaches. Surprisingly, the 10 interventions discussed focus more on factors contributing to student perceptions of the course than on drastic changes to the anatomy course itself. This is because many traditional anatomy practices, such as dissection and museum-based classes, are eminently compatible with active, student-centered learning strategies and the adoption of deep learning approaches by veterinary students. Thus the key to encouraging, for example, dissection for deep learning ("deep dissection") lies more in student motivation, personal engagement, curriculum structure, and "learning context" than in the nature of the learning activity itself.

  7. Occurrence and evolutionary inferences about Kranz anatomy in Cyperaceae (Poales

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    SHIRLEY MARTINS

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Cyperaceae is an angiosperm family with the greatest diversity of species with Kranz anatomy. Four different types of Kranz anatomy (chlorocyperoid, eleocharoid, fimbristyloid and rhynchosporoid have been described for this angiosperm family, and the occurrence and structural characteristics of these types are important to trace evolutionary hypotheses. The purpose of this study was to examine the available data on Cyperaceae Kranz anatomy, emphasizing taxonomy, geographic distribution, habitat and anatomy, to infer the potential origin of the Kranz anatomy in this family. The results showed that the four types of Kranz anatomy (associated with C4 photosynthesis in Cyperaceae emerged numerous times in unrelated phylogenetic groups. However, the convergence of these anatomical types, except rhynchosporoid, was observed in certain groups. Thus, the diverse origin of these species might result from different environmental pressures that promote photorespiration. Greater variation in occurrence of Kranz anatomy and anatomical types was observed inEleocharis, whose emergence of the C4 pathway was recent compared with other genera in the family, and the species of this genus are located in aquatic environments.

  8. Locomotion and basicranial anatomy in primates and marsupials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamil, Catalina I

    2017-10-01

    There is ongoing debate in paleoanthropology about whether and how the anatomy of the cranium, and especially the cranial base, is evolving in response to locomotor and postural changes. However, the majority of studies focus on two-dimensional data, which fails to capture the complexity of cranial anatomy. This study tests whether three-dimensional cranial base anatomy is linked to locomotion or to other factors in primates (n = 473) and marsupials (n = 231). Results indicate that although there is a small effect of locomotion on cranial base anatomy in primates, this is not the case in marsupials. Instead, facial anatomy likely drives variation in cranial base anatomy in both primates and marsupials, with additional roles for body size and brain size. Although some changes to foramen magnum position and orientation are phylogenetically useful among the hominoids, they do not necessarily reflect locomotion or positional behavior. The interplay between locomotion, posture, and facial anatomy in primates requires further investigation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Variability and reliability of the vastus lateralis muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Arpa, Salvatore; Toia, Francesca; Brenner, Erich; Melloni, Carlo; Moschella, Francesco; Cordova, Adriana

    2016-08-01

    The aims of this study are to investigate the variability of the morphological and neurovascular anatomy of the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle and to describe the relationships among its intramuscular partitions and with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. Clinical implications in its reliability as a flap donor are also discussed. In 2012, the extra- and intramuscular neurovascular anatomy of the VL was investigated in 10 cadaveric lower limbs. In three specimens, the segmental arterial pedicles were injected with latex of different colors to point out their anastomotic connections. The morphological anatomy was investigated with regard to the mutual relationship of the three muscular partitions and the relation of the VL with the other muscles of the quadriceps femoris. The VL has a segmental morphological anatomy. However, the fibers of its three partitions interconnect individually and with the other bellies of the quadriceps femoris, particularly, in several variable portions with the vastus intermedius and mainly in the posterior part of the VL. The lateral circumflex femoral artery and its branches have variable origin, but demonstrate constant segmental distribution. Intramuscular dissection and colored latex injections show a rich anastomotic vascular network among the three partitions. Moderate variability exists in both the myological and the neurovascular anatomy of the VL. Despite this variability, the anatomy of the VL always has a constant segmental pattern, which makes the VL a reliable flap donor. Detailed knowledge of the VL anatomy could have useful applications in a broad clinical field.

  10. Spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge assessment: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Jean; Bellemare, Christian; Toulouse, Josée; Wells, George A

    2017-06-01

    Anatomy knowledge has been found to include both spatial and non-spatial components. However, no systematic evaluation of studies relating spatial abilities and anatomy knowledge has been undertaken. The objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of the relationship between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment. A literature search was done up to March 20, 2014 in Scopus and in several databases on the OvidSP and EBSCOhost platforms. Of the 556 citations obtained, 38 articles were identified and fully reviewed yielding 21 eligible articles and their quality were formally assessed. Non-significant relationships were found between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using essays and non-spatial multiple-choice questions. Significant relationships were observed between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using practical examination, three-dimensional synthesis from two-dimensional views, drawing of views, and cross-sections. Relationships between spatial abilities test and anatomy knowledge assessment using spatial multiple-choice questions were unclear. The results of this systematic review provide evidence for spatial and non-spatial methods of anatomy knowledge assessment. Anat Sci Educ 10: 235-241. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Dental CT: examination technique, radiation load and anatomy; Dental-CT: Untersuchungstechnik, Strahlenbelastung und Anatomie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenglinger, F.X.; Muhr, T. [AKH Wels (Austria). Inst. fuer Radiologie; Krennmair, G. [Praxis fuer Zahn-, Mund- und Kieferheilkunde und Implantologie, Marchtrenk (Austria)

    1999-12-01

    Traditionally oral surgeons and dentists have evaluated the jaws using intraoral films and panoramic radiographs. The involvement of radiologists has been limited. In the past few years dedicated CT-software-programs developed to evaluate dental implant patients have provided a new look at the jaws. The complex anatomy is described and identified on human skulls and on axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional images. With this anatomic description Dental-CT-scans are used to demonstrate the anatomy of maxilla and the mandible. An overview of the technique of Dental-CT is provided, furthermore the radiation dose of different organs is explained. Suggestions to reduce these doses by simple modifications of the recommended protocols are given. (orig.) [German] Die Einfuehrung im Bereich der Computertomographiesoftware (Dental-CT) ermoeglicht dem Radiologen zusaetzlich zu den ueblichen, von den Zahnaerzten durchgefuehrten Roentgenuntersuchungen eine ueberlagerungs- und verzerrungsfreie Darstellung des Ober- und Unterkiefers. In der Implantologie ist mit dieser Darstellung eine exakte Planung moeglich. Weiterhin haben sich Duennschicht-CT-Untersuchungen auch bei der Abklaerung von Zysten, Tumoren, Frakturen, tiefen Parodontitiden und retinierten Zaehnen bewaehrt. In dieser Zeit wird ein Ueberblick ueber die Anatomie, die Untersuchungstechnik des Dental-CT und die auftretende Strahlenbelastung gegeben. Basierend auf rezente Literaturangaben kann eine Reduktion der absorbierten Dosis bei gleichbleibender Bildqualitaet durch einfache Protokollmodifikationen erzielt werden. (orig.)

  12. Arthroscopic anatomy of the subdeltoid space

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    Michael J. Salata

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available From the first shoulder arthroscopy performed on a cadaver in 1931, shoulder arthroscopy has grown tremendously in its ability to diagnose and treat pathologic conditions about the shoulder. Despite improvements in arthroscopic techniques and instrumentation, it is only recently that arthroscopists have begun to explore precise anatomical structures within the subdeltoid space. By way of a thorough bursectomy of the subdeltoid region, meticulous hemostasis, and the reciprocal use of posterior and lateral viewing portals, one can identify a myriad of pertinent ligamentous, musculotendinous, osseous, and neurovascular structures. For the purposes of this review, the subdeltoid space has been compartmentalized into lateral, medial, anterior, and posterior regions. Being able to identify pertinent structures in the subdeltoid space will provide shoulder arthroscopists with the requisite foundation in core anatomy that will be required for challenging procedures such as arthroscopic subscapularis mobilization and repair, biceps tenodesis, subcoracoid decompression, suprascapular nerve decompression, quadrangular space decompression and repair of massive rotator cuff tears.

  13. Clinical anatomy of fecal incontinence in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadam-Halani, Priyanka K; Arya, Lily A; Andy, Uduak U

    2017-10-01

    Fecal incontinence is a devastating condition that has a severe impact on quality of life. This condition disproportionately affects women and its incidence is increasing with the aging United States population. Fecal continence is maintained by coordination of a functioning anal sphincter complex, intact sensation of the anorectum, rectal compliance, and the ability to consciously control defecation. Particularly important are the puborectalis sling of the levator ani muscle complex and intact innervation of the central and peripheral nervous systems. An understanding of the intricate anatomy required to maintain continence and regulate defecation will help clinicians to provide appropriate medical and surgical management and diminish the negative impact of fecal incontinence. In this article, we describe the anatomic and neural basis of fecal continence and normal defecation as well as changes that occur with fecal incontinence in women. Clin. Anat. 30:901-911, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Anatomy and physiology of the esophagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavaghan, M

    1999-02-01

    Modern diagnosis and treatment of esophageal disease is a result of progress in assessing the anatomy and physiology of the esophagus, as well as refinements in anesthetic and surgical techniques. Esophageal carcinoma spreads rapidly and metastasizes easily. The tendency for early spread and the absence of symptoms result in late diagnosis that reduces treatment options and cure rates. Lifestyle (i.e., use of alcohol and tobacco), nutritional deficiencies, ingestion of nitrosamines, and mutagen-inducing fungi are blamed for cancer of the esophagus. Other pathologic conditions (e.g., achalasia, Barrett's epithelium, gastric reflux, hiatal hernia) are potential contributors to the development of carcinoma. Nurses are in key positions to identify the existence of factors contributing to premalignant or malignant lesions and to educate patients and make the appropriate referrals.

  15. Scapulothoracic Anatomy and Snapping Scapula Syndrome

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    Rachel M. Frank

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The scapulothoracic articulation is a sliding junction between the deep aspect of the scapula and thoracic rib cage at the levels of ribs 2 through 7. Motion at this articulation is dynamically stabilized by a variety of muscular attachments, allowing for controlled positioning of the glenoid to assist in glenohumeral joint function. A thorough understanding of the complex anatomic relationships, including the various muscles, and bursa, is critical to the evaluation of patients presenting with scapulothoracic disorders. The snapping scapula syndrome is caused by either osseous lesions or scapulothoracic bursitis and can be difficult to recognize and treat. The purpose of this review is to discuss the anatomy of the scapulothoracic articulation with an emphasis on the pathology associated with snapping scapula syndrome.

  16. Distal radioulnar joint: functional anatomy, including pathomechanics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugstvedt, J R; Langer, M F; Berger, R A

    2017-05-01

    The distal radioulnar joint allows the human to rotate the forearm to place the hand in a desired position to perform different tasks, without interfering with the grasping function of the hand. The ulna is the stable part of the forearm around which the radius rotates; the stability of the distal radioulnar joint is provided by the interaction between ligaments, muscles and bones. The stabilizing structures are the triangular fibrocartilage complex, the ulnocarpal ligament complex, the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon and tendon sheath, the pronator quadratus, the interosseous membrane and ligament, the bone itself and the joint capsule. The purpose of this review article is to present and illustrate the current understanding of the functional anatomy and pathomechanics of this joint.

  17. Anatomi Kurikulum Pendidikan Agama Islam di Sekolah

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    Marliana Marliana

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Anatomy of curriculum is described as the components that must be present in every curriculum that can be used for the learning process. They are objectives of the curriculum, materials of teaching, contents of the curriculum, strategies or methods, media and evaluation and improvement of teaching. These components are interconnected to one another. Each component has a content which is very important for the continuity of the curriculum. One of the most important parts of the curriculum is procces of learning as an empowering or enable the students. Thus, the need for active and participatory interaction between students and academic material or with a certain situation so that matter can be transformed into the learning experience of students.

  18. Gross anatomy education for South African undergraduate physiotherapy students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shead, Dorothy A; Roos, Ronel; Olivier, Benita; Ihunwo, Amadi O

    2018-01-16

    Eight faculties in South Africa offer undergraduate physiotherapy training with gross anatomy included as a basis for clinical practice. Little information exists about anatomy education for this student body. A 42-question peer-reviewed survey was distributed to physiotherapy gross anatomy course coordinators in all the eight faculties. Seven coordinators from six (75%) of the universities responded. Two respondents' data from the same university were pooled. Collected data show that staff qualifications and experience varied widely and high to average staff to student ratios exist between faculties. Direct anatomy teaching duration was 12.3 (SD ±5.2) weeks per semester. Total number of weeks in courses per faculty was 27.6 (SD ±5.7) varying widely between institutions. Calculable direct contact anatomy hours ranged between 100 and 308 with a mean of 207.6 (SD ±78.1). Direct contact hours in lectures averaged 3.9 (SD ±1.6) per week and the average direct contact hours in practical sessions were 3.5 (SD ±1.8) per week. Dissection, prosection, plastinated models, surface anatomy, and e-learning were available across faculties. Ancillary modalities such as vertical integration and inter-professional learning were in use. All faculties had multiple-choice questions, spot tests, and short examination questions. Half had viva-voce examinations and one had additional long questions assessment. Students evaluated teaching performance in five faculties. Four faculties were reviewing anatomy programs to consider implementing changes to anatomy curriculum or pedagogy. The findings highlighted disparity between programs and also identified the need for specific guidelines to develop a unified South African gross anatomy course for physiotherapy students. Anat Sci Educ. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists. © 2018 American Association of Anatomists.

  19. Arthroscopic knee anatomy in young achondroplasia patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Pilar Duque Orozco, M.; Record, N. C.; Rogers, K. J; Bober, M. B.; Mackenzie, W. G.; Atanda, A.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Purpose Achondroplasia is the most common form of skeletal dysplasia, affecting more than 250 000 individuals worldwide. In these patients, the developing knee undergoes multiple anatomical changes. The purpose of this study was to characterise the intra-articular knee anatomy in children with achondroplasia who underwent knee arthroscopy. Methods Records of achondroplasia patients who underwent knee arthroscopy between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed. Demographic data, operative reports, follow-up notes, MRI and arthroscopy images were reviewed. Bony, cartilaginous and ligamentous changes were noted. The trochlea sulcus angle was measured from intra-operative arthroscopic images. Results A total of 12 knee arthroscopies in nine patients were performed. The mean age at surgery was 16.9 years (12 to 22). In all patients, the indication for surgery was knee pain and/or mechanical symptoms that were refractory to non-operative treatment. Three anatomical variations involving the distal femur were found in all knees: a deep femoral trochlea; a high A-shaped intercondylar notch; and a vertically oriented anterior cruciate ligament. The average trochlea sulcus angle measured 123°. Pathology included: synovial plica (one knee); chondral lesions (three knees); discoid lateral meniscus (11 knees); and meniscal tears (six knees). All patients were pain-free and returned to normal activity at final follow-up. Conclusion Children with achondroplasia have characteristic distal femur anatomy noted during knee arthroscopy. These variations should be considered normal during knee arthroscopy in these patients. Arthroscopic findings confirmed previous MRI findings within this specific population with the addition of a deep trochlear groove which was not previously reported. PMID:28828058

  20. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinley, Joseph C; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P; Kozin, Scott H

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18+/-0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86+/-0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93+/-0.77 mm and 3.30+/-1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r(2)=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation.

  1. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinley, Joseph C. [Temple University, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Roach, Neil [Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Gaughan, John P. [Temple University, Department of Biostatistics, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States); Kozin, Scott H. [Shriners Hospitals for Children, Pediatric Hand and Upper Extremity Surgery, Philadelphia (United States); Temple University, Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2004-10-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18{+-}0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86{+-}0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93{+-}0.77 mm and 3.30{+-}1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r{sup 2}=0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p<0.05). The ulnar slope was not significantly different from zero (r{sup 2}=0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  2. Forearm interosseous membrane imaging and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGinley, Joseph C.; Roach, Neil; Gaughan, John P.; Kozin, Scott H.

    2004-01-01

    To determine the regional thickness variation of the interosseous membrane (IOM) along the forearm and validate magnetic resonance imaging of the IOM with laser micrometry. Axial thickness measurements of 12 cadaver forearms were obtained using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at radial, central, and ulnar locations. The specimens were dissected, and IOM thickness measured using a laser micrometer. MRI and laser measurements of the main and oblique IOM bundles were compared. An axial thickness profile was plotted versus forearm length, and radial, central, and ulnar positions were compared. The main bundle thickness was 2.18±0.20 mm using laser micrometry, which was not significantly different from MRI measurements (1.86±0.25 mm, p=0.11, power = 0.84). The dorsal oblique bundle thickness was not significantly different between measurement methods (2.93±0.77 mm and 3.30±1.64 mm using laser micrometry and MRI respectively, p=0.75, power = 0.04). Both methods demonstrated a progressive increase in thickness proximally within the forearm. MRI measurements demonstrated a significantly greater thickness increase in the radial location compared to the central location (slope = 2.26 and 1.05, r 2 =0.31 and 0.12 respectively, p 2 =0.02, p>0.05). Our findings describe the varying IOM anatomy using MRI, and determined the location of the clinically important IOM fiber bundles. This study confirms the accuracy of MR imaging of the IOM by comparison with a laser micrometer, and demonstrates the thickness variation along the forearm. This information may be used to identify changes in IOM anatomy with both acute IOM injury and chronic fiber attenuation. (orig.)

  3. New insights into dinosaur jaw muscle anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Casey M

    2009-09-01

    Jaw muscles are key components of the head and critical to testing hypotheses of soft-tissue homology, skull function, and evolution. Dinosaurs evolved an extraordinary diversity of cranial forms adapted to a variety of feeding behaviors. However, disparate evolutionary transformations in head shape and function among dinosaurs and their living relatives, birds and crocodylians, impair straightforward reconstructions of muscles, and other important cephalic soft tissues. This study presents the osteological correlates and inferred soft tissue anatomy of the jaw muscles and relevant neurovasculature in the temporal region of the dinosaur head. Hypotheses of jaw muscle homology were tested across a broad range archosaur and sauropsid taxa to more accurately infer muscle attachments in the adductor chambers of non-avian dinosaurs. Many dinosaurs likely possessed m. levator pterygoideus, a trait shared with lepidosaurs but not extant archosaurs. Several major clades of dinosaurs (e.g., Ornithopoda, Ceratopsidae, Sauropoda) eliminated the epipterygoid, thus impacting interpretations of m. pseudotemporalis profundus. M. pseudotemporalis superficialis most likely attached to the caudoventral surface of the laterosphenoid, a trait shared with extant archosaurs. Although mm. adductor mandibulae externus profundus and medialis likely attached to the caudal half of the dorsotemporal fossa and coronoid process, clear osteological correlates separating the individual bellies are rare. Most dinosaur clades possess osteological correlates indicative of a pterygoideus ventralis muscle that attaches to the lateral surface of the mandible, although the muscle may have extended as far as the jugal in some taxa (e.g., hadrosaurs, tyrannosaurs). The cranial and mandibular attachments of mm adductor mandibulae externus superficialis and adductor mandibulae posterior were consistent across all taxa studied. These new data greatly increase the interpretive resolution of head anatomy in

  4. The anatomy of the hip abductor muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, N A M S; Nicholson, H D; Woodley, S J

    2014-03-01

    The anatomy of the hip abductors has not been comprehensively examined, yet is important to understanding function and pathology in the gluteal region. For example, pathology of the hip abductor muscle-tendon complexes can cause greater trochanteric pain syndrome, and may be associated with gluteal atrophy and fatty infiltration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the detailed morphology of gluteus medius (GMed), gluteus minimus (GMin), and tensor fascia lata (TFL), and determine whether the muscles comprised anatomical compartments. The gluteal region from 12 cadavers was dissected and data collected on attachment sites, volume, fascicular and tendinous anatomy, and innervation. Three sites of GMed origin were identified (gluteal fossa, gluteal aponeurosis, and posteroinferior edge of the iliac crest) and the distal tendon had lateral and posterior parts. GMed was the largest in volume (27.6 ± 11.6 cm(3); GMin 14.1 ± 11.1 cm(3); TFL 1.8 ± 0.8 cm(3)). Fascicles of GMin originated from the gluteal fossa, inserting onto the deep surface of its distal tendon and the hip joint capsule. TFL was encapsulated in the fascia lata, having no bony attachment. Primary innervation patterns varied for GMed, with three or four branches supplying different regions of muscle. Distinct secondary nerve branches entered four regions of GMin; no differential innervation was observed for TFL. On the basis of architectural parameters and innervation, GMed, and GMin each comprise of four compartments but TFL is a homogenous muscle. It is anticipated that these data will be useful for future clinical and functional studies of the hip abductors. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Xeroradiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smallwood, J.E.; Holladay, S.D.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of the project was to use xeroradiography to provide a reference for radiographic anatomy of the equine digit and metacarpophalangeal region. The left foredigits and metacarpophalangeal joints of a mature horse and a 30-day-old foal were radiographed, using xeroradiographic techniques. Fifteen xeroradiographs, illustrating standard projections of each area, were selected and appropriately labeled to demonstrate normal radiographic anatomy of these regions. These xeroradiographs have been used successfully for several years to teach radiographic anatomy of these areas to first-year veterinary students at North Carolina State University

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in obstetrics. II. Fetal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, M C; Worthington, B S; Buckley, J M; Symonds, E M

    1988-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed in 36 patients at between 10 and 38 weeks gestation to determine the fetal anatomy that could be identified at different gestations. Fetal motion significantly degraded the image quality in the first and second trimesters, but in the final trimester fetal anatomy was clearly demonstrated. T2 weighted sequences showed the fetal brain and lungs to have a high signal intensity. Shorter TR leading to a T1 weighting gave better resolution of the overall anatomy. MRI has revealed the potential for assessment of lung maturity and the growth-retarded fetus.

  7. Anatomy and Histology of the Human and Murine Prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ittmann, Michael

    2018-05-01

    The human and murine prostate glands have similar functional roles in the generation of seminal fluid to assist in reproduction. There are significant differences in the anatomy and histology of murine and human prostate and knowledge of the normal anatomy and histology of the murine prostate is essential to interpreting changes in genetically engineered mouse models. In this review, the normal anatomy and histology of both human and mouse prostate will be described. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  8. NEEDLE ANATOMY CHANGES WITH INCREASING TREE AGE IN DOUGLAS FIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphological differences between old growth and sapling (Pseudotsuga menziesii, (Mirb.) Franco) Douglas fir trees may extend to differences in needle anatomy. We used microscopy with image analysis to compare and quantify anatomical parameters in cross-sections of previous year...

  9. the anatomy of pelvic corona mortis vessles in black africans

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , Moi University, P. O. Box ... This vascular anastomosis is also at risk during ilionguinal approach to the acetabulum (7). A medial approach for pelvic osteotomies for acetabular dysplasia ..... Gray's Anatomy 39th Edition , section 7 abdomen.

  10. Innovative taught MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clunie, Lauren; Livingstone, Daniel; Rea, Paul M

    2015-06-01

    A relatively new, fully accredited MSc in Medical Visualisation and Human Anatomy, is now offered through a joint collaboration with the Laboratory of Human Anatomy, University of Glasgow and the Digital Design Studio, Glasgow School of Art. This degree combines training in digital technologies and intensive human anatomy training as a result of a long-standing successful partnership between these two esteemed institutes. The student also has to complete a research dissertation which encompasses both the digital perspective and a related medical, dental, surgical, veterinary (comparative anatomy) or life science specialty to enhance development in the digital field for a variety of specialties. This article discusses the background in development of this degree, the course structure and the career prospects and destinations for graduates of this unique degree programme.

  11. Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy in vitro -cultivated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth regulators, DNA content and anatomy in vitro -cultivated Curcuma longa ... Shoots were inoculated in MS culture medium with the addition of 30 g/L of sucrose ... flow cytometry, utilizing two reference standards, green pea, and tomato.

  12. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon

    2013-01-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed. PMID:24179697

  13. Evaluation of anatomy comic strips for further production and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Dong Sun; Kim, Dae Hyun; Park, Jin Seo; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Min Suk

    2013-09-01

    The corresponding author of the study has been sketching comic strips to explain anatomy in a humorous manner. All the anatomy comic strips, including those in Korean (650 episodes) and English (451 episodes), can be viewed on the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr). Such comic strips were created with the aim of assisting medical students. However, their impact was unknown, and therefore, we surveyed the students' responses. We noted that anatomy grades were better in the students who read the comic strips. The comics helped the trainees chat with individuals with and without a medical background. The authors also considered comments on the problems with the comic strips and attempted to find solutions. The episodes are being currently used and further produced for educational purposes. To support this effort, the readers' valuable opinions will be continuously collected and assessed.

  14. Historical perspective-Anatomy down the ages in Australasia; lessons for the future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flack, Natasha Ams; Nicholson, Helen D

    2016-01-01

    Is anatomy a dying discipline? This article explores the history and current state of human anatomy in Australasia, and considers the changing nature of the discipline, and possibilities for the future. A web-based search of all tertiary institutions in Australasia was performed to identify which taught anatomy. Those identified were invited to provide further information about postgraduate student numbers, external courses and public outreach. Forty-one institutions across Australasia teach anatomy. There are seven identifiable anatomy departments and nine disciplines of anatomy. From 1900 to 2014, the number of medical schools has increased (from 4 to 20), however a concomitant increase in the number of anatomy departments (2014, n = 7) was not observed. Twenty-one institutions, without medical schools, currently teach anatomy but none have a stand-alone anatomy department. Anatomy is taught in more than 18 different undergraduate and postgraduate programs. From the 28 institutions that provided current data, 310 postgraduate research students were identified. Predominantly, they came from longer-established institutions with an identifiable anatomy department. Similarly, those with anatomy departments/disciplines offered external professional courses. Many institutions engaged in public outreach. The evidence suggests that anatomy is alive and possibly even growing in Australasia. However, the structures around the discipline and the students who are learning anatomy are changing. Our challenge is to prepare the next generation of anatomy faculty to be both researchers and teachers. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Cell walls and the developmental anatomy of the Brachypodium distachyon stem internode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominick A Matos

    Full Text Available While many aspects of plant cell wall polymer structure are known, their spatial and temporal distribution within the stem are not well understood. Here, we studied vascular system and fiber development, which has implication for both biofuel feedstock conversion efficiency and crop yield. The subject of this study, Brachypodium distachyon, has emerged as a grass model for food and energy crop research. Here, we conducted our investigation using B. distachyon by applying various histological approaches and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy to the stem internode from three key developmental stages. While vascular bundle size and number did not change over time, the size of the interfascicular region increased dramatically, as did cell wall thickness. We also describe internal stem internode anatomy and demonstrate that lignin deposition continues after crystalline cellulose and xylan accumulation ceases. The vascular bundle anatomy of B. distachyon appears to be highly similar to domesticated grasses. While the arrangement of bundles within the stem is highly variable across grasses, B. distachyon appears to be a suitable model for the rind of large C4 grass crops. A better understanding of growth and various anatomical and cell wall features of B. distachyon will further our understanding of plant biomass accumulation processes.

  16. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum [Dept. of Radiology, Korea University Anam Hospital, Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography.

  17. Computed tomography of the sacrum: 1. normal anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whelan, M.A.; Gold, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The sacrum of a disarticulated pelvis was scanned with a Pfizer 0450 computed tomographic scanner using contiguous 5 mm sections to display the normal computed tomographic anatomy of the sacrum. These anatomic sections were then compared with normal sacrums. In analyzing the computed tomographic anatomy, emphasis was placed on the central canal and sacral foramina, in that these landmarks are important in determining not only the presence but also the type of pathology involving the sacrum

  18. Vesalius, Röntgen and the origins of Modern Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Adrian M K

    2016-06-01

    The discovery of X-rays in 1895 by Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen transformed our understanding of both the physical world and our understanding of ourselves. Traditional anatomy as shown by Andreas Vesalius was learnt from dissection of the supine deceased body. Radiology showed anatomy in the living in a manner previously not possible, and has transformed our anatomical understanding, particularly of human growth and variation.

  19. Symbolic modeling of human anatomy for visualization and simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pommert, Andreas; Schubert, Rainer; Riemer, Martin; Schiemann, Thomas; Tiede, Ulf; Hoehne, Karl H.

    1994-09-01

    Visualization of human anatomy in a 3D atlas requires both spatial and more abstract symbolic knowledge. Within our 'intelligent volume' model which integrates these two levels, we developed and implemented a semantic network model for describing human anatomy. Concepts for structuring (abstraction levels, domains, views, generic and case-specific modeling, inheritance) are introduced. Model, tools for generation and exploration and applications in our 3D anatomical atlas are presented and discussed.

  20. Re-living anatomy: medical student use of lecture capture

    OpenAIRE

    Diss, L; Sharp, A; Scott, F; Moore, L; Daniel, P; Memon, S; Smith, C

    2017-01-01

    Lecture capture resources have become common place within UK Higher education to enhance and support learning in addition to the tradition lecture. These resources can be particularly useful for medical students in anatomy teaching where time dedicated to anatomy within the curriculum has been reduced compared to previous generations(1).\\ud \\ud This study aimed to investigate how lecture capture aided student learning Qualitative feedback was also collected in view to further improve the reso...

  1. Inside out: modern imaging techniques to reveal animal anatomy.

    OpenAIRE

    Henrik Lauridsen; Kasper Hansen; Tobias Wang; Peter Agger; Jonas L Andersen; Peter S Knudsen; Anne S Rasmussen; Lars Uhrenholt; Michael Pedersen

    2011-01-01

    Animal anatomy has traditionally relied on detailed dissections to produce anatomical illustrations, but modern imaging modalities, such as MRI and CT, now represent an enormous resource that allows for fast non-invasive visualizations of animal anatomy in living animals. These modalities also allow for creation of three-dimensional representations that can be of considerable value in the dissemination of anatomical studies. In this methodological review, we present our experiences using MRI,...

  2. Unusual anatomy of maxillary central incisor with two roots

    OpenAIRE

    T S Ashwini Shivakumar; Saleem Makandar; Ajay Kadam

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic therapy. Failure to recognize unusual root canal anatomy may lead to unsuccessful endodontic treatment. Case Report: This case report describes the successful endodontic treatment of the maxillary central incisor with unusual anatomy of two roots and two root canals. A 23-year-old male patient was referred for dental consultation with discoloration of the maxillary right central incisor with periapical les...

  3. Ultrasonography of the lower extremity veins: Anatomy and basic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Kyu; Ahn, Kyung Sik; Kang, Chang Ho; Cho, Sung Bum

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonography is an imaging modality widely used to evaluate venous diseases of the lower extremities. It is important to understand the normal venous anatomy of the lower extremities, which has deep, superficial, and perforating venous components, in order to determine the pathophysiology of venous disease. This review provides a basic description of the anatomy of the lower extremity veins and useful techniques for approaching each vein via ultrasonography

  4. Human anatomy: let the students tell us how to teach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Christopher R; Bates, Anthony S; Ellis, Harold; Roberts, Alice M

    2014-01-01

    Anatomy teaching methods have evolved as the medical undergraduate curriculum has modernized. Traditional teaching methods of dissection, prosection, tutorials and lectures are now supplemented by anatomical models and e-learning. Despite these changes, the preferences of medical students and anatomy faculty towards both traditional and contemporary teaching methods and tools are largely unknown. This study quantified medical student and anatomy faculty opinion on various aspects of anatomical teaching at the Department of Anatomy, University of Bristol, UK. A questionnaire was used to explore the perceived effectiveness of different anatomical teaching methods and tools among anatomy faculty (AF) and medical students in year one (Y1) and year two (Y2). A total of 370 preclinical medical students entered the study (76% response rate). Responses were quantified and intergroup comparisons were made. All students and AF were strongly in favor of access to cadaveric specimens and supported traditional methods of small-group teaching with medically qualified demonstrators. Other teaching methods, including e-learning, anatomical models and surgical videos, were considered useful educational tools. In several areas there was disharmony between the opinions of AF and medical students. This study emphasizes the importance of collecting student preferences to optimize teaching methods used in the undergraduate anatomy curriculum. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Anatomy education for the YouTube generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry, Denis S; Marzouk, Fadi; Chulak-Oglu, Kyrylo; Bennett, Deirdre; Tierney, Paul; O'Keeffe, Gerard W

    2016-01-01

    Anatomy remains a cornerstone of medical education despite challenges that have seen a significant reduction in contact hours over recent decades; however, the rise of the "YouTube Generation" or "Generation Connected" (Gen C), offers new possibilities for anatomy education. Gen C, which consists of 80% Millennials, actively interact with social media and integrate it into their education experience. Most are willing to merge their online presence with their degree programs by engaging with course materials and sharing their knowledge freely using these platforms. This integration of social media into undergraduate learning, and the attitudes and mindset of Gen C, who routinely creates and publishes blogs, podcasts, and videos online, has changed traditional learning approaches and the student/teacher relationship. To gauge this, second year undergraduate medical and radiation therapy students (n = 73) were surveyed regarding their use of online social media in relation to anatomy learning. The vast majority of students had employed web-based platforms to source information with 78% using YouTube as their primary source of anatomy-related video clips. These findings suggest that the academic anatomy community may find value in the integration of social media into blended learning approaches in anatomy programs. This will ensure continued connection with the YouTube generation of students while also allowing for academic and ethical oversight regarding the use of online video clips whose provenance may not otherwise be known. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  6. Accessory left gastric artery: angiographic anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo; Lim, Hyung Guhn; Kim, Hong Soo; Jeon, Doo Sung [Presbyterian Medical Center, Chunju (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jin Wook; Park, Jae Hyung [College of Medicine and the Institute of Radiation Medicine, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Song, Soon Young [Myongji Hospital, College of Medicine, Kwandong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-09-01

    To evaluate the angiographic anatomy of the accessory left gastric artery (accLGA). We evaluated the angiographic findings of the accLGA in 50 patients (Angiostar; Siemens, Erlangen, Germany). Performing celiac and selective angiography in 50 and 34 patients, respectively. By means of celiac angiography, (1) site of origin, (2) anatomical course, (3) diameter, (4) degree of tortuosity, and (5) distal tapering were evaluated, while selective angiography was used to determine (1) arterial branching, (2) area of blood supply, and (3) patterns of gastric wall stain. Celiac angiography showed that the accLGA arose from the left hepatic artery (LHA) in 45 cases (90%) and from the proper hepatic artery in five (10%). If the accLGA arose from the LHA, its origin entirely depended on the branching pattern of the latter. It always arose from the lateral branch of the LHA furthest to the left and uppermost, and proximal to its umbilical point. The most common anatomical course of the accLGA, seen in 27 cases (54%), was between the S2 and S3 segmental branch. The diameter and degree of tortuosity of the accLGA were similar to those of adjacent intrahepatic branches in 21 (42%) and 33 cases (66%), respectively. The degree of tapering was less than that of adjacent intrahepatic vessel in 28 (56%). Selective angiography demonstrated esophageal branching of the acc LGA in 27 cases (79%), inferior phrenic arterial branching in three (9%), a mediastinal branch in one (3%), and hypervascularity of the lung in one (3%). In 15 cases (44%), bifurcation of the accLGA was recognized. The vascular territory of the accLGA was the gastric fundus together with the distal esophagus in 21 cases (62%), mainly the gastric fundus in six (18%), and mainly the distal esophagus in four (12%). The pattern of gastric mucosal stain was curvilinear wall in 31 cases (91%) and nodular in three (9%). A knowledge of the angiographic anatomy of the accLGA facilitates accurate recognition of this artery on

  7. Effects of root anatomy and Fe plaque on arsenic uptake by rice seedlings grown in solution culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Dan [Department of Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Wu Shengchun; Wu Fuyong [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong); Deng Hong, E-mail: lilac_deng@yahoo.com.c [Department of Environmental Sciences, East China Normal University, Shanghai (China); Tiantong National Station of Forest Ecosystem, Key Laboratory of Urbanization and Ecological Restoration, East China Normal University, Shanghai 200062 (China); Wong Minghung, E-mail: mhwong@hkbu.edu.h [Croucher Institute for Environmental Sciences, and Department of Biology, Hong Kong Baptist University (Hong Kong)

    2010-08-15

    Hydroponic experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of root anatomy, induced by aeration and stagnation, and Fe plaque on arsenic (III and V) uptake and translocation by rice plants. The results showed that As uptake in rice plants (Gui Chao-2) treated by aeration was decreased due to lower root specific surface area. Rice roots with larger specific surface area tended to form more Fe plaque, and Fe plaque affected As uptake kinetics by changing As influx curves from linear to hyperbolic for As(III) and from hyperbolic to S-curve for As(V). Fe plaque increased As(III and V) adsorption and minimized the effects of root anatomy characteristics on As uptake into roots and subsequently translocation to shoots. Fe plaque increased As(III) uptake rate at As(III) concentrations of 0.5{approx}8 mg L{sup -1}, reduced As(V) uptake rate at low As(V) concentrations (<2 mg L{sup -1}), but increased As uptake rate at high As(V) concentrations (>6 mg L{sup -1}). - Rice root anatomy and Fe plaque affect As uptake.

  8. Effects of root anatomy and Fe plaque on arsenic uptake by rice seedlings grown in solution culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Dan; Wu Shengchun; Wu Fuyong; Deng Hong; Wong Minghung

    2010-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of root anatomy, induced by aeration and stagnation, and Fe plaque on arsenic (III and V) uptake and translocation by rice plants. The results showed that As uptake in rice plants (Gui Chao-2) treated by aeration was decreased due to lower root specific surface area. Rice roots with larger specific surface area tended to form more Fe plaque, and Fe plaque affected As uptake kinetics by changing As influx curves from linear to hyperbolic for As(III) and from hyperbolic to S-curve for As(V). Fe plaque increased As(III and V) adsorption and minimized the effects of root anatomy characteristics on As uptake into roots and subsequently translocation to shoots. Fe plaque increased As(III) uptake rate at As(III) concentrations of 0.5∼8 mg L -1 , reduced As(V) uptake rate at low As(V) concentrations ( -1 ), but increased As uptake rate at high As(V) concentrations (>6 mg L -1 ). - Rice root anatomy and Fe plaque affect As uptake.

  9. Learning anatomy through Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers: Student perceptions of embalming methods and effect on functional anatomy knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennel, Larissa; Martin, David M A; Shaw, Hannah; Wilkinson, Tracey

    2018-03-01

    Thiel-embalmed cadavers, which have been adopted for use in anatomy teaching in relatively few universities, show greater flexibility and color retention compared to formalin-embalmed cadavers, properties which might be considered advantageous for anatomy teaching. This study aimed to investigate student attitudes toward the dissection experience with Thiel- compared to formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. It also aimed to determine if one embalming method is more advantageous in terms of learning functional anatomy through the comparison of student anterior forearm functional anatomy knowledge. Student opinions and functional anatomy knowledge were obtained through use of a questionnaire from students at two medical schools, one using Thiel-, and one using more traditional formalin/ethanol-embalmed cadavers. Both the Thiel group and the formalin group of students were surveyed shortly after completing an anterior forearm dissection session. Significant differences (P-values <0.01) in some attitudes were found toward the dissection experience between cohorts using Thiel- vs. formalin-embalmed cadavers. The Thiel group of students felt more confident about recognizing anatomy in the living individual, found it easier to identify and dissect anatomical structures, and indicated more active exploration of functional anatomy due to the retained flexibility of the cadaver. However, on testing, no significant difference in functional anatomy knowledge was found between the two cohorts. Overall, although Thiel embalming may provide an advantageous learning experience in some investigated areas, more research needs to be carried out, especially to establish whether student perception is based on reality, at least in terms of structure identification. Anat Sci Educ 11: 166-174. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Resident perceptions of anatomy education: a survey of medical school alumni from two different anatomy curricula and multiple medical specialties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohl, Michael A; Gest, Thomas R

    2011-01-01

    In 2004, the University of Michigan Medical School reduced its gross anatomy curriculum. To determine the effect of this reduction on resident perceptions of their clinical preparedness, we surveyed alumni that included residents from the original and new shortened curricula. A Likert-scale survey was sent to four classes of alumni. Respondents were compared in old curriculum (OC) and new curriculum (NC) groups, surgical specialty (SS) and nonsurgical specialty (NS) groups, and subgroups of SS and NS were compared for differences between OC and NC. Mean response scores were compared using independent samples T-tests. As a single population (n = 110), respondents felt their anatomy education prepared them well for residency, that a more robust anatomy curriculum would be helpful, that dissection was important to their residency preparation, and that a 4th year anatomy elective was effective in expanding their anatomy education and preparing them for residency. No significant difference existed between OC and NC groups, neither as a whole nor as SS and NS subgroups. The SS group felt dissection was more important to their residency preparation than the NS group (P = 0.001) and that a more robust anatomy curriculum would have better prepared them for residency (P = 0.001). Thirty percent of SS respondents who did not take a 4th year elective commented that they wish they had. Fourth year anatomy electives were highly valued by residents, and respondents felt that they should be offered to students as a way of revisiting anatomy following the 1st year of clinical training. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  11. Gross Anatomy classroom and dissection laboratory. An ethnographic approach to the study of human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Belén López Castro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The academic areas that rely on university chairs articulate teaching and research in particular ways. The aim of this paper is to describe the ways in which knowledge about the body is built from the work of the laboratories of dissection, without losing sight of its articulation with the anatomy lessons as a regular signature. From an ethnographic perspective, the proposal is to focus in the interventions over the dead body in the dissection laboratory based on the object of didactic transposition of the class.

  12. Anatomy of an online misinformation network.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengcheng Shao

    Full Text Available Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network.

  13. Neuroembryology and functional anatomy of craniofacial clefts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewings Ember

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The master plan of all vertebrate embryos is based on neuroanatomy. The embryo can be anatomically divided into discrete units called neuromeres so that each carries unique genetic traits. Embryonic neural crest cells arising from each neuromere induce development of nerves and concomitant arteries and support the development of specific craniofacial tissues or developmental fields. Fields are assembled upon each other in a programmed spatiotemporal order. Abnormalities in one field can affect the shape and position of developing adjacent fields. Craniofacial clefts represent states of excess or deficiency within and between specific developmental fields. The neuromeric organization of the embryo is the common denominator for understanding normal anatomy and pathology of the head and neck. Tessier′s observational cleft classification system can be redefined using neuroanatomic embryology. Reassessment of Tessier′s empiric observations demonstrates a more rational rearrangement of cleft zones, particularly near the midline. Neuromeric theory is also a means to understand and define other common craniofacial problems. Cleft palate, encephaloceles, craniosynostosis and cranial base defects may be analyzed in the same way.

  14. Normal CT anatomy of the spine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quiroga, O.; Matozzi, F.; Beranger, M.; Nazarian, S.; Salamon, G.; Gambarelli, J.

    1982-01-01

    To analyse the anatomo-radiological correlation of the spine and spinal cord, 22 formalized, frozen anatomical specimens corresponding to different regions of the spinal column (8 cervical, 5 dorsal, and 9 lumbar) were studied by CT scans on axial, sagittal and coronal planes and by contact radiography after they were cut into anatomical slices in order to clarify the normal CT anatomy of the spinal column. The results obtained from CT patient scans, performed exclusively on the axial plane, were compared with those obtained from the anatomical specimens (both CT and contrast radiography). High resolution CT programs were used, enabling us to obtain better individualization of the normal structures contained in the spinal column. Direct sagittal and coronal sections were performed on the specimens in order to get further anatomo-radiological information. Enhanced CT studies of the specimens were also available because of the air already present in the subarachnoid spaces. Excellent visualization was obtained of bone structures, soft tissue and the spinal cord. High CT resolution of the spine appeares to be an excellent neuroradiological procedure to study the spine and spinal cord. A metrizamide CT scan is, however, necessary when a normal unenhanced CT scan is insufficient for diagnosis and when the spinal cord is not clearly visible, as often happens at the cervical level. Clinical findings are certainly very useful to ascertain the exact CT level and to limit the radiation exposure. (orig.)

  15. Tinjauan Anatomi Klinik dan Manajemen Bell's Palsy

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    Nur Mujaddidah

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bell's Palsy is a peripheral facial nerve weakness (facial nerve with acute onset on one side of the face. This condition causes the inability of the patient to move half of his face consciously (volunter on the affected side. The Bell's Palsy incidence is 20-30 cases out of 100.000 people and accounts for 60-70% of all cases of unilateral facial paralysis. The disease is self-limited, but causes great suffering for patients who are not treated properly. Controversy in the management is still debated, and the cause is still unknown. The underlying hypothesis is ischemic, vascular, viral, bacterial, hereditary, and immunologic. Therapy done so far is to improve facial nerve function and healing process. The management of the therapy used will be closely related to the structure of the anatomy and its functions and associated abnormalities. The modalities of Bell's Palsy therapy are with corticosteroids and antivirals, facial exercises, electrostimulation, physiotherapy and decompression operations. Approximately 80-90% of patients with Bell's palsy recover completely within 6 months, even in 50-60% of cases improved within 3 weeks. Approximately 10% experienced persistent facial muscle asymmetry, and 5% experienced severe sequelae, and 8% of cases were recurrent.

  16. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, R.

    2006-01-01

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [de

  17. Anatomy of a Security Operations Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, John

    2010-01-01

    Many agencies and corporations are either contemplating or in the process of building a cyber Security Operations Center (SOC). Those Agencies that have established SOCs are most likely working on major revisions or enhancements to existing capabilities. As principle developers of the NASA SOC; this Presenters' goals are to provide the GFIRST community with examples of some of the key building blocks of an Agency scale cyber Security Operations Center. This presentation viII include the inputs and outputs, the facilities or shell, as well as the internal components and the processes necessary to maintain the SOC's subsistence - in other words, the anatomy of a SOC. Details to be presented include the SOC architecture and its key components: Tier 1 Call Center, data entry, and incident triage; Tier 2 monitoring, incident handling and tracking; Tier 3 computer forensics, malware analysis, and reverse engineering; Incident Management System; Threat Management System; SOC Portal; Log Aggregation and Security Incident Management (SIM) systems; flow monitoring; IDS; etc. Specific processes and methodologies discussed include Incident States and associated Work Elements; the Incident Management Workflow Process; Cyber Threat Risk Assessment methodology; and Incident Taxonomy. The Evolution of the Cyber Security Operations Center viII be discussed; starting from reactive, to proactive, and finally to proactive. Finally, the resources necessary to establish an Agency scale SOC as well as the lessons learned in the process of standing up a SOC viII be presented.

  18. Microscopic functional anatomy: Integumentary system: Chapter 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Diane G.; Ostrander, Gary K.

    2000-01-01

    Many of the features of the fish integument can only be observed microscopically. Because there are over 20,000 living fishes, mostly higher bony fishes (teleosts), a great diversity exists in the microscopic anatomy of the integument. This chapter presents several examples from varied taxonomic groups to illustrate the variation in morphological features. As in all vertebrate epidermis, the fundamental structural unit is the epithelial cell. This is the only constant feature, as a great diversity of cell types exists in the various fish taxa. Some of these include apocrine mucous cells and a variety of other secretory cells, ionocytes, sensory cells, and wandering cells such as leukocytes. The dermis consists essentially of two sets of collagen fibers arranged in opposing geodesic spirals around the body. The dermis of most fishes is divided into two major layers. The upper (outer) layer, the stratum spongiosum or stratum laxum, is a loose network of connective tissue, whereas the lower layer, the stratum compactum, is a dense layer consisting primarily of orthogonal collagen bands. There are also specialized dermal elements such as chromatophores scales, and fin rays.

  19. Interactive Anatomy-Augmented Virtual Simulation Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aebersold, Michelle; Voepel-Lewis, Terri; Cherara, Leila; Weber, Monica; Khouri, Christina; Levine, Robert; Tait, Alan R

    2018-02-01

    Traditionally, clinical psychomotor skills are taught through videos and demonstration by faculty which does not allow for the visualization of internal structures and anatomical landmarks that would enhance the learner skill performance. Sophomore and junior nursing students attending a large Midwestern Institution (N=69) participated in this mixed methods study. Students demonstrated their ability to place a nasogastric tube (NGT) after being randomly assigned to usual training (Control group) or an iPad anatomy-augmented virtual simulation training module (AR group). The ability of the participants to demonstrate competence in placing the NGT was assessed using a 17-item competency checklist. After the demonstration, students completed a survey to elicit information about students' level of training, prior experience with NGT placement, satisfaction with the AR technology, and perceptions of AR as a potential teaching tool for clinical skills training. The ability to correctly place the NGT through all the checklist items was statistically significant in the AR group compared with the control group (P = 0.011). Eighty-six percent of participants in the AR group rated AR as superior/far superior to other procedural training programs to which they had been exposed, whereas, only 5.9% of participants in the control group rated the control program as superior/far superior (P < 0.001). Overall the AR module was better received compared with the control group with regards to realism, identifying landmarks, visualization of internal organs, ease of use, usefulness, and promoting learning and understanding.

  20. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Thaís A P; Scheel-Ybert, Rita

    2016-01-01

    Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa). They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  1. Charcoal anatomy of Brazilian species. I. Anacardiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    THAÍS A.P. GONÇALVES

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Anthracological studies are firmly advancing in the tropics during the last decades. The theoretical and methodological bases of the discipline are well established. Yet, there is a strong demand for comparative reference material, seeking for an improvement in the precision of taxonomic determination, both in palaeoecological and palaeoethnobotanical studies and to help preventing illegal charcoal production. This work presents descriptions of charcoal anatomy of eleven Anacardiaceae species from six genera native to Brazil (Anacardium occidentale, Anacardium parvifolium, Astronium graveolens, Astronium lecointei, Lithrea molleoides, Schinus terebenthifolius, Spondias mombin, Spondias purpurea, Spondias tuberosa, Tapirira guianensis, and Tapirira obtusa. They are characterized by diffuse-porous wood, vessels solitary and in multiples, tyloses and spiral thickenings sometimes present; simple perforation plates, alternate intervessel pits, rounded vessel-ray pits with much reduced borders to apparently simple; parenchyma paratracheal scanty to vasicentric; heterocellular rays, some with radial canals and crystals; septate fibres with simple pits. These results are quite similar to previous wood anatomical descriptions of the same species or genera. Yet, charcoal identification is more effective when unknown samples are compared to charred extant equivalents, instead of to wood slides.

  2. [Anatomy and pathogenesis of diverticular disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedel, T; Böttner, M

    2014-04-01

    Although diverticular disease is one of the most frequent gastrointestinal disorders the pathogenesis is not yet sufficiently clarified. The aim is to define the anatomy and pathogenesis of diverticular disease considering the risk factors and description of structural and functional alterations of the bowel wall. This article gives an appraisal of the literature, presentation and evaluation of classical etiological factors, analysis and discussion of novel pathogenetic concepts. Colonic diverticulosis is defined as an acquired out-pouching of multiple and initially asymptomatic pseudodiverticula through muscular gaps in the colon wall. Diverticular disease is characterized by diverticular bleeding and/or inflammatory processes (diverticulitis) with corresponding complications (e.g. abscess formation, fistula, covered and open perforation, peritonitis and stenosis). Risk factors for diverticular disease include increasing age, genetic predisposition, congenital connective tissue diseases, low fiber diet, high meat consumption and pronounced overweight. Alterations of connective tissue cause a weakening of preformed exit sites of diverticula and rigidity of the bowel wall with reduced flexibility. It is assumed that intestinal innervation disorders and structural alterations of the musculature induce abnormal contractile patterns with increased intraluminal pressure, thereby promoting the development of diverticula. Moreover, an increased release of pain-mediating neurotransmitters is considered to be responsible for persistent pain in chronic diverticular disease. According to the present data the pathogenesis of diverticular disease cannot be attributed to a single factor but should be considered as a multifactorial event.

  3. Anatomy of an online misinformation network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xinwen; Flammini, Alessandro; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca

    2018-01-01

    Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network. PMID:29702657

  4. Anatomy of an online misinformation network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chengcheng; Hui, Pik-Mai; Wang, Lei; Jiang, Xinwen; Flammini, Alessandro; Menczer, Filippo; Ciampaglia, Giovanni Luca

    2018-01-01

    Massive amounts of fake news and conspiratorial content have spread over social media before and after the 2016 US Presidential Elections despite intense fact-checking efforts. How do the spread of misinformation and fact-checking compete? What are the structural and dynamic characteristics of the core of the misinformation diffusion network, and who are its main purveyors? How to reduce the overall amount of misinformation? To explore these questions we built Hoaxy, an open platform that enables large-scale, systematic studies of how misinformation and fact-checking spread and compete on Twitter. Hoaxy captures public tweets that include links to articles from low-credibility and fact-checking sources. We perform k-core decomposition on a diffusion network obtained from two million retweets produced by several hundred thousand accounts over the six months before the election. As we move from the periphery to the core of the network, fact-checking nearly disappears, while social bots proliferate. The number of users in the main core reaches equilibrium around the time of the election, with limited churn and increasingly dense connections. We conclude by quantifying how effectively the network can be disrupted by penalizing the most central nodes. These findings provide a first look at the anatomy of a massive online misinformation diffusion network.

  5. Temporomandibular Joint Anatomy Assessed by CBCT Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Caruso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. Since cone beam computed tomography (CBCT has been used for the study of craniofacial morphology, the attention of orthodontists has also focused on the mandibular condyle. The purpose of this brief review is to summarize the recent 3D CBCT images of mandibular condyle. Material and Methods. The eligibility criteria for the studies are (a studies aimed at evaluating the anatomy of the temporomandibular joint; (b studies performed with CBCT images; (c studies on human subjects; (d studies that were not clinical case-reports and clinical series; (e studies reporting data on children, adolescents, or young adults (data from individuals with age ≤ 30 years. Sources included PubMed from June 2008 to June 2016. Results. 43 full-text articles were initially screened for eligibility. 13 full-text articles were assessed for eligibility. 11 articles were finally included in qualitative synthesis. The main topics treated in the studies are the volume and surface of the mandibular condyle, the bone changes on cortical surface, the facial asymmetry, and the optimum position of the condyle in the glenoid fossa. Conclusion. Additional studies will be necessary in the future, constructed with longitudinal methodology, especially in growing subjects. The limits of CBCT acquisitions are also highlighted.

  6. The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chuan-Xiang; Pan, Wei-Ren; Liu, Zhi-An; Zeng, Fan-Qiang; Qiu, Zhi-Qiang

    2018-04-03

    The deep lymphatic anatomy of the hand still remains the least described in medical literature. Eight hands were harvested from four nonembalmed human cadavers amputated above the wrist. A small amount of 6% hydrogen peroxide was employed to detect the lymphatic vessels around the superficial and deep palmar vascular arches, in webs from the index to little fingers, the thenar and hypothenar areas. A 30-gauge needle was inserted into the vessels and injected with a barium sulphate compound. Each specimen was dissected, photographed and radiographed to demonstrate deep lymphatic distribution of the hand. Five groups of deep collecting lymph vessels were found in the hand: superficial palmar arch lymph vessel (SPALV); deep palmar arch lymph vessel (DPALV); thenar lymph vessel (TLV); hypothenar lymph vessel (HTLV); deep finger web lymph vessel (DFWLV). Each group of vessels drained in different directions first, then all turned and ran towards the wrist in different layers. The deep lymphatic drainage of the hand has been presented. The results will provide an anatomical basis for clinical management, educational reference and scientific research. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Clinical anatomy as practiced by ancient Egyptians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loukas, Marios; Hanna, Michael; Alsaiegh, Nada; Shoja, Mohammadali M; Tubbs, R Shane

    2011-05-01

    Egypt is famously known for its Nile and pyramids, yet not many people know that Egypt made possible the origin of the anatomical sciences. Several ancient papyri guide us through the Egyptians' exploration of the human body and how they applied anatomical knowledge to clinical medicine to the best of their knowledge. It is through records, such as the Edwin Smith, Ebers, and Kahun papyri and other literature detailing the work of the Egyptian embalmers, physicians, and Greek anatomists, that we are able to take a glimpse into the evolution of the anatomical sciences from 3000 B.C. to 250 B.C. It is through the Egyptian embalmer that we were able to learn of some of the first interactions with human organs and their detailed observation. The Egyptian physician's knowledge, being transcribed into the Ebers and Edwin Smith papyri, enabled future physicians to seek reference to common ailments for diagnosing and treating a variety of conditions ranging from head injuries to procedures, such as trans-sphenoidal surgery. In Alexandria, Herophilus, and Erasistratus made substantial contributions to the anatomical sciences by beginning the practice of human dissection. For instance, Herophilus described the anatomy of the heart valves along with Erasistratus who demonstrated how blood was prevented from flowing retrograde under normal conditions. Hence, from various records, we are able to unravel how Egypt paved the road for study of the anatomical sciences. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Muscular anatomy of the human ventricular folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Jerald; Alipour, Fariborz

    2013-09-01

    Our purpose in this study was to better understand the muscular anatomy of the ventricular folds in order to help improve biomechanical modeling of phonation and to better understand the role of these muscles during phonatory and nonphonatory tasks. Four human larynges were decalcified, sectioned coronally from posterior to anterior by a CryoJane tape transfer system, and stained with Masson's trichrome. The total and relative areas of muscles observed in each section were calculated and used for characterizing the muscle distribution within the ventricular folds. The ventricular folds contained anteriorly coursing thyroarytenoid and ventricularis muscle fibers that were in the lower half of the ventricular fold posteriorly, and some ventricularis muscle was evident in the upper and lateral portions of the fold more anteriorly. Very little muscle tissue was observed in the medial half of the fold, and the anterior half of the ventricular fold was largely devoid of any muscle tissue. All 4 larynges contained muscle bundles that coursed superiorly and medially through the upper half of the fold, toward the lateral margin of the epiglottis. Although variability of expression was evident, a well-defined thyroarytenoid muscle was readily apparent lateral to the arytenoid cartilage in all specimens.

  9. Comparative and Developmental Anatomy of Cardiac Lymphatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ratajska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of the cardiac lymphatic system has been recently appreciated since lymphatic disturbances take part in various heart pathologies. This review presents the current knowledge about normal anatomy and structure of lymphatics and their prenatal development for a better understanding of the proper functioning of this system in relation to coronary circulation. Lymphatics of the heart consist of terminal capillaries of various diameters, capillary plexuses that drain continuously subendocardial, myocardial, and subepicardial areas, and draining (collecting vessels that lead the lymph out of the heart. There are interspecies differences in the distribution of lymphatic capillaries, especially near the valves, as well as differences in the routes and number of draining vessels. In some species, subendocardial areas contain fewer lymphatic capillaries as compared to subepicardial parts of the heart. In all species there is at least one collector vessel draining lymph from the subepicardial plexuses and running along the anterior interventricular septum under the left auricle and further along the pulmonary trunk outside the heart and terminating in the right venous angle. The second collector assumes a different route in various species. In most mammalian species the collectors run along major branches of coronary arteries, have valves and a discontinuous layer of smooth muscle cells.

  10. Bronchial arteries: anatomy, function, hypertrophy, and anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Christopher M; Rosado-de-Christenson, Melissa L; Martínez-Jiménez, Santiago; Kunin, Jeffrey R; Wible, Brandt C

    2015-01-01

    The two main sources of blood supply to the lungs and their supporting structures are the pulmonary and bronchial arteries. The bronchial arteries account for 1% of the cardiac output but can be recruited to provide additional systemic circulation to the lungs in various acquired and congenital thoracic disorders. An understanding of bronchial artery anatomy and function is important in the identification of bronchial artery dilatation and anomalies and the formulation of an appropriate differential diagnosis. Visualization of dilated bronchial arteries at imaging should alert the radiologist to obstructive disorders that affect the pulmonary circulation and prompt the exclusion of diseases that produce or are associated with pulmonary artery obstruction, including chronic infectious and/or inflammatory processes, chronic thromboembolic disease, and congenital anomalies of the thorax (eg, proximal interruption of the pulmonary artery). Conotruncal abnormalities, such as pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, are associated with systemic pulmonary supply provided by aortic branches known as major aortopulmonary collaterals, which originate in the region of the bronchial arteries. Bronchial artery malformation is a rare left-to-right or left-to-left shunt characterized by an anomalous connection between a bronchial artery and a pulmonary artery or a pulmonary vein, respectively. Bronchial artery interventions can be used successfully in the treatment of hemoptysis, with a low risk of adverse events. Multidetector computed tomography helps provide a vascular road map for the interventional radiologist before bronchial artery embolization. RSNA, 2015

  11. Can "YouTube" help students in learning surface anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azer, Samy A

    2012-07-01

    In a problem-based learning curriculum, most medical students research the Internet for information for their "learning issues." Internet sites such as "YouTube" have become a useful resource for information. This study aimed at assessing YouTube videos covering surface anatomy. A search of YouTube was conducted from November 8 to 30, 2010 using research terms "surface anatomy," "anatomy body painting," "living anatomy," "bone landmarks," and "dermatomes" for surface anatomy-related videos. Only relevant video clips in the English language were identified and related URL recorded. For each videotape the following information were collected: title, authors, duration, number of viewers, posted comments, and total number of days on YouTube. The data were statistically analyzed and videos were grouped into educationally useful and non-useful videos on the basis of major and minor criteria covering technical, content, authority, and pedagogy parameters. A total of 235 YouTube videos were screened and 57 were found to have relevant information to surface anatomy. Analysis revealed that 15 (27%) of the videos provided useful information on surface anatomy. These videos scored (mean ± SD, 14.0 ± 0.7) and mainly covered surface anatomy of the shoulder, knee, muscles of the back, leg, and ankle, carotid artery, dermatomes, and anatomical positions. The other 42 (73%) videos were not useful educationally, scoring (mean ± SD, 7.4 ± 1.8). The total viewers of all videos were 1,058,634. Useful videos were viewed by 497,925 (47% of total viewers). The total viewership per day was 750 for useful videos and 652 for non-useful videos. No video clips covering surface anatomy of the head and neck, blood vessels and nerves of upper and lower limbs, chest and abdominal organs/structures were found. Currently, YouTube is an inadequate source of information for learning surface anatomy. More work is needed from medical schools and educators to add useful videos on You

  12. Practical session assessments in human anatomy: Weightings and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Aaron C; Chan, Siew-Pang; Schuijers, Johannes A

    2016-07-08

    Assessment weighting within a given module can be a motivating factor for students when deciding on their commitment level and time given to study a specific topic. In this study, an analysis of assessment performances of second year anatomy students was performed over four years to determine if (1) students performed better when a higher weighting was given to a set of practical session assessments and (2) whether an improved performance in the practical session assessments had a carry-over effect on other assessment tasks within that anatomy module and/or other anatomy modules that follow. Results showed that increasing the weighting of practical session assessments improved the average mark in that assessment and also improved the percentage of students passing that assessment. Further, it significantly improved performance in the written end-semester examination within the same module and had a carry-over effect on the anatomy module taught in the next teaching period, as students performed better in subsequent practical session assessments as well as subsequent end-semester examinations. It was concluded that the weighting of assessments had significant influences on a student's performance in that, and subsequent, assessments. It is postulated that practical session assessments, designed to develop deep learning skills in anatomy, improved efficacy in student performance in assessments undertaken in that and subsequent anatomy modules when the weighting of these assessments was greater. These deep learning skills were also transferable to other methods of assessing anatomy. Anat Sci Educ 9: 330-336. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  13. Properties of publications on anatomy in medical education literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorstenbosch, Marc; Bolhuis, Sanneke; van Kuppeveld, Sascha; Kooloos, Jan; Laan, Roland

    2011-01-01

    Publications on anatomy in medical education appear to be largely anecdotal. To explore this, we investigated the literature on anatomy in medical education, aiming first to evaluate the contribution of the literature on anatomy in medical education to "best evidence medical education" (BEME) and second to evaluate the development of this literature toward more "best evidence" between 1985 and 2009. Four databases were searched for publications on anatomy in medical education published between 1985 and 2009, resulting in 525 references. Hundred publications were characterized by five variables (journal category, paper subject, paper category, author perspective, and paper perspective). Statements from these publications were characterized by two variables (category and foundation). The publications contained 797 statements that involved the words "anatomy," "anatomical," or "anatomist." Forty-five percent of the publications contained no explicit research question. Forty percent of the statements made were about "teaching methods" and 17% about "teaching content," 8% referred to "practical value," and 10% to "side effects" of anatomy education. Ten percent of the statements were "positional," five percent "traditional," four percent "self-evident," and two percent referred to "quality of care." Fifty-six percent of the statements had no foundation, 17% were founded on empirical data, and 27% by references. These results substantiated the critical comments about the anecdotal nature of the literature. However, it is encouraging to see that between 1985 and 2009 the number of publications is rising that these publications increasingly focus on teaching methods and that an academic writing style is developing. This suggests a growing body of empirical literature about anatomy education. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Anatomists.

  14. Gross Anatomy of Pampas Deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758) Mouth and Pharynx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, W; Vazquez, N; Ungerfeld, R

    2017-04-01

    The aims of this study were to describe the anatomy of the mouth and pharynx of the pampas deer, and to consider its evolutionary feeding niche according to those characteristics. Gross dissections of the mouth and pharynx were performed in 15 animals, 10 adult females and five young animals under 1 year (three males and two females), all dead by causes unrelated to this anatomical region. The upper lip entered in the constitution of a pigmented nasolabial plane. The masseter muscles weighed 43.8 ± 3.5 g and represented 0.23% of body weight, which corresponds to ruminants of feeders intermediate to grazers and browsers. Parotid glands represented 0.08% of the body weight, characteristic that also categorize the pampas deer as belonging to the intermediate feeding group. The dental formula was the same of the domestic ruminants. The upper incisors and canines were absent, and instead of them, there was a dental pad (Pulvinus dentalis). The upper canine teeth were present only in the deciduous dentition. The existence of a brachydont dentition turns Ozotoceros very vulnerable to continuous use as there is no compensatory teeth growth. The particular anatomy of the mouth and lips of this animal was adapted to a very selective feeding, taking highly nutritious sprouts beyond plant category. In conclusion and in addition to previous studies of anatomy of the digestive organs in this species, pampas deer may be categorized as belonging to the intermediate type of feeding. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Muscular anatomy of the Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, Leo W; Anderson, Christopher; Bolton, Edward W

    2013-01-01

    The muscular anatomy of the athecate hydroid Podocoryna carnea hydrorhiza is elucidated. The polyp-stolon junction is characterized by an opening, here called the chloe, in the otherwise continuous hydrorhizal perisarc. The chloe is elliptical when the polyp first arises, but takes on a more complex outline as multiple stolons anastomose to communicate with that polyp. Surrounding the polyp base are spots, here called anchors, which autofluoresce at the same wavelengths as perisarc and which, like perisarc, contain chitin as assessed by Calcofluor White, Congo Red and wheat germ agglutinin staining. Anchors remain after living tissues are digested using KOH. Collagen IV staining indicates that the mesoglea is pegged to the anchors and rhodamine phallodin staining detects cytoskeletal F-actin fibers of the basal epidermis surrounding the anchors. Longitudinal muscle fibers of the polyp broaden at the polyp base and are inserted into the mesoglea of the underlying stolon, but were neither observed to extend along the stolonal axis nor to attach to the anchors. Circular muscular fibers of the polyp extend into stolons as a dense collection of strands running along the proximal-distal axis of the stolon. These gastrodermal axial muscular fibers extend to the stolon tip. Epidermal cells at the stolon tip and the polyp bud display a regular apical latticework of F-actin staining. A similar meshwork of F-actin staining was found in the extreme basal epidermis of all stolons. Immunohistochemical staining for tubulin revealed nerves at stolon tips, but at no other hydrorhizal locations. These studies bear on the mechanisms by which the stolon tip and polyp bud pulsate, the manner in which the stolon lumen closes, and on the developmental origin of the basal epidermis of the hydrorhiza.

  16. Towards an elastographic atlas of brain anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Guo

    Full Text Available Cerebral viscoelastic constants can be measured in a noninvasive, image-based way by magnetic resonance elastography (MRE for the detection of neurological disorders. However, MRE brain maps of viscoelastic constants are still limited by low spatial resolution. Here we introduce three-dimensional multifrequency MRE of the brain combined with a novel reconstruction algorithm based on a model-free multifrequency inversion for calculating spatially resolved viscoelastic parameter maps of the human brain corresponding to the dynamic range of shear oscillations between 30 and 60 Hz. Maps of two viscoelastic parameters, the magnitude and the phase angle of the complex shear modulus, |G*| and φ, were obtained and normalized to group templates of 23 healthy volunteers in the age range of 22 to 72 years. This atlas of the anatomy of brain mechanics reveals a significant contrast in the stiffness parameter |G*| between different anatomical regions such as white matter (WM; 1.252±0.260 kPa, the corpus callosum genu (CCG; 1.104±0.280 kPa, the thalamus (TH; 1.058±0.208 kPa and the head of the caudate nucleus (HCN; 0.649±0.101 kPa. φ, which is sensitive to the lossy behavior of the tissue, was in the order of CCG (1.011±0.172, TH (1.037±0.173, CN (0.906±0.257 and WM (0.854±0.169. The proposed method provides the first normalized maps of brain viscoelasticity with anatomical details in subcortical regions and provides useful background data for clinical applications of cerebral MRE.

  17. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, W. Tyler; Siebers, Jeffrey V.; Moore, Joseph A.; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated

  18. BOLD Granger causality reflects vascular anatomy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Taylor Webb

    Full Text Available A number of studies have tried to exploit subtle phase differences in BOLD time series to resolve the order of sequential activation of brain regions, or more generally the ability of signal in one region to predict subsequent signal in another region. More recently, such lag-based measures have been applied to investigate directed functional connectivity, although this application has been controversial. We attempted to use large publicly available datasets (FCON 1000, ADHD 200, Human Connectome Project to determine whether consistent spatial patterns of Granger Causality are observed in typical fMRI data. For BOLD datasets from 1,240 typically developing subjects ages 7-40, we measured Granger causality between time series for every pair of 7,266 spherical ROIs covering the gray matter and 264 seed ROIs at hubs of the brain's functional network architecture. Granger causality estimates were strongly reproducible for connections in a test and replication sample (n=620 subjects for each group, as well as in data from a single subject scanned repeatedly, both during resting and passive video viewing. The same effect was even stronger in high temporal resolution fMRI data from the Human Connectome Project, and was observed independently in data collected during performance of 7 task paradigms. The spatial distribution of Granger causality reflected vascular anatomy with a progression from Granger causality sources, in Circle of Willis arterial inflow distributions, to sinks, near large venous vascular structures such as dural venous sinuses and at the periphery of the brain. Attempts to resolve BOLD phase differences with Granger causality should consider the possibility of reproducible vascular confounds, a problem that is independent of the known regional variability of the hemodynamic response.

  19. Microsurgical anatomy of the central lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frigeri, Thomas; Paglioli, Eliseu; de Oliveira, Evandro; Rhoton, Albert L

    2015-03-01

    The central lobe consists of the pre- and postcentral gyri on the lateral surface and the paracentral lobule on the medial surface and corresponds to the sensorimotor cortex. The objective of the present study was to define the neural features, craniometric relationships, arterial supply, and venous drainage of the central lobe. Cadaveric hemispheres dissected using microsurgical techniques provided the material for this study. The coronal suture is closer to the precentral gyrus and central sulcus at its lower rather than at its upper end, but they are closest at a point near where the superior temporal line crosses the coronal suture. The arterial supply of the lower two-thirds of the lateral surface of the central lobe was from the central, precentral, and anterior parietal branches that arose predominantly from the superior trunk of the middle cerebral artery. The medial surface and the superior third of the lateral surface were supplied by the posterior interior frontal, paracentral, and superior parietal branches of the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. The venous drainage of the superior two-thirds of the lateral surface and the central lobe on the medial surface was predominantly through the superior sagittal sinus, and the inferior third of the lateral surface was predominantly through the superficial sylvian veins to the sphenoparietal sinus or the vein of Labbé to the transverse sinus. The pre- and postcentral gyri and paracentral lobule have a morphological and functional anatomy that differentiates them from the remainder of their respective lobes and are considered by many as a single lobe. An understanding of the anatomical relationships of the central lobe can be useful in preoperative planning and in establishing reliable intraoperative landmarks.

  20. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkins, W. Tyler, E-mail: watkinswt@virginia.edu; Siebers, Jeffrey V. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22908 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Moore, Joseph A. [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21231 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Gordon, James [Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, Michigan 48202 and Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States); Hugo, Geoffrey D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia 23298 (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Purpose: To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. Methods: MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. Results: By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. Conclusions: MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  1. An electronic instructor for gross anatomy dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Josephson, Eleanor M; Moore, Larry J

    2006-01-01

    Gross anatomy is time consuming to teach and to learn. Because the process of dissection takes up so much student time, assistance in the form of an in-lab instructional DVD program might improve student performance. The DVD could be viewed with a portable device by individual dissection groups at their tables. Groups could dissect at their own pace, with access to step-by-step demonstrations and answers to frequently asked anatomical questions. We created an instructional DVD program demonstrating dissection of the canine ventral neck and thoracic limb. The effect on student exam scores of using the DVD versus not using it was measured in a controlled, two-sample study using incoming first-year veterinary students as volunteers. Volunteers were told the study was of two different dissection methods; the DVD was not specifically mentioned until after the students were separated into two groups (Blue/DVD group and Orange/No DVD group), and then only to volunteers in the Blue group. Except for the DVD, the two groups had the same resources. The difference in scores on an exam given after a single dissection period did not differ sufficiently to conclude that DVD use raised the mean score; however, 73% of the DVD group scored 60% or higher, while only 38% of the No DVD group scored 60% or higher. The difference in mean scores overall was 2.3 points out of a possible 49, suggesting that the DVD helped students, especially those with lower scores, to earn two to three more points than they would have otherwise.

  2. Multiple anatomy optimization of accumulated dose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, W Tyler; Moore, Joseph A; Gordon, James; Hugo, Geoffrey D; Siebers, Jeffrey V

    2014-11-01

    To investigate the potential advantages of multiple anatomy optimization (MAO) for lung cancer radiation therapy compared to the internal target volume (ITV) approach. MAO aims to optimize a single fluence to be delivered under free-breathing conditions such that the accumulated dose meets the plan objectives, where accumulated dose is defined as the sum of deformably mapped doses computed on each phase of a single four dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) dataset. Phantom and patient simulation studies were carried out to investigate potential advantages of MAO compared to ITV planning. Through simulated delivery of the ITV- and MAO-plans, target dose variations were also investigated. By optimizing the accumulated dose, MAO shows the potential to ensure dose to the moving target meets plan objectives while simultaneously reducing dose to organs at risk (OARs) compared with ITV planning. While consistently superior to the ITV approach, MAO resulted in equivalent OAR dosimetry at planning objective dose levels to within 2% volume in 14/30 plans and to within 3% volume in 19/30 plans for each lung V20, esophagus V25, and heart V30. Despite large variations in per-fraction respiratory phase weights in simulated deliveries at high dose rates (e.g., treating 4/10 phases during single fraction beams) the cumulative clinical target volume (CTV) dose after 30 fractions and per-fraction dose were constant independent of planning technique. In one case considered, however, per-phase CTV dose varied from 74% to 117% of prescription implying the level of ITV-dose heterogeneity may not be appropriate with conventional, free-breathing delivery. MAO incorporates 4DCT information in an optimized dose distribution and can achieve a superior plan in terms of accumulated dose to the moving target and OAR sparing compared to ITV-plans. An appropriate level of dose heterogeneity in MAO plans must be further investigated.

  3. Anatomy of psoas muscle innervation: Cadaveric study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahan, Mark A; Sanders, Luke E; Guan, Jian; Dailey, Andrew T; Taylor, William; Morton, David A

    2017-05-01

    Hip flexion weakness is relatively common after lateral transpsoas surgery. Persistent weakness may result from injury to the innervation of the psoas major muscles (PMMs); however, anatomical texts have conflicting descriptions of this innervation, and the branching pattern of the nerves within the psoas major, particularly relative to vertebral anatomy, has not been described. The authors dissected human cadavers to describe the branching pattern of nerves supplying the PMMs. Sixteen embalmed cadavers were dissected, and the fine branching pattern of the innervation to the PMM was studied in 24 specimens. The number of branches and width and length of each branch of nerves to the PMMs were quantified. Nerve branches innervating the PMMs arose from spinal nerve levels L1-L4, with an average of 6.3 ± 1.1 branches per muscle. The L1 nerve branch was the least consistently present, whereas L2 and L3 branches were the most robust, the most numerous, and always present. The nerve branches to the psoas major commonly crossed the intervertebral (IV) disc obliquely prior to ramification within the muscle; 76%, 80%, and 40% of specimens had a branch to the PMM cross the midportion of the L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 IV discs, respectively. The PMMs are segmentally innervated from the L2-L4 ventral rami branches, where these branches course obliquely across the L2-3, L3-4, and L4-5 IV discs. Knowledge of the mapping of nerve branches to the PMMs may reduce injury and the incidence of persistent weak hip flexion during lateral transpsoas surgery. Clin. Anat. 30:479-486, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Best teaching practices in anatomy education: A critical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estai, Mohamed; Bunt, Stuart

    2016-11-01

    In this report we review the range of teaching resources and strategies used in anatomy education with the aim of coming up with suggestions about the best teaching practices in this area. There is much debate about suitable methods of delivering anatomical knowledge. Competent clinicians, particularly surgeons, need a deep understanding of anatomy for safe clinical procedures. However, because students have had very limited exposure to anatomy during clinical training, there is a concern that medical students are ill-prepared in anatomy when entering clerkships and residency programs. Therefore, developing effective modalities for teaching anatomy is essential to safe medical practice. Cadaver-based instruction has survived as the main instructional tool for hundreds of years, however, there are differing views on whether full cadaver dissection is still appropriate for a modern undergraduate training. The limitations on curricular time, trained anatomy faculty and resources for gross anatomy courses in integrated or/and system-based curricula, have led many medical schools to abandon costly and time-consuming dissection-based instruction in favour of alternative methods of instruction including prosection, medical imaging, living anatomy and multimedia resources. To date, no single teaching tool has been found to meet curriculum requirements. The best way to teach modern anatomy is by combining multiple pedagogical resources to complement one another, students appear to learn more effectively when multimodal and system-based approaches are integrated. Our review suggests that certain professions would have more benefit from certain educational methods or strategies than others. Full body dissection would be best reserved for medical students, especially those with surgical career intentions, while teaching based on prosections and plastination is more suitable for dental, pharmacy and allied health science students. There is a need to direct future research

  5. The Nursing students’ metaphors about education of anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Çolak Tuncay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available “Metaphor” word is described as a figurative expression in Turkish. A person transmits more explicitly his/her thoughts that are about an event or a concept he/she experienced. The aim of this study was to reveal emotions and thoughts of 1st class students in nursing about Anatomy lesson. 62 people who are students at 1st class in Vocational School of Health Services in 2014-2015 academic year have attended to our study. In questionnaire anthropometric and demographic traits of them were asked. They were wanted to create a metaphor about anatomy by filling in the blanks in “Anatomy resembles …../ Anatomy is like …. ; because …..” At the end of the assesment it has been detected that 44 metaphors have been produced. In these metaphors the most produced are ocean, puzzle, etc. When we divide these metaphors into categories and investigate them, there is an accumulation in discovering/revealing category with 24 metaphors. We believe that the metaphors which the students will generate, determining how to be lectured theoretical and practical anatomy lessons in a way that students are able to comprehend, will guide them.

  6. Dr. Tulp's Anatomy Lesson by Rembrandt: the third day hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afek, Arnon; Friedman, Tal; Kugel, Chen; Barshack, Iris; Lurie, Doron J

    2009-07-01

    An autopsy was an important event in 17th century Holland. Autopsies were held in an 'anatomy theater' and performed according to a fixed protocol that often took up to 3 days to complete. Of the five group portraits painted by Rembrandt over the course of his career, two were anatomy lessons given by Dr. Tulp and Dr. Deyman. An examination of Rembrandt's painting Dr. Tulp's Anatomy Lesson (1632) and an X-ray image of the painting, as compared to other paintings of anatomy lessons from the same period, reveal interesting differences, such as positioning, and light and shadow. Not only was the autopsy not performed according to the usual protocol, but in this painting Rembrandt created a unique dramatic scene in his effort to tell a story. We suggest that Dr. Tulp and Rembrandt "modified" the painting of Dr. Tulp's anatomy lesson to emphasize Dr. Tulp's position as the greatest anatomist of his era--"Vesalius of Amsterdam," and as a way of demonstrating God's greatness by highlighting the hand as a symbol of the most glorious of God's creations.

  7. [Vascular anatomy of donor and recipient in living kidney transplantation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jiqing; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2009-09-01

    To review the vascular anatomy of the donor and the recipient for the living kidney transplantation. The recent literature about the vessels of donor and recipient in clinical applications was extensively reviewed. The pertinent vascular anatomy of the donor and recipient was essential for the screening of the proper candidates, surgical planning and long-term outcome. Early branching and accessory renal artery of the donor were particularly important to deciding the side of nephrectomy, surgical technique and anastomosing pattern, and their injuries were the most frequent factor of the conversion from laparoscopic to open surgery. With increase of laparoscopic nephrectomy in donors, accurate venous anatomy was paid more and more attention to because venous bleeding could also lead to conversion to open nephrectomy. Multidetector CT (MDCT) could supplant the conventional excretory urography and renal catheter angiography and could accurately depict the donors' vessels, vascular variations. In addition, MDCT can excellently evaluate the status of donor kidney, collecting system and other pertinent anatomy details. Accurate master of related vascular anatomy can facilitate operation plan and success of operation and can contribute to the rapid development of living donor kidney transplantation. MDCT has become the choice of preoperative one-stop image assessment for living renal donors.

  8. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa S. Santos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less. Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  9. Morpho-anatomy and ontogeny of the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Vanessa S; Souza, Vinicius P; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Ferreira, Fernanda P S; Paula, José R; Rezende, Maria Helena

    2016-03-01

    The occurrence of thickened underground systems in Asteraceae is widely reported in the literature. Given the great complexity of underground systems, which may originate from roots, stems, or both, morpho-anatomical analyses are essential to ensure the use of correct terminology. The goals of this study were to describe the morpho-anatomy and ontogeny, investigate the occurrence of secondary metabolites and evaluate the effects of seasonality on the underground system of Chrysolaena simplex (Less.) Dematt. Samples were studied using standard protocols of plant anatomy, scanning electron microscopy, histochemical and phytochemical. The underground system of C. simplex was categorised as a rhizophore which started from cotyledonary node. In adult individuals, with rhizophores completely developed, the primary roots degenerated and adventitious radicular systems are formed. The buds in the subterranean portions promote the rhizophore growing, and form aerial stems when exposed to light. Lipophilic droplets were evident in the parenchymatous cells of the cortex and pith, endodermis and buds. Inulin-type fructans were observed in the stem axis and buds of the rhizophore. The presence of buds, secondary metabolites and the storage of fructans and lipids in the rhizophore can be seen as adaptive traits.

  10. Leaf glands of Banisteriopsis muricata (Malpighiaceae: distribution, secretion composition, anatomy and relationship to visitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lays Araújo Nery

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Leaf glands are common structures in Malpighiaceae and exhibit great morphological diversity, yet information on their anatomy, secretion and type of visitors remains scarce. The aim of this study was to describe the distribution, anatomical development and chemical and functional properties of leaf glands of Banisteriopsis muricata (Malpighiaceae. Leaves at different stages of development were collected and processed according to standard techniques for light and scanning electron microscopy. Secretion composition was determined by histochemical tests and test-strips, while gland funciton was determined by field observation of interactions with visitors. Leaf glands were located on the petiole and on the abaxial base of the leaf blade. The gland secretion was found to be a protein-rich nectar that was foraged upon by ants ( Solenopsis; it was found accumulated in subcuticular spaces without pores or stomata for its release. Leaf glands were found to develop from protoderm and ground meristem, and consisted of typical secretory epidermis, nectariferous parenchyma and vascularized subnectariferous parenchyma. Therefore, it can be concluded that the distribution, chemical nature of secretion and anatomy of leaf glands of B. muricata characterize them as EFNs, while foraging by ants indicate a mutualistic relationship that possibly protects the plant against herbivores.

  11. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  12. Multidetector CT angiography of renal vasculature: normal anatomy and variants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tuerkvatan, Aysel; Oezdemir, Mustafa; Cumhur, Turhan; Oelcer, Tuelay [Tuerkiye Yueksek ihtisas Hospital, Department of Radiology, Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    2009-01-15

    Knowledge of the variations in renal vascular anatomy is important before laparoscopic donor or partial nephrectomy and vascular reconstruction for renal artery stenosis or abdominal aortic aneurysm. Recently, multidetector computed tomographic (MDCT) angiography has become a principal imaging investigation for assessment of the renal vasculature and has challenged the role of conventional angiography. It is an excellent imaging technique because it is a fast and non-invasive tool that provides highly accurate and detailed evaluation of normal renal vascular anatomy and variants. The number, size and course of the renal arteries and veins are easily identified by MDCT angiography. The purpose of this pictorial essay is to illustrate MDCT angiographic appearance of normal anatomy and common variants of the renal vasculature. (orig.)

  13. Multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy for network environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Jiyang; Teng Gaojun; Yang Xiaoqing; Zhu Haihua; Kong Weiwei; Zhu Jiaming; Li Guozhao

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To design and program the multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy for network environment. Methods: By collecting the teaching material and images of 'imaging anatomy', the images were obtained with digital cameras and scanners, and processed with graphic software, and then the multimedia didactic courseware was archived with Dreamweaver MX. Results: Multimedia didactic courseware of imaging anatomy with friendly interface for network environment had been completed. Reliable, stable, and flexible operation in campus network and Internet environment was achieved. Conclusion: Being not conditioned by time and space factor, multimedia didactic courseware for network environment with an abundance of information and more freedom in teaching and studying, which saves manpower and material resources and makes an effective disposal of educational resources, will have broad prospects to develop. (authors)

  14. Normal venous anatomy and physiology of the lower extremity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notowitz, L B

    1993-06-01

    Venous disease of the lower extremities is common but is often misunderstood. It seems that the focus is on the exciting world of arterial anatomy and pathology, while the topic of venous anatomy and pathology comes in second place. However, venous diseases such as chronic venous insufficiency, leg ulcers, and varicose veins affect much of the population and may lead to disability and death. Nurses are often required to answer complex questions from the patients and his or her family about the patient's disease. Patients depend on nurses to provide accurate information in terms they can understand. Therefore it is important to have an understanding of the normal venous system of the legs before one can understand the complexities of venous diseases and treatments. This presents an overview of normal venous anatomy and physiology.

  15. The assessment of virtual reality for human anatomy instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benn, Karen P.

    1994-01-01

    This research project seeks to meet the objective of science training by developing, assessing, and validating virtual reality as a human anatomy training medium. In ideal situations, anatomic models, computer-based instruction, and cadaver dissection are utilized to augment the traditional methods of instruction. At many institutions, lack of financial resources limits anatomy instruction to textbooks and lectures. However, human anatomy is three dimensional, unlike the one dimensional depiction found in textbooks and the two dimensional depiction found on the computer. Virtual reality is a breakthrough technology that allows one to step through the computer screen into a three dimensional world. This technology offers many opportunities to enhance science education. Therefore, a virtual testing environment of the abdominopelvic region of a human cadaver was created to study the placement of body parts within the nine anatomical divisions of the abdominopelvic region and the four abdominal quadrants.

  16. Unusual anatomy of maxillary central incisor with two roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Ashwini Shivakumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Knowledge of root canal morphology is essential for successful endodontic therapy. Failure to recognize unusual root canal anatomy may lead to unsuccessful endodontic treatment. Case Report: This case report describes the successful endodontic treatment of the maxillary central incisor with unusual anatomy of two roots and two root canals. A 23-year-old male patient was referred for dental consultation with discoloration of the maxillary right central incisor with periapical lesion, which revealed unusual anatomy of root on radiographic examination, and was confirmed upon exploration. Discussion: As described by Vertucci, the maxillary central incisor presents a single root and single root canal in 100% of the cases. However, few cases of maxillary central incisors with two canals were reported in the literature, most of which were associated with developmental anomalies like fusion, germination or dens invaginatus. Clinician should be aware of the unusual anatomical variations that should be detected by the different diagnostic resources available.

  17. Effect of Injecting Hydrogen Peroxide into Heavy Clay Loam Soil on Plant Water Status, NET CO2 Assimilation, Biomass, and Vascular Anatomy of Avocado Trees Efecto de la Inyección de Peróxido de Hidrógeno en Suelo Franco Arcilloso Pesado, sobre el Estado Hídrico, Asimilación Neta de CO2, Biomasa y Anatomía Vascular de Paltos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilar M Gil M

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In Chile, avocado (Persea americana Mill. orchards are often located in poorly drained, low-oxygen soils, situation which limits fruit production and quality. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of injecting soil with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 as a source of molecular oxygen, on plant water status, net CO2 assimilation, biomass and anatomy of avocado trees set in clay loam soil with water content maintained at field capacity. Three-year-old ‘Hass’ avocado trees were planted outdoors in containers filled with heavy loam clay soil with moisture content sustained at field capacity. Plants were divided into two treatments, (a H2O2 injected into the soil through subsurface drip irrigation and (b soil with no H2O2 added (control. Stem and root vascular anatomical characteristics were determined for plants in each treatment in addition to physical soil characteristics, net CO2 assimilation (A, transpiration (T, stomatal conductance (gs, stem water potential (SWP, shoot and root biomass, water use efficiency (plant biomass per water applied [WUEb]. Injecting H2O2 into the soil significantly increased the biomass of the aerial portions of the plant and WUEb, but had no significant effect on measured A, T, gs, or SWP. Xylem vessel diameter and xylem/phloem ratio tended to be greater for trees in soil injected with H2O2 than for controls. The increased biomass of the aerial portions of plants in treated soil indicates that injecting H2O2 into heavy loam clay soils may be a useful management tool in poorly aerated soil.En Chile, los huertos de palto (Persea americana Mill. se ubican comúnmente en suelos pobremente drenados con bajo contenido de oxígeno, lo que limita producción y calidad de fruta. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el efecto de la inyección de peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2 al suelo como fuente de O2, sobre el estado hídrico, asimilación de CO2, biomasa y anatomía de paltos en suelo franco arcilloso con

  18. Upper limb vein anatomy before hemodialysis fistula creation: cross-sectional anatomy using MR venography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth; Delmas, Vincent; Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise

    2003-01-01

    Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)

  19. Upper limb vein anatomy before hemodialysis fistula creation: cross-sectional anatomy using MR venography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissy, Jean-Pierre; Fernandez, Pedro; Karila-Cohen, Pascale; Chillon, Sylvie; Schouman-Claeys, Elisabeth [Department of Radiology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Delmas, Vincent [Department of Urology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France); Dupuy, Emmanuel; Mignon, Francoise [Department of Nephrology, Hopital Bichat, 46 rue Henri Huchard, 75877 Paris Cedex 18 (France)

    2003-02-01

    Preoperative imaging is indicated to discriminate patent, adequate superficial veins of the upper limbs undetectable by clinical inspection that could be anastomosed for the creation of a durable and functional hemodialysis fistula. The aim of this pictorial review is to provide a venous anatomic map of the upper limbs using MR venography (MRV) which could help surgeons before creation of hemodialysis access fistulas (AVF). At the level of the forearm, the antebrachial cephalic vein is the most commonly identified as patent. At the level of the elbow and distal arm, the cephalic vein is patent in 80% of normal subjects, and less often patent (23-26%) than basilic vein (33-38%) in patients. Overall, reading transaxial MR views can help for assessing upper limb vein anatomy before creation of a hemodialysis access fistula. (orig.)

  20. Improving gross anatomy learning using reciprocal peer teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manyama, Mange; Stafford, Renae; Mazyala, Erick; Lukanima, Anthony; Magele, Ndulu; Kidenya, Benson R; Kimwaga, Emmanuel; Msuya, Sifael; Kauki, Julius

    2016-03-22

    The use of cadavers in human anatomy teaching requires adequate number of anatomy instructors who can provide close supervision of the students. Most medical schools are facing challenges of lack of trained individuals to teach anatomy. Innovative techniques are therefore needed to impart adequate and relevant anatomical knowledge and skills. This study was conducted in order to evaluate the traditional teaching method and reciprocal peer teaching (RPT) method during anatomy dissection. Debriefing surveys were administered to the 227 first year medical students regarding merits, demerits and impact of both RPT and Traditional teaching experiences on student's preparedness prior to dissection, professionalism and communication skills. Out of this, 159 (70 %) completed the survey on traditional method while 148 (65.2 %) completed survey on RPT method. An observation tool for anatomy faculty was used to assess collaboration, professionalism and teaching skills among students. Student's scores on examinations done before introduction of RPT were compared with examinations scores after introduction of RPT. Our results show that the mean performance of students on objective examinations was significantly higher after introduction of RPT compared to the performance before introduction of RPT [63.7 ± 11.4 versus 58.6 ± 10, mean difference 5.1; 95 % CI = 4.0-6.3; p-value peers and faculty compared to 38 % for the tradition method. The majority of faculty reported that the learning environment of the dissection groups was very active learning during RPT sessions and that professionalism was observed by most students during discussions. Introduction of RPT in our anatomy dissection laboratory was generally beneficial to both students and faculty. Both objective (student performance) and subjective data indicate that RPT improved student's performance and had a positive learning experience impact. Our future plan is to continue RPT practice and continually

  1. The integration of an anatomy massive open online course (MOOC) into a medical anatomy curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinnerton, Bronwen J; Morris, Neil P; Hotchkiss, Stephanie; Pickering, James D

    2017-01-01

    Massive open online courses (MOOCs) are designed as stand-alone courses which can be accessed by any learner around the globe with only an internet-enabled electronic device required. Although much research has focused on the enrolment and demographics of MOOCs, their impact on undergraduate campus-based students is still unclear. This article explores the impact of integrating an anatomy MOOC in to the anatomy curriculum of a year 1 medical degree program at the University of Leeds, United Kingdom. The course did not replace any teaching that was already being delivered, and was used to supplement this teaching to support the students' consolidation and revision. Analysis of student feedback indicates a high level of usage, with evidence to suggest that female learners may have approached the course in a more personalized manner. Although the video based resources and quizzes were greatly appreciated as learning tools, significant evidence suggests the students did not engage, or were inclined to engage, with the discussion fora. Furthermore, a significant majority of students did not want the MOOC to replace the existing teaching they received. Given the feedback provided, this research suggests that although the student population believe there to be value in having access to MOOC material, their role as replacements to campus-based teaching is not supported. Details regarding the enrolment and engagement of the general public with the MOOC during the two runs are also documented, with the suggestion that graduates employed in the healthcare sector were the primary users of the course. Anat Sci Educ 10: 53-67. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists. © 2016 American Association of Anatomists.

  2. Exercises in anatomy: holes between the ventricles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert H; Sarwark, Anne E; Spicer, Diane E; Backer, Carl L

    2014-01-01

    Holes between the ventricles are the commonest congenital cardiac malformations. As yet, however, there is no consensus as to how they can best be described and categorized. In this, our third exercise in cardiac anatomy, we address the issue of classification of ventricular septal defects. We begin our demonstration by analysing the normal heart. We show that the larger part of the ventricular septum is made up of its muscular component. The membranous part accounts for only a small portion, which is located centrally within the cardiac base. This small membranous part forms a boundary between the right-sided chambers and the aortic root. Holes at this site, therefore, which account for the commonest defects closed surgically, will open centrally in the cardiac base, being located postero-inferiorly relative to the supraventricular crest. We then show that the larger part of the crest itself is a free-standing muscular sleeve, which lifts the leaflets of the pulmonary valve away from the cardiac base. Only a very small part of the muscle forming the right ventricular outlet is located in the septal position. Turning our attention to malformed hearts, we show how holes between the ventricles can open centrally at the cardiac base, open to the inlet or outlet of the right ventricle or open within the substance of the apical muscular septum. We demonstrate, however, that description of such geographical location of the defects does not paint the full picture, since lesions with markedly different phenotypic features can open in comparable geographic locations. We illustrate how it is the phenotypic features, as seen from the right ventricle, which convey the crucial information for the surgeon with regard to the location of the atrioventricular conduction axis, using hearts with holes opening to the inlet of the right ventricle with muscular as opposed to partially fibrous borders to emphasize this point. We continue by showing how holes with different phenotypes can

  3. Imaging of radial wrist pain. I. Imaging modalities and anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ryan Ka Lok; Griffith, James F.; Ng, Alex Wing Hung [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Imaging and Interventional Radiology, Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Wong, Clara Wing Yee [The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Department of Orthopedics and Traumatology, Shatin (China)

    2014-06-15

    Radial wrist pain is a common clinical complaint. The relatively complex anatomy in this region, combined with the small size of the anatomical structures and occasionally subtle imaging findings, can pose problems when trying to localize the exact cause of pain. To fully comprehend the underlying pathology, one needs a good understanding of both radial-sided wrist anatomy and the relative merits of the different imaging techniques used to assess these structures. In part I of this review, these aspects will be discussed. (orig.)

  4. Normal and pathologic CT anatomy of the mandible

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborn, A.G.; Hanafee, W.H.; Mancuso, A.A.

    1982-01-01

    The value of computed tomography (CT) in the diagnosis and management of a wide variety of facial lesions has been amply demonstrated. While a number of studies have focused on CT anatomy of the paranasal sinuses, nose, and nasopharynx, none has concentrated on the mandible. Although the mandible is difficult to image because of its complex, curving surfaces and the presence of artifact-producing amalgam fillings or restorations, CT of the mandible can nevertheless be highly informative in selected cases. This pictorial essay depicts normal gross and CT anatomy of the mandible and presents a series of cases that illustrate the utility of CT in examining mandibular lesions

  5. Lower Face: Clinical Anatomy and Regional Approaches with Injectable Fillers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braz, André; Humphrey, Shannon; Weinkle, Susan; Yee, G Jackie; Remington, B Kent; Lorenc, Z Paul; Yoelin, Steve; Waldorf, Heidi A; Azizzadeh, Babak; Butterwick, Kimberly J; de Maio, Mauricio; Sadick, Neil; Trevidic, Patrick; Criollo-Lamilla, Gisella; Garcia, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    The use of injectable fillers enables facial sculpting through treatment of volume depletion and modeling of facial contours. Injectable fillers are among the most frequently performed minimally invasive cosmetic procedures.However, treatment of the lower third of the face can be challenging and requires expertise in facial anatomy. In this article, the authors provide a comprehensive review of the anatomy of the lower third of the face, highlighting danger zones. In addition, the authors describe their preferred approach and detailed technique used in the treatment of each specific area, namely the jawline, prejowl sulcus, melomental folds, and lips.

  6. Computerized tomography anatomy of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savchenko, A.P.; Mamaev, V.V.; Pkhakadze, Eh.G.

    1989-01-01

    The authors described the anatomy of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space in health on the basis of computerized tomography (CT) of 90 patients. Five typical levels in CT (ensuring all necessary data on roentgenomorphological trains of the kidneys and retroperitoneal space in the kidney area) were singled out. Some roentgenometric data on kidney cross-sections as well as the quantitative densitometric characterization of the parenchyma of the kidneys, renal sinus and adjacent tissues were presented. X-ray anatomy of the renal fiscia, pararenal space and perirenal fatty space of the kidney with different parts of the tetroperitoneal space was described

  7. The anatomy and physiology of the avian endocrine system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Midge; Pilny, Anthony A

    2008-01-01

    The endocrine system of birds is comparable to that of mammals, although there are many unique aspects to consider when studying the anatomy, physiology, and biochemistry. Avian endocrinology is a field of veterinary medicine that is unfamiliar to many practitioners; however, it is important to have a comprehensive understanding when evaluating companion birds in clinical practice. This article covers the anatomy and physiology of the normal avian, and readers are referred to other articles for a more detailed explanation of altered physiology and pathology.

  8. Building the Body: Active Learning Laboratories that Emphasize Practical Aspects of Anatomy and Integration with Radiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumwalt, Ann C.; Lufler, Rebecca S.; Monteiro, Joseph; Shaffer, Kitt

    2010-01-01

    Active learning exercises were developed to allow advanced medical students to revisit and review anatomy in a clinically meaningful context. In our curriculum, students learn anatomy two to three years before they participate in the radiology clerkship. These educational exercises are designed to review anatomy content while highlighting its…

  9. perception to cadaver dissection and views on anatomy as a subject

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, literature on medical students' perceptions on cadaver dissection and their opinions on anatomy as a subject is scanty ... Key words: Dissection, Perceptions, Cadaver, Anatomy. INTRODUCTION. Dissection has been the .... attention they give to the learning of anatomy, and this may possibly explain the relatively.

  10. Living AnatoME: Teaching and Learning Musculoskeletal Anatomy through Yoga and Pilates

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Carrie; Marango, Stephanie Pieczenik; Friedman, Erica S.; Laitman, Jeffrey T.

    2010-01-01

    Living AnatoME, a program designed in 2004 by two medical students in conjunction with the Director of Anatomy, teaches musculoskeletal anatomy through yoga and Pilates. Previously offered as an adjunct to the Gross Anatomy course in 2007, Living AnatoME became an official part of the curriculum. Previous research conducted on the program…

  11. Does Spatial Ability Help the Learning of Anatomy in a Biomedical Science Course?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Kevin; Hayes, Jennifer A.; Chiavaroli, Neville

    2014-01-01

    A three-dimensional appreciation of the human body is the cornerstone of clinical anatomy. Spatial ability has previously been found to be associated with students' ability to learn anatomy and their examination performance. The teaching of anatomy has been the subject of major change over the last two decades with the reduction in time spent…

  12. The Use of Educational Comics in Learning Anatomy among Multiple Student Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiyoon; Chung, Min Suk; Jang, Hae Gwon; Chung, Beom Sun

    2017-01-01

    Understanding basic human anatomy can be beneficial for all students, regardless of when, or if, they will later undertake a formal course in the subject. For students who are preparing to undertake a formal anatomy course, educational comics on basic anatomy can serve as a concise and approachable review of the material. For other students, these…

  13. Interprofessional Anatomy Education in the United Kingdom and Ireland: Perspectives from Students and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F.; Hall, Samuel; Border, Scott; Adds, Philip J.; Finn, Gabrielle M.

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing recognition of multiprofessional learning in anatomy and its role in medical and healthcare professions. This study utilized two components to investigate anatomy interprofessional education (AIPE) in the United Kingdom and Ireland. First, a survey involving qualitative and quantitative components asked Heads of Anatomy to…

  14. Digital dissection system for medical school anatomy training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Kurt E.; Pawlina, Wojciech; Carmichael, Stephen W.; Korinek, Mark J.; Schroeder, Kathryn K.; Segovis, Colin M.; Robb, Richard A.

    2003-05-01

    As technology advances, new and innovative ways of viewing and visualizing the human body are developed. Medicine has benefited greatly from imaging modalities that provide ways for us to visualize anatomy that cannot be seen without invasive procedures. As long as medical procedures include invasive operations, students of anatomy will benefit from the cadaveric dissection experience. Teaching proper technique for dissection of human cadavers is a challenging task for anatomy educators. Traditional methods, which have not changed significantly for centuries, include the use of textbooks and pictures to show students what a particular dissection specimen should look like. The ability to properly carry out such highly visual and interactive procedures is significantly constrained by these methods. The student receives a single view and has no idea how the procedure was carried out. The Department of Anatomy at Mayo Medical School recently built a new, state-of-the-art teaching laboratory, including data ports and power sources above each dissection table. This feature allows students to access the Mayo intranet from a computer mounted on each table. The vision of the Department of Anatomy is to replace all paper-based resources in the laboratory (dissection manuals, anatomic atlases, etc.) with a more dynamic medium that will direct students in dissection and in learning human anatomy. Part of that vision includes the use of interactive 3-D visualization technology. The Biomedical Imaging Resource (BIR) at Mayo Clinic has developed, in collaboration with the Department of Anatomy, a system for the control and capture of high resolution digital photographic sequences which can be used to create 3-D interactive visualizations of specimen dissections. The primary components of the system include a Kodak DC290 digital camera, a motorized controller rig from Kaidan, a PC, and custom software to synchronize and control the components. For each dissection procedure, the

  15. Wood anatomy of Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. and its adaptive and ecological significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manju Sahney

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Wood anatomy of Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. has been done to study the structural variations in stem and root wood and to correlate them with growth habit and ecology of the plant. Vessels are wider and more abundant while rays (uni- to triserate are taller in stem wood than in root wood, which possesses broad multiseriate rays. Simple perforation plate, sparse vasicentric paratracheal parenchyma and perforated ray cells are the features common in both stem and root woods, while helical thickenings have been recorded only in the stem wood. Lower value of vulnerability, presence of wider vessels with simple perforation plate, and presence of helical thickening are indicators of wood xeromorphy in Holmskioldia sanguinea. Features like wider vessels and extensive height of rays in stem wood are in consonance with the climbing nature of the stem axis.

  16. Leaf anatomy of the South African Danthonieae (Poaceae. XV. The genus Elytrophorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. P. Ellis

    1986-10-01

    Full Text Available The leaf anatomy of  Elytrophorus globularis Hack, and  E. spicatus (Willd. A. Camus is described and illustrated from freshly fixed material from SWA/Namibia and Botswana. It is shown that these two species are anatomically indistinguishable. It is suggested that they are conspecific. and that  E. spicatus possibly represents juvenile plants with immature inflorescences. The anatomical evidence strongly refutes a chloridoid relationship for Elytrophorus but appears to support arundinoid affinities for the genus. Striking anatomical and ecological similarities exist between  Elytrophorus and  Sacciolepis huillensis (Rendle Stapf. No significant leaf anatomical differences separate  Elytrophorus from S.  huillensis and some of the other C3 panicoid taxa and. consequently,  Elytro­phorus may represent a link between the Arundinoideae and the Panicoideae.

  17. Adaptability to climate change in forestry species: drought effects on growth and wood anatomy of ponderosa pines growing at different competition levels

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández, M.E.; Gyenge, J.E.; de Urquiza, M.M.; Varela, S.

    2012-01-01

    More stressful conditions are expected due to climatic change in several regions, including Patagonia, South-America. In this region, there are no studies about the impact of severe drought events on growth and wood characteristics of the most planted forestry species, Pinus ponderosa (Doug. ex-Laws). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of a severe drought event on annual stem growth and functional wood anatomy of pines growing at different plantation densities aiming to un...

  18. Comparative anatomy of the leaves of Piper lepturum(Kunth) C.DC. var. lepturum and Piper lepturum var. angustifolium (C.DC.) Yunck.

    OpenAIRE

    Machado, Nelson Santana de Oliveira; Pereira, Flaviane Gomes; Santos, Paulo Roberto Dias dos; Costa, Cecília Gonçalves; Guimarães, Elsie Franklin

    2015-01-01

    This study showed anatomical differences related to Piper lepturumvar. lepturum and P. lepturum var. angustifolium species, sometimes considered varieties and in other cases synonyms. For histological analysis, fully expanded leaves were collected and for analysis by scanning electron microscope (SEM), fragments from the midrib were fixed on both leaf surfaces. The two species revealed differences in plant anatomy and it was observed that the stem of P. lepturum var. lepturum showed persisten...

  19. UJI ANATOMI DAN MOLEKULER SANSEVIERIA TRIFASCIATA

    OpenAIRE

    Whika Febria Dewatisari

    2013-01-01

    Sansevieria is an ornamental plant which has variation leaves on colour and form. It has unstabilizaton characteristic of genetic. This condition especially happens on species Sansevieria trifasciata. Sansevieria trifasciata which has been expressed to the colour and form of leaves. Variation in isozyme banding pattern knew morpholog variation in species S. trifasciata. The aim of this research looked at difference of anatomycal structure for organs, and any variation in their isozyme banding...

  20. Anatomy Journal of Africa - Vol 4, No 2 (2015)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variant Anatomy of Intracranial Part of Middle Meningeal Artery in a Kenyan Population · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Julius Ogeng'o, Beda Olabu, Mary I. Otiti, Beryl S. Ominde, Larry Mburu, Hemed Elbusaidy, 571-577 ...

  1. When Young Children Explore Anatomy: Dilemma or Development?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petty, Karen

    2001-01-01

    Offers advice to parents and teachers on addressing children's natural curiosities about their own bodies and those of others. Recommends using anatomically correct terms and dolls, and children's anatomy books; advises what to do when children engage in sex play, self-exploration, and masturbation, or use toilet language. (DLH)

  2. Study skills in anatomy and physiology: Is there a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husmann, Polly R; Barger, J Bradley; Schutte, Audra F

    2016-01-01

    Many factors influence the way individual students study, including but not limited to: previous coursework, attitudes toward the class (motivation, intimidation, risk, etc.), metacognition, and work schedules. However, little of this research has involved medical students. The present article asks the question, "Do individual medical students study differently for different classes?" Study skills surveys were given to United States medical students at an allopathic medical school and an osteopathic medical school. Students were surveyed near the end of their first year gross anatomy course and again near the end of their first year physiology course. Survey items included Likert scale and open-ended questions about study habits and basic demographic information. The survey responses were correlated with each student's final grade percentages in the courses. Analysis revealed that the four most common study habits were reviewing lecture notes, taking practice examinations, completing learning exercises, and making drawings and diagrams. The two surveys (anatomy and physiology) from each individual were also compared to see if students reported different study habits in anatomy versus physiology. A negative correlation was found between changing study habits between courses and final anatomy grade percentages. Additional analyses suggest that those students who do change their study habits between courses are increasing the number of study strategies that they attempt. This increase in the number of study strategies attempted may not allow the student to reach the same depth of understanding as their colleagues who utilize fewer strategies. © 2015 American Association of Anatomists.

  3. Anatomy Journal of Africa - Vol 3, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Perception to Cadaver Dissection and Views on Anatomy as a Subject between Two Pioneer Cohorts in a Kenyan Medical School · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. P Bundi Karau, A Wamachi, K Ndede, J Mwamisi, P Ndege, 318-323 ...

  4. Radiological anatomy - evaluation of integrative education in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, S; Schmiedl, A; Meyer, S; Giesemann, A; Pabst, R; Weidemann, J; Wacker, F K; Kirchhoff, T

    2013-09-01

    Evaluation and analysis of the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" established since 2007 at the Medical School Hannover (MHH) in comparison with conventional education. Anatomy and radiology are usually taught separately with a considerable time lag. Interdisciplinary teaching of these associated subjects seems logical for several reasons. Therefore, the integrative course "Radiological Anatomy" was established in the second year of medical education, combining these two closely related subjects. This interdisciplinary course was retrospectively evaluated by consideration of a student questionnaire and staff observations. The advantages and disadvantages of integrative teaching in medical education are discussed. The course ratings were excellent (median 1; mean 1.3 on a scale of 1 to 6). This is significantly (p radiology increased during the course (88 %). According to the students' suggestions the course was enhanced by a visitation in the Department of Radiology and the additional topic central nervous system. Integrative teaching of anatomy and radiology was well received by the students. Both, anatomical and radiological comprehension and the motivation to learn were improved. However, it should be considered, that the amount of work and time required by the teaching staff is considerably increased compared to traditional teaching. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  5. Cost-Effective Teaching of Radiology with Preclinical Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, James S.; Alvarez, Jacqueline; Davis, Bonnie C.; Duerinckx, Andre J.

    2018-01-01

    Graduating physicians in all subspecialties have an increased need for competency in radiology, particularly since the use of diagnostic imaging continues to grow. To integrate the teaching of radiology with anatomy during the first year of medical school at Howard University, a novel approach was developed to overcome the limitations of resources…

  6. Visualization of myocardial perfusion derived from coronary anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Termeer, M.A.; Bescos, J.O.; Breeuwer, M.; Vilanova, A.; Gerritsen, F.A.; Gröller, M.E.; Nagel, Eike

    2008-01-01

    Visually assessing the effect of the coronary artery anatomy on the perfusion of the heart muscle in patients with coronary artery disease remains a challenging task. We explore the feasibility of visualizing this effect on perfusion using a numerical approach. We perform a computational simulation

  7. [The Prague school of anatomy and its illustrators].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linc, R

    1997-01-01

    The centennial commemorial of the birthday of Ladislav Borovanský gives us an incentive for describing a short history of Czech anatomy in Medical Faculty of Charles University with their textbooks and painters. Parallelly with them are presented some other distinguished painters active in anatomical aspect of illustration.

  8. Oral Anatomy Laboratory Examinations in a Physical Therapy Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabrizio, Philip A.

    2013-01-01

    The process of creating and administering traditional tagged anatomy laboratory examinations is time consuming for instructors and limits laboratory access for students. Depending on class size and the number of class, sections, creating, administering, and breaking down a tagged laboratory examination may involve one to two eight-hour days.…

  9. A stochastic large deformation model for computational anatomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnaudon, Alexis; Holm, Darryl D.; Pai, Akshay Sadananda Uppinakudru

    2017-01-01

    In the study of shapes of human organs using computational anatomy, variations are found to arise from inter-subject anatomical differences, disease-specific effects, and measurement noise. This paper introduces a stochastic model for incorporating random variations into the Large Deformation...

  10. Functional Anatomy of the Feeding Apparatus of Four South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The functional anatomy of the head and anterior neck region of the cormorants Phalacrocorax lucidus. P. neglectus, P. capensis and P. africanus was investigated. There are significant differences in absolute size of the muscle and bone elements between the four species. The relative proportions of these elements are, ...

  11. Factors that affect medical students' performance in Anatomy in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Much attention has been drawn to the area of medical education in contemporary times with the aim of developing effective teaching strategies in our medical schools. Objectives: To identify the problems encountered by students in the study of Anatomy and suggest ways of enhancing their performance in the ...

  12. An emerging paradigm for teaching human anatomy and physiology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabab El-Sayed Hassan El-Sayed

    2013-03-15

    Mar 15, 2013 ... information about the anatomy and physiology of human ... tional curriculum in a range of teaching fields that are based ..... et al.,47 who were studying the acceptance and benefits of vi- .... Foreign language teaching methods: Culture lesson 3: the case for .... vations in integrating ICT in education, vol. 3.

  13. Rembrandt's anatomy lesson of Dr. Deijman of 1656 dissected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ijpma, Frank F. A.; Middelkoop, Norbert E.; van Gulik, Thomas M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 350 years ago, Rembrandt painted Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Deijman. This group portrait, featuring important members of the Amsterdam Guild of Surgeons, belongs to the series of paintings of the guild. Rembrandt's masterpiece is one of the most famous historical images of a dissection of the

  14. Exploring the Use of a Facebook Page in Anatomy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional…

  15. How Useful Is YouTube in Learning Heart Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative…

  16. The anatomy of forearm free flap phalloplasty for transgender surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, S; Dennis, M; Holland, J; Terrell, M; Loukas, M; Schober, J

    2018-03-01

    Transgender surgeries are becoming more frequent and visual interpretation of anatomy is essential for both surgeons and patients. Since the forearm free flap phalloplasty was introduced in 1984, it has been known to provide reliable cosmetic and functional results for transitioning men compared with phalloplasty by different flaps. Surgical text descriptions were enhanced by the creation of new anatomic illustrations. The forearm free flap consists of the anterior forearm skin, subcutaneous tissue, fascia containing the radial artery as the perforator and its venae comitantes, cephalic and basilic veins, and lateral and medial antebrachial cutaneous nerves are demonstrated in relation to the surgically derived flap. Song's forearm free flap phalloplasty requires two surgical stages with a three-month interval between the stages: prelamination of a neourethra and construction of a neophallus. The neophallus created by forearm flap phalloplasty is reported to achieve acceptable aesthetical and psychological satisfaction, appropriate size and shape, and satisfying sexual intercourse. Despite increasing experiences in gender confirming surgery with modifications made by many authors, urethral complications including fistula and/or stricture formation are the leading causes of reoperation. The poor esthetic outcome of the forearm donor site and a decrease in rigidity of the neophallus are the main limitations. Illustrations of anatomy help inform surgical choice and understanding of risks and benefits by patients. The anatomy of the free forearm flap phalloplasty supports creation of a neophallus for transsexual anatomy revision. Clin. Anat. 31:145-151, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Maarten Luursema

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F(1=5.63 and p=.02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  18. ANATOMY OF THE MALE REPRODUCTIVE ORGANS OF THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-12-10

    Dec 10, 2014 ... was the urethral groove. The male reproductive anatomy of the African sideneck turtle is similar to those earlier reported in sea and freshwater turtles. Key Words: Testis, Epididymis, Morphology, Turtles. INTRODUCTION. Freshwater turtles are under increasing threats around the world. The African side.

  19. Visualisation of animal anatomy using MRI and CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Hansen, Kasper; Pedersen, Michael

    imaging (MRI) and CT. Various species (tarantula, horseshoe crab, carp, haddock, lungfish, axolotl) were subjected to multi-slice MRI and CT protocols to produce 2D images of body slices, followed by volume rendering producing 3D digital models of animal anatomy with applications for visualising specific...

  20. Computed Tomography-Enhanced Anatomy Course Using Enterprise Visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Hila; Cohen, Haim; Medlej, Bahaa; Kornreich, Liora; Peled, Nathan; Hershkovitz, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Rapid changes in medical knowledge are forcing continuous adaptation of the basic science courses in medical schools. This article discusses a three-year experience developing a new Computed Tomography (CT)-based anatomy curriculum at the Sackler School of Medicine, Tel Aviv University, including describing the motivations and reasoning for the…

  1. Anatomy Drawing Screencasts: Enabling Flexible Learning for Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D.

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material…

  2. Padua: the renaissance of human anatomy and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrioli, Giancarlo; Trincia, Giuseppe

    2004-10-01

    The city and University of Padua have a long tradition and a great reputation in anatomic studies, dating from the founding of the university in the year 1222. We present a historical review of the study of human anatomy, for which Padua was a most important center. The background for the development of this culture was represented by the scientific freedom and political wisdom of the Serenissima Republic of Venice, a liberal and tolerant state in the midst of a feudal, imperial, and pontifical Europe. During the second half of the 15th century, the flourishing trade and cultural, social, and political life of Venice attracted a great number of scientists and students from all over Europe who contributed to the establishment of Padua as an international center for culture and the sciences. Vesalio, Fabrizio d'Acquapendente, and Giovanni Battista Morgagni represent milestones in the history of anatomy as well as in medicine and surgery. History shows that anatomy and surgery evolved together, just as anatomy of the nervous system and neurosurgery developed in tandem. The tradition of neurosurgery in Padua is considered one the most important schools in Italy.

  3. Stereopsis, Visuospatial Ability, and Virtual Reality in Anatomy Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luursema, Jan-Maarten; Vorstenbosch, Marc; Kooloos, Jan

    2017-01-01

    A new wave of virtual reality headsets has become available. A potential benefit for the study of human anatomy is the reintroduction of stereopsis and absolute size. We report a randomized controlled trial to assess the contribution of stereopsis to anatomy learning, for students of different visuospatial ability. Sixty-three participants engaged in a one-hour session including a study phase and posttest. One group studied 3D models of the anatomy of the deep neck in full stereoptic virtual reality; one group studied those structures in virtual reality without stereoptic depth. The control group experienced an unrelated virtual reality environment. A post hoc questionnaire explored cognitive load and problem solving strategies of the participants. We found no effect of condition on learning. Visuospatial ability however did impact correct answers at F (1) = 5.63 and p = .02. No evidence was found for an impact of cognitive load on performance. Possibly, participants were able to solve the posttest items based on visuospatial information contained in the test items themselves. Additionally, the virtual anatomy may have been complex enough to discourage memory based strategies. It is important to control the amount of visuospatial information present in test items.

  4. Endoscopic anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Corey C; Bromwich, Matthew; Roth, Kathy; Matic, Damir B

    2008-01-01

    Endoscopic repair of orbital blow-out fractures could become a predictable and efficient treatment alternative to traditional methods. However, maxillary sinus endoscopy provides a complex and disorienting view of the orbital floor. To be a useful and consistent technique for providing access to the orbital floor, specific knowledge of maxillary endoscopic anatomy is required. The purpose of the study was to provide an anatomic description of the orbital floor via the endoscopic approach. Objectives include defining consistent landmarks for use in endoscopic repair of orbital floor fractures. Using 0- and 30-degree rigid endoscopes, 6 fresh cadavers (12 maxillary sinuses) were examined via a standard Caldwell-Luc approach. Computed tomographic scans, plastic molds, and digital images were used to compare observable averages within bony anatomy. Potential bony landmarks were correlated with soft-tissue anatomy in fresh specimens. The maxillary ostium, orbital floor, and lateral ethmoid air cells were visualized, and their structures were described. Observations were made in relation to the anatomy of the orbital floor and maxillary sinus, including fracture pattern and force transmission pathways. An "orbitomaxillary" sinus bony thickening was identified and described for the first time. This study provides the basis for further refinement of surgical technique and opens the door for future clinical trials using endoscopic repair.

  5. The wood anatomy of Gardenieae, Ixoreae and Mussaendeae (Rubiaceae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koek-Noorman, Jifke

    1972-01-01

    The tribe Gardenieae in the restricted delimitation proposed by Bremekamp and Verdcourt is wood anatomically homogeneous. The genera of the Ixoreae studied by me also agree with each other in wood structure. Within the tribe Mussaendeae in the delimitation accepted by Schumann the wood anatomy shows

  6. Comparative wood anatomy of Bonnetiaceae, Theaceae and Guttiferae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baretta-Kuipers, Tine

    1976-01-01

    A description of the xylem anatomy of the genera Archytaea, Ploiarium, Bonnetia, Neblinaria, Neotatea, Caraipa, Haploclathra, Mahurea, Marila, Kielmeyera, and Asteropeia is given. All these genera except Asteropeia, were included in the family of the Bonnetiaceae by Maguire (1972). He considered the

  7. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. VII, Chrysophyllum

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    In the neotropics, the genus Chrysophyllum consists of C. cainito and a number of species which have recently been assigned to the genus Cynodendron. Many taxonomists have not accepted the new genus Cynodendron and this is supported by the present study of the wood anatomy. In this restricted sense, Chrysophyllum consists of a group of closely related species that are...

  8. Wood anatomy of the neotropical Sapotaceae. V, Calocarpum

    Science.gov (United States)

    B. F. Kukachka

    1978-01-01

    Calocarpum, long maintained as a distinct taxon, is now generally considered as a synonym of Pouteria. The wood anatomy is quite different from Pouteria (sensu stricto) and the author is of the opinion that reduction to synonomy is not justified. The anatomical evidence supports the treatment of Calocarpum by the monographer Charles Baehni.

  9. Temporomandibular joint arthrography: normal anatomy and technique of examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duvoisin, B.; Schnyder, P.; Klaus, E.; Jacques, B.

    1990-01-01

    Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) dysfunction is common. This entity is most often consecutive to internal derangements of the TMJ, which are not recognizable on plain films and tomograms. TMJ arthrography has proved a valuable tool in diagnosing these abnormalities. The technique of examination and normal arthrographic anatomy are reviewed. (author) [pt

  10. Student performance in a flipped classroom dental anatomy course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chutinan, S; Riedy, C A; Park, S E

    2017-11-09

    The purpose of this study was to assess dental student learning in a dental anatomy module between traditional lecture and flipped classroom cohorts. Two cohorts of predoctoral dental students (N = 70 within each cohort) participated in a dental anatomy module within an Introduction to the Dental Patient (IDP) course ([traditional/lecture cohort: academic year (AY) 2012, 2013] and [flipped classroom cohort: AY 2014, 2015]). For the dental anatomy module, both cohorts were evaluated on pre-clinical tooth waxing exercises immediately after each of five lectures and tooth identification after all lectures were given. Additionally, the cohorts' performance on the overall IDP course examination was compared. The flipped classroom cohort had statistically significant higher waxing scores (dental anatomy module) than students in the traditional classroom. There was no statistically significant difference for tooth identification scores and the overall IDP course examination between the traditional vs flipped approach cohorts. This is due to the latter two assessments conducted at the end of the course gave all students enough time to review the lecture content prior to the assessment resulting in similar scores for both cohorts. The flipped classroom cohort promoted students' individual learning and resulted in improved students' performance on immediate evaluation but not on the end of the course evaluation. Redesign of courses to include a new pedagogical approach should be carefully implemented and evaluated for student's educational success. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Teaching the Anatomy of a Scientific Journal Article

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schinske, Jeffrey N.; Clayman, Karen; Busch, Allison K.; Tanner, Kimberly D.

    2008-01-01

    To promote inquiry-based learning, the authors integrate the anatomy of a scientific journal article into their secondary science curriculum. In this article, they present three classroom activities used to teach students about the function and format of scientific journal articles. The first focuses on journal article figures, the second on…

  12. Anatomy and Physiology. Health Occupations Education. Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    East Texas State Univ., Commerce. Occupational Curriculum Lab.

    Nine units on anatomy and physiology are presented in this teacher's guide. The units are the following: organization and general plan of the body; skeletal and muscular systems; digestive system; circulatory system; respiratory system; nervous system and special senses; urinary system; reproductive system; and endocrine glands. Each instructional…

  13. Surgical anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nancy Mohamed El Sekily

    2014-08-19

    Aug 19, 2014 ... Abstract Introduction: The knowledge of the anatomy of greater occipital nerve and its relation to occipital artery is important for the surgeon. Blockage or surgical release of greater occipital nerve is clinically effective in reducing or eliminating chronic migraine symptoms. Aim: The aim of this research was to ...

  14. DSA analysis of the normal and variant hepatic arterial anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lv Penghua; Wang Jie; Shi Haibing; Feng Yaoliang; Chen Huizhu; Chen Yuqin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To observe and analyze the normal and variant hepatic arterial anatomy by DSA. Methods: One thousand and two hundreds patients with routine celiac and/or selective hepatic arteriography from November 1994 to March 2003 were retrospectively analyzed, some of them were further simultaneously undergone superior mesenteric arteriography, left gastric arteriography or inferior phrenic arteriography etc. Results: 873 (72.8%) patients had the standard hepatic arterial anatomy. 156(13.0%) patients had variant left hepatic arteries (LHAs), 120(10.0%) with variant right hepatic arteries (RHAs) and 21 (1.8%) of a variant anatomy involving both LHA and RHA. The common hepatic artery (CHA) of 1170 (97.5%) patients originated from the celiac artery. 92.0% proper hepatic artery (PHA) was the direct extension of CHA. The RHA was mainly (89.8%) derived from the PHA. There was some variation of the middle hepatic artery (MHA) with more than 62.2% arising from the LHA. The LHA was derived from the PHA (44.6%) or the RHA(30.2%) or other arteries (25.2%). Conclusions: The knowledge of normal and variant anatomy of hepatic vasculature by DSA may be very helpful for intervention therapy and hepatosurgery. (authors)

  15. Clinical relevance of distal biceps insertional and footprint anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bekerom, Michel P J; Kodde, Izaäk F.; Aster, Asir; Bleys, Ronald L A W; Eygendaal, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this review was to present an overview, based on a literature search, of surgical anatomy for distal biceps tendon repairs, based on the current literature. Methods: A narrative review was performed using Pubmed/Medline using key words: Search terms were distal biceps,

  16. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi; de Leeuw, Peter A. J.; Malagelada, Francesc; Manzanares, M. Cristina; Götzens, Víctor; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  17. Anatomy of the ankle ligaments: a pictorial essay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golanó, Pau; Vega, Jordi; de Leeuw, Peter A. J.; Malagelada, Francesc; Manzanares, M. Cristina; Götzens, Víctor; van Dijk, C. Niek

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the anatomy of the ankle ligaments is important for correct diagnosis and treatment. Ankle ligament injury is the most frequent cause of acute ankle pain. Chronic ankle pain often finds its cause in laxity of one of the ankle ligaments. In this pictorial essay, the ligaments around the

  18. Anal sphincter complex: endoanal MR imaging of normal anatomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hussain, S. M.; Stoker, J.; Laméris, J. S.

    1995-01-01

    To determine the normal anatomy of the anal sphincter complex on magnetic resonance (MR) images. Ten healthy volunteers (four men, six women; age range, 21-26 years) underwent MR imaging with an endoanal coil. The lower part of the anal canal contained the internal sphincter, the longitudinal muscle

  19. Introductory Anatomy and Physiology in an Undergraduate Nursing Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, S. J.; White, S.; Power, N.

    2017-01-01

    Using an educational data mining approach, first-year academic achievement of undergraduate nursing students, which included two compulsory courses in introductory human anatomy and physiology, was compared with achievement in a final semester course that transitioned students into the workplace. We hypothesized that students could be grouped…

  20. Innovative activities for teaching anatomy of speech production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinder-Meredith, Amy E

    2010-01-01

    Courses in anatomy have traditionally relied on lectures and cadaver dissection laboratories. In speech and hearing sciences, there tends to be less access to cadavers than in medical schools and other allied health professions. It is more typical to use anatomical models, diagrams and lecture slides. Regardless of the resources available, anatomy is a subject that lends itself to hands-on learning. This article briefly reviews teaching methods and describes a variety of innovative activities to enhance learning of anatomical concepts and clinical relevance of anatomy for speech production. Teaching strategies and activities were developed to capitalize on students' multimodal learning preferences as revealed by responses to a survey administered to 49 undergraduates in the beginning of an anatomy of speech production course. At the end of the semester, students completed a second survey. A five-point Likert scale was used to assess the usefulness of each activity as a learning tool or level of clinical relevance and the level of enjoyability. The responses were overwhelmingly positive with level of usefulness and level of clinical relevance rated higher on average than the level of enjoyment.

  1. Maintaining excellence in teaching of human anatomy: University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measures to address these challenges have resulted in wide disparities in curriculum design teaching methods, number and composition of instructors. Inspite of the challenges, the Department of Human Anatomy of the University of Nairobi (UON) maintained excellence of teaching for over 40yrs. This article describes the ...

  2. Anatomy of lead poisoning | Duru | Research Journal of Health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Lead poisoning and lead toxicity is usually often interchangeably used by different Scientists. The Anatomy of lead poisoning encompasses its effects on different organ-systems of different species of organisms. It also includes environmental, functional and biochemical components associated with most heavy ...

  3. Functional anatomy and biomechanics of the carpus; Funktionelle Anatomie und Biomechanik des Karpus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmitt, R. [Herz- und Gefaessklinik GmbH, Institut fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie, Bad Neustadt an der Saale (Germany)

    2006-08-15

    The wrist is an exceedingly complex structure composed of several joints and a dedicated ligamentous system. Its functional principles allow a wide range of carpal motion and make the wrist remarkably resistant to external stress forces: The proximal carpal row serves as an intercalated link interposed between the static elements of both the forearm and the distal carpal row. Like a flexible placeholder, the proximal row synchronously adapts to the spatial and temporal requirements of the wrist. There are synergistic movement patterns including simultaneous flexion of the proximal row as the wrist is deviated radially and simultaneous extension during ulnar deviation. Together with pronosupination of the radioulnar joints, the combined radial/ulnar inclination and flexion/extension enable spherical, out-of-plane movements of the hand. Carpal function is best explained by the ''model of a ring under tension.'' This review addresses the anatomy and the biomechanics of the wrist and illustrates systematic image analysis by using carpal lines and angles as well as indices of carpal height. (orig.) [German] Die Handwurzel ist ein komplexes Mosaik von Skelettelementen mit einer Vielzahl von Gelenken und einem differenzierten Ligamentsystem. Die gegensaetzlichen Anforderungen aus hoher Belastungsstabilitaet und hoher Bewegungsfreiheit werden durch folgende Funktionsprinzipien realisiert: Die proximale Handwurzelreihe ist ein mobiles Glied, das zwischen die fixen Elemente des Unterarms und der distalen Reihe interponiert ist. Mit ''variabler Geometrie'' passt die proximale Reihe ihre Form entsprechend den aktuellen Raum- und Krafterfordernissen an. Am Handgelenk kommt es zu kombinierten Bewegungen in 2 Raumebenen, wobei die Radialduktion mit einer Flexion und die Ulnarduktion mit einer Extension kombiniert sind. In der Kombination mit den Umwendbewegungen im distalen Radioulnargelenk sowie den karpalen Abduktions- und Flexions

  4. Independent learning modules enhance student performance and understanding of anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, Maria A; Dom, Aaron M; Buchanan, James T; Williams, Alison R; Efaw, Morgan L; Richardson, Laura L

    2014-01-01

    Didactic lessons are only one part of the multimodal teaching strategies used in gross anatomy courses today. Increased emphasis is placed on providing more opportunities for students to develop lifelong learning and critical thinking skills during medical training. In a pilot program designed to promote more engaged and independent learning in anatomy, self-study modules were introduced to supplement human gross anatomy instruction at Joan C. Edwards School of Medicine at Marshall University. Modules use three-dimensional constructs to help students understand complex anatomical regions. Resources are self-contained in portable bins and are accessible at any time. Students use modules individually or in groups in a structured self-study format that augments material presented in lecture and laboratory. Pilot outcome data, measured by feedback surveys and examination performance statistics, suggest that the activity may be improving learning in gross anatomy. Positive feedback on both pre- and post-examination surveys showed that students felt the activity helped to increase their understanding of the topic. In concordance with student perception, average examination scores on module-related laboratory and lecture questions were higher in the two years of the pilot program compared with the year before its initiation. Modules can be fabricated on a modest budget using minimal resources, making implementation practical for smaller institutions. Upper level medical students assist in module design and upkeep, enabling continuous opportunities for vertical integration across the curriculum. This resource offers a feasible mechanism for enhancing independent and lifelong learning competencies, which could be a valuable complement to any gross anatomy curriculum. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  5. Improving learning of anatomy with reusable learning objects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Rad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The use of modern educational technologies is useful for learning, durability, sociability, and upgrading professionalism. The aim of this study was evaluating the effect of reusable learning objects on improving learning of anatomy. Methods: This was a quasi-experimental study. Fourteen (reusable learning objects RLO from different parts of anatomy of human body including thorax, abdomen, and pelvis were prepared for medical student in Yasuj University of Medical Sciences in 2009. The length of the time for RLO was between 11-22 min. Because their capacities were low, so they were easy to use with cell phone or MP4. These materials were available to the students before the classes. The mean scores of students in anatomy of human body group were compared to the medical students who were not used this method and entered the university in 2008. A questionnaire was designed by the researcher to evaluate the effect of RLO and on, content, interest and motivation, participation, preparation and attitude. Result: The mean scores of anatomy of human body of medical student who were entered the university in 2009 have been increased compare to the students in 2008, but this difference was not significant. Based on the questionnaire data, it was shown that the RLO had a positive effect on improving learning anatomy of human body (75.5% and the effective relationship (60.6%. The students were interested in using RLO (74.6%, some students (54.2% believed that this method should be replaced by lecture. Conclusion: The use of RLO could promote interests and effective communication among the students and led to increasing self-learning motivation.

  6. Lecture classes in human anatomy: the students' perceptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Maitreyee; Roy, Hironmoy; Ghosh, Anasuya; Tapadar, Arunabha; Chowdhury, Subhramoy; Mukherjee, Pranab; Jana, Tapan Kumar

    2013-06-01

    The human anatomy, or in brief, the body structure has fascinated man for ages. Due to the information explosion and the increase in specializations, this knowledge is available in a very sketchy manner in high school biology courses. The first comprehensive course on the human anatomy is taught to the first year medical students in medical colleges. This is in keeping with the regulations of the Medical Council of India. The anatomy lecture classes occupy a considerable time of the course, to provide the students with an effective knowledge of the gross anatomy, histology, embryology and the clinical anatomy. On the other hand, the students' feedback regarding the lecture methods and the teaching environment is crucial in judging the efficacy of the present curriculum. To obtain the students' feedback about the environment of the lecture classes, as regards the venue, the teaching and learning aids which are used, the lecture class schedule of the university (the number of classes per week, the durations of the lecture classes, etc.) and the existing departmental practices (display of the class routine in advance, synchronization between the lecture and the practical classes), so that their suggestions could help the faculty in planning the most effective teaching procedures. A semi structured questionnaire was supplied to the students to get their feedback. Most of the students found the air conditioned seminar room's environment to be more comfortable and they supported the existing durations of the lecture hours with the combined use of chalk and a board and overhead projectors (OHPs). The perceptions of the learners helped in modifying the departmental practice in the desired way.

  7. A visual analysis of gender bias in contemporary anatomy textbooks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Rhiannon; Larkin, Theresa; Cockburn, Jon

    2017-05-01

    Empirical research has linked gender bias in medical education with negative attitudes and behaviors in healthcare providers. Yet it has been more than 20 years since research has considered the degree to which women and men are equally represented in anatomy textbooks. Furthermore, previous research has not explored beyond quantity of representation to also examine visual gender stereotypes and, in light of theoretical advancements in the area of intersectional research, the relationship between representations of gender and representations of ethnicity, body type, health, and age. This study aimed to determine the existence and representation of gender bias in the major anatomy textbooks used at Australian Medical Schools. A systematic visual content analysis was conducted on 6044 images in which sex/gender could be identified, sourced from 17 major anatomy textbooks published from 2008 to 2013. Further content analysis was performed on the 521 narrative images, which represent an unfolding story, found within the same textbooks. Results indicate that the representation of gender in images from anatomy textbooks remain predominantly male except within sex-specific sections. Further, other forms of bias were found to exist in: the visualization of stereotypical gendered emotions, roles and settings; the lack of ethnic, age, and body type diversity; and in the almost complete adherence to a sex/gender binary. Despite increased attention to gender issues in medicine, the visual representation of gender in medical curricula continues to be biased. The biased construction of gender in anatomy textbooks designed for medical education provides future healthcare providers with inadequate and unrealistic information about patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Metals Accumulation and Leaf Surface Anatomy of Murdannia spectabilis Growing in Zn/Cd Contaminated Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladawan Rattanapolsan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Murdannia spectabilis (Kurz Faden was identified as a Zn/Cd hyperaccumulative plant. Leaf surface anatomy of the plant growing in non-contaminated soil (control and Zn/Cd contaminated soil,was studied and compared by a light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy(SEM/EDS. The similarities were reticulate cuticle on epidermises, uniform polygonal cell, stomatal arrangement in six surrounding subsidiary cells, and submarginal sclerenchyma. The dissimilarities were uniserate trichomes spreading on both adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil, whereas the uniserate trichomes were only on the submarginal-adaxial epidermis of the control plants. The trichomes on leaves of the plants growing in non-contaminated soil were found to have both uniseriate non-glandular and uniseriate glandular trichomes;whereas, leaves of the plants growing in the contaminated soil were merely non-glandular trichomes. The different shape and location of trichomes, the number of stomata and trichome indicated the effect of Zn and Cd on M. spectabilis. The higher percentages of Zn and Cd in the vascular bundle than in the cross section and epidermis areas showed both solutes could move along each route, with diffusion through the symplast and apoplast. The increase of Ca in M. spectabilis growing in Zn/Cd contaminated soil corresponded to the Zn and Cd distributed in the leaves. Zn K-edge and S K-edge XANES spectra proposed that Zn2+ ions were accumulated and/or adsorbed on the epidermis of the tuber, and then absorbed into the root and transport to the xylem. The double peaks of Zn-cysteine in the leaf samples proposed the metal sequestration was by sulphur proteins.

  9. A practical description and student perspective of the integration of radiology into lower limb musculoskeletal anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davy, S; O'Keeffe, G W; Mahony, N; Phelan, N; Barry, D S

    2017-05-01

    Anatomy educators are increasing their utilisation of radiology in anatomy education in line with growing requirements for undergraduate radiology competency and clinical need. We aimed to evaluate student perceptions of radiology and to outline the technical and academic considerations underlying the integration of radiology into musculoskeletal practical anatomy sessions. The formal integration of radiology into anatomy practical sessions took place over a 5-week period during the lower limb musculoskeletal component of the anatomy course taught to first-year medical students. During practical sessions, students were required to rotate between aligned audio-visual radiology presentations, osteology/anatomical models, and prosection/dissection learning stations. After completing the course, students were invited to complete a survey to establish their opinions on radiology as a mode of learning and their satisfaction with radiological integration in anatomical practical sessions. Most students were not familiar with radiology prior to attending our university. All our students agreed or strongly agreed that learning to read radiographs in anatomy is important and most agreed that radiology is a valid assessment tool. Sixty percent stated that radiology facilitated their understanding of anatomy. The majority believed that radiology was best suited to clinically relevant anatomy and X-rays were their preferred learning tool. The practical approach to integrating radiology into undergraduate musculoskeletal anatomy described here did not place strain on existing academic resources. Most students agreed that radiology should be increased in anatomy education and that learning to understand radiographs in anatomy was important for clinical practice.

  10. The Role of Ultrasound in Graduate Anatomy Education: Current State of Integration in the United States and Faculty Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royer, Danielle F.

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is increasingly taught in medical schools, where it has been shown to be a valuable adjunct to anatomy training. To determine the extent of US training in nonmedical anatomy programs, and evaluate anatomists' perceptions on the role of US in anatomy education, an online survey was distributed to faculty in anatomy Master's and…

  11. Computer-Assisted Learning in Anatomy at the International Medical School in Debrecen, Hungary: A Preliminary Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kish, Gary; Cook, Samuel A.; Kis, Greta

    2013-01-01

    The University of Debrecen's Faculty of Medicine has an international, multilingual student population with anatomy courses taught in English to all but Hungarian students. An elective computer-assisted gross anatomy course, the Computer Human Anatomy (CHA), has been taught in English at the Anatomy Department since 2008. This course focuses on an…

  12. Incorporating Radiology into Medical Gross Anatomy: Does the Use of Cadaver CT Scans Improve Students' Academic Performance in Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lufler, Rebecca S.; Zumwalt, Ann C.; Romney, Carla A.; Hoagland, Todd M.

    2010-01-01

    Radiological images show anatomical structures in multiple planes and may be effective for teaching anatomical spatial relationships, something that students often find difficult to master. This study tests the hypotheses that (1) the use of cadaveric computed tomography (CT) scans in the anatomy laboratory is positively associated with…

  13. Virtual Reality Anatomy: Is It Comparable with Traditional Methods in the Teaching of Human Forearm Musculoskeletal Anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codd, Anthony M.; Choudhury, Bipasha

    2011-01-01

    The use of cadavers to teach anatomy is well established, but limitations with this approach have led to the introduction of alternative teaching methods. One such method is the use of three-dimensional virtual reality computer models. An interactive, three-dimensional computer model of human forearm anterior compartment musculoskeletal anatomy…

  14. Anatomy and Humanity: Examining the Effects of a Short Documentary Film and First Anatomy Laboratory Experience on Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dosani, Farah; Neuberger, Lindsay

    2016-01-01

    Medical students begin their education inside a laboratory dissecting cadavers to learn human gross anatomy. Many schools use the course experience as a way to instill empathy and some have begun integrating video and recorded interviews with body donors to humanize the experience, but their impact has yet to be measured. This study examines the…

  15. Computational anatomy based on whole body imaging basic principles of computer-assisted diagnosis and therapy

    CERN Document Server

    Masutani, Yoshitaka

    2017-01-01

    This book deals with computational anatomy, an emerging discipline recognized in medical science as a derivative of conventional anatomy. It is also a completely new research area on the boundaries of several sciences and technologies, such as medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics. Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging highlights the underlying principles, basic theories, and fundamental techniques in computational anatomy, which are derived from conventional anatomy, medical imaging, computer vision, and applied mathematics, in addition to various examples of applications in clinical data. The book will cover topics on the basics and applications of the new discipline. Drawing from areas in multidisciplinary fields, it provides comprehensive, integrated coverage of innovative approaches to computational anatomy. As well,Computational Anatomy Based on Whole Body Imaging serves as a valuable resource for researchers including graduate students in the field and a connection with ...

  16. The history and the art of anatomy: a source of inspiration even nowadays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mavrodi, Alexandra; Paraskevas, George; Kitsoulis, Panagiotis

    2013-01-01

    Ever since man started to study systematically medicine for the first time he recognized the value of the knowledge of Anatomy in order to safely cut and treat the human body. However, over the centuries it has been proved that Anatomy is more than just a scientific field of medicine. The fact that Anatomy requires the use of human cadavers as an object to study brought to the surface many moral issues, which adumbrated its turbulent past. Additionally, Anatomy and its inextricable element, illustration, has many times been a source of inspiration for both the anatomists and the artists. This paper aims on the one hand to provide a condensed overview of the history of Anatomy and on the other hand to investigate the way Anatomy penetrates Art and, conversely, Art penetrates Anatomy.

  17. Homepage to distribute the anatomy learning contents including Visible Korean products, comics, and books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun; Chung, Min Suk

    2018-03-01

    The authors have operated the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr) to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models-all Visible Korean products-can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay. Medical students, health allied professional students, and even laypeople are expected to utilize the easy and comforting anatomy contents. It is hoped that other anatomists successively produce and distribute their own informative contents.

  18. Homepage to distribute the anatomy learning contents including Visible Korean products, comics, and books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Beom Sun

    2018-01-01

    The authors have operated the homepage (http://anatomy.co.kr) to provide the learning contents of anatomy. From the homepage, sectioned images, volume models, and surface models—all Visible Korean products—can be downloaded. The realistic images can be interactively manipulated, which will give rise to the interest in anatomy. The various anatomy comics (learning comics, comic strips, plastination comics, etc.) are approachable. Visitors can obtain the regional anatomy book with concise contents, mnemonics, and schematics as well as the simplified dissection manual and the pleasant anatomy essay. Medical students, health allied professional students, and even laypeople are expected to utilize the easy and comforting anatomy contents. It is hoped that other anatomists successively produce and distribute their own informative contents. PMID:29644104

  19. Panel 2: Anatomy (Eustachian Tube, Middle Ear, and Mastoid-Anatomy, Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pathogenesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alper, Cuneyt M; Luntz, Michal; Takahashi, Haruo; Ghadiali, Samir N; Swarts, J Douglas; Teixeira, Miriam S; Csákányi, Zsuzsanna; Yehudai, Noam; Kania, Romain; Poe, Dennis S

    2017-04-01

    Objective In this report, we review the recent literature (ie, past 4 years) to identify advances in our understanding of the middle ear-mastoid-eustachian tube system. We use this review to determine whether the short-term goals elaborated in the last report were achieved, and we propose updated goals to guide future otitis media research. Data Sources PubMed, Web of Science, Medline. Review Methods The panel topic was subdivided, and each contributor performed a literature search within the given time frame. The keywords searched included middle ear, eustachian tube, and mastoid for their intersection with anatomy, physiology, pathophysiology, and pathology. Preliminary reports from each panel member were consolidated and discussed when the panel met on June 11, 2015. At that meeting, the progress was evaluated and new short-term goals proposed. Conclusions Progress was made on 13 of the 20 short-term goals proposed in 2011. Significant advances were made in the characterization of middle ear gas exchange pathways, modeling eustachian tube function, and preliminary testing of treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction. Implications for Practice In the future, imaging technologies should be developed to noninvasively assess middle ear/eustachian tube structure and physiology with respect to their role in otitis media pathogenesis. The new data derived from these structure/function experiments should be integrated into computational models that can then be used to develop specific hypotheses concerning otitis media pathogenesis and persistence. Finally, rigorous studies on medical or surgical treatments for eustachian tube dysfunction should be undertaken.

  20. Anatomy and Surgical Approaches to the Rabbit Nasal Septum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badran, Karam W; Chang, John C; Kuan, Edward C; Wong, Brian J F

    2017-09-01

    The rabbit is the primary animal model used to investigate aspects of nasal surgery. Although several studies have used this model, none has provided a comprehensive analysis of the surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal fossae and septum. To describe and optimize the surgical anatomy and approach to the rabbit nasal vault and septal cartilage. In an ex vivo animal study conducted at an academic medical center, preliminary cadaveric dissections were performed on rabbit head specimens to establish familiarity with relevant anatomy and rehearse various approaches. Live Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (3.5-4.0 kg) were used to further develop this surgical technique developed here. Access of the nasal vault was gained through a midline nasal dorsum incision and creation of an osteoplastic flap with a drill. Submucosal resection was performed with preservation of the mucoperichondrium. All rabbits were monitored daily for 4 weeks in the postoperative period for signs of infection, pain, and complications. The study was conducted from June 1, 2014, to December 1, 2014. Surgical anatomy and techniques used to gain access to the rabbit nasal vault and harvest septal cartilage. Four Pasteurella-free New Zealand white rabbits (Western Organ Rabbit Co), ranging in age from 9 to 12 months and weighing between 3.5 and 4.0 kg, were used in this study. Initial dissections demonstrated the feasibility of harvesting septal cartilage while preserving the mucoperichondrial envelope. Access to the nasal vault through this 3-osteotomy approach allowed for maximal exposure to the nasal cavity bilaterally while maintaining the integrity of the mucoperichondrium following septal cartilage harvest. The maximum amount of bulk, en bloc, cartilage harvested was 1.0 × 2.5 cm. Following surgical dissection, all animals maintained adequate airway patency and support to midface structures. Furthermore, all specimens preserved the integrity of the

  1. Leaf, stem bark and fruit anatomy of zanthoxylum armatum dc. (rutaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkatullah, A.; Ibrar, M.; Jelani, G.; Ahmad, I.

    2014-01-01

    Zanthoxylum armatum DC. (Rutaceae) is an important medicinal plant. The present study deals with anatomical exploration of the leaf, stem bark and fruit of this plant. Leaf of Z. armatum is bifacial, compound and punctate with glabrous surfaces having a single layer of epidermis and palisade mesophyll. The leaf has a Palisade ratio ranged from 6.00 to 9.00 (8.2 +- 0.32). Vein islets and vein termination number were 14-21 (16.8 +- 0.64) and 17-21 (19.1 +- 0.43) per mm2 respectively. The vein-islets were quite distinct with squaresh, elongated, polygonal or irregular in shape bounding many forked and unforked vascular branches. Adaxial surface of Z. armatum leaf midrib was planoconvex while the abaxial surface was semicircular in appearance. The diagnostic feature of the leaf was the complete absence of any kind of trichomes or any other appendages. The leaf showed prominent oil cavities. Nine types of stomata with different frequencies and other dimensions were observed. Brachparatetracytic stomata was the most frequent stoma (80%) followed by actinostephanocytic (40%) and then straucytic and brachyparacytic (30%) each. Hemiparacytic and stomatal cluster were the rarely occurring stomata (10% each) present on the lower epidermis of the leaf. Stomatal cluster, which is considered to be a special leaf epidermal feature and reported only in few genera of vascular plants, was also recorded in this plant. Bark and fruit anatomy of Z. armatum showed different tissue arrangement. The seed was non endospermic and contains an elongated embryo. The present study will be helpful in the phylogeny and taxonomic description of this important medicinal plant. (author)

  2. Plants & Perpetrators: Forensic Investigation in the Botany Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Amy E.

    2006-01-01

    Applying botanical knowledge to a simulated forensic investigation provides inquiry-based and problem-based learning in the botany classroom. This paper details one such forensic investigation in which students use what they have learned about plant morphology and anatomy to analyze evidence and solve a murder mystery. (Contains 1 table.)

  3. Contrasting seasonal overlaps between primary and secondary growth are linked to wood anatomy in Mediterranean sub-shrubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camarero, J J; Palacio, S; Montserrat-Martí, G

    2013-09-01

    Whole-plant approaches allow quantification of the temporal overlap between primary and secondary growth. If the amount of time available to grow is short, there may be a high temporal overlap between shoot growth and wood formation. We hypothesise that such overlap depends on the duration of the growing season and relates to wood anatomy. We evaluated wood anatomy, shoot longitudinal and radial growth rates, fine root production and the concentrations of non-structural carbohydrates (NSC) in the wood of six sub-shrub species growing in sites with contrasting climatic conditions (Lepidium subulatum, Linum suffruticosum, Salvia lavandulifolia, Satureja montana, Ononis fruticosa, Echinospartum horridum). Sub-shrub species living in sites with a short growing season displayed a high overlap between aboveground primary and secondary growth and formed wide vessels, whereas species from the warmest and driest sites presented the reverse characteristics. The highest overlap was linked to a rapid shoot extension and thickening through the enhanced hydraulic conductivity provided by wide vessels. The reductions in NSC concentrations when growth peaked were low or moderate, indicating that sub-shrubs accumulate NSC in excess, as do trees. The temporal overlap among primary and secondary growth in woody plants may be connected to the duration and rates of shoot and wood growth, which in turn depend on the vessel lumen area. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  4. PAL(TM) 2.0 Human Anatomy Software Tool Use in Community College Traditional and Online Anatomy Laboratory Classes: Student-Perceived Learning Benefits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuyatt, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    Human anatomy courses, with laboratory, are curricular requirements in graduate medical, undergraduate nursing, and all allied health science programs. Anatomy laboratory courses engage students in hands-on activities, including human cadaver or mammalian dissection, supported by photos from textbooks, detailed plastic models or human anatomical…

  5. Experiences from the anatomy track in the ontology alignment evaluation initiative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragisic, Zlatan; Ivanova, Valentina; Li, Huanyu; Lambrix, Patrick

    2017-12-04

    One of the longest running tracks in the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative is the Anatomy track which focuses on aligning two anatomy ontologies. The Anatomy track was started in 2005. In 2005 and 2006 the task in this track was to align the Foundational Model of Anatomy and the OpenGalen Anatomy Model. Since 2007 the ontologies used in the track are the Adult Mouse Anatomy and a part of the NCI Thesaurus. Since 2015 the data in the Anatomy track is also used in the Interactive track of the Ontology Alignment Evaluation Initiative. In this paper we focus on the Anatomy track in the years 2007-2016 and the Anatomy part of the Interactive track in 2015-2016. We describe the data set and the changes it went through during the years as well as the challenges it poses for ontology alignment systems. Further, we give an overview of all systems that participated in the track and the techniques they have used. We discuss the performance results of the systems and summarize the general trends. About 50 systems have participated in the Anatomy track. Many different techniques were used. The most popular matching techniques are string-based strategies and structure-based techniques. Many systems also use auxiliary information. The quality of the alignment has increased for the best performing systems since the beginning of the track and more and more systems check the coherence of the proposed alignment and implement a repair strategy. Further, interacting with an oracle is beneficial.

  6. Effectiveness of a radiology-anatomy instructional module in a clinical course on oral radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, Masahiro; Tamaki, Yoh; Nomura, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    An insufficient knowledge of anatomy often complicates the interpretation of radiological findings by students learning clinical medicine. During a 3-week clinical course in oral radiology, students attended lectures on anatomy for half of each day. Our objectives were to evaluate this program and determine why some students remained unmotivated to learn anatomy. Surveys were carried out using two questionnaires, one for evaluating the students' beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy and their understanding of radiology and anatomy, and the other for determining the value of the educational program. In total, 126 questionnaires were analyzed. Structural equation modeling and decision analysis were used to analyze the data obtained. Beliefs regarding the necessity of knowing anatomy were explained by three variables: the necessity of knowing imaging anatomy, the necessity of knowing gross anatomy, and understanding of anatomy. Awareness of the necessity of knowing anatomy and understanding of graphical images were not strongly correlated. The educational program was characterized by two factors: 'value' and 'appropriateness' These were strongly correlated. Student interest in the content of the course was found to be the most important factor in student evaluations of the educational program. Students who answered 'agree', 'disagree' or 'strongly disagree' to three items, interested in the content of the course', 'obtained knowledge through the course' and 'expected the course to be useful in the near future were likely to have insufficient understanding of and awareness of the necessity of radiology and anatomy. The inclusion of lectures on anatomy is beneficial for improving student understanding of oral radiology. Student interest in the content is important in evaluations of radiology-anatomy programs. (author)

  7. Limited acclimation in leaf anatomy to experimental drought in tropical rainforest trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binks, Oliver; Meir, Patrick; Rowland, Lucy; da Costa, Antonio Carlos Lola; Vasconcelos, Steel Silva; de Oliveira, Alex Antonio Ribeiro; Ferreira, Leandro; Mencuccini, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Dry periods are predicted to become more frequent and severe in the future in some parts of the tropics, including Amazonia, potentially causing reduced productivity, higher tree mortality and increased emissions of stored carbon. Using a long-term (12 year) through-fall exclusion (TFE) experiment in the tropics, we test the hypothesis that trees produce leaves adapted to cope with higher levels of water stress, by examining the following leaf characteristics: area, thickness, leaf mass per area, vein density, stomatal density, the thickness of palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and both of the epidermal layers, internal cavity volume and the average cell sizes of the palisade and spongy mesophyll. We also test whether differences in leaf anatomy are consistent with observed differential drought-induced mortality responses among taxa, and look for relationships between leaf anatomy, and leaf water relations and gas exchange parameters. Our data show that trees do not produce leaves that are more xeromorphic in response to 12 years of soil moisture deficit. However, the drought treatment did result in increases in the thickness of the adaxial epidermis (TFE: 20.5 ± 1.5 µm, control: 16.7 ± 1.0 µm) and the internal cavity volume (TFE: 2.43 ± 0.50 mm 3 cm -2 , control: 1.77 ± 0.30 mm 3 cm -2 ). No consistent differences were detected between drought-resistant and drought-sensitive taxa, although interactions occurred between drought-sensitivity status and drought treatment for the palisade mesophyll thickness (P = 0.034) and the cavity volume of the leaves (P = 0.025). The limited response to water deficit probably reflects a tight co-ordination between leaf morphology, water relations and photosynthetic properties. This suggests that there is little plasticity in these aspects of plant anatomy in these taxa, and that phenotypic plasticity in leaf traits may not facilitate the acclimation of Amazonian trees to the predicted future reductions in dry

  8. Learning to be a doctor while learning anatomy!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Netterstrøm, Ingeborg; Kayser, Lars

    2008-01-01

    This article presents results from a longitudinal study following a cohort of medical students. Semistructured interviews are conducted every year, in which the students tell about their experiences learning medicine, their daily life, and their social activities in relation to university. The aim...... of the study is to analyze how medical students develop their professional competencies, values, and attitudes. This article focuses on the medical student's professional development in relation to the process of studying and learning anatomy. We analyze interviews conducted while the students...... are in their third and fifth semester. Anatomy plays a significant role in the medical student's educational process, on both a cognitive and emotional level. It seems that students in learning the subject matter adapt to fundamental values in the medical profession and are thus transformed into real medical...

  9. Bariatric surgery: A review of normal postoperative anatomy and complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quigley, S.; Colledge, J.; Mukherjee, S.; Patel, K.

    2011-01-01

    The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.

  10. Bariatric surgery: A review of normal postoperative anatomy and complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, S., E-mail: shaun.quigley@bartsandthelondon.nhs.uk [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Colledge, J. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Mukherjee, S. [Bariatric Surgery Unit, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom); Patel, K. [Radiology Department, Homerton University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-15

    The number of bariatric surgery procedures performed is increasing every year. Patients may be referred for radiological investigations to exclude complications not only in the early postoperative period but many months later. Radiologists who do not work in bariatric centres are therefore required to have an understanding of the complex normal anatomy and complications associated with bariatric surgery to interpret imaging studies correctly. The purpose of this article is to describe the surgical techniques and normal anatomy of the four bariatric operations performed today, review the most common problems encountered in this patient group, and to describe the imaging findings that allow the accurate diagnosis of complications. In particular, we focus on identification of the internal hernia, a grave complication of bariatric surgery often missed by radiologists.

  11. Cerebellar anatomy as applied to cerebellar microsurgical resections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ramos

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To define the anatomy of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles, demonstrating the surgical application of anatomic landmarks in cerebellar resections. METHODS: Twenty cerebellar hemispheres were studied. RESULTS: The majority of dentate nucleus and cerebellar peduncles had demonstrated constant relationship to other cerebellar structures, which provided landmarks for surgical approaching. The lateral border is separated from the midline by 19.5 mm in both hemispheres. The posterior border of the cortex is separated 23.3 mm from the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus; the lateral one is separated 26 mm from the lateral border of the nucleus; and the posterior segment of the dentate nucleus is separated 25.4 mm from the posterolateral angle formed by the junction of lateral and posterior borders of cerebellar hemisphere. CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical anatomy has provided important landmarks that could be applied to cerebellar surgical resections.

  12. Normal feline brain: clinical anatomy using magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogicato, G; Conchou, F; Layssol-Lamour, C; Raharison, F; Sautet, J

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide a clinical anatomy atlas of the feline brain using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Brains of twelve normal cats were imaged using a 1.5 T magnetic resonance unit and an inversion/recovery sequence (T1). Fourteen relevant MRI sections were chosen in transverse, dorsal, median and sagittal planes. Anatomic structures were identified and labelled using anatomical texts and Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria, sectioned specimen heads, and previously published articles. The MRI sections were stained according to the major embryological and anatomical subdivisions of the brain. The relevant anatomical structures seen on MRI will assist clinicians to better understand MR images and to relate this neuro-anatomy to clinical signs. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  13. Ultrasonographic abdominal anatomy of healthy captive caracals (Caracal caracal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makungu, Modesta; du Plessis, Wencke M; Barrows, Michelle; Koeppel, Katja N; Groenewald, Hermanus B

    2012-09-01

    Abdominal ultrasonography was performed in six adult captive caracals (Caracal caracal) to describe the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy. Consistently, the splenic parenchyma was hyperechoic to the liver and kidneys. The relative echogenicity of the right kidney's cortex was inconsistent to the liver. The gall bladder was prominent in five animals and surrounded by a clearly visualized thin, smooth, regular echogenic wall. The wall thickness of the duodenum measured significantly greater compared with that of the jejunum and colon. The duodenum had a significantly thicker mucosal layer compared with that of the stomach. Such knowledge of the normal abdominal ultrasonographic anatomy of individual species is important for accurate diagnosis and interpretation of routine health examinations.

  14. Dental CT: examination technique, radiation load and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenglinger, F.X.; Muhr, T.

    1999-01-01

    Traditionally oral surgeons and dentists have evaluated the jaws using intraoral films and panoramic radiographs. The involvement of radiologists has been limited. In the past few years dedicated CT-software-programs developed to evaluate dental implant patients have provided a new look at the jaws. The complex anatomy is described and identified on human skulls and on axial, panoramic, and cross-sectional images. With this anatomic description Dental-CT-scans are used to demonstrate the anatomy of maxilla and the mandible. An overview of the technique of Dental-CT is provided, furthermore the radiation dose of different organs is explained. Suggestions to reduce these doses by simple modifications of the recommended protocols are given. (orig.) [de

  15. The functional anatomy of psychomotor disturbances in major depressive disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benny eLiberg

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Psychomotor disturbances (PMD are a classic feature of depressive disorder that provide rich clinical information. The aim our narrative review was to characterize the functional anatomy of PMD by summarizing findings from neuroimaging studies. We found evidence across several neuroimaging modalities that suggest involvement of fronto-striatal neurocircuitry, and monoaminergic pathways and metabolism. We suggest that PMD in major depressive disorder emerge from an alteration of limbic signals, which influence emotion, volition, higher-order cognitive functions, and movement.

  16. 3D digital anatomy modelling - Practical or pretty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgitroyd, Ellen; Madurska, Marta; Gonzalez, Jasmina; Watson, Angus

    2015-06-01

    With an increasing move towards digitalisation of medical records and medical teaching, such as online exams and webinars, one of the questions that persists asks 'is there a place for digital anatomy teaching and can it effectively replace the traditional teaching methods such as cadaveric dissection?' Cadaveric dissection has a number of benefits as a teaching method but it also has its limitations. Although these can be partially addressed by prosections and new more "life-like" fixatives, it does not address the lack of resources and the increasing pressure to be able to study and learn at home. This paper reviews the literature with regards to the suitability of digital models for teaching and the wider uses a 3D digital anatomy model could have, such as postgraduate teaching, patient education and surgical planning. It also looks briefly at the learning model that anatomy as art contributes. The literature has scattered examples of digital models used for teaching at both undergraduate and postgraduate level, which demonstrate a number of positive outcomes, mostly surrounding user satisfaction and convenience. 3D modelling for patient education and operation planning has less exploration, and these papers generate a number of discussion points, mostly surrounding the practicality of digital models, which can be more time consuming and require the technology to be widely available and reliable. 3D digital anatomy is a useful adjunct to teaching and its use in patient education and operation planning have interesting possibilities still to be fully explored. Copyright © 2014 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ∼ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement ‘I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional’. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. PMID:23930933

  18. Normal computed tomographic anatomy of the cisterns and cranial nerves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manelfe, C.; Bonafe, A.

    1980-01-01

    This study, based on the normal CT anatomy of the cisterns investigated with Metrizamide, aims at attempting to find out with accuracy which plane of section is the most suitable for the investigation of each group of cisterns (posterior fossa, mesencephalon, suprasellar). Moreover we felt it necessary to include our study the normal appearance of the cranial nerves as their normal CT anatymy - optic nerves expected - is not well known yet. (orig./AJ) [de

  19. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinshaw, W.S.; Andrew, E.R.; Bottomley, P.A.; Holland, G.N.; Moore, W.S.; Worthington, B.S.

    1978-01-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonace (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique. (author)

  20. Functional anatomy of the prostate: Implications for treatment planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, Patrick W.; Troyer, Sara; Berri, Sally; Narayana, Vrinda; Meirowitz, Amichay; Roberson, Peter L.; Montie, James

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To summarize the functional anatomy relevant to prostate cancer treatment planning. Methods and Materials: Coronal, axial, and sagittal T2 magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MRI angiography were fused by mutual information and registered with computed tomography (CT) scan data sets to improve definition of zonal anatomy of the prostate and critical adjacent structures. Results: The three major prostate zones (inner, outer, and anterior fibromuscular) are visible by T2 MRI imaging. The bladder, bladder neck, and internal (preprostatic) sphincter are a continuous muscular structure and clear definition of the preprostatic sphincter is difficult by MRI. Transition zone hypertrophy may efface the bladder neck and internal sphincter. The external 'lower' sphincter is clearly visible by T2 MRI with wide variations in length. The critical erectile structures are the internal pudendal artery (defined by MRI angiogram or T2 MRI), corpus cavernosum, and neurovascular bundle. The neurovascular bundle is visible along the posterior lateral surface of the prostate on CT and MRI, but its terminal branches (cavernosal nerves) are not visible and must be defined by their relationship to the urethra within the genitourinary diaphragm. Visualization of the ejaculatory ducts within the prostate is possible on sagittal MRI. The anatomy of the prostate-rectum interface is clarified by MRI, as is the potentially important distinction of rectal muscle and rectal mucosa. Conclusion: Improved understanding of functional anatomy and imaging of the prostate and critical adjacent structures will improve prostate radiation therapy by improvement of dose and toxicity correlation, limitation of dose to critical structures, and potential improvement in post therapy quality of life

  1. The context of learning anatomy: does it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Claire F; Martinez-Álvarez, Concepción; McHanwell, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    This study set out to ascertain whether the context in which anatomy is learnt made a difference to students' perceptions of learning. An Approach to Learning Inventory (ASSIST) and a 31-item Anatomy Learning Experience Questionnaire (ALE) were administered to 224 students (77 dental, 132 medical and 19 speech and language) as a multi-site study. Results revealed that 45% adopted a strategic, 39% a deep and 14% a surface approach. Trends between professions are similar for a deep or strategic approach (both ~ 40%). However, a surface approach differed between professions (7% dentistry, 16% medicine, 26% speech and language science). Dental students responded more to being able to use their knowledge than did other groups (P = 0.0001). Medical students found the dissecting environment an intimidating one and subsequently reported finding online resources helpful (P = 0.015 and P = 0.003, respectively). Speech and language science students reported that they experienced greater difficulties with learning anatomy; they reported finding the amount to learn daunting (P = 0.007), struggled to remember what they did last semester (P = 0.032) and were not confident in their knowledge base (P = 0.0001). All students responded strongly to the statement 'I feel that working with cadaveric material is an important part of becoming a doctor/dentist/health care professional'. A strong response to this statement was associated with students adopting a deep approach (P = 0.0001). This study has elucidated that local curriculum factors are important in creating an enabling learning environment. There are also a number of generic issues that can be identified as being inherent in the learning of anatomy as a discipline and are experienced across courses, different student groups and institutions. © 2013 Anatomical Society.

  2. Normal anatomy and aneurysms of middle cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Y.S.

    1981-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to clarify the existing anatomical knowledge and the nomenclature used in describing the normal anatomy of the MCA and its main and cortical branches. The different classifications now available have led to anatomical and terminological confusion and inaccuracy. In this study, it is proposed to make out a new classification and to correlate this with the radiological and operative findings in patients with MCA aneurysms. (orig.)

  3. The integumentary system: anatomy, physiology and function of skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLafferty, Ella; Hendry, Charles; Alistair, Farley

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, examines the anatomy and physiology of skin, also termed the integumentary system. Skin is composed of two main layers, the epidermis and dermis. The structure of the epidermis and dermis are described and their functions are discussed. Accessory structures, such as nails and hair are also considered. Although many diseases of the skin exist, two common conditions--psoriasis and decubitus ulcers--are described in this article.

  4. Surgical anatomy of the temporal bone: an atlas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.L.; Manolidis, S.; Taber, K.H.; Hayman, L.A.

    2001-01-01

    This atlas demonstrates the usefulness of reconstructed high-resolution CT for planning temporal bone surgery. The first part focuses on a sagittal plane, the second on a rotated longitudinal plane, and the third on a rotated transverse plane. We believe knowledge of temporal bone anatomy in these planes facilitates surgical planning by showing anatomic relationships and providing a customized map for each patient. This decreases the likelihood of surgical mishap and improves teaching. (orig.)

  5. Display of cross sectional anatomy by nuclear magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinshaw, W S; Andrew, E R; Bottomley, P A; Holland, G N; Moore, W S

    1978-04-01

    High definition cross-sectional images produced by a new nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique are shown. The images are a series of thin section scans in the coronal plane of the head of a rabbit. The NMR images are derived from the distribution of the density of mobile hydrogen atoms. Various tissue types can be distinguished and a clear registration of gross anatomy is demonstrated. No known hazards are associated with the technique.

  6. Xeroradiographic and radiographic anatomy of the channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, S.A.; Smith, B.J.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an anatomic reference for the channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) using xeroradiography† and conventional radiography. The entire body of three adult fish was radiographed using standard xeroradiographic and conventional radiographic techniques. Two xeroradiographs and their corresponding conventional radiographs were selected, and the xeroradiographs labeled to illustrate the normal skeletal and soft-tissue anatomy of the channel catfish

  7. Exploring the use of a Facebook page in anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffar, Akram Abood

    2014-01-01

    Facebook is the most popular social media site visited by university students on a daily basis. Consequently, Facebook is the logical place to start with for integrating social media technologies into education. This study explores how a faculty-administered Facebook Page can be used to supplement anatomy education beyond the traditional classroom. Observations were made on students' perceptions and effectiveness of using the Page, potential benefits and challenges of such use, and which Insights metrics best reflect user's engagement. The Human Anatomy Education Page was launched on Facebook and incorporated into anatomy resources for 157 medical students during two academic years. Students' use of Facebook and their perceptions of the Page were surveyed. Facebook's "Insights" tool was also used to evaluate Page performance during a period of 600 days. The majority of in-class students had a Facebook account which they adopted in education. Most students perceived Human Anatomy Education Page as effective in contributing to learning and favored "self-assessment" posts. The majority of students agreed that Facebook could be a suitable learning environment. The "Insights" tool revealed globally distributed fans with considerable Page interactions. The use of a faculty-administered Facebook Page provided a venue to enhance classroom teaching without intruding into students' social life. A wider educational use of Facebook should be adopted not only because students are embracing its use, but for its inherent potentials in boosting learning. The "Insights" metrics analyzed in this study might be helpful when establishing and evaluating the performance of education-oriented Facebook Pages. © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  8. Neuro-anatomy enters the age of information technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, A.C.

    1996-01-01

    By usual neuro-anatomy, it has been observed for a long time that considerable anatomical disparities exist from one brain to another one. How to explain this variability? How is it interpreted at a functional level? It is indispensable to deal with these questions before intending to pick, with a view to doing clinical diagnosis, the informations given by a patient brain imagery (NMR imaging, positron computed tomography). The image processing tends to bring some answers elements. (O.M.)

  9. How useful is YouTube in learning heart anatomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Athanasios; Waidyasekara, Pasan

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays more and more modern medical degree programs focus on self-directed and problem-based learning. That requires students to search for high quality and easy to retrieve online resources. YouTube is an emerging platform for learning human anatomy due to easy access and being a free service. The purpose of this study is to make a quantitative and qualitative analysis of the available human heart anatomy videos on YouTube. Using the search engine of the platform we searched for relevant videos using various keywords. Videos with irrelevant content, animal tissue, non-English language, no sound, duplicates, and physiology focused were excluded from further elaboration. The initial search retrieved 55,525 videos, whereas only 294 qualified for further analysis. A unique scoring system was used to assess the anatomical quality and details, general quality, and the general data for each video. Our results indicate that the human heart anatomy videos available on YouTube conveyed our anatomical criteria poorly, whereas the general quality scoring found borderline. Students should be selective when looking up on public video databases as it can prove challenging, time consuming, and the anatomical information may be misleading due to absence of content review. Anatomists and institutions are encouraged to prepare and endorse good quality material and make them available online for the students. The scoring rubric used in the study comprises a valuable tool to faculty members for quality evaluation of heart anatomy videos available on social media platforms. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Anatomists.

  10. Morphology, Physiology, and Anatomy of Penny Fern (Drymoglossum phyloselloidesand Its Effect on Cocoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fitria Yuliasmara

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the anatomy, physiology and morphology of penny fern (Drimoglosum phylloseloides and its effect on cocoa. Morphological observation of penny fern used microscope to observe the roots, stems, leaves and spores. Physiology of penny fern was observed based on number of stomata and stomatal conductance using stomata printing method, while the amount of chlorophyll based on spectrophotometric method and rate of transpiration used cobalt chloride paper. Penny fern anatomy on cross-sectional and longitudinal in roots, stems and leaves. Penny fern growth was observed based the length of tendrils once a week during rainy and dry season. While the effect of penny fern invasion was observed based on variable leaf area with gravimetric method, the cross-section of attacked cacao branch using microtom and microscope and chlorophyll content by chlorophyll meter. Results showed that penny fern is a epiphytic weed which was crassulaceae acid metabolism plants that have the ability to absorb carbon dioxide at night and carry out photosynthesis during the day with closed stomata. Penny ferns reproduce using spores. The growth rate of penny fern 2.18 cm/week during the dry season and while in rainy season 3.89 cm/week. Penny fern leaf contains 0.0212 mg/g chlorophyll. Penny fern stomata density was 18.33/mm 2 with a width of opening stomata at night 26.3 µm which caused a veryslow rate of transpiration of 0.69 mm 2 /seconds. The existence penny fern on cocoa decreased leaf area and chlorophyll content decreased crop productivity which was indicated by decreasing in number of flowers, number of small, medium fruit, and large pods. However it had no effect on the number of leaves on one side flush cocoa. Key words: Drimoglosum phylloseloides, weeds, decrease productivity, Theobroma cacao

  11. The role of radial oxygen loss and root anatomy on zinc uptake and tolerance in mangrove seedlings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.; Liu, Y.; Tam, N.F.Y.; Wang, X.; Li, S.Y.; Chen, G.Z.; Ye, Z.H.

    2010-01-01

    Root anatomy, radial oxygen loss (ROL) and zinc (Zn) uptake and tolerance in mangrove plants were investigated using seedlings of Aegiceras corniculatum, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Rhizophora stylosa. The results revealed that B. gymnorrhiza, which possessed the 'tightest barrier' in ROL spatial patterns among the three species studied, took up the least Zn and showed the highest Zn tolerance. Furthermore, zinc significantly decreased the ROL of all three plants by inhibition of root permeability, which included an obvious thickening of outer cortex and significant increases of lignification in cell walls. The results of SEM X-ray microanalysis further confirmed that such an inducible, low permeability of roots was likely an adaptive strategy to metal stress by direct prevention of excessive Zn entering into the root. The present study proposes new evidence of structural adaptive strategy on metal tolerance by mangrove seedlings. - Mangrove seedlings with a 'tighter barrier' in ROL spatial pattern exhibit higher Zn tolerance.

  12. The role of radial oxygen loss and root anatomy on zinc uptake and tolerance in mangrove seedlings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng, H. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Liu, Y. [Ministry of Agriculture Key Laboratory of Mariculture Ecology and Products Quality and Safety, South China Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Guangzhou 510300 (China); Tam, N.F.Y. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Wang, X. [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, S.Y.; Chen, G.Z. [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Ye, Z.H., E-mail: lssyzhh@mail.sysu.edu.c [State Key Laboratory for Bio-control, and School of Life Sciences, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Root anatomy, radial oxygen loss (ROL) and zinc (Zn) uptake and tolerance in mangrove plants were investigated using seedlings of Aegiceras corniculatum, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza and Rhizophora stylosa. The results revealed that B. gymnorrhiza, which possessed the 'tightest barrier' in ROL spatial patterns among the three species studied, took up the least Zn and showed the highest Zn tolerance. Furthermore, zinc significantly decreased the ROL of all three plants by inhibition of root permeability, which included an obvious thickening of outer cortex and significant increases of lignification in cell walls. The results of SEM X-ray microanalysis further confirmed that such an inducible, low permeability of roots was likely an adaptive strategy to metal stress by direct prevention of excessive Zn entering into the root. The present study proposes new evidence of structural adaptive strategy on metal tolerance by mangrove seedlings. - Mangrove seedlings with a 'tighter barrier' in ROL spatial pattern exhibit higher Zn tolerance.

  13. Papercraft temporal bone in the first step of anatomy education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraumi, Harukazu; Sato, Hiroaki; Ito, Juichi

    2017-06-01

    (1) To compare temporal bone anatomy comprehension taught to speech therapy students with or without a papercraft model. (2) To explore the effect of papercraft simulation on the understanding of surgical approaches in first-year residents. (1) One-hundred and ten speech therapy students were divided into three classes. The first class was taught with a lecture only. The students in the second class were given a lecture and a papercraft modeling task without instruction. The third class modeled a papercraft with instruction after the lecture. The students were tested on their understanding of temporal bone anatomy. (2) A questionnaire on the understanding of surgical approaches was completed by 10 residents before and after the papercraft modeling. The papercraft models were cut with scissors to simulate surgical approaches. (1) The average scores were 4.4/8 for the first class, 4.3/8 for the second class, and 6.3/8 for the third class. The third class had significantly better results than the other classes (ppapercraft modeling and cutting were 2.6/7 and 4.9/7, respectively. The numerical rating scale score significantly improved (ppapercraft temporal bone model is effective in the first step of learning temporal bone anatomy and surgical approaches. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wasila M Dahdul

    Full Text Available The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO, to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish and multispecies (teleost, amphibian vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages, and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO, Gene Ontology (GO, Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL, and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  15. The history and illustration of anatomy in the Middle Ages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurunluoglu, Raffi; Gurunluoglu, Aslin; Williams, Susan A; Cavdar, Safiye

    2013-11-01

    This article reviews the influence of key figures on the pictorial representation of anatomy and the evolution of anatomical illustration during the Middle Ages until the time of the Renaissance, based on medical history books, journals and ancient medical books. During the early period in the Middle Ages, most illustrations were traditional drawings of emblematic nature, oftentimes unrealistic, not only because the precise knowledge of anatomy was lacking but also because the objective was to elucidate certain principles for teaching purposes. Five figure-series that came down to us through ancient manuscripts and textbooks represent the best examples of such traditional illustrations. With the advent of human dissection in the 13th and 14th centuries, a significant transformation in the depiction of anatomy began to project the practice of human dissection, as we see in the works of Mondino de Luzzi, Henri de Mondeville and Guido de Vigevano. After the invention of book printing in the second half of the 15th century, the reproduction of books was commonly practised and the woodcut made multiplication of pictures easier. Peter of Abano, Hieronymous Brunschwig, Johannes de Ketham, Johannes Peyligk, Gregory Reisch, Magnus Hundt, Laurentius Phryesen and many more included several anatomical illustrations in their treatises that demonstrated the development of anatomical illustration during the later Middle Ages.

  16. A unified anatomy ontology of the vertebrate skeletal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M; Balhoff, James P; Blackburn, David C; Diehl, Alexander D; Haendel, Melissa A; Hall, Brian K; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G; Mungall, Christopher J; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E; Vickaryous, Matthew K; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity.

  17. Functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament of the elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, M; Bercher, M; Wegmann, K; Müller, L P; Dargel, J

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the functional anatomy of the lateral collateral ligament complex (LCLC) and the surrounding forearm extensors. Using 81 human cadaveric upper extremities, the anatomy of the forearm extensors-especially the anconeus, supinator and extensor carpi ulnaris (ECU)-was analyzed. After removal of aforementioned extensors the functional anatomy of the LCLC was analyzed. The origin of the LCLC was evaluated for isometry. The insertion types of the lateral ulnar collateral ligament (LUCL) were analyzed and classified. The ECU runs parallel to the RCL to dynamically preserve varus stability. The supinator and anconeus muscle fibers coalesce with the LCLC and lengthen during pronation. The anconeus fibers run parallel to the LUCL in full flexion. The LCLC consists of the annular ligament (AL) and the isometric radial collateral ligament (RCL). During elbow flexion, its posterior branches (LUCL) tighten while the anterior branches loosen. When performing a pivot shift test, the loosened LUCL fibers do not fully tighten in full extension. The LUCL inserts along with the AL at the supinator crest. Three different insertion types could be observed. The LUCL represents the posterior branch of the RCL rather than a distinct ligament. It is non-isometric and lengthens during elbow flexion. The RCL was found to be of vital importance for neutralization of posterolateral rotatory forces. Pronation of the forearm actively stabilizes the elbow joint as the supinator, anconeus and biceps muscle work in unison to increase posterolateral rotatory stability.

  18. A Unified Anatomy Ontology of the Vertebrate Skeletal System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahdul, Wasila M.; Balhoff, James P.; Blackburn, David C.; Diehl, Alexander D.; Haendel, Melissa A.; Hall, Brian K.; Lapp, Hilmar; Lundberg, John G.; Mungall, Christopher J.; Ringwald, Martin; Segerdell, Erik; Van Slyke, Ceri E.; Vickaryous, Matthew K.; Westerfield, Monte; Mabee, Paula M.

    2012-01-01

    The skeleton is of fundamental importance in research in comparative vertebrate morphology, paleontology, biomechanics, developmental biology, and systematics. Motivated by research questions that require computational access to and comparative reasoning across the diverse skeletal phenotypes of vertebrates, we developed a module of anatomical concepts for the skeletal system, the Vertebrate Skeletal Anatomy Ontology (VSAO), to accommodate and unify the existing skeletal terminologies for the species-specific (mouse, the frog Xenopus, zebrafish) and multispecies (teleost, amphibian) vertebrate anatomy ontologies. Previous differences between these terminologies prevented even simple queries across databases pertaining to vertebrate morphology. This module of upper-level and specific skeletal terms currently includes 223 defined terms and 179 synonyms that integrate skeletal cells, tissues, biological processes, organs (skeletal elements such as bones and cartilages), and subdivisions of the skeletal system. The VSAO is designed to integrate with other ontologies, including the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), Gene Ontology (GO), Uberon, and Cell Ontology (CL), and it is freely available to the community to be updated with additional terms required for research. Its structure accommodates anatomical variation among vertebrate species in development, structure, and composition. Annotation of diverse vertebrate phenotypes with this ontology will enable novel inquiries across the full spectrum of phenotypic diversity. PMID:23251424

  19. Exploring anatomy and physiology using iPad applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Tandra R; Cooperstein, Deborah F

    2017-11-07

    This study examined the use of iPads with anatomy applications (apps) in the laboratory sections of the largest undergraduate course at the university, Anatomy and Physiology, serving more than 300 students. The majority of these students were nursing, exercise science/physical education and biology majors. With a student survey (student opinion) and student practicum grades as metrics, this study determined whether the introduction of this novel mobile technology improved student grades and aided the students in learning the course material. The results indicated that students' grades improved with the introduction of the iPads, and 78% of the students reported that the iPads facilitated their ability to learn the course material. There was a positive association between frequency of app use and standardized mastery of the course material, as students who used the apps more frequently scored higher and indicated that they felt as though they had learned the material more comprehensively. Owning or having an iPad at home did not have a significant effect on the learning of the material. The general consensus by students was that iPad anatomy apps should be used frequently to better develop student understanding of the course material. Anat Sci Educ. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists. © 2017 American Association of Anatomists.

  20. Anatomy drawing screencasts: enabling flexible learning for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, James D

    2015-01-01

    The traditional lecture remains an essential method of disseminating information to medical students. However, due to the constant development of the modern medical curriculum many institutions are embracing novel means for delivering the core anatomy syllabus. Using mobile media devices is one such way, enabling students to access core material at a time and place that suits their specific learning style. This study has examined the effect of five anatomy drawing screencasts that replicate the popular anatomy drawing element of a lecture. These resources were uploaded to the University's Virtual Learning Environment for student access. Usage data and an end of module questionnaire were used to assess the impact of the screencasts on student education. The data revealed a high level of usage that varied in both the time of day and day of the week, with the number of downloads dramatically increasing towards the end of the module when the assessment was approaching. The student group found the additional resources extremely useful in consolidating information and revision, with many commenting on their preference to the screencasts compared to the more traditional approaches to learning. Scrutinizing the screencasts in relation to cognitive load theory and the cognitive theory of multimedia learning indicates a high correlation with an evidence-based approach to designing learning resources. Overall the screencasts have been a well-received enhancement that supports the student learning and has been shown to promote flexible learning. © 2014 American Association of Anatomists.

  1. Patient absorbed radiation doses estimation related to irradiation anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Flavio Augusto Penna; Soares, Amanda Anastacio; Kahl, Gabrielly Gomes

    2014-01-01

    Developed a direct equation to estimate the absorbed dose to the patient in x-ray examinations, using electric, geometric parameters and filtering combined with data from irradiated anatomy. To determine the absorbed dose for each examination, the entrance skin dose (ESD) is adjusted to the thickness of the patient's specific anatomy. ESD is calculated from the estimated KERMA greatness in the air. Beer-Lambert equations derived from power data mass absorption coefficients obtained from the NIST / USA, were developed for each tissue: bone, muscle, fat and skin. Skin thickness was set at 2 mm and the bone was estimated in the central ray of the site, in the anteroposterior view. Because they are similar in density and attenuation coefficients, muscle and fat are treated as a single tissue. For evaluation of the full equations, we chose three different anatomies: chest, hand and thigh. Although complex in its shape, the equations simplify direct determination of absorbed dose from the characteristics of the equipment and patient. The input data is inserted at a single time and total absorbed dose (mGy) is calculated instantly. The average error, when compared with available data, is less than 5% in any combination of device data and exams. In calculating the dose for an exam and patient, the operator can choose the variables that will deposit less radiation to the patient through the prior analysis of each combination of variables, using the ALARA principle in routine diagnostic radiology sector

  2. Comparative Effectiveness of Dental Anatomy Carving Pedagogy: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, Renato de A; da Rosa, Wellington Luiz de O; da Silva, Adriana F; Correa, Marcos B; Torriani, Marcos A; Lund, Rafael G

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to review the effectiveness of methods used for teaching dental anatomy carving to dental students in operative dentistry as evaluated in published studies. This systematic review is described in accordance with the PRISMA statement. Two independent reviewers performed a systematic literature search of research published from January 1945 until May 2014. Seven databases were screened: MedLine (PubMed), Lilacs, IBECS, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, and The Cochrane Library. After removing duplicates, only studies using dental carving to assess the practical knowledge of anatomy were selected. The tabulated data were organized by title of article, names of authors, number of students assessed, assessment method, material used, groups tested, main results, and conclusions. The methodology quality was assessed according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Initially, 2,258 studies were identified in all databases. Five articles met the eligibility criteria and were included in this review. According to these studies, the geometric method, teaching step-by-step along with the teacher, and adjuvant methods such as the use of tutors and teaching through digital media with DVDs proved to be effective in improving learning. There is no standard technique that is widely accepted for the teaching of dental carving, nor is there an appropriately validated method of evaluation to verify whether the teaching methods used are effective for the acquisition of skills and expertise in dental anatomy by students.

  3. Simulation of radiofrequency ablation in real human anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorbas, George; Samaras, Theodoros

    2014-12-01

    The objective of the current work was to simulate radiofrequency ablation treatment in computational models with realistic human anatomy, in order to investigate the effect of realistic geometry in the treatment outcome. The body sites considered in the study were liver, lung and kidney. One numerical model for each body site was obtained from Duke, member of the IT'IS Virtual Family. A spherical tumour was embedded in each model and a single electrode was inserted into the tumour. The same excitation voltage was used in all cases to underline the differences in the resulting temperature rise, due to different anatomy at each body site investigated. The same numerical calculations were performed for a two-compartment model of the tissue geometry, as well as with the use of an analytical approximation for a single tissue compartment. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) therapy appears efficient for tumours in liver and lung, but less efficient in kidney. Moreover, the time evolution of temperature for a realistic geometry differs from that for a two-compartment model, but even more for an infinite homogenous tissue model. However, it appears that the most critical parameters of computational models for RFA treatment planning are tissue properties rather than tissue geometry. Computational simulations of realistic anatomy models show that the conventional technique of a single electrode inside the tumour volume requires a careful choice of both the excitation voltage and treatment time in order to achieve effective treatment, since the ablation zone differs considerably for various body sites.

  4. Surface anatomy and anatomical planes in the adult turkish population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uzun, C; Atman, E D; Ustuner, E; Mirjalili, S A; Oztuna, D; Esmer, T S

    2016-03-01

    Surface anatomy and anatomical planes are widely used in education and clinical practice. The planes are largely derived from cadaveric studies and their projections on the skin show discrepancies between and within anatomical reference textbooks. In this study, we reassessed the accuracy of common thoracic and abdominopelvic anatomical planes using computed tomography (CT) imaging in the live adult Turkish population. After patients with distorting pathologies had been excluded, CT images of 150 supine patients at the end tidal inspiration were analyzed. Sternal angle, transpyloric, subcostal, supracristal and pubic crest planes and their relationships to anatomical structures were established by dual consensus. The tracheal bifurcation, azygos vein/superior vena cava (SVC) junction and pulmonary bifurcation were usually below the sternal angle while the concavity of the aortic arch was generally within the plane. The tip of the tenth rib, the superior mesenteric artery and the portal vein were usually within the transpyloric plane while the renal hila and the fundus of the gallbladder were below it. The inferior mesenteric artery was below the subcostal plane and the aortic bifurcation was below the supracristal plane in most adults. Projectional surface anatomy is fundamental to medical education and clinical practice. Modern cross-sectional imaging techniques allow large groups of live patients to be examined. Classic textbook information regarding anatomy needs to be reviewed and updated using the data gathered from these recent studies, taking ethnic differences into consideration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Exploring the changing learning environment of the gross anatomy lab.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Robin; Regehr, Glenn; Wilson, Timothy D

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the impact of virtual models and prosected specimens in the context of the gross anatomy lab. In 2009, student volunteers from an undergraduate anatomy class were randomly assigned to study groups in one of three learning conditions. All groups studied the muscles of mastication and completed identical learning objectives during a 45-minute lab. All groups were provided with two reference atlases. Groups were distinguished by the type of primary tools they were provided: gross prosections, three-dimensional stereoscopic computer model, or both resources. The facilitator kept observational field notes. A prepost multiple-choice knowledge test was administered to evaluate students' learning. No significant effect of the laboratory models was demonstrated between groups on the prepost assessment of knowledge. Recurring observations included students' tendency to revert to individual memorization prior to the posttest, rotation of models to match views in the provided atlas, and dissemination of groups into smaller working units. The use of virtual lab resources seemed to influence the social context and learning environment of the anatomy lab. As computer-based learning methods are implemented and studied, they must be evaluated beyond their impact on knowledge gain to consider the effect technology has on students' social development.

  6. UJI ANATOMI DAN MOLEKULER SANSEVIERIA TRIFASCIATA

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    Whika Febria Dewatisari

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Sansevieria is an ornamental plant which has variation leaves on colour and form. It has unstabilizaton characteristic of genetic. This condition especially happens on species Sansevieria trifasciata. Sansevieria trifasciata which has been expressed to the colour and form of leaves. Variation in isozyme banding pattern knew morpholog variation in species S. trifasciata. The aim of this research looked at difference of anatomycal structure for organs, and any variation in their isozyme banding pattern of S. trifasciata Green tiger, Hahnii medio picta, Green arrow, Golden hahnii, serta Hahnii cream. The approach were used morphology and microscopic observation of surface leaf, stalk, and root organs; isozyme banding pattern used electrophoresis method. The genetic diversity knew from the analyze result of isozyme based on the matric of genetic distance which applied on the shape of dendogram with Hierarchical Cluster Analysis metode average linkage (between groups program SPSS 14. The results showed that genetic diversity of S. trifasciata Hahnii cream, Green arrow, Hahnii medio picta, Golden hahnii, and Green tiger have been found. Morphology observations, there was a unique character on S. trifasciata Hahnii medio picta,while the microscopic observation on leaves organ, all varieties have the same form, Green arrow has different on stalk cells compared with the others varieties. Root cells of Golden Hahnii and Hahnii cream have same cell. The dendogram resulting from peroxydase data of S. trifasciata was clustered in two groups while S. trifasciata Hahnii medio picta has own character in group. Accordingly the esterase data showing it divided two group, S. trifasciata Golden hahnii has own character.

  7. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students.

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    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students. Methods Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise. Results Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped facilitate self-active learning after in-class anatomy lessons. While there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the control and experimental groups, the students appreciated the exercise in which they applied body paint to the human body to learn anatomy. Conclusion The body painting was an efficient tool for aiding the interactive learning of medical students and increasing the understanding of gross anatomy.

  8. [Chinese books on human anatomy published in the late Qing dynasty].

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    Matsumoto, Hideshi

    2007-12-01

    Quanti-chanwei (1881) is the first technical book on human anatomy written in Chinese and brought to Modern China. It was compiled and translated on the basis of Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical (first edition in 1858) by Henry Gray. Quanti-chanwei was published with intent to establish Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy, and it gained broad support from medical missionaries who mainly served in Guangdong, Shanghai, and Fuzhou at that time. Quanti-tongkao (1886) was also complied and translated on the basis of Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical. It was published from Jingshi Tongwen Guan, The Academy of Foreign Languages in the Qing dynasty, and they selected different words for the translation into Chinese from Quanti-chanwei. Thus, although Gray' Anatomy, Descriptive and Surgical played a great role in the introduction of Western Medicine into Modern China, there was no accordance between the national government and the provinces regarding Chinese translations for terms referring to anatomy.

  9. Body painting to promote self-active learning of hand anatomy for preclinical medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jariyapong, Pitchanee; Punsawad, Chuchard; Bunratsami, Suchirat; Kongthong, Paranyu

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use the body painting method to teach hand anatomy to a group of preclinical medical students. Students reviewed hand anatomy using the traditional method and body painting exercise. Feedback and retention of the anatomy-related information were examined by a questionnaire and multiple-choice questions, respectively, immediately and 1 month after the painting exercise. Students agreed that the exercise was advantageous and helped facilitate self-active learning after in-class anatomy lessons. While there was no significant difference in knowledge retention between the control and experimental groups, the students appreciated the exercise in which they applied body paint to the human body to learn anatomy. The body painting was an efficient tool for aiding the interactive learning of medical students and increasing the understanding of gross anatomy.

  10. Alternative uses of didactics scripts and anatomy models in the teaching-learning in practical human anatomy

    OpenAIRE

    Gleidially Nayara Bezerra Moraes; Paulo Adriano Schwingel; Edivaldo Xavier Silva Júnior

    2016-01-01

    The teaching and learning process is complex and difficult presented with respect to the human anatomy. Thus, the improvement of teaching resources applied to the teaching of this discipline, shows up as a satisfactory trend and encourages student participation as an active subject in the search for new informations, giving essential support teaching-learning process. The aim of the study was to verify the existence and utilization of teaching scripts and anatomical models in practicals class...

  11. Alternative uses of didactics scripts and anatomy models in the teaching-learning in practical human anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleidially Nayara Bezerra Moraes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The teaching and learning process is complex and difficult presented with respect to the human anatomy. Thus, the improvement of teaching resources applied to the teaching of this discipline, shows up as a satisfactory trend and encourages student participation as an active subject in the search for new informations, giving essential support teaching-learning process. The aim of the study was to verify the existence and utilization of teaching scripts and anatomical models in practicals classes of Human Anatomy. The study was a descriptive systematic review, developed with scientific production indexed in electronic databases LILACS, MEDLINE, GOOGLE ACADEMICO and SciELO; as well as Brazilian proceedings. Among the 17 articles found, 9 showed the use of anatomical models, 7 showed other methods used, and only 1 on the use of didactic manual on classroom practice of this discipline. From the study, it can be observed that the use of teaching scripts for teaching in practical classes of Human Anatomy is an innovative method and the use of anatomical models alternative has shown positive results in the teaching-learning process. However, these methods, ever can replace the use of the corpse in the teaching of this discipline.

  12. Root anatomy, morphology, and longevity among root orders in Vaccinium corymbosum (Ericaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenzuela-Estrada, Luis R; Vera-Caraballo, Vivianette; Ruth, Leah E; Eissenstat, David M

    2008-12-01

    Understanding root processes at the whole-plant or ecosystem scales requires an accounting of the range of functions within a root system. Studying root traits based on their branching order can be a powerful approach to understanding this complex system. The current study examined the highly branched root system of the ericoid plant, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (highbush blueberry) by classifying its root orders with a modified version of the morphometric approach similar to that used in hydrology for stream classification. Root anatomy provided valuable insight into variation in root function across orders. The more permanent portion of the root system occurred in 4th- and higher-order roots. Roots in these orders had radial growth; the lowest specific root length, N:C ratios, and mycorrhizal colonization; the highest tissue density and vessel number; and the coarsest root diameter. The ephemeral portion of the root system was mainly in the first three root orders. First- and 2nd-order roots were nearly anatomically identical, with similar mycorrhizal colonization and diameter, and also, despite being extremely fine, median lifespans were not very short (115-120 d; estimated with minirhizotrons). Our research underscores the value of examining root traits by root order and its implications to understanding belowground processes.

  13. Anatomy of Subterranean Organs of Medicinally Used Cardueae and Related Species and its Value for Discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritz, Elisabeth; Saukel, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    Numerous species of the Asteraceae, the composites, are famous for their use in both traditional and conventional medicine. Reliable anatomical descriptions of these plants and of possible adulterations provide a basis for fast identification and cheap purity controls of respective medicinal drugs by means of light microscopy. Nevertheless, detailed comparative studies on root and rhizome anatomy of valuable as well as related inconsiderable composite plants are largely missing yet. The presented study aims to narrow this gap by performing anatomical analyses of roots and rhizomes of 16 species belonging to the tribe Cardueae, of formerly and currently used drugs as well as their near relatives as potential adulterations (Carlina acaulis L., Carlina vulgaris L., Arctium lappa L., Arctium tomentosum Mill., Carduus defloratus L., Carduus personata (L.) Jacq, Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop., Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Cirsium erisithales (Jacq.) Scop., Onopordum acanthium L., Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn., Rhaponticum scariosum Lam., Centaurea jacea L., Centaurea scabiosa L., Centaurea cyanus L., Cnicus benedictus L.). A detailed verbal and graphical survey of the analysed anatomical features is provided. Several characters were finally extracted which allow for discrimination of the examined species and may be effectively used for drug quality controls. PMID:21617780

  14. Gas exchange and leaf anatomy of a C3-CAM hybrid, Yucca gloriosa (Asparagaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyduk, Karolina; Burrell, Nia; Lalani, Falak; Leebens-Mack, Jim

    2016-03-01

    While the majority of plants use the typical C3 carbon metabolic pathway, ~6% of angiosperms have adapted to carbon limitation as a result of water stress by employing a modified form of photosynthesis known as Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). CAM plants concentrate carbon in the cells by temporally separating atmospheric carbon acquisition from fixation into carbohydrates. CAM has been studied for decades, but the evolutionary progression from C3 to CAM remains obscure. In order to better understand the morphological and physiological characteristics associated with CAM photosynthesis, phenotypic variation was assessed in Yucca aloifolia, a CAM species, Yucca filamentosa, a C3 species, and Yucca gloriosa, a hybrid species derived from these two yuccas exhibiting intermediate C3-CAM characteristics. Gas exchange, titratable leaf acidity, and leaf anatomical traits of all three species were assayed in a common garden under well-watered and drought-stressed conditions. Yucca gloriosa showed intermediate phenotypes for nearly all traits measured, including the ability to acquire carbon at night. Using the variation found among individuals of all three species, correlations between traits were assessed to better understand how leaf anatomy and CAM physiology are related. Yucca gloriosa may be constrained by a number of traits which prevent it from using CAM to as high a degree as Y. aloifolia. The intermediate nature of Y. gloriosa makes it a promising system in which to study the evolution of CAM. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae) from the campos rupestres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Taiza M; Vilhalva, Divina A A; Moraes, Moemy G; Figueiredo-Ribeiro, Rita de Cássia L

    2015-01-01

    Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae), an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitumhas amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  16. Anatomy and fructan distribution in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae from the campos rupestres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taiza M. Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Among the compounds stored by plants, several functions are assigned to fructans, such as source of energy and protection against drought and extreme temperatures. In the present study we analyzed the anatomy and distribution of fructans in vegetative organs of Dimerostemma vestitum (Asteraceae, an endemic species from the Brazilian campos rupestres. D. vestitum has amphistomatic and pubescent leaves, with both glandular and non-glandular trichomes. In the basal aerial stem the medulla has two types of parenchyma, which differ from the apical portion. The xylopodium has mixed anatomical origin. Interestingly, although inulin-type fructans with high degree of polymerization were found in all analyzed organs except the leaves, the highest amount and maximum degree of polymerization were detected in the xylopodium. Inulin sphero-crystals were visualized under polarized light in the medulla and in the vascular tissues mainly in the central region of the xylopodium, which has abundant xylem parenchyma. Secretory structures accumulating several compounds but not inulin were identified within all the vegetative organs. The presence of these compounds, in addition to inulin, might be related to the strategies of plants to survive adverse conditions in a semi-arid region, affected seasonally by water restriction and frequently by fire.

  17. Anatomy meets dentistry! Linking anatomy and clinical practice in the preclinical dental curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Rafai

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Establishing a strong link early on between preclinical coursework and the clinical context is necessary for students to be able to recognize the practical relevance of the curriculum during their preclinical anatomical courses and to transfer knowledge more easily. Our objective was to enhance the clinical relevance of a preclinical anatomy course for second-year medical students of dentistry by implementing an interdisciplinary skills training course on “Palpation of the Head and Neck Muscles” and to measure the learning outcomes. Methods For the curricular development of the expanded course module, Kern’s 6-step approach was applied including subjective evaluation. We used a peer-teaching format supported by an e-learning application. A randomized control study measured effects of the two components (skills training, e-module on learning outcomes. Four learning methods were compared: (1 lecture, (2 lecture + e-module, (3 lecture + skills training, (4 lecture + skills training + e-module. An objective structured clinical examination (OSCE was used to measure and compare learning outcomes. Results The two-way variance analysis demonstrated that participation in the skills training had a statistically significant effect on the OSCE results (p = 0.0007. Students who participated in the skills training did better (φ 107.4 ± 14.4 points than students who only attended the lecture (φ 88.8 ± 26.2 points. Students who used the e-module but did not attend the skills training earned a slightly but not significantly higher average number of points (φ 91.8 ± 31.3 points than those who only attended the lecture. The learning outcomes of the skills training were again significantly increased when the training was combined with the e-module (φ 121.8 ± 21.8 points, thus making it the ideal method for achieving the learning objectives defined in this study. Conclusions The “Palpation of

  18. Out of the dissection room. An experience of outdoor practical sessions for animal anatomy education

    OpenAIRE

    ParésCasanova, M.

    2013-01-01

    Practical exercises are an essential component of anatomy education, so anatomy sessions including dissection are essentialfor animal anatomy courses. In Spain there are not difficulties in obtaining farm animal corpses for educational purposes(although some sanitary laws restrict it in certain cases) neither in general ethical constraints. From 2009 we have been doingoutdoor animal dissection for 1st level students of the “Animal Health and Science” degree course of the University of Lleidai...

  19. Transforming information for computer-aided instruction: using a Socratic Dialogue method to teach gross anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, P; Daane, S; Dev, P

    1994-01-01

    Traditional teaching of anatomy can be a difficult process of rote memorization. Computers allow information presentation to be much more dynamic, and interactive; the same information can be presented in multiple organizations. Using this idea, we have implemented a new pedagogy for computer-assisted instruction in The Anatomy Lesson, an interactive digital teacher which uses a "Socratic Dialogue" metaphor, as well as a textbook-like approach, to facilitate conceptual learning in anatomy.

  20. [The physical therapy undergraduate students' responses to the gross human anatomy subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anahara, Reiko; Kawashiro, Yukiko; Matsuno, Yoshiharu; Mori, Chisato; Kohno, Toshihiko

    2008-09-01

    Instruction in gross human anatomy is one of the important items in the subject for co-medical students of the physical therapist course. The physical therapy undergraduate students are required to have a solid understanding of the structure and formation of the human body. Therefore, their good-understanding of the course on the gross human anatomy and their experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory (observation practice) are acquired to improve their knowledge of the human body. To clarify the student responses to the gross human anatomy course including the gross human anatomy laboratory, several questionnaires were administered to the freshman physical therapy undergraduate student for two years. We found that more than 80% of the students, who felt a negative attitude for gross human anatomy before the course started, had a positive attitude about the gross human anatomy after going through the course. The experience of the gross human anatomy laboratory increased the students' activity of learning and they thought more about the dignity of being human after the course than before viewing. In addition, the results suggested that the multiple experiences of the gross human anatomy course are useful for the physical therapy undergraduate students to improve the quality of their understanding of the human body.